VICTOR R. BOSWELL, Principal Horticulturist, Division of Fruit and Vegetable Crops and Diseases, Bureau of Plant Industry, from survey data submitted by domestic and foreign investigators

The appendix to these articles on vegetable improvement consists of four tabulations of information as follows:

  1. A list of vegetable varieties developed by State and Federal research agencies and released by them for commercial use.
  2. A list of vegetable strains, varieties, and breeding stocks or groups of the same that are in the hands of State and Federal research workers and which have some special merit, or are of practical or theoretical interest as breeding material. It should be noted that material listed in table 1 is not repeated in table 2, although practically without exception introducers of varieties all maintain some stock of their introductions. Table 2 should properly include all material listed in table 1.
  3. A list of vegetable breeding and improvement activities in the United States by States and crops.
  4. A brief summary of vegetable breeding and improvement activities in countries other than the United States.

The data in these tabulations and summaries were obtained through a questionnaire sent to all vegetable crop research agencies in this country and to a large number in other lands. The writers of the present articles are grateful for the generous help of their fellow workers, both here and abroad, in making this compilation possible. Despite the great amount of data submitted and the generous response to our requests, it is known that these appended tables do not contain all of the data that could well be included. Some of the workers interrogated were perhaps too modest to list certain cultures as being important or of interest to others; others were admittedly too pressed by other matters to prepare a detailed list of their material and activities. But even though the data are incomplete, the reader will find clues to nearly every kind of vegetable- breeding material that is available and leads to the numerous investigators who are engaged with the hundreds of breeding and improvement problems that are receiving attention today.

The writers hoped that it would be possible to include similar tables of information relating to private work by commercial seedsmen. The immensity of the task of determining the origin of the hundreds of varieties made it impossible. A few commercial firms keep rather complete records of the parentage and dates of their introductions, but most do not. The major role that has been played by private agencies has been repeatedly referred to in these articles, and acknowledgment made to individuals and firms wherever pertinent information could be included. It should thus be clear to all that no discrimination is intended by the omission of more extensive data on commercial contributions. Unfortunately, justice cannot be done to such a task within the space available here.

Table 4—Improved varieties and strains of vegetable crops, peanuts, and sweet corn developed and released by State and Federal research agencies
Station or U.S. Department of AgricultureCropVariety nameDate introducedParentsBreeding methodSuperior characters
AlabamaBeanAlabama No. 1 (pole, snap)1933UnknownSelectionHeavy yield; bears over the length of the vine and over long season; resistant to nematode.
Alabama No.2 (pole, snap)1933Heavy yield; mature beans keep well in the field; nematode resistant.
Connecticut (State)Connecticut Fordhook (lima)1935FordhookPure-line selectionHigh yield.
IdahoIdaho Refugee (snap)1934Stringless Refugee X Corbett RefugeeHybridizationVigor; resistant to bean mosaic; 1 week earlier than Stringless Refugee.
Great Northern U.I. No. 81 (field)1932Commercial Great NorthernPure-line selectionProductivity, uniformity; resistant to common bean mosaic.
Great Northern U.I. No. 59 (field)1936Larger bean than No, 81; 3 days earlier in maturity
Great Northern U. I. No. 128 (field)
IllinoisLarge-Podded Henderson Bush (lima)1935Henderson BushCross between two Henderson Bush selectionsLarge-Podded; early, productive under Illinois conditions.
Baby Potato Lima1936Selected out of Henderson Bush; probably an accidental cross.Henderson Bush vine and earliness, with small thick potato-type beans, crowded in pods. Outyields Henderson.
MaineHighmoor Old Fashioned Yellow Eye (field)1928Old Fashioned Yellow EyeSelectionHigher yield; more uniform and attractive pattern.
MassachusettsWaltham Scarlet (horticultural)1935French HorticulturalBright scarlet broad, long pods; high yield.
MichiganRobust (field)1913Navy PeaImmune to common bean mosaic.
New York (Cornell)Perry Marrow (field)1918White Marrow X Wells Red KidneyHybridizationAnthracnose resistant; yield.
Genesee (field)Robust X Wells Red KidneyAnthracnose resistant; root rot resistant.
Honeoye (field)
State (Geneva)Geneva Red Kidney (field)1928Blight resistant, free from hard shell.
York Red Kidney (field)
Department [USDA]U.S. No. 1 (snap)1933Wells Red Kidney X Stringless Green RefugeeEarly, mosaic and drought tolerant.
U.S. No. 2 (lima)Henderson Bush LimaSelectionEarly, matures evenly, high yield.
U.S. No. 3 (pole, snap)1934World WonderRust resistant, stringless, Kentucky Wonder type, round podded.
U.S. No. 4 (pole, snap)Phenomenon PoleRust resistant, large podded, high yield.
U.S. No. 5 (snap)1935U.S. No. 1 X Corbett RefugeeHybridizationMosaic resistant; early; longs pods; good yield; determinate growth
Virginia32-C-4 (pole, snap)1934Kentucky Wonder X Brockton PoleHybridization and selectionRust resistant, prolific and superior quality of pod.
17-B (pole, snap)
17-A (pole, snap)
14-A (pole, snap)Kentucky Wonder X Horticultural Pole
11-A (pole, snap)
5-A (pole, snap)Powell Prolific X Marblehead Pole
34-B (pole, snap)
32-B (pole, snap)Kentucky Wonder X Marblehead Pole
WisconsinRefugee (snap)Stringless Green Refugee X Corbett RefugeeHybridizationResistant to bean mosaic.
CaliforniaSpinachCalifornia Canner 1591929Prickly WinterSelectionEarly, productive.
California Canner 195
GeorgiaCabbageCabbage-Collard1911BlueStem Collard X Charleston Wakefield CabbageHybridizationSemiheads of good quality
LouisianaLouisiana Copenhagen1934Copenhagen MarketPure-line selection—inbreeding and intercrossing, 5 generations of selected linesUniformity; resistant to bolting; compact head; short, stout core; excellent quality.
CollardLouisiana SweetGeorgia CollardInbreedingImproved uniformity; short petiole; compact rosette; more leaves. Free of purple plants. Good quality.
MarylandSpinachMaryland Savoy1935Virginia SavoyMass selectionWinter hardiness.
MassachusettsLettuceBel-May1928May King X BelmontHybridizationDowny, mildew resistant, good head, fast growth.
MichiganCeleryMichigan Golden1933Golden Self BlanchingSingle-plant selectionResistant to celery yellows.
Curly-Leaf Easy Blanching1926Newark MarketImmune to celery yellows; will blanching. in cold storage; high-quality easy-blanch type.
New York (Cornell)CabbageEarly Danish1925Commercial DanishSelectionEarly; short core; good quality.
Green Sugar1930Red X Jersey WakefieldHybridizationTable quality
Purple Sugar Loaf
Magenta1933Danish Round RedSelection and hybridizationNew color; good quality
Early Savoy*1934Commercial SavoySelectionUniformity
Jersey Wakefield*1932Commercial Jersey
Glory*1933Commercial GloryUniformity; yield
All Head Early*1934Commercial SuccessionUniformity; type
Succession*Uniformity; yield
OhioLettuceGrand Rapids (Tipburn resistant)1933Grand RapidsTipburn resistant; light color; very heavy
PennsylvaniaCabbagePenn State Ballhead1926UnknownLine selectionUniformity of type, good keeping qualities and high yield
Department [USDA]LettuceImperial F1930New York X CosHybridizationImmune to brown blight; shows special adaptations to certain regional and climatic conditions in the West.
Imperial 131932New York X White Chavigne
Imperial 1521934New York X Cos X (?)
Imperial 615New York X Cos
Imperial 8471936
Grand Rapids U.S. No.1Grand Rapids X CosSome resistance to powdery mildew; heavier, stockier plants than Grand Rapids.
Columbia No. 1New York X HansonSuperior heading qualities under eastern conditions. Slow to shoot to seed.
Columbia No. 2Earlier than Columbia No. 1; adapted for spring crop in eastern United States.
Cosberg No. 1Paris White Cos X IcebergTipburn and heat resistant; high edible quality, free from bitterness.
Virginia (Truck sta.)KaleV.T.E.S. ScotchDwarf Blue Curled ScotchPure-line selectionMore resistant to cold; more curled; retains dark green color after periods of low temperatures.
SpinachVirginia Savoy1920Unnamed Manchurian variety X Bloomsdale, Viroflay, and Long StandingHybridization (natural) and selectionResistant to mosaic and low temperature, Rapid growing in fall.
Old Dominion1930Virginia Savoy X King of DenmarkHybridizationSimilar to Virginia Savoy but slower in bolting to seed in spring.
Wisconsin (in cooperation with department)CabbageWisconsin Hollander1916Danish BallheadMass selectionResistant to yellows.
Wisconsin Brunswick1917Fottlers Brunswick
Wisconsin All Season1920All Seasons
Marion Market1925Copenhagen MarketPure-line selection
All Head SelectAll Head Early
GlobeGlory of Enkuizen
Jersey Queen1931Jersey Wakefield
Wisconsin Ballhead1935Danish Ballhead
Racine MarketCopenhagen Market
Resistant Red Hollander1924Red HollanderMass selection
MarylandPeaMaryland Alaska1932AlaskaMass selectionFusarium wilt resistant
WisconsinBadger1921Horsford X French JuneHybridizationSmall seed, high quality, good production
Alcross1922Cross between two Alaska strainsEarly maturity, resistant to wilt
No. 19 Alaska
HustlerNott’s Excelsior X HorsfordEarly maturity; pitted, round
Horal1923Horsford X AlaskaSmall seed, wrinkled, hardy, wilt resistant
Ashford1924Horsford selectionPure-line selectionShort blossoming period; good quality.
Acme1925Horsford X French JuneHybridizationVigor; good quality; wrinkled seed.
PrimalAlaska X SurpriseWrinkled; high quality; vigor.
Wisconsin Early Sweet1931Resistant Alaska X SurpriseHigh quality and vigor; resistant to wilt.
Wisconsin Perfection1933Original cross, Arthur X Perfection, and backcrossed to PerfectionVigor; high quality; resistant to wilt.
Wisconsin Penin1936Horal X PrizewinnerLarge-seeded; high quality; 4 days or more earlier than Perfection in maturity; fully resistant to wilt.
CaliforniaTomatoPearson1936Fargo X California 55HybridizationDeterminate vine, tough skin, intense color.
California 551928Santa ClaraInbreedingSmooth fruit, high yield, intense color.
GeorgiaHastings Everbearing Scarlet Globe1932Globe X BurpeeHybridizationResistant to fusarium wilt and leaf diseases; tolerates hot weather and drought better than most varieties.
IllinoisLloyd Forcing1930Louisiana Pink X Grand RapidsCrossing followed by selectionWilt-resistant greenhouse type.
Blair Forcing
Urbana Forcing1936Marglobe X Grand Rapids
Sureset ForcingUrbana Forcing X Blair Forcing
Long Calyx ForcingLloyd Forcing X Marglobe
Illinois PrideNew CenturySelectionWilt-resistant canning type.
Early BaltimoreIndiana BaltimoreWilt-resistant canning type, especially adapted to high-nitrogen prairie soils.
PrairianaMarvanaSelection out of a mutation or accidental cross
Illinois BaltimoreIndiana BaltimoreSelectionA wilt-resistant Baltimore.
IndianaIndiana Baltimore1919Greater BaltimoreHigh yield; foliage protection, resulting in better color.
Louisiana10-41936Louisiana Pink X Walter RichardsCrossing and back-crossing; growing plants on wilt plots.Few small seed. Resistant to wilt and somewhat resistant to early blight; pink; adaptability to Louisiana conditions.
MarylandMaryland Canner1928UnknownSelectionSolidity of flesh.
Maryland Slicer1930Italian Pear X Greater BaltimoreHybridization
Hybrid No. 41932Greater Baltimore X San Jose Canner
MassachusettsWaltham Forcing1931UnknownSingle-plant selectionHigh yield, sets fruit under adverse conditions; good color.
