The bramble fruits, belonging to the genus Rubus, family Rosaceae, inhabit almost the whole globe, with the exception of the dry desert regions, from the arctic to the antarctic regions; in tropical countries they prefer the mountains whilst in the northern temperate regions they are especially numerous both in the Old and in the New World, and occur from the mountains to the plains, in woods and open fields, and down to the sea coast. In the temperate regions bramble fruits are not only very numerous in individuals but also in forms. After the Glacial period wide stretches of land were open to them for colonization, and it seems that through these increasing opportunities for a large reproduction the modification-power of the germ plasma received a fresh and strong stimulus. Intercrossing between different forms must have gone on simultaneously for ages, in many cases creating an almost endless number of intermediate forms filling the gaps between the more pronounced forms, which we are accustomed to call " species," and making it difficult for the systematic botanist to treat the genus in a satisfactory and intelligible way. It is of these extremely numerous transitional forms that no two studies, not only of different botanists but of any one botanist, are found to agree.

The North American Rubi, which concern us here as the parents of some of our most important small fruits, are fortunately not quite as badly mixed and variable as the European species, but nevertheless they offer an almost inexhaustible number of forms in certain groups. Besides the North American species we have to consider some South American ones and a number of species of the Old World, which are cultivated as fruit plants and have been introduced into this country. A large number of Rubi have been introduced from China during the last twenty years, among them many ornamental shrubs and vines, some of them, however, only adapted for regions with mild or almost frostless winters. Only a very few of these, those kinds which furnish or are likely to furnish small fruits, can be mentioned here.

RUBUS. Linnaeus Sp. PL 492. 1753.

Perennial plants, herbs or shrubs with erect, procumbent or trailing stems. The herbaceous plants dwarf, unarmed; the shrubby kinds glabrous or hairy, glandular, and mostly armed with fine slender more or less stiff bristles and variously shaped prickles. The stems or canes of most shrubby species of the temperate region are biennial. They reach their full size the first year bearing large very characteristic foliage (in this state they are called " turions " or " young canes "); in the second year short lateral branches appear on them which bear flowers and fruits. The leaves on these flowering branches are always much smaller. After flowering and fruiting these two-year-old canes die and are replaced by other turions. The canes are either terete or angled, or angled and furrowed. In some species the tip of the canes bends over, touches the soil, strikes root and gives rise to a new plant. The leaves are alternate, either simple, lobed or pinnately or palmately or pedately compound, mostly deciduous or in some species wintergreen or even evergreen. Petioles and petiolules (or stalks of the leaflets) usually resemble the canes, i.e., are either glabrous, hairy, glandular, bristly or prickly. Stipules are always present at the base of the petioles. The flowers are always stalked and borne either solitary or racemose or panicled, usually the lower flowers in the axils of leaves or leaf-like bracts. They are hermaphrodite, i.e., with perfect stamens and styles. In some cases, however, they are unisexual, dioecious or variously polygamo-dioecious. The hypanthium or the lower part of the calyx varies from plane or rotate to saucer-shaped, hemispheric, campanulate, or turbinate. Calyx-lobes or sepals valvate in bud, usually 5, but sometimes 6-8, sometimes unequal and the larger ones with a prolonged somewhat foliaceous top. Petals as many as calyx-lobes, of various size, white, rose, or pink colored. Stamens numerous, inserted densely on the margin of the hypanthium and separated from the pistils by a disk; filaments filiform or flattened, incurved in bud, erect or divaricate when mature. Pistils mostly numerous, inserted on a convex, hemispherical, or conical receptacle or carpophore rising from the center of the hypanthium and becoming either dry or fleshy; pistils laterally compressed, with the style rising from the inner margin; stigma usually subclavate or slightly 2-lobed; ovules two, collateral, one of them abortive. In the fruit the pistils are transformed into small, more or less juicy, and coherent drupelets, which either detach easily from the receptacle (or core) as a thimble or cap (as in the Raspberries), or do not detach from the fleshy core and fall off together with it (as in the Blackberries and the Dewberries), or detach singly or become more or less dry, as in some species of warmer countries. The fruits are usually red, yellow, or black, rarely green.

