CHAPTER III

VARIETIES OF RED AND HYBRID RASPBERRIES

Abundance. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 160. 1919-20.
According to a letter from the originator, H. J. Schild, Ionia, Michigan, this variety originated in 1907 as a seedling of Conrath pollinated by Cuthbert. It was introduced in 1916 by the New Ulm Nurseries, New Ulm, Minnesota. Plants below medium height, of medium vigor, upright-spreading, very productive; canes dark red, nearly glabrous, very thinly glaucous; prickles slender, weak, numerous; fruit small, roundish, dark purple, dull; flesh firm, sprightly; quality fair; midseason.

Addison. Occidentalis x Strigosus. .1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:678. 1893. 2. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:401. 1903.
Originated on the grounds of L. M. Macomber, North Ferrisburg, Vermont, prior to 1890, in which year it was sent to this Station for trial. Plants vigorous, hardy, moderately productive, propagating from tips; canes purplish red; fruit above medium in size, firm, juicy, with the flavor of the red raspberry; very good.

Alexandra. 1. Jour. Roy, Hort. Soc. 37:563. 1911-12. 2. Bunyard Cat 50. 1915-16. This autumn-fruiting variety was raised by a Mr. Allan, Gunton Park Gardens, England. Plants vigorous and fertile; fruit large, conical, deep red, with a rich flavor.

All Seasons, 1.. Ohio Sta. Bul. 63:108. 1895.
Mentioned as a red/ fall-bearing variety. Plants very strong; suckers numerous; fruit medium in size, firm; good.

All Summer. 1. Childs Cat. 144. 1893.
This everbearing variety was introduced by John Lewis Childs, Floral Park, New York, in 1893, who obtained it three years previously from Mrs. A. A. Stave, Hailey, Idaho. Her plants were received from California, but the stock came originally from Mexico. Plants stocky, vigorous, productive, resistant to heat and cold; foliage dark green above, whitish below; fruit large, dark red; excellent quality; season July until frost.

Allen. 1. Horticulturist 12:133. 1857. False Red Antwerp. 2. Gard. Mon. 4:38. 1862. Allen Antwerp. 3. Fuller Sm. Fr. Cult. 151. 1867. Scarlet. 4. Ibid. 154. 1867. English Red Cane. 5. Elliott Fr. Book 467. 1859.
Much confusion exists regarding the origin of this variety. One account states that it was brought to Cleveland as an unnamed raspberry in 1828 by an English gardener. It was at first called Red Antwerp, but later as that variety came to be known around Cleveland this berry was known as the False Red Antwerp. In 1850 plants were sent to Lewis F. Allen, Black Rock, New York, who introduced the variety under his own name. In another account in 1859, Allen states that he obtained the original plants as an unknown variety from the garden of Hiram Pratt, Buffalo, New York. From various accounts it is evident that two or three sorts were sent out by Allen under his name. Plant vigorous, upright, suckers freely, hardy; prickles purplish, numerous; flowers imperfect; fruit large, roundish, firm, bright red, of excellent flavor.

Allen Red Prolific. 1. Fuller Sm. Fr. Cult. 151. 1867.
Same origin as the Allen. Plants strong, upright, productive; canes unbranched, reddish purple, with long, slender, white prickles; fruit medium, round, light red, juicy, mild.

Allsmeyer. 1. Wis. Sta. Bui 72:18. 1898.
A seedling red raspberry sent to the Wisconsin Experiment Station in 1897 by E. C. Allsmeyer, DeForest, Wisconsin. Plants vigorous, productive; fruit below medium in size, round, dull red; quality good; midseason.

Alpine. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:169. 1832.
William R. Prince imported this variety, the Cretan Red, and a flesh-colored raspberry from the Mediterranean previous to 1832. He believed the three to be closely related, being similar to the Antwerps but having fewer prickles. Fruit of good size with a high and peculiar flavor; season June until September.

Amelioree Congy. 1. Rev. Hort. 88. 1900.
This autumn-fruiting variety was raised from seed of Four Seasons Red in 1886 by M. Congy, chief of fruit culture of the province of Ferrieres-en-Brie, France. Plants very vigorous, productive; canes purple; leaves large, thick; fruits large, blunt-conic, light red; quality excellent.

American Red. 1. Prince Cat. 1771. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 515. 1845.
Before improved varieties of the red raspberry were introduced, the native red was cultivated considerably, and although inferior to the European sorts its greater hardiness made it desirable. The Common Red and the English Red Cane have been incorrectly given as synonyms of American Red, but both are distinct varieties as will be seen in the discussions of these sorts.

Arcola. 1. S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 104:285. 1907.
A wild, red raspberry found near Arcola, Saskatchewan, Canada, and used as a parent in breeding hardy raspberries by Prof. N. E. Hansen of the South Dakota Experiment Station. Plants dwarfish; fruit variable in size and quality.

Arnold Orange. Occidentalis x Idaeus. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 963. 1869. Arnold's No. 3. 2. Horticulturist 24:273. 1869.
Originated with Charles Arnold, Paris, Ontario, and sent out by him in 1868. Said to be a cross between a white form of R. occidentalis and a fall-bearing variety of R. idaeus. Plants strong, spreading, with many slender laterals; suckers few; fruit medium in size, roundish conical, pale lemon-yellow changing to light orange; flesh soft, juicy; flavor good.

Arnold Red. Occidentalis x Idaeus. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. RpL 108. 1869. Arnold's No. 2. 2. Horticulturist 24:20. 1869.
Of the same origin as the preceding variety, and the best known of Arnold's seedlings. Plants vigorous, branching, moderately productive; canes dark purple, with numerous stout, slightly purple prickles; suckers excessively; fruit large, red, about the size and shape of Philadelphia but of superior flavor; late, autumn-bearing.

August Black. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. Gard. Chron. 516. 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 963. 1869.
Received by Charles Downing from Thomas Rivers of England with whom it originated about 1860. From the account of the origin of Mr. Rivers' "Black " sorts this is probably a purple raspberry. Canes strong, branching, with numerous greenish prickles; fruit medium in size, roundish oblate, dark red, with slight bloom, soft, subacid.

Autumn Black. Occidentalis x Idaeus. 1. Jour. Hort 24:91. 1860. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 963. 1869.
Raised by Thomas Rivers of England about 1860. It is of the same origin as August Black, and is probably a purple variety. Mr. Rivers propagated it from seeds, evidently not familiar with tip rooting. Fruit medium or large, dark purple, very juicy and agreeable.


Babcock. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:678. 1893.
Received at this Station in 1892 from D. W. Babcock, Dansville, New York. Plants vigorous and productive; canes purplish, with numerous weak prickles; fruit crumbles badly.

Bagley Perpetual. 1. Mag. Hort. 24:510. 1858. Bagley's Everbearing. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 83. 1858.
This variety originated in New Haven, Connecticut, about 1854, and was introduced in 1858 by Andrew Bridgeman, a florist of New York City. Plants hardy, branching, free of prickles, fruiting on the young canes from the time the old canes cease bearing in July until frost; fruit medium, nearly round, dark crimson, soft, acid; poor quality.

Baker. 1. Ohio Hort Soc. Rpt 57. 1868.
A seedling of Four Seasons Red sent out by a Mr. Parnell, Cincinnati, Ohio, about 1868. Fruit short, dark red, soft, sweet.

Barnet. 1. Lond. Hort Soc. Cat 196. 1826. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 2:165. 1832. Large Red. 3. Mag. Hort 3:23. 1837.
This old English variety is said to have been raised from seed by a nurseryman named Cornwall at Barnet in Hertfordshire, England. It has never been popular in this country owing to lack of hardiness and soft fruit. It is similar to Red Antwerp but differs from that variety in the canes being much inclined to branch and in the prickles being long, slender, and reddish. Plants productive, branching towards the ground; canes long, yellowish green, thickly covered with slender prickles; fruit large, globular, inclining to conical; color deep purplish red; drupelets large; flavor rich, pleasing, without much acidity; early.

Barter. 1. Wickson Col. Fruits 506. 1889.
Described as a foundling variety largely grown in the foothill regions of California. It was brought under cultivation by William Barter, Penryn, Placer County, California. Plants vigorous and productive; fruit very large, red, round, slightly flattened, firm, of fine flavor.

Bateman Early Red. 1. Am. Gard. 17:675. 1896.
Mentioned in 1896 as being the earliest red raspberry, with fruit having the shape, and two-thirds the size of that of Cuthbert.

Bath Perfection. 1. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Sci. 3:20. 1922. Abundance. 2. Laxton Bros. Cat. 31. 1923.
According to Grubb in the Journal of Pomology and Horticultural Science this variety is identical with the American variety Marlboro. Abundance, of Laxton Brothers, as grown at the East Mailing Research Station in England proved identical with Bath Perfection.

Baumforth I. 1. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 56:42. 1907. Baumforth''s Seedling. 2. Flor. et Pom. 185, fig. 1880.
This variety was selected from a lot of seedlings of Fillbasket about 1865 by John Baumforth, Pontefract, England. It was distributed about 1880, and is still occasionally grown in Europe, but is too tender for this country without winter protection. In size, vigor, and productiveness of plant it surpasses its parent; the berries ripen ten days earlier; canes numerous, stout, spreading, glaucous, glabrous; prickles numerous, stout; fruit large, round or somewhat flattened, soft and juicy, rather acid; good.

Baumforth II. 1. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Sci. 3:22. 1922.
This seedling seems to have acquired the name Baumforth and under that name is widely grown in England. Plants vigorous, very productive; canes very numerous, spreading, green, moderately glaucous, glabrous; prickles few or none, very small, dark purplish; fruit conic; drupelets small, very firm, sweet.

Baumforth III. 1. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Sci. 3:23. 1922.
Still another variety is grown under this name at the East Malling Research Station in England. It is badly mixed and in some cases resembles lots grown as Hornet (II).

Beckner. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:11. 1894.
A chance seedling found about 1855 by J. Beckner, Lafayette, Indiana.

Beckwith. Occidentalism Strigosus. 1. AT. Y. Sta. Bul. ini2etg. 1896.
A chance seedling sent out by M. H. Beckwith, Newark, Delaware, about 1895. Plants similar to Columbian but with lighter colored canes and shorter, more numerous prickles; fruit larger, lighter colored, firmer, and of better quality than Columbian; very late.

Beehive. I. Bridgeman Gard. AssH Pt. 111:135. 1847.
Described in 1847 as a new variety. Introduced by Messrs. Winter et Company of the Linnaean Botanic Garden, Flushing, New York. Fruit large, round, red; ripe in July.

Beehive Improved. 1. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Sci. 3:23. 1922.
Received under this name at the East Mailing Research Station in England. Said to consist of two types differing slightly.

Belle de Fontenay. 1. Mclntosh Bk. Gard. 2:573. 1855. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 241. 1860. 3. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:120. 1906. Amazon. 4. Gard. Mon. 17:333, 368. 1875. Fontenay. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 46. 1883.
This old French autumn-fruiting sort was grown from seed by Gartier in Fontenay-aux-Roses. France, previous to 1850, and was introduced into this country in that year. For a number of years it was considered one of the best of the fall-bearing sorts. The American Pomological Society placed it upon its list of varieties promising well in 1860, and in 1862 upon its list of varieties recommended for general cultivation, where it remained until 1899. As grown at this Station the plants are vigorous, hardy, and moderately productive; suckers numerous; fruit large, long-conic, irregular; drupelets large, moderately firm, dull red, sprightly; good; autumn-fruiting.

Belle de Palluau. 1. Gen. Farmer 22:63. 186x- 2- Puller Sm. Fr. Cult. 158. 1867. Palluau. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 46. 1883.
Described by Fuller in 1867 as a new variety from France. It was placed on the list of recommended varieties of the American Pomological Society in 1867, and removed in 1897. During that time it was considered one of the best European varieties in this country. Plants vigorous, branching, productive, not hardy; canes start with numerous short, stiff, purplish prickles; fruit very large, blunt-conic; drupelets large, regular, dark red, moderately firm, juicy, sprightly; very good; early.

Berkeley. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 178. 1917.
Card cites the catalog of the Ashley Nursery Company of California as describing this variety as prolific, large, and handsome.

Biggar. 1. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 56:42. 1907.
Grown from seed of an unknown European variety by C. N. Biggar, Drummondville, Ontario. It was the parent of a number of seedlings raised by William Saunders in his raspberry-breeding work. Described as a strong grower and moderately productive; not hardy at Ottawa; fruit medium in size, conic, bright red, moderately firm, juicy, sub-acid; good; late.

Black Antwerp. 1. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Sci. 3:16. 1922.
Commonly grown in certain sections of England. The variety is said to contain many mixtures of little or no value. Plants weak, slender, spreading, moderately productive; canes dark reddish purple, heavily glaucous, glabrous; prickles very numerous and very stout; fruit of good size, conical, dark red, sweet.

Black Hills. 1. N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 195. 1900.
Mentioned as being productive, hardy, of good size, dark in color and of moderate quality.

Blair. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 43. 1901.
Originated in Quebec. Plants hardy; fruit of medium size, round, red; quality very good; midseason.

Brady, 1. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 5. 1906-07.
Propagated from the sole survivor of a lot of Loudon raspberries received from a nursery by Col. John L. Brady, Medicine Lodge, Kansas. Claimed to be a hardy sport.

Bountiful. 1. Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc. 37:561. 1911-12. 2. Laxton Bros. Cat 30. 1923. Originated with Laxton Brothers, Bedford, England, previous to 1912. It is particular as to soils but where it does well is considered worthy of trial in England. Plants of medium vigor, moderately stout, erect, productive; prickles numerous, short, stout, dark purplish; canes glaucous, glabrous; fruit large, conic, rounded at the apex.

Boyle. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 108. 1900.
On test in 1900. Berries of medium size and quality; midseason.

Bradley. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bui 278:115. 1906.
A seedling found growing on the farm of C. P. Bradley, South Bend, Indiana, about 1896. Plants of medium vigor, healthy, hardy, and productive; fruit large, resembling Marlboro in shape but coarser in general appearance, dark red; drupelets large, inclined to crumble, of good flavor and quality.

Brandywine. 1. N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 23. 1876. 2. Rural N. Y. 54:710. 1895. Susqueco. 3. Rec. Hort. 2:58. 1868. Wilmington. 4. Horticulturist 30:306. 1875.
This old variety is said to have originated about 1870 with a Mr. Miller, also the originator of the Miller raspberry, who lived by Brandywine Creek, near Wilmington, Delaware. At first it was known as Wilmington, and later was sent out by Edward Tatnall of Wilmington as Susqueco, the Indian name of the stream. It came, however, to be generally known as Brandywine, and under that name became one of the leading market varieties of its time. The stock was badly mixed as large quantities of Bristol were sold as Brandywine. It was placed in the fruit list of the American Pomological Society in 1877, and still remains there. Plants upright, rather weak, not hardy, and unproductive; suckers freely; canes reddish brown, with thin bloom; prickles none; fruit small, round, bright scarlet; flesh firm, juicy, rather insipid; quality fair; early midseason.

Brant Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. N. Y. State Fr. Test. Assoc. Cat. 1924-25.
A cross between Smith (I) and June, originated at this Station in 1913. Introduced in 1925 by the New York State Fruit Testing Association, Geneva, New York, as worthy of trial. Plants vigorous, upright, attacked but slightly by anthracnose and mosaic, usually hardy; propagated by tips; canes stocky, green becoming reddish chocolate-brown, glabrous, glaucous; prickles numerous, medium to strong, tinged red at the tips; leaflets usually 3, large, round-oval; margin finely serrate, in single series, frequently lobed; petiole long, medium thick, prickly, nearly glabrous; fruit picks easily, ships well, large, uniform, round-conic, with thick bloom; drupelets medium in size, with strong coherence, dark dull purple, medium to juicy, rather firm, subacid to sprightly; good; late, about with Columbian.

Brentford Cane. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat 197. 1826. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 516. 1845.
An old English variety little grown in this country and never of value here. Canes strong, branching, with purplish prickles; fruit of medium size, oval-conical; color dark dull red.

Brentford Red. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:167. 1832.
Said by Prince to bear fruit of excellent quality and high flavor, oval in shape, of good size, and dark red in color; prickles purplish. Frequently produces a second crop in August.

Brighton. 1. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 56:47. 1907.
This variety of unknown parentage was originated in 1887 by Dr. William Saunders, Ottawa, Ontario. It was introduced in 1907 by the Central Experimental Farm at Ottawa. The fruit is of the type of Cuthbert and similar to Count, a variety of the same origin. It differs from Count in being a darker red color, somewhat smaller and not as firm. Brighton has a purplish cane and Count has a bright red cane with only a purplish tinge. Plants tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy; canes stocky, tinged with reddish brown; prickles medium in number, thick and strong; leaflets large; fruit large, roundish; drupelets somewhat crumbly; color dark red, glossy; flesh rather soft, mildly subacid, of pleasing flavor; quality good; early midseason.

Brilliant. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:115. 1906.
A chance seedling found growing in a woodpile in 1900 by John Collison, Bridgeville, Delaware; introduced in 1902 by Myer et Son of the same place. Plants medium in size and vigor, slightly drooping, rather tender to cold, productive; canes numerous, slender; prickles slender, few; leaflets small; fruit below medium in size, roundish; drupelets medium in size and number; color bright red; flesh firm, mildly subacid; quality good; midseason.

Bristol. 1. Cult. et Count. Gent. 34:136. 1869. 2. N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 23. 1876.
Found wild near Bristol, Pennsylvania. Plants vigorous, hardy, suckering excessively; canes with whitish bloom; leaflets narrow, pointed; fruit of medium size, not as large or firm as Brandywine.

Buckeye. 1. Scarff Cat. 1910.
Of unknown origin. Sent out by W. N. Scarff, New Carlisle, Ohio, in 1910. It has no value as grown at this Station. Plants vigorous, hardy, upright-spreading, productive; canes numerous, glaucous; prickles medium in number; fruit medium in size, broad-conic, soft, crumbly, dark red, sprightly; quality fair; late; autumn-fruiting.

Burlington. 1. Fuller Sm. Fr. Cult. 157. 1867. Prosser. 2. Gard. Mon. 11:238. 1869.
Originated about 1865 with Benjamin Prosser, Burlington, New Jersey. At his death his son sent out a mixture under the name Prosser. In 1866 the name was changed to Burlington, and for a while plants were sold at five to ten dollars each. Plants moderately vigorous and productive; prickles very numerous, slender, greenish, tinged brown; fruit large, roundish conical; drupelets small, compact, bright red, very firm, juicy, sweet and of good quality.

Burns. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 43. 1875.
A seedling from A. M. Burns, Manhattan, Kansas, said to withstand drouth and heat. Fruit of medium size and quality.


Canada Red. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:168. 1832.
Described by Prince as growing in great abundance along the roadsides near Montreal, Canada. Called by him R. canadensis. The canes are thickly set with brownish prickles; the fruit is of medium size with a high and rather peculiar flavor.

Canadian Red. 1. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Sci. 3:23. 1922.
As grown in England this sort resembles Bath Perfection; said to be the American Marlboro, but is taller, with smaller, lighter red fruit.

Cardinal. Strigosus x Occidentalis. 1. U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt. 265. 1892. 2. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:13. 1894. Griesa. 3. Mich. Sta. Bul. 104:72, 74. 1894.
Cardinal is a purple raspberry which can be grown farther north and farther south than any other of its kind. Perhaps no other raspberry can be grown as far south. The plants are very productive, vigorous, and healthy, but the variety is not as much grown as either Columbian or Shaffer, in localities where purple sorts are commonly planted. It is a valuable sort for the central west. On the grounds of this Station the canes do not sucker but propagate from tips from which they root rather reluctantly. Old plants sometimes send out suckers. Cardinal originated with A. H. Griesa, Lawrence, Kansas, in 1888, and was introduced by him about 1891 under the temporary name Griesa. The variety is supposed to have come from a seed of Shaffer. It was added to the American Pomological Society's recommended list of fruits in 1909.
Plants vigorous, spreading, hardy, productive, contract mosaic slowly; propagated usually from tips; canes stocky, reddish green, dull, very glaucous; prickles small, slender, few, red at the tips; leaflets 3-5, roundish oval, often lobed, dull, rugose, with serrate margins; petiole with short prickles, glabrous, glaucous. Flowers late; pedicels prickly, glandular, almost glabrous; calyx prickly. Fruit very late, picks easily; medium in size, broadly hemispherical, dark purple, dull, with heavy bloom; torus nearly smooth, roundish, releasing the berry readily; flesh juicy, firm but tender, sweet, aromatic, resembling in flavor the red raspberry; quality good to very good.

Carleton, 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:116. 1906.
Received at this Station about 1896 from J. Craig, Ottawa, Canada. Plants moderately vigorous, hardy, productive; fruit medium in size; drupelets large, inclined to crumble; flavor and quality good.

Caroline. Idaeus x Occidentalis. 1. Cult. et Count. Gent. 43:151, 1878. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:69. 1893.
Caroline originated with S. P. Carpenter, New Rochelle, New York, in 1877, and is supposed to be a seedling of Orange crossed by a Golden Cap. For a number of years Caroline was popular as a home berry because of the high quality and beautiful orange color of the fruit. It may be propagated either by suckers or by tips. The American Pomological Society placed Caroline in its catalog in 1881 where it still remains. Plants vigorous, upright, hardy and very productive; canes light colored, stocky, with few, slender, green prickles; fruit of medium size, roundish oblate, of orange-pink color, changing to a salmon tinge when fully ripe, juicy, soft; very good in flavor and quality.

Carter Prolific* 1. Jour. Hort. 3:409. 1862. 2. Am. Hort. Ann. 98. 1870. 3. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Sci. 3:24. 1922.
Described by A. S. Fuller in the American Horticultural Annual for 1870 as an old English variety almost out of cultivation in this country. It is still grown somewhat in England. Canes strong with purplish spines; leaves variegated with white; fruit large, blunt-conical, deep scarlet, with slight bloom; drupelets medium compact; flesh rather firm, moderately juicy, sweet; good.

Cassel. I. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 108 1900.
On trial at the Dominion Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Ontario, in 1900. Berries described as of medium size and quality; midseason.

Catawissa. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. U.S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 318. 1854. 2. Mag. Hort. 21:315. 185s.
Catawissa originated as a chance seedling in the graveyard of a Quaker meetinghouse in the village of Catawissa, Columbia County, Pennsylvania. It attracted the attention of a caretaker who observed it bearing fruit in the fall. The plant was removed to his garden and thence to that of Joshua Pierce, Washington, D. C, who introduced it in 1854. The strong, branching canes seldom sucker and the tips root only with difficulty. Plants vigorous, very productive and somewhat tender; prickles few; fruit medium in size, flattened, dark reddish purple, covered with a thick bloom, soft, juicy, sprightly; good; midseason, autumn-fruiting. Catawissa was placed in the fruit catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1867 and removed in 1883.

Cavalier. 1. S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 104:286. 1907.
A native red raspberry obtained by Prof. N. E. Hansen, Brookings, South Dakota, from Cavalier County, North Dakota, and used by him as a parent in breeding hardy varieties. Plants vigorous, suckering freely; fruit of good quality.