MichiganMichigan State Forcing1935Marglobe X Ailsa CraigHybridizationSelf-pollinating, high quality, wilt resistant.
John Baer1926John BaerSingle-plant selectionHigh yield, good market and canning qualities.
Minnesota5331935Viking X Bonny BestHybridizationEarly, productive.
29-351936UnnamedEarly, high color and fruit quality.
New JerseyRutgers1934Marglobe X J. T. DInside color ripens from center; flavor for juice.
New York (State)Geneva John Baer1930John BaerSelectionEarliness, deep red color.
Nystate1935Ponderosa X King HumbertHybridizationEarliness, large size, smooth fruit, deep red color.
North DakotaRed River1925Earliana X SunriseEarliness, smooth form, early.
Bison1929Red River X Cooper SpecialEarly, determinate, heat resistant. Adapted to Great Plains area.
Fargo Yellow Pear1932Bison X Yellow PearEarly, determinate. Adapted to Great Plains area.
Pink HeartBison X Ohio Red
Golden BisonBison X Golden Queen
Early Jumbo1929June Pink X GlobeEarly, large size. Adapted to Great Plains area.
Farthest North1934Bison X Red CurrantExtreme earliness.Adapted to Great Plains area.
OhioMarhio1930MarglobeSelectionResistant to fusarium wilt. Scarlet-red fruit, productive.
PennsylvaniaNittany1922Enormous X Yellow PearHybridizationYield and uniformity
MatchumHummer X Matchless
Penn State Earliana1926EarlianaSelectionEarliness, uniformity, yield.
Penn State1935Burpee Self-Pruning X Penn State EarlianaHybridizationEarliness, shape, and uniformity of fruit and yield. Determinate foliage.
Puerto RicoLJX-7Louisiana Pink X nativeTolerance to bacterial wilt.
TennesseeTennessee Pink----UnknownMass selectionFusarium wilt resistant
Tennessee Red1912Beauty
Department [USDA]Norton1917StoneSelection
Marvel1918Merveille de MarchésFusarium wilt and nailhead resistant.
ColumbiaGreater BaltimoreFusarium wilt resistant.
Norduke1922Norton X Duke of YorkHybridization
Marvana1924Marvel X Earliana
MarvelosaMarvel X PonderosaFusarium wilt and nailhead resistant.
Marglobe1925Globe X Marvel
Break o' Day1931Marglobe X Marvana
Pritchard**1932Cooper Special X MarglobeResistant to fusarium wilt, nailhead, and cracking.
Glovel**1935Globe X Marvel---------[blank]
WashingtonSeedling No.361930Bonny Best X Best of AllHybridizationHeavier producer than parents. Good shipper.
Seedling No.50----Heavier producer than parents.
CaliforniaWatermelonCalifornia Klondike1933KlondikeInbreedingUniformity, flesh color, edible quality
Long Mountain1936Stone MountainOblong type, adapted to shipping
Striped KlondikeStriped KlondikeUniformity, high sugar
Resistant Klondike No. 7Iowa Belle X KlondikeHybridizationWilt resistant
Bush squashGrey Zucchini No. 1ZucchiniInbreedingEarly, productive, small, single-stem plant
Cantaloup***Powdery Mildew Resistant Cantaloup No. 11931Resistant variety from India and several commercial varietiesHybridizationResistant to powdery mildew
Powdery Mildew Resistant Cantaloup No. 501932
Powdery Mildew Resistant Cantaloup No. 50-151933
Powdery Mildew Resistant Cantaloup No. 451935Hale Best X unfixed variety from IndiaResistant to powdery mildew, edible quality. Superior shipping qualities
Honey Dew melonPowdery Mildew Resistant Honey Dew No. 601934Unfixed variety from India X Honey Dew X Honey BallResistant to powdery mildew, edible quality.
Connecticut (State)SquashConnecticut Straight Neck1936Straight Neck Inbred X Giant Summer Crook NeckEarly, productive, uniform, smooth.
FloridaAfrican1935----------IntroductionHigh quality and yield in Florida; some resistance to stem borers.
WatermelonLeesburg1936Kleckley SweetPure-line selection on wilt-infested soilResistant to fusarium wilt in Florida.
IowaIowa King1930Conqueror X (?)HybridizationResistant to fusarium wilt.
Iowa BelleConqueror X Kleckley Sweet
Pride of MuscatineKleckley SweetSelection
SquashDes Moines----Des MoinesInbreedingUniformity and quality
MarylandMuskmelonMaryland Gem1928Buskirk's GemSelectionThick, yellow flesh, quality
MichiganCucumber, picklingNational Pickle1929Snow PicklingSingle-plant selection, massing of selfed linesHigh yield, superior pickling quality
MinnesotaSquashKitchenette1930Green HubbardInbreedingUniformity, family size
New Brighton1932Uniformity, large size
1.351935ButtercupEarly high quality, family size, stores well
Cucumber454.35----------Introduction and inbreedingEarly, productive pickling type
WatermelonNorthern Sweet1932----------Early, high quality, productive
New York (State)CucumberGeneva1929Arlington White Spine X Rochford MarketHybridizationParthenocarpic
North DakotaSquashButtercup----Quality x Essex hybrid (?) (natural cross)InbreedingConvenient size, high quality; easily prepared
Department [USDA]Cantaloupψ
WatermelonConqueror1911Eden X Stock citronHybridizationResistant to fusarium wilt
VermontSquashVermont Hubbard----HubbardInbreedingImproved uniformity and culinary quality
Connecticut (State)Sweet cornSpancross C21933Spanish Gold X C2HybridizationFirst early hybrid, large ear; resistant to bacterial wilt
Spancross P39Spanish Gold X P39Second early, resistant, good quality.
Marcross C6G. E. Market X C6Very large ear; first early, resistant
Marcross C13.61935C13 X C6
Marcross C13.2C13 X C2
Marcross P39G.E. Market X P39Second early, very large ear, good quality, resistant
Whipcross C6.21933C6 X C2Midseason, large ear, resistant
Whipcross C7.2C7 X C2Midseason, large ear, narrow kernel, quality
Whipcross P39.C2P39 X C2Midseason, large ear, resistant to bacterial wilt
Whipcross P39Whipple X P39Midseason, large ear, good quality, resistant
Redgreen1926C78 X C77White, good quality, sun red leaves
M. Spanish Gold1935Spanish GoldSynthetic varietyVery early, parent of first early hybrid
M. G. E. MarketG. E. MarketEarly, resistant to bacterial wilt
M. WhippleWhippleMidseason, resistant to bacterial wilt
FloridaFlorida No. 1911934Country Gentleman, Cuban Flint, Loveless, Pope, and StubbsHybridization, inbreeding, bulk crossing of inbreds and selectionHusk protection and good table quality
Suwannee Sugar1935Southern Snowflake ¾, Long Island Beauty ¼Hybridization and one backcross to Snowflake, selectionHusk protection, southern plant type; good quality
IllinoisIllinois Narrow Grain Evergreen:  Inbred No. 13Narrow Grain EvergreenBest open-pollinated strains first selected by ear-row methods, followed by inbreeding and a high degree of selection within each line, then tested out in numerous crosses.Cross 14X13 is a high yielder available commercially in 1937.
Inbred No. 14
Country Gentlemanα1925Country GentlemanEar-row selectionYield, uniformity, canning quality, adaptability to Illinois
Narrow Grain EvergreenNarrow Grain
Illinois Country Gentleman1935Country GentlemanSame as for Illinois Narrow Grain inbredsYield, uniformity, canning quality, adaptability to specific Illinois conditions
Inbred No. 1
Inbred No. 3
Inbred No. 5
Inbred No. 6
Inbred No. 8
Inbred No. 9
Inbred No. 10
Inbred No. 15
9 hybrids----Same as for Illinois Narrow Grain inbreds
MarylandHopeland1920Stowell Evergreen X Johnson County WhiteHybridizationProductivity
North DakotaSunshine1924Golden Bantam X Gill’s Early MarketHybridization, selfing, followed by selection and close breeding but not selfedEarliness, size, quality
Golden Gem1928Sunshine X PickaninnyExtreme earliness and quality.
PopcornPinkie1935Black Beauty X Jap HullessHybridization and selectionNovelty
TexasSweet cornSurcropper Sugar1933Country Gentleman X SurcropperCrossing and backcrossing repeatedly to field corn parentEarworm resistant, adapted to certain southern conditions
Honey JuneCountry Gentleman X Mexican June
Department [USDA] (in cooperation with Indiana station)Golden Cross Bantam1932Purdue 39 X Purdue 51HybridizationHigh yield, excellent quality, resistant to bacterial wilt, uniformity of type and maturity, high production of stover.
Department (in cooperation with Puerto Rico)USDA 341935Native field corn and sweet mutation of native sweet cornAlternate generations of selfing and backcrossing on native field corn. The final crossing was a double-top cross between 2 second-generation inbred lines and 2 ear-to-row selectionsResistant to corn stripe. Thick, tightly clasping husks. Vigorous plant, size similar to field corn.  Large ears with kernels of unusual depth.
OhioBeetOhio Canner1932Detroit Dark RedInbreeding and sib-matingDark color, round shape, absence of light rings
MassachusettsCarrotHutchinson1923HutchinsonMass selectionLong, smooth root; high yield
CaliforniaOnionCalifornia Early Red, U.C. No. 11935California Early RedInbreedingUniform size, shape, color, time of maturity, keeping quality
Australian Brown, U. C. No. 1Australian BrownInbreeding, massing large numbers of similar unrelated linesFlesh color, scale color, keeping quality, fertility
ColoradoSweet Spanish, Colorado Station No. 61936Sweet SpanishInbreedingYield uniformity; better storage; improved color
TexasPeanutMcSpan1925Little SpanishPure-line selectionHigh yield, early maturity, high oil content
Virginia (in cooperation with Department)Experiment Station Jumbo1935JumboSelectionVery large pods and nuts; hard hulls
DepartmentSpanish 18-381925Red SpanishSuperior yielding capacity
Connecticut (State)PepperWindsor A1936California Wonder x BountifulHybridizationEarly, productive; thick wall
LouisianaBaton Rouge Cayenne1934Best local stocks of Red CayenneInbreedingSize, uniformity, color, pungency and yield
C-2811 (not yet named)1936Baton Rouge CayenneInbreeding and selectionEarliness, pungency; yield; resistant to defoliation by Cercospora capsici
SportNative Sport X Honka (Japanese variety)F1 backcrossed to Honka to intensify red colorUniformity; productivity and superior color
T-10-1 (Tabasco)1935Best local stocks of TabascoInbreedingUniformity; productivity; color; ease of harvesting
T-10-2 (Tabasco)Uniformity; fruit color and wall thickness; ease of harvesting
MassachusettsWaltham BeautyUnknownSelectionThick fruit; early; high yield
New MexicoChile No. 91917Mexican ChileImproved adaptability, uniformity yield and quality
LouisianaShallotUnnamed19362 local varietiesCrossing and selecting desirable F1 plantsResistance to pink root; fast growing; vigorous plants
Sweet potatoPorto Rico1935Porto RicoHill-unit selectionSprouts-earlier; produces more plants per unit and 20 percent higher yield than parent stock.
Porto BlancoMutationWhite skin; white flesh; high yield; high in starch; ideally suited for starch manufacture, and for livestock feed.
North CarolinaPorto Rico N. C. No. 11928Hill and tuber selectionHigh yield; smooth skin; uniform color; uniform appearance
Department [USDA]Mameyita1919UnknownIntroduced from Puerto RicoHigh quality; good keeper and yielder
Japanese Yam1930Introduced from JapanHigh starch content; resistant to Fusarium batatatis and F. hyperorysporum
Oebi Saboelan1926Introduced from JavaHigh quality and marked resistance to F. batatatis
Kioranda Dutch Yellow1930
Puerto RicoEggplantPuerto Rican Beauty1936A-4 X UniversityHybridizationHighly resistant to bacterial wilt.
