CHAPTER VII

VARIETIES OP DEWBERRIES

Aughinbaugh. 1. Gard. Mon. 17:304. 1875. 2. Bailey Ev. Nat Fruits 355. 1898. 3. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 290. 1922.

Aughinbaugh is little grown in New York and the East, but before the advent of the loganberry was much grown in California and the Pacific slope. It is now rapidly passing into oblivion, but is notable as one of the first cultivated representatives of the western dewberry. The plants are seldom satisfactory as to vigor and productiveness. This variety, the culture of which is confined to California, was propagated and sold by a Mr. Aughinbaugh about 1875. Aughinbaugh found the variety growing wild on the peninsula of Alameda. It achieved some popularity, but, being pistillate, required pollen from another sort to set fruit, and for this reason became unpopular, and has now been nearly lost from sight.
Plants inferior in vigor, drooping or trailing, tender to cold in the East, variable in yield, healthy; canes slender, pubescent; prickles slender; leaflets evergreen, 3-5, small to medium, ovate, dark green, with serrate margins. Flowers pistillate, requiring pollen from another variety to set fruit. Fruit early; medium in size, somewhat oblong, black; drupelets more or less pubescent, numerous, small; flesh juicy, tender, sweet, pleasantly flavored; quality good.

Aus-Lu, i# Townsend Cat 27. 1923.

Introduced in 1923 by E. W. Townsend et Sons, Salisbury, Maryland. Said to be a cross between Mayes and Lucretia. Plants as productive as those of Mayes; fruit large, mild, sweet; early,

Austin Thornless. 1. Parker et Son Cat 12. 1924.

Originated about 1918 with J. Parker, Tecumseh, Oklahoma. Introduced in 1924 by J. M. Parker et Son Nursery Company, Payetteville, Arkansas. Said to be a seedling of Mayes and similar to that variety, but thornless.

Bartel. 1. Rural N. Y. 42:638. 1883. 2. Cornell Sta. Bul. 34:300. 1891. 3. Gard. etFor. 4:19, fig. 4. 1891. 4. Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 335. 1898. Bartel's Mammoth. 5. Bailey Ev, Nat Fruits 348. 1898.
Bartel is notable as the first dewberry to find favor with American pomologists. In the early days of its culture the variety was known for its exceedingly large, handsome berries, characters which had much to do with the popularity of Bartel and dewberries in general. Bartel was introduced early in the seventies by a Dr. Bartel, Huey, Illinois. The variety was first called Bartel's Mammoth with various spellings of the word Bartel. Although once considerably grown, due primarily to extensive advertising, Bartel is now rarely found in commercial plantings, better dewberries having taken its place. (For fuller details of history see page 196.) Plants very vigorous, trailing, tender to cold; fruit large to very large; flesh firm, sour and poor in flavor; quality poor.

Bauer. 1. Am. Card. 12:84. 1891.

Sent out about 1890 by C. P. Bauer, Judsonia, Arkansas, as a premium for plant orders. Described as very vigorous, but unproductive; fruit fine.

Belle of Washington. 1. Cornell Sta. Bul. 34:310. 1891. 2. Bailey Ev. Nat Fruits 354. 1898.
Sent out from Avon, Washington, in 1891 with Skagit Chief.

Bonnett. 1. Austin Nur. Cat. 21. 1901.

A white dewberry found near Austin, Texas, and described as superior to other white sorts. Fruit large, firm, makes a white jam and jelly.

Champion. 1. U. S. D. A. Farmers* Bul. 998:24. 1918.
A variety of the loganberry type which is grown on the Pacific Coast.

Coleman. 1. La. Sta. Bul. 27:954. 1894.

A white dewberry on trial at the Louisiana Station in 1893. Plants productive; fruit excellent.

Dallas. 1. Trans. Am.Hort. Soc. 99. 1886. 2. U. S. D. A.Farmers* BuL 643:12. 1915. Originated in Texas prior to 1886. Said to be a blackberry-dewberry hybrid. In Texas this is a standard sort. The fruits are of good size, firm and of high quality. At this Station the plants are tender to cold and unproductive. The American Pomological Society placed Dallas in its catalog in 1897, Plants very vigorous, drooping; canes long, vine-like, very thorny; fruit large, glossy black, firm; very good; early.