Cayuga. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 207. 1922. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 497:15. 1923.
Cayuga is the outcome of an effort at the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station to secure a variety to precede Cuthbert, that standard sort being too late in season for many northern markets. The plants of Cayuga are quite as vigorous as those of Cuthbert, with which it must compete and be compared, and are much more productive, great productiveness being the most remarkable attribute of this new raspberry. The berries are much like those of Cuthbert in size, color, and flavor. In shape they are a little less conic than the well-known fruits of Cuthbert. The drupelets, however, are larger and hence the berries do not seem to be so seedy. The suckers are numerous and plants can be propagated rapidly. The season is a few days or a week before that of Cuthbert. It promises to become a valuable sort for commercial canning. Cayuga was originated by the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, New York, in 1911 as a cross between June and Cuthbert. It was introduced in 1922.
Plants tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, very productive, contract mosaic rapidly but are only moderately injured; propagated from suckers; canes numerous, somewhat stocky, greenish, heavily glaucous, with very few small glands at the tips; prickles small, slender, weak, very few to none, greenish; leaflets usually 5, roundish ovate, dull, dark green, rugose, with dentate margins; petiole long, glabrous, slightly glaucous. Flowers early; pedicels with few prickles, glandular, slightly pubescent; calyx prickly. Fruit midseason, midway between June and Cuthbert; autumn-bearing under favorable conditions; much like Cuthbert in size, color, and flavor; large, round-conic, slightly glossy and finely pubescent; torus nearly smooth, blunt, whitish; drupelets of medium size or larger, strongly coherent; cavity-scars white and conspicuous; flesh juicy, firm, tender, aromatic, sprightly becoming sweet, highly flavored; very good in quality.

Champion. 1. Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc. 2g:LU. 1904-05.
Received the Award of Merit of the Royal Horticultural Society in 1904. Plants vigorous; fruit large, bluntly round, borne in large clusters, dark red, very sweet.

Champlain. 1. Am. Gard. 11:141. 1890. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bui 63:690. 1893.
Said by J. T. Macomber, Grand Isle, Vermont, to be a chance seedling found in his father's garden about 1880. It was introduced in 1892 by Ellwanger et Barry, Rochester, New York. Plants vigorous, productive, with a tendency for the bark to split and curl; prickles numerous and small; fruit medium to large, pale yellow, soft, juicy, nearly sweet, excellent in flavor; quality best.

Charles the Bold. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:15. 1894.
One of Charles Arnold's hybrids, Paris, Ontario, sent out in 1877.

Chilische. 1. Dochnahl Fiihr. Obstkunde 4:83. 1860.
Described as coming from Chili. Known in gardens but seldom esteemed. Plants vigorous, tall, very productive; prickles few; fruit very large, short-ovate, dark red, very aromatic.

Christine. 1. Rural N. Y. 45:640. 1886.
Sent to the experiment grounds of the Rural New-Yorker in 1886 by E. P. Roe. Plants not hardy; fruit large, conical; good; late.

Citizen. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 179. 1898.
A cross between Gregg and Cuthbert, originated by William Saunders, London, Ontario. Very productive. Considered promising at first but less so later.

Clarke. 1. Horticulturist 17:378. 1862. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bui 63:681. 1893.
Raised from seed by E. E. Clarke, New Haven, Connecticut, about 1857. Considered as more resistant to heat and cold and better adapted to a light sandy soil than others of its class. It was placed in the fruit catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1869 where it still remains. Plants vigorous, strong, upright, branching, very productive; suckers numerous; prickles few, whitish; foliage large and thick; fruit large, roundish conical, bright crimson, sweet, rich, highly flavored; very good.

Cline. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bui 63:681. 1893.
A chance seedling received at this Station in 1893 from G. W. Cline, Winona, Ontario. Plants moderately vigorous, medium in height, healthy, hardy, unproductive; fruit below medium in size; drupelets medium to large, firm, sweet, dark red; quality fair; season short, very early.

Cluster. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 27. 1897.
Originated in Oregon. Listed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1897. Recommended for cultivation in Oregon and Washington.

Cole Prolific. 1. Mich. Sta. Bui 111:15. 1894.
A chance seedling found growing wild on the farm of R. D. Cole, Port Dalhousie, Ontario, and cultivated by him.

Coleman. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bui 63:681. 1893.
Received at this Station about 1890 from M. H. Coleman, Geneva, New York. Plants medium in vigor and productiveness; fruit large, moderately firm, juicy, nearly sweet; quality very good.

Colonel Wilder. 1. Horticulturist 3:135, fig. 1848-49. 2. Hoffy AT. Am. Pom. PI. 1860.
Grown from seed of Fastolff by Dr. W. D. Brincklé of Philadelphia. It first fruited in 1847 and was named by the originator in honor of Col. Marshall P. Wilder. Plants vigorous, strong, productive; prickles whitish; fruit large, roundish, yellowish white or cream color, appearing semi-transparent, soft, juicy, sweet, of fine flavor; very good.

Colossal. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. U. S. D, A. Pom. Rpt. 265. 1892.
A seedling of Shaffer, which it closely resembles. It was first brought to notice when it was sent to the United States Department of Agriculture in 1892 by I. F. Street, West Middleton, Indiana; of better color and more resistant to drouth than Shaffer.

Columbian. Strigosus x Occidentalis. 1. Out. Fr. Gr. Assoc. Rpt. 24:118, fig. 1892. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:678. 1893. 3. Ibid. 278:123. 1906.
Columbian is the best known and most prized of the hybrid raspberries. It holds this place by virtue of large size, firm flesh, handsome appearance, and high quality of the fruit; and the hardiness, healthiness, and phenomenal productiveness of the plants. It is now more largely grown for commercial canning than any other purple raspberry, and when canned is superior to any other in appearance and flavor. Columbian is sometimes confused and is often compared with Shaffer, an older hybrid sort. The fruits of Columbian are smaller, firmer, and hang on the plants longer than those of Shaffer; the plants are more vigorous and more productive, and the fruiting season is later. Shaffer excels Columbian only in the greater hardiness of the plant. The leaves are somewhat smaller, with more yellow than in those of Shaffer. The fruit is darker in color than that of Shaffer and is sweeter and better flavored. The plants, unfortunately, are a little more subject to winter injury than those of Shaffer. This variety was originated in 1888 by J. T. Thompson, Oneida, New York. It is a seedling of Cuthbert which was probably pollinated, by Gregg, a blackcap growing near by, and was introduced in 1891. The American Pomological Society added Columbian to its list of recommended fruits in 1897.
Plants very tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy but less so than Shaffer, very productive, contract mosaic slowly, severely injured, susceptible to crown-gall; propagated from tips; canes very stocky, dull, reddish brown, glabrous, thinly glaucous; prickles strong, numerous, light green; leaflets usually 3, large, oval, rugose, glabrous, lighter green than Shaffer, with serrate margins; petiole long, prickly, nearly glabrous. Flowers late, large, in prickly clusters; pedicels slender; calyx small, pubescent. Fruit late, season begins soon after Shaffer but continues after the season of that variety has closed; large but slightly smaller than Shaffer, broadly round, dull purple, somewhat darker than Shaffer; torus small, rough, blunt, releasing berries easily although the fruit drops but little; drupelets large; flesh juicy, firmer than Shaffer, sprightly, very aromatic; quality good.

Common Red. 1. Prince Treat. Hort. 39. 1828. 2, Prince Pom. Man. 2:166. 1832.
From Prince's description in 1832 it seems that his Common Red is not the same as the American Red of other authors, although frequently given as a synonym of that variety. He stated that it was a native of this state, growing naturally in the Catskill Mountains. The fruit was esteemed for dessert and was used in large quantities in the making of raspberry brandy. At that time it was the only variety cultivated largely for the New York market, there being over one hundred acres devoted to its culture on Long Island. Prince described the shoots as dark in color, very long, often reaching a length of ten or twelve feet, or even more. This unusual vigor would indicate a hybrid origin. On the current year's growth the basal prickles are purplish in color, those above being greenish, with purplish tips. The fruit is of medium size, very early and of fine flavor.

Condor. 1. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 34:82,194, fig. 1903.
A cross between Red Antwerp and Superlative which originated with George Pyne, Topsham, Devon, England. Plants vigorous, productive; fruit ripens later than that of Superlative and continues until the middle of August.

Cook. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. Minn. Sta. Bul. 39:227. 1894.
Reported to the Minnesota Station in 1894 by Dewain Cook, Windom, Minnesota, as exceedingly hardy and more productive than other varieties grown by him. Plants very tall, thrifty; fruit small, dark red, juicy; poor.

Cope. 1. Horticulturist 8:188. 1853. President Cope. 2. Mag. Hort. 17:215. 1851.
Originated with Dr. W. D. Brincklé of Philadelphia about 1850, and named by him in honor of Caleb Cope, vice-president of the American Pomological Society for Pennsylvania in 1852. Plants moderately vigorous, productive; prickles numerous, short, purplish; fruit large, blunt-conic, light red, firm, sweet and good.

Count. 1. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 56:47. 1907.
Grown from seed of Biggar in 1887 by William Saunders, director of the Dominion Experimental Farms, Ottawa, Canada. Introduced about 1907. Count is very similar to Brighton, the differences between the two being mentioned in the description of the latter variety. Plants vigorous, hardy, productive; fruit large, roundish, bright red, moderately firm, subacid, juicy, with a pleasant but not high flavor; very early.

Coutant. 1. Budd-Hansen^lm.iifor/.Man. 2:403. 1903. 2. N. Y.Sta.Bul.278:116. 1906. Received at this Station in 1896 from S. L. Quimby, Marlboro, N. Y. Plants vigorous, upright, moderately hardy, moderately productive; fruit above medium in size, light red, firm, inclined to crumble; flavor and quality fair.

Craig. 1. Mich, Sta. Bui 111:16. 1894. 2. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 56:47. 1907.
A seedling of unknown parentage originated about 1884 by William Saunders, Ottawa, Canada. It was named in honor of Prof. John Craig, then horticulturist of the Central Experimental Farm at Ottawa. Plants vigorous, not very hardy at Ottawa, productive; fruit above medium in size, roundish to conical, bright red; drupelets large, firm, moderately juicy, mildly subacid; of good flavor and quality; midseason.

Cretan Red. 1. Prince Treat. Hort. 40. 1828. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 2:169. 1832. Imported from the Mediterranean a short time previous to 1832 by William Prince. It resembles the Antwerp type in foliage but differs in having fewer prickles; plants upright, hardy; branches dark gray; prickles few; leaflets narrow; fruit of medium size, roundish, inclining to conical, dark purplish red, subacid; good; season long, late.

Crimson Beauty. 1. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 18. 1883. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bui 63:681. 1893.
This variety was found growing in a patch of Imperial in 1875 by Dr. J. Stayman, Leavenworth, Kansas. It was purchased by A. M. Purdy, Palmyra, New York, who. named it Crimson Beauty and introduced it in 1881. Neighbors of Dr. Stayman knowing the origin, believed it to be nothing new and sent out Imperial for Crimson Beauty, so that the stock became mixed. The flowers are deficient in pollen, causing the variety to be unproductive unless planted near a suitable pollinizer. Plants vigorous, tall, upright, unproductive; prickles numerous; fruit medium, dull red, unattractive, inclined to crumble, drops readily when ripe, rather soft; good; early.

Crimson Cluster. 1. N. Y. Sta. Rpt. 278. 1890.
Plants described as fairly vigorous, producing suckers close to the old canes, unproductive; fruits large, firm and of fine appearance.

Crookston. 1. S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 104:287. 1907..
A native found in the Red River Valley near Crookston, Minnesota, by Prof. N. E. Hansen of the South Dakota Experiment Station, who has used it as a parent in breeding hardy varieties for the Northwest. Vigorous and hardy.

Crystal. 1. N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 20. 1887. Crystal White. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:690. 1893.
Originated by A. J. Caywood, Marlboro, New York, prior to 1888. Plants moderately vigorous, pale, rather tender to cold, moderately productive; fruit of medium size, clear pale yellow, moderately firm, juicy; flavor and quality good; season a few days earlier than Golden Queen.

Cushing. 1. Horticulturist 1:177. 1846-47. 2. Hofly N. Am. Pom. PL 1860.
Cushing was grown from seed of Double Bearing in 1845 by Dr. W. D. Brincklé of Philadelphia, and named in honor of J. P. Cushing of Boston. Plants moderately vigorous and productive; prickles numerous, strong, brownish; leaflets large and thin; fruit large, roundish conical, regular; drupelets small, compact, juicy, sprightly; good; season June and sometimes October.

Cuthbert. 1. Horticulturist 30:306. 1875. 2, Downing Fr. Trees Am. 3rd App. 183. 1881. 3. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:681, 1893. Queen of the Market. 4. Gard. Mon. 22:16. 1880. Quimby Favorite. 5. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 36:639. 1891.
Cuthbert is now the most commonly grown red raspberry in America, chiefly so because it adapts itself better to the varied climates and soils of raspberry regions than any other red variety. Cuthbert seems to grow best on sandy land, but thrives on a wide range of soils, and is as hardy to cold and endures heat as well as any other red raspberry. The plants are usually healthy and productive, but are more seriously affected by leaf curl than almost any other sort, and are quite susceptible to the dreaded mosaic. The faults are that the plants are not as productive as those of a good commercial sort ought to be and the crop ripens too late for many northern markets. The berries are of handsome red color, medium firm of flesh, and of very good quality when not overripe. As the berries pass maturity, however, the quality deteriorates and heavy bloom detracts from the attractiveness of the fruits. Cuthbert was found as a chance seedling by Thomas Cuthbert in his garden at Riverdale, now a part of New York City, about 1865. It was thought the variety might be a seedling of Hudson River Antwerp since it came up near a bed of that sort. The variety was not disseminated until about 1880, but since that time it has been widely grown. The berry was grown in different localities under various names but for the last quarter-century it has been known only as Cuthbert. The American Pomological Society added the variety to its list of recommended fruits in 1881.
Plants tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, not very productive, very susceptible to leaf curl, contract mosaic slowly, moderately injured; propagated from suckers; canes numerous, somewhat stocky, light green becoming yellowish brown, with a very thin, whitish bloom, with eglandular tips; prickles very small, slender, numerous, green or slightly tinged red at the tips; leaflets usually 5, medium in size, pale green, very light colored beneath on the bearing canes, often curved, long-oval, dull, rugose, with serrate margins; petiole slender, glabrous, slightly glaucous. Flowers medium in season; pedicels eglandular, pubescent; calyx prickly. Fruit late, season long; medium to large, uniform, retains size well through the season, conical, dull, dark red, with heavy bloom; torus roughish, pointed; drupelets small, very uniform, with strong coherence; cavity-scars conspicuous; flesh juicy, of but medium firmness, sweet, rich, aromatic; very good in quality.


Deacon. 1. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 56:47. 1907.
Originated by William Saunders, Ottawa, Canada. Plants upright, vigorous and productive; prickles numerous, slender; fruit medium in size, roundish, irregular, deep red; drupelets large, crumbly, soft, subacid; flavor and quality good; not large enough or firm enough to be of much value; midseason.

Delaware. 1. 2V. /. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 23. 1876.
Described in 1876 as a new seedling recently raised from Hornet (I); included in the fruit catalog of the American Pomological Society from 1881 to 1883. Plants less hardy than Cuthbert; fruit large, conic, red; lacking in quality.

Devon. 1. Bunyard Cat. 49. 1915-16. 2. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Set. 3:24. 1922.
Raised by George Pyne of the Denver Nurseries, Topsham, Devon, England, who introduced it in 1904. Plants vigorous and very productive on moist soils; canes numerous, stout, upright, purplish, heavily glaucous, glabrous; prickles numerous, short, stout; fruit very large, oblong-conic to roundish, moderately firm; late.

Diadem. Occidentalis x Idaeus. 1. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 114. 1887-88.
Originated with Charles Arnold, Paris, Ontario, sometime previous to 1875. Plants lacking in vigor; fruit large, ovate, red; quality good; early.

Dictator. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. Burbank Cat. 28. 1893.
A cross between Shaffer and Gregg, raised by Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, California. Described as strong growing, resembling Shaffer but shorter; berries large, bright red.

Donboro. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 298:57. 1908.
A seedling of Loudon x Marlboro originated at this Station in 1898 and sent out for trial in 1908. Donboro resembles Marlboro in shape and color, and equals this parent in flavor and quality. Plants of medium height and vigor, upright-spreading, hardy except in severe winters, very productive; suckers numerous; canes medium in size, dull brown, glabrous; prickles few, slender; leaflets below medium in size, dark green; fruit large, regular, roundish ovate; drupelets medium, cohering well; color dark red when fully ripe, firm, sweet, mild; good; midseason.

Dora. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 108. 1900.
On trial at the Dominion Experimental Farm at Ottawa in 1900. Fruit of medium size and quality; late.

Double Bearing. 1. McMahon Am. Gard. CaL 518. 1806. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 5*7- 1845.
An autumn-fruiting sort of the Antwerp type once esteemed for its fall crop. Imported in 1843 by Robert Buist of Philadelphia, and by William Prince about fifteen years earlier. Comparatively hardy with large, late, dull red fruit.

Downing. 1. Fuller Sm. Fr. Cult. 160. 1867.
A seedling of Orange raised by Charles Downing, Newburgh, New York. Plants strong, erect, not hardy, productive; prickles short, stout; leaflets very large, dark green, flat; fruit large, regular, conical, bright red, firm, juicy, sweet and rich.

Duhring. 1. Gard. Mon. 8:310. 1866. 2. Fuller Sm. Fr. Cult. 160. 1867.
A seedling of Hornet (I) which originated with Henry Duhring, Belmont, Pennsylvania, who exhibited fruit of it before the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society in 1862; introduced by Henry A. Dreer of Philadelphia. Plants vigorous, fairly hardy and productive; prickles numerous, weak, slightly purplish; fruit large, roundish conical, bright red, firm, rich and of excellent flavor.

Duncan. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 180. 1898.
A cross between Gregg and Cuthbert, raised by William Saunders, London, Ontario. Described as having strong, vigorous, very productive canes, propagating both by suckers and by tips; fruit large, purple, better quality than Shaffer; late.

Dyack Seedling. 1. Horticulturist 1:17'8. 1846-47.
Imported by Robert Buist of Philadelphia about 1840 and known only as the parent of Orange.


Early Prolific. 1. N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 2:13. 1877. 2. N. Y. Sta. Rpt. 324. 1884.
Originated with O. L. Felton, Merchantville, New Jersey, from seed of Philadelphia-It was first exhibited at the Centennial Exposition in 1876. Productive in the North but not in the South. As grown at this Station the plant is very productive, hardy and nearly free from prickles; fruit large, roundish, red; drupelets medium in size, moderately firm; flavor harsh and acid.

Eastern King. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:22. 1894.
Discovered about 1864 by 0. A. Hill, Westbrook, Maine, as a chance seedling on a lot that had formerly been a nursery. Canes stout, half hardy; fruit large, dark red, juicy and very sweet; earlier than Cuthbert.

Eaton. 1. Mich. Sta. Bui 206:58. 1903. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:116. 1906. 3. U. S. D. A. Yearbook 479, PL XLVI. 1908. 4. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 276. 1922. Alton. 5, Card Bush-Fr. 176. 1917. Iowa. 6. Ibid. 188. 1917.
Although it originated in the Middle West, Eaton is now popular only in New England where the plants seem to be unusually productive and hardy. The variety is grown rather commonly in some parts of eastern New York, but is not a favorite in other parts of the state. There are several serious faults of fruit and plant: The berries crumble badly; the drupelets are very large so that the fruits are coarse in appearance; the quality is poor; and the berries do not separate readily from the torus. The faults of the plants are that they droop almost to the ground making them hard to manage; and there are seldom enough canes to make the variety productive. An unusual characteristic of the canes is that they are nearly thornless. Eaton was found as a chance seedling by Ulysses Eaton, Cambridge City, Indiana, in 1885. Although disseminated locally, the variety was never widely introduced until Amos Garretson, Pendleton, Indiana, became impressed with its value in 1898 and propagated it extensively. At this Station and elsewhere plants received under the names Alton, Idaho, and Iowa have all proved to be Eaton. There is, however, an autumn-bearing berry called Idaho which is quite distinct.
Plants dwarfish or medium tall, of moderate vigor, drooping, with distinct tendency to branch, very hardy, variable in yield, contract mosaic slowly; propagated by suckers; canes few, slender, greenish tinged with brown, becoming dark red, slightly glaucous, with eglandular tips; prickles very small, slender, weak, very few, with a slight reddish tinge; leaflets 3-5, roundish oval, dark green, dull, rugose, crumpled, with finely serrate margins; petiole medium in length and thickness, nearly glabrous. Flowers early; pedicels glandular, pubescent; calyx prickly. Fruit early midseason, retains its size well, large, round-conical, clear bright, durable red, adheres very tenaciously to the torus which is rough and roundish; drupelets very large, coarse in appearance, broadly grooved, cohere poorly causing the fruit to crumble; flesh juicy, firm, rather acid, with an agreeable flavor; quality good for culinary purposes only, otherwise inferior.

Elizabeth. 1. Gard. Mon. 12:279. 1870.
Originated with D. W. Herstine of Philadelphia from seed of Allen supposed to have been fertilized by Philadelphia which grew near by. Elizabeth was named, together with several other of Mr. Herstine's varieties, by a committee from the Pennsylvania Fruit Growers Society who visited his grounds in 1870. Plants strong, productive; suckers medium in number; prickles numerous, purple; foliage dark green, rugose; fruit very large, round, bright red, firm; drupelets large; flavor delicious; late.

Ellisdale. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. Gard. Mon. 6:26. 1864.
Ellisdale was found in 1856 by J. E. Johnson in Pottawattamie County, Iowa It was introduced by H. A. Terry, Crescent City, Iowa. The American Pomological Society placed Ellisdale in its fruit list in 1869 for culture in the states near the place of its origin, but removed it at the following session. Plants vigorous, propagating from tips, hardy, productive; fruit large, roundish oval, regular; drupelets medium firm, juicy, dark red, rich and good; midseason.

Elm City, 1. Rec. Hort. 2:56. 1868.
Described as new in 1868; supposed to have originated in New Haven, Connecticut. Similar to Philadelphia in size and flavor of fruit; hardy; early.

Elsie. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 966. 1869.
A seedling raised by Samuel Miller, Bluffton, Missouri. Fruit very large and excellent.

Emily. 1. Horticulturist 3:187. 1853.
A seedling of Col. Wilder raised by Dr. William D. Brincklé of Philadelphia about 1850 which proved unworthy of dissemination. Plants vigorous, very productive; prickles white; fruit large, conical, often shouldered, light yellow.

Emmett. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 129:10. 1896. 2. Rural N. Y. 57:23. 1898.
Sent to the trial grounds of the Rural New-Yorker in 1895 as new by A. C. Griesa et Brother, Lawrence, Kansas. Plants vigorous; fruit round, purple; of fair quality; late midseason.

Empire 1. Card Bush-Fr. 183. 1917. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 161. 1920. 3. Hedrick, Cyc. Hardy Fr. 276, fig. 1922.
A few years ago Empire was heralded as a very promising new red raspberry and was largely planted in the eastern part of New York. The assets ascribed to it were hardiness productiveness, vigor, and healthiness of the plants; and large, handsome, firm, well-flavored fruits. But the variety has been a disappointment to most New York berry growers who plant it. The plants seem to lack that subtle thing called constitution, and after a few years in the plantation go to pieces. In the prime of the plantation the plants are so hardy as to need no winter protection in New York; are equal to any other variety in productiveness, and are unusually vigorous, reaching a height of six or eight feet. The berries, when plantations are at their best, average larger than those of the well-known Cuthbert, are about the same in color, ripen a little earlier, and have a longer picking season. The fruits are mild, rich and sweet, and take rank among the very best red raspberries in quality. The texture is firm and the berries stand shipment well and keep long. Despite this array of good characteristics, which would seem to put Empire among the best commercial red raspberries, it is, as has been said, proving a disappointment in the berry plantations of the state. This variety, a cross between Ruby and Coutant, was originated in 1904 by L. E. Wardell, Marlboro, New York, and introduced by him in 1916.
Plants tall, vigorous, upright, hardy, very productive, lack constitution, contract mosaic slowly but are severely injured; propagated by suckers; canes medium in number, stocky, green changing to purplish red, becoming yellowish brown at the close of the season, dull, glabrous; prickles of average thickness and strength, few, short; leaflets 3-5, large, thick, dark green,rugose, crumpled, with closely serrate margins; petiole thick, somewhat pubescent. Flowers early; pedicels short, pubescent. Fruit early midseason, ripening a little earlier than Cuthbert but having a longer picking season, ships well; larger than Cuthbert or Marlboro, uniform, retains its size well to the close of the season, round-conic, medium to dark red, glossy, with but slight bloom, clings well to the torus yet picks easily; drupelets small, with strong coherence; flesh juicy, mild, firm, sweeter than Marlboro, highly flavored; very good in quality.