*Specially selected strains derived from existing varieties named.
**In cooperation with Florida station.
***In cooperation with U.S. Department of Agriculture.
ψSee California, above.
αReleased first to Illinois Canners Association in 1933 and to seedsmen in 1935.

Table 5.—Outstanding vegetable strains, varieties, and breeding lines of practical or theoretical interest that are in the cultures of State and Federal research agencies
Station or U.S. Department of AgricultureCrop or typeVariety name or no.Date obtained or startedHow obtainedParentsCharacters of interest
IdahoCanningW-801934HybridizationCorbett Refugee X Stringless RefugeeResistant to common bean mosaic; high productivity
GardenWhite Wax No. 1221935Brittle Wax X White Refugee WaxWhite seeded wax bean of Kidney Wax type
Wax No. 110Hybrid Wax U.S. No. 536 X Corbett RefugeeA Refugee type wax bean resistant to common bean mosaic
SemifieldBurtners Blight Proof1934Introduced by Mr. Burtner, of Wasco County, Oreg.Not knownResistant to curly top
IllinoisLimaHenderson Bush, 11 lines****Selection and crossingHenderson BushUniformity
Wood’s Prolific, 4 linesSelectionWood’s ProlificUnder test in 1936 for commercial value
Baby Potato Lima, 6 linesHenderson BushHenderson Bush vine and earliness, with small thick potato type beans crowded in pods.  Outyields Henderson.
Large-Podded Henderson Bush, 9 linesCross between two selectionsLarge-podded; early; productive under Illinois conditions
IowaGreenWholegreen----HybridizationBurpee Stringless Green Pod X RefugeeStraight, stringless pods
MinnesotaWhite pod----------1930Brittle Wax X unnamedAttractive pod color
----------Fusduli1932IntroducedUnknownSeed characters
New York (Cornell)----------1915 to dateNumerous unnamed seedlingsHybrids of and selections from Robust, Wells Red Kidney, White Marrow, Flat Marrow, Scotia, and White ImperialVariously resistant to root rot, blight; immune to mosaic and to specific strains of anthracnose
Department (in cooperation with Oregon)1928 to 1935HybridizationResistant X susceptible varietiesCurly-top resistance
Department (in cooperation with Colorado)Corbett Refugee1931Selection from Sioux City Seed Co.Stringless Green RefugeeMosaic resistant
N 10921935HybridizationBrittle Wax X Corbett RefugeeExcellent wax bean type, good color and excellent pods
N 6751933Pinto X Cranberry Striped CreasbackTolerant to bacterial blight
Numerous other linesMostly since 1930Hybridization and selectionAmerican and foreign varietiesDisease resistance and adaptation possibilities
ArizonaLettuceImperial No. 152In processSelfing individual heads and roguing the increaseImperial 152Improved adaptation to Arizona conditions and conformity to varietal type
Imperial No. 615Imperial 615
ColoradoLettuce, head--------------------CrossingNew York No. 12 X IceburgImprovement in resistance to tipburn
FloridaLettuce11934SelectionNew YorkAppears to show superior ability to develop hard head under certain growing conditions
Hawaii5 United States commercial varieties1932Introduced----------Mignonette is good parent because of excellent heading under warm conditions. Hybrids of California commercial varieties with Mignonette show promise.
MinnesotaBrassica hybrids1-351935HybridizationBrussels sprouts—cabbage hybridsGives promise of forming head and sprouts
14-35Give promise of being an early type of brussels sprouts
Crucifer hybrids54.35 Fertile Hybrid1930Radish X cabbageGeneric hybrid of scientific interest.  May serve same purpose as rape.
New York (Cornell)CabbageNumerous strains1919 to date----------Homozygous for various factors and characters as purple, magenta, sun color, and green; waxy; dwarf types; and othersBreeding stocks for practical or theoretical work.
Numerous linesIntertype crosses of Brassica oleracea; cabbage X cauliflower, brussels sprouts, kale, kohlrabi, wild cabbageFor genetic study.
Celery--------------------HybridizationGolden Self-Blanching X UtahSelf-blanching, good quality; resistant to fusarium yellows
Department [USDA]Lettuce4 lines1929Iceberg X HansonHeat resistant; reliable heading strains
3 linesMignonette X HansonHigh quality; early maturity
7 lines1929 and 1932New York X HansonSolid, dark green, reliable heading types for eastern conditions
MN-29-8-71929Mignonette X New YorkTipburn and heat resistant
P-1H-1190-31930Two hybrid linesTipburn resistant
1P-30-1-20Iceberg X CosTipburn resistant; high edible quality
MN-P-11931931Two hybrid linesTipburn resistant; early maturity
2 linesImperial CX hybridTipburn resistant
2 lines C-NH-154Reliable heading
6 linesTwo hybrid linesTipburn resistant
4 lines MN-NH-1501932Ability to head under adverse temperature conditions
NT-12-11928New York X TransportGenetic material for chlorophyll deficiency
BD-3-1California Cream Butter X DeaconGenetic material for inheritance of Cos type
LettuceMSelectionMignonetteRed CCRRTT
BCalifornia Cream ButterSpotted CCr’r’TT
IIcebergTinged CCrrTT
HHansonGreen CCRRtt
NNew YorkGreen ccrrTT
TTransportGreen CCr'r'tt
CChavigneGreen CCrrtt
NCNew York X ChavigneHybridizationGreen ccrrtt
MNMignonette X New YorkGreen ccRRTT
Department (in cooperation with Wisconsin)Cabbage77 lines homozygous for resistance to yellows1930Pureline selectionSmith Pride varietyUseful for outcrossing to individuals selected for resistance
MarylandMany lines----------Mostly since 1928Hybridization and pure-liningCommercial varietiesWilt resistant
Department (in cooperation with California)Progress type**1932Hybridization and selectionLaxton Progress X Giant StrideResistance to Fusarium orthoceras pisi. Tolerance to unnamed Fusaria found at San Luis Obispo
Hundredfold types[Blank]
N762 and othersMostly since 1932HybridizationResistant to Fusarium; tolerant to Ascochyta
15 strainsLittle Marvel X World Record F4Resistant to certain viruses. Freezing types, seed setting
6 strainsLaxton Progress x Nain Mangetout F4Size of pod, hardiness
132 strainsLaxton Progress x Giant Stride F5-F8Resistant to fusarium wilts
4 strainsLaxton Progress X World RecordPod size, seed setting
30 strainsLaxton Progress X Kent AldermanPod size, hardiness
15 strainsLaxton Marvel X (Thomas Laxton X Phenomenon)Resistant to certain viruses, freezing types, seed set, resistant to fusarium wilts
----------Austrian Winter X AldermanGenetics and breeding for resistance to Ascochyta and Mycosphaerella
Austrian Winter X Hundredfold
Austrian Winter X Perfection
Little Marvel X Progress F1-F3Resistant to certain viruses
Pisum elatius2 strainsNot fully explored
P. jomardi3 strains
Subspecies of P. sativum5 strains
Edible-podded19 strains
Pure lines and varieties300 strains
CaliforniaTomatoMany hybrids1936HybridizationRed Currant X commercial varietiesResistant to bacterial canker and spotted wilt
Many varietiesInbreedingCommercial stocksUniform type for variety
GeorgiaPepperPimiento1928Line selectedPerfection Pimiento[Blank]
TomatoLivingston Globe1920Livingston GlobeResistant to wilt
7-1-11926Hybrid; line selected for resistance to wilt and leaf diseasesGlobe x BurpeeResistant to wilt, heat, and drought
22-3-11932Above backcrossed to wilt-resistant strain of Globe(Globe X Burpee) X Globe
2-3-1-1HybridizationGlobe selection X Break o’ DayResistant to wilt
Iowa79----CrossingEarliana X Best of AllLess cracking
HawaiiHawaii station hybrid1918Horticulture departmentObscure. Hybrid between a wild currant type and a commercial varietyShows partial resistance to melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) but has small size
United States commercial varieties1932-35Introduced----------[Blank]
2 local wild currant tomatoes--------------
MarylandStrain of Red River No. 44-91930SelectionRed RiverEarly; resistant to cracking
MinnesotaVarious strains1930-33Breeding; introducedNumerousEarly; productive
MissouriLycopersicon pimpinellifolium X L. esculentum hybrids1935HybridizationLycopersicon pimpinellifolium X L. esculentumStudies of fusarium wilt resistance and inheritance of resistance
New HampshireBonny Best----SelectionBonny BestStrain adapted for forcing
EggplantUnnamedDwarf Purple X Black BeautyHybridizationEarliness; adaptability to Northern States
New JerseyTomatoψMarglobe X J. T. D. crossesCrossing and selectionMarglobe X J. T. DUndergoing selection for improved yield, fruit shape, color, and general high quality
Break o’ Day X Oxheart crossesBreak o’ Day X Oxheart
Marglobe X Earliana crossesMarglobe X EarlianaBeing selected for larger, smoother, high-quality, early market tomato
TennesseeUsual commercial varieties--------------------[Blank]
TexasB-11935HybridizationLarge Cherry X Bonny BestSets fruit under unfavorable conditions; prolific.