Delicious. 1. Townsend Cat. 29. 1923.

E. W. Townsend et Sons, Salisbury, Maryland, who introduced this variety in 1922, state that it was received by them from one of their customers in the South who had grown it for several years. Said to have been found in the wild in Texas. Plants described as hardy; fruit large, firm, delicious; later than Mayes.

Fairfax. 1. Rural N. Y. 48:606. 1889.

Introduced about 1884 by C. A. Uber, Fairfax County, Virginia, who found it growing on a stony, unproductive hillside where it bore very large, fine-flavored berries. When removed to a rich, moist soil, the plants grew very vigorously, but failed to produce fruit.

Gardena. 1. Ore. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 80. 1911. 2. Card Bush-Fr. 219. 1917. 3, Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 290. 1922.

Nearly worthless in New York and in the East, Gardena is valuable in southern California. The plants are described as healthy, very productive, and as ripening their crop early and during a short period. The berries are large, firm of flesh, rich and sweet in flavor, and of high quality. The crop ripens about ten days before that of the well-known Lucretia. This variety is of western origin, named from Gardena, California. It is supposed to be a seedling of Premo.

Plants vigorous, healthy, trailing, hardy in the West but tender to cold in the East, variable in yield; canes slender, cylindrical, greenish, glabrous, without bloom, eglandular; thorns small, numerous, greenish. Fruit early; large, glossy black; flesh juicy, firm, rich, sweet, pleasantly flavored; quality good.

Geer. 1. Cornell Sta. Bul. 34:287. 1891.

Discovered in a woodlot on the property of a Mrs. Geer, Plainfield, Michigan, by F. L. Wright of that place, who transferred plants to his garden in 1887. Plants fairly productive; fruit small.

General Grant. 1. Cornell Sta. Bul. 34:308- 1891.

Introduced about 1886 by Charles A. Green, Rochester, New York, as a premium for subscription to his Fruit Grower. The variety had little merit and never became prominent.

Golden Queen. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 220. 1917.

According to Card this variety was mentioned in the Horticultural Gleaner for 1898 "as a new dewberry of golden yellow color, large and productive."

Guadeloupe. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 220. 1917. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 160. 1920.

Found in the wild by Otto Locke, New Braunfels, Texas. Introduced by the Comal Springs Nursery of that place. Plants vigorous and productive; fruit large, oblong, of darkest color, sweet; early.

Haupt. 1. Austin Nur. Cat. 23. 1909.

Pound in the wild in Wharton County, Texas, by Col. W. W. Haupt, Kyle, Texas, about 1898, and introduced a few years later by the Austin Nursery Company, Austin, Texas. Thought to be a cross between a dewberry and a blackberry. The introducers state that, as it will not pollinate itself, two or three strains are mixed in each order to provide for cross pollination. The variety is of no value at this Station as it kills to the ground every winter. Haupt was placed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1909. Plants vigorous, trailing, with small, dark green foliage.

Humboldt. 1. Rural N. Y. 55:547. 1896. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 159. 1920.

Originated by S. L. Watkins, Pleasant Valley, California, who introduced it in 1916; said to be a seedling of Rubus ursinus. Plants trailing, very vigorous and productive, canes sometimes reaching a length of twenty feet; fruit very large, thick, attractive jet black with a spicy wild flavor; early.

Humbolt 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 286. 1921.
Originated by Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, California. Supposed to be a cross between an improved California dewberry and Cuthbert. Plants very vigorous; fruit very large, dark crimson, covered with a silvery sheen, very acid with both raspberry and blackberry flavor, excellent for canning; ripens in June "in California.

Laxtonberry. 1. Garden $0:228. 1916. 2. Bunyard Cat. 18. 1921. 3. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 290. 1922. Laxton. 3. U. S. D. A. Farmers' Bu1. 998:23. 1918.