English Black. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. in:24. 1894.
Described in 1869 as an old English hybrid of moderate vigor, with numerous purplish spines. Fruit medium in size, roundish, dark reddish purple; drupelets below medium, compact; flesh firm, briskly subacid.

English Giant. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 203. 1898.
Imported from Denmark by W. D. Barnes et Son, Middlehope, New York, and on trial at this Station in 1894. Plants below medium in vigor, moderately hardy; fruit large, light dull red, unattractive, moderately firm; quality fair.

English Globe. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 966. 1869.
Plants vigorous; prickles moderately numerous, short, purplish; fruit large, obtuse-conical, dark red; flesh soft, juicy, sweet.

English Red Cane. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:24. 1894.
Described by Crozier after Elliott as being much grown in 1865 by market gardeners. Plants tall, hardy, productive; canes bluish red with whitish gray bloom; fruit medium to large, round or slightly conic, dull red; drupelets large, firm, juicy, pleasant.

Erie. 1. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 14. 1885-86. Gladstone. 2. Green Cat. 8. 1890. 3. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:682. 1893.
Originated as a chance seedling, probably of Catawissa, with Charles Carpenter, Kelleys Island, Ohio, about 1875, w^0 sen^ it out in a small way as Carpenter No. 2 and then as the Erie. In 1891 Green's Nursery Company, Rochester, New York, introduced it under the name of Gladstone as a hardy, vigorous and productive everbearing variety, a reputation which it failed to maintain. Plants vigorous, moderately productive, fairly hardy; fruit medium in size, round, soft, juicy, purplish red, sweet and of good quality; midseason, occasionally autumn-fruiting.

Erskine Park. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 161. 1920.
Perhaps this sort is now the most popular double-bearing red raspberry. It produces very fair crops in both summer and autumn which can be said of few other of the double-bearing raspberries. The plants seem to be very hardy, fairly healthy and moderately productive in both summer and autumn. The original plant was supposed to be a seedling or a sport of Cuthbert, but no trace of the Cuthbert blood can be seen in either plant or fruit. The fruits are not of the highest flavor, are inclined to crumble, and are quite variable in size. Still, they are better than those of Ranere, the only other double-bearing sort which competes with Erskine Park. This double-bearing berry was discovered by E. J. Norman, near Lee, Massachusetts, about 1903, and is supposed to be either a seedling or a sport of Cuthbert. Although introduced in 1911, it was not widely disseminated until within the past six years.
Plants of medium height, very vigorous, upright, later becoming somewhat spreading, hardy, variable in yield, contract mosaic very slowly and but moderately injured; propagated by suckers; canes very numerous, stocky, dull green, glabrous, glaucous; prickles very short, of average thickness and strength, numerous, brownish purple; leaflets 5, large, thick, oval, dark green, rugose, with serrate margins; petiole short, thick, covered with but few, short, weak prickles, pubescent. Flowers very early; pedicels eglandular, pubescent; calyx smooth. Fruit early midseason; autumn-bearing; medium in size although quite variable, round-conic, dull, dark red, with thin bloom, adheres well to the torus which is roughish and pointed; drupelets large, often with poor coherence which causes the berries to crumble; flesh juicy, tender, not very firm, somewhat sprightly but not of highest flavor; quality fair to good.

Eureka. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 180. 1898.
Originated by Luther Burbank. Said to be a third generation seedling from Shaffer. The plants are more compact and productive with larger, brighter red fruits.

Everbearing. 1. Mag. Hort. 3:154. 1837. 2. Ibid. 9:191. 184*3. 3. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:24. 1894.
The three references given each describe a different everbearing variety, so it is probable that several sorts went under this name. In the Magazine of Horticulture for 1837 an everbearing raspberry is mentioned found near Lake Erie, in New York by the Shakers. It was described as a valuable variety similar to the White Antwerp in size and excellence. It propagated by tipping and was autumn-fruiting. In the Magazine of Horticulture for 1843 another everbearing type is described as being very similar to Red Antwerp, beginning to ripen about July 15th and bearing until frost. The plants were growing in the garden of R. Emmet, whose father procured them from Dr. Hosack of Hyde Park. Beyond that its origin could not be traced. In Michigan Station Bulletin in another berry of the Antwerp type is mentioned as large, soft, like Herstine but not as good.

Everbearing Feldbrunnen. 1. Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc. 37:561. 1911-12.
On trial on the grounds of the Royal Horticultural Society at Wisley, England, in 1911. Said to be an excellent variety for autumn-fruiting. Canes strong, purplish green in color; few prickles; fruit borne in large clusters, large, round, rich crimson.

Excelsior. 1. Wis. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 241. 1887.
Probably a chance seedling from a farm near Cassville, Wisconsin. In 1879 Dr. F. M. Cronin of that town brought plants of an everbearing raspberry to J. H. C. Sneclode, Cassville. They produced heavily and plants were sold at $1.00 each. Described as hardy and drouth resistant; fruit large, dark red, delicious; season from June till frost.

Fastolff. 1, Gard. Chron. 849. 1842. 2. Mag. Hort. 12:299, % 20. 1846. 3. N. Y. Sta. Rpt. 225. 1883. 4. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Sci. 3:24. 1922, Filby. 5. Jour. Hort. N. S. 3:409. 1862.
This variety was discovered about 1820 by a Col. Lucas, Yarmouth, England, growing in a garden attached to an old castle, formerly the residence of Sir John Fastolff, whence the name. In 1842, Youell et Company of Norfolk commenced advertising it under the name of Fastolff, and it soon became widely disseminated both in England and in America. It was regarded as a probable seedling of Red Antwerp with which it ripens. The fruits are softer, more roundish than Red Antwerp, and the canes are stouter and more upright. In this country it was long popular as a home variety on account of the handsome appearance, large size and fine flavor of the fruit. It is still cultivated in Europe. The American Pomological Society placed Fastolff in its fruit catalog in 1852 where it still remains. Plants vigorous, erect, branching, very productive; canes tall, brittle, light yellowish brown, with numerous stiff, purplish prickles; fruit large, roundish conical, bright purplish red; drupelets large, soft, sweet, rich and highly flavored; season medium, long.

Fastolff Improved, 1. Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc. 202. 1898.
On trial in 1898 in the gardens of the Royal Horticultural Society in Chiswick, England, the plants having been secured from Messrs. George Bunyard et Company, Maidstone, England. Plants of moderate vigor and productiveness; fruit small, round, dark red and of fair flavor.

Fewthorn. 1. Hansen Cat. 1922.
A cross of the Minnetonka red raspberry and a wild red raspberry from the Black Hills near Rapid City, South Dakota, which originated with Prof. N. E. Hansen, Brookings, South Dakota. Introduced in 1922. Prickles very few; fruit of good size, f to f inch in diameter, dark red, firm, shrivels instead of rotting.

Fillbasket. 1. Mag. Hort. 22:27. 1856. 2. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Sci. 3:25. 1922. Northumberland Fillbasket. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 660. 1857.
Described in the Magazine of Horticulture in 1856 as a new English variety recently imported. It is still grown in Europe. Plants vigorous and productive, with numerous strong, purplish prickles; fruit large, blunt-conic; drupelets large, dark red, sweet, firm, slightly acid; good.

Flesh Colored. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:169. 1832.
Imported by William Prince from the Mediterranean a short time previous to 1832. Plants of the Antwerp type; fruit of good size, of a high and peculiar flavor; season June till September.

Four Seasons Red. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:121. 1906. Merveille des Quatre Saisons. 2. Gard. Chron. 743. 1846. Marvel of the Four Seasons. 3. Gard. Mon. 2:332. 1860. Merveille Rouge. 4. Guide Prat. 21. 1895. October Red. 5. Jour. Hort. 24:105. 1860.
Found about 1847 *m the nursery of MM. Simon-Louis Freres, in Metz, France; believed to have come from Fastolff. It was introduced into this country about 1857 and has been popular as an autumn-fruiting sort. It was placed in the fruit list of the American Pomological Society in 1862 as Merveille des Quatre Saisons, being changed to Four Seasons Red in 1883, to October in 1897 and removed from the list in 1899. Plants moderately vigorous, hardy, not very productive; prickles numerous, short, purplish; fruit medium in size, blunt-conic, dark red, firm, of fair flavor and quality.

Four Seasons Yellow. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:26. 1894. Merveille des Quatre Saisons. 2. Gard. Chron. 743. 1856. 3. Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom. 202. 1907. October Yellow. 4. Jour. Hort. 24:105. 1860.
Obtained by and introduced by the firm of MM. Simon-Louis Freres, Metz, France, in 1854. Supposed to be a seedling of Four Seasons Red which it resembles in all respects except color. Plants vigorous, upright, productive; fruit of medium size, round, firm, juicy, sweet; of good quality; early, autumn-fruiting.

Framboise Americaine. 1. Knoop Fructologie 2:179. 1771.
Under this name Knoop describes four sorts, the first being later and darker red than the others and grows in mountainous localities in Germany, France, Belgium, and England. The second is similar to the first except that the fruit is yellowish white and sweeter than the first. It is less esteemed than the first because of its color. The third resembles the preceding but is without thorns, the fruit is larger and the flavor more acid. It grows principally in the mountains. The fourth resembles the preceding sorts, but the leaves are not divided, the flowers are larger, reddish and very fragrant; the fruits ripen rarely (Holland). This sort was brought from Canada.

Franconia. 1. Mag. Hort 6:310. 1840.
This variety was introduced into America some years previous to 1845 by S. G. Perkins of Boston who imported it from Vilmorin of Paris. Downing described it as the hardiest large raspberry, very productive and very excellent. For a number of years it sustained this reputation and was considered one of the best market varieties. The American Pomological Society placed Franconia in its fruit list in 1852 where it still remained in the last list in 1909. Plants vigorous, spreading, moderately hardy, productive; prickles few, stout, purplish; fruit large, blunt-conic, dark purplish red, firm, rich and sprightly; good; season a week later than Red Antwerp and long.

French. 1. Horticulturist 8:188. 1853. 2. Gard. Mon. 2:333. 1860. Vice-President French. 3. Mag. Hort. 17:215. 1851.
Another seedling from Dr. W. D. Brincklé of Philadelphia grown from seed of Fastolff crossed with Yellow Antwerp. It was raised previous to 1850 and named in honor of Hon. B. V. French of Massachusetts. It was recommended for trial by the American Pomological Society in 1854, placed in the fruit list in 1856 and removed in 1899. Plants vigorous, erect, very productive; prickles numerous, stout, purplish; fruit large, blunt-conic, dark red; drupelets large, firm, sweet, rich and of fine flavor; late.

French Everbearing. 1. Rural N. Y. 54^794- 1895.
Said to have been introduced into California from France several years previous to 1895. Plant described as very vigorous and very productive; berries much larger than those of Cuthbert, bright red, firm, sweet and delicious; fruits also on current season's growth.

Fullerton. 1. S. Dak. Sta. Bui 104:288. 1907.
A wild red raspberry from near Fullerton, North Dakota, used by Prof. N. E. Hansen of the South Dakota Experiment Station as a parent in breeding hardy varieties for that section.

Fullmer Colorado. 1. S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 104:287. 1907.
A red variety received at the South Dakota Experiment Station from a grower in Colorado. Not hardy at Brookings.

Fulton. 1. Horticulturists: 187. 1853.
Raised by Dr. W. D. Brincklé of Philadelphia about 1850 from seed of French. Plants vigorous and productive; reddish prickles; fruit large, round, crimson.


Ganargua. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. Cult. et Count Gent 36:598. 1871.
A chance seedling discovered about 1870, along the Ganargua Creek near Farmington, New York, by S. B. Katkamier. Plants vigorous, hardy and productive; propagation from the tips; prickles numerous, weak; fruit is borne from shoots arising low on the canes, thus prolonging the season; fruit large, dark dull red, firm, lacking flavor; early.

Garnet. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 180. 1898.
A seedling of Philadelphia originated in 1885 by Dr. William Saunders, London, Ontario. Plants described as hardy, vigorous and productive; fruit of medium size, slightly conic, purplish red, soft; good; late.

General Negley. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:27. 1894.
Described by Dr. J. A. Warder in 1870 as a seedling, probably of one of the large foreign varieties, originated by a Gen. Negley of Pittsburgh. Plants vigorous and productive; fruit large, roundish oblong, juicy, highly flavored; very good; early.

General Patterson. 1. Horticulturist 8:187. 1853.
A seedling of Colonel Wilder raised by Dr. W. D. Brincklé of Philadelphia about 1850. Plants vigorous, very productive; prickles red; fruit large, round, crimson, does not part readily from the stem.

Genesee. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:682. 1893.
Sent out by Z. H. Harris, Rochester, New York, in 1888 for trial. Plants moderately vigorous, not hardy; foliage large, rugose; fruit large, red, soft; good, dropping as soon as ripe; early.

Gold. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 206:58. 1903.
A yellow variety received at the Michigan Experiment Station about 1902 from M. H. Ridgeway, Wabash, Indiana. Plants vigorous; fruit good for a yellow berry.

Golden Alaska. 1. Ann. Hort. 194. 1892. 2. Rural N. Y. 52:619. 1893.
Introduced in 1891 by the John A. Salzer Seed Company, La Crosse, Wisconsin. Said to have been found in a valley in Alaska. As grown on the trial grounds of the Rural New-Yorker it could not be distinguished from Caroline.

Golden Cluster. 1. Va. Sta. Bul. 147:62. 1903.
On trial at the Virginia Experiment Station in 1903 where it was described as the best yellow-fruited variety. Plants vigorous, not very hardy, moderately productive; suckers poorly; fruit large, elongated-conic, golden yellow, tender, juicy, mild, aromatic, pleasant; midseason, ripening period long

Golden Drop. 1. Bunyard Cat. 50. 1915-16.
Offered by Bunyard, Maidstone, England, as a Continental variety which he named provisionally, the original name having been lost. Canes strong; fruit round, deep golden, pleasantly flavored.

Golden Queen. 1. Rural N. Y. 44:529. 1885. 2. Ibid. 45:573, fig. 344. 1886.
Golden Queen is the only yellow raspberry worth planting by those who want raspberries of this color. It is supposed to be a sport of Cuthbert from which it differs only in the berries, which instead of being the Cuthbert red are light yellow, sometimes tinged with pink and are larger, more delicately flavored and softer in texture than those of the supposed parent. The canes are a little paler in color. The opening leaves of the young shoots lack the reddish tinge always noticeable in normal red raspberries, and the gland-like tips of both the younger and older leaves are greenish yellow; both of these characteristics are probably correlations with the yellow fruit. The remnants of the styles on the fruits are very distinct and contrast strongly against the orange-yellow surface because of their dark color. The foliage of Golden Queen seems to be especially tender and is easily injured by high winds, and as the leaves come to full size they are very rugose or much crumpled. Unfortunately the plants are very susceptible to the mosaic disease and rapidly succumb to it. The variety is of small use for commercial plantations, but because of the distinctive color and the high quality of the fruits should be in every private collection of berries. This variety originated in a plantation of Cuthberts on the grounds of Ezra Stokes, Berlin, Camden County, New Jersey, in 1882. The American Pomological Society added Golden Queen to its list of recommended fruits in 1887.

Goliath. 1. Fest. Pom. Inst. Rent. 129. 1910. 2. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Set. 3:25. 1922.
A European sort. Highly recommended for general culture in Germany, but said to be of little value in England because of unproductiveness and small fruit. Plants vigorous and productive; fruit large, bright red, firm, aromatic; early.

Goodwin.
An unintroduced seedling found growing in a strawberry bed about 1918 by F. C. Goodwin, Clark Mills, New York. It has all the characteristics of a red raspberry but propagates from the tips and does not sucker. Plants tall, very vigorous, upright-spreading, healthy; canes very stocky, reddish brown, glabrous, without bloom or glandular tips; prickles small, strong, numerous, purplish red; fruit large, roundish; drupelets large, of medium coherence, attractive medium red, glossy, juicy; flavor and aroma of the red raspberry, sprightly; good; a few days later than Columbian.

Gordon.
Received at this Station in 1913 from Sylvanus Gordon, Sergeantsville, New Jersey, who thought it a seedling of Shaffer. It produces suckers and can be grown by tipping. Plants medium in height, vigorous, upright, productive; suckers few; fruit variable in size, large to small, roundish, dark red, firm, crumbly, tart; poor.

Grant. 1. Gard. Mon. 11:123. 1869.
Mentioned in 1869 as a new variety from Auburn, New York. A cross between Franconia and Orange. Berry described as large, conical, very solid, red, of delicate flavor and earlier than Philadelphia.

Grape. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 205. 1898.
Said to be a cross between an unknown raspberry and Red Antwerp raised from seed by a Mr. Mason, Charlestown, Massachusetts. Fruit borne in bunches like grapes, whence the name.

Grapevine. 1. Cult. et Count. Gent. 43:151. 1878.
Sent out in 1878 by William Holland, Plymouth, Indiana. An ornamental, the canes and foliage resembling the grape, from whence the name; fruit of no value.

Great American. 1. Childs Cat. 57. 1896. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:116. 1906.
Purchased from Luther Burbank in 1893 by John Lewis Childs and introduced by him about 1896. Plants not vigorous, dwarfish, not hardy, moderately productive; fruit large, red, soft, crumbly; fair in flavor and quality.

Guinea. 1. Gard. Chron. 3d Ser. 22:75, 1897. Yellow Superlative. 2. Bunyard Cat. 50. 1913-14.
A yellow-fruited seedling of Superlative raised by the originator of that variety, a Mr. Merryfield, Waldershare Gardens, Dover, England, shortly before 1897. It was introduced soon after by Messrs. G. Bunyard et Company, Maidstone, England. It is identical with Superlative except in fruit color; the foliage is greenish yellow; fruit very large, conical, deep yellow, very rich and sweet.


Hailsham. 1. Bunyard Cat. 50. 1915-16.
An autumn-fruiting sort raised by a Mr. Dann, Hailsham, England. Plants vigorous; leaves very large; fruit enormous, round, dark red,

Hampton. 1. Rural N. Y. 48:817. 1899.
Mentioned as probably being a seedling of Hudson River Antwerp and a desirable kind. Plant more productive; fruit larger, later and of better quality than Marlboro.

Hansell. 1. Rural N. Y. 42:606. 1883. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bui 63:683. 1893.
A chance seedling discovered on the farm of Hansell Brothers near Beverly, New Jersey, about 1875. It was introduced in 1882 by J. T. Lovett, Little Silver, New Jersey. It was one of the earliest red raspberries and for a time was considerably planted on that account. The quality was not high, the plants lacked vigor, and were said to transplant or propagate from root cuttings with difficulty. Hansell was placed in the fruit list of the American Pomological Society in 1883 and was not removed from the last list in 1909. Plants moderately vigorous, hardy, not very productive; suckering freely; canes and foliage dark reddish green; prickles numerous, small; fruit medium in size, roundish, bright red, firm, juicy, subacid; good; early.

Harris. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:683. 1893.
A chance seedling found growing apart from other raspberries near Rochester, New York. It was sent out for trial in 1889 by Z. H. Harris of that city. In 1894 Harris was the most productive of the varieties on trial and kept longer than Cuthbert. Plants vigorous, dwarfish, upright, hardy, productive; fruit medium in size, firm, juicy, nearly sweet;, of fine flavor and very good quality; earlier than Cuthbert.

Haymaker. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 249. 1901. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:124. 1906.
A chance seedling discovered about 1893 by A. O. Haymaker, Earlville, Ohio, who introduced it in 1900. For a while it was popular in the Middle West, but as grown at this Station the fruit was unattractive in appearance and inferior to Shaffer and Columbian in quality. The American Pomological Society placed Haymaker in its catalog in 1909. Plants tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, fairly hardy and productive, propagating from tips; canes stocky, with few slender prickles; fruit large, roundish to slightly conic; drupelets medium in size, number and coherence; dark purple, moderately juicy, firm, sprightly; good; very late.

Heebner. 1. Ont. Fr. Gr. Assoc. Rpt. 119. 1892.
Introduced about 1894 by W. W. Hilborn, Leamington, Ontario, who received it previous to 1886 from Muskoka County, where it had been grown from seed of the wild raspberry and had fruited for several years. Said to be of the Rubus idaeus type. Plants vigorous, not as hardy as Cuthbert, productive; fruit large, roundish conical, dark red, rather soft, juicy, subacid; good flavor and quality; late midseason.

Helston. 1. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Sci. 3:25. 1922.
Received at the East Mailing Research Station and said to be a common market variety in the Tamar Valley in England. Fruit of medium size, round and decidedly acid in flavor.

Henrietta. 1. Cult. et Count. Gent. 42:618. 1877.
A chance seedling found growing in the garden of Mrs. E. Morley, Wethersfield, Connecticut, in 1870. Appearing promising, it was placed in the hands of Hale Brothers, South Glastonbury, Connecticut, who named and introduced it. When introduced it was thought by many to be identical with Belle de Fontenay. Plants short, stout, vigorous, hardy, moderately productive; prickles slender, reddish; fruit very large, roundish conic, irregular, bright red; drupelets very large, irregular; flesh firm, juicy, sprightly, rich.

Henry. 1. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 56:47. 1907.
Grown from seed previous to 1907 by William Saunders, Ottawa, Canada. Plants vigorous, hardy, productive; fruit above medium in size, roundish to slightly conical, bright to deep red, moderately firm, briskly subacid, juicy; good in quality; midseason.

Herbert. 1. Can. Hort 26:401. 1903. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:117. 1906. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 58. 1907. 4. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 414:9, PI. 1916.
Herbert is one of the best of the red raspberries, and on the grounds of this Station has long been the very best. It heads the list of its kind because of the great vigor, hardiness, and productiveness of the plants, and because it withstands attacks of mosaic rather better than most other red raspberries. Its most valuable characteristic is, however, its tremendous productivity, being nearly twice as productive as the old standard, Cuthbert. The berries are similar to those of Cuthbert, but are more sprightly in flavor, a little larger, rounder, but not quite so firm. This lack of firmness is the chief if not the only defect of the fruit. The berries, however, carry to nearby markets with ordinary care. In most seasons and on good raspberry soils the berries are remarkable for holding their size from the earliest to the latest picking. The plants are somewhat susceptible to spur-blight and to leaf-spot. Herbert is a chance seedling found in the garden of R. B. Whyte, Ottawa, Canada, in 1887. The variety may be a seedling of Clarke since Mr. Whyte raised many seedlings of this variety.
Plants tall, very vigorous, upright-spreading, very hardy, very productive, contracting mosaic very slowly, but then severely injured, and very susceptible to leaf-spot; propagated from suckers; canes numerous although somewhat variable, very stocky, green becoming brownish red, glabrous, glaucous, with eglandular tips; prickles small, short, strong, numerous, purplish red; leaflets 3-5, large, thick, attractive dark green, rugose, with serrate margins; petiole of medium length, thick, prickly, glabrous, slightly glaucous. Flowers early; pedicels prickly, glandular, pubescent; calyx prickly. Fruit midseason, continuing slightly beyond that of Cuthbert, holds size well throughout the entire season; large to very large, broadly ovate, broader and rounder than Cuthbert, dark but bright red, with thin bloom, adheres fairly well to the torus which is roughish and sharply pointed; drupelets medium to large, larger than those of Cuthbert, coherent; flesh juicy, rather soft under unfavorable conditions, pleasantly flavored, somewhat more sprightly than Cuthbert, aromatic; good in quality.

