CHAPTER IX

THE SYSTEMATIC BOTANY OF CURRANTS AND GOOSEBERRIES

Several species each of Ribes and Grossularia are commonly cultivated in cool temperate and even sub-arctic climates under the names currants and gooseberries. The two genera are put by many botanists in a subtribe of the family Saxifragaceae, while others find them sufficiently different from other saxifrage-like plants to put them in a distinct family, Grossulariaceae, a procedure followed in this text. While species of the two genera are very different in aspect of plant, and in appearance and flavor of fruit, yet their close relationship is shown by similarities in botanical characters and by the hybridization of species in the two genera and the possibility of intergrafting. The two genera possess the following characters in common:

They are shrubs of various habit, usually flowering from the old wood and sending up every year a number of young cions to replace the older decaying stems. On young branches the bark usually peels, and some species bear bristles along the internodes or spines at the nodes or below the insertion of the leaves. The leaves are alternate or spirally arranged on the longer branches, or clustered on the short lateral branchlets; they are stalked, without stipules, simple and more or less lobed and toothed.

The flowers are produced in racemes from the end of short lateral branchlets, usually at the time of the leaves unfolding in spring. Sometimes the racemes are short and even reduced to one flower (Grossularia). In Ribes the flowers are more numerous, from 6-20 or more in a raceme. Each pedicel is subtended by a small bract, and often two much smaller bractlets are seen below the ovary.

The ovary is inferior, 1-celled, with two parietal placentas and with several or numerous ovules. The calyx-tube or receptacle varies from flat to cup-shaped, urn-shaped to tubular, it has 5, rarely 4, segments or sepals and as many petals inserted alternately at the top of the receptacle. The stamens, equal in number, are inserted opposite the sepals. The style is more or less deeply cleft, often halfway down, into 2, rarely 3, lobes or branches.

The fruits are 1-celled pulpy berries, with several or many horizontal angular seeds; embryo minute, terete, embedded in the fleshy endosperm.

While many botanists unite the two genera under one as Ribes, others have preferred to keep them separate and have restored the genus Grossularia of Philipp Miller for the gooseberries. The two are easily distinguished:

A. Flowers in racemes or in clusters; racemes several- to many-flowered; pedicels jointed below the ovary. Fruit disarticulating from the pedicel........Ribes (Page 255).

A A. Flowers in few-flowered racemes; pedicels not jointed. Fruit not disarticulating from the pedicel. Branches usually with spines at the nodes... .Grossularia (Page 271).

RIBES. Linnaeus Sp. PI 201. 1753.

Ribesium. Medic. Phil Bot. 120. 1789.

Currants. Usually unarmed shrubs, but occasionally (sect. Grossularioides and Berisia) with stipular spines and bristles. et Leaves palmately veined and more or less deeply lobed and serrate. Flowers in racemes, rarely clustered, hermaphrodite or unisexual and then dioecious; pedicels jointed below the ovary, often with 2 minute bractlets. Ovary glandular or smooth, never spiny; receptacle from shallowly saucer-shaped or rotate to tubular; the top disc-like, often thickened or with knobs or rings. Fruit disarticulating from the pedicel, red, white, yellow or black, often with a bloom, glabrous, glandular, or glandular-hairy.

Key to the Subgenera

A. Flowers hermaphrodite (with perfect stamens and perfect ovary) B. Branches unarmed

C. Ovary smooth, receptacle rotate or shallowly cup-shaped, rarely campanulate, never with stalked glands D. Plants glandless or glands crystalline, only on young growth; fruits usually red (whitish) or dark purple, more or less sweet or acidulous.............

Red Currants: I. Ribesia (Page 256)

DD. Plants with sessile yellow glands, chiefly on the underside of the leaves, and of a peculiar, mostly disagreeable smell; fruits black or brownish, of a peculiar or disagreeable flavour........Black Currants: II. Eucoreosma (Page 266)

CC. Ovary smooth or pubescent, or with stalked glands; receptacles from rotate, campanulate or urceolate to cylindrical D. Receptacle tubular, like the sepals bright yellow. Ovary glabrous. Berries glabrous yellow or black. Plants with crystalline glands only...........

Golden Currants: III. Symphocalyx (Page 269) DD. Receptacles variously shaped and colored

E. Receptacles variously shaped but not rotate, more or less glandular. Ovaries smooth, pubescent or with stalked glands. Berries red or black, often with a bloom, glabrous or pubescent or glandular.....................

Ornamental Currants: IV. Calobotrya1 EE. Receptacle rotate. Plants only with crystalline not viscid glands. Ovaries and berries with gland-bearing bristles.............................

Dwarf Currants: V. Rentier a

BB. Branches with bristles and nodal spines; flowers rotate in drooping racemes, glandular..................Gooseberry-stemmed Currants: VI. Grossularioides

AA, Flowers unisexual and each sex on a different plant (dioecious)

B. Racemes erect..................................Alpine Currants : VII. Berisia

BB. Racemes pendulous............................Andine Currants: VIII. Parilla

About 125 species of currants are known. Most of them are natives of the temperate and cooler regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Northern Asia and Europe possess a large number of them, but by far the greatest number inhabit America. The mountains of the Pacific Coast from Alaska to Patagonia are especially rich in species. Most of these western and southern American Ribes are ornamental, sometimes evergreen and delicate shrubs. None have so far proved to possess any value from the pomological point of view, nevertheless some might be profitably used in hybridizing. With a few exceptions, the currants cultivated for their fruits are natives of the Old World, particularly of Europe, from the Pyrenees to Scandinavia. No species enters the tropics in the Old World on account of the mountain chains stretching from east to west and causing sharp climatic separations.

Subgenus I. Ribesia Berlandier. Janczewski Monogr. in MSm. Soc. Phys. et d'Hist. Nat. de Genfoe 35:Pt. 3, 235. 1902.

Red Currants. Unarmed shrubs, young shoots with thin papery outer bark soon peeling off. Buds middle sized, scales leathery.

Leaves plicate in bud, more or less maple-shaped, 3- to 5- to 7-lobed, with as many palmately branched veins, lobes mostly pointed; the base cordate or truncate; more or less pubescent, at least when young or entirely glabrous; glands, when present on the young growth, small, crystalline, not viscid, inodorous.

Inflorescence racemose; rhachis slender, pedicels from the axils of small bracts, articulated below the flower; bracteoles small or wanting.

Flowers with a rotate, pelviform (shallowly cup-shaped), turbinate or campanulate receptacle, modestly colored, mostly greenish, yellow to reddish or dark. The bottom of the receptacle concave or flat or with a disc-like, peculiar, somewhat pentangular rim or with 5 roundish humps below the petals. Calyx-lobes or sepals roundish, often broader than long, patent or recurved. Petals small cuneiform or flabelliform, usually a little brighter colored. Stamens inserted opposite the sepals, filaments short, anthers sometimes with an exceptionally broad connective. Style more or less deeply bifid. Ovary inferior or semi-inferior, roundish or turbinate, smooth.

Fruits mostly globular or oblong-roundish, mostly red, sometimes uncolored or white, or dark purple, crowned by the remains of the withered flower; mostly acidulous or insipid; seeds ovoid, numerous.

This subgenus comprises 15 more or less closely rel'ated species, natives of the Northern Hemisphere, out of which the following constitute our cultivated red currants.

Key to Cultivated Species and Hybrids of Red Currants

A. Flowers flat, rotate, or saucer-shaped with a more or less distinctly raised ring in the bottom of the flower

B. Ring very distinct, often of a dark color; anthers with a very broad connective. Leaves heart-shaped at the base; remains of the withered flower on the berries pentagonal at the base C. Leaves 3- to 5-lobed, lobes spreading, mostly slightly pubescent, at length

glabrous beneath..............................................R. sativum

CC. Leaves 3- to 5-lobed, the middle lobe the largest, of very firm texture and of a dark, almost bluish green, nearly smooth and glossy beneath; with big coarse teeth and coarse venation; berries very large........R. sativum macrocarpum

BB. Ring present, but rather low and less distinct and the flowers not quite as flat. Bases of leaves varying from truncate to almost heart-shaped; remains of the withered flowers at the bases more or less roundish

C. Sepals not ciliate. Racemes drooping. Young shoots slightly pubescent; leaves mostly with truncate base, pubescent beneath. Anthers variable, but mostly with a broadened connective............................................

R. houghtonianum (R. rubrum x sativum). (See also R. warscewiczii) CC. Sepals ciliate. Racemes spreading horizontally. Young shoots glabrous.

Anthers roundish ovoid, white...........R. gonduini (R. petraeum x sativum)

AA. Flowers pelviform or shallowly cup-shaped or bell-shaped

B. Sepals not or only very faintly ciliate; flowers pelviform or shallowly cup-shaped C. Flowers without any ring, somewhat conically raised at the bottom of the style (best seen in a longitudinal section). Racemes spreading, more or less glandular. Leaves with a truncate or subcordate base, pubescent beneath. Withered remains of the flower on the berries with a roundish base...........R. rubrum

CC. Flowers with a flat bottom, on which a very faint ring is traceable on a longitudinal section; flowers, anthers, and berries larger than in R. rubrum. Racemes drooping. Leaves heart-shaped. Berries very acid...........R. warscewiczii

BB. Sepals ciliate; flowers decidedly bell-shaped, not shallowly cup-shaped

C. Flowers rather large, with a semi-inferior receptacle, the upper part prolonged and forming a stout conical base of the style; petals inserted on a thickened base.......................................................R. petraeum

CC. Flowers with a distinctly inferior ovary, petals also inserted on a thickened base D. Flowers with a faint ring at the bottom. Leaves rather large, truncate or cordate, 3- to 5-lobed. Vegetation early...............................

R. gonduini {R. petraeum x sativum) DD. Flowers without any trace of a ring

E. Stamens longer with curved filaments as long as the petals. Leaves large, 3- to 5-lobed, subpubescent, base truncate or subcordate..............