Key to the Subgenera

A. Small perennial herbaceous plants, with creeping stems or a creeping rootstock and annual erect short flowering shoots B. Flowering shoots from the rootstock

C. Flowers dioecious (each plant with flowers either only with stamens or only with pistils).....................................Subgen. I. Chamaemorus

CC. Flowers hermaphrodite (or stamens and pistils in each individual flower).......

Subgen. V. Cylactis BB. Flowering shoots or peduncles from stems

C. Stems without prickles...............................Subgen. II. Dalibarda

CC. Stems prickly

D. Stipules free...................................Subgen. III. Chamaebatus

DD. Stipules attached to the petiole. . ..................Subgen. IV. Comaropsis

AA. Shrubs with erect, arching, scandent, procumbent or creeping stems (canes) which persist at least for two years, unarmed or variously armed

B. Stipules free or almost, broad C. Stipules persistent D. Canes without flexible bristles, glandular or eglandular. .Subgen. VI. Orobatus

DD. Canes more or less densely beset with flexible often glandular bristles.......

Subgen. VII. Dalibardastrum

(Contains only 5 Asiatic species, of no pomological interest)

CC. Stipules fugacious, canes scandent or creeping; leaves mostly perennial; calyx-bottom (hypanthium or cupula) broadly campanulate. Subgen. VIII. Malachobatus (Contains very numerous Asiatic species, many of ornamental value but none as fruit plants) BB. Stipules attached to the petiole, narrowly linear or subulatei

C. Canes unarmed, persisting for more than two years; leaves simple, palmately lobate..........................................Subgen. IX. Anoplobatus

CC. Canes prickly

D. Canes persisting, leaves leathery, evergreen, inflorescence amply panicled; drupelets not much cohering......................Subgen. XI. Lampobatus

(Contains about 10 species of the Tropics of the Old World of no pomological interest) DD. Canes biennial, dying back after the second year

E. Drupelets cohering as a cap or a thimble and detaching easily from the receptacle (core)...............................Subgen. X. Idaeobatus

EE. Drupelets cohering also with the core or receptacle. Subgen. XII. Eubatus

Subgenus I. Chamaemorus. Focke Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen 4:145. 1874; Focke Spec. Rub. 1:12. 1910.

Small perennials, with entire reniform leaves and dioecious flowers. One species; Rubus chamaemorus. Linnaeus Sp. PL 494. 1753; Card Bush-Fr. 308, fig. 52. 1898; FockeSpec. Rub. 1 :i2. 1910; Gray New Man. 7th Ed. 487. 1911; Rydberg N. Am. FL 22:435. I9I3; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3023, fig. 1916.

Cloudberry, Bakeberry, Bakeapple berry, Yellow berry, Salmonberry, Molka. A

small herbaceous perennial with creeping rootstock; stems annual, erect, 10-30 cm high, in the lower part with scales, usually with 2, but also 1-4, leaves in the upper part, more or less pubescent and with one terminal flower. Leaves roundish, with a reniform base, and 5-7 short, round, crenate lobes and as many palmately disposed mainveins, somewhat falted and rugose, glabrous and dark green above, paler and somewhat pubescent beneath, 2-6 cm long. Petioles usually shorter than the blades; stipules rather broad, obovate, obtuse or acute, attached to the stem. Flowers solitary, by abortion dioecious, the stamens in the female flowers without anthers, and the styles in the male flowers short. Peduncles straight without bracts, somewhat pubescent, exceeding the petiole of the last leaf. Calyx with ovate pubescent or hirsute lobes, persistent and enlarged on the fruit. Petals white, obovate, rather large, obtuse or emarginate. Fruits erect, globular, red, changing to yellow or golden when ripe, drupelets large, globular, cohering.