Herstine. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. Gard. Mon. 12:278, PI. 289. 1870.
Originated with D. W. Herstine, Branchton, Pennsylvania. It was grown from seed of Allen supposed to have been pollinated by Philadelphia growing nearby. In 1870 a committee from the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society inspected numerous seedlings growing on the grounds of Mr. Herstine and named four of them, including the Herstine. It attracted considerable attention and for a time was considered a promising variety. The plant lacked hardiness, and was slightly deficient in pollen, causing imperfect berries. The fruits are too soft for shipping though of fine flavor and appearance. The American Pomological Society placed Herstine in its list of recommended varieties in 1873 and removed it in 1899. Plants vigorous, productive, not hardy; prickles medium in number, greenish; fruit large, blunt-conic, bright red; drupelets small, rather soft, juicy, sweet, rich.

Highland Hardy. 1. Cult et Count Gent 40:278. 1875.
Originated as a chance seedling about 1870 on the farm of Nathaniel Palmatier, Highland, New York. For several years prior to 1880 it was grown considerably as an early sort for the New York market but was soon displaced by better varieties. South of New York its foliage was injured by the sun. Highland Hardy was placed in the fruit catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1883 and removed in 1895. Plants moderately vigorous, upright, productive; prickles few; fruit of medium size, roundish, light red, soft, sweet; good.

Hildreth. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. Am. Hort Ann. 102. 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 968. 1869.
Introduced about 1867 by Isaac Hildreth, Big Stream Point, Yates County, New York, as a native sort discovered near that place. It does not propagate readily from the tips and produces few suckers. Canes strong, with numerous stiff, purplish prickles; fruit medium in size, roundish oblate, dull dark red, with thick bloom, soft, juicy, sweet, sub-acid, with the flavor of Purple Cane.

Hillside Favorite, 1. Can. Hort. 15:126. 1892.
Mentioned as having originated in a garden in England several years previous to 1892- Plant described as very productive; fruit yellow with a pinkish tinge, of fine flavor; early.

Hiram. 1. U. S. D. A. Rpt. 394. 1891. 2. Childs Cat. 145. 1893.
Sent to the Pomological Division of the Department of Agriculture in 1891 by W. J. Bradt, North Hannibal, New York. Introduced in 1893 by John Lewis Childs, Floral Park, New York. Said to be of the Idaeus type. Plants vigorous, productive, not hardy in Ottawa; fruit very large, conic, bright red, soft, juicy, subacid; very good; midseason.

Hornet (I). 1. Gard. Mon. 2:332. 1860. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 241. 1860. 3. Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom. 195, fig. 1907.
This variety originated with M. Souchet in Bagnolet, near Paris, France, previous to 1858. It was introduced into this country about 1858 by Aubry et Souchet, French nurserymen, Carpenters Landing, New Jersey. For a time it was a favorite sort, but it was soon displaced by better varieties. The variety was placed in the list of promising new varieties of the American Pomological Society in 1860, upon the society's catalog in 1869, from which it was removed in 1899. Plants vigorous, upright, productive; prickles few, short, purplish; fruit-stems very long; fruit very large, conical, dark red; drupelets compact, variable in size, moderately firm, juicy, subacid; good; season medium long.

Hornet (II). 1. Bunyard Cat. 49. 1915-16. 2. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Set. 3:26. 1922.
As grown in England the stock of this variety is said to be badly mixed with types mostly inferior to it. These rogues are attributed either to the growth of seedlings or to bud sporting from the roots. Plants vigorous, very productive; canes very numerous, moderately stout, nearly erect, moderately glaucous, glabrous; prickles few, small, soft; fruit small, round or slightly short-conic; drupelets large, sweet.

Hudson River Antwerp, 1. Horticulturist 11:15. 1856. 2. Gard. Mon. 2:332. 1860. Antwerp. 3. Fuller Sm. Fr. Cult. 156. 1867. New Red Antwerp. 4. Mag. Hort. 8:256. 1842. North River Antwerp. 5. Gen. Farmer 17:347. 1856.
This variety is supposed to have been brought to America about 1817 by a Mr. Briggs, Poughkeepsie, New York, who obtained it from the garden of the Duke of Bedford in England. Its culture spread through the sections of the Hudson Valley where it thrived, and for twenty-five years it was the leading market variety in the Valley, being most extensively planted along the west shore from Cornwall to Kingston. In 1878 it was estimated that 14,700 bushels were shipped from Marlboro. Its fruits began ripening early and continued over a long season; they shipped well, and the plants were very productive. The variety went out of cultivation because of tenderness to cold, inability to thrive in other localities, and the ravages of a disease called "Curl leaf." The plants were tall, vigorous and very productive; canes a peculiar gray or mouse color and nearly spineless; fruit large, conical, dull red, with slight bloom, firm, not very juicy; flavor sweet, pleasant, but not of high quality; early.

Hudson River Red. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:34. 1894.
A native red variety exhibited before the Cincinnati Horticultural Society in 1860 by P. W. Slack of Kentucky who was then growing it for the Cincinnati market.

Huntsman Giant. 1. Rec. Hort. 44. 1866.
A seedling of Franconia, raised by Prof. T. W. Huntsman, Flushing, New York, previous to 1866. It was named and brought to notice by A. S. Fuller. Fruit similar to Franconia but sweeter. Plants much taller, with a peculiar grayish white bark, continue long in bearing and slightly hardier than the parent.

Hybrid Crimson Mammoth. Occidentalis x Idaeus. 1. Horticulturist 28:335. 1873.
A chance seedling discovered by Dr. E. R. Maxson, Adams, New York, in 1872. He considered it a cross between Red Antwerp and a black raspberry. The plants were large, hardy, productive and with few prickles.

Hyde. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 161. 1920. Jumbo. 2. Wis. Nur. Cat. 1919. Goliath. 3. Ibid. 1921.
Found growing wild in 1915 by Robert Norton, Black River Falls, Wisconsin. Introduced in 1918 by the Wisconsin Nurseries, Union Grove, Wisconsin. In 1919 the same variety was introduced by them as Jumbo, and in 1921 as Goliath. The fruit resembles Eaton and the variety does, not appear of much value as grown here. Plants upright, dwarfish, vigorous, moderately productive; prickles few, weak; fruit variable in size, large to medium, irregular, broad, roundish conic; drupelets very large, medium in number, crumbly, dark red, juicy, tender, mildly subacid; good; midseason; said to be autumn-fruiting.


I. X. L. 1. N. Y.Sta. Bul. 91:204. 1895.
A chance seedling of unknown parentage discovered in 1887 by Charles Schlessler, Naperville, Illinois. Plants vigorous, hardy; fruit of medium size; drupelets medium to large, crumbly, dull red, sweet; good; late.

Idaho. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 188. 1917.
Found growing in an old garden in Idaho. Fruit large, deep rich red, ripening from July to October, and said to be an abundant producer in the fall.

Imperial. 1. Gard. Mon. 2:332. 1860.
Of French origin; introduced into this country about 1860 by Aubry et Souchet, Carpenters Landing, New Jersey. Plants were said to resemble Hornet (I) but the fruit is inferior; large, roundish, bright red, firm, of excellent flavor.

Imperial Red. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 968. 1869.
At one time grown in New Jersey. It was placed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1877 and removed in 1897. Fruit medium in size, roundish, dark red, moderately firm, juicy, pleasant; very good; midseason.

Imperial White. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:35. 1894.
Cataloged by Ellwanger et Barry in 1860 as a new, large, white variety.

Iowa. 1. Wragg Nur. Cat. 18. 1920.
Discovered near Storm Lake Iowa, previous to 1920. Named and introduced in 1920 by the Wragg Nursery Company, Des Moines, Iowa. Plant described as dwarfish, vigorous, hardy, very productive, without prickles; flowers and fruit found on the plant throughout a long season; fruit large, dark red, of excellent quality; early.


Jewell. 1. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 62. 1908-09.
Mentioned as being in the Lawrence markets. Propagates from tips. Fruit large, bright red, firm.

Johnson. 1. Mich. Sta, Bul. 111:35. 1894.
Received from Cincinnati in 1875 by E. Y. Teas of Indiana. Reported by him after a brief trial to be much like the Philadelphia.

Jouet. 1. Gard. Mon. 2:332. 1860. 2. Fuller Sm. Fr. Cult. 162. 1867.
Originated in France previous to 1860, and brought to this country about that time. Canes yellowish green; prickles numerous, whitish; fruit small, long-conic, bright lemon-yellow, with a whitish bloom; drupelets very small, firm, seedy; good.

Jumbo. 1. Lovett Cat. 1915.
Originated with James A. Hyde of New Jersey. Introduced by J. T. Lovett, Little Silver, New Jersey, in 1915, but withdrawn in 1917 as it proved tender to cold. Plants described as very vigorous and productive; fruit large, bright red, melting, rich.

Jumbo (of Canada). 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt, 285. 1922.
Fruit large, conic, deep crimson, firm, mildly subacid* lacking in flavor; quality medium; midseason.

June. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 364:190, PL 1913, 2. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 278, fig. 241. 1922.
June has become a general favorite among growers of raspberries because of several remarkable assets. The plants are hardy, very vigorous, and the yield is not only heavy but is well distributed over a long season. The characteristic which forms the chief merit, however, is that it is about the earliest of all red raspberries, ripening its fruits at this Station in June, as does no other variety. The plants produce comparatively few suckers and these are widely separated so that the crop matures well. June is a cross between Loudon and Marlboro both of which it surpasses in most characters. The fruits resemble those of Loudon in color, but are a brighter, handsomer red; they are larger, and usually more spherical. The product ships well throughout the season and is good in quality although not of the best. The variety seems to do rather better on heavy soils than on light soils. June originated on the grounds of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station in 1897.
Plants tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, very productive, contract mosaic slowly and but moderately injured, attacked by cane-blight in but few localities, propagated by suckers; canes rather few, making the increase of stock slow, stocky, greenish changing to reddish brown, heavily glaucous, with eglandular tips; prickles practically none or only toward the base of the suckers; leaflets usually 5, roundish ovate, the lobes often broadly and shallowly cut, dark green, rugose, with faintly dentate margins; petiole of medium length, thick, glabrous, glaucous. Flowers early; pedicels eglandular, glabrous; calyx smooth. Fruit very early, season long, ships well; large to very large, holds size unusually well until the close of the season, roundish to ovate-round, bright, handsome, medium to dark red, adheres well to the torus which is rough and whitish; drupelets large, coherent; cavity-scars inconspicuous; flesh juicy, firm but tender, mildly subacid; quality fair to good although not of the highest.


Kathrine. 1. Townsend Cat. 34. 1925.
A seedling of Ranere originated by E. W. Townsend in 1922 and introduced by his company, Salisbury, Maryland, in 1925. Described as very similar to Ranere but more productive.

Keighley Queen, 1. Jour. Hort. 25:135. 1892.
A sample of this variety was sent to the editor of the Journal of Horticulture in August, 1892, for his opinion as to its value. It was reported as "very good."

Kenyon. Strigosus x Occidentalis. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:36. 1894. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:117. 1906.
Eenyon was introduced by T. A. Kenyon, McGregor, Iowa, who found it growing in a row of black raspberries in 1885. It is supposed to be a seedling of Shaffer, but it does not propagate from the tips. Kenyon is considered of value in Iowa because of hardiness and productivity, but is inferior to other sorts as grown here. Plants vigorous, hardy, productive; fruit above medium in size, dark red, moderately firm, crumbly, separating from the torus with difficulty; fair in flavor and quality.

Kevitt Hybrid. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 285. 1921.
Introduced by William H. Hunt Company of New York City in 1921. Said to be a very strong grower, hardy and nearly free from seeds.

Keystone. 1. Rural N. Y. 15:335. 1864.
A seedling of Hornet (I) raised by A. L. Felton of Philadelphia, about 1864. Plants not hardy; fruit large, bright red; flesh tender, highly flavored.

King. 1. U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt. 265. 1892. 2. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 278. 1922. Thompson King. 3. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:314. 1894. Early King. 4. Ohio Sta. Bul. 63:109. 1895.
This midsummer sort, although hardy, is not as satisfactory in New York and the North as several other standard sorts, but in West Virginia and westward through the Central West it is counted as one of the best early red raspberries. In Minnesota it is especially valued. Wherever grown, it thrives best on clay soils. In New York the fruits are coarser and more crumbly than other standard sorts. It is fairly free from mosaic, but is by no means immune. King was grown from seed, possibly of Thompson, by T. Thomspon, Richmond, Virginia. The variety was introduced by the Cleveland Nursery Company, Rio Vista, Virginia, in 1892. The American Pomological Society added King to its fruit catalog list in 1909.
Plants tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, productive, contract mosaic slowly; propagated by suckers; canes numerous, stocky, greenish becoming yellowish brown, glabrous, glaucous, with a few glands at the tips; prickles small, rather slender, weak, medium in number, light red; leaflets 3-5, somewhat small, dark green, more or less pubescent; petiole of average length and thickness, prickly, pubescent, glandular. Flowers late; pedicels medium in length and thickness, pubescent, glandular; calyx prickly. Fruit early midseason or earlier; medium to large, hemispherical, light but glossy red, with very thin bloom; styles conspicuous; torus slightly rough, roundish; drupelets small but rather coarse, cohering poorly, the berries often crumbling badly; flesh lacking somewhat in juiciness, variable in firmness, tender, with insipid flavor when poorly grown; quality rather poor, although variable.

King of the Market. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 285. 1921.
Originated by George W. Elliott, Makanda, Illinois, and introduced by Bradley Brothers of Makanda in 1915. Plants upright, stalky, productive; fruit attractive light crimson, firm, rich, delicious; double-cropper.

Kirriemuir Fillbasket. 1. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Sci. 3:27. 1922.
Received at the East Mailing Research Station in England with the report that it degenerates rapidly to a form of much less value. The degenerate form is known as Common Fillbasket; the fruit is smaller and the plants less productive. The true type is said to be the largest fruited and heaviest yielder of all varieties known in Perthshire. Canes dull reddish purple, heavily glaucous, glabrous; prickles few or almost absent, short, stout; fruit large, round, bright red.

Kirtland. 1. Mag. Hort. 26:223. 1860. 2. U. S. D. A. Rpt. 136, PL 12. 1866. Cincinnati Red. 3. Horticulturist 24:315. 1869.
Discovered previous to 1858 by Dr. J. A. Warder growing in the garden of Dr. J. P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio. Dr. Kirtland believed he had obtained the plants elsewhere, but it was not recognized as any known variety. It was named and introduced by H. F. Lum, Sandusky, Ohio. From the variation in the different descriptions it is probable that more than one sort passed under this name. The variety is hardy but is injured by the sun in the South. Plants vigorous, upright, with few branches, hardy, productive; prickles few, weak, whitish; fruit medium to large, roundish, bright red; drupelets large, firm, not juicy, nor of high quality.

Knevett Giant 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 518. 1845. 2. Horticulturist 4:79, fig. 71. 1849-50.
Imported from England about 1843 by Marshall P. Wilder of Boston, who received the plants as a present from Messrs. Chandler et Company, Vauxhall, England, who knew nothing of the origin of the variety. It was considered an excellent sort, similar to Red Antwerp but more hardy. Plants upright, vigorous, hardy, productive; prickles few, short, purplish; fruit large, roundish conic, dark red, firm; good.

Koch. 1. AT. Y. Sta. Bui 278:117. 1906.
An unnamed seedling grown by C. H. Koch, Middlehope, New York, which was received for trial at this Station in 1896. Inferior to other varieties. Plants of moderate vigor and tender to cold; fruit medium in size, firm, crumbly; good.

Kreigh. 1. Gard. Mon. 22:276. 1880.
A sample of this variety, a new seedling, was sent to the editor of Gardener's Monthly in 1880. Plants described as hardy, productive; fruit of fair size, firm and of excellent quality.


La France. 1. Armstrong Cat. 22, fig. 1922. 2. Lovett Cat. 8, fig. 1923.
On the grounds of this Station, La France is so similar in plant and fruit to Erskine Park that a separate description is not necessary. The plants grown here were secured from the introducer, as they have been from several other sources, and have been observed in several different localities, so that without question it can be said that in no essential characters does the La France differ from Erskine Park. There is hesitancy, however, in saying that the variety is Erskine Park renamed when there is a definite statement of another origin. La France is said to have originated as a seedling of a French berry. It was discovered by A. Alius, Stamford, Connecticut, about 1912. The variety was introduced in 1920 by John Scheepers, New York City.

Lady Anne. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:37. 1894.
Mentioned as on trial at the experimental farm at Agassiz, British Columbia. Originated by Dr. William Saunders, London, Ontario.

Large Fruited Monthly. 1. Gard. Chron. 687. 1847. 2. Barry Fr. Gard. 344. 1851. Rivers' New Monthly. 3. Gard. Mon. 2:333. 1860.
Thomas Rivers imported this variety into England from the continent about 1847. It was brought to this country a few years later but never became of any importance. Plants moderately vigorous, upright, not hardy, fairly productive; suckers profusely; fruit large, roundish conic, red, soft, sweet; excellent; autumn-fruiting.

Large White. 1. Mag. Hort. 3:23. 1837. Grosse Blanche. 2. Bunyard-Thomas Fr. Gard. 165. 1904.
First mentioned in 1837 as a desirable variety. Bunyard describes it as a free grower, continuing a long time in bearing. The fruit is amber colored.

Latham. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 161. 1920. Minnesota No. 4. 2. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 276. 1915. Redpath. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 285. 1921.
Latham is among the most notable red raspberries recently introduced. The plants are conspicuous for their hardiness and healthiness, although they contract the dreaded mosaic disease rather rapidly, and are often much injured by powdery mildew. Because of the great vigor of the plant, however, the injury from mosaic is rather less than with the average red raspberry. The berries are very large, bright red, glossy, and hold up in size well. Unfortunately, they are rather inferior in flavor, crumble a little more than one likes, and there are often a considerable number of double berries. The large size, however, and their attractive appearance more than make up for the faults. Latham is rapidly taking a high place among red raspberries because of its hardy and productive plants and its attractive fruits. This berry was originated at the Minnesota State Fruit Breeding Farm as a cross between King and Loudon and was introduced in 1912 as Minnesota Number 4. It was named Latham in honor of A. W. Latham, long Secretary of the Minnesota State Horticultural Society. Redpath, which was introduced by J. V. Bailey, St. Paul, Minnesota, in 1921, is identical with Latham.
Plants tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, very hardy, very productive, contract mosaic rapidly, moderately injured; severely injured by powdery mildew; propagated by suckers; canes numerous, very stocky, green changing to reddish brown, very glaucous, with eglandular tips; prickles small, slender, weak, few or none, brownish; leaflets 3-5, large, oval, dark green, dull, thick, rugose, with serrate margins; petiole medium in length and thickness, slightly prickly, glabrous, glaucous. Flowers late; pedicels prickly, glandular, pubescent; calyx prickly. Fruit late, withstands drouth well; large to very large, hemispherical, in some seasons inclined to grow double, light red, glossy, adheres to the torus which is rough and pointed; drupelets medium to large, somewhat coarse in appearance, with weak coherence making the berries crumble under unfavorable conditions; flesh juicy, firm, mildly subacid, variable in flavor; good in quality, sometimes below.

Leyerle. 1. Childs Cat. 32. 1920.
Originated with Jake Leyerle, Jackson County, Illinois. It was introduced as an everbearing red raspberry in 1920 by John Lewis Childs, Floral Park, New York. As grown at this Station it is not an everbearer and is far inferior to other varieties of its season. Plants tall, vigorous, upright, medium in productivity; suckers numerous; canes glaucous, with glandular tips; prickles numerous, very small; fruit of medium size, irregular, short, roundish; drupelets medium in size, coherence medium; dull unattractive red, medium juicy, soft, mild; fair; early midseason.

Lindley. 1. Am. Hort. Ann. 103. 1867.
Raised by Joseph B. Lindley, Newark, New Jersey, previous to 1867. Said to be a hybrid between Fastolff and a native variety. Plants strong, tall, upright, much branched, tender to cold; suckers too freely; prickles numerous, stout, greenish; fruit medium to large, slightly blunt-conic, red; drupelets medium to large, compact, soft, juicy, sweet; good.

Little Prolific, 1. Rural N. Y. 42:638. 1883.
A chance seedling sent out in 1883 by Joseph Little, Granton, Ontario. It was never widely disseminated and soon went out of cultivation. Plants slender, branching, without prickles, hardy, very productive; fruit of medium size, slightly roundish conic, light purplish red, moderately firm, juicy, with acid flavor; early.

Lloyd George. 1. Bunyard Cat. 57. 1921. 2. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Set. 3:28. 1922.
Lloyd George is a chance seedling found growing in a wood in Dorsetshire, England, a few years ago. It was introduced by J. J. Kettle, Corfe Castle, Dorset, England, and is considered one of the most promising of recent introductions. It was introduced as an autumn-fruiting sort but is unreliable in that respect. The plants are vigorous, stout, upright; prickles very numerous, small, stout and very dark colored; leaves very flat; fruit very large and very long, oblong-conic, rounded at the end, sweet; good.

Longworth. 1, Horticulturist 8:187. 1853.
A seedling of Col. Wilder raised by Dr. W. D. Brincklé of Philadelphia about 1847. Fruit large, round, deep crimson.

Lord Beaconsfield. 1. Flor. et Pom. 140. 1883.
A chance seedling found in the garden of A. Faulkner, Inkpen, near Hungerford, England, in 1873. It was exhibited before the Royal Horticultural Society in August, 1883, and received a first class certificate from that organization. Plant described as tall, stout, very productive; fruit large, slightly roundish conic, dark red; of fine quality; season long.

Lome. 1. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 56:47. 1907.
Originated by Dr. William Saunders, Ottawa, Canada. It is not especially promising. A strong grower, moderately productive; fruit above medium in size, conic, dark red, firm, juicy, subacid, pleasing; good; midseason.

Lost Rubies. 1. Cult et Count. Gent. 46:742. 1881. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bui 63:683. 1893. Found growing in a bed of Naomi by A. M. Purdy, Palmyra, New York; introduced by Charles A. Green, Rochester, New York, about 1881. Some have thought it to be identical with Naomi, but most reports indicate that it is different. The blossoms are deficient in pollen and require the presence of another variety to set good crops. As grown here the variety is neither hardy nor productive. The fruits are small, soft, and crumble badly; earlier than Cuthbert.

Louboro. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 2g8:56. 1908.
A seedling of Loudon x Marlboro raised at this Station from a cross made in 1897. The first fruit was borne in 1900, and the first plants were sent out in 1908. It has not proved of much value, owing to the light color and softness of the fruit and the dwarfish character of the plants. Plants medium to dwarfish in height, of medium vigor, upright, hardy, productive; suckers medium in number; canes glabrous; tips eglandular; prickles very few; fruit of medium size, broad, roundish; drupelets large, of medium coherence, light red, rather soft, sweet; good; midseason.