377Gulf State Market X CherrySets fruit under unfavorable conditions; prolific; free from "puff"
Department [USDA]50 Marglobe lines1932InbreedingMarglobeWilt-resistance studies
50 lines1925-35HybridizationMarglobe and other commercial sortsBeing tested prior to release of best; wilt and nailhead resistant
125 varieties1932InbreedingEuropean varietiesFor disease-resistance and inheritance work
130 varietiesAmerican varieties
100 varieties1935-36IntroductionAustralian, South American, and Asiatic sources
Numerous lines1935Hybridization and backcrossingLycopersicon pimpinellifolium X L. esculentum and reciprocals
WyomingDenmark1932Denmark----------Desirable type and fruiting habit
Bonny Best1930U.S. Department of AgricultureHigh quality
Bison1932North Dakota Agricultural CollegeEarly
Yellow Pear1930U.S. Department of Agriculture
Puerto RicoEggplantA-4HybridizationBlack Beauty X FarjardoResistant to bacterial wilt
ArizonaCantaloupMcDaniels NuggetIn processSelfing individual plants and rigidly roguing each strainMcDaniels NuggetUniform size, globe shape, deep flesh, salmon color, deep net, high sugar
CaliforniaMuskmelonHale Best1926-36Inbreeding; 10-15 inbred lines being carried alongCommercial stocksUniformity of plant and fruit characters
Salmon Tint
Honey Dew
Honey Ball
Many minor horticultural varieties and sub-speciesOne of more inbred lines----------[Blank]
SquashWhite Bush Scallop1930-3610-15 inbred lines of eachCommercial stocksUniformity of fruit and plant characters
Giant Summer Crookneck
Giant Summer Straightneck
CaliforniaSquashGrey Zucchine1930-3610-15 inbred lines of eachCommercial stocksUniformity of fruit and plant characters
WatermelonCalifornia Klondike No. 11933InbreedingUniform fruit type; high sugar; prolific
California Klondike No. 3
California Klondike No. 8Uniform fruit type; tough rind
Striped Klondike No. 111936Uniform fruit type; high sugar
Thurmond Grey No. 46Uniform fruit type for variety
Golden Honey No. 28
Baby Delight No. 32
Winter Queen No. 213
Peerless No. 247
Angelino No. 3
Chilean No. 7
Snowball No. 12
Stone Mountain No. 44
Long Mountain No. 216
Northern Sweet No. 251
Sun, Moon, Stars No. 265
Grey Monarch No, 260
Iowa Belle No. 542HybridizationUnknownUniform fruit type for variety; resistant to wilt
Pride of Muscatine No. 136Inbreeding----------
Hybrid No.7HybridizationKlondike X Iowa BelleKlondike type, resistant to wilt
Hybrid No. 19Kleckley type, resistant to wilt
Hybrid No. 16Inbreeding----------Klondike type, resistant to wilt
FloridaCantaloupRocky Dew1935From Kilgore Seed Co.Rocky DewResistant to mildew and certain leaf spots
SquashAfrican1933Plant Exploration and Introduction, U.S. Department of AgricultureAfrican squashSuperior eating quality and yielding ability; considerable resistance to stem-borer
WatermelonIowa Belle1931Introduced from Iowa----------Shows some resistance to wilt under Florida conditions
Iowa King
IowaSquashImproved Table Queen----InbreedingIsolation of high-yielding inbred linesIncreased uniformity and yield and freedom from mixtures
LouisianaSugar BowlCrossing and backcrossingScalloped White Bush X Des MoinesVery uniform; deep teacup shape; white color; very fleshy; sweet; high quality
MaineCucumberLine 1551932SelfingWindermoor WonderResistant to scab (Cladosporium cucumerinum)
Line 128Longfellow
MassachusettsSquashBlue Hubbard No. 1----Selfed pure lineCommercial Blue HubbardUniform fruit; high yield; good color; strain lacks roughness desired by growers
MichiganMuskmelonHoney Rock inbreds1935InbreedingHoney RockSome lines for hard shell and ropy net
3=S5; 2=S6--------------Some lines for thick flesh and high total solids
1730 F31935HybridizationHale Best X Honey RockThick flesh of Hales and shell and net of Honey Rock (not fixed as yet)
1734 F2(Hale Best X Honey Rock) X Honey RockMore characters of recurrent parent
1739 F6Honey Dew X Emerald GemOrange flesh of Emerald Gem; shell of Honey Dew
4 F3 linesHoney Dew X Champlain on Hearts of GoldEarly maturing; green flesh. Honey Dew
MinnesotaCucumberNumerous strains1914-36Introduction; selection; inbreeding; hybridizationMany varietiesPure lines for several genetic characters
Muskmelon1932SelectionGolden OsageResistant to fusarium wilt
Watermelon1934HybridizationArikara, Northern Sweet, Fordhook, Angelino, Winter QueenEarly; seed color; quality
Squash1920-36Introduction; selection; inbreeding, hybridizationMany varietiesPure lines for several genetic characters
New HampshireCucumberGranite State25-30 years agoHybridizationEnglish X White SpineExcellent forcing cucumber; thrifty grower; prolific
New York (Geneva)SquashCucurbita moschata X pepo 311933Japanese Pie X Early Yellow Bush ScallopPotential disease resistance
Cucurbita moschata X pepo 32Japanese Pie X Mammoth Yellow Bush Scallop
Cucurbita pepo X moschata 43Giant Summer Crookneck X Japanese Pie
Cucurbita moschata X maxima 52Quaker Pie X Banana
Cucurbita moschata X pepo 64Japanese Pie X Delicata
Cucurbita pepo X moschata 701934Bohemian (=Delicata) X Japanese Pie
Department (in cooperation with California)MuskmelonNumerous lines----American and oriental sortsPowdery mildew resistance
Department at Beltsville, Md.Cucumber40 linesMostly since 1930InbreedingJapanese and Chinese varietiesSome resistance to mosaic
50 lines----HybridizationAmerican X Japanese or Chinese varieties and reciprocals
10 linesInbreedingAmerican and oriental varietiesSome resistance to bacterial wilt
20 linesHybridization
6 linesInbreedingChinese and Indian varietiesSome resistance to downy mildew
5 linesHybridizationChinese X American varieties
Department at Corvallis, Oreg.SquashSeveral lines1932InbreedingMarbleheadUniform, productive, resistant to early top
1933HybridizationMarblehead X Beau DessertHigh quality, adapted to Northwest
1932InbreedingVarieties of Cucurbita pepoPotential disease resistance
Department at Cheyenne, Wyo.MuskmelonGriffin1934Canada----------Early maturity
John the GardenerWyoming gardenerEarly maturity and quality
Vine Peach1935CommercialTartness of flavor; early maturity
Hale BestHigh quality
Squash and pumpkinNew England Pie1930Early, and good quality
CocozelleBush habit of growth
Giant Summer CrookneckBush habit of growth; early
Puerto RicoCucumberChinese Long1933IntroductionResistant to downy mildew
35-2; 8-3-21935HybridizationChinese Long X Early Black Diamond
CaliforniaSweet cornPapago1934Associated Seed Growers, Inc.Commercial stocksEarworm resistant
Honey JuneTexas Agricultural Experiment Station----------Earworm and heat resistant
California No. 11935Hybridization(Honey June X Oregon Evergreen) X Honey JuneEarworm resistant
California No. 2(Honey June X Oregon Evergreen) X Oregon Evergreen
California No. 3(Honey June X Golden Bantam) X Honey June
Surcropper Sugar1934Texas Agricultural Experiment Station----------
Florida 191Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Oregon EvergreenF. LagomarsinoCommercial stock
Dent cornMexican JuneAggeler & MusserEarworm and heat resistant
King Phillip1935F. LagomarsinoEarworm resistant; yellow kernels
Davis ProlificReuter Seed Co.Earworm resistant
TuxpanTexas Agricultural Experiment Station
Connecticut (State)Sweet cornConnecticut 21933InbreedingWhippleDark green foliage, vigorous plant, narrow kernel
Connecticut 6Light green foliage, resistant to bacterial wilt, broad kernel
Connecticut 7Narrow kernel, good plant and ear
Connecticut 131935Golden Early MarketVery resistant to bacterial wilt. Golden Early type of ear.
Connecticut 781926Red leaves (probably from Crosby)Good quality
Connecticut 77Stowell EvergreenLarge ear, good quality, pearly white
P39----(?)----------Good quality; adaptability; resistant
P51Golden BantamGood quality; 8-rowed ear
FloridaSweet Snowflake1934Recurrent backcrossingSnowflake, Long Island BeautyHusk protection, southern type
Alachua Sweet1935White Dent, Long Island Beauty
Sweet DuboseDubose, Long Island Beauty
Sweet TuxpanTuxpan, Florida 191Husk protection; adapted to Everglades
Sweet Oklahoma SilvermineOklahoma Silvermine, Suwannee SugarHusk protection, southern type
Sweet Trucker FavoriteTrucker Favorite, Suwannee SugarHusk protection, southern type; earliness
Florida King BantamHickory King, Cuban Flint, Suwannee SugarHusk protection, southern type, Golden Bantam ear type, tender and very good quality
Illinois22-507-806-4-104-203Work started in 1929, and the lines listed are those showing merit as of 1935.----------Iowa State College No. 15 X Evergreen X Yellow DentThese lines are all inbreds, the number of generations inbred being indicated by the number of integers in the pedigree. A great many additional inbreds are being maintained (142 inbred lines in all), but only those showing distinct merit are listed. The object is to secure single crosses able to withstand the heat and drought of central Illinois and to show a high degree of resistance to bacterial wilt. Purdue Golden Cross Bantam is not sufficiently resistant to wilt for the purpose. All the lines listed show promise. They range all the way from extremely early 8-row to late-maturing 18-row types.
81-521-818-108-7-106-206 and 207Open-pollinated Bantam Evergreen
84-528-110-9-106-200 and 210Open-pollinated Whipple’s Early Yellow
192-537-832-10-109-211 and 212Purdue 1339-1-1-2-1-1-1
202-544-838-113-12-111-214 and 215Purdue No. 25
203-545-839-13-112-216Purdue No. 29
204-546-840-114-14-113-218Purdue No. 34
206-548-842-115-15-114-219Purdue No. 38
212-554-848-16-115-220 and 221Purdue No. 1313 X 1324
5004-1 A-1-1-19-4-121-226Illinois No. 14 X Yellow sweet
5020-1-1-1-129-234Wisconsin (589 31 X 3) X Purdue (1339 X 1313)
5030-1-1-1-132-237Open-pollinated Bantam Evergreen X (Purdue 1313 X 1319)
5041-1-1-1-134-239Purdue 1339-1-2-3-1-1-1 X Iowa State College S760-1
5043-1-1-1-136-242Purdue (1308 X 1313) X Purdue (1313 X 1335)
5044-1-1-1-137-243Purdue (1308 X 1335) X Wisconsin 589 31 X 3
5044-1-1-1-138-244Purdue (1308 X 1335) X Wisconsin 589 31 X 3
5050-1-1-1-141-247 and 248Purdue (1313 X 1324) X Purdue (1339 X 1313)
5051-1-1-1-249Purdue (1313 X 1324) x Purdue (1351 X 1313)
5055-1-2-1-252 and 253Inbred from Purdue 21 x inbred from Purdue 29
5059-1-2-1-255Inbred from Purdue (1308 X 1335) X inbred from Purdue 34
5061-1-1-1-257-----------Inbred from [Wisconsin (5939 X 4) X Purdue(1339 X 1313)] X inbred from Purdue 36
5068-2-1-2-260Illinois Narrow Grain Evergreen X yellow sweet
5068-4-1-2-263, 264, and 265
5068-4-1-3-266 and 267
5068-8-1-2-272 and 273
9 hybrids1935HybridizationNarrow Grain Evergreen X Country GentlemanSuperior yield
Indiana (in cooperation with Department)G.B. 14Δ1921Pure-line selectionGolden RodExcellent pollinator; few suckers good quality
G.B. 51BΔ1922Golden BantamCarries factor for high yield; tall, slender plant. Good pollen parent
C.G. 22Δ1921Country GentlemanResistant to kernel infection. Produces an early top cross with open-pollinated strains. Two-ear type
C.G. 34Δ1931Carries factor for kernel depth
C.G. 6355Δ1928Stiff stalk; root rot resistant
S.E. 4-6Δ1921Stowell EvergreenProductive; good seed quality
S.E. V4Δ1928Productive; root rot resistant
N.G. 119Δ1921Narrow Grain EvergreenDeep, narrow kernel; erect; resistant to ear rots
N.G. 1014-2-5Good root system, slender ear
IowaIogold 18.39----Crossing of inbred linesSunshine inbredsIncreased yield and uniformity
Iogent 16.45; Iogent 90.45Country Gentleman inbreds
Iogreen 123.91; Iogreen 11.63Narrow Grain Evergreen inbreds
MarylandAbout 50 inbredsMostly since 1930Hybridizing sweet x dent corn followed by inbreeding. Own productionCommercial varietiesYield and adaptability
Many inbreds----Commercial and research agencies---------For comparison
New York (State)G51927InbreedingGolden BantamHigh quality; potent hybridizer
PennsylvaniaPurdue 391936From Glenn Smith, Lafayette Ind.----------[Blank]
Purdue 51
Purdue 13391-8-1
Purdue 1351-3-1-1-2
Purdue 3-1-3-2
Purdue 1308
Purdue 8482
Purdue 14-1-2-6
MinnesotaAsparagus375 different plants, nos. 2-1 to 9-431932SelectionWashingtonProduction and breeding records known
Carrot36-34, 37-341934selection and inbreedingChantenayUniform
Department [USDA]BeetSeveral linesMostly since 1930Highly uniform inbreds from commercial varietiesCommercial varietiesSome commercial possibilities; others of genetic interest only
CaliforniaGarlicEarly or Mexican----SelectionCommercial stocks[Blank]
Late or Italian
Many introductions-----------Through Plant Exploration and Introduction
CaliforniaOnionStockton Yellow Globe 36-40Selfed one generationStockton Yellow Globe (commercial stock)Uniform; nonbolting
White Persian1929Plant Exploration and IntroductionP. E. I. No. 86279Thrips resistant
Stockton Yellow 21-1-3-4S4----------InbreedingStockton Yellow (commercial)Nonbolting
Italian Red 13-53SelectionItalian Red (commercial)Male sterile, mildew resistant
Lord Howe IslandAustraliaLord Howe IslandDeep red; early
Australian Brown No. 17InbreedingAustralian BrownResistant to pink root
Sweet Spanish No. 35Sweet Spanish
NebukaJapanNebuka selection
LouisianaCreoleInbreeding and selection followed by intercrossing similar lines and mass open-pollination of similar lines. (Stocks maintained at Louisiana.)Best local stocksExcellent keeping quality; high total solids. Very strong flavor, desired by certain markets and processors. Adaptable to short-day growing conditions.