Northern Hemisphere; in arctic and subarctic Europe, Asia, North America. For America from Greenland and Alaska as far south as Oregon, and Maine and New Hampshire in the East; usually in peaty, swampy soil, often among sphagnum moss. In all northern countries much esteemed as a most delicious fruit and everywhere gathered in great quantity. Four-parted flowers, i. e., with 4 calyx-lobes and 4 petals, instead of 5, are not rare in this species.

Subgenus II. Dalibarda Linn. Focke Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen 4:145. 1874; Focke Spec, Rub. 1:13. 1910.

Small perennial plants with slender creeping stems and free stipules; calyx with a short almost flat base; pistils usually few, 5-20.

Of the 5 species composing this subgenus, 3 are North American, 1 is from central China and the eastern Himalaya, and 1 from Tasmania. None of them has any pomological importance and none need be described in this text.

Key to the American Species A. Leaves simple

B. Leaves roundish cordate, crenate; fruits dry........................R. dalibarda

BB. Leaves trilobed, sharply dentate; fruits somewhat succulent, pulpy..R. lasiococcus AA. Leaves pedately 5-foliolate...........................................R. pedatus

Subgenus III. Chamaebatus. Focke Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen 4:145, 156. 1874; Focke Spec. Rub. 1:17. 1910.

Small perennials with slender creeping stems armed with slender prickles; leaves roundish cordate or lobed.

Of the 5 species belonging here, 1 is North American, 1 Mexican, the others are Asiatic. None of them has any great importance for the pomologist; this is also true of the North American species, R. nivalis, which is, therefore, not further discussed.

Subgenus IV. Comaropsis. Focke Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen 4:145. 1874; Focke Spec. Rub. 1:22. 1910.

Small perennials with creeping prickly stems, with the stipules adnate to the petioles. There are only two species from southern Chile, neither of which are of interest to pomoldgists.

Subgenus V. Cylactis Raf. Focke Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen 4:142, 146. 1874; Focke Spec. Rub. 1:23. 1910.

Perennials with the annual flowering shoots from the rootstock, unarmed or prickly. Leaves simple, or 3-5 foliolate; stipules free or almost, large, linear or.obtus

To this subgenus belong about 15 species, several of them are American, the others are European and Asiatic. Some of them bear edible fruits and one is cultivated for its fruit.

Key to the Species Described

A. Leaves simple, cordate or reniform; petals rose colored.............R. stellatus

A A. Leaves compound B. Leaves 3-foliolate

C. Low perennials, 3-20 cm high; petals rose colored D. Petals broadly obovate, 7-10 mm long; stems 1-3 flowered; leaflets usually rhombic and acute.........................................R. arcticus

DD. Petals narrower, oblanceolate, 10-13 mm l0ng] attenuated into a distinct yellowish claw; stems i-flowered; leaflets more obtuse............R. acaulis

CC. Slender perennial, 30-90 cm high, petals white; flowers small..R. pubescens BB. Leaves pinnate; stems, petioles and midribs prickly.........R. xanthocarpus

Rubus steUatus. Smith PI. Ic. (Ined. PI.) 64. 1791; Card Bush-Fr. 310. 1898; Focke Spec. Rub. 1:25. 1910; Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:435. I9I3J Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3024. 1916.

Small herbaceous perennial with creeping rootstock and erect flowering stems, 10-20 cm high with about 2-5 leaves or more, slightly pubescent or glabrous. Petioles longer than the blade, slender; stipules ovoid, obtuse or pointed; leaves simple, cordate or reniform at the base, broader than long, the lower ones almost entire, the others deeply 3-lobed, the lobes obtuse or roundish, doubly crenate or serrate, glabrate at length, 3-6 cm wide. Flowers solitary, terminal, peduncles overtopping the leaves, often with 6-8 sepals and petals. Calyx finely puberulous, lobes narrowly lanceolate, acuminate; petals obovate or oblanceolate, long clawed, rose colored, exceeding the calyx-lobes; stamens numerous with dilated filaments. Fruit globose with 20-25 drupelets, glabrous; putamen smooth; calyx reflexed on the fruit.