R. pallidum (R. petraeum x rubrum) EE. Stamens straight, shorter than the petals. Leaves medium in size, strongly pubescent beneath, petiole short, tomentose..........................

R. holosericeum (R. petraeum caucasicum x rubrum)

Ribes sativum Rchbch. Syme Engl. Bot. 3d Ed. 4:42. t. 520. 1865; Berger N. Y. Sta. Tech. Bui. 109:7. 1925.

R. rubrum var. sativum. Rchbch. Fl. Germ. Excurs. 562. 1830-32. 17

R. vulgare. Schneider///. Hdb. Laubh. 1:401. 1905; Janczewski Monogr. 276. 1907;

Coville et Britton N. Am. Fl. 22:198. 1908; Rehder in Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort.

5:2960. 1916; not Lamarck.

R. rubrutn auct. Loudon Arb. 2:977. 1844; not Linnaeus. R. domesticum. Janczewski Plurality des especes de grosseilliers in Comptes rendus

26:588. 1900. R. silvestre, R. hortense Hedlund, Om R. rubrum. Botaniska Notiser 92. 1901.

Red Currant. Erect shrub, 1-1.5 m high; growing shoots, leaves, and petioles pubescent and with hyaline globular glands, young branches with thin yellowish bark. Leaves cordate at the base, 3- to 5-lobed, more or less 5-angular, lateral lobes spreading, smaller than the middle one, crenate-serrate, the roundish teeth with a short pale point; smooth or with a few scattered hairs above, paler beneath and from scattered short hairs slightly pubescent, glabrous when old, about 7 cm long and 8 cm wide. Petioles 4-5 cm long, channeled above, widened and ciliate at the base, slightly pubescent. Racemes more or less drooping, about 5 cm long, rather lax, with 10-20 flowers; rhachis almost smooth; bracts small, ovoid, somewhat recurved; pedicels slender, 3-5 mm long, mostly smooth. Flowers rotate, greenish yellow. Receptacle saucer-shaped, with a flat bottom and a prominent elevated, roundish pentangular rim, the elevated angles of which are opposite the petals, this rim often reddish or brownish. Sepals spreading, broader than long, but the claw-like base lengthening after unfolding, patent, with the top revolute. Petals very small, cuneate, yellowish or reddish. Stamens erect, short, anthers with a broad connective, separating the anther-cells. Ovary roundish turpiniform (top-shaped), smooth. Style short, as long as the stamens, bifid halfway down. Fruits globular, crowned with the pentagonal remains of the flower, shining and transparent, usually red, acidulous, 6-10 mm across.

Western Europe; France, Belgium, Great Britain, western Germany, southern Sweden and northwestern Italy. In North America escaped from cultivation and subspontaneous from Massachusetts to Ontario and Wisconsin, south to Virginia, and in Oregon and British Columbia, and in Alaska. Chautauqua, Diploma, Versailles, and Wilder are typical cultivated varieties of this species.

R. sativum Syme var. macrocarpum. Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:134. 1923; Berger N. Y. Sta. Tech. Bui. 109:8. 1925.

R. vulgare var. macrocarpum. Janczewski Monogr. 279, figs. 22 et 23. 1907; Schneider III. Hdb. Laubh. 1:401. 1905; Rehder in Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort 5:2960. 1916.

R. acerijolium Hort.

Robust shrub of irregular growth. Leaves larger, deeply cordate at the base and with larger, roundish teeth, firmer, 3- to 5-lobed, lobes somewhat pointed, the middle lobe much the larger, of a dark, almost bluish green above, paler almost glossy and scarcely pubescent beneath. Racemes drooping; flowers larger, often finely dotted with red, with a prominent ring.

Origin unknown; perhaps a mutation. Said to have been introduced into France from Italy by Adrien S6neclause, de Bourg-Argental, in the early half of the last century. But, perhaps it is much older than that, and possibly the " Great Red Currant," which John Tradescant, Senior, introduced from Holland to England in 1611, as mentioned in the second edition of Gerarde's Herbal, 1633, is the same thing, since the common R. sativum is a native of England. Cherry and Fay are the best known varieties of this group.

There is confusion about the wild species of red currants. Linnaeus created his name R. rubruni for a plant occurring in northern Scandinavia, With this the wild currant of western Europe was confounded by botanists during the last century. In 1789 Lamarck created a new name, R. vulgaref for R. rubruni, of which he distinguished two forms: R. vulgare var. sylvestre and var. hortense. The elder Reichenbach in his Flora Germanica Excur-soria, 1830-1832, first clearly distinguished the two plants, but still as varieties of R. rubrum, i.e., R. rubrum silvestre and R. rubrum sativum. T. B* Syme in English Botany, third edition, 1865, raised Reichenbach's variety sativum to specific rank, and this is the name now commonly accepted. Lamarck's name, R. vulgar e, must be rejected as a synonym of R. sativum.

R. sativum is always readily distinguished from R. rubrum by its leaves and flowers. The leaves are always more or less and often deeply cordate, the basal lobes often touching each other. In outline they are 3- to 5-lobed, often pentangular. The lateral lobes are widely spreading, thus the sinuses between the terminal and the lateral lobes are usually obtuse. The flowers are very flat, the ring always prominent.

R. sativum macrocarpum has larger leaves, usually more decidedly 3-lobed, the lobes more pointed, with larger, broader teeth and a deeper almost bluish color. Underneath they are often shining. Of course there are forms of which one is doubtful whether they belong to R. sativum or to R* macrocarpum.

The hybrids between R. sativum and R. rubrum and probably also between R. sativum macrocarpum and R. rubrum, have been named:

R. houghtonianum. Janczewski Bui. Ac. Sci. Nat. Crac. 296. 1901; Ibid. 23. 1904; Janczewski Monogr. 478. 1907. Schneider///. Hdb. Laubh. 1:402. 1905; Berger N. Y. Sta. Tech. Bui 109:15. 1925. R. acerifolium. Koch Dendrolog. 1:649. 1869.

To this hybrid belong a great many varieties of the cultivated red currants; the variety Houghton Castle was taken as type by Janczewski*

Red Dutch, White Dutch, and Perfection are typical of this group of hybrids. These hybrids resemble R. sativum rather than R. rubrum in habit; they are usually recognized by the shape of the leaves. The lateral lobes are not so spreading as in R. sativum, but point more forward. The sinuses between the terminal and the lateral lobes are therefore acute as a rule. The underside of the leaves is also more and often permanently pubescent. The teeth are large and round as in R. sativum. The racemes are spreading and gently recurved, puberulent. The flowers are almost the same as in R. sativum, but they are less flat and more shallowly cup-shaped and have a slightly raised ring. The anthers have a more or less widened connective. R. houghtonianum occurs also in a subspontaneous or spontaneous state.

Another hybrid with promising characters is:

R. futurum (R. sativum macrocarpum 9 x R. warscewiczii o71). Janczewski Bui. Ac. Sci. Nat. Crac. 292. 1904. Janczewski Monogr. 478. 1907; Schneider III. Hdb. Laubh. 1:401. 1905; Berger N. Y. Sta. Tech. Bui. 109:8. 1925. Robust shrub; leaves rather large, cordate at the base, subglabrous. Flowers much like in R. sativum macrocarpum, receptacle slightly and shallowly cup-shaped, often reddish brown with a faint ring. Fruits rather large, acidulous. Raised by Janczewski in 1903.

Ribes rubrum, Linnaeus Sp. PL 200. 1753; Schneider III. Hdb. Laubh. 1:403. 1905; Ibid. 2:943. 1912; Janczewski Monogr. 287. 1907; Rehder in Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:2960. 1916; Bean Trees et Shrubs 2:409. 1921; Berger N. Y. Sta. Tech. Bui. 109:14. 1925.

R. vulgare and R. vulgare sylvestre. Lamarck Encyc. Bot. 3:47. 1789. R. rubrum sylvestre. Rchbch. Fl. Germ. Exc. 562. 1830-32. R. sylvestre. Syme EngL Bot. 3d Ed. 4:43, PI. 522. 1865. R. Schlechtendahlii. Lange Ind. Sem. Hort. Haun. 31. 1870. R. Schlectendalii. Hort. Bean Trees et Shrubs 2:409. 1921, wrongly spelled. R. lithuanicum. Janczewski Compt. Rend. Paris 589. 1900. R. scandicum and R. pubescens. Hedl. Bot. Notiser 100. 1901.

Northern Red Currant. Erect shrub, 1-2 m high, young growth smooth or pubescent. Leaves broader than long, 3- to 5-lobed, the lobes ovoid-deltoid, rather short, the lateral ones pointing forward and hence the sides often almost parallel, the teeth rather small, the base truncate, reniform or sometimes cordate with scattered short hairs on the upper side, more or less pubescent beneath, 4-9 cm long and 5-11 cm wide. Petiole about 3-5 cm (8 cm, Janczewski) long, pubescent, more or less ciliate near the base.

Racemes 3-8 cm long, ascending or patent, not drooping, rather loose; rhachis and pedicels slightly pubescent or with minute crystalline glands; bracts small, ovate, obtuse or pointed, patent or recurving; pedicels up to 5 mm long, thin, occasionally with bracteoles below the ovary. Flowers shallowly cup-shaped or broadly funnel-shaped, pale green or brownish. Receptacle yellowish inside, without any rim or humps but the bottom raised conically below the style; sepals shortly spatulate, roundish, finely striped with red and occasionally finely ciliate; petals very small, subspatulate pale reddish; stamens scarcely longer; anthers roundish. Ovary conical, glabrous; style bicleft, slightly overtopping the stamens. Fruits roundish or flattened at the poles, red or colorless, with the remains of the flowers circular, acidulous.

Northern Europe to northern East Asia; as far west as England and south to Westphalia in western Germany.