As its history shows, Laxtonberry originated in England where it has attained some prominence as a cultivated fruit. It is little grown in eastern North America, but finds some favor on the Pacific Slope. This interesting hybrid, having much the habit of growth of the loganberry, is listed with dewberries, for, as usually seems to be the case in the hybrids in which the red raspberry is one parent, the raspberry characters are almost wholly submerged. The berry is much like that of the loganberry in color and flavor, but separates from the receptacle somewhat like a raspberry. The blossoms are not wholly self-fertile and the variety must be planted in proximity to the loganberry or a red raspberry, preferably the former. Laxtonberry is a cross between the loganberry and the Superlative red raspberry, and was originated by Laxton Brothers of England. The berry is much like the loganberry in color and flavor, but separates from the receptacle somewhat like a raspberry. Canes roundish, glabrous, eglandular; thorns weak, straight, small, numerous, yellowish brown; leaflets 3-5, broad, medium in size, dull green, with white tomentose beneath, the margins crenate in single and double series; lower and lateral leaves sessile; petiole medium in length, thick, pubescent, prickly. Flowers not wholly self-fertile, in compact, leafy clusters medium in length.

Loganberry. 1. Rural N. Y. 55:135, 495. 1896. 2. Ore. Sta. Bul. 105:21. 1909. 3. Card Bush-Fr. 222, PI. VI. 1917. 4. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 290, fig. 255, 1922. Logan Blackberry. 5. U. S. D. A. Farmers' Bu1. 998:1. 1918.
Plants and fruits of the loganberry are discussed in two previous chapters to which readers seeking full information on this interesting fruit should turn. (See pages 59 and 199.) It suffices here to give a description of the plant as it grows on the grounds of this Station.
Plants very vigorous, a stronger grower than the ordinary dewberry, semi-trailing, tender in the East, hardy in the West where the temperature does not reach zero, very productive under favorable conditions, healthy; canes medium to slender, pubescent, cylindrical, brownish red mingled with green, eglandular; prickles slender, very numerous, reddish; leaflets 3-5, broad-oval or heart-shaped resembling the raspberry, very thick, large, dull, rugose, pubescent, with finely serrate margins; petiole medium in length, rather thick. Flowers mid-season, white, in open, leafy clusters; petals roundish; pedicels long, thick, tomentose, prickly, eglandular; calyx very prickly, eglandular; calyx-lobes tomentose, bristly without, eglandular. Fruit early, clings rather tenaciously, ripens slowly; long-cylindrical-conic or ovate, large, glossy red; drupelets numerous, rather large, pubescent; core hard; flesh juicy, pleasantly sprightly at full maturity, otherwise rather acid, with a peculiar raspberry flavor, which is improved by cooking, firm enough to ship well; good in quality.

Lucretia. 1. Rural N. Y. 44:707, fig. 464. 1885. 2. Cornell Sta. Bul. 34:287, fig. 6. 1891. 3. Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 332, figs. 71 et 72. 1898.
As we have seen in a previous chapter, Lucretia was one of the first cultivated dewberries to make its way into popular favor. Perhaps it is not too much to say that it is still the best known and most widely grown of all dewberries, if the loganberry, here included with dewberries, be excepted. At the same time it is probable that it is past its prime in popular favor and that it is being superseded by other sorts. This dewberry came to its high estate in the small-fruit culture of the country because the plants grew splendidly on a great diversity of soils and in a range of latitudes from the coldest to the warmest in which this fruit can be grown. The plants have the faults of being susceptible to anthracnose, and of producing many double blossoms which are sterile. The fruits are large, jet black, very handsome, not of the highest quality, and are often variable in size. To have them at their best they must be permitted to become fully mature before picking. Unfortunately several other varieties are commonly substituted by nurserymen for Lucretia, so that many growers who think they have it do not have it. The American Pomological Society added Lucretia to its list of recommended fruits in 1889. (For a fuller discussion of Lucretia, see page 197.)
Plants vigorous, trailing, require protection in the winter, almost immune to orange-rust, susceptible to anthracnose and double-blossom especially in the South, very productive; canes slender, cylindrical, long, numerous, dull green mingled with brown, pubescent, eglandular; prickles small, slender, numerous, greenish; leaflets 3-5, sometimes 7, small, oval, dull, attractive, dark green, smooth, pubescent, with dentate margins; petiole slender. Flowers early, self-fertile, large, few, in short, open, leafy, prickly clusters ; petals white, oblong; pedicels very long, slender, eglandular; calyx eglandular. Fruit early; large although variable in size, long-cylindrical, tapering slightly, jet black; drupelets large, round, with good coherence; core soft; flesh juicy, firm, pleasantly sprightly when fully ripe, otherwise rather tart, rich; quality very good.