Eastern Asia; Kamtschatka, western North America; Aleutian Isles, Alaska, Yukon. Of little importance as a fruit-bearing plant.

Rubus arcticus. Linnaeus Sp. PI. 494. 1753; Britton et Brown III. Fl. 2:200, fig. 1893. 1897; Focke Spec. Rub. 1:24. '1910; Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:437. 1913; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3023. 1916.

Arctic Raspberry, Herbaceous perennial, with a slender creeping rootstock. Stems 5-20 cm high, finely pubescent, 2- to 6-leaved; stipules large, obovate, rounded; petioles 2-4 cm long, finely pubescent; leaflets 3, simply or doubly toothed, lateral ones sessile, broadly obovate-rounded, on the upper leaves more acute, terminal ones short stalked, more or less acute, especially the upper ones. Flowers 1-3, polygamo-dioecious, 5- to 10-parted; sepals lanceolate, acute, finely pubescent; petals obovate, entire or emarginate, 7-10 mm long, rose-red. Fruit globose, dark red, fragrant, edible.

Northern Europe, Asia, and North America; from Labrador to the Canadian Rocky Mountains in the New World. The fruit is smaller than that of R. chamaemorus; when full grown and ripe it is not unlike that of the raspberry.

Rubus acaulis. MichauxF/. Bor. Am. 1:298. 1803; Focke Spec. Rub. 1:24. 1910; Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:437. *9*3+

R. arcticus. Card Bush-Fr. 312, fig. 54. 1898.

Similar to R. arcticus in habit. Stems 3-12 cm high, slightly pubescent or glabrous, with 2-4 leaves, usually 1-flowered. Petioles 2-6 cm long, leaflets all somewhat stalked, mostly rounded or obtuse at the top, only the upper ones occasionally somewhat more acute; lateral leaflets sometimes 2-cleft, terminal ones more or less rhombic-obovate with a petiolule 5-7 mm long. Calyx-lobes narrowly lanceolate with a long point; petals oblanceolate attenuated into a long, yellowish claw, mostly 10-13 mm long, rose colored.

Arctic and subarctic North America; from Alaska to Labrador, northern Minnesota and Wyoming; perhaps also in the Old World. Differs from i?. arcticus chiefly in the more obtuse leaves, larger flowers, and narrower sepals and by clawed petals. The two species are, however, very close and not always easily separable. The fruits are edible but are not of great value.

Rubus pubescens. Rafin. Med. Repos. 3:2, 233. 1811; Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:438. 1913; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3023. 1916.

R americanus. Britton Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 5:185. 1894; Card Bush-Fr. 314, fig. 56. 1898; Focke Spec. Rub. 1:25. 1910.

R. saxatilis var. americanus. Persoon Syn. 2:52. 1806.

Dwarf Raspberry. A slender perennial or subshrub, 30-90 cm high, sterile stems flagelliform, procumbent, unarmed, flowering the following year; annual flowering stems erect, weak, unarmed, and glabrous. Leaves 3-foliolate, on long slender petioles; stipules obovate, obtuse; leaflets thin, all sessile or short stalked, the lower ones obliquely ovate-lanceolate, the terminal one longer, all acute, all with mostly simple ovate teeth. Flowers solitary or few together on slender pedicels, small; calyx-lobes ovate, acute, reflexed; petals white, scarcely longer. Fruit red, with several drupelets.

North America; from Newfoundland to British Columbia, south to Montana, Colorado, Iowa, and New Jersey; in swamps and damp woods. A very weak and thin-leaved plant; the fruit is of little importance. Hybrids have been recorded with R. arcticus, R. acaulis, and lately with R. hispidus. A near ally of this species is R. japonicus (Maxim.) Focke from the mountain forests in Japan.