This is the R. ruhrum of Linnaeus, " habitat in Sueciae borealibus;" it is quite different from the western European R. sativutn, which has been confounded with it. London Market and Victoria represent this group best. There are several varieties:

(1) var. scandicum Hedlund. Janczewski Monogr. 289. 1907.

R. ruhrum pseudopetraeum. Baenitz Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. No. 7. 1892.

More vigorous shrub. Leaves glabrous above and beneath, pubescent only along the veins; the teeth somewhat larger and broader. Racemes 3-6 cm long, 10- to 15-flowered. Flowers pale to brownish.

Northern Europe; said to be rather rare. We have specimens from Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.

(2) var. pubescens Swartz. Janczewski Monogr, 289. 1907.

Less vigorous, young shoots slightly pubescent. Leaves with truncate or cordate base; with scattered single hairs above, densely pubescent at the back, especially when young; petioles with several fringes at the base. Racemes usually shorter. Flowers flesh colored or brown.

Northwestern Europe; from Scotland to Scandinavia, the Baltic countries, and Finland. Later in growing and flowering. To this belong Syme's var. Bromfieldianum (1. c. 44) with drooping racemes; var. Smithianum (1. c. 44) with erect flowering racemes; and var. spicatum (1. c. 44) with racemes of flower and fruit erect and pedicels shorter than the fruit.

(3) var. glabellum. Trautvetter et Meyer in Midd. Sib. Reise 1:2. 1856. Glabrous shrub, young shoots reddish. Leaves mostly truncate at the base, glabrous

on both sides except along the nerves beneath; petioles longer than the leaves, slender, often reddish. Racemes usually erecto-patent, short; rhachis, bracts, and pedicels glabrous and often glandless. Flowers brownish, paler at last. Fruit larger.^

Northern Scandinavia to Siberia. Vegetation and flowers very early.

(4) var. hispidulum. Janczewski Monogr. 290. 1907.

R. rubrum var. asiaticum. Janczewski in Schneider III. Hdb. Laubh. 1:403. 1905.

Shrub 2 m high, young shoots with glandular hairs. Leaves rather large, often with a cordate base, more or less pubescent beneath. Petioles ciliate, pale or sometimes reddish. Racemes small, erect, 6- to 12-flowered, 1.5-3 cm long. Flowers densely set, small, pale. Fruits middle sized, acid.

Eastern Siberia.

(5) var. palzewskii. Janczewski Monogr. 290. 1907.

Robust shrub, 1.5 m; young shoots reddish, with scattered hairs. Leaves glabrous, longer than wide, 11 cm to 9 cm, 3-lobed, the lobes deltoid, pointed, the base truncate or wedge-shaped decurrent between the veins. Petiole about half as long as the blade (5 cm), glabrous, reddish. Raceme very short with a few pale flowers. Fruit ovoid or elliptic, acidulous.

Eastern Manchuria. Remarkable for its foliage.

R. rubrum Linn, is the northern red currant. It is easily distinguished from R. sativum by its leaves. The lateral lobes of these leaves always point forward, not spreading laterally, and the angles or sinuses between the terminal and the lateral lobes are consequently acute. The bases of the leaves vary considerably from heart-shaped or reniform to truncate or even rounded; the basal lobes, however, never touch or overlap as in R. sativum. Usually the leaf-blades are smaller than in R. sativum. The flowers are somewhat deeper and not as flat as in R. sativum and never have the thickened ring at the bottom which is so characteristic of R. sativum. Only a few commonly cultivated varieties are direct descendants of R. rubrum. According to Janczewski, however, there are varieties with red, rose-colored, and white berries, cultivated in northern Europe, especially in Lithuania, which have never found their way into the gardens of western Europe or into general cultivation.

Ribes warscewiczii. Janczewski in Vilmorin et Bois Frutic. Vilmorinianum 133. 1904; Janczewski Monogr. 284. 1907; Schneider III. Hdb. Laubh. 2:943. 1912; Render in Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:2964. 1916; Berger N. Y. Sta. Tech. Bui. 109:13. 1925. Erect shrub, 1-2 m high. Leaves rather large, roundish, with a cordate base, 3- to 5-lobed, lobes short, ovate, glabrous above, slightly pubescent beneath, especially along the veins, 9 cm long and 10 cm wide; petiole pubescent, ciliate near the base, about 6 cm long. Racemes drooping, about 5 cm long or more and with about 15 flowers; rhachis more or less pubescent, mottled with red; bracts small, ovoid; pedicels pubescent, 3 mm long; flower buds coppery red. Flowers smooth, changing from coppery red to pale flesh colored. Receptacle broadly funnel-shaped, widened above the ovary, inside flat, with a shallow rim best visible in longitudinal section; sepals roundish, broader than long but finally lengthening and spatulate; petals small, wedge-shaped, reddish; filaments as long as the petals, inserted on the edge of the receptacle, anthers large, roundish; style as high as the anthers, bifid. Fruits roundish, blackish purple, very acid, ripening in July.

Eastern Siberiaf Yakoutsk, Ochotsk, and the lower Amur.

Allied to R. rubrum, flowers of the same shape, but larger, more highly-colored, and racemes pendulous; fruits more acid. This is a very productive currant. See also its hybrid with R. sativum macrocarpum: R. futurum.

Ribes petraeum. Wulfen in Jacquin Misc. austr. 2:36. 1781; Loudon Arb. 2:979, fig. 727. 1844; Schneider III. Hdb. Laubh. 1:403. 1905; Ibid. 2:944. 1912;

Janczewski Monogr. 290. 1907 et Suppl. 719-22. 1913; Render in Bailey Stand.

Cyc. Hort. 5:2959. 1916; Bean Trees et Shrubs 2:409. 1921; Berger N. Y. Sta.

Tech. Bui. 109:16. 1925.

R. bullatum. Otto et Dietr. Allgem. Gartemtg. 10:267. 1842. R. petraeum var. bullatum. Janczewski Monogr. 293. 1907.

Rock Currant. Shrub 1-2 m high or more; growing shoots hirsute,generally glabrous later on, and grayish brown; older branches somewhat like those of the cherry, with distinct warts; buds conical, deep brown. Leaves roundish, 3- to 5- lobed, lobes more or less pointed, the middle one prominent, bullate between the veins, pubescent on both sides when young, smoother later on, dark green above, beneath more or less pubescent, at least along the veins, the base varying from deeply cordate to truncate, variable in size, reaching up to 15 cm, more or less doubly toothed. Petiole generally shorter than the blade, ciliate near the base. Racemes variably long, erect, patent or drooping, densely flowered; rhachis and pedicels more or less pubescent, bracts small; pedicels short, mostly twice as long as the bracts. Flowers green, suffused with purple, subcampanulate. Receptacle cup-shaped, or slightly bell-shaped, with a round hump below the insertion of each petal; sepals roundish spatulate, broader than long, spreading in their upper part, finely ciliate; petals rather large, spatulate or fan-shaped, as long as the erect base of the sepals; stamens inserted below the petals, curved with a thickened base, the anthers roundish ovoid, overtopping the petals. Ovary semi-inferier, its upper part conically prolonged and gradually passing in the shortly cleft style, which is about as high as the stamens. Ovary top-shaped. Fruits round, flattened at the poles, red or blackish red, with the remains of the flower roundish, acidulous.

Europe, northwestern Africa (Atlas), and northern Asia. Perhaps as far as the Sea of Ochotsk. High mountains. The European plants of this species occur in three forms.

(a) forma: pyrenaica.

Leaves rugose, with scattered long hairs above, along the margin, and beneath along the veins, especially hairy when young; lobes pointed, teeth with a sharp and rather long cusp; petioles pubescent, with long spreading glandular hairs, especially when young. Bracts strongly ciliate. Pyrenees.

(b) forma: alpina.

Leaves rugose, with scattered hairs, etc., like in f. pyrenaica, though less abundant, also the petioles less hairy and glandular. Bracts shorter, obtuse, less strongly ciliate. Alps, Vosges, and Black Forest.

(c) forma: carpathica Kit. Berger N. Y. Sta. Tech. Bui 109:16. 1925.

R. carpathicum. Kitaibel in Schultes Oesterreich. Flora, 2nd Ed. 1:432. 1814. Leaves flat, almost glabrous on both sides, also beneath along the veins, only when young with a few scattered hairs; lobes pointed, teeth less sharply mucronate than in f. pyrenaica; petioles with several long fringes near the base, for the rest more or less glabrous, with a few glandular hairs when young. Racemes looser, pedicels shorter, often not exceeding the slightly ciliate bracts. Flowers a little smaller, rose-incarnate. Fruits deep red.

Riesengebirge, Sudeten, Tatra, and Carpathian Mountains. The following are Asiatic varieties:

(1) var. caucasicum Bieb. Janczewski Monogr. 293. 1907.

R. caucasicum. Bieberstein Flora laurico-caucasica 2:160. 1819.

R. Biebersteinii. Berlandier Mem. sur les Grossulariees in Mem. Soc. Phys. Set. Nat. Geneve 3:Pt. 2, 60. 1826.

R. petraeum var. Biebersteinii. Janczewski in Schneider ///. Hdb. Laubh. 11403. 1905.

R. macrobotrys Hort. Render in Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:2959. 1916.

Leaves roundish, with a deeply cordate base and 5 short and rather obtuse lobes, flat, subglabrous or pubescent, about 12 cm long and 13 cm wide; petioles slender, sub-glabrous. Racemes sometimes 10 cm long. Flowers reddish, receptacle with a round hump below the petals. Fruits red or blackish red.

Caucasus, Armenia.

(2) var. atropurpureum Jancz. Schneider 1. c.

R. atropurpureum var. a and var. r. Meyer in Ledebour Flor. Altaica 1:268. 1829;

Ledebour Icon. Flor. Rossicae PI. 231. 1831.