Lucretia Sister. 1. Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 344. 1898.
Introduced by J. B. Tweedway, Brandt, Ohio, about 1886; apparently without value as compared with Lucretia.

Mahdi. 1. Rural 2V. Y. 39:626. 1900. 2. Veitch et Sons Cat. 64, fig. 1902. 3. Bunyard-Thomas Fr. Gard, 31. 1904. 4. U. S. D. A, Farmers' BuL 998:23. 1918. 5. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 291, fig. 257. 1922.
This hybrid between a blackberry and a raspberry proves to be little more than a curiosity in most situations. Both plants and fruits are interesting to a student of brambles, and therefore a full description of them is given. The plants might well pass in even commercial plantations for they are vigorous, healthy and very productive, but the fruits are far below the mark for any purpose. They are exceedingly variable in size and shape; do not detach readily from the torus; the drupelets are large and coarse; and the quality is none too good. It is interesting to note that the variety is best propagated by tips, partaking of its raspberry parent in this respect. Mahdi is presumably a cross between the Belle de Fontenay raspberry and the common blackberry. Some pomologists have thought it to be a cross between loganberry and a raspberry.
Plants very vigorous, semi-prostrate, drooping or trailing, not very hardy, productive, healthy; propagated by tips; canes very prickly, rather numerous, unusually stocky, very long, cylindrical, brown mingled with gray becoming dark red, dull, glabrous; prickles very numerous, tinged red; leaflets 3, oval, luxuriant dark green, glossy, slightly rugose and pubescent, with serrate margins: petiole short. Flowers late, season unusually long, small, light pink, few to medium, in short, rather dense, leafy, prickly clusters often springing from the axis of the leaves, the larger ones terminal; pedicels short. Fruit very late, season very long; berries thickly clustered towards the extremities of the branches and branchlets in all stages of development from blossoms to mature fruit, quite variable in size and shape, usually roundish or roundish conic, dark, dull, purple, cling tenaciously to the torus; drupelets large, coarse, elliptical to roundish, with weak coherence making the berries crumble; flesh moderately juicy, tender, pleasantly sprightly; quality fair to good.

Manatee. 1. Cornell Sta. Bul. 34:309. 1891. 2. Rural N. Y. 60:550. 1901.

Introduced in 1889 by Reasoner Brothers, Manatee, Florida. Valuable in Florida but unproductive elsewhere. Plants very tender to cold, very unproductive; canes very numerous, reddish with numerous small, reddish prickles; fruit very large; drupelets very large, moderately firm, rich, sweet; good.

Mayes. 1. Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 344. 1898. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 23. 1899. 3. Card Bush-Fr. 225. 1917. Austin Improved. 4. Rural N. Y. 55:413, figs. 135 et 137. 1896. Austin. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 16. 1897.
Of little account in New York and the East, Mayes is considered one of the best dewberries in sections of the Middle West, and especially in northern Texas where it is largely grown in commercial plantations. Earliness, productiveness, great vigor of plant, and remarkable powers to resist dry, hot weather seem to be the characters that commend Mayes. It is too tender to cold for northern regions. The berries are comparatively small, rather soft to ship well, but are handsome and of very good quality. The plants are subject to anthracnose and bear a good many double blossoms; they are propagated either by tips or from root cuttings, Mayes was found growing wild by John Mayes, Pilot Point, Texas, about 1880. It is supposed to be a hybrid between the wild dewberry and the common blackberry. The variety was cultivated by Mr. Mayes and known locally as Mayes or Mayes Hybrid. Later it was sent out by J. W, Austin, of Pilot Point, as Austin Improved. The American Pomological Society listed the variety as Austin in its fruit catalog in 1897, but two years later changed the name to Mayes.