R. saxatilis Linn, is another species of this relationship, with herbaceous stems, small flowers, and red drupelets, easily segregating, however; it occurs through northern Asia from Altai westward to Europe, and is reported from southern Greenland.

Rubus xanthocarpus. Bureau et Franchet in Moret Jour. Bot. 5:46. 1891; Focke Spec. Rub. 1:29. 1910; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3024. 1916.

Perennial or subshrub with annual stems, i.e., dying down in the winter, 20-80 cm high or rarely more, pilose and weak-spiny. Leaves pinnately, 3- to 5-foliolate. Leaflets ovate, acute or obtuse, unequally serrate, terminal leaflet much larger, 6-10 cm long, acute; petioles and midveins with recurved prickles. Flowers 1-2, terminal, mostly 6-parted and rather large; peduncles and calyx prickly; petals narrow, white. Fruit orange-yellow, with numerous drupelets, fragrant, somewhat like a raspberry, edible.

Central China; in the Provinces Kansu, Szechwan, and Yunnan. It is occasionally grown for its fruit and was introduced by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1898. It is reported to be hardy as far north as Minnesota.

Subgenus VI. Orobatus. Focke inEngler et Prantl Nat. Pfianzenfam. 3:31. 1888; Focke Spec. Rub. 1:30. 1910; Ibid. 3:18. 1914. Not Oreobatus Rydberg Bui. Torrey Bot. Club 30:274. 1903.

Prickly shrubs with woody, perennial, erect or more or less climbing stems. Leaves simple or 3- or rarely 5-foliolate, with mostly large, broad, dentate, persistent stipules. Inflorescence loose, few flowered; flowers usually large with rose-colored petals. Fruits large, not always juicy ,^ with numerous often whitish tomentose drupelets.

About 20 species, almost all natives of the Andes of Tropical South America at elevations from 3600-12000 feet, one species is a native of the Costa Rica mountains and one is known from the Philippine Islands. So far only the following species has been introduced as a fruit plant:

Rubus macrocarpus. Bentham PL Hartweg. 129. 1844; Focke Spec. Rub. 1:37. 1910; Popenoe Jour. Hered. 11:195, fig. 1920; U. S. D. A. Bur. PL Indust. Invent. 13, 65, PL III 1923.

Columbian Berry. Canes erect, recurving at the tip, or half-climbing, about 3 m long, stout, light green, villous-tomentose and with reddish glandular hairs and with short, slightly recurved prickles. Leaves trifoliolate or simple and often lobed, large and coarse; leaflets stalked, thick, ovate or broadly elliptic, acute, serrate, velvety pilose on both sides, 8-15 cm long; stipules large, subcordate, villous, 25 mm long; petioles 15 cm long. Flowers single or $~6 from lateral branches, pedicels 8-12 cm long, stout, like the calyx pubescent, glandular and prickly; calyx-lobes large, deltoid, pointed, exceeding the obovate light rosy-purple petals; pistils numerous, densely villous. Fruits very large, up to 55 mm long, elongate, light crimson to wine colored; drupelets relatively small, rather loosely cohering; core succulent, extending nearly to the top of the fruit and at maturity often separating from the drupelets.

South America; in the Andes of Colombia and Ecuador, from 2500 ~ 3500 feet, in a moist cool region. The fruit is said to be " rather firm in texture, not as juicy as most of the cultivated blackberries, and of a pleasant subacid flavor (quite acid until the fruit is fully ripe) perhaps suggesting that of the loganberry more than that of the cultivated blackberries." (Popenoe 1. c.)

Subgenus IX. Anoplobatus. Focke Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen 4:143, 146. 1874; Focke Spec. Rub. 2:123. 1911.

Rubacer and Oreobatus. Rydberg Bui. Torrey Bot. Club 30:274. 1903.

Erect unarmed shrubs with perennial stems, increasing in thickness with age. Leaves simple, lobed; stipules adnate to the petiole. Flowers large, showy, white or pink. Fruit scarcely juicy, finally getting dry.