TexasWhite Persian1935California station----------Disease resistant.
Crystal WaxSelectionIndividual plantsDeep; nonsplitting.
GeorgiaPeanutImproved White Spanish1931Tom Huston Peanut Co.----------Small, uniform seed of high quality.
PearlWhite seed coat; poor quality.
Carolina RunnerResistant to disease; high yield.
Virginia RunnerResistant to disease; large seed.
Virginia BunchBunch; large seed.
JumboLarge seed; fairly resistant to disease.
Tennessee RedBunch; large pods suitable for roasting.
BasseResistant to disease; well filled.
West AfricanResistant to disease.
Philippine WhiteResistant to disease; white seed.
KimoralesBunch; fairly resistant to disease
Java P. L.Bunch; said to be resistant to bacterial wilt
H13-36-661934Selected hybridPearl X Carolina RunnerResistant to disease; fine hay
H19-54-13-31935Improved White Spanish X Carolina Runner
H21-39-391934Improved White Spanish X Virginia Runner
Virginia (in cooperation with Department)15 selections from Virginia Runnerϖ1935SelectionVirginia RunnerLarge pods; hard seed hulls and superior yields
Department (in cooperation with Virginia and South Carolina)About 250 varieties and introductionsMostly since 1930Mostly by introductionMostly through Plant Exploration and IntroductionLargely unexplored
MinnesotaRhubarbVarious strains1932-36Inbreeding, selection, introductionSeveral varietiesImproved color and quality
HawaiiSweetpotatoBlack Spanish1934Introduced----------[Blank]
Red Jersey1922
Dixie Yam
Jewel Yam
Japanese Brown1917-22
Nancy Hall1934
Vineless Yam
40 Hawaiian varieties1917-35Collected from various islands
20 hybrids1926-29Hand crosses of known varieties
40 open-pollinated seedlings1934Seed collected in field; open-pollinatedSelection for eating quality is most important object.
MarylandMenes Moeder1923IntroductionIntroduced from JavaHigh quality and marked resistance to Fusarium batatatis
Department [USDA]High starch content. Resistant to Fusarium batatatis and F. hyperoxysporum.
254Big Wig X (?)[Blank]
About 25 varietiesSince 1919From growers in United StatesUnknownOf commercial interest in past or at present
About 30 numbersForeign introductionsOf potential commercial and breeding value. Many are resistant to Fusarium.
About 100 seedlingsSince 1935Open-pollinated seedFemale parent known
**** Started 1930. Best lines of 1936.
*Homozygous genotypes for anthocyanin pigment in leaves of lettuce maintained at the Beltsville station
**It is planned to release these as soon as increased sufficiently.
ψOther crosses:  Marglobe X Stone, Argentina X Gulf State Market, Shanghai X Marvel, Cooper X J. T. D., Peiping X J. T. D., Pritchard x J. T. D., and others
ΔFirst year of inbreeding.
ΐ Pure lines of the leading varieties are being maintained at the Louisiana station.
ϖ These selections have been placed in the hands of a selected group of growers for multiplication and distribution.

TABLE 6.—Recent vegetable breeding activities of State and Federal agencies in the United States
[Parentheses enclose names of investigators no longer connected with the institution]
State or department and crop Nature of studies Personnel
Searching the State for superior strains or plants C. L., Isbell
Lettuce and cantaloup
Selection within commercial varieties for local adaptation W. E. Bryan, M. F. Wharton
Inheritance of spear size, shape, head tightness, toughness, node size(H. A. Jones, G. C. Hanna)
Cantaloup (part in cooperation with Department)Inheritance of fruit size and qualitative characters, resistance to powdery mildew. Effect of inbreeding(J. T. Rosa,* G. W. Scott), I. C. Jagger,** T. W. Whitaker**
CeleryInheritance of pithiness and bolting(S. L. Emsweller.)
OnionInheritance of color of flesh, scale, foliage, seed; size of seed; bolting; sterility. Cytology of Allium species hybrids. Resistance to thrips(H. A. Jones, S. L. Emsweller)
Peas(See Department cooperation with California)
Squash (Cucurbita pepo)Inheritance of fruit and plant characters and fruit size. Effect of inbreeding(G. W. Scott.)
SpinachInheritance of resistance to mosaic
Sweet cornDetermination of factors governing earworm resistance; nature of factor interaction in hybrid vigor by crossing inbred lines(C. F. Poole.)
TomatoInheritance of fruit size; resistance to spotted wilt and bacterial canker(O. H. Pearson), D. R. Porter
WatermelonInheritance of color of flesh, rind, seed coat; sugar content, rind toughness; size of seed; resistance to wilt(J.T. Rosa*, G.W. Scott), D.R. Porter (C. F. Poole)
Bean (snap)
Breeding for mosaic resistance and adaptability to canning in ColoradoA. M. Binkley
LettuceBreeding for tipburn resistance by intervarietal crossing and selection
OnionInbreeding and selection in Sweet Spanish for improved market type and adaptability to Colorado
Bean (lima)
Selection for high yieldD. F. Jones, W, T. Singleton, L.C. Curtis
PepperInheritance of seedless character
SquashNature of hybrid vigor by crossing inbred lines
Sweet cornDevelopment of early, disease-resistant, high quality, productive new varieties and hybrids for canning and market through use of inbreeding, hybridization, and production of “synthetic varieties.”  Inheritance of several seed, seedling, and plant characters, and study of zygotic and gametic lethals.  Studies of hybrid vigor
Inheritance of qualitative charactersL.R. Detjen, E. W. Greve
Sweet corn
Developing earworm-resistant sweet corn of good quality adapted to Florida by intervarietal crosses, backcrosses, and selectionF. H. Hull, W. A. Carver
Tomato(See Department cooperation with Florida.)[Blank]
WatermelonSelection for wilt resistanceM.N. Walker
Inheritance of color of leaf and seed coat; growth habit; size and shape of seed and pods; size and shape of leaflets; resistance to cercospora leaf spots, Sclerotium rolfsii and physiological seed spot. Hybrid vigor.N. C. Woodroof
TomatoIntervarietal crosses for wilt resistance and adaptation to Georgia conditionsH. L. Cochran
Hybridization and selection to obtain varieties that will head well at low altitude in the subtropics(C.P. Wilsie), J. H. Beaumont, M. Takahashi
SweetpotatoControlled hybridization, selection, and use of open-pollinated seed to obtain high quality, yield, and if possible resistance to weevil
TomatoIntervarietal and species crosses and selection to obtain resistance to melon fly. Resistance to late blight and mosaic being sought.
Development of improved disease-resistant varieties by intervarietal crossing and by pure-line selection.  Inheritance of resistance to common bean mosaic.W. H. Pierce, Leif Verner, G. W. Woodbury
Bean (lima)
Intervarietal crosses and pure-line selection for improved yield and adaptability to Illinois conditionsW. A. Huelson
Sweet cornInheritance of rowing, nature of hybrid vigor in crosses of inbred lines. Production of high yield and quality sweet corn for Corn Belt conditions.
TomatoIntervarietal crosses and selection for wilt resistance in field and greenhouse types and adaptation to high-nitrogen prairie soils.
Selection for wilt resistance and improved adaptability to Indiana conditionsE. C. Stair, (J. H. MacGillivray)
Bean (snap)
Intervarietal crossing and selection for high-quality beans adapted to IowaA. T. Erwin, E.S. Haber
TomatoIntervarietal crossing and selection for high-quality tomatoes adapted to Iowa
Nature of inheritance of specific qualitative factors, determination of linkage relations, inducing end studying inheritance of new variants, study of polyploid forms and cytology thereof.E. W. Lindstrom
Sweet cornImproving yield and uniformity through crossing of inbreds developed from commercial varieties. Inheritance of resistance to drought and bacterial wiltA. T. Erwin, E.S. Haber
Collard, carrot, okra, pepper
Inbreeding and selection to obtain strains of superior market value and productivity adapted to Louisiana conditionsJ. C. Miller
Cabbage, onionCrossing of inbred lines to attain objectives stated above
Shallot, squash, tomatoCrossing and backcrossing commercial varieties to attain objectives stated above
SweetpotatoHill unit selection and isolation of mutants to improve stocks and obtain new sorts of specific value as for starch manufacture.[Blank]
Selection, crossing, and backcrossing to improve Yellow Eye type; development of blight- and anthracnose-resistant sorts. Inheritance of eye pattern, color, vine characters, seed size, and linkage relations(F. M. Surface, K. Sax), H. C. McPhee, (F. V. Owen), I. M. Burgess,(C.R. Burnham), R.M. Bailey
CucumberInbreeding and selection for resistance to Cladosporium cucumerinumI. M. Burgess, R. M. Bailey
TomatoSelection for earliness and resistance to crackingR.M. Bailey
Cantaloup, sweetpotato
Selection for quality, yield, and adaptationT. H. White
PeaSelection for resistance to wiltC. E. Temple
SpinachMass selection for increased winter hardiness(F. W. Geise, H. B. Cordner.)
Sweet cornStudy of natural selection in successive generations of sweet X dent corn cross. Development of varieties and hybrid sweet corns from inbreds from sweet X dent crosses. Studies of hybridization techniqueW. B. Kemp, R. G. Rothgeb (A. Stabler)
TomatoHybridization and selection for quality, yield, and adaptation.  Early work on selection for disease resistance.T. H. White, J. B.S. Norton
Selection and crossing selected plants to study transmission of yielding abilityRobert E. Young
CeleryDevelopment of superior strains of Pascal through inbred selections
Lettuce (cooperation with Department)Hybridization and selection to obtain crisp heading varieties and greenhouse types for Massachusetts.
SquashDevelopment of superior strain of Warted Blue Hubbard by inbred selections
TomatoHybridizing Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium and L. esculentum to obtain leaf mold resistanceE. F. Guba
Crossing and backcrossing varieties to obtain higher quality, darker green, mosaic resistance, and better pod-setting in canning sortsC. H. Mahoney, H. L. Seaton, Ray Nelson, Miriam Strong
Brussels sproutsInbred selections (greenhouse bud pollination) to develop strains for upland and for muck soils
CeleryInheritance of resistance to yellowsC. H. Mohony, H. L. Seaton, Ray Nelson, Miriam Strong
CucumberInbred selections for greater fruit length in National Pickle
MuskmelonInheritance of netting and sterility. Honey Rock inbred selections for hard rind and ropy net; for thick flesh and high solids. Varietal crosses and backcrosses involving Hale Best, Honey Dew, Honey Rock, Emerald Gem, Champlain, and Hearts of Gold for improved quality, appearance, and adaptability of specific new combinations of characters.
RadishRoot selection for short top, uniformity, shape, and color in Scarlet Globe
Sweet cornInbreeding, hybridization, and selection for resistance to European corn borer, tolerance to bacterial wilt, and high canning quality. Development of desirable inbred pollen parents.
Selection within Washington strains to improve yield and study transmission of yielding ability(R. Wellington, J. W. Bushnell, W. T. Taply), F. A. Krantz, T.M. Currence, A. B. Hutchins, assisted by J. G. Leach, T. M. McCall, T.S. Weir, M. J. Thompson
BeanInheritance of several qualitative and quantitative characters
Brassica spp.Genetic and cytological study of cabbage X radish and Brussels sprouts X cabbage hybrids
CarrotsSelection of superior strains through inbreeding
CucumberInheritance of a number of qualitative and quantitative characters including plant height, determinate growth, and study of shape correlations
Cucurbits, other (muskmelon, squash, watermelon)Varietal crosses and selection to develop fusarium wilt resistance. Inheritance of qualitative factors in squash
EggplantStudies similar to those on cucumber
PepperInheritance of several qualitative and quantitative characters, studies of shape correlations
RhubarbInbreeding, selection, hybridization for improving petiole color and quality
TomatoInheritance of growth habit, time of ripening, fruit size. Effect of polyploidy on economic characters. Study of certain linkages.