Plants vigorous, trailing, tender to cold, sometimes productive but variable in yield; subject to anthracnose and double-blossom; propagated by root-cuttings, also by tips; canes long, slender, numerous, greenish, cylindrical, glossy, eglandular or with but very few almost sessile, small glands, nearly glabrous; prickles slender, very numerous, light red at the base; leaflets 3-5, sometimes 7, variable in size, oval, dull dark green, rather smooth, pubescent, with coarsely dentate margins; petiole short, slender. Flowers self-fertile, midseason, large, in the axils of the leaves and terminal, in long, very loose, leafy, prickly clusters; petals white, oblong; pedicels very long, thick, with but few small glands. Fruit very early, can not be shipped far, holds up well in size; berries few in a cluster, either singly or sometimes in twos and threes, roundish to long-conic, thick, broad at the base, jet black; calyx large, not reflexed; drupelets very large, round, rather few; core hard at first, meditim to soft when fully ripe; flesh very juicy, firm until dead ripe, very sprightly, distinctly acid even when fully ripe; quality good to very good.

Miner. Miner's Seedling. 1. Rural N. Y. 13:317. 1862.

Raised from seed of a wild dewberry by a Mr. Miner, Honeoye Palls, New York. Plants trailing; fruit smaller than that of Lawton and of same shape, sweet; excellent. (See page 194 for a longer discussion of this variety.)

Monroe. 1. Austin Nur. Cat. 19. 1920.

Introduced in 1920 by the Austin Nursery Company, Austin, Texas. Received by them about 1900 from a Florida nursery. It is said to thrive on sandy soils in the South, but is unproductive on black land. Plants very vigorous; fruit very large, long, of southern dewberry type.

Mortgage Lifter. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 160. 1920.

Offered by the Aggeler et Musser Seed Co., Los Angeles, California. Said to be very productive and extremely early.

Myer, 1. Am, Pom. Soc. Cat. 25. 1909.

Listed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society for 1909 as a promising sort for the coast section of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia.

Ness* 1. Jour. Hered. 12:449. 1921. A. et M. Berry. 2. Texas Sta. Rpt. 9. 1920.

Under this name H. Ness, horticulturist at the Texas Station, sent out in 1920 nine different selections of third generation seedlings of a cross between the Louisiana dewberry, Rubus rubrisetus, and Brilliant red raspberry, made by him at the Texas Station in 1913. The differences between these strains are not great.
Plants vigorous, resembling the raspberry, at first prostrate, but later becoming bushy and more erect; canes large, round; foliage thick; fruit separates from the pedicel with difficulty, large, roundish, dark red; drupelets large, adhering to the core; flavor mildly acid, resembling the raspberry; season the first of May until August in Texas.

Newberry. 1. Garden 80:207. 1916.

Introduced by Whitelegg et Page, Chislehurst, England. Said to be a cross of loganberry and Superlative red raspberry. It is very similar to the loganberry, differing in the fruit being sweeter, with more of a raspberry flavor and less inclined to mold in damp weather.

Northey. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 160. 1920.

A selected type of the wild dewberry of northern Florida introduced by S. L. Watkins, Pleasant Valley, California. Succeeds in the Southern and Pacific States. Plants productive; flowers perfect; fruit very early.

Noten. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 286. 1921.

Found in the wild about 1896 by Pierson Noten in Hornsby's Bend near Austin, Texas. Not as large as Rogers.

Oregon Evergreen. 1. Ga. Sta. Bul. 33:517. 1896. Parsley-Leaved. 2. Mag. Hort. 20:81. 1854. Cut-Leaved. 3, Fuller Sm. Fr. Cult. 172. 1867. Evergreen. 4. Rural N. Y. 44:515, 592, 629. 1885. ,5. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:666. 1893. Oregon Everbearing. 6* Rural N. Y. 50:670. 1891. 7. Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 360. 1898.
A discussion of this sort on pages 83 and 189 in previous chapters suffices to indicate its status for the blackberry regions of the country and to show its interesting characters to growers and students of bramble fruits. Its history is also set forth on the pages just given. The following description is taken from plants as they grow on the grounds of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station.
Plants extremely vigorous, trailing, tender to cold, variable in yield, sometimes very productive, almost immune to anthracnose and orange-rust; propagated from tips and from root-cuttings; canes extremely prickly, perennial, numerous, medium to slender, grooved, dull reddish brown, slightly pubescent and glandular; prickles large, long, thick, very stout, strongly hooked, very numerous, light brown at the base; foliage ornamental; leaflets evergreen, cut-leaved, small, broad-ovate, dissected into several linear, sharp-toothed divisions; the younger leaves very glossy, rugose, glabrous, thinly pubescent, puberulous beneath, with deeply lobed, coarsely serrate margins; petiole short, very prickly. Flowers unusually late, blooming season long, medium to numerous, in open, leafy, prickly clusters; petals pale pink or rose colored, oblong; pedicels short; calyx-segments prickly. Fruit unusually late, ripening over a long season, said to ship and keep well; variable in size, irregularly roundish, glossy black, adhering strongly; drupelets very large, with strong coherence; core hard; flesh juicy, firm, sprightly or sour; quality poor.