Most of the species of this subgenus are North American, two are natives of Japan. They are perhaps of more ornamental value than they will ever be as fruit plants.

Key to the Species Described

A. Leaves large, about 10-30 cm wide; inflorescence densely beset with stalked glands

B. Petals rose colored...............................................R. odoratus

BB. Petals white...................................................R. parviflorus

A A. Leaves much smaller; inflorescence pubescent not densely glandular. .R. deliciosus

Rubus odoratus. Linnaeus Sp. PL 494. 1753; Card Bush-Fr. 304, fig. 49. 1898; Gray New Man. 7th Ed. 487. 1911; Pocke Spec, Rub. 2:123. 1911; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3024. 1916; Bailey Gent Herb. 1:146. 1923.

Rubacer odoratum. Rydberg Bui. Torrey Bot. Club 30:2 74. 1903; Rydberg N. Am. FL 22:425. 1913.

Flowering Raspberry. Erect shrub, with perennial stems, 1-3 m high, bushy. Stems with pale brown flaky peeling bark, in the young parts more or less villous and densely glandular-hispid. Leaves large, simple, maple-like on long stalks, cordate at base, roundish in outline, 5- to 7-lobed, rather firm, green and sparingly hairy on both sides, lobes acute, lobulate, fine and sharply doubly toothed, the middle lobe the largest, 10-30 cm wide. Petioles roundish, glandular-hispid, about as long as the blades, stipules acute. Flowers numerous, subcorymbose, fragrant, 4-5 cm across; pedicels and calyxes densely beset with stalked brownish glands; calyx-lobes ovate, caudate or suddenly contracted into a long narrow point; petals roundish, deep rose colored; stamens very numerous, shorter than the petals, pistils numerous, tomentose. Fruits red, flat, round, tasteless.

Eastern North America; from Nova Scotia to the Saskatchewan River, south to Michigan and in the mountains as far as Tennessee and Georgia, chiefly in half shady places, in glens, on wet rocks, woods, and roadsides. Not much of a fruit plant, but a very ornamental shrub; introduced into Europe as early as 1770 and now commonly cultivated. It flowers from June to September.

A rather constant species. The following varieties are worth noting:

Var. columbianus. Millspaugh W. Va. Sta. Bul. 24:355. 1892. Rubus columbianus, Rydberg in Britton Man. 495. 1901; Rubacer columbianusy Rydberg N. Am. FL 22:426. 1913.

Leaves deeper cut and the lobes lanceolate, acuminate, incised, dentate or doubly toothed. Western Virginia.

Var. albidus. Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3024* 1916. Flowers whitish and bark lighter colored. R. odoratus has been crossed with i?. idaeus, and the hybrid is named:

Rubus nobilis* Regel Gartenflora 6:86. 1857.

.Stems tomentose. Leaves 3-foliolate; leaflets oblong, grayish tomentose underneath. Inflorescence many flowered, subcorymbose; peduncles pubescent and glandu-liferous; flowers similar to those of R. odoratus, but smaller, petals of the same color.

The plant is said to be sterile; it is rare in cultivation. It was raised by C. de Vos at Hazerswoude near Boskoop in Holland about 1855.

Rubus parviflorus. Nuttall Gen. 1:308. 1818; Card Bush-Fr. 305, fig. 50. 1898; Gray New Man. 7th Ed. 487. 1911; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3024. 1916; Bailey Gent Herb. 1:146. 1923. R. nutkanus Moc. Seringe in D. C. Prodr. 2:566. 1825; Pocke Spec. Rub. 2:124. 1911. Rubacer parviflorum. Rydberg Bui. Torrey Bot. Club 30:274. 1903; Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:426. 1913.