Leaves 3-lobed, middle, lobe decidedly larger, the base truncate, flat, smooth above, softly pubescent beneath; petiole usually shorter than the blade, pubescent, with a few fringes at the base. Racemes short, 2-4 cm long, 10- to 15-flowered. Flowers urceolate, purple, paler inside, receptacle broadly rounded at the base, humps below the petals indistinct. Fruits rather large, dark purplish or black.

Eastern Siberia; Tobolsk, Tomsk, Altai, and Saiansk Mountains.

(3) *var. litwinowii. Janczewski Monogr. 294. 1907. R. atropurpureum var. @. Meyer 1. c.

Young shoots short and stout, with glandular hairs. Leaves 5-lobed, roundish, lobes mostly short, base very deeply cordate, flat, shining green and with scattered glandular hairs above; petioles with glandular fringes. Racemes very short, 1.5 cm long, with 7-10 flowers. Flowers purple. Fruits purplish black.

Eastern Siberia; Altai and Saiansk Mountains.

(4) var. altissimum. Janczewski 1. c. et Suppl. 3:721. 1913.

R. altissimum. Turczaninow in Ledebour FL Ross. 2:199. 1844-46.

Robust shrub, reaching 3mm height; young shoots pale yellow, subglabrous. Leaves rather large, roundish, with a cordate base, 5-lobed, 9 cm to 10.5 cm wide, pubescent along the veins beneath; petiole 4 cm long. Racemes 7-10 cm long, with as many as 20 flowers; bracts pubescent; pedicels 2.5-5 mm long. Flowers shortly bell-shaped, copper red. Receptacle cup-shaped, not thickened below the petals. Stamens inserted slightly below the petals.

Siberia; in the region of Lake Baikal, Mongolia. First cultivated in Petersburg Botanic Garden, raised from seeds collected by Przewalski. Starts late in the spring. Cultivated at the Arnold Arboretum.

(5) var. tomentosum. Maximowicz i?^Z. Ac. Pet. 19:260. 1874; ]anczewski Monogr, Suppl. 3:721. 1913.

Young shoots pale, pubescent, and glandular hairy. Leaves 5-lobed, lobes rather long, pointed, base cordate, 9 cm long and 10 cm wide, slightly hairy above, pubescent beneath with longer hairs along the veins; petiole 7 cm long, pubescent, and glandular hairy. Racemes 7 cm long, with as many as 27 flowers; rhachis pubescent and with scattered longer hairs; pedicels 1-2 mm long, hairy. Flowers subcampanulate, rather pale, buds copper red, receptacle without humps below the reddish petals; stamens and style reddish. Fruit pale red.

Eastern Siberia, Amur River.

All of the R. petraeum varieties have bell-shaped flowers without any rim, the upper part of the ovary is projecting into the cup-shaped receptacle or calyx-tube and forms a thick conical base of the style. The sepals and petals are rather large. The berries are usually more acidulous than in R. sativum. R. petraeum and its offspring are late in starting into growth in spring. Several cultivated varieties are derived from this species, none of which, however, are well known as of great commercial importance, except in hybrids to be noted later. The most important of these is with the northern red currant, R. rubrum, which probably originated in the 18th century. This hybrid is known as R. pallidum, Otto et Dietrich Allgem. Gartenztg. 268. 1842 (or R. ciliatum Kit. in Kanitz Linnaea 480. 1863, or R. Kitaibelii Dorfler Herb. Norm. No. 4264. 1902).

Though intermediate in most respects, this hybrid most nearly resembles R. petraeum. It is a robust shrub, starting late into vegetation and flower. The leaves are rather large, 3- to 5-lobed with a subcordate or truncate base and with the pubescence of R. rubrum, the lobes on leaves of young shoots however a little more acute than in R. rubrum. The racemes are longer and not quite as dense, though much the same as in R. petraeum, they have up to 25 flowers, more than either parent. The single flowers come near to those of R. petraeum, but agree with those of R. rubrum in having no round humps below the insertion of the petals. To this hybrid belongs the cultivated variety Prince Albert (syn. Hollandische Korallenbeere, Rouge de Hollande, etc.).

The hybrid between R. petraeum caucasicum and R. rubrum (R. holo-sericeum, Otto et Dietrich Allgem. Gartenztg. 266. 1842) has smaller flowers than the last, more like those of R. rubrum, and smaller leaves with stronger pubescence underneath. This hybrid has almost entirely sterile pollen and is of little value as a fruit plant.

The hybrid of the rock currant, R. petraeum} with the red currant, R. sativum, is named R. gonduini, Janczewski Bui. Ac. Sci. Nat. Crac. 298. 1901. It has large rather short 3- to 5-lobed leaves. The racemes are similar to those of R. sativum, spreading; the flowers equally intermediate, with reflexed ciliate sepals and a faint ring inside; the anthers are oblong like those of R. petraeum. It originated in the nursery of M. Gondouin at St. Cloud, and is known as " Gondouin " or " Grosseillier Gondouin rouge ]f or " sehr frtihe Hochrote." It resembles the R. pallidum (Prince Albert), but the leaves are thicker and darker, and the flowers have a faint ring inside. It retains its leaves late in the fall.

SubgenusII. Eucoreosma. Janczewski Bui. Ac. Sci. Nat. Crac. 2:7. 1906; Janczewski Monogr. 245. 1907.

Black Currants. Deciduous shrubs except for R. viburnifolium; young shoots glabrous or downy with sessile yellow resinous dots or glands on all the young parts, on the scales of the winter buds, and chiefly on the back of the leaves; the whole plant of a distinct, often disagreeable odor. Leaves 3- to 5- to 7-lobed, lobes generally pointed, and shortly or incisedly serrate, resinous dotted sometimes also on the upper surface. Racemes varying in the different species in length, drooping or erect. Receptacle varying from cup-shaped to campanulate-tubular, often resinous dotted, sepals spreading or recurved. Stamens inserted at about the same level as the petals, anthers roundish. Ovary glabrous, in most cases with resinous dots or glands, generally inferior, but in some species distinctly semi-inferior and its upper part extending into the bottom of the receptacle. Style mostly shortly bifid. Fruits black or brownish, sometimes edible, but mostly of a special, often disagreeable flavor.

This subgenus comprises 12 species, all natives of the Northern Hemisphere, extending south to northern Mexico.

Only two species are important as fruit plants. A. Racemes 5- to 15-flowered

B. Flowers tomentose, campanulate-urceolate...........................R. nigrum

BB. Flowers pubescent or glabrous, tubular-campanulate..............R. americanum

AA. Racemes 3- to 5-flowered, broadly campanulate.....................R. culverwellii

Ribes nigrum. Linnaeus Sp. PL 201. 1753; Loudon Arb. 2:983, fig. 734. 1844; Card Bush-Fr. 473. 1898; Schneider III. Hdb. Laubh. 1:422. 1905; Ibid. 2:953. 1912; Janczewski Monogr. 347. 1907; Coville et Britton N. Am. Fl. 22:197. 1908; Rehder in Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:2959. 1916; Bean Trees et Shrubs 2:405. 1921; Berger N. Y. Sta. Tech. Bui. 109:30. 1925.

Black Currant.Vigorous upright shrub, 1-2 m high, young shoots pale, subglabrous or pubescent, with scattered sessile yellow glands. The whole plant has a peculiar aromatic smell. Leaves large, up to 10 cm long and 12 cm wide, 3- to 5-lobed, with a deep cordate base, the lobes ovate, pointed, the lateral ones spreading, the middle one the largest, the margins sharply doubly serrate, the teeth mucronate, often broader than long, bright green and glabrous above, paler beneath, glabrous or pubescent along the veins; with numerous amber-colored, resinous dots or sessile glands scattered chiefly on the lower surface, a very few occasionally on the upper side of the leaves. Petiole as long or shorter than the blade, pubescent, with several plumose fringes at the base. Racemes spreading or pendulous, 3-5 cm long, with 5-10 flowers, rhachis, bracts, and pedicels pubescent; bracts short, ovoid; lower pedicels 10 mm long, often with minute bracteoles. Flowers campanulate-urceolate, tomentose; receptacle wider than long; sepals reflexed at the middle, Hgulate, twice as long as broad, obtuse, tomentose on both sides, purplish; petals erect, ovate, whitish or reddish, shorter than the sepals. Stamens inserted at the same level, anthers whitish, oblong, almost as high as the petals. Ovary semi-inferior, obovate-obconical, glabrous or slightly pubescent with sessile yellow glands; style erect, shortly cleft, as long as the anthers. Fruits subglobose, large, black, 8-10 mm across, glandular, with a peculiar smell and taste.

Europe, as far north as Scandinavia, northern and central Asia; sub-spontaneous in North. America. Five botanical varieties are recognized.

(1) var. heterophyllum Pepin. Rehder in Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:2959. 1916. var. laciniatum Lav. and var. crispum Hort. Rehder 1. c.

var. aconitifolium. Kirchner Arbor* Muse. 412. 1864.

Leaves very deeply 3- to 5-lobed, lobes lanceolate, terminal lobe ovate-lanceolate; margins deeply and irregularly toothed.

(2) var. apiifolium. Kirchner Arbor, Muse. 1864. var. dissectum. Nicholson in Rehder 1. c.

Leaves 3-parted to the base, each part again bipinnately cut with narrow segments.

(3) var. xanthocarpum Spaeth in Rehder .1. c. var. fructu luteo Hort.

Fruits yellow.

Besides these there occur in gardens forms with variegated leaves (var. variegatum, marmoratuwi, reticulatum).

(4) var. pauciflorum Turczaninow. Janczewski Monogr. 348. 1907. R. pauciflorum Turcz. ex Ledebour Fl. Ross. 2:200. 1844.

Less robust shrub; leaves shining, buds reddish. Flowers longer, more campanulate; style cleft almost to the middle. Central Asia, Siberia.