Phenomenal, 1. Ore. Bd. Hort. Rpt. 109. 1909-10. 2. U. S. D. A. Farmers1 Bu1. 998: 24. 1918. 3. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 292. 1922.

This variety, supposed to be a cross between the western dewberry and the Cuthbert red raspberry, is so similar to the loganberry that it is usually classed with it. It does not thrive on the grounds of this Station, but its champions on the Pacific Slope say that the fruits are brighter, sweeter, richer, and have a more distinct raspberry flavor than those of the loganberry. Both Phenomenal and the loganberry are subject to a disease which dwarfs the plants and cuts short their life to but three or four profitable seasons. Phenomenal seems to be more subject to this dwarfing disease than the loganberry. The berries, also, often grow double, which disfigures them for the market. In the plants, the canes of Phenomenal are a little hardier; the blossoms open a few days later; and the berries are a little larger. There are those, however, who say that neither the differences noted in fruits or plants are inherent but come for most part from environment or care. Phenomenal is of small importance in regions where the loganberry is well established, except about Los Angeles where it is grown by some in preference to the older sort. It does not succeed in New York. This variety was introduced by Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, California, nearly twenty years ago. In 1909 the American Pomological Society added the variety to its fruit-catalog list.

Plants very vigorous, trailing, tender to cold, variable in yield, not always healthy; canes stocky to medium, cylindrical, purplish green mingled with brown, dull, very glaucous, pubescent, eglandular; prickles medium in size and length, slender, very numerous, purplish red, leaflets 3-5, broad-oval, dark green, rugose, pubescent, characteristically thick, with dentate margins; petiole short, thick. Flowers early, in short, loose, leafless clusters; petals white, oblong; pedicels medium in length and thickness; calyx eglandular, elongated. Fruit early; large, often double, long-conic, broad at the base, dull red, adheres strongly; drupelets medium in size and number, with strong coherence; core soft; flesh juicy, tender, mildly subacid; quality fair.

Premo. i, N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 145. 1906. 2. U. S. D. A. Farmers* Bu1. 728:17.

1916. 3. Card Bush-Fr. 227. 1917. 4. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 292. 1922. Premo differs but little from its supposed parent, Lucretia, of which it is thought to be either a seedling or a sport. The plants are very similar to those of Lucretia, but ripen their crop a week or ten days earlier, are not so productive, and bear more imperfect flowers. The fruits probably average a little smaller than those of Lucretia. Most growers think that the plants are not as productive as those of Lucretia. The variety is not of much importance in New York and the North, but seems to be a favorite early dewberry in some parts of the South, notably in North Carolina. But little seems to be known of the history of this variety but it has been under cultivation since 1905. It is supposed to have been found in a patch of Lucretia.

Plants medium in vigor, trailing, tender to cold, variable in yield, usually healthy; canes numerous, slender, cylindrical, dull green, pubescent; prickles slender, short, few, reddish at the base; leaflets 3-5, variable in size, broad-oval, thick, dark green, rugose, pubescent, with serrate margins; petiole thick, medium in length, deeply channeled, with but few prickles. Flowers midseason, often self-sterile, large, white, few, in short, open, leafy clusters; pedicels long, heavily pubescent, with but few prickles; calyx large; pistils irregular, sometimes protruding from the flower buds before the petals open. Fruit very early; large, irregularly oblong-oval, attractive black; drupelets large, round, with good coherence; core soft; flesh juicy, moderately firm and sprightly; quality good to very good.

