State of New York Department of Farms and Markets

Thirty-third Annual Report Part II

THE

SMALL FRUITS OF NEW YORK

BY U. P. HEDRICK

ASSISTED BY

G. H. HOWE
O. M. TAYLOR
ALWIN BERGER
G. L. SLATE
OLAV EINSET

Report of the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station for the Year Ending June 30, 1925

II

ALBANY

J. B. LYON COMPANY, PRINTERS 1925

NEW YORK STATE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION,

Geneva, N. Y., September 18, 1925. To the Board of Trustees of Cornell University:

Gentlemen : I have the honor to transmit herewith the manuscript and illustrations for the seventh of the series of monographs on fruits which is being published by this Station, to be entitled The Small Fruits of New York. I recommend that, as authorized by Chapter 598, Laws of 1923, this be submitted for publication as Part II of the Forty-fourth Annual Report of this Station.

The world-wide appreciation and utilization of the six preceding books of this series, which deal with apples, plums, peaches, cherries, grapes, and pears, gives assurance that this new treatise dealing similarly with small fruits, will be universally enthusiastically accepted and used. As in the case of the preceding volumes, the material presented herein is the result of several years of careful trials of all available small fruit materials on the Station grounds, followed by exhaustive and painstaking laboratory and library work, by Dr. Hedrick and his associates, to insure that the treatise shall be both comprehensive and accurate in detail.

The Small Fruits of New York certainly will find a most useful place in horticultural literature. In addition, it undoubtedly will be a source of inspiration and helpful information to the growers of small fruits the world over.

These various works constitute a monumental contribution of this Station to the science and practice of fruit-growing throughout the entire world. In addition, the information and the actual orchard stock which has been accumulated during these studies afford an exceptional opportunity for the breeding of new and improved varieties, which is the major activity of the Division of Horticulture of this Station.

This book concludes the series of monographs on fruits. The Legislature of 1925 authorized the preparation of a similar series of reports on The Vegetables of New York, work upon which is already actively in progress. Furthermore, it is hoped that in the not far distant future, a revision of The Apples of New York, to be uniform in size and typography with the other fruit books may be prepared.

R. W. THATCHER,

Director

PREFACE

The Small Fruits of New York is the seventh of the monographs on -fruits published by the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station. The object and scope of this treatise on small fruits do not differ from those of its six predecessors on tree fruits. The treatment of the subject is necessarily different, however, for it has required a volume each to give an account of the tree fruits, whereas one volume suffices for the six quite distinct small fruits. The most noticeable difference in treatment is that cultural accounts are not given of any of these small fruits, whereas the present culture of each of the tree fruits was discussed in the several books devoted to them. To give space to tell how each of the small fruits are grown would have made the volume too large, valuable though such matter might be both from practical and historical viewpoints.

The botanical treatment of the small fruits is fuller than was possible -with the tree fruits. The authors of the books on tree fruits were all primarily pomologists with little training in systematic botany. The botany of the several fruits as given in the earlier books, especially of the grape and the plum, presented problems that were not satisfactorily solved. The botany of the small fruits is difficult at best, and none of the workers in pomology at this Station are fitted to make contributions worth publishing. The services of a specialist in systematic botany were therefore sought, and the Station was fortunate in obtaining Alwin Berger, a German student of Rubus, to undertake the difficult task of straightening out the botany of cultivated strawberries, bramble, and bush fruits. Even so, only a preliminary report on Rubus is published, since neither time nor material sufficed to complete the study of this most difficult genus. .

The fruits to be discussed are the raspberry, blackberry, dewberry, currant, gooseberry, and strawberry. The cranberry is important enough for a place in the book, but this fruit cannot be grown on the grounds of this Station, or in the near neighborhood, so that there is small opportunity for its study. Nor, for the same reason, can there be a discussion of the blueberry, which is now coming into culture with promise of commercial importance in the near future. It is regretable that these fruits cannot be included at a time when the culture of the one is but well started and that of the other just beginning.

As with the tree fruits, the aim is to make The Small Fruits of New York a complete record of the development of each fruit, not only as cultivated in New York and the United States, but to some extent in foreign countries as well. As complete a history as possible, both from the botanical and cultural viewpoints, is necessary to show clearly the present and the future of these fruits for the cultivator and the consumer. However, much less need be said about foreign varieties of these small fruits than was written about exotic tree fruits, since only varieties of the several fruits which have originated on the continent, with a few exceptions in currants and gooseberries, have much value in America.

The considerations which have governed the selection of varieties for full description and illustration in this book are somewhat different from those which prevailed in the preparation of the books on tree fruits. Small fruits are newer to cultivation than tree fruits, evolution with them is now in full swing, and varieties are much shorter lived. Therefore it has seemed necessary to give greater prominence to types which show the trend of evolution, some of which may have little value for culture at the present time. Besides these types, varieties valuable for home or market, new varieties of note, and all of the small fruits which have proved their worth in breeding, are given prominence in illustration and description.

As in the preceding fruit books, the references given for species and varieties are those that have been used in ascertaining the history and economic status, or in verifying the description, of the different groups. The synonyms created by pomologists whose works have been consulted are given, but in no case are synonyms given when quoted by one pomologist or botanist from another. It is one of the chief aims of The Small Fruits of New York to make certain the correct names of the species and varieties described, often, however, a difficult and uncertain task.

The biographical sketches of men who have been most prominent in breeding, introducing, establishing methods of culture, and describing and classifying small fruits are to be found in footnotes. A knowledge of the lives and work of these men helps materially in following the evolution of the several fruits and of the small fruit industries in the New World.

U. P. HEDRICK, Horticulturist, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface.............................................. v

Index to Illustrations............................... ix

PART I. THE BRAMBLE FRUITS

I. The Evolution of Cultivated Raspberries............ 1

II. The Systematic Botany of Edible Brambles.......... 23

III. Varieties of Red and Hybrid Raspberries............ 86

IV. Varieties of Black Raspberries...................... 153

V. The Evolution of Cultivated Blackberries and Dewberries...............180

VI. Varieties of Blackberries............................ 204

VII. Varieties of Dewberries ............................. 233

PART II.THE BUSH FRUITS

VIII. The Evolution of Cultivated Currants.............. 243

IX. The Systematic Botany of Currants and Gooseberries. 254

X. Varieties of Red and White Currants............... 281

XI. Varieties of Black Currants......................... 302

XII. The Evolution of Cultivated Gooseberries. . . ....... 311

XIII. Varieties of Gooseberries............................. 323

PART III.STRAWBERRIES

XIV. The Evolution of Cultivated Strawberries.......... 355

XV. The Systematic Botany of the Strawberry........... 371

XVI. Varieties of Strawberries............................ 384

Bibliography, References, and Abbreviations......... 560

Index................................................ 569

Table of Illustrations

INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS

Portrait of Charles M. Hovey.......................Frontispiece

FACING PAGE

Strawberry Blossoms....................................... 372

VARIETIES

Red and Hybrid Raspberries

Cayuga..................................................... 94

Columbian.................................................. 96

Cuthbert................................................... 98

Golden Queen.............................................. 108

Herbert.................................................... no

June........................................................ 114

King...........................'...-.'.......................... 116

Latham...................................[-................... 118

Marlboro................................................... 120

Newman.................................................... 126

Ontario..................................................... 128

Owasco . . et.................................................... 128

Ranere . .................................................... 134

Royal Purple............................................... 138

Seneca..................................................r.... 140

Shaffer..................................................... 142

Black Raspberries

Black Pearl.................................. . . ............ 154

Cumberland................................................. 158

Gregg...................................................... 162

Honeysweet................................................. 164

Kansas..................................................... 166

Ohio........................................................ 172

Plum Farmer............................................... 174

Blackberries

Agawam..................................................... 204

Ancient Briton............................................. 206

Eldorado................................................... 212

Erie........................................................ 214

KITTATINNY.................................................. 2l8

Mersereau.................................................. 222

Rathbun.................................................... 224

Snyder...................................................... 226

Dewberries

Loganberry................................................. 236

Lucretia.................................................... 236

Mayes...................................................... 238

Oregon Evergreen.......................................... 240

Currants

Boskoop Giant.............................................. 304

Chautauqua................................................. 282

Cherry..................................................... 284

Diploma.................................................... 284

Fay.......................................................... 286

Perfection.................................................. 292

Prince Albert.............................................. 292

Red Dutch................................................. 294

Versailles.................................................. 296

Victoria.................................................... 296

White Dutch............................................... 298

White Grape............................................... 298

White Imperial............................................. 300

Wilder..................................................... 300

Gooseberries

Carrie...................................................... 324

Chautauqua................................................. 326

Downing.................................................... 328

Hoenings Earliest.......................................... 332

Houghton................................................... 334

Industry.................................................... 334

Keepsake ...............................................----- 336

May Duke.................................................. 340

Poorman.................................................... 344

Portage..................................................... 344

Red Warrington............................................ 346

Wellington Glory.......................................... 352

White Eagle................................................ 352

Whitesmith................................................. 354

Strawberries

Aroma...................................................... 392

Beacon..................................................... 396

Beder Wood................................................ 398

Belt........................................................ 400

Bliss....................................................... 404

Boquet..................................................... 406

Brandywine................................................. 406

Bubach........................................... .s......... 408

Chesapeake................................................. 414

Dunlap..................................................... 432

Excelsior.................................................... 440

Gandy...................................................... 446

Glen Mary................................................. 448

Haverland.................................................. 456

Howard..................................................... 462

Jessie....................................................... 468

Joe......................................................... 470

Klondike................................................... 474

Late Stevens................................................ 478

Marshall.................................................... 488

Michel..................................................... 494

Ozark....................................................... 510

Parker Earle................................................ 512

Pocomoke................................................... 520

Progressive................................................. 524

Prolific.................................................... 524

Sample...................................................... 534

Superb...................................................... 542

Warfield................................................... 552

Wilson..................................................... 556

[Acknowlegement: Text was downloaded from Cornell University's "Core Historical Literature of Agriculture": Albert R. Mann Library. . Core Historical Literature of Agriculture (CHLA). Ithaca, NY: Albert R. Mann Library, Cornell University. http://chla.library.cornell.edu (Version January 2005). Text was then hand-curated by myself and hyperlinks were added to integrated the information with the rest of the Fruits of New York series and with modern references and other new information. -ASC Comments, corrections, etc. can be directed to: tastylocalapples at (random stuff@robots.takethisout.com) earthlink.net]