(5) var. chlorocarpum, Spaeth in Rehder 1. c. var. fructu viridi Hort.

According to Janczewski Monogr. 748, this is a form of var. pauci-florum, the Asiatic variety.

The cultivated varieties of black currants are mostly descendants of JR. nigrutn. There are a large number of them, but they are badly mixed in trade and one hardly knows which names are rightly applied, as the original descriptions of the varieties are insufficient for identification. An attempt to find a method of classification has been made by Ronald G. Hatton at the Fruit Experiment Station, East Mailing, England. (Jour. Pom. 1:6s, 80, 145-154. 1919.) The black currant has been crossed with the European gooseberry; and this hybrid, R. nigrum x Grossularia reclinatay is known as R. culverwellii, MacFarlane Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb. 37:203. 1892; Gard. Chron. 3d Ser. 28:7. 1900.

It was first raised by a Mr. Culverwell, Thorpe Perrow, Yorkshire, in 1880. (See Gard. Chron. 19:635. 1883.) It has been repeatedly produced, also the reversed cross (R. Schneideri Maurer in Koehne Garten-flora 409. 1902.) At Geneva the cross has been made several times and a great number of individuals were grown which represented all possible intermediate forms of the two species. Some individuals were scarcely different from R. nigrum, others were more like Grossularia, but all were unarmed and not all had the peculiar scent of R. nigrum.

Ribes americanum. Miller Gard. Diet. 8th Ed. No. 4. 1768; Card Bush-Fr. 481, fig. 107. 1898; Coville et Britton N. Am. Fl. 22:206. 1908; Rehder in Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:2959. 1916; Bean Trees et Shrubs 2:398. 1921; Berger N. Y. Sta. Tech. Bui. 109:33. 1925.

R. floridum. L'H#r. Stirp. Nov. 4. 1785; Loudon Arb. 2:985, fig. 735. 1844; Britton et Brown III. FL 2:191, fig. 1784. 1897; Schneider 17/. Hdb. Laubh. 1:421. 1905; Janczewski Monogr. 350. 1907; Gray New Man. 7th Ed. 451. 1911.

R. nigrum pennsyhanicum. Marshall Arbust. 132. 1785.

R. americanum nigrum. Moench Verz. ausldnd. Bdume 104. 1785.

R. pennsyhanicum. Lamarck Encyc. 3:49. 1789.

R. campanulatum. Moench Meth. 683. PL 6. 1795.

R. recurvatum. MichauxF/. Bor. Am. 1:109. 1803.

Coreosma florida. Spach Am. Sci. Nat. 2:4, 22. 1835.

R. floridum grandiflorum and R. floridum parviflorum. Loudon Arb. 986. 1836.

R. missouriense Hort. (not Nutt.) in Bean Trees et Shrubs 2:398. 1921.

American Wild Black Currant. Shrub of spreading or erect habit, 0.5-1.5 m high; young branches from downy to subglabrous, glandular-dotted; old wood with gray or a blackish bark. Leaves from a truncate or more or less broadly cordate base 3- to 5-lobed, the lobes ovoid and more or less pointed, sharply and coarsely toothed, the lower lobes generally indistinct, bright green, paler and more or less pubescent, at least along the veins beneath and with numerous resinous glands or dots, also on the upper surface, about 4.5-7 cm long and 5-9 cm wide. Petiole slender, about equaling the blade, more or less pubescent, glandular-dotted, generally with several plumose fringes near the base. Racemes up to 10 cm long, drooping, with 5-15 flowers; rhachis, bracts, and pedicels pubescent; bracts lanceolate, pointed, 6-10 mm long, overtopping the pedicels, more or less recurved, rarely with glandular dots. Flowers greenish white or yellow, glabrous or slightly pubescent; receptacle tubular-campanulate, longer than wide; segments ligulate-oblong, obtuse, generally shorter than the receptacle and twice as long as wide, spreading or recurved at the top; petals obovate, about f as long as the sepals, erect, white. Stamens inserted at the same level; anthers roundish, white, almost as long as the petals. Ovary small, pyri-form or obovate, glabrous; style thickened at the base, shortly split, about equaling the anthers. Fruits black, smooth, roundish, similar in taste to that of R. nigrum.

North America; from New Mexico to Virginia and east of the Rocky Mountains into Canada, in woods and thickets.

(1) var. intermedium Tausch. Janczewski Monogr. 352. 1907.

R. intermedium. Tausch Flora 21:720. 1838.

Lobes of the leaves less pointed or obtuse. Flowers more campanular with a shorter receptacle.

Vermont. This variety is not a hybrid with R. nigrum, as supposed by Dippel (Handbuch der Laubholzkunde III. 296) and the plants cultivated in Bohemian gardens are probably forms of R. nigrum. R. ameri-canum is occasionally cultivated as an ornamental shrub, as its foliage assumes brilliant hues of crimson and yellow in the autumn. The whole shrub, especially the foliage, possesses the same heavy odor as R. nigrum. As a fruit plant one variety, Sweet Fruited Missouri, has been in cultivation in the United States; it is said to be a slight improvement upon the common wild black currant.

Subgenus III. Symphocalyx. Berlandier M6m. Soc. Phys. et Set. Nat. Gen. 3:2, 56. 1826; Janczewski Monogr. 244. 1907.

Aurea. Coville et Britton N. Am. Fl. 22:195. 1908.

Golden Currants. Erect shrubs with virgate shoots, throwing out many suckers from the roots. Young growth, cions, and leaves with small crystalline pulverulent glands, glabrous later on. Leaves convolute in bud, of rather firm texture, very variable in shape, from ovate-cuneate to roundish reniform, 3- to 5-lobed, lobes entire or toothed. Racemes short, spreading, or slightly nodding, bracts foliaceous. Flowers yellow or orange-yellow, with a long tubular receptacle, fragrant; sepals spreading or recurved; petals much smaller, erect; petals and stamens inserted at the same level and about as long. Ovary glabrous, style somewhat exserted, slightly bifid. Berries glabrous, yellow or black, without bloom.

Central and northwestern United States to northern Mexico. The five species of this group are very closely allied and scarcely more than geographical varieties of one species in a broad sense. The differences between them are chiefly dependent upon the size of the receptacle, and as intermediate forms occur they are not always readily distinguished. The degree of pubescence, the length of the receptacle, its color, and the color of the petals and of the fruits vary a great deal. There is no deciding difference in the structure.

A. Receptacle 12-15 mm long; sepals revolute or spreading, not connivent after flowering

R. odoratum

A A. Receptacle 5-9 mm long; sepals 5-8 mm long, spreading, connivent after flowering

R. aureum

Ribes odoratum. Wendland in Bartl. et Wendl. Beitr. 2:15. 1825; Coville et Britton

N. Am. FL 22:205. 1908; Rehder in Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:2958. 1916;

Berger N. Y. Sta. Tech. Bui. 109:40. 1925.

R. longiflorum Nutt. as synonym in Lindley Bot. Reg. PI. 125. 1816. R. fragrans. Loddiges Bot. Cab. PL 1533. 1829. Not R. fragrans Pallas 1797. Chrysobotrya revoluta. Spach Ann. Sci. Nat. 2nd Ser. 4:2, 19. 1835. R. Oregoni. Hering Hort. Franc. 225, PI. 8. 1872. R. aureum Auct. Lindley Bot. Reg. PI. 125. 1816; Loudon Arbor. 2:989, f. 742.

1844; Britton et Brown III. FL 2:192, fig. 1877. 1897; Card Bush-Fr. 482, fig. 118.

1898; Schneider III. Hdb. Laubh. 1:416. 1905; Ibid. 2:953. 1912; Janczewski

Monogr. 333. 1907; Bui. Ac. Sci. Nat. Croc. 82. 1910. R. revolutum Spach. Janczewski Bui. Ac. Sci. Nat. Crac. 84. 1910. R. aureum grandifiorum f. revolutum. Janczewski Bui. Ac. Sci. Nat. Crac. 91. 1910. R. aureum ginkoefolium Hort. Janczewski 1. c. 84. 1910.

Missouri Currant, Buffalo Currant, Golden Currant. Erect shrub about 2-2.5 m high, with virgate branches; young branches pubescent, older branches gray. Leaves of cions up to 65 mm long and 75 mm wide, firm of texture, roundish with a straight truncate or slightly reniform base, deeply 5-lobed, lobes obtuse, mostly coarsely 3-toothed or incised at the top; smaller leaves ovate-spatulate, with a cuneate base, 3-lobed, and the lobes obtuse, entire or crenate; petioles pubescent, shorter than the blades. Racemes 4-6 cm long, spreading or pendulous, 5- to 8-flowered; rhachis and bracts pubescent or glabrous; bracts foliaceous, ovate or oval, the lower sometimes 12-15 mm long; pedicels shorter, glabrous or puberulent. Flowers bright yellow, fragrant; receptacle tubular, straight or slightly bent, 12-15 mm long, glabrous; sepals oblong, obtuse, 5-6 mm long, revolute or spreading, not connivent after fading; petals 2-2.5 mm l0ng] oblong, obtuse or erose, more or less red, erect. Stamens with oblong white anthers, as long as the petals. Ovary obconical or obovate, glabrous; style very shortly bifid, longer than the stamens. Berries globose or ovoid, 10 mm across or more, black or orange-yellow (forma xanthocarpum Rehder).

North America; in the great plains east of the Rocky Mountains, from South Dakota to Texas, east to Minnesota and Arkansas. Much cultivated as a flowering shrub and also as a stock upon which to graft other species of Ribes and Grossularia, usually known in gardens under the wrong name of Ribes aureum, A cultivated variety is known as Crandall. It has larger edible fruits.

(1) var. intennedium Spach. Rehder.

Chrysobotrya intermedia. Spach Ann. Sci. Nat. 2nd Ser. 4:19. 1835.