New Hampshire
Varietal crosses and selection to obtain earlier sorts adapted to Northern StatesJ.R. Hepler, G. F. Potter
TomatoSelection of locally adapted forcing strains. Study of hybrid vigor in intervarietal crosses
New Jersey:
Varietal crosses, backcrosses and selection for improving yield, color, and wilt resistance of canning typesL. G. Schermerhorn, C.M. Haensler
New Mexico
Selection of Spanish types for improved quality and adaptability to the SouthwestF. Garcia
New York (Cornell):
Bean (chiefly field types)
Hybridization of varieties followed by pedigreed selection for development of disease-resistant varieties.  Inheritance of resistance to specific diseases. Minor attention to inheritance of other characters.  (Early work on inheritance of qualitative and quantitative characters.)W.H. Burkholder, R. A. Emerson, A. L. Harrison, D. Reddick. (M.F. Barrus, W.H. Burkholder, G. P. McRostie, R. A. Emerson)
CabbageImproving variety uniformity and quality by selection.  Developing new and superior combinations of characters by hybridization and selection. Inheritance of color, stem length, head shape, texture, and flavor (odor). Intertype crosses involving cabbage, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, kale, kohlrabi, and wild cabbage for cytogenetic study.C. H. Myers, W. I. Fisher
CeleryInheritance of color; size, shape, and toughness of petioles; resistance to yellowsR. A. Emerson
Lettuce (cooperation with Department)Selection within hybrid progenies and varieties for improved heading, quality, and tipburn resistanceJ.E. Knott, (J. B. Hartmann.)
New York (Geneva):
Bean (snap)
Varietal crosses to obtain mosaic-resistant improved sorts. Inheritance of mosaic resistance.A. L. Harrison, J. G. Horsfall
CucumberVarietal crosses to obtain improved greenhouse typesW.T. Tapley
Cucurbita spp.Interspecific hybrids among C. marima, C. pepo, and C. moschata to determine specific limitations within the genus and possibilities of developing new and valuable combinations of characters, including disease resistance. Inheritance of mosaic resistance.G.P. Van Eseltine
MuskmelonHybridization to obtain earlier and higher quality varietiesW. D. Enzie
PeaInheritance of root-rot resistanceA. L. Harrison, J. G. Horsfall
SquashHybridization to obtain earlier and higher quality varietiesW. D. Enzie
Sweet cornDevelopment of new inbreds for production of superior hybrid corns for canning and market. Chemical studies of hybrids.P. V. Traphagen
TomatoSelection and varietal crosses for improved canning varieties adapted to the NortheastC. B. Sayre
North Carolina:
Lettuce (cooperation with Department)
Selection within hybrid progenies and varieties for improved heading, quality, and tipburn resistanceRobert Schmidt
SweetpotatoHill unit selection for improvement of varietal type and yield
TomatoHybridization and selection for resistance to bacterial wilt
North Dakota:
Varietal hybridization and selection to obtain earliness, disease resistance, and improved regional adaptation.  Inheritance of earliness.A.F. Yeager, D. H. Scott
MuskmelonHybridizing of American and foreign forms to obtain earliness, size, quality, adaptation to the region
Physalis (groundcherry)Varietal crosses and selection to increase earliness, yield, and improve yellow color
Squash (Cucurbita pepo)Inheritance of hard rind, flesh color, rind color. Isolation of better adapted strains through inbreeding and selection.
TomatoInheritance of uniform color, determinate growth, locule number, earliness, fruit size. Varietal crosses and selection to obtain high yield, quality, and earliness in northern Great Plains area.
WatermelonInbreeding and selection of heterogeneous foreign introductions to obtain varieties adapted to the region
Sib mating of inbred selections to obtain superior color and absence of zoning in cannery beetsI.C. Hoffman, H. D. Brown
CabbageInbreeding and selection to obtain more uniform and productive strains of Golden Acre
LettuceSelection for tipburn resistance in greenhouse strains of Grand Rapids
TomatoSelection of greenhouse strains of Marhio
Interspecific crossing and backcrossing to obtain cladosporium resistanceL. J. Alexander
Hill unit selection in Nancy Hall and Porto Rico for increased yield, uniformity, and typical shape.E. F. Burk
Line selection for higher yield, uniformity, and better storage qualityC.E. Myers, H. K. Fleming
TomatoInheritance of skin and flesh color in the Orange tomato. Varietal crossing and selection for improved earliness, fruit shape, uniformity, and yield.
Puerto Rico (University station):
Inbreeding, crossing, and selection for downy mildew resistance and adaptation to tropical conditionsA. Roque
EggplantInbreeding, crossing, and selection for resistance to bacterial wilt, for superior quality, and adaptability
TomatoHybridization of commercial and native varieties for resistance to bacterial wilt and for improved adaptability and shipping qualities
Puerto Rico (Federal station):
Sweet corn
Inbreeding, crossing, and backcrossing sweet and native field types for resistance to stripe and to earworms; for good quality and adaptation to the TropicsR. L. Davis
Rhode Island:
Pure-line selection, hybridizing varietal inbreds, and selection to develop wilt resistance in good commercial typesT. E. Odland, F. K. Crandall
South Carolina:
Selection to obtain higher yield, uniformity, and adaptation to South Carolina conditionsJ. B. Edmond, L. E. Scott
BeanIntervarietal crosses and selection to obtain increased yield, tolerance to mildew and mosaic, earliness, tolerance to adverse growing conditions in South Atlantic areasJ. M. Jenkins, Jr.
OkraPure-line selection for improved uniformity, quality, yield, and spineless podsR. A. McGinty, F.S. Andrews
SweetpotatoHill unit selection for improved yield and uniformityJ.B. Edmond
Selection for fusarium wilt resistance(S. H. Essary), C. Sherbakoff, B. Drain.
Texas:OnionSelection for resistance to pink root and freedom from splitsL. R. Hawthorn
PeanutPure-line selection for increased yield, earliness, and oil content of Spanish typeG. T. McNess
TomatoIntertype and intervarietal crosses and selection to develop freedom from puffy fruits. Inheritance of tendency to puffiness.J. F. Wood, L. R. Hawthorn, S. H. Yarnell
Sweet cornProduction of sweet corn adapted to TexasP. C. Mangelsdorf
Selection for uniform type and resistance to wilt in Utah varietyA. L. Wilson
OnionInbreeding and mass selection to improve yield, uniformity of shape, and keeping quality in Sweet Spanish
TomatoSelection to improve uniformity and obtain wilt resistance in Greater Baltimore and Stone types adapted to Utah conditions
Inbreeding Hubbard squash to improve uniformity, quality, and yieldM. B. Cummings, E. W. Jenkins
Hybridization and selection for rust resistance, high yield and quality. Inheritance of rust resistance.S. A. Wingard
Peanut (cooperating with Department)Pure-line selection to obtain high yielding very large-seeded strains of Virginia typeE. T. Batten, J. H. Beattie**
Virginia (Truck station):
Pure-line selection for deeper green color and resistance to coldH.H. Zimmerley
SpinachVarietal hybridization and selection for resistance to cold, heat, mosaic (“blight"), and quick bolting; high yield and attractive savoy-leaved type(L. B. Smith), H. H. Zimmerley
Hybridization and selection to obtain early, locally adapted sortsC. L. Vincent, L. K. Jones
West Virginia:
Inheritance of resistance to certain forms of Fusarium niveum. Crossing and backcrossing nonedible resistant and edible susceptible forms to obtain edible resistant variety. Cytological studies of above material.(L.S. Bennett), T. C. McIlvane, J. A. Rigney
Hybridization and selection to obtain mosaic-resistant snap beans of high quality and adaptation to WisconsinJ.C. Walker, W. H. Pierce
Broccoli (sprouting)Mass selection for improved head size and uniformityO. B. Combs
Cabbage (cooperating with Department)Inbreeding and selection for yellows-resistant strains of the several commercial types. Determination of genetic nature and inheritance of different types of resistance.(L. R. Jones, L. M. Blank), J. C. Walker
Hybridization and selection for increased size and earlinessJ.C. Walker, R. H. Larson
EggplantInbreeding and selection for club-root resistance in crucifersO. B. Combs
Onion (cooperating with Department)Hybridization and selection for smut resistance in onionsJ. C. Walker, H. A. Jones
PeaHybridization and selection for obtaining more productive, higher quality, wilt-resistant peas adapted to Wisconsin conditionsE. J. Delwiche (E. J. Renard)
Inheritance of rogues(E. J. Renard.)
Inheritance of resistance to fusarium wilt(B. L. Wade.)
RadishMass selection to improve uniformity and earliness of Scarlet GlobeO. B. Combs
TomatoHybridization and selection to improve fruit size and fruit setting under greenhouse conditions in winter
Department of Agriculture:
Bean (snap and field)
Hybridization and selection among wide range of types to obtain:
(1) Curly-top resistance in garden and additional field types.
(W. W. Tracy, Jr.*), B. F. Dana
(2) Resistance to mosaic, rust, bacterial blight, and root rot in market, canning, and field types.B. L. Wade, W. J. Zaumeyer, C. F. Poole, L. L. Harter
(3) “Multiple” resistance to all known strains of anthracnose.C. F. Andrus
Inheritance of mosaic resistance (cooperative with Wisconsin)(M. C. Parker)
Inheritance of resistance to rust, blight, and mosaicB.L. Wade, C. F. Poole, W. J. Zaumeyer.
Bean (lima)Inheritance of plant habit and seed-coat color and pattern. Varietal hybridization and selection to obtain increased setting of pods in the large-seeded types; increasing thickness and number of seeds per pod in small-seeded types; increased earliness.Roy Magruder
BeetDevelopment of highly self-fertile inbred strains of good commercial type to improve uniformity and facility of maintaining varietal or strain characteristics.
Inheritance of a variegated red color in the root
Crossing garden and curly-top-resistant sugar beet, and selection to obtain curly-top-resistant garden varietiesB. F. Dana
CabbageInbreeding and hybridization and selection to obtain around, short-core, high quality, winter-hardy, non-bolting variety for the South Atlantic and Southeastern States. (See also Wisconsin, cabbage.)B. L. Wade, C. F. Poole
CucumberInbreeding and hybridization and selection among American and Asiatic types to obtain good commercial slicing and pickling varieties resistant to mosaic, bacterial wilt, and downy mildew. “Multiple” resistance is ultimate object.W.S. Porte, S. P. Doolittle
LettuceHybridization among American and foreign sorts, and selection to obtain:
(1) Resistance to brown blight and powdery mildew and adaptability to numerous different specific southwestern and Pacific coast conditions.
I.C. Jagger, T. W. Whitaker
(2) Hard-heading properties, high quality, resistance to tipburn and adaptability to eastern United States conditions. (See also Massachusetts, New York, and North Carolina, lettuce.)
Inheritance of different anthocyanin and green leaf colors, seed color, chlorophyll deficiency, and tip-burn resistance.
R. C. Thompson
Inheritance of resistance to brown blight and mildewT. W. Whitaker, I.C. Jagger
Muskmelon (in cooperation with California)Hybridization and selection among American and Asiatic types to obtain varieties resistant to powdery mildew and of high culinary and shipping quality for the Southwest.  Inheritance of resistance to powdery mildewI.C. Jagger, T. W. Whitaker, (J. T. Rosa* and G. W. Scott, California)
Pea (part of program in cooperation with California, 1933-36)Hybridization and selection among available peas of the world that indicate the desired characters, to obtain:
(1) Large-podded market types resistant to fusarium wilt, to Ascochyta, and to adverse climate.
(2) Resistance to certain mosaics
(3) Resistance to root rot
Inheritance of resistance to root rot, certain mosaics, Ascochyta, and certain new fusarium wilts.