Rocky Mountain Thimbleberry, Salmonberry. Erect shrub very similar to R. odoratus, up to 8 feet high; young shoots downy and more or less glandular. Leaves similar to those of R. odoratus, mostly 5-lobed, more reniform at the base, the lobes triangular, pointed, the middle one somewhat longer, irregularly toothed, pubescent on both sides, especially underneath. Flowers 3-7, large, showy, pure white; pedicel and calyx densely tomentose and glandular; calyx-lobes ovate suddenly contracted into a long narrow point; petals roundish oval, longer than the calyx-lobes. Fruit large, 15-20 mm across, red.

Central and western North America; from Wisconsin to the West as far as British Columbia in the North, and south to California, New Mexico, and northern Mexico.

The name parviflorus is very inappropriate for this species, as it has large flowers, larger than those oi.R.. odoratus, its next ally and geographical sister species. Var. fraseriana, T. K. Henry Torreya 18:54, 1918, is a form with laciniate and dentate basal part of the petals. Besides, there occur forms with deeper cut or laciniate leaves.

Var. velutinus H. et A. n. comb.-i?. velutinus H. et A. Bot Beech. Voy. 140. 1832; not R. velutinus, Vest. 1823; Rubacer tomentosutn, Rydberg Bui. Torrey Bot Club 30:274. 1903; Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:426. 1913.

Leaves densely velvety pubescent at the back; calyx sometimes less or not glandular. Central California to British Columbia, along the coast. Rubus robustus Hort. Petrob. is the name of a hybrid between R. odo-ratus and R. parviflorus raised at Petersburg Botanical Garden and later by Mr. Fraser in Ucluelet, British Columbia; Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 73:51, fig. 24. 1923.

Rubus deliciosus. Torrey Ann. Lye. N. Y. 2:196. 1827; Card Bush-Fr. 307. 1898; Focke Spec. Rub. 2:125. 1911; Bailey Stand, Cyc. Hort 5:3024. 1916; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:146. 1923.

R. Roezli. Regel Gartenflora 24:227. 1875.

Oreobatus deliciosus. Rydberg Bui. Torrey Bot. 0^630:275. 1903. Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:427. 1913.

Rocky Mountain Flowering Raspberry. Erect shrub, 1-2.5 m high, branches perennial, slightly arching at the top; young stems pale reddish brown, downy; bark peeling off later on. Leaves simple, roundish cordate, wider than long, with 3-5-7 short, rounded lobes and small, ovate, sharp teeth, 2-6 cm wide; green on both sides, sparingly hairy above but soon glabrous, longer so on the veins beneath and often finely glandular pruinose. Petioles and the lanceolate-acuminate stipules downy. Flowering branches lateral, with similar but smaller leaves; flowers large and showy, rose-like, 4-6 cm across or more, white, solitary on slender, but firm, downy peduncles. Calyx-lobes ovate, cuspidate, entire or toothed, pubescent and more or less glandular; petals roundish or broadly obovate, stamens numerous; pistils pubescent. Fruit half-round, surrounded by the appressed calyx; dark purple; drupelets numerous, almost dry.

Southwestern North America; in the mountains of Colorado and probably also of Arizona and New Mexico. A desirable, free-flowering, and very hardy ornamental shrub, but not a fruit plant; the name " deliciosus " was probably given for its profusely borne, fine, rose-like flowers. Contrary to other Rubi this species is difficult to propagate. It does not sucker, cuttings strike but slowly, and layers often take as long as a year before they are properly rooted. There are several varieties in cultivation, the most desirable one has flowers almost twice as large as those of the more common kind. In habit and foliage R, deliciosus resembles some kinds of currants more than a bramble. There are three or possibly more related species, all natives of southwestern United States, Mexico, and Guatemala.

Subgenus X. Idaeobatus, Focke Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen 4:143, 147. 1874; Focke Spec. Rub. 2:128. 1911; Ibid. 3:260. 1914.

Raspberries. Canes usually biennial, erect, arching or decurving at the top and sometimes rooting from the tip, in some species scandent or prostrate; usually prickly, sometimes bristly or glandular bristly. Leaves in some species simple and lobed, in others odd-pinnately compound, in a few 5-foliolate digitate or pedate; petioles with adnate narrow stipules. Flowers and inflorescences various; calyx-lobes almost equal, petals often fugacious. Fruit composed of many cohering drupelets, dissolving at maturity from the core as a thimble or a cap.