Primus. 1. U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt. 264, PI. 8. 1892. 2. 17. S. D, A. Farmers1 Bu1. 998:

24. 1918.

Primus was originated by Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, California, in 1889, as a cross between the western dewberry, Rubus vitifolius, and Rubus crataegifolius; introduced by Burbank in'1893. Plant a strong grower, productive, partially trailing, thickly covered with short, blunt prickles, propagated by tips; fruit large, long, black, sweet, resembling a raspberry in flavor, adhering to the core; ripens earlier than the loganberry.

Rogers. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 286. 1921.

Discovered near Alvin, Texas, by a Mr. Rogers; introduced about 1893 by C. Falkner, Waco, Texas. Fruit large, a good shipper; excellent in quality; early.

San Jacinto. 1. Austin Nur. Cat. 16. 1907.

Found by F. T. Ramsey, Austin, Texas, and introduced by F. T. Ramsey et Son about 1896. At this Station it is tender to cold and unproductive. Plants trailing, moderately vigorous, not hardy, rather unproductive; canes slender, densely covered with fine reddish spines and glandular hairs; foliage very small; fruit small; early.

Skagit Chief. 1. Cornell Sta. Bul. 34:310. 1891.

Introduced in Avon, Washington, in 1891. Flowers pistillate, blooming too early for pollination by eastern dewberries.

Sorsby. 1. Rural N. Y. 74:71. 1915. 2. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 289. 1922.

Sorsby May. 3. Munson Cat. 10. 1901.

Introduced in 1901 by T. V. Munson et Son, Denison, Texas. It is said to be a blackberry-dewberry hybrid, the plants resembling those of McDonald. It requires winter protection in this latitude, and being self-sterile, much of the fruit is poorly developed.
Plants vigorous, trailing, becoming upright after the first season, tender, productive where hardy; canes slender; foliage small, dark green; fruit below medium size, irregular oval; drupelets of medium size, many failing to develop, moderately juicy, seedy, subacid; fair.

Tribble. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 160. 1920.

Originated near Elk Grove, California, and introduced by Claude Tribble of that place. Similar to the loganberry, but earlier.

Washington Climbing. 1. Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 354. 1898.

Introduced in 1892 by Samuel Wilson, Mechanicsville, Pennsylvania.

Wilson White. 1. Cornell Sta. Bul. 34:310. 1891. 2. Ga. Sta. Bul. 33:521. 1896.

Introduced in 1890 by Samuel Wilson, Mechanicsville, Pennsylvania, from stock from Colorado County, Texas. As grown at the Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station the plants form a dense, matted growth of tangled evergreen canes and leaves with numerous laterals, very unproductive; prickles numerous, variable in size; fruit of medium size, oval; drupelets large, white, sunscald badly, briskly subacid.

Windom. 1. Minn. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 137. 1887. Cook's Hardy. 2. Col 0. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 70. 1887.

Introduced in 1887 by the Minnesota Horticultural Society. Originated on the farm of Dewain Cook, Windom, Minnesota. It had previously been brought to Minnesota by J. Q. Pickett from Iowa who had cultivated the variety for eighteen years. Plants vigorous, trailing, hardy, fairly productive; propagates by tips and suckers; canes nearly thornless; fruit slightly larger than Snyder but not as good in quality; sunscalds easily; early.

Young. 1. Am. Fr. Gr. Mag. 45: No. 1, 9. 1925.

A cross between Phenomenal and Mayes raised about 1905 by B. M. Young, Morgan City, Louisiana. J. F. Jones, Jeanerette, Louisiana, sent plants to the United States Department of Agriculture. These fruited in 1924 at Bell, Maryland, attracting favorable attention, whereupon they were named Young and plants were distributed in 1924.

Plants vigorous, trailing, probably not hardy in New York, productive, propagating by tips; canes stouter and longer than Lucretia, red; prickles numerous, variable in size, averaging small, purplish; fruit larger than Lucretia, ovoid-oblong, truncate; drupelets large, glossy, dark wine color, very juicy, firmer than the loganberry, subacid, rich; excellent; core soft; season of Lucretia but longer.