Loudon. 1. Rural N. Y. 52:618. 1893. 2- Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:288. 1894. 3. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:117. 1906.
Long a standard sort, Loudon seems now to be declining in favor with commercial berry growers. It is difficult to see why it is losing in popularity, but probably because the plants are not very productive and are subject to crown-gall or "knotty roots." The quality, also, is not quite up to the mark and the berries very often run small or below size. The plants are very hardy, very vigorous, and for these reasons the variety is still largely grown toward the northern limits for this fruit. The product is liked by canners because the berries hold their color well. Loudon was originated by Frank W. Loudon about 1884, as a cross between Turner and Cuthbert. In 1897 the variety was added to the recommended fruit list of the American Pomological Society. Loudon was introduced by Charles A. Green, Rochester, New York.
Plants medium in height and vigor, upright, very hardy, variable in productiveness and health, contract mosaic slowly; propagated by suckers; canes numerous, stocky, greenish changing to rather bright red but brown towards the base, with eglandular tips; prickles medium in number, short, rather stout, reddish; leaflets 3-5, oval, dark green, thick, rugose, with dentate margins; petiole long, thick, prickly. Fruit midseason, harvest period long, holds up in size very well; medium to large, conic, bright red, clings well to the torus which releases the berries readily; drupelets large with a well-marked suture, cohering so that the berries do not crumble; flesh juicy, firm, tender, moderately sweet, pleasantly aromatic; good in quality although not equalling Cuthbert.

Louis Bonne. 1. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 22:16. 1895.
Imported from France by W. W. Dunlop of Montreal, in 1892. The foliage is of the blackberry type. The fruit is of no value as many of the drupelets fail to develop.


Magnum Bonum. 1. Mag. Hort. 22:27. 1856.
Mentioned in the Magazine of Horticulture for 1856 as a new variety recently received from England. Plants of medium vigor, tender to cold; suckers profusely; fruit medium in size, roundish or slightly conic, deep yellow, soft, juicy, briskly subacid, pleasing; good; midseason.

Manitou. 1. III. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 213, 224. 1906.
E. A. Riehl, Godfrey, Illinois, procured this berry of A. B. Sibert, Rochester, Indiana, in 1905. On trial in Illinois in 1906, it was said to be very promising on clay soils, A free plant maker and very productive; fruit large, bright red, firm, well flavored.

Marlative. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 298:57. 1907.
A seedling of Marlboro x Superlative grown at this Station from a cross made in 1897. Plants were first sent out in 1908. It was introduced because of the unusual attractiveness in size and color of fruit, but lack of hardiness has caused its propagation to be discontinued. Plants stocky, semi-dwarf, upright-spreading, half-hardy, very productive; suckers numerous; canes glaucous; prickles few, small; fruit large, roundish ovate, dark red; drupelets large, coarse, crumbly, melting, sweet, pleasing; good; midseason.

Marlboro. 1. Cult. et Count. Gent. 46:742. 1881. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:118. 1906. Perfection. 3. Bunyard Cat. 50. 1915-16.
This old sort, formerly grown in all the raspberry regions of North America, is now losing popularity. It still is, however, a standard early red raspberry in a few localities in New York and the East, along the shores of Lake Erie, and in Colorado. The variety is prized, where it succeeds, for hardiness and productiveness of plant; for its very large handsome fruits; and because the crop hangs on the bushes three or four days after maturity and is still marketable, in which respect the variety is unique. The defects which have caused its wane in popularity are that the plants are capricious as to soils, lack in vigor, and suffer much from even a slight drouth. A. J. Caywood, Marlboro, New York,, originated this berry nearly fifty years ago. It is supposed to be a cross between one of Caywood's seedlings and Highland Hardy, and was introduced in 1884. In 1885 the American Pomological Society added Marlboro to its list of recommended fruits.
Plants of medium height and vigor, semi-dwarfish, upright, hardy, very productive, not very healthy, contract mosaic rapidly and are severely injured, susceptible to cane-blight; propagated by suckers; canes numerous, stocky, green becoming reddish brown or bright red especially towards the ends, with glandular tips; prickles very small, slender, weak, few, lightly tinged purple; leaflets 3-5, oval, sometimes lobed, dark green, dull, rugose, often crinkly, with serrate margins; petiole thick, prickly pubescent, eglandular. Flowers Very early; pedicels eglandular, nearly glabrous; calyx smooth. Fruit early; large to medium, regular, round-conic, light to dark but bright red, releases readily from the torus which is blunt and pinkish white; drupelets irregular, adhering so well that the berries do not usually crumble, although there may be some crumbling in unfavorable seasons; flesh juicy, firm but tender, mild and rather poor flavor; quality not above good.

Marldon. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 298:56. 1908. 2. Ibid. 403:219, PI. 1915.
A seedling of Marlboro x Loudon grown from seed of a cross made at this Station in 1897. Plants were distributed for trial in 1908 and since then favorable reports as to its behavior have been received. Plants vigorous, upright, hardy, productive; suckers profusely; canes stockier than either parent, light brownish gray; prickles slender, weak, few; leaves thick, dark green, rugose; fruit large, conic, dark red; drupelets large, numerous, of medium coherence, firm, juicy, sprightly, pleasant; fair to good; midseason, a week earlier than Cuthbert.

Mary. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:40. 1894.
A seedling of unknown parentage which originated with Dr. William Saunders, Ottawa, Canada. Plants of medium vigor, not hardy at Ottawa; fruit above medium in size, bright red, roundish or slightly conic, fairly firm, moderately juicy, subacid; good flavor and quality; midseason.

Mary Lewis. 1. Mitting Nur. Circ. 1920.
Said to be a cross between Superlative and Ranere originated by E. De Roo Mitting, Holland, Michigan, in 1914. It was introduced by the originator in 1920 as an everbearing variety. Described as an upright grower and heavy cropper with large, firm, pointed, crimson berries.

Mendocino. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:40. 1894-
Said to have originated in Mendocino County, California. Large and very sweet. Used by Luther Burbank as a parent in breeding raspberries.

Meredith. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 55:18. 1889. Meredith Queen. 2. Rural N. Y. 43:793, fig. 489. 1884. 3. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:683. 1893.
Discovered growing wild in Meredith, New York, in 1880, by E. J. Brownell, Franklin, New York, who sent out plants in 1883 and offered them for sale in 1885. In 1893 several horticulturists believed it the only wild yellow Strigosus known to have been introduced into cultivation. The plants were vigorous, not hardy and suckered freely; canes purplish green, with red tips; fruit of medium size, roundish, reddish salmon, soft, juicy; good; late.

Merkel. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. Am. Gard. 12:369, 1891.
Described as having large, hardy and exceedingly productive plants that do not sucker; fruit firm, with a currant flavor, darker than Cuthbert in color and with the size and shape of Gregg.

Michigan. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:41. 1894. Michigan Early. 2. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 268. 1885.
Introduced about 1883 by William Parry of New Jersey. This sort is supposed to have originated in Michigan. Plants hardy but lacking in vigor and productiveness; fruit small, conic, moderately firm, dark red, of poor quality.

Mildred. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 161. 1920.
Offered by the Tipton Nursery, Little Rock, Arkansas. Plants described as strong, stocky, prolific, enduring hot weather and drouths; fruit very large, bright red; high in quality.

Miller. 1. U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt. 27. 1894. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:118. 1906. Miller's Woodland. 3. Hills Sm. Fruits 71. 1886. Miller Red. 4. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 91. 1896. Miller Early. 5. Mass. Sta. Bul. 52:10. 1898.
Originated with a Mr. Miller, near Wilmington, Delaware. This Mr. Miller also originated the Brandywine raspberry. It was Miller's intention to introduce this about 1885 as Miller's Woodland, but his death prevented and the stock fell into the hands of a grower in Sussex County who propagated it for his own use. It was not until ten years later that the variety began to be disseminated. In 1894 it was described as very promising in the Report of the Pomologist of the Department of Agriculture. It is probable that more than one sort went under this name as descriptions of the plant vary widely. The American Pomological Society placed Miller in its catalog in 1901 where it remained in 1909. Plants weak and semi-dwarf; suckers freely, usually hardy, moderately productive; prickles slender, weak, medium in number; fruit of medium size, broad-roundish, medium red, firm, not juicy, sometimes crumbly; fair flavor and quality; midseason.

Minnesota No. 1. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 191. 1917.
A seedling of King x Loudon introduced by the Minnesota Fruit Breeding Farm at Excelsior, Minnesota. It is similar to Latham but ripens about a week earlier.

Minnetonka. 1. S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 104:289. 1907.
Originated about 1890 by F. J. Empenger, Maple Plain, Minnesota, who planted mixed seed of Cuthbert, Turner, and a wild raspberry. From the resulting seedlings Minnetonka was selected. At the South Dakota Station it was the hardiest of the cultivated varieties and was of some value for that part of the country. Plants of medium height and vigor, slightly drooping, hardy, productive and suckers freely; canes yellowish brown, glaucous; prickles medium in number, small, weak; fruit of medium size, broadly roundish; drupelets rather large, coarse, slightly crumbly, bright red, juicy, firm, sprightly; good; early

Mitchell. 1. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Set. 3:28. 1922.
This variety is grown considerably around Blairgowrie, Scotland, and by some is thought to be some other variety renamed. Plants erect, stout, very productive; canes moderately numerous, glaucous, glabrous; prickles medium in number, short, stout, dark purplish, conspicuous; fruit roundish, or slightly oblong.

Montclair. 1. Cult et Count. Gent. 43:470. 1878. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:683. 1893.
A supposed seedling of Philadelphia which originated on the grounds of Messrs. E. et J. C. Williams, Montclair, New Jersey, about 1872; introduced in 1879. It was placed in the fruit catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1883 and removed in 1897. It has been described as a variety of Rubus strigosus, while it is listed as R. neglectus in the American Pomological Society catalog. Plants vigorous, productive, suckering freely; foliage much wrinkled; fruit above medium size, conic, dark red, firm, mildly subacid, pleasing in flavor; good; early midseason.

Moonbeam. Strigosus x Occidentalis. 1. S. Dak. Sta. Cat. 1922.
A cross of a wild red raspberry from Cavalier, North Dakota, with a cross of the wild red from the Black Hills of South Dakota and the purple raspberry, Shaffer. It originated with Prof. N. E. Hansen at the South Dakota Experiment Station, Brookings, South Dakota, and was introduced in 1922. Plants dwarfish, stocky, with few prickles; fruit large, late, firm.

Morrison. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:124, 1906.
Originated with J. P. Morrison, Forestville, New York. Sent to this Station for trial in 1896. Inferior to Shaffer and Columbian. Plants vigorous, nearly hardy, moderately productive; fruit small, irregular in size; drupelets large, soft; flavor and quality fair.

Mote Everbearing. Occidentalism Strigosus. 1. Downing Fr. Trees. Am. 970. 1869.
Originated by L. S. Mote, West Milton, Ohio, prior to 1867. Described as an everbearing variety similar to Catawissa. Canes vigorous, brownish, branching, with numerous slender, sharp prickles; fruit medium in size, roundish, obtuse, dark red, with bloom; drupelets large, firm, juicy, subacid.

Mowry.
An unintroduced seedling of Cuthbert found growing among plants of that variety in 1921 by T. B. Mowry, Mexico, New York. It was the most promising of five seedlings growing from a Cuthbert berry which had fallen to the ground. Sent to this Station for trial in 1924.

Mrs. Ingersoll. 1. Horticulturist 8:187. 1853.
Originated with Dr. W. D. Brincklé of Philadelphia, about 1850. Plants white spined; fruit large, conical, yellow.

Mrs. Wilder. 1. Horticulturist 8:187. 1853.
Originated by Dr. W. D. Brincklé of Philadelphia, about 1850. A seedling of Col. Wilder, resembling it in brilliancy and general appearance of fruits, but larger and deeper yellow in color; white spined.

Mrs. Wood. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. Horticulturist 22:229. 1867.
Originated with Mrs. Reuben Wood, Rockport, Ohio, being new in 1867. It was supposed to be a cross of a black cap and a purple raspberry. Plants very strong, much branched, productive; canes dark brownish red when mature; fruit medium in size, roundish conic, reddish purple, with bloom, firm, juicy, sprightly subacid; late.

Muriel. I. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:43. 1894. 2. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 56:47. 1907.
A seedling of Biggar originated by Dr. William Saunders, Ottawa, Canada, previous to 1894. Described as vigorous and productive; fruit medium to above in size, roundish to slightly conic, bright red, moderately firm, juicy, subacid; quality above medium; early.

Muskberry. 1. Childs Cat. 135. 1897. 2. Mich. Sta. Bul. 206:59. I903-
Introduced by J. L. Childs in 1897 as belonging to the raspberry family. Plant described in 1903 in Michigan Station Bulletin 206 as a rank grower, reaching a height of eight to ten feet, and spreading so rapidly from the roots as to become a nuisance in the garden; fruit of good size and attractive red in appearance, but the flavor is insipid and disagreeable. The bushes have a musky odor.

Muskingum. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. Ann. Hort. 104. 1889. 2. N. Y Sta. Bul. 63:678. 1893.
Originated about 1880 in the orchard of Mrs. Simeon Ellis, Coshocton County, near the Muskingum River in Ohio. Named and introduced by James Madison, Chili, Ohio. It was similar to Shaffer, the plants being smaller and more compact, and the fruit smaller and firmer. Plants vigorous and fairly hardy; fruit medium to large, soft, moderately juicy, acid flavor; good.


Naomi. 1. Horticulturist 20:322, fig. 1865. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:683. 1893.
Grown from seed about 1850 by Mrs. Reuben Wood, Rockport, Ohio. It was introduced about 1866 by Charles Carpenter, Kelleys Island, Ohio. Much confusion exists regarding this variety and many pomologists have insisted that Naomi was identical with Franconia, while Lost Rubies, Cuthbert, and Fastolff have also been given as synonyms. From various reports it is evident that the stock of Naomi was badly mixed when introduced or soon after. It is probable, too, that Naomi and Franconia are very similar. The descriptions of both varieties as grown here agree rather closely. Naomi is said to be hardier and the drupelets smaller than with Franconia. Plants vigorous, only moderately hardy, of medium productivity; suckers few; canes slender, with few laterals, reddish brown; prickles numerous, small; fruit large, roundish, slightly conical, bright attractive red; drupelets large, rather soft, mildly subacid, pleasant in flavor; good; late midseason.

Narragansett. 1. Gard.Mon. 14:28. 1872.
A seedling of Orange, which originated in the garden of John F. Jolls, Providence, Rhode Island, first fruiting in 1868. Described as a large, vigorous, hardy plant, with large, conic, bright red, firm, well flavored berries; autumn-fruiting.

Nature. 1. AT. Y. State Fr.Gr. Assoc. Rpt. 179. 1910.
Mentioned in a discussion at a meeting of the New York State Fruit Growers' Association as an old-fashioned variety. Considered a firm and very good shipping berry.

Nelson. 1. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 56:48. 1907.
Originated by Dr. William Saunders, Ottawa, Canada. Plant described as vigorous, moderately productive and not hardy enough at Ottawa. Fruit above medium in size, slightly conic, dark red, firm, moderately juicy, subacid; above medium quality; midseason.

New Rochelle. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. Gard. Mon. 19:115. 1877.
A seedling of Catawissa, raised about 1875 by S. P. Carpenter, New Rochelle, New York. Plants vigorous, upright, firm and very productive, propagating from the tips; canes stocky, short pointed, much branched, with numerous short, stiff, greenish to light red prickles; fruit medium to large, blunt-conic, dark purplish red, with a slight bloom, firm, juicy, with a rich subacid flavor; season long.

Newman. 1. Ont. Fr. Gr. Assoc. Rpt. 54. 1919. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 514:10. 1924.
In a collection of about one hundred varieties of red raspberries on the grounds of this Station Newman has been for several years one of the best if not the best. The variety is remarkable for its large, handsome fruits which are borne in great profusion. It is one of the most productive red raspberries of any kind ever grown on the grounds of this Station. The quality of the product is not high, but it is good, and few would notice that it is not up to the best. The berries are firm and ship well. The plants are vigorous, very hardy, healthy, and, as has been said, exceedingly productive. The characteristic that commends Newman most highly, however, is that the plants are almost free from the mosaic disease that is everywhere destroying red raspberries in this State. The originator, C. P. Newman, Ville Lasalle, Quebec, planted in 1909 a mixture of seed of Herbert, King, Loudon, Cuthbert, and Eaton, all open to cross pollination, and from a large number of seedlings this variety was selected as the best. Mr. Newman gave the New York State Fruit Testing Association, Geneva, New York, permission to distribute his new berry.
Plants above medium in height, vigorous, upright-spreading, very hardy, very productive, contract mosaic very slowly, moderately injured; propagated by suckers; canes numerous, medium to stocky, green changing to reddish brown, thinly glaucous, with eglandular tips; prickles small, slender, weak, very few or none, reddish; leaflets usually 5, roundish obovate, dull, rugose, with serrate margins; petiole medium in length and thick-ness, slightly prickly, glabrous. Flowers early; pedicels very prickly, glandular, pubescent. Fruit midseason, ships well; large to very large, uniform, round-conic, glossy red, with heavy bloom, picks easily but adheres well to the torus which is roughish and creamy white; drupelets of medium size, with strong coherence; flesh moderately juicy or somewhat scant, very firm but tender, mildly subacid, not highly flavored; quality fair to good.

Newman No. 20.
Raised from open-pollinated seed of Eaton sown in the fall of 1907 by C. P. Newman, Ville Lasalle, Quebec. It was sent out for trial in 1915. As grown at this Station it is a very promising late variety, the fruit being of large size, firm and of fairly good quality. The color is rather light for a market berry. The plants are healthy, hardy, and productive on the Station grounds, but Mr. Newman reports that a considerable part of the crop sometimes dries up, thereby reducing production. Plants tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, productive; canes stocky, green tinged reddish brown, thinly glaucous; tips eglandular; prickles slender, numerous, dark purple; foliage dull medium green, roughened; flowers late; fruit uniformly large, regular, roundish conic; drupelets medium in number, large, strongly coherent, light to medium red, rather dull, juicy, firm, mildly subacid; good; late.

Niagara. 1. W. N. Y.Hort. Soc. Rpt. 23. 1882. 2. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 22:17. 1895. Said to be a cross between Clarke and Philadelphia, raised and introduced by A. M. Smith, St. Catherines, Ontario, prior to 1882. Plants moderately vigorous, hardy, very productive; fruit medium to large, roundish ovate, red, firm, pleasant acid flavor; good; midseason.

North Ward. 1. Jour. Pom. et Hort Set. 3:29. 1922.
Received at the East Malling Research Station in England from a Cornish grower with a note that the name was thought to be local and to have been applied to a variety grown elsewhere under another name. Canes stout, glabrous, not very erect; prickles long, stout, numerous; fruits large and irregularly conic. The variety promises to be productive.

Norwalk. 1. Cult. et Count Gent. 43:151. 1878.
Introduced by Mallory et Downs, South Norwalk, Connecticut, in 1879, after having been grown by them for several years. Fruit similar to that of the Red Antwerp but less downy.

Norwich Wonder. 1. Jour. Hort. 29:199. 1894. 2. Bunyard-Thomas Fr. Gard. 165. 1904.
Mentioned in the Journal of Horticulture in 1894 as doing well on alluvial soils, and with the statement that "Norwich Wonder is one of the oldest raspberries in cultivation, as it had been grown in Kent for over sixty years, and it is one of the hardiest, most enduring and heavy cropping. "Plants rather weak, productive; canes usually few, stout, densely pubescent, green, with purplish tinge; prickles numerous, stout; fruit conical or roundish oval, dark red; drupelets large; flavor sweet; very good; early.

Norwood. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. Horticulturist 2912 50. 1874. Norwood Prolific. 2. Gard. Mon. 17:333. 1875.
Introduced about 1874 by Hovey et Company, Cambridge, Massachusetts, who described it as a hybrid between the red raspberry and the black cap, having the large berry of the former and the strong growth and prolific bearing of the latter. Plants very vigorous, hardy, and very productive. Canes strong, with numerous branches, do not sucker but propagate from the tips; fruit large, purplish red, with rich, brisk flavor.

Nottingham Scarlet. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 518. 1847.
An English variety introduced prior to 1847 by Marshall P. Wilder of Boston. It was considered by him the richest flavored of the older varieties. Fruit medium in size, blunt-conic, red.

November Abundance. Idaeus x (Occidentalis x Strigosus). 1. Garden 63:33. 1903. 2. Bunyard Cat. 50. 1915-16.
Introduced about 1902 by James Veitch et Sons, Chelsea, England; received an award of merit from the Royal Horticultural Society in that year. Said to be a cross between the Superlative and the Catawissa, a purple raspberry. Plants vigorous and very productive; fruit very large, dark red; late; autumn-fruiting.


October Giant. 1. Burbank Cat. 31. 1893.
A seedling of Eureka originated by Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, California. Described as bearing fruits in October, of unusual size, measuring nearly four inches in circumference, soft, bright red.

Ohta. 1. S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 159:184. 1915. 2. U. S. D. A. Farmers' Bul. 887:40. 1917. Flaming Giant 3. Stark Bros. Cat 64. 1921.
A cross of a wild red raspberry from Cavalier County, North Dakota, and Minnetonka, which was originated by Prof. N. E. Hansen, of South Dakota Experiment Station in 1906. It was named Ohta, the Sioux Indian word for "much" or "many" and introduced by the Station in 1912. Where hardiness is essential, Ohta is a promising variety. The crops are fairly heavy. It is inferior to standard varieties at this Station in size and flavor, the latter being too tart for a table berry. Plants tall, vigorous, upright, hardy and productive; suckers very numerous; canes slender, green tinged reddish brown, heavily glaucous, with glandular tips; prickles small, slender, very numerous; leaflets medium in size, oval, dark green, roughened; petiole long, slender, prickly, 'pubescent, glabrous, glandular, slightly glaucous; flowers early, white; fruit variable in size, medium to above, roundish; drupelets medium in number and coherence, light red, vary from soft to firm, tart; poor; early.

Olathe. 1. N. Y. Sta. BuL 63:6*4. 1893. Stayman No. 5. 2. Mass. Sta. Bul. 10:11. 1890.
A seedling of Reliance originated by J. Stayman, Leavenworth, Kansas, from seed planted by him in 1884. It was sent to experiment stations for trial about 1890 and in 1894 was named Olathe by the originator. As grown here the fruit is inclined to crumble. Plants upright, vigorous, hardy and very productive; canes slender, tinged with red; fruit large, attractive dark red, firm; drupelets medium in size, inclined to crumble, firm, juicy; good; late.

Ontario. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 161. 1920. 2. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 279. 1922.
Ontario has the record of having surpassed every other variety ever grown on the Station grounds in quantity of fruit. It seems to make a place for itself in commercial plantations to precede Cuthbert and to follow Marlboro, Perfection, and June. The berries are large, handsome, well flavored, keep and ship well. The fruit is too dark when fully ripe, but remains firm. Perhaps it is not too much to say that it is one of the very best shippers, and, because of the firmness, it makes a good sort for commercial canning. Ontario was originated as a second generation seedling of Superlative and Loudon in 1909 by the New York Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, New York. The variety fruited first in 1911 and was introduced by the New York State Fruit Testing Association of Geneva in 1919.
Plants tall, very vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, very productive, surpassing any other variety yet fruited at this Station, contract mosaic slowly and are but moderately injured; suckers numerous, quickly making a matted row, stocky, green changing to reddish brown, glaucous, with eglandular tips, devoid of prickles; leaflets usually 5, about medium in size, roundish ovate, dark green, slightly glossy, very rugose, with dentate margins; petiole long, very thick, glabrous, glaucous. Flowers early; pedicels eglandular, with few prickles, glabrous, glaucous; calyx smooth. Fruit early, or early midseason, ships well; large to very large, uniform and retaining size throughout the season, broad-conic, medium red becoming darker when fully ripe but remaining firm, releasing berries readily from the torus which is roughish, slightly pointed or blunt, whitish; drupelets large, adhering so that there is no crumbling; flesh juicy, firm, mildly subacid, pleasantly aromatic; quality good to very good.