B. L. Wade, W. J. Zaumeyer (H. A. Jones, California)
Sweet cornDevelopment of varieties and of inbreds for production of hybrid corns. Objectives: High yield, uniformity, quality, adaptation to the Corn Belt, resistance to bacterial wilt, and specific kernel characteristics adaptable to factory use. Inheritance of quality in sweet X dent crosses. Inheritance of resistance to bacterial wilt, and of albescence.G. M. Smith (in cooperation with Indiana)
Hybridization and selection to obtain earworm resistant varieties adapted to the SoutheastC. F. Poole
SweetpotatoHybridization and selection as well as growing seedlings from open-pollinated seed to obtain variants of higher yield, starch content, earliness, quality,disease resistance or adaptability to specific environments. (Cooperative with La Estacion Experimental Agronomique, Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba; and Federal Experiment Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico.)J. H. Beattie, C. E. Steinbauer, W. K. Bailey (Puerto Rico), (C. de Valle, Cuba)
Tomato (part of program in cooperation with Florida)Inbreeding and varietal and interspecific hybridization and selection for resistance to wilt, nailhead, and various leaf and virus diseases, and to cracking; for high color, adaptability to shipping, and to specific adverse environments. Inheritance of resistance to wilt.W. S. Porte, F. L. Wellman, B. lL, Wade, C.F. Poole, (W. M. Fifield, Florida)
Watermelon (part in cooperation with California)Study of seed size and color, flesh and skin color, size of fruit, and growth habit. Resistance to wilt, leaf diseases, weather conditions, and insect damage.C. F. Poole, (D. R. Porter, California)
** Of U. S. Department of Agriculture.

Table 7.—Vegetable breeding and improvement work in foreign countries
Note.—The limitations of this very sketchy survey are recognized. Only a part of the world’s vegetable breeding activities have been referred to, and important activities have been unavoidably omitted. These few notes, however, testify to the world-wide importance of many general problems and the determination of plant breeders and vegetable growers to obtain ever better crop plants.
Country, institution, and officialCropNature of studies
Australia, Department of Agriculture of New South Wales, Sydney; H. Wenholz, director of plant breedingBean, broadAdaptation studies of foreign introductions
Bean, snapHybridization and selection for higher yield, better adaptation and resistance to bacterial blight, anthracnose, mosaic, and dry root rot.
Canadian Wonder X Refugee H. 3263 (U.S. D. A.) and Canadian Wonder X Murunga are promising unfixed early disease-resistant hybrids.
Tweed Wonder X Keeney Refugee is a promising fixed early blight-resistant hybrid.
New variety introduced: Hawkesbury Wonder, from Tweed Wonder X Keeney Refugee.
Best yielding varieties are Canadian Wonder (standard), Hawkesbury Wonder, Staley’s Brown Beauty, and Staley Surprise.
Location: Hawkesbury Agricultural College; Bathurst and Grafton Experiment Farms.
Beet, gardenSelection in self-fertile and close-fertilized lines for improved quality and yield.
Best lines to date are from Rapid Red, Ohio Seton and Detroit Dark Red (from United States).
Location: Hawkesbury Agricultural College.
Beet, silver, or chardSelection, isolation, and testing of strains; self-fertility being sought; to improve uniformity and type of commercial varieties.
Superior strains isolated from local silver beet and Lucullus. Begun 1930.
Location: Yanco Experiment Farm.
Cabbage, cauliflower, brussels sproutsIntroduction of foreign varieties, testing, strain selection and purification of adapted commercial types. No controlled pollination used, but natural hybrids utilized when of value.
Location: Bathurst Experiment Farm.
CeleryIntroduction of foreign varieties, testing against local varieties. Utah, Fordhook, and Pascal (commercial United States) and inbreds of Golden Phenomenal, Golden Self Blanching, and Golden Plume (California Agricultural Experiment Station) were most promising.
CucumberVarietal crossing and selection for improvement of uniformity and adaptability of commercial slicing and of “apple” types; inbreeding for mildew resistance; attempts to cross Cucumis sativus (susceptible) with C. anguria and C. metuliferus (resistant) failed.
New variety produced: Richmond Green Apple by crossing commercial X Apple.
Location: Hawkesbury Agricultural College.
LettuceIntroduction and adaptation studies of foreign varieties, followed by selection and breeding.
Best introductions for winter crop, Imperial F and Imperial 615 (U. S. D. A.); for Summer, Iceberg (United States), and Imperial F. Local variety Yarrimundi is a pure green selected from an Iceberg stock; some resistance to “slimy heart.”
Location: Hawkesbury Agricultural College.
MuskmelonIntroduction and adaptation studies of foreign varieties (United States best source of material Spanish Gold, a Honey Dew type from France, is promising). Varietal crossing and selection for resistance to powdery mildew, using the California-U. S. D. A. mildew-resistant strains with susceptible sorts of high quality; also seeking downy mildew resistance.
Location: Yanco Experiment Farm.
OnionObjects: To obtain earlier, better storing, more attractive adapted Strains free from bolting and thick necks; also resistance to thrips and disease.
Dominant varieties grown: Hunter River Brown and Maitland White.
Location: Bathurst Experiment Farm and Hawkesbury Agricultural College.
PeaVarietal hybridization and selection for good agronomic characters plus resistance to Fusarium martii and Mycosphaerella pinodes.
Most promising hybrid is Yorkshire Hero X Greenfeast.
Location: Hawkesbury Agricultural College; Bathurst and Yanco Experiment Farms.
PeanutTesting and selection from large number of introductions, varieties, and strains for large-seeded Jolene or Virginia type with light-pink seed coat.
Important Javanese introductions of Spanish type are Toeban and Tannah.
Location: Grafton Experiment Farm.
RhubarbStudy of introductions and selection of seedlings of introductions and local varieties.
South Australian Solid Red, a local variety of excellent color, is most valuable producer of promising seedlings.
Location: Hawkesbury Agricultural College and Grafton Experiment Farm.
Squash and pumpkinIntroduction, selection, and hybridization to obtain well-adapted high-quality varieties of uniform size and shape.
Varieties released: Ideal, Satisfaction, and two introductions from the United States, Kitchenette Hubbard (Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station) and Table Queen.
Location: Grafton Experiment Farm.
Sweet cornHybridization and selection to obtain high-yielding, vigorous-growing, high-quality sweet corn adapted to local conditions.
New variety produced: Hawkesbury Sugar, from crossing dent and sweet types.
Location: Hawkesbury Agricultural College.
SweetpotatoProduction of seedlings from which desirable selections may be made. Seeds obtained from more tropical countries. Extensive introduction of foreign varieties.
Best varieties: (Local) White Maltese, Wannop and Ashburn (introduced from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) N. 85.
Location: Hawkesbury Agricultural College and Grafton Experiment Farm.
TomatoIntroduction of foreign varieties and testing, varietal and species crosses and selection for following objects:
(1) Early varieties for staking.
Best introductions: Australian Earliana (a farmer’s selection), Break O’ Day (U.S.D.A.), and Potentate (from England).
(2) Resistance to fusarium wilt, spotted wilt, and leaf mold or Cladosporium fulvum. Numerous crosses of Red Currant with commercial varieties.
Some promising hybrids obtained, showing resistance to fusarium wilt: Australian Earliana X Break o’ Day and Earliana X Red Currant.  Latter resistant to spotted wilt. Leafmold-resistant strains by L. J. Alexander of Ohio being used in crosses.
(3) Main-crop pulping varieties.
Most promising hybrid: Red Pepper X Earliana. Varieties in current use: Norana (from north coast); Newport 4 and Master Marglobe (from United States).
(4) Forcing varieties.
Best current varieties: Planter’s Favorite (a farmer’s selection) and Potentate (from England).
Location: Hawkesbury Agricultural College; Bathurst, Grafton, and Yanco Experiment Farms.
WatermelonSelection for good market type and resistance to fusarium wilt and anthracnose. New variety produced: Wilt Resistant Thurmond Grey, by selection from variety locally called Dark Seeded Grey Monarch.
Location: Hawkesbury Agricultural College.
Brazil, Institute Agronomico do Estado de Sao Paulo, Campinas; C. A. Krug, head of genetics department.BeansPure-line selection to improve stocks of main commercial varieties grown in Brazil. Varietal and species crosses to be made in breeding for regional adaptability and resistance to mosaic, anthracnose, and mildew (new work). Introduced foreign varieties and local sorts studied for disease resistance and other valuable characters. Hybridization and selection will follow (new work).
Costa Rica, Department of Agriculture, Puntarenas; Alan Kelso, chief of propagation service.----------Selection of several wild native or naturalized vegetable plants for adapting them to economic use; tomato and a number of leaf vegetables are included.
Czechoslovakia, State Institute for Horticultural Research, Průthonice; Ing. Fr. Landovsky, chief of division for vegetable and seed production.CabbageHybridization and selection for increased earliness, yield, quality, and improved local or special adaptations.  Hybridization and selection for hardiness to permit overwintering in the open field. Promising selection from hybrid F3 of Groots X Kirnten.
Cucumber, onionSelection for stock improvement in local varieties
TomatoNew variety produced: Průhonice, by crossing Lucullus X Tuckswood. Early, resistant to cracking, productive, high quality; for field or forcing.
RadishNew variety produced: Průhonice, by crossing Triumph X Red Globe. Early (18 to 21 days) high quality, attractive; for field or frame forcing.
Plant Breeding Institute of Fürst Lichtenstein, Lednice; Fr. Frimmel, director----------Studies of hybrid vigor or heterosis are in progress, and hybrid seed or "heterosis seed” of tomato and spinach are produced on a large scale.
CucumberSpecial interest in cucumber breeding. New variety produced: Zmojemska Nakladacka, a variety for the conserving industry.
TomatoHybridization and selection with special reference to requirements of local growers and canners.
New varieties produced: (1) Blondkopfchen, by crossing Yellow Cherry X Prinz Borghese.  Grown for canning. More productive than Yellow Cherry.
(2) Two other varieties, not named, by crossing Lucullus X Prinz Borghese and Coopers X Ficarazzi, respectively. For canning and market.
Other vegetablesBeans for canning, red peppers, and melons at receiving attention. A number of commercial firms take special pride in their stocks of cucumbers, onions, kohlrabi, and celeriac or turnip-rooted celery.
Denmark (Reported by Niels Esbjerg, State Experiment Station, Blangsted)----------Research stations in Denmark are chiefly engaged in variety, strain and stock-testing, or seed-control work. Vegetable improvement work is being done by commercial agencies, the resulting strains being submitted to Government agencies for recognition before going into trade channels.  State Experiment Station at Blangsted produced improved celeriac and is selecting cauliflower for cold resistance.
Selection and progeny testing is principal method used, with minor attention to hybridization. Increasing work in disease-resistant selections largely on account of export trade to United States. Some Danish firms reporting improvement work:
A. Hansens, Kastrup—Cabbage, cauliflower, spinach, radish, and carrot.
Chr. Olsen, Odense—Cabbage, cauliflower, kale, brussels sprouts, radish, carrot, lettuce, celeriac, spinach.
J. C. Helm-Petersen & Co., Aarhus—Cabbage, carrot, beet, spinach, turnip-rooted parsley.
J. E. Ohlsens Enke, Copenhagen—Cabbage, brussels sprouts, kale, celery, radish, greenhouse lettuce, spinach, tomato, peas, snap beans. Hybridization work with tomato; search for “velvet spot” resistance. Hybridization with peas and beans.
Hjalmar Hartmann & Co., Copenhagen—Cabbage and cauliflower.
Union of Danish Cooperative Societies, Taastrup—Pure-line selection of beans and peas.  Hybridization and progeny testing of cabbage, beet, and pickling cucumber. Progeny testing of onion, turnip-rooted parsley, radish, lettuce, spinach, and tomato.
Horticultural Research Station of Cambridge University, Cambridge; D. Boyes, director
BroccoliProduction of Roscoff types of good curd texture, disease resistance, and adaptability to specific localities in England having different weather conditions.
Brussels sproutsObject of work, to obtain varieties with small sprouts for canning or special markets, and varieties adapted to special conditions such as fen soils.
CauliflowerEarly, winter-hardy varieties are sought.