This subgenus is composed of numerous species inhabiting all the five continents. They are especially numerous in the northern hemisphere and chiefly in the temperate and subtropical regions of Asia from the Himalaya to Japan, western and central China being extremely rich in species. Some species are very important fruit plants and are cultivated largely as raspberries; others may be useful for the plant breeder and many are ornamental garden plants.

Key to the Series op Idaeobatus

A. Leaves simple, lobed.....................................Series 1: Corchorifolii

AA. Leaves compound

B. Flowers solitary or a few loosely and distantly set from each other

C. Leaves of the new canes (turions) 3-foliolate.............Series 2: Spectabiles

CC. Leaves of the new canes pinnate

D. Leaflets narrow, pointed, lateral veins close and numerous; fruits with very

numerous drupelets................................Series 3: Rosaefolii

DD Leaflets broader, veins more remote and less numerous; drupelets less

numerous..........................................Series 4: Pungentes

BB. Flowers numerous, often densely panicled or fascicled

C. Flowers pink, usually small and petals scarcely as long as the calyx-lobes......

Series 5: Orientates CC. Flowers white or whitish, petals often fugacious.

D. Canes densely bristly, climbing; leaves 3-foliolate.........Series 6: Elliptici

DD. Canes not so

E. Canes erect and arching or scandent or prostrate, often rooting at the tip, mostly glabrous, with dense glaucous bloom; leaves 3-foliolate or

digitately or pedately 5-foliolate..........,......Series 7: Occidentales

EE. Canes erect or nodding at the top, but not rooting at the tip; leaves pin-nately 3- to 5-foliolate...............................Series 8: Idaei

Series.. 1. Corchorifolii. Focke Spec. Rub. 2:129. 1911. About 15 species known, all natives of China and Japan.

A. Leaves small; flowers solitary, nodding............................Rubus palmatus

A A. Leaves larger, 8-30 cm wide; flowers not nodding

B. Canes furrowed; prickles small; leaves 3-to 5-lobed..........R. crataegifolius

BB. Canes terete, finely downy when young; prickles with a broad base; leaves 3-lobed..................................................R. corchorifolius

Rubus palmatus. Thunberg Fl. Jap. 217. 1784; Ic. PL Jap. Dec. 4, PL 6; Focke Spec. Rub. 2:132. 1911; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3026. 1916; Bailey Gent Herb. 1:146. 1923.

R. micropkyllus. Linnaeus fil. Suppl. Syst. Veg. 263. 1781; Card Bush-Fr. 311. 1898.

Stoloniferous shrub with erect, arching biennial canes, 1-1.5 m high; canes slightly angled, glabrous, more or less armed with straight prickles. Petioles 1-3 cm long or more, pubescent, with hooked prickles; stipules small, linear. Leaves from a cordate base, deeply 3- to 5-lobed, lobes acuminate, lobately irregularly toothed, terminal lobe the longest, puberulous on the veins, glabrous at last. Flowers solitary from short lateral shoots, nodding, 25-30 cm across; peduncles pubescent, almost unarmed. Calyx-lobes lanceolate, pubescent; petals longer, narrowly elliptical, white. Stamens and pistils numerous. Fruit similar to that of R. idaeus, yellowish, juicy, and edible.

Japan, China; not quite hardy in the East, but does well on the Pacific Coast. From this species the cultivated variety "Mayberry" of Luther Burbank was derived as a cross with the Cuthbert raspberry.

R. crataegifolius. Bunge Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 2:98. 1835; Card Bush-Fr. 310. 1898; Focke Spec, Rub. 2:137. 1911; Bailey Stand, Cyc. Hort. 5:3026. 1916; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:147. i923-

Canes erect, arching and branched at the top, 1-2 