Orange. 1. Horticulturist 1:178. 1846-47. Brincklé's Orange. 2. Hoffy N. Am. Pom. PL 1860. 3. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:121. 1906.
Orange was raised from seed of Dyack Seedling in 1845 by Dr. W. D. Brincklé of Philadelphia. For a number of years it was the standard of excellence among raspberries and was widely grown as a family berry. It was of the type of the Antwerps, but more vigorous and adapted to a wider range of country. The berry was of a beautiful orange color and possessed a very rich and delicious flavor. It thrived only on cool, moist soils where the sun was not too hot, but required winter protection. The softness of the fruit prevented its becoming a general market berry. In 1854 the American Pomological Society placed it in its list of varieties promising well and in 1856 it was placed in the fruit catalog of the Society where it still remains. Dr. Brincklé stated that Orange generally reproduced itself from seed. Seedlings occasionally appeared with circular leaves, and although having perfect flowers, they never bore fruit. Plants not vigorous, dwarfish, slender, tender to cold, very productive in favorable locations; canes light gray; prickles white; fruit large, ovate; drupelets above medium in size, very soft, juicy; color a beautiful orange-pink; flavor and quality of the best; early.

Orange d'Automne. 1. Fish Hardy-Fr. Bk. 276. 1882.
Canes sturdy and productive; fruit large, bright orange, firm, juicy, richly flavored.

Oronoco. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 161. 1920.
Introduced by the Morris et Snow Seed Company, Los Angeles, California, in 1914. Said to have come from wild plants brought from the Oronoco River region in South America. Described as evergreen and a strong grower, bearing clusters of large yellow fruit of good quality.

Osceola. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:47. 1894.
Originated in Osceola County, Iowa, and reported in 1881 as a soft and very hardy variety.

Owasco. 1. N.. Y. Sta. Bul. 497:16, PL 1923.
The fruits of Owasco are the largest and handsomest red raspberries grown on the Station grounds. The berries are quite as good as they look, and if product alone were to be considered, one could say that Owasco is the nearest approach to perfection of any red raspberry. Unfortunately it fails somewhat in its plant characters. Thus, it is a poor plant maker, and, therefore, hard to propagate; again, it is variable in habit of growth; lastly, it is not as hardy as some of the standard sorts, although it is sufficiently hardy for the great berry regions of New York. Owasco is distinguished among other varieties when not in fruit by its large, coarse leaves which are very light in color. The berries are easily distinguished by their large size and conic shape. As the fruits ship and keep well, it is a most promising new commercial red raspberry. Owasco is a cross between June and Cuthbert which originated at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, New York, in 1911. It was introduced by the New York State Fruit Testing Association, Geneva, in 1922.
Plants variable in height and vigor, upright-spreading, fairly hardy, productive, contract mosaic slowly but are severely injured; susceptible to wilt; propagated by suckers; canes medium or below in number making a poor plant-maker, green changing to reddish brown, heavily glaucous, with eglandular tips; prickles very short, slender, weak, medium in number, pale red only at their tips; leaflets usually 5, of large size, oval to obovate, coarsely rugose, light green, with serrate margins; petiole long, slightly prickly, nearly glabrous, glaucous. Flowers midseason; pedicels eglandular, glabrous, prickly, glaucous; calyx prickly. Fruit midseason, ships and keeps well, picks easily; very large, the largest and handsomest of all varieties on the Station grounds, broadly conic, the surface covered with fine pubescence and with adherent styles, medium red, somewhat glossy, adheres well until over-ripe when it detaches almost too readily; torus sharply pointed, roughish and creamy-white; drupelets medium in size, coherent; cavity-scars inconspicuous; flesh juicy, firm except when over-ripe, tender, sprightly becoming sweet, highly flavored, aromatic; very good in quality.


Panhandle. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 207. 1922.
Introduced by the Clarendon Nursery Company, Clarendon, Texas; said to have been originated in their trial grounds.

Papier. 1. Gard. Mon. 2:333. 1860.
An old French variety, introduced about 1820 at Bagnolet near Paris, a center of raspberry growing for the Paris market. It was introduced into this country about 1860 by Aubry et Souchet, Carpenters Landing, New Jersey. Fruit described as of good size and excellent flavor but soft and having short fruit-stalks.

Paradise Berry. 1. Jour. Pom, et Hort. Set. 3:30. 1922.
Received at the East Mailing Research Station in England from Stavanger, Norway, with the report that it was larger than Royal. Canes densely pubescent; prickles numerous, long, stout, inconspicuous; fruit large and round.

Park Lane. 1. Jour. Pom. 1:243. 1920. 2. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Sci. 3:30, PI. 1922. Raised by George Pyne, Topsham, England, and introduced in 1912. It is considered one of the best-flavored varieties grown in England and recently received an award at trials of the Royal Horticultural Society. The softness of the fruit and frequent light crops make it a berry for the amateur only. Canes stout and vigorous; prickles very numerous, soft, slender; leaves large, broad; fruit large, roundish, soft, tender, very sweet and well flavored.

Parnell. 1. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 57. 1868. 2. N. Y. Sta. Rpt. 226. 1883.
Said to have been raised from seed of Four Seasons Red by a Mr. Parnell, Cincinnati, Ohio, about 1867. From conflicting reports as to its behavior it is probable that the stock was mixed. Plants vigorous, hardy, and productive; foliage subject to sunburn; fruit medium in size, roundish conic, bright red, firm; good.

Parry No. 1. 1. Horticulturist 24:273. 1869. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:684. 1893.
Raised from seed by William Parry, Parry, New Jersey, and sent out by him for trial about 1867. It was never named, as further trials proved it inferior to standard varieties. Plants strong, vigorous, and upright; fruit of medium size, firm, juicy, mildly subacid; good; late. Parry No. 2. x. Horticulturist 24:273. 1869. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:684. 1893.
Of the same origin as the preceding; not named. Plants vigorous and upright; fruit large, firm, moderately juicy, mildly subacid; very good; late.

Pearl. 1. Fuller Sm. Fr. Cult. 154. 1867. 2. Gard. Mon. 21:175. 1879.
A berry of unknown origin which was cultivated around Philadelphia about 1870. It was very similar to Brandywine and some growers considered them identical. William Parry states that Pearl differs from Brandywine in that the foliage starts growth a week later, the plant is less vigorous, and the fruit of Pearl is smaller. Plants short, stocky, seldom over three feet high; suckers very numerous; prickles numerous, long, slender, tinged purplish; fruit of medium size, round, light bright red, moderately firm, juicy, sweet with an agreeable flavor.

Peerless. 1. Will Nur. Cat. 75. 1919.
Originated about 1914 with John W. Millet, Bismarck, North Dakota, from a lot of mixed seedlings; introduced in 1919 as the Peerless Climbing by Oscar H. Will et Company, Bismarck, North Dakota. As grown here Peerless is not equal to standard varieties. Plants tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, productive; suckers very numerous; canes stocky, green with an occasional reddish tinge, slightly glaucous; prickles few, slender, weak, reddish; fruit medium in size, somewhat variable, roundish conic; drupelets medium in size and number, strongly coherent, dark red, slightly glossy, medium juicy, firm, mildly subacid; good; late midseason.

Pennsylvanian. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:167. ^32-
Obtained by William Prince from a London nursery under the name Rubus pennsylvanicus; he later found it identical with plants received from the forests of Maine. Canes of young shoots covered with red hairs extending from base to tip, very productive, frequently producing an autumn crop; fruit dark red, oval and of indifferent flavor.

Penwill Champion. 1. Garden661403, fig. 1904. 2. Jour. Pom.etHort.Sci. 3:31. 1922.
A chance seedling found in a garden by a Mr. Penwill, Totnes, England, a few years prior to 1904. The variety received an award of merit from the Royal Horticultural Society in 1904. It is grown occasionally in the southwest of England. Leaves with characteristic reddish tinge around the margin in late summer; prickles dark colored and conspicuous; fruit large, bluntly round, firm, dark red, very sweet; season long; autumn-fruiting.

Percy. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 109. 1900. 2, N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:124. 1906.
A seedling of Gregg by Cuthbert which originated with Dr. William Saunders, Ottawa, Canada. As grown at their station it is inferior for commercial purposes. Plants vigorous, fairly hardy, productive; fruit above medium in size, darker and softer than Shaffer and inclined to crumble; not equal to Shaffer in flavor and quality; midseason.

Perfection. 1. U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt. 394. 1891.
There are two Perfection red raspberries; one comes from New York and is now grown little or not at all, because of its susceptibility to the mosaic disease; the other comes from Wisconsin and is the subject of this discussion. Perfection was once widely grown because of productiveness and large, handsome fruits, but is being discarded because it is very susceptible to the mosaic disease and because the fruits are too soft and too much inclined to crumble to make a good commercial red raspberry. Perfection was originated by F. W. Loudon, Janesville, Wisconsin, about thirty years ago as a cross between Cuthbert and Turner.
Plants above medium in height, vigorous, upright, very hardy, lack in health, apparently contracting mosaic rapidly, moderately injured, susceptible to cane-blight; propagated by suckers; prickles numerous, stocky, green changing to dull light red or greenish brown, glabrous, heavily glaucous; prickles slender, weak, few; leaflets 3-5, rather small, long-oval, thick, glabrous, rugose, with serrate margins; petiole long, thick, with few prickles, slightly pubescent. Flowers small, in prickly clusters; pedicels short, pubescent, glandular. Fruit early midseason or earlier, injured by drouth; large to medium, regular, hemispherical, dull, dark red, clinging a little too tenaciously to the torus which is large and roughish; drupelets large, irregular, cohering weakly so that the berries sometimes crumble; flesh a little soft, tender, juicy, not very aromatic, sprightly; quality fair to good.

Perfection (of New York). 1. N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 128. 1913.
This variety is a chance seedling found in 1900 by A. H. Grefe, Marlboro, New York, who named and introduced it in 1910. It is well liked in eastern New York because of the vigor, productiveness, and hardiness of plants, but is being discarded because of susceptibility to the mosaic disease. Fruit large, bright red, rather soft, inclined to crumble; good.

Perpetuelle de Billiard. 1. Guide Prat. 21. 1895. 2. AT. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:121. 1906. Raised about 1868 by Charles Billiard, a nurseryman at Fontenay-aux-Roses, France. As grown at this Station from plants imported by the United States Department of Agriculture it is not equal to other sorts for this climate. Plants moderately vigorous, hardy and moderately productive; fruit large, soft, attractive red; good flavor and quality; autumn-fruiting according to European descriptions.

Perry Golden. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 142:159. 1897.
On trial at the Michigan Station in 1897 and said to be similar to Golden Queen.

Philadelphia. Strigosus x Occidentalis. 1. Mag. Hort. 29:460. 1863. 2. Fuller Sm. Fr. Cult. 147, fig. 1867. 3. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:684. 1893.
The origin of this variety is in doubt, but it is supposed to have been found in the wild, near Philadelphia, about 1840. It was first grown extensively on the light soils of southern New Jersey and did not attract much attention until about 1866, when its culture began to spread. Until about 1880 it was a leading market variety. Its widespread popularity was due to hardiness, heavy bearing, and adaptation to a wide range of soils and climates. The berries lacked firmness, were inclined to crumble, and the quality was not high. Philadelphia was placed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1869 and remained in the last catalog of 1909. Plants tall, vigorous, branching, hardy, very productive; suckers few; canes stocky, purplish, branching; prickles very few, very small; leaflets large, dark green, thick, tough, with a peculiar wavy appearance on the upper side; fruit above medium in size, roundish, dark red, with very little bloom; drupelets large, cohering well, rather soft, lacking juiciness, mildly subacid; season long.

Phoenix. 1. Lovett Cat. 13. 1896. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bui 278:118. 1907.
Introduced in 1896 by the J. T. Lovett Company, Little Silver, New Jersey. Said to be a seedling given to the Lovett Company by a bankrupt nurseryman a few years previously. It is of the type of Miller and as grown at this Station is inferior in size and quality to standard sorts. Plants vigorous, usually hardy, moderately productive; canes slender; fruit variable in size ranging from below medium to large, dark red, firm; drupelets medium in size, inclined to crumble; fair in flavor and quality; midseason.

Pilate. 1. Card. Mon. 2:333. 1860. 2. Fuller Sm. Fr. Cult. 163. 1867.
An old French variety of unknown origin which was introduced into this country about 1860 by Aubry et Souchet, Carpenters Landing, New Jersey. Described by Fuller as inferior to sorts produced in this country. Plants moderately vigorous, productive; prickles numerous, purplish red; fruit large, long-conic, dark red; drupelets small, compact, firm, juicy, subacid; good.

Pomona. Strigosus x Idaeus. 1. AT. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:685. 1893. 2* Ibid. 278:119. 1906, Introduced about 1887 by William Parry, Parry, New Jersey, who thought it a seedling of Brandywine. As grown at this Station it was considered valuable for home use. Plants stocky, moderately vigorous, upright, hardy and productive; fruit large, attractive light red, moderately firm, juicy, nearly sweet; good; season long.

Pride of Geneva. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:121. 1906.
An old English variety said to have been brought to this country many years ago by a Mr. Payne. It was sent out by Steele Brothers, Geneva, New York. Inferior to standard sorts. Plants of medium vigor, hardy, moderately productive; fruit medium in size; drupelets coarse, moderately firm, slightly acid; fair.

Pride of Kent. 1. Ann. Hort. 194. 1891. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:685. 1893.
Originated a few years prior to 1887 by a Mr. Fallstaff, Kent, England. Imported into this country in 1887 by Henry King, Jefferson County, Colorado, and was introduced in 1892 by R. S. Edwards, Highlands, Colorado. Plants vigorous, not very hardy, moderately productive; canes large, stocky; fruit large, soft, red; good.

Pride of the Hudson. 1. Cult. et Count. Gent 43:151. 1878.
A chance seedling discovered in the garden of T. H. Roe, Newburgh, New York, about 1872 by E. P. Roe of Cornwall, who introduced it, The plant was easily injured by the heat of summer and the cold of winter and Mr. Roe soon discontinued its propagation. Plants strong, vigorous, tender to cold, productive; prickles few, short, purplish; leaflets large; fruit large, roundish conic; drupelets large, red, rather soft, juicy, sweet, rich and of fine flavor.

Prince Globose. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 971. 1869.
Raised by William Prince, Flushing, New York. Plants strong, upright, branching; prickles numerous, long, very stout; suckers numerous; fruit large, blunt-conic; drupelets large, dull red, with heavy bloom, coarse, dry, crumbly.

Prince of Wales. 1. Mag. Hort. 28:154. 1861. Cutbush's Prince of Wales. 2. Gard. Mon. 2:332. 1860.
An English variety which originated previous to 1860; of no value in this country. Plants upright, vigorous, with numerous slender, purplish prickles; fruit large, blunt-conic; drupelets small, compact, regular, hairy, red, moderately firm, sweet; very good.

Princess Alice. 1. Rec. Hort. 45. 1866.
New in 1866. Raised by Cutbush et Son, Highgate, England. Plants very productive; fruit very large, slightly elongated; of first quality; late.

Prior Prolific. 1. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Sci. 3:31. 1922.
Sent to the East Mailing Research Station in England for trial. Similar to Marlboro but more vigorous; canes less erect and fruit larger.

Profusion. 1. Bunyard Cat. 50. 1913-14. 2. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Sci. 3:31. 1922.
Originated near Maidstone, England; introduced by George Bunyard et Company of that place. Plants usually weak to medium in vigor, productive; canes medium in number, slender, erect, reddish purple, lightly glaucous, glabrous; prickles numerous, stout, soft; leaflets short, broad; fruit very large, oblong to somewhat roundish; drupelets large and deep; flesh thick, heavy, very soft.

Purple Cane. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. Fuller Sm. Fr. Cult. 147. 1867.
Fuller said in 1867 that this variety had been cultivated at least fifty years in the vicinity of New York. It is probable that the name was applied to all purple raspberries rather than to any specific variety. It was displaced by better sorts in the East, but was popular in the West much longer. Plants vigorous and productive; canes very strong, growing eight to twelve feet long, without suckers and propagating from the tips; prickles few, hooked; fruit medium or small, dark dull red, with bloom; drupelets large, soft, sweet; very good. '

Purple Raspberry. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. Langley Pomona 122, 123. 1729.
Langley describes a purple raspberry the wood of which "is a dark Brown and very thick set with small prickly Excrescences." "The Purple Raspberry hath a pleasant Acidity in its Taste, and is somewhat later in Ripening than either of the other two (the red and white), for which Reason 'tis much esteemed for Preserving."


Queen. 1. Rural N. Y. 45:480. 1886.
Origin unknown. Plants productive; fruit of good size but unattractive in color; quality good.


Ralph. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 109. 1900.
On trial at the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada in 1900. Plants unproductive; fruit of medium size, firm; good quality; late.

Rancocas. 1. Rural N. Y. 43:635. 1884. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:685. 1893.
A chance seedling found on the farm of Albert Hansell, Rancocas, New Jersey, in 1877. William H. Moon, Morrisville, Pennsylvania, introduced it in 1884. As grown at this Station its chief characteristic was its earliness. The entire crop ripened in a few days. Plants dwarfish, weak, unproductive; suckering freely; foliage pale green; fruit small to medium, soft, juicy, of fair flavor; very early.

Ranere. 1. Elizabeth Nur. Cat. 10. 1916. 2. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 47. 1916. 3. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 279, fig. 1922. St. Regis. 4. Rural N. Y. 60:787, fig. 295. 1911. 5. Lovett Cat. 17, fig. 1917.
Introduced as an everbearing red raspberry, Ranere is chiefly valuable for spring bearing, most of the crop being borne in early summer. It appears in some of the nursery catalogs as the earliest of all red raspberries, but it is later than June and one or two other sorts on the grounds of this Station. Aside from its being a double-cropper, there is not much to recommend the variety. The berries run small, are mediocre in quality, and are variable in both size and color. The plants are hardy, usually vigorous, but very susceptible to crown-gall. Ranere is supposed to have originated in New Jersey a score or more of years ago and was grown for a time by a colony of Italian gardeners. About 1912, the J. T. Lovett Nursery Company, Little Silver, New Jersey, introduced the variety under the name St. Regis. It-has since been advertised by many nurserymen under both names, although now the name "St. Regis" is rarely used.
Plants of medium height and vigor, attractive in appearance, rather upright, hardy, lacking somewhat in productiveness, unusually healthy, contracting mosaic very slowly and but moderately injured; autumn-bearing; propagated by suckers; canes numerous, slender, green changing to greenish brown, glabrous, thinly glaucous, with a few glands at the tips; prickles small, slender, weak, medium in number, purplish; leaflets 3-5, large, oval, very attractive dark green, dull, rugose, with finely dentate margins; petiole long, slightly prickly, with a few glands. Flowers very early; pedicels slightly glandular and pubescent; calyx prickly. Fruit very early; rather small and variable in size, seldom if ever large, hemispherical, glossy, bright red; drupelets of medium size, cohering poorly, the berries often crumbling, rather soft but variable, mild and insipid; quality poor unless well grown.

Rapid City. 1. S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 104:290. 1907.
A wild red raspberry from the Black Hills of South Dakota used by Prof. N. E. Hansen of the South Dakota Experiment Station in his breeding work. Its seedlings are fairly hardy and all bear fruits of good quality.

Reader Perfection. 1. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Sci. 3:32. 1922.
A new variety in England considered worthy of trial on the less fertile raspberry soils in that country. Plants vigorous and productive; canes numerous, stout, nearly erect, green with purplish tinges, moderately glaucous, glabrous; prickles moderately numerous, soft, dark bluish purple, very conspicuous; fruit large, conic, dull purplish red; drupelets small, soft and juicy.

Red Alpine, 1. Gen. Farmer 3:113. 1838. 2. Dochnahl Fuhr. Obstkunde 4:87. 1860. Mentioned in a list of recommended sorts in the Genesee Farmer for 1838. Dochnahl describes it as similar to the wild R. idaeus of Europe but with fruits lighter in color, less aromatic, soft and not keeping long; plants very productive, sometimes fruiting in September.

Red Antwerp. 1. Sickler Teutsche Obst. 15:193. 1802. 2. McMahon Am. Gard. Cal. 517. 1806. 3. Brookshaw Pom. Brit 1: PL 2. 1817. 4. Prince Pom. Man. 2:164. 1832. 5. Horticulturist 1:169, fig. 1846-47. 6. U. S. D. A. Rpt. 135, fig. 1866. 7. Hogg Fruit Man. 395. 1866. 8. U. S. D. A. Farmers' Bul. 887:38. 1917. 9. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Sci. 3:17. 1922. Late Bearing Antwerp. 10. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 478. 1831.
Red Antwerp was described by Brookshaw in 1817 as a new variety, having been first raised by a person named Cornwell Barnet, in Middlesex, England. It probably originated prior to 1800 as it was listed by Sickler in 1802, and was known in this country by McMahon in 1806. In Europe it has long been a standard variety and was grown considerably in this country until about 1850 when native sorts better adapted to the climate began to take its place. It is still grown on the Pacific Coast as a companion to Cuthbert and in Washington it is more productive than that variety. The term Antwerp has been applied to many sorts, and Downing wrote in the Horticulturist in 1846 that the true Red Antwerp was little known except around Boston and New York, many cultivators having a small and indifferent sort under that name. Most of our varieties having R. idaeus blood are probably derived from Red Antwerp. As grown in England the stock of this variety is badly mixed. Hogg, in 1866, mentioned that there were several forms of this variety, differing more or less from each other both in the fruit and the canes. In 1922 N. H. Grubb of the East Mailing Research Station, found six distinct sorts bearing this name. He was unable to determine which was the original Red Antwerp. In this country it was early, productive, of fine quality and tender to cold, requiring winter protection north of the latitude of Philadelphia. It was placed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1852, removed in 1862, returned to the list in 1897, where it remained in the last list of the Society in 1909.
Canes strong, long, yellowish green, slightly glaucous, occasionally tinged purple, covered below with dark brown prickles, which decrease in quantity upwards; in the autumn the canes become entirely brown sooner than those of others; bearing wood vigorous, and nearly smooth; leaves large, slightly rugose, plaited, irregularly serrated, dark green; fruit large, conical, dark red; drupelets middle sized; flavor rich and sweet.

Red Cane. 1. Mag. Hort. 24:420. 1858. 2. Mich. Sta. Bui 111:54. 1894.
At one time a favorite market variety near Hartford, Connecticut. In the Magazine of Horticulture for 1858 it is thought to be the same as the American Red, but Crozier, in Michigan Station Bulletin in, thinks it may have been either the Red Antwerp or the Hudson River Antwerp.

Red Cluster, 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 81:11. 1892.
On trial at the Michigan Station in 1892. Plants described as moderately vigorous, moderately productive; fruit of medium size, roundish conic, red; good; early.

Red Cross. 1. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Set. 3:33. 1922. 2. Bunyard Cat 58. 1924.
A recent variety raised and introduced by George Pyne, Topsham, Devon, England. Described as being drouth resistant and worthy of trial in poor and dry soils. Plants vigorous and productive; canes moderately numerous and moderately stout, erect, green, slightly tinged purplish, pubescent; prickles moderately numerous, stout, inconspicuous; fruit large, very uniform in size, variable in shape, usually long-conic, with rounded apex, dull dark red, soft and juicy.

Red Diamond. 1. Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc. 2[):CLXXIX, fig. 1903-04.
Exhibited before the fruit committee of the Royal Horticultural Society in 1904 by a Mr. Colwill, Sidmouth, England. It received an award of merit. Plants described as very large; fruit conical, dark red and pleasantly acid in flavor.