R. intermedium Spach. JanczewsH Bui. Ac. Sci. Nat. Croc. 86. 1910.

R. aureum intermedium Spach. Janczewski 1. c. 91, fig. 2. 1910.

R. aureum fructu rubro Hort. and JR. aureum acerifolium Hort. Spaeth in JanczewsH 1. c. 86. 1910. Racemes spreading, sepals not revolute, spreading. Fruits purplish brown to black.

(2) var. leiobotrys Koehne. Rehder.

Glabrous throughout; sepals recurved, not revolute. Fruit black.

Ribes aureum. Pursh Fl. Am. Sept. 164. 1814; Heller Muhlenbergia 1:69. 1904; Coville et Britton N. Am. Fl. 22:204. 1908; Rehder in Bailey Stand, Cyc. Hort. 5:2958. 1916; Berger N. Y. Sta. Tech. Bui. 109:41. 1925. R. jasminiflorum. Agardh Sv. Landibr. Akad. Ann. 9:143. 1823. R. flavum. Berlandier Mim. Soc. Gen. III. 2:60. 1826. R. tenuiflorum. Lindley Trans. Hort. Soc. London 7:242. 1828; Loudon Arb. 2:990,

fig. 744. 1844; Janczewski Bui. Ac. Sci. Nat. Crac. 86. 1910. R. inodorum. Link Hand. 2:7. 1831.

Chrysobotrya Lindley ana. Spach-Awn. Sci. Nat. 2nd Ser. 4:20. 1835. R. aureum tenuiflorum. Torrey Pacif. R. R. Rep. 4:88. 1857; Card Bush-Fr. 483,

fig. 109. 1897; Janczewski Bui. Ac. Sci. Nat. Crac. 91. 1910. Shrub of about 2 m, young shoots red. Leaves of cions about 5 cm long and 6 cm wide, orbicular-reniform to obovate; 3-lobed, with a cuneate, rounded or subcordate base, lobes subobtuse, little toothed, petioles shorter or about as long as the blades. Racemes 3-7 cm long, spreading, 5- to 15-flowefed; bracts oblong to obovate, 5-12 mm long; pedicels shorter. Flowers more or less fragrant; receptacle slender, 5-9 mm long and about 1.5 mm wide; sepals spreading, 5-8 mm long, upright in the faded flower; petals scarcely half as long, oblong, erose, orange-red at last. Berries globose, red or black, variable in size, 6-8 mm across or more.

West North America; from Washington to California, eastward to Assiniboia, Montana, Colorado, and New Mexico. A smaller and more slender shrub than R. odoratum and with less showy flowers, (1) var. chrysococcum. RydbergFZ. Nebr. 21:71. 1895. Berries yellow.

Forms with red receptacles occur in Idaho. A cultivated variety, Golden Prolific, seems to belong to this species.

GROSSULARIA Toura. Miller Gard. Diet. 7th Ed. 1759; Coville et Britton N. Am. Fl. 22:209. 1908.

Robsonia Berland. Spach Hist. Veg. 6:180. 1838.

Ribes Auct.

Shrubs with tortuous branches and spines at the nodes and often bristly along the internodes; nodal spines generally in 3, rarely in 5 or more, or solitary or wanting; buds sessile. Racemes few flowered, short; bracts small; pedicels jointed at the base; the bractlets, if present, at the base of the pedicels and hidden by the bracts. Ovary bristly, glandular, hairy or smooth; receptacle varying from broadly campanulate to cylindrical; sepals, petals, and stamens 4-5; style thin, more or less bifid. Fruit not disarticulating from the pedicels, usually larger than in Ribes, smooth, glandular, or prickly.

This genus, comprising the Gooseberries, is usually treated as a sub-genus or a section of Ribes; but gooseberries are widely separated from currants in several important botanical characters, and are so different pomologically, that it seems best to put them in a separate genus as many modern botanists do.

Gooseberries are natives of the North Temperate zone. There are about 52 species, most of which inhabit North America, being especially abundant in the Pacific part of the continent. Only a few occur in Mexico. The Old World is less rich in species. We can only consider here species which have produced cultivated varieties. The oldest of these, of course, is the European gooseberry, G. reclinata.

Key to the Species

A. Ovary with soft glandless bristles; receptacles greenish, glabrous, sepals shorter than the receptacle...................................................G. cynosbati

AA. Ovary without bristles, smooth or pubescent or with stalked glands B. Stamens exceeding the sepals, often twice as long

C. Perianth greenish white, stamens twice as long as the sepals.....G. missouriensis

CC. Perianth purplish or purplish green

D. Perianth glabrous, stamens as long or longer than the sepals. ... .G. divaricata

DD. Perianth pubescent outside, hairy inside; stamens exceeding the sepals.......

G. van-fleetiana

BB. Stamens about as long as the sepals, mostly twice as long as the petals or shorter C. Leaves (on cions) usually obovate or ovate with a decidedly wedge-shaped base.

Flowers 5-7 mm long; stamens twice as long as the petals.........G. hirtella

(Flowers hairy at the throat inside, see G. downingiana.) CC. Leaves not so and with a more or less truncate base

D. Bud scales white tomentose along the margins. Peduncles very short, scarcely exceeding the bud scales; receptacle glabrous............G. oxyacanthoides

DD. Bud scales not white tomentose along the margins; peduncle longer E. Receptacle glabrous inside and outside

F. Sepals shorter than the receptacle....................G. cynosbati inermis

FF. Sepals 2-3 times as long as the receptacle...................G. divaricata

EE. Receptacle hairy inside

F. Receptacle pubescent outside G. Stamens twice as long as the petals....................... .G. rustica

(See also G. van-fleetiana.) GG. Stamens as long as the petals, sepals mostly brownish red

H. Leaves glossy.......................................G. reclinata

HH. Leaves hoary pubescent on both sides........G. reclinata uva-crispa

FF. Receptacle smooth outside, stamens as long as the sepals.. .G. downingiana

Grossularia cynosbati Linn. Miller Gard. Diet. 8th Ed. No. 5. 1768; Coville et

Britton N. Am. FL 22:220. 1908; Berger N. Y. Sta. Tech. Bui. 109:91. 1925. Ribes cynosbati. Linnaeus Sp. PL 202. 1753; Loudon Arb. 2:970. 1844; Britton et

Brown III. FL 2:188, fig. 1865. 1897; Card Bush-Fr. 464. 1898; Schneider III.

Hdb. Laubh. 1:411. 1905; Ibid. 2:950. 1912; Janczewski Monogr. 383, fig. 108. 1907; Gray New Man. 7th Ed. 451. 1911; Rehder in Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:2962. 1916; Bean Trees et Shrubs 2:403. 1921. Ribes gracile. Michaux FL Bor. Am. 1:111. 1803; Torrey FL U. S. 269. 1824.
Wild Gooseberry. Much-branched, divaricate shrub, 1.5 m high, with slender branches, young shoots and cions brown, pubescent, in the lower part with many weak, reflexed, often gland-tipped bristles, near the top and on weaker shoots devoid of bristles; nodal spines 1-3, straight, subulate, brown, spreading or pointing downwards, 10-15 mm long or more. Leaves variable but mostly roundish ovate, with a truncate or subcordate base, 3- to 5-lobed, lobes more or less pointed or obtuse, crenate or incised-crenate, middle lobe the longest, lateral ones spreading, the lowest two often indistinct, the sinus variable; texture rather thin, dark green and pubescent above, paler and softly pubescent beneath, ciliate on the margins; varying in size, on cions often 6 cm long and 6.5 cm wide. Petioles shorter than the blades, about 25-35 mm long, pubescent and with long soft, often gland-tipped hairs, especially near the base. Peduncles and pedicels slender, about as long as the petioles, pubescent and glandular-hairy; bracts ovate, small, pubescent and glandular-ciliate, much shorter than the usually 5-10 mm long, often glabrous pedicels. Ovary small, roundish, glabrous, but usually with several or many, small, pointed bristles; receptacle campanulate or cylindrical-campanulate, much broader than the ovary, greenish, glabrous, 3-4 mm long; sepals shorter than the receptacle, oblong, obtuse, green; petals obovate, shorter than the sepals, white; stamens a little longer, anthers oblong; style bifid, pubescent below. Berry globose or oblong, wine-red, 8-12 mm across, more or less beset with stout prickles, edible, though with rather thick skin.

Eastern North America; from New Brunswick to North Carolina and Alabama in the South, to Missouri in the West and to Manitoba in the North, common in woods and rocky places. A variable species in all its parts. The young shoots are glabrous or finely pubescent and with numerous bristles or without. The shape and pubescence of the leaves and petioles vary greatly.

The following varieties have been named; they occur with the type:
(1) var. inermis. Rehder in Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 1. c. Ovary and fruit without prickles.

This may be sometimes mistaken for some forms of G. kirtetta, but it has much longer peduncles and the stamens are about as long as the petals.

(2) var. glabrata Fernald.

Leaves glabrous or only slightly pubescent or pilose on the veins.

(3) var. villosa Berger.

Growing shoots and petioles villous, prickly and densely mixed with long, reddish, flexuous, gland-tipped bristles; leaves on young shoots very villous beneath, pubescent above intermixed with a few scattered stouter hairs.

G* utilis Janczewski. Berger (G. cynosbati x reclinata).

Ribes utile. Janczewski Monogr. 494. 1907.

Shrub about 1 m high, subglabrous; nodal spines solitary. Leaves small, almost those of G. reclinata, subcoriaceous, shining green, subglabrous. Peduncles short, usually 2-flowered, finely pubescent, bracts roundish, ciliate with stalked glands. Flowers pale, subpubescent; receptacle about as long as wide, pubescent inside; sepals refiexed, with a reddish base and margins, shorter than the receptacle; petals small, flabelliform, white; stamens almost twice as long. Ovary glabrous; style bifid, pubescent below. Fruits ovoid, 1.5 cm long, glabrous or sometimes with a few bristles, more or less purplish.