OnionProduction of English types for spring sowing and Spanish types adapted to England
ParsnipProduction of half-long, smooth, white varieties for commercial use
PeaProduction of new sorts for canning, hardy types for fall planting, and multipodded types
Improved varieties produced have been privately distributed to supporters of the work (subscribers) and are not on the market.
The Experimental and Research Station, Cheshunt; W. F. Bewley, director----------This station deals only with greenhouse crops.
CucumberBreeding for a short-necked disease-resistant variety
LettuceBreeding for short-day types for winter culture.
TomatoBreeding for high yield, quality, and resistance to Cladosporium fulvum.
Productions are distributed first to subscribers who support the research, later to general public.
Tomato E. S. 1 and Cheshunt Early Giant lettuce are in general cultivation.
The Sealy-Hayne Agricultural College, Newton Abbot, Devon; F.R. Horne, professor of botanyWinter cauliflower or broccoliIntervarietal and intertype hybridization to obtain succession of maturity, sorts both earlier and later than those available. Roscoff, Cornish, Angers, and Italian strains being used in breeding, although only first 2 are at present adapted to the environment. Some promising hybrid progenies.
Scotland, The Scottish Society for Research in Plant Breeding, Carstophine, Edinburgh; William Robb, director----------Breeding and improvement work in progress upon swedes or rutabagas
Versuchs- und Forschungsanstalt für Wein-, Obst- und Gartenbau, Geisenheim; Professor Dr. Rudolff, director
TomatoBreeding and improvement work in progress.
Institut für Pflanzenbau und Pflanzensuchtung der- Universität, Halle; Professor Dr. Roemer, directorBrassica sppIntertype and interspecific crosses studied with reference to fertility relationships and inheritance of specific characters with a view to possible value in future breeding work.
Beans, snapBreeding for resistance to Colletotrichum in beans for canning
PeasBreeding work in progress for increased yield and earliness of sweet varieties
Kaiser Wilhelm Institut für Zuchtungsforschung, Muncheberg; Professor Dr. Rudorf, directorRhubarbBreeding work in progress for improved red color of petrioles, lower acid content, more upright growth, earliness, and disease resistance
TomatoWork in charge of Dr. Sengbusch [sic]. Intervarietal and interspecies crosses and selection (Lycopersicon esculentum and L. pimpinellifolium) to obtain improved earliness, freedom from fruit cracking and leaf rolling, superior eating and keeping qualities, resistance to cold and Cladosporium.  Promising hybrids have been obtained and are being studied further.
Gartnerlehranstatt der Landesbauerushaft Kurmark, Oranienburg-Luisenbof; Dr. Bonhert, agricultural adviserKohlrabiBreeding for late frost resistance, high quality, small leaves, earliness, is being started
TomatoPromising results are being obtained in breeding for increased earliness, resistance to fruit cracking, and Phytophthora
Staatliche Versuchs- und Forschungsanstalt für Gartenbau, Pillnitz; Professor Schindler, directorAsparagusCrossing of selected parent plants followed by selection for earlier, stronger-growing, rust-resistant, tender varieties of good flavor
CarawaySelection for improved seed setting, uniformity, earliness, bright seed color, high oil content
DillSelection for higher quality, improved seed setting, uniformity of ripening
MustardSelection for large seed, high oil content, earliness, and uniformity of ripening
Staatliche Lehr- und Forschungsanstalt für Gartenbau, Weihenstephan; Professor Bickel, directorBrussels sproutsImprovement in winter hardiness, earliness, and uniformity of growth and bud formation
CabbageImprovement in growth and head formation, storage qualities, solidity, and head leaf color
KohlrabiBreeding whiter forcing varieties with more tender flesh, improved form, upright uniform leaves, earliness, resistance to cold
LettuceBreeding for two different types: (1) Very quick-growing sort for forcing in hotbeds; and (2) a larger, slower-growing sort for coldframes and open ground
Tomato (forcing)Breeding for rounder, brighter colored fruit, higher yield, and resistance to Cladosporium. Resistance of practical value has been obtained, but improvement of fruit characters of such sorts must be continued.
Japan, Imperial Horticultural Experiment Station, Okitsu; T. Tanikawa, acting directorAsparagusTesting and selection of promising varieties and strains. Data for 1927 to 1936
Brassica sp.Fundamental research in genetics with special reference to sterilities, compatibilities, effectsof inbreeding and studies of hybrid vigor (1924-32)
EggplantHybridization and selection for resistance to “blue rot”, improved yield, uniformity, and quality.  Several promising strains obtained (1925 to date).
PeaNew work started in breeding canning varieties adapted to Japan, by hybridization and selection.  Also fundamental research in genetics (1935).
TomatoNew work started for production of new varieties for Japan, for market purposes
Mexico, Instituto Biotecnico. Work at numerous locations. Reported by G. GandaraBeanObtained a thick-rooted hybrid variety, Campotillo, from Spanish variety of Phaseolus vulgaris crossed with Mexican variety of P. coccineus.
Cucurbita spAcclimatization studies of different varieties
TomatoStudies of factors responsible for association of red and yellow color with certain quality characteristics as sweetness or acidity
Other vegetablesAcclimatization and disease resistance studies being made on numerous local and introduced varieties of broadbean, chickpea, peanut, muskmelon, and watermelon
Norway, Government Experiment Station in Vegetable Culture, Kvrthamar, St. Jordal; A.H. Bremer, director. (This station succeeded the former institution known as The Garden Cultivation Friends Experiment Station in 1919.)Bean, polePure-line selection for early, productive green and wax pole types that can be profitably grown in Norway.  Erstling only successful variety at present, yields 30 percent more than any dwarf type tested. Expect to release 1 or more new varieties in 1937.
CucumberHybridization and selection for very early varieties of acceptable form and quality adapted to Norway. Commonly grown early variety, Muromsk, has low quality and good yield. Is being crossed with high-quality Russiskdrue and Reinische Vargebirge.
LettuceHybridization of varieties of differing responses to day length to obtain varieties adapted to short, long, and rapidly changing day lengths
MuskmelonCannot be grown in the open. Hybridization and selection for varieties adapted to forcing under Norwegian conditions
PeaPure-line selection started by K. Weydahl in 1915 led to introduction of stocks of 6 well-adapted strains in 1922, namely, Engelsk Sabel, Witham Wonder, Ne Plus Ultra Marrow, Saxa, Burton Snabel, and Early June.
Hybridization and selection for better adapted types, accompanied by genetic studies; linkage shown between tall plant and parchment in pod with 4 to 5 percent crossing over. Two dwarf large-pod, parchment-free sorts introduced in 1929—Karl Weydahl and Bremers Marrow Sugar.
Bremers Early Sugar selected from Sabel X Saxa released in 1931. Numerous hybrids at hand and genetic studies in progress.
(Historical notes on Norwegian vegetable varieties based on information furnished by Prof. Olav. Moen, of the Agricultural High School, Aas.)----------Norwegian varietal improvement offers particular difficulties because of the far northern location and the sharp climatic contrasts existing within short distances, as coast and valley versus mountains; and windward versus leeward sides of the mountains.
BeanSkard selected an earlier bean than Erstling from Reistad. Grau obtained Olsak by varietal hybridization, also wax beans named Oslo Taro and Smarbukk. Bergsgubber is a Norwegian selection from Nordstjernen.
CabbageNorwegian stocks of Amager are distinct and the results of numerous growers’ selections for adaptation to specific conditions. Various strains as Berby, Amot, Fales Blatopp, Sandveds, Toten, and others. Moens Kvitkal result of many years’ selection. Rossebo, Jatun, Stavanger Torv, and Jatunsalgets Vinterkal are results of varietal crossing.
PeaChr. Olsen started wrinkled-pea improvement by selection in 1830, and many of present best varieties believed result of his work, as Grimstead Gartneris, Handes, and Bakkes.
TomatoLund has developed an outdoor strain of Danish Export and of Hannestad, and a forcing strain of Kondine for Norway conditions
Agricultural Experiment Station, Alnarp; Carl G. Dahl
BeanHybridization and selection for improved yield earliness, quality, and adaptabity to Sweden; strains 3 to 5 days earlier than any known sort obtained. also high-yielding wax sorts. All require further selection before introduction.
Brussels sproutsHybridization and selection for high yield and cold resistance; work in progress
CabbageCommon X savoy cabbage crosses made for milder flavor, good storage quality, and high yield.  Alnarp cabbage No. 1 and Alnarp cabbage No. 2 released to the trade
PeaHybridization and selection for high-quality, high-yielding. large-podded, sweet, wilt-resistant peas for home, market, and canning. Many promising lines obtained. Alnarp Sten’s No. 1 and Alnarp Sten’s No. 2, released to the trade in 1927, They are high yielding and wilt resistant.  Alnarp Sabel is a selection from Sabel. Numerous strains will soon be ready for release.
Horticultural Institute of W. Weibull & Co Weibullsholms, Landskrona; H. Lamprecht, head of technical staff----------Selection and hybridization to obtain high-quality, early, productive varieties adapted to Swedish conditions of culture and use.
Bean, snapStella, selected from strain grown on an old farm in Sweden, introduced to the trade about 1925.  Early, thin hull, high yield. Alabaster II obtained through pedigree selection from Swedish variety Upplands; resistant to pod spot.  Express, a wax variety introduced in 1932, was obtained by crossing German variety Daddel with an unknown. Very early and high yielding.
CarrotRegulas, a superior storage carrot, of qualities otherwise similar to Chantenay
CauliflowerGiant Swedish No. 147. Obtained from cross of Giant Danish and an unnamed variety. Somewhat drought-resistant.
CucumberPerseus, developed from Rockford.  Earlier and more productive
PeaNanna, a sugar type, obtained from cross of Furst Bismarck X a red-flowering sort similar to Gray Giant. High yield, quality, and good adaptability. Extra Rapid, selected from Rapid, which is uneven in earliness. Said to be earliest pea grown. Released in 1927. Sylva, a marrow pea, was selected from Fairbeards Nonpareil, beginning in 1918. Released in 1925. Luna, an edible podded sort, from cross of Roi des Gourmands and Witham Wonder.
SpinachValkyria II was selected from Valkyria and introduced in 1925. The plants are monoecious, high-yielding, resistant to Peronospora. Color somewhat light. Herta is dark green, dominantly but not completely monoecious, quick growing.  Derived from cross of Valkyria and Victoria
L. Daehnfeldts and G. Hylten-Cavallius, seedsmen, Halsingborg; Ernst Nilsson, in charge----------Varietal crossing and selection to develop yielding, high-quality strains and adapted to conditions in Sweden. Varieties introduced to the trade as indicated.
Bean, fieldRisbrinken, selected from unnamed variety.  Early and resistant to pod spot. Dwarf Brown, introduced in 1933, from cross between Nordstern and a brown variety in 1919. Said to be very hardy and adapted to northern Sweden.
Bean, waxA pedigree selection of Beurré Nain Sans Rivale adapted to Swedish conditions
PeaSugar types as follows: Norrlands, from Pilot X Bismarck; Early Giant, from Sabel X sane Elitsabel, from Sabel X King; Giant Sabel, selected from English Sabel; Giant Sabel Elit, from Stens X English Sabel; Kings, a selected strain of Roi des Gourmands; Improved King, from Giant Sabel X King. Numerous strains of marrow and sugar peas are in process of development, principally by varietal crossing and Selection.
Union of South Africa, Division of Plant Industry, Nelspruit, East TransvaalBeanBreeding for resistance to blight and bacterial wilt
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsTomatoBreeding for resistance to wilt
----------Unfortunately, up-to-date information from plant breeders in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics could not be obtained in time for including in this report, but it should be pointed out that they are among the most active workers in the field today. Special emphasis has been placed on thorough exploration of all promising parts of the world for obtaining varieties and breeding material of value. Very extensive programs are in progress at numerous locations for studying introduced materials in detail and for large-scale hybridization and selection work. Large resources and great energy are being devoted to this work. There is no doubt that results of considerable practical and scientific importance are being obtained.