Red Jacket. 1. Va. Sta. Bui 147:63. 1917.
A new variety resembling Cuthbert in all respects except season which is later and shorter. Recommended for general planting in Virginia.

Red Magnum Bonum. 1. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Sci. 3:34. 1922.
Grown occasionally in collections of varieties in England. Canes strong, erect, nearly glabrous, green, with numerous, stout, dark colored prickles; fruit above medium size, roundish, or oblong-conic; drupelets very large.

Red Pearl. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 972. 1869.
Described by Downing in 1869 as bearing fruit of medium size, roundish conic, light red, moderately firm; scarcely good.

Red Queen. 1. Am. Hort. Ann. 102. 1870.
Puller says this variety is known in some places as Franconia, in others as False Red Antwerp or Allen. He considers it an old foreign sort, the true name of which is lost. The plant is described as having vigorous canes, with few prickles, productive, succeeding on light soils; fruit large, round, light red; drupelets large, compact, firm, juicy and of excellent flavor.

Red Rose.
Originated in 1908 by Alvin G. Gray, Salem, Indiana, who described it as a cross between Cuthbert and Loudon. As grown at this Station the fruit is very firm, rather small and inclined to crumble. Plants medium in height, vigorous, upright, usually hardy, with a medium number of suckers, unproductive; canes slender, glabrous; prickles medium in number, slender, weak; fruit variable in size, small, roundish; drupelets variable in size, usually medium, crumbly, red, firm, not juicy, mild; fair; late.

Red Sweet. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 209. 1898.
Imported from Denmark by W. D. Barnes et Son, Middlehope, New York. On trial at this Station in 1895. Plants dwarfish, not very hardy, unproductive; fruit small, dull dark red, firm, mild, sweet; good.

Redfield. 1. Meehans1 Mon. 4:140. 1894. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:125. 1906.
A chance seedling sent out by J. Wragg et Sons, Waukee, Iowa, in 1894. As grown here it is inferior to Shaffer and Columbian. Plants vigorous, hardy, moderately productive; fruit small, dull, unattractive purple, moderately firm; fair in flavor and quality.

Reeder. 1. Gard. Mon. 24:116. 1882. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bui 63:685. 1893.
A chance seedling found in a field of other sorts by a Mr. Reeder, Stevensville, Michigan, about 1875. ft never became of much importance as the berries crumbled badly for a market variety. Plants vigorous, with few slender prickles; fruit of medium size, roundish, bright red, firm, juicy, crumbly; very good; late midseason, ripening over a long period.

Reliance. Strigosus x Occidentalis. 1. Cult. et Count Gent. 40:470. 1876. 2. AT.Y. Sta. Bul. 278:685. 1893.
Reliance is a descendant of Philadelphia, several generations removed. It was grown from seed by O. L. Felton, Merchantville, New Jersey, who exhibited it as a new variety at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876. For a while it was popular but as it was not enough of an advance over the Philadelphia to compete with other sorts, it soon went but. Beach described the plants as of Strigosus type, but it is listed among the purple raspberries by the American Pomological Society. The Society placed Reliance in its fruit list in 1881 and it still remained in the last catalog in 1909. Plants vigorous, hardy, moderately productive; fruit below medium in size, dark red, soft, juicy, sweet; very good; midseason.

Rex. 1. Am, Pom. Soc. Rpt. 285. 1921.
Mentioned in the Fruit Belt for February, 1920, as an everbearing red, fruiting from June till October. Fruit large, firm, sweet and of delightful flavor.

Ridgeway. 1. Ind. Sta. Rpt. S7. 1898. 2. Mich. Sta. Bui 206:58. 1903.
Received at the Michigan Station about 1901 from M. H. Ridgeway, Wabash, Indiana. Plants vigorous, hardy, unproductive; fruit small, of good flavor and texture; midseason.

Riehl Perpetual. x. III. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 202. 1911.
Plants described by E. H. Riehl, Alton, Illinois, as healthy, vigorous, fruiting entirely from new growth, bearing from May until frost, not hardy; fruit large, bright red.

Riley Early. 1. Cult. et Count. Gent. 32:210. 1868.
Reported as having been known in Burlington County, New Jersey, for several years. Plants described as vigorous and hardy with bright red, firm fruit; early.

Rivers Orange. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 972. 1869. Rivers Yellow. 2. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:55. 1894.
Originated with Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England, and first mentioned in this country by Downing in 1869. The variety resembles Yellow Antwerp. Plants strong, branching, not hardy; prickles not numerous, stout, greenish; fruit medium to large, roundish conic, reddish orange, drupelets large, soft, juicy, subacid but not rich.

Rochester.
According to a letter from W. Y. Velie, Marlboro, New York, received in 1916, this variety came originally from a Rochester nurseryman. The stock contains many mixtures and improved strains are claimed under the names of Coutant, Ward Seedling, Hyde, Alright, and Barry. Plants described as medium in vigor, needing winter protection; fruit is too soft for a commercial berry in wet seasons.

Round Antwerp. 1. Jour. Hort. 24:121. 1860.
Fruit described as large, round, deep red and much superior in flavor to that of Red Antwerp; plants dwarfish, slow-growing, productive.

Royal. 1. Bunyard Cat. 46. 1921. Pyne's Royal. 2, Jour. Pom. 1:243. 1920. 3. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Set. 3:32. 1922.
Raised by George Pyne, Topsham, Devon, England, in 1907 and introduced in 1913. It is considered one of the most promising of recent introductions in England because of the very large size of the fruit and heavy crops. Plants vigorous, stout, nearly erect, very productive and fairly drouth resistant; canes moderate in number, heavily glaucous, glabrous, dark reddish purple; prickles few, short, stout; leaves very much curled, with a sidewise twist; leaflets strongly rugose, dark dull green, tip leaves often very reddish; fruit very large, conic; drupelets large, firm, deep rich red, sweet.

Royal Church. 1. U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt. 394. 1891. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bui 278:119. 1906. Discovered about 1881 by Royal Church, Harrisonville, Ohio, near a field in which Philadelphia, Herstine, and Brandywine had been growing a few years previously. It was introduced in 1893 by Green's Nursery Company, Rochester, New York. As grown at this Station it is a fairly good berry, but not equal to the best varieties. Plants vigorous, fairly hardy, productive; canes tinged reddish purple; foliage crinkled, dark green, with reddish tinge; fruit large, variable in color from light to dark red; drupelets large, inclined to crumble, firm, juicy; very good; late.

Royal Purple. Strigosus x Occidentalis. 1. Farmer Cat. 20, fig. 1909 2. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 279. 1922.
The fruits of Royal Purple are not as attractive in appearance or as inviting in taste as those of Columbian and Shaffer with which it must compete. The variety may have a a place in commercial berry growing, however, because of the great hardiness of the plants and the lateness of the ripening period. The crop ripens one or two weeks later than that of Columbian and has a remarkably long season, lasting until early blackberries are ripe. The plants are also very productive, vigorous, and, as has been said, hardy, and moreover, are fairly immune to mosaic although subject to anthracnose. This variety originated as a chance seedling about 1898 with L. H. Girton, Bristol, Indiana.
Plants tall, vigorous, with an upright tendency, becoming slightly spreading, hardy, productive, contract mosaic slowly; propagated by tips; canes medium to slender but variable, green tinged with brownish red but gradually turning to a cherry-red as the wood ripens, heavily glaucous; prickles short, medium in thickness and strength, few, light brown at the tips; leaflets 3-7, large, the terminal often lobed, broadly oval, dull, medium to dark green, rather thin, flattened or rugose, with serrate margins; petiole medium in length and thickness, prickly, glabrous, glaucous. Flowers late; pedicels prickly, eglandular, glabrous; calyx prickly. Fruit very late, extending the season of Columbian, inclined to grow in more compact clusters than Columbian or Shaffer; medium in size, broad-ovate, dull purple, adheres well to the torus which is roughish and bluntly pointed; drupelets small, round, with strong coherence; flesh somewhat dry, firm, subacid, insipid, lacks in flavor; quality inferior.

Ruby. 1. Am. Hort. Ann. 89. 1871.
Raised from seed of Allen by D. W. Herstine of Philadelphia. Plants vigorous and productive; canes strong, light green, tinged with purple, glaucous; prickles very few; foliage light green, pearly gray on the under side; fruit large, round, dark red, with large, hairy drupelets, subacid; excellent.

Ruby (of New York). 1. Wash. Sta. Bui 87:26. 1909. 2. U. S. D. A. Farmers1 Bul. 887:40. 1917.
A chance seedling which originated about 1896 with L. E. Wardell, Marlboro, New York, who introduced it in 1903. Said to be a seedling of Marlboro which it resembles, differing from that variety in being more productive and bearing firmer fruit. It is grown somewhat in the Hudson Valley and in New England, being considered desirable to grow with Cuthbert. As grown at this Station the fruit is not especially attractive nor is the quality high. It was placed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1909. Plants medium in height and vigor, upright, fairly hardy, productive; suckers medium in number; canes medium to stocky, yellowish brown, glabrous; prickles medium in number, slender, weak; fruit of medium size, conic; drupelets medium in size, cohering well, bright red, firm, juicy, sweet; good; early.

Russell. 1. Mag. Hort. 24:420. 1858.
Raised by Dr. G. W. Russell, Hartford, Connecticut, from seed of Yellow Antwerp, probably crossed with American Red which grew near it; seed was planted in 1851. The variety was first exhibited before the Horticultural Society of Hartford in 1854. Plants upright, vigorous, hardy and productive; canes light green, with few white prickles; fruit large, roundish conic, dark red, moderately firm, juicy, sweet; good.


Salzer Everbearing. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:56. 1894.
Originated in Illinois. Introduced by the John A. Salzer Seed Company, La Crosse, Wisconsin, in 1894. Said to be a cross between Shaffer and Marlboro.

Saint Louis. 1. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 130. 1864.
Mentioned by N. J. Coleman as of unknown origin. Grown extensively around St. Louis about 1866. Plants said to be hardy, very productive; fruit bright red, firm, showy.

Sarah. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 98, fig. 2. 1893. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bui 278:125. 1906. Grown from seed of Shaffer by Dr. William Saunders while in London, Ontario. As grown here it was inferior to Columbian and Shaffer. Plants vigorous, hardy and moderately productive; said to sucker freely and to propagate naturally only in this way; fruit above medium in size, round, unattractive, reddish purple, soft, juicy; good; ripens after Cuthbert.

Saskatoon. 1. S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 104:291. 1907.
A wild red raspberry from Saskatchewan, Canada, used by Prof. N. E. Hansen of the South Dakota Experiment Station as a parent in breeding hardy varieties. It is very hardy and its seedlings are dwarfish and bear fruits of good size ajid quality.

Saunders. 1. Horticulturist 25:310, PL 1870.
Originated by D. W. Herstine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from seed of Allen supposed to have been pollinated by Philadelphia. It was named Saunders by a committee of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society. Plants productive, suckering freely; canes green, shaded with purple; prickles numerous, small, light green; foliage light green; fruit very large, round, dark red; drupelets large; highly flavored.

Saunders (of Ontario). 1. Out. Fr. Gr. Assoc. Rpt. 67. 1894.
A cross of Philadelphia and McCormick raised by William Saunders, London, Ontario. It was sent out by the Ontario Fruit Growers' Association in 1880. Said to be very productive and to propagate from tips only. Fruit medium in size, dark red.

Scarlet Gem. 1. Col. 0. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 70. 1887.
A seedling of Crimson Beauty originated by Dr. J. Stayman, Leavenworth, Kansas, in 1876, and introduced by Hale Brothers, South Glastonbury, Connecticut, a few years later. It requires the presence of another variety for proper pollination and is unproductive. Fruit of medium size, round, bright red, firm; low quality; early.

Segrist. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 198. 1898.
A chance seedling found among plants of Kansas by Samuel Segrist, Holton, Kansas, in 1903; introduced in 1912 by F. W. Dixon, Holton, Kansas. As grown at this Station the plants are dwarfish and lacking in vigor. The fruit is attractive in appearance and of fairly good quality. Plants dwarfish, of medium vigor, upright-spreading, hardy and productive; suckers medium in number; canes stocky, green, with a very thin bloom, eglandular tips; prickles none; fruit above medium in size, uniform, roundish conic; drupelets of medium size, numerous, medium in coherence, bright attractive red, moderately juicyr firm, subacid; good; early midseason.

Semper Fidelis. 1. Mag. Hort. 29:460. 1863. 2. Jour. Pom. et Hort. Sci. 3:24. 1922. Mentioned in 1863 as a new English variety just introduced. It is still grown in England where it is well liked for jam, the product being clear and of good color. As grown in England the plant is vigorous and very productive; canes numerous, slender, erect, green with purplish tinge, glaucous; prickles numerous, stout, dark purple, conspicuous ; foliage light green; fruit of medium size, oval or somewhat conic, dull dark purplish red; very acid; late.

Seneca. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 207. 1922. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 497:16. 1923.
There is nothing to add to or take from the description of this sort as first published by this Station in the reference given. The description is republished verbatim. Seneca, a sister seedling to Cayuga, is so similar that the two might almost be put out as one variety.
The description of Cayuga answers for that of Seneca if the following exceptions be noted. The plants of Seneca are not so tall, are usually markedly stockier in cane; and have fewer and smaller prickles. The flowers bloom early in June, a few days later than those of Cayuga. The fruit is a little later than that of Cayuga and a little earlier than that of Cuthbert. The berries in appearance and quality can hardly be distinguished from those of Cayuga, although upon close inspection it is seen that the drupelets of Seneca are larger and the shape is a little more conical. The quality of the two fruits is much the same, the only difference being more sprightliness in Seneca. Seneca is recommended to precede and to take the place of Cuthbert. Fruit growers will want to know how these two new berries compare with Cuthbert in susceptibility to mosaic, the disease which now threatens to destroy commercial berry growing in America. No differences can be noted in the three varieties in this respect. Seneca originated at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station, at Geneva, in 1911, as a cross between June and Cuthbert. The variety was distributed by the New York State Fruit Testing Association, Geneva, New York, in 1922.

Serridge House. 1. Jour, Roy. HorL Soc. 37:562. 1911-12.
On trial on the test grounds of the Royal Horticultural Society in Wisley, England, in 1911. Plant described as not productive; canes fairly strong, of a glaucous purple color and with very many prickles; fruit large, round, light red.

Shaffer. Strigosus x Occidentdlis, x. Rural N. Y. 42:638. 1883. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bui 278:125. 1906. Shaffer Colossal. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 46. 1883.
Shaffer was the first purple raspberry to meet with the approbation of berry growers and was for many years the most prized of the hybrids. It has been nearly superseded by Columbian, which resembles but surpasses Shaffer in several qualities as was noted in the discussion of Columbian. It is still grown somewhat for canning in berry-canning regions. But the berries have a tendency to go to pieces in the can, and shrink more than those of some other purple sorts. Shaffer is propagated most by tips, as it does not sucker. The plants are less hardy than those of several other hybrid kinds. This old variety originated with George Shaffer, Scottsville, New York, about 1871, as a chance seedling. It was introduced in 1878. The American Pomological Society added Shaffer to its recommended list of fruits in 1883.
Plants tall, vigorous, more upright than Columbian, slightly spreading, lacking somewhat in hardiness, very productive, contract mosaic slowly, susceptible to anthracnose; propagated by tips; canes somewhat stocky but less so than Columbian, green changing to brownish red, darker than those of Columbian, heavily glaucous; prickles slender, weak, very few, with a tinge of red at the tips; leaflets 3-5, broad-oval, the terminal one often lobed, dull, medium to dark green, rugose, with serrate margins; petiole medium in length and thickness, glabrous, glaucous, with almost no prickles. Flowers late; pedicels prickly, glandular, lightly pubescent; calyx prickly. Fruit very late, a little before Columbian; large to very large, broadly hemispherical, dull purple but lighter than Columbian, adheres fairly well to the torus which is roughish and bluntly pointed; drupelets large, round, often with rather weak coherence; flesh juicy, rather soft, less sweet and less highly flavored than Columbian, sprightly, aromatic; quality good.

Sharpe. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:58. 1894.
A seedling originated by Prof. William Saunders, London, Ontario. Mentioned as on trial at the experimental farm at Agassiz, British Columbia.

Shinn. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 109. 1900.
A seedling of unknown parentage, originated by Dr. William Saunders, Ottawa, Canada. Plants vigorous, very hardy and very productive; fruit medium in size, roundish, dark purplish red, moderately firm, juicy, acid; medium in quality; midseason.

Shipper Pride. 1. S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 104:291. 1907.
A mixture in a lot of plants received from New Jersey by Empenger Brothers, Maple Plain, Minnesota, about 1901. This plant was propagated, named and introduced by Empenger Brothers. Plants dwarfish, hardy; fruit small and soft.

Short-jointed Cane. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:168. 1832.
Described by Prince in 1832 as having short-jointed, nearly spineless canes; fruit larger and later than the Common Red, with a pleasing flavor.

Silver Queen. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bui 63:691. 1893.
Received at this Station in 1885 from R. Johnson, Shortsville, New York, who renamed a berry he received from L. M. Macomber, North Ferrisburg, Vermont, under the name of Silver Skin. Plants unproductive and tender to cold; fruit medium to large, clear pale yellow, very soft, juicy, nearly sweet, delicate; very good to best.

Sioux. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 162. 1920.
Introduced by the Rosebud Nursery, Winner, South Dakota. Selected from wild plants on the Sioux Indian Reservation; very hardy.

Sir John. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 210. 1898. 2. Can. Exp. Farms Bul. 56:48. 1907.
A seedling of Biggar raised by Dr. William Saunders, Ottawa, Canada. Plant described as a very strong grower, hardy, and productive; fruit above medium in size, roundish, bright red; drupelets large, soft, crumble easily, subacid, pleasing; good; early.

Smith Purple. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. AT. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:679. 1893.
A chance seedling found by B. F. Smith, Lawrence, Kansas, who sent plants to this Station for trial in 1891. Except for the fruit which is purple and of medium size, the variety has all the characteristics of a black raspberry.

Smooth Cane. 1. S. Dak. Sta. Cat. 1922.
A cross of the wild red raspberry from the Black Hills of South Dakota and the Minnetonka. Originated by Prof. N. E. Hansen of the South Dakota Experiment Station; introduced by that Station in 1922. Canes strong, stocky and without prickles; fruit round, three-fourths of an inch in diameter, firm.

Souchetti. 1. Gard. Mon. 2:333. 1860. White Transparent. 2. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 436. 1867. Blanche Souchet. 3. Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc. 22:201. 1898.
Originated by M. Souchet of Bagnolet near Paris, France. It was introduced into this country about 1850 by Aubry et Souchet, Carpenters Landing, New Jersey. A fine-flavored yellow berry, but too soft and tender to cold. Plants moderately vigorous, not hardy, productive; prickles few, short, slender, greenish; fruit large, elongated-conic, irregular; drupelets medium in size, compact, pale creamy yellow, soft, juicy, sweet; very good.

Southern. 1. Austin Nur. Circ. 1922.
Introduced in 1922 by the Austin Nursery Company, Austin, Texas, who state that they received the berry from the Bureau of Plant Introduction of the United States Department of Agriculture. It was brought to this country from the hot, humid section of China by F. N. Meyer, agricultural explorer, and is recommended for trial in similar sections of this country. Plants erect, stiff, not over three feet high; fruit borne in small clusters on current season's growth on one-year canes; berries one-half to three-fourths of an inch across, without a core, clear light red, sweet, aromatic; fruiting season long.

Souvenir de Desire Bruneau. 1. Rev. Hort. 487. 1909. 2. Bobbink et Atkins Cat, 1919.
Mentioned as new in 1909, and as having received a certificate of merit from the Societe Nationale d'Horticulture de Prance. An everbearing variety with large, long, red fruits, firm, juicy, sweet; good mellow flavor.

Spineless. 1. S. Dak. Sta. Cat. 1922.
Originated by Prof. N. E. Hansen of the South Dakota Experiment Station by whom it was introduced in 1922. It was grown from seed of a wild red raspberry from Cavalier, North Dakota, pollinated by Loudon. Canes without prickles, somewhat reddish towards the tips and resistant to anthracnose; fruit three-fourths of an inch in diameter, of good flavor.

Starlight. 1. S. Dak. Sta. Cat. 1922.
A seedling of a wild red raspberry from Cavalier, North Dakota, crossed with Minnetonka. Originated by Prof. N. E. Hansen of the South Dakota Experiment Station by whom it was introduced in 1922. Canes with some thorns and very little anthracnose; fruit larger than Ohta and equally bright in color.

Stayman No. 1. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:61. 1894.
A seedling of Shaffer raised by Dr. J. Stayman, Leavenworth, Kansas, in 1884. It propagates from the tips; the berries are large, handsome, resemble Marlboro, firm; good.

Steel Victoria. 1. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 16:221. 1894. 2. Jour. Pom. et Hort Sci. 3:35. 1922.
Introduced in 1894 by Messrs. Watkins et Simpson, Strand, England. Described as very similar to Norwich Wonder, differing from that variety in transplanting with difficulty; season a little later and the fruit less conic.

Stoever. 1. Horticulturist 15:76. 1860.
Discovered near Lake Dunmore, Vermont, in 1858 by Jefferson E. Stoever, who moved it to his garden at Taconey, near Philadelphia, where it fruited in 1859. Downing gives Stoever as a synonym of American Red, and the variety is probably a typical wild R. strigosus. Plants very vigorous, with nearly smooth reddish-brown canes when mature, unproductive; fruit large, roundish conic, bright red, sprightly, with a strong wild flavor.

Storrie Excelsior Perpetual. 1. Gard. Chron. 64:98. 1918.
First brought to notice by Messrs. Storrie et Storrie, Glencarse, Perthshire, England, in 1918 as a large, fine-flavored, autumn-fruiting sort.

Sucree de Metz. 1. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 32. 1869. 2. Guide Prat. 21. 1895.
Originated by MM. Simon-Louis Fretres, Metz, France, who introduced it in 1866. Imported into this country in 1869 by L. Ritz of Ohio. Plants upright, vigorous, very productive; canes pale green, with numerous small prickles; fruit large, elongated, clear yellow, soft, juicy, perfumed; very good; season July to October in France.

Sugar Hybrid. Strigosus x Occidentalis. 1. Burbank Cat. 29. 1893.
Originated and introduced by Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, California, as a second-generation seedling of Shaffer by Souhegan. Plants described as tall, slender, productive and almost thornless; fruit large, dark red, very sweet.

Sunbeam. Strigosus x Occidentalis. 1. S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 104:292. 1907. 2. U. S. D. A. Farmers' But. 887:40. 1917.
A cross between a wild red raspberry from Cavalier County, North Dakota, and Shaffer, which was originated by Prof. N. E. Hansen of the South Dakota Experiment Station; introduced by that Station in 1906. Where extreme hardiness and drouth resistance are essential, Sunbeam may be of value, but as grown at this Station, it is inferior to standard sorts in size, color and flavor of fruit. Plants tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, very hardy, productive, propagate by suckers which are very numerous; canes medium in size, bright red, glaucous, with a medium number of slender prickles; fruit variable in size, averaging below medium, short, roundish; drupelets of medium size and coherence, dark red, moderately firm, acid; fair; early.

Superb. 1. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt 23. 1882. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:686. 1893. Churchman Superb. 3. Gard. Mon. 23:257, PL 1881.
Originated about 1874 by John Churchman, Burlington, New Jersey, who sent it out in 1881. It was supposed to be a seedling of Philadelphia and superior to that variety in size of fruit. As grown here it was unproductive, the fruit was too variable in size, and inclined to crumble. The American Pomological Society placed Superb in its catalog in 1883 and removed it in 1899. Plants moderately vigorous, hardy, unproductive; suckering slowly; fruit above medium in size, moderately firm; drupelets large, dark red; good; late.