To this hybrid belongs the cultivated variety Mountain or Ameri-kanische Gebirgsstachelbeere (Maurer Stachelbeerbuch 66, fig. 26 1913.)

Grossularia missouriensis Nutt. Coville et Britton N. Am. Fl. 22:221. 1908;

Berger N. Y. Sta. Tech. Bui. 109:92. 1925. Ribes missouriensis. Nuttall in Torrey et Gray Flora of North America 1:548. 1840;

Rehder in Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:2961. 1916. R. gracile. Britton et Brown III. FL 2:188, fig. 1867. 1897; Card Bush-Fr. 455.

1898; not R. gracile Michaux, 1803; not Pursh, 1814. R. rotundifolium. Schneider III. Hdb. Laubh. 1:415. 1905; Ibid. 2:951. 1912;

Janczewski Monogr. 392, fig. 113. 1907.

Missouri Gooseberry. Shrub, 1-2 m high, young canes sometimes bristly, young twigs with a grayish white bark; nodal spines 1-3, subulate, straight, 9-15 mm long. Leaves from a reniform, truncate, or roundish cuneate base, suborbicular, 3- to 5-lobed, lobes broad, obtuse or roundish, crenate dentate, glabrous or sparingly puberulous above, pubescent beneath, 2-6 cm wide; petioles pubescent, mostly shorter than the blade. Peduncles slender, filiform, longer than the petioles, 2- to 3-flowered, glabrous or puberulous; bracts ovate-pointed, glabrous or puberulous, ciliate, 1.5-2.5 mm long; pedicels 5-9 mm long, drooping. Ovary small, roundish pyriform, glabrous; receptacle campanulate, 2.5 mm long, greenish, glabrous, or sparingly pubescent; sepals linear-oblong, obtuse, 6-7 mm long, greenish white, smooth or almost so; petals % as long, erose, white; stamens much exserted, about twice as long as the sepals, glabrous, anthers roundish, almost 1 mm long; style longer than the stamens, deeply bifid, pubescent near the base. Berry globose, purplish, glabrous, subacid.

Central North America; in the great plains from Tennessee, Illinois, to Minnesota, and South Dakota to Kansas and Missouri.

G. van-fleetiana Berger N. Y. Sta. Tech. Bui. 109:93. 1925. (G. missouriensis x reclinata)*

Bushy, erect shrub, with stout shoots; nodal spines stout, straight, single, or ternate. Leaves with a truncate or roundish or wedge-shaped base, broader than long, roundish, 3-lobed, lobes short, obtuse, crenate, finely pubescent on both sides when young, glabrous when old; petioles pubescent, with some long hairy or glandular fringes near the base. Peduncles as long or shorter than the petioles, glabrous or puberulous, 1-to 2-flowered; bracts roundish, glandular-ciliate, pedicels glabrous or hairy at the end. Ovary oblong or pyriform, varying on the same branch from glabrous to densely pubescent. Receptacle campanulate, about 4 mm. long and wide, green and pubescent, densely hairy inside; sepals linear-oblong, obtuse, spreading or reflexed, 6-7 mm long, pubescent outside, green, purplish along the margins, from greenish red to pretty red inside; petals spatulate, white, erect, f as long as the sepals; stamens exceeding the sepals, filaments filiform, straight, connivent, white, glabrous, anthers oblong, green; style finally exceeding them, split almost half way, green, hairy below. Berry roundish elliptic, dark reddish purple, smooth, thin skinned, good quality.

Originated by Dr. Van Fleet and distributed by the United States Department of Agriculture in Washington; cultivated at this Station. It holds its foliage late in the fall and is said to be promising for southern regions. The flowers resemble those of R. succirubrum (G. nivea x divaricata). It must not be confused with the gooseberry variety Van Fleet, introduced by T. G. Lovett in 1917 which was also raised by Dr. Van Fleet, but from Houghton x (Keepsake x Industry) F2 generation.

Grossularia divaricata Dougl. Coville et Britton N. Am. FL 22:224. 1908; Berger

N. Y. Sta. Tech. Bui. 109:96. 1925.

Ribes divaricatum Dougl. Trans. Hort. Soc. London 7:515. 1830; Loudon Arb. 2:970. 1844; Card Bush-Fr. 457. 1898; Heller Muhlenbergia 1:98. 1904; Schneider HL Hdb. Laubh. 1:41s. igo$;Ibid. 2:950. 1912; Janczewski Honour. 390, fig. 112. 1907; Rehder in Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:2961. 1916; Bean Trees et Shrubs 402. 1921. . .

Ribes villosum Nutt. Torrey et Gray FL N. Am. 1:547. 1840; not Roxburgh, 1824.

Ribes tomentosum. Koch Wochenschrift f. Gdrtn. et Pfl. 2:138. 1859. Ribes Suksdorfii. Heller Muhlenbergia 3:11. 1907.

A vigorously growing, bushy shrub, with arching branches, up to 3 m high; young shoots sometimes bristly, but mostly not so, gray or brown; nodal spines variable, sometimes none or 1, 2, 3, or more, generally stout, sometimes very stout and conical and over 2 cm long, brown, straight, or recurved. Leaves suborbicular, 2-6 cm wide, 5~lobed or sometimes 3-lobed, cordate, reniform, truncate or roundish at the base, thin, the lobes blunt, coarsely crenate-dentate, finely pubescent on both sides, chiefly on the veins beneath, sometimes glabrous; petiole slender, pubescent, generally shorter than the blade. Peduncles slender, drooping, about as long as the petioles, 2- to 4-flowered, glabrous; bracts small, ovate, glabrous, or ciliate; pedicels filiform, glabrous. Ovary roundish, glabrous; receptacle campanulate, 2-3 mm long, greenish purplish, usually glabrous; sepals oblong, obtuse, purplish or greenish and purplish at the base, 2-3 times as long as the receptacle, recurved; petals obovate to almost fan-shaped, white or purplish, less than half as long as the sepals; stamens as long or longer than the sepals, anthers small, roundish; style deeply divided, villous-pubescent with long white hairs at the base. Berry small, globular, dark purple or black, smooth, about 1 cm across, agreeable.

Western North America; from middle California to British Columbia. Subspontaneous in some parts of Europe. A variable species. G. divari-cata was crossed with G. downingiana (cultivated variety Josselyn) by Mr. G. Fraser in Ucluelet, British Columbia. The cross resulted in a productive gooseberry with rather large roundish fruits. (See Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 75:364, % 159. 1924O

Grossularia hirtella Michx. Spach Hist. Veg. 6:180. 1838; Coville et Britton

N. Am. Fl. 22:225. 1908; Berger N. Y. Sta. Tech. Bui. 109:102. 1925. Ribes hirtellutn. Michaux Fl. Bor. Am. 1:111. 1803; Loudon Arb. 2:971. 1844. Rehder in Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:2961. 1916; Bean Trees et Shrubs 2:402. 1921. Ribes saxosum. Hooker Fl. Bor. Am. 1:231. 1832; Heller Muhlenbergia 1:100.

1904.

Ribes oxyacanthoides. Hooker Bot. Mag. PI. 6892. 1886; Britton et Brown III. Fl. 2:189, fig- Zet68* 1897; Card Bush-Fr. 462, fig. 92. 1898. Not Linnaeus, 1753.

Ribes oxyacanthoides saxosum. Coville Contr. U. S. Nat Herb. 4:100. 1893; Gray New Man. 7th Ed. 451. 1911. Ribes oxyacanthoides calcicola. Fernald Rhodora 7:155. 1905; Gray New Man. 7th

Ed. 451. 1911.

Ribes huronense. Rydberg Britt. Man. 487. 1901.

Ribes gracile. Janczewski Monogr. 388, fig. 111. 1907. Not R. gracile Michaux, nor Pursh.

Northern Gooseberry, Smooth Gooseberry. Bushy shrub of rather spreading habit, 0.6-1.2 m high; branches slender, sometimes bristly at the base of vigorous shoots; old branches dark brown, young shoots gray, glabrous; nodal spines subulate, 10-12 mm long, but usually wanting. Leaves ovate or obovate, and usually with a decidedly cuneate base, especially on young cions but leaves of the short lateral shoots more reniform or orbicular and with a subcordate base, sharply 3- to 5-lobed, lobes acute, the lower ones indistinct, coarsely incisely crenate, 2-6 cm wide, glabrous or with scattered hairs on both sides, paler beneath; petioles slender, sometimes as long as the blades, pubescent, and some with several plumose fringes. Peduncles shorter than the petioles, filiform, glabrous, 2- to 4-flowered; bracts small, ovoid, acute, glabrous or ciliate; pedicels 4-6 mm long, filiform, exceeding the bracts. Ovary glabrous, pyriform; perianth 6-7 mm long, glabrous, greenish; receptacle campanulate; sepals slightly longer than the receptacle, lanceolate-ligulate, green or purplish, petals half as long or shorter, white or with pink nervation at the base, obovate; stamens almost as long as the sepals or slightly longer, anthers small, roundish oblong; style deeply split, villous at the base. Berry purple or black, globose, 8-10 mm across or more, smooth or rarely with stalked glands, edible.

Eastern to central North America; Newfoundland to Pennsylvania and West Virginia and to South Dakota and Manitoba in the West. A very variable species, usually confounded with G. oxyacanthoides and G. inertnis, easily recognized from both by the characteristic cuneate leaf bases. This species has been much employed by hybridizers to produce American varieties of gooseberries. The variety Pale Red (American Seedling, Cluster, or Ohio Seedling) is, according to Hedrick Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits, 309. 1922, a pure-bred of this species. (1) var. calcicola Pernald (1. a).

Differs chiefly by densely pubescent leaves and bracts and purplish pubescent flowers and ovaries.