Superlative. 1. Jour. Hort. 17:103. 1888. 2. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 10:110, 526. 1891. 3. Gard. et For. 10:384. 1897, 4. Bunyard Cat. 50. 1915-16.
As its history shows, Superlative is an old English variety, which has been grown more or less wherever the red raspberry is cultivated. In New York and eastern America the canes are not sufficiently hardy, vigorous, or productive. The variety is highly prized on the Pacific Slope, especially near San Francisco. The fruits, while of the very best quality, are too soft for shipping long distances. The berries are large and of the very best quality. Superlative was raised by a Mr. Merryfield, Waldershare Gardens/Dover, England, about 1877. It was introduced about 1888 and soon after brought to America by Ellwanger et Barry, Rochester, New York. In 1909 the American Pomological Society placed Superlative in its list of recommended fruits.
Plants dwarfish, lacking in vigor, upright, tender to cold, unproductive unless well grown, propagated by suckers; canes numerous, slender, green changing slowly to reddish brown, glabrous, heavily glaucous; prickles small, very short, weak, numerous, dull red; leaflets 3-5, broad-oval, very thick, dark green or bluish green, usually strongly rugose and much curled, with coarsely and irregularly dentate margins; petiole long, thick, prickly, pubescent; pedicels thick, stout, medium in length, with few to many rather large prickles; calyx usually without prickles, or rarely few. Fruit medium early; large to very large, long-conic, dark red, too dull to be attractive, adheres strongly to the torus which is small and roughish; drupelets large, round, cohering so that the berries do not crumble; flesh juicy, soft, rich, sprightly, pleasantly aromatic; quality very good to best.

Superlative Improved. 1. Wash, Sta. Bul. 87:23. 1909.
Described as a new raspberry in western Washington, satisfactory wherever planted. It is said to endure dry summers and cold winters better than most varieties because of its deep-rooting habit. As grown at this Station it seems to be identical with Superlative.

Surpasse Fastolff. 1. Am. Hort. Ann. 103. 1870. 2. Soc. Nat Hort. France Pom. 209, PI. 1907. 3. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:122. 1906. New Fastolff. 4. Am. Hort. Ann. 91. 1871.
Grown from seed of Fastolff, previous to 1870 by MM. Simon-Louis Frdres of Metz, France. It was introduced by the originators about 1870. In this country it did not pass the trial stage. The following description is from plants imported from France by the United States Department of Agriculture. Plants moderately vigorous, hardy, moderately productive; fruit large, light red, rather soft; flavor and quality inferior.

Surpasse Merveille, 1. Rec. Hort. 45. 1866. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:122. 1906.
Grown from seed by MM. Simon-Louis Fretres, Metz, France, and introduced by them in 1864. As grown at this Station the plants are vigorous, hardy and productive. The fruit is above medium in size, becoming smaller as the season advances, moderately firm and good in flavor and quality.

Surprise. 1. Cult et Count Gent. 46:473. 1881. 2. Mich. Hort Soc. Rpt 268. 1885. A chance seedling of Franconia, which originated in Montgomery County, New York, previous to 1881. Plants vigorous, not very hardy, productive; fruit large, roundish, slightly conic, dark red, with slight bloom, soft, crumbly, sprightly; fair; late.

Surprise (of Breese). Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 184. 1898.
Introduced by H. G. Breese, Hoosick, New York. Described as having canes of the blackcap type, with a tendency to autumn-fruiting. Fruit dark red, firm, with red raspberry flavor.

Surprise (of California). 1. U.S. D. A. Farmers* Bul. 887:40. 1917.
A chance seedling found in 1901 by D. W. Coolidge, Pasadena, California, in a field of many sorts that had run wild for several years. It was introduced in 1908 by J. B. Wagner, Pasadena, California. This is considered one of the most desirable varieties for central and southern California, bearing some fruit every month in the year, and an autumn crop elsewhere. As grown at this Station the plants are tender to cold, winter injury ranging from five to ninety per cent. The plants are dwarfish, producing light crops, and the color of the fruit is unattractive dull red. Plants dwarfish, weak, upright, tender to cold, unproductive; suckers below medium in number; canes medium in size, glabrous, with numerous prickles; fruit of medium size, roundish; drupelets medium in size, number and coherence, dull, dark red, medium juicy, firm, very sprightly; fair; early.

Surprise d'Automne. 1. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 32. 1869. 2. Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom. 210, 1907. 3. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:122. 1906.
Originated with MM. Simon-Louis Freres, Metz, France, who introduced it in 1865. L. Ritz of Ohio imported it into this country about 1869. Considered a valuable autumn-fruiting sort in Europe but is of little value as grown at this Station. The plants are moderately vigorous, hardy, and moderately productive; fruit below medium in size, moderately firm, yellow, not very attractive; flavor and quality not high.

Sweet Yellow Antwerp. 1. Jour. Hort. 24:121. 1860.
An old English variety. Larger and with more orange than Yellow Antwerp. Canes very slender, with few prickles; fruit of medium size, roundish obtuse-conic, light yellow; drupelets small, soft, juicy, very sweet.

Syracuse. 1. Green Cat. 38, fig. 1910. 2. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 280. 1922.
Syracuse is a typical variety of the Idaeus type. Neither fruit nor plant differ greatly from those of Superlative. While hardier than Superlative, the plants are not sufficiently hardy and lack in vigor and productiveness as well. These defects bar it from commercial plantations, but it is, however, an excellent sort for the home garden. This variety originated as a chance seedling in a garden at Syracuse, New York, about 1900, and was distributed by Green's Nursery Company, Rochester, New York, about 1910.
Plants of medium height and vigor, upright-spreading, a little tender to cold, moderately productive but variable; propagated by suckers; canes medium in number and stockiness, green changing to reddish brown, glaucous, with eglandular tips; prickles small, slender, strong, very numerous, purplish green; leaflets 3-5, large, thick, ovate to roundish oval, dark green, with dentate margins; petiole medium in length and thickness, glabrous, glaucous, slightly prickly. Flowers early; pedicels prickly, eglandular, pubescent; calyx prickly. Fruit midseason; large, broadly conical, light red, adheres well to the torus which is roughish and pointed; drupelets rather large, with fairly good coherence; flesh juicy, not very firm, pleasantly aromatic, sprightly, varies considerably in flavor; not above good in quality.


Talbot. 1. AT. Y. Sta. Bui 91:204. 1895. 2. Ibid. 278:122. 1906.
A chance seedling discovered in the garden of J. W. Talbot, Norwood, Massachusetts, about 1888. Not equal to other sorts as grown at this Station. Plants vigorous, usually hardy, productive; fruit above medium in size, attractive red; drupelets large, soft, juicy, slightly acid; good.

Talcott. 1. Mich, Sta. Bul. 81:11. 1892.
Sent out for trial in 1883 by Hale Brothers, South Glastonbury, Connecticut. Fruits very similar to those of Turner except in form, which is ovate instead of roundish conic. Plants not vigorous; fruit small and very early.

Tall Red Cane. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:168. 1832.
Described by Prince in 1832 as producing good crops, and having canes covered with numerous fine prickles or hairs. Fruit of good size, roundish, not of high flavor; the berries drop easily as soon as ripe.

Teletaugh. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:126. 1906.
A cross of Shaffer and Gregg originated by J. F. Street, West Middleton, Indiana. It is inferior to Shaffer. Plants of medium vigor, hardiness, and productivity; fruit below medium in size; drupelets large, inclined to crumble, moderately firm, unattractive dark purple; fair in flavor and quality.

Thompson. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:119. 1906. Thompson Early. 2. Mich. Sta. Bul. 67:12. 1890. Thompson Early Prolific. 3. Can. Cent. Exp. Farm Bul. 22:21. 1895.
A chance seedling introduced by the Cleveland Nursery Company, East Rockport, Ohio, in 1888. Canes slender, nearly free from prickles, dark red, upright, vigorous; fruit firm, medium in size, round, bright red; of fair quality; ripens the first of July.

Thompson Early Pride. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 15:112. 1888. Early Pride. 2. Ibid. 63:682. 1893.
Introduced by the Cleveland Nursery Company, East Rockport, Ohio, in 1888. Very similar to Thompson, differing from that sort chiefly in darker-colored, juicier fruit.

Thornber. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 285. 1921.
A chance seedling which originated with W. S. Thornber, Clarkston, Washington. Plants very vigorous and hardy; fruit very large, attractive dark red; rich flavor.

Thunderer. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 214. 1856. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 660. 1857. Imported from England previous to 1856. Very similar to Franconia. It was recommended for trial by the American Pomological Society in iU\ fruit list for 1856 and 186a but was never placed in the list of sorts for general cultivation. Plants upright, vigorous, productive; prickles few, red; fruit large, blunt-conic, dark red, with an acid flavor.

Thwack. 1. Gard. Mon. 18:113. 1876. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:686. 1893.
Introduced about 1877 by Prof. Watson Foster, Louisiana, Missouri. The original plants were received from T. S. Wilson, Brandon, New York, with the statement that the variety was a cross between Herstine and Brandywine. For a while Thwack was considered a good market sort in the Middle West and was placed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1883 where it remained until the last list in 1909. Plants vigorous, hardy and productive; canes stout, brownish green, with few prickles; fruit large, ovate-conic, bright red, firm, moderately juicy, sweet, not rich.

Todd Perfection. 1. King Bros. Cat. 36. 1916.
Offered by King Brothers, Dansville, New York, in 1916, as a new early sort from the Hudson River section. Plants productive, hardy; fruit firm.

Trusty. 1. Mich. Sta. Bui 111:64. 1894.
On trial at the experimental farm at Agassiz, British Columbia. Originated by Prof. William Saunders, London, Ontario.

Tiircks Neue Rothe. 1. Lucas-Oberdieck III Handb. Obst. 7:288. 1875. Van Turocks New, 2. Am. Hart. Ann. 103. 1869.
Grown from seed of Fastolff by Herrn V. Tiirck, Potsdam, Germany. Described as more vigorous, with larger fruit and earlier than its parent. Imported into this country in 1869 by A. S. Fuller from Frederick Maurer, Jena, Germany. Plants very vigorous and productive; fruit very large, roundish, dark red, firm, sweet and aromatic; ripe in the middle of June in Germany.

Turner. 1. Am. Hort. Ann. 103. 1869. 2. Horticulturist 24:275. 1869. Red Thornless. 3. Gard. Mon. 17:176. 1875. Southern Seedling. 4, Ibid. 17:333. 1875. Southern Red Thornless. 5. Ibid. 18:80, 242. 1876.
At one time a standard sort, and for several decades the most prized of the red raspberries, Turner is now seldom found in commercial plantations. It is still grown, however, for home use and local markets where hardiness is a prime requisite. The fruits are of the very best quality but are small, many of them are imperfect, and a good many blossoms are abortive. The season is early and the plants remain in bearing a long time. Turner originated nearly 80 years ago with Professor J. B. Turner, Jacksonville, Illinois, supposedly as a seedling of Red Antwerp. The variety has long been esteemed because of its extreme hardiness. Turner was added to the recommended list of fruits of the American Pomological Society in 1877, a place it still holds.
Plants medium in height and vigor, upright-spreading, variable in yield, very productive in number of berries but not in measured yield, extremely hardy, contract mosaic very slowly; suckers very numerous; canes very slender, branching freely, silvery green turning to a distinct purplish or lilac-red, markedly glaucous, with many glands near the tips; prickles small, very slender, weak, few to many in number, tinged red; new leaves at tips of suckers markedly bronzed; leaflets usually 5, of medium size, variable in shape, dull, rugose, with serrate margins; petiole slender, very prickly, slightly pubescent, very glandular, glaucous. Flowers midseason, often imperfect, or abortive; pedicels prickly, glandular, lightly pubescent. Fruit early midseason or earlier, with a long-picking period; small, often imperfect, roundish ovate, bright attractive red, adheres fairly well to the torus which is smooth and short pointed; styles noticeable; drupelets large, elliptical, cohering poorly so that the berries crumble; flesh juicy, soft, tender, sprightly, aromatic; variable in quality.

Twentieth Century. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 200. 1917.
A chance seedling found in the garden of a Mr. Ford, Marlboro, New York, who had been growing it for some time previous to 1905. The variety attracted the attention of L. L. Woodford, Syracuse, New York, in 1905, who in 1909 named the berry Twentieth Century. The variety is of the type of Syracuse, tender to cold and rather soft for shipping. Plants of meditim height and vigor, upright-spreading, productive, tender to cold, susceptible to anthracnose; suckers medium in number; prickles medium in number, slender; fruit large, nearly conic; drupelets large, medium in number and coherence, medium red, moderately juicy, melting, sweet, slightly aromatic; good; midseason.

Twice Bearing. 1. Mawe-Abercrombie Univ. Gard. Bot. 1778. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 517. 1845.
An old English variety, once valued for its autumn crop. According to Downing it is distinct from Double Bearing, being unproductive, and bearing small, inferior fruit.

Twilight. I. S. Dak. Sta. Cat. 1922.
Grown from mixed seed of a lot of wild red raspberries of the Dakotas, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan by Prof. N. E. Hansen of the South Dakota Experiment Station. Introduced by that Station in 1922. Canes strong and stocky, with some prickles; fruit of medium size, light red; good.


Van Fleet Innontinatus x Strigosus. 1. U. S. D. A. Dept. Cite. 320:1-13. 1924. 2. U. 5. D. A. Official Rec. 4:6. 1925.
A cross of Rubus innominatus by Cuthbert, originated in 1911 by Dr. Walter Van Fleet, Superintendent of the United States Plant Introduction Garden, at Chico, California. Plants were received for trial at this Station in the spring of 1922. As grown here Van Fleet is inferior to standard sorts in size, color, flavor and shipping quality of fruit. It may be of value as a parent in breeding late varieties. It endures hot weather and is recommended especially for the southern states where the red varieties fail. Plants tall, vigorous, upright to slightly spreading, not fully hardy, moderately productive; suckers rather few, propagates by tips; canes stocky, numerous, reddish, glaucous, glabrous, with eglandular tips; prickles medium in number, short, slender; leaflets medium green, dull, flat, heavily tomentose below; flowers small, rose-colored, very late; fruit below medium in size, uniform, broadly roundish; drupelets medium in size and number, dull light red, tender, juicy, mildly subacid, lacking character; fair; very late.

Vermont. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:691. 1893.
A seedling of Champlain originated by L. M. Macomber, North Ferrisburg, Vermont; introduced about 1893. It was placed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1901 and remained in the last catalog in 1909. Plants of the Idaeus type; fruit large, pale yellow, with white bloom, very soft, juicy and of the highest quality.

Victoria. 1. Mag. Hort. 7:287. 1841. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Ant. 518. 1845.
Introduced from England about 1841. Similar to Red Antwerp in size and flavor of fruit and excels it in productiveness.

Victory. 1. Baldwin Cat. 20, fig. 1919. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 162. 1920.
Victory is said to be a Cuthbert seedling. On the grounds of this Station the varieties are seemingly identical. The description of Cuthbert answers for the two varieties. Were it not for the certainty with which its origination is stated, one knowing the two varieties would not hesitate to say that Victory is Cuthbert renamed. Victory originated about 1910 with A. J. Hartung, Onekama, Michigan, and introduced in 1918 by 0. A. D. Baldwin, Bridgman, Michigan.

Viking. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:119. 1906.
Originated by Charles H. Koch, Middlehope, New York, who sent plants to this Station in 1895. Not equal to standard varieties. Plants medium in vigor, hardiness and productivity; fruit of medium size, round, attractive red; good flavor and quality.

Viking (of Ontario). Strigosus xldaeus.
A cross of Cuthbert by Marlboro originated in 1914 by the Horticultural Experiment Station, Vineland, Ontario; introduced by that Station in 1923. The following description is furnished by E. F. Palmer of the Vineland Station. Canes upright, very strong, vigorous and very productive; suckers fairly numerous; prickles practically none; foliage thick and dark green; fruit large, conical, slightly lighter red than Cuthbert, firm, does not crumble; good quality; season several days earlier than Cuthbert.

Virginia Red. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:167. 1832.
Described by Prince in 1832. Canes reach a height of five feet or more, producing good crops in favorable locations; fruit round, slightly oval, larger than the Common Red, and of good flavor.

Vorster. 1. Dochnahl Fu'hr. Obstkunde 4:84. 1860. 2. Am. Hort. Ann. 103. 1869.
Originated in Metz, France, about 1849. Considered a fine dessert variety in Germany. Imported into this country in 1869 by A. S. Fuller. Plants very vigorous and productive; fruit very large, elongated, dark red, sweet and aromatic; ripe in June in Germany.


Wagner. Occidentalis x Strigosus.
Offered for sale in 1925 by the East Rochester Nurseries, East Rochester, New York. Described as a cross between Columbian and Cuthbert with strong, hardy, very productive plants. Canes thornless and propagating from the tips; fruit purplish red, with flavor similar to Cuthbert.

Walker. 1. Horticulturist 8:187. 1853. President Walker. 2. Mag. Hort. 17:333. 1851.
Raised by Dr. W. D. Brincklé of Philadelphia previous to 1851. It was placed in the list of promising new sorts by the American Pomological Society in 1854, remaining there until 1862. Canes strong, with few stiff purplish prickles; very productive; fruit large, round, dark red, soft, juicy, sprightly; good; keeps well on the plant.

Wallace. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:126. 1906.
A chance seedling found in his orchard in 1891 by T. G. Wallace, Atlantic, Iowa; Introduced in 1898 by 0. W. Rich, of that place. Plants vigorous, fairly hardy, productive; fruit of medium size, unattractive dull reddish purple, moderately firm, more acid than Shaffer; fair in quality.

Walton. Occidentalis x Strigosus.
Brought into cultivation from the wild near Catawissa, Pennsylvania, prior to 1840 by George Shoemaker, Washington, District of Columbia. In 1910 plants were sent to this Station for trial by the Andorra Nurseries, Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania. As grown here the variety has no value. Plants of fair vigor, tender to cold and not very productive; fruit small, irregular, many berries imperfectly developed, purple, crumbles badly, soft, tart; early, with autumn-fruiting tendency.

Wauregan. 1. Horticulturist 25:100, fig. 1870.
Discovered about 1855 in Norwich, Connecticut, by Dr. L. L. Button of that city. A. S. Fuller was of the opinion that it was very similar if not identical with Belle de Pontenay. Plants similar to Orange; fruit firm, highly flavored, continues long in bearing.

Welsh. 1. N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 21. 1881. 2. Ibid. 39. 1908.
Grown from seed by Isaac Welsh, near Merchantville, New Jersey, who introduced it about 1882. In parts of New Jersey it has superseded Cuthbert, being earlier and hardier than that variety. It is of little importance elsewhere. As grown here the plants lack vigor and the fruit is too small and unattractive. Plants of medium height and vigor, upright, hardy and productive; suckers medium in number; canes slender, green, glabrous, heavily glaucous, with glandular tips; prickles small, slender, few; flowers early; fruit below medium in size, roundish conic; drupelets medium in size, cohering strongly, medium red, moderately juicy, mild, sweet; early.

Wetherbee. Occidentalis x Strigosus. 1. Gard. Mon. 22:81. 1880.
Originated in New Jersey about 1880. Plants very vigorous, hardy, moderately productive, tip-rooting; fruit small, round, purple, with slight bloom, moderately firm, sprightly; very late.

White Magnum Bonum. 1. Wright Fr. Gr. Guide 6:204. 1892. 2. Bunyard-Thomas Fr. Gard. 165. 1904. Yellow Magnum Bonum. 3. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 247. 1854.
Grown in England. Canes dwarfish, pale green, with numerous small prickles; foliage flat and pointed; fruit large, roundish, pale yellow, pleasantly acid to rich when fully ripe.

White Mountain. 1. Mass. Sta. Bul. 10:11. 1890.
On trial at the Massachusetts Station in 1890. Not very hardy, productive, small, soft; inferior quality; early.

White Queen. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 286. 1921. 2. Hunt Cat. 1921.
Introduced by William M. Hunt et Company, New York City, in 1920. Originated with Jonathan Thorne, Black Rock, Connecticut. Plant described as very vigorous, with large canes and heavy foliage; fruit large, creamy white, very soft and of fine flavor; season August until November.

Williams. 1. Lovett Cat 11. 1918.
Found in the wild by Louis Paddock, Antioch, Illinois. Introduced in 1918 by J. T. Lovett, Little Silver, New Jersey. Plants described as stocky, hardy, and productive; fruit large, round, with large drupelets, deep red, rich and sprightly.

Wilmot 1. S. Dak. Sta. Bui 104:293. 1907.
A wild red raspberry from Wilmot, Roberts County, South Dakota; used by Prof. N. E. Hansen of the South Dakota Station in breeding hardy varieties.

Winant 1. N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 13. 1877.
Introduced by Frank Ford et Son, Ravenna, Ohio, who thought that it came from New Jersey. Said to resemble Thwack, but the canes are more vigorous and have a bluish tint. Fruit large, bright red, very firm; good; early.

Woodward. 1. Horticulturist 8:187. 1857.
Originated by Dr. William D. Brincklé of Philadelphia previous to 1850. Described as the smallest of his seedlings, though larger than the ordinary wild raspberry; reddish prickles; fruit round to sometimes roundish ovate, dark red; early.

Worthy. 1. Hale Cat 15. it
Introduced in 1898 by J. H. Hale, South Glastonbury, Connecticut. Said by him to be a seedling of Turner by Philadelphia, produced by a Connecticut small fruit grower. As grown here the fruit is unattractive in appearance and of inferior quality. Plants dwarfish, hardy, productive; canes slender, moderately numerous; foliage small, dark green; fruit of medium size, roundish, dull unattractive red, firm, rather tart; fair; early.


Yellow Antwerp. 1. Sickler Teutsche Obst. 13:193. 1802. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 2:165. 1832. White Antwerp. 3. McMahon Am. Gard. Cal. 517. 1806.
This old yellow-fruited sort, long a standard of comparison, was first mentioned by Sickler in 1802, and in this country by McMahon in 1806. It was the only yellow sort much cultivated until about 1860 when Orange displaced it. In Europe it is still offered by nurserymen. Winter protection was required, although it was considered hardier than the Red Antwerp. It was recommended for general cultivation in 1850 by the Second Congress of Fruit Growers and by the American Pomological Society until 1869 when it was removed from its list. Plants vigorous, not hardy, productive; canes strong, light yellow, with numerous long, slender, white prickles, some canes with very few prickles; foliage pale green; fruit large, conic, pale yellow, rather soft, juicy, sweet; good; midseason.

Yellow Canada. Occidentalis x Idaeus. 1. Am. Jour. Hort. 6:137, fig. 1869. White Canada. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 973. 1869. Arnold's Yellow. 3. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:10. 1894.
Originated by Charles Arnold, Paris, Ontario. Said by him to be a "grandchild of the old native White Cap, or Bramble, fertilized with pollen of White Four Seasons and Brincklé's Orange." Canes vigorous, upright, brownish yellow, with numerous stout, white prickles; fruit large, obtuse-conic, pale yellow, soft, of inferior flavor; early.

Yellow Chili. 1. Fuller Sm. Fr. Cult. 165. 1867.
Described by Puller as an old French sort of little value, imported by him about 1857. Canes strong, branching, with long, slender, white prickles; fruit large, conic, pale yellow, slightly tinged with orange, very soft, juicy, sweet.


Zetler. 1. Ont. Fr. Exp. Sta. Rpt. 49. 1899.
A local variety on trial at the Lake Huron farm of the fruit experiment stations of Ontario, Canada, in 1899. Plants vigorous, hardy, and moderately productive; fruit above medium in size, light red, soft; early.