It is found in marly swamps and on limestone rocks from Michigan to New England and Quebec.

G. downingiana Berger (G. hirtella x reclinata.)

Shrub with slender arching branches, older ones with cherry-like brown bark, younger ones gray, usually without bristles; nodal spines 3 or 1, subulate, 5-10 mm long. Leaves variable in shape, some roundish and with a broad truncate or also subcordate base, others obovate with a decidedly wedge-shaped base; 3- to 5-lobed, lobes obtuse, crenate, of rather thin texture, glabrous above, paler and slightly pubescent or glabrous at length underneath. Petiole pubescent and with scattered plumose, sometimes glandular, fringes. Peduncles shorter than the petioles, glabrous, 2- to 3-flowered; bracts roundish, pubescent, and fimbriate. Ovary small, pear-shaped, glabrous; receptacle bell-shaped, bright or pale green, inside with numerous long white hairs near the throat, sepals a little longer, oblong, obtuse, recurved, green or slightly tinged with red inside at the base and along the margins, smooth or with a few scattered hairs at the back; petals about half as long, obovate-cuneate, with a revolute margin at the top, white; stamens white, as long as the sepals, anthers oblong, greenish; style deeply bifid, villous at the base. Berries roundish oval, green or dark red, glabrous with a thin skin, agreeable; seeds small, numerous.

This hybrid originated in cultivation in the United States. To this belong most of the American gooseberry varieties, like Downing, Carrie, Oregon, Pearl, Poorman, Josselyn, Smith, Van Fleet, etc.

G. rustica Jancz. Berger (G. reclinata uva-crispa x hirtella.)

Ribes rusticum. Janczewski Bui. Ac. Sci. Nat. Crac. 3:286. 1906; Janczewski Monogr. 495. 1907.

Shrub with erect, rather stout, grayish branches; nodal spines 1-3, subulate; growing shoots downy. Leaves broader than long, roundish with a broadly truncate or subcordate, rarely somewhat wedge-shaped base, 3- to 5-lobed, lobes obtuse dentate, rather soft and thin, shortly and sparingly puberulous above at first, paler and densely pubescent beneath, glabrescent later on. Petioles hirsute and with scattered plumose fringes. Peduncles shorter than the petioles, hirsute, 2- to 3-flowered; bracts roundish, hirsute, and ciliate, pedicels pubescent. Ovary small, pyriform, more or less tomentose; receptacle bell-shaped, hairy inside, green, like the sepals more or less pubescent; sepals oblong, obtuse, reflexed, a little longer than the receptacle, more or less tinged with red along the margins and at the base; petals half as long, obovate-cuneate slightly revolute at the top, white or faintly tinged with red, sometimes with a few hairs at the back; stamens white, as long as the sepals, anthers greenish yellow, oblong. Berry roundish oval, dark red, pubescent or glabrous with a thin skin; seeds small, numerous.

Janczewski founded this hybrid on the variety Pale Red. A variety which originated in 1833 in the nursery of Abel Houghton, Lynn, Massachusetts, also belongs here. It is known as the Houghton gooseberry. This hybrid comes very near G. downingiana. Of course there maybe forms intermediate between this and G. downingiana.

Grossularia oxyacanthoides Linn. Miller Gard. Diet. 8th Ed. No. 4. 1768; Coville et Britton N. Am. Fl. 22:223. 1908; Berger N. Y. Sta. Tech. Bui. 109:106.

1925. Ribes oxyacanthoides. Linnaeus Sp. PL 201. 1753; Loudon Arb. 2:968, fig. 715.

1844; Render in Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:2961. 1916; Bean Trees et Shrubs

2:402. 1921.

Hawthorn-leaved Gooseberry. Low shrub of spreading or reclining habit, young branches pubescent, glabrous later on, grayish, mostly very bristly; nodal spines 3 or more* straight, subulate, 1 cm long. Dry bud-scales bearded with a white tomentose margin. Leaves suborbicular, usually broader than long, slightly cordate or truncate or broadly cuneate at the base, rather deeply 5-lobed, lobes obtuse, dentate, on both sides slightly pubescent or nearly glabrous, 2-4 cm wide; petioles shorter than the blades, pubescent and sometimes with a few glandular hairs and scattered plumose fringes. Peduncles very short, scarcely longer than the bud-scales, 1- to 2-flowered; pedicels short, glabrous, bracts small, often glandular-ciliate. Ovary roundish, smooth, and glabrous; receptacle campanulate, greenish white, glabrous, 2.5-3.5 rmri long; sepals oblong, obtuse, spreading or reflexed, usually slightly exceeding the receptacle, whitish; petals about 2 mm long or | as long as the sepals or more, obovate, obtuse, white; stamens as long as the petals, anthers oblong, scarcely 1 mm long; style bifid, hairy. Berry globose, smooth, 10-13 mm across, purple, slightly bloomy, sweet and good flavored.

North America; from Newfoundland and the Hudson Bay to British Columbia and the Yukon, south to North Dakota and northern Michigan. This species is usually confused with G. irrigua, G. hirtella, and G. setosa. The latter has, however, brown shoots, longer peduncles and longer, cylindric-campaiiulate calyx-tubes; G. hirtella has the stamens twice as long as the petals and as long or longer than the sepals and mostly cuneate leaves; G. irrigua is less bristly, the peduncles well exserted from the bud-scales and the perianth is a little larger, about 8-10 mm. long.

Grossularia reclinata Linn. Miller Card. Diet. 8th Ed. No. 1. 1768; Coville et Britton N. Am. FL 22:223. 1908; Berger N. Y. Sta. Tech. Bui. 109:108. 1925. Ribes reclinatum. Linnaeus Sp. PL 201. 1753.

Ribes grossularia. Ibid. 201. 1753; Loudon Arb. 2:972. 1844; Card Busk-Fr. 463. 1898; Schneider///. Hdb. Laubh. 1:413. 1905; Ibid. 2:950. 1912; Janczewski Monogr. 384, fig. 109. 1907; Gray New Man. 7th Ed. 451. 1911; Render in Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:2961. 1916; Bean Trees et Shrubs 2:402. 1921.

Ribes caucasicum. Roemer et Schultes Syst. Veg. 5:507. 1819.

Grossularia vulgaris. Spach Hist. Veg. 6:174. 1838.

Ribes grossularia vulgare Spach. Janczewski Monogr. 385. 1907.

Ribes grossularia var. atlantica. Ball Spicil. Fl. Maroc. 449. 1878.

European Gooseberry. Spreading shrub, 1-1.5 m high, with ascending or arching branches, young shoots subpubescent or subglabrous, often bristly; nodal spines usually 3, rarely more or single, straight, 1-1.5 cm long. Leaves suborbicular, cordate or broadly cuneate at the base, 3- to 5-lobed, lobes obtuse, crenate-dentate, of rather firm texture, with somewhat revolute margins, glabrous or pubescent, shining green, paler beneath, 2-6 cm wide; petioles shorter than the blades, pubescent and sometimes glandular, with some plumose fringes. Peduncle 1- to 2-, rarely 3-flowered, very short, pubescent or tomentose and with stalked glands; bracts thin, 1-2 mm long, ovoid or roundish, thin, pubescent, ciliate, or glandular-ciliate, shorter than the glandular-pubescent pedicels. Ovary roundish pyriform, pubescent or glabrous, with more or less numerous, stalked glands; receptacle broadly campanulate or almost hemispherical, greenish or reddish, pubescent also inside in the upper half; sepals more or less tinged with red brown, 3-4 mm long, about equaling the receptacle, obovate, ligulate or obovate oblong, reflexed, pubescent; petals obovate, whitish, almost as long as or shorter than the stamens; style split halfway, pubescent below. Berry globose to oval, green or yellowish to red, pubescent and glandular-bristly, or smooth.

North Africa; Atlas Mountains; Europe; Spain to the Caucasus and to Scandinavia. A very variable species; the forms with more or less glabrous leaves, ovaries, calyx, and fruits have been considered to represent Linnaeus' R. reclinatum (R. grossularia var. reclinatum Berl., R. grossularia var. glabrum W. Koch). The forms with more or less glandular, hairy ovaries were distinguished as R. grossularia var. glanduloso-setosum W. Koch.

(1) var. uva-crispa Linn.

Ribes uva-crispa. Linnaeus Sp. PL 201. 1753; Britton et Brown III. FL 2:189, fig. 1870. 1897.

R. grossularia var. uva-crispa Linn. Janczewski Monogr. 386. 1907.

R. grossularia var. pubescens. Koch Syn. FL Germ. 265. 1837.

Grossularia uva-crispa. Miller Gard. Diet. 8th Ed. No. 3. 1768.

Low shrub, young shoots subpubescent, bristles rarer or wanting and internodes shorter; leaves smaller, pubescent, dull green not shining green; peduncle tomentose; ovary tomentose with a few or without glandular hairs; petals more or less hairy on the back. Berries small, yellowish, pubescent, very sweet.

Central Europe to Scandinavia; on rocks and in dry places. It starts to grow about a fortnight later than the species. The cultivated varieties of gooseberries as they are grown in Europe, and chiefly in England, are all descendants of Grossularia reclinata and its varieties. It is chiefly from the typical form of this species with shining leaves and glandular-hairy ovary that most of the cultivated varieties derive. From the variety G. reclinata uva-crispa with dull green pubescent leaves and pubescent, rarely glandular ovary, only a few horticultural varieties are cultivated, but as they are smaller than the others they are not much planted and are likely to be lost. G. reclinata uva-crispa is, however, a more drouth-resisting plant and, although its fruits are smaller, yet they are very sweet and ripen later than the others, all valuable qualities for the plant breeder.

[Footnotes used in this document:
1. The plants of the subgenera IV-VIII have no pomological interest at present and are therefore not considered here. Those interested in them will find a fuller account in Technical Bulletin No. 109 of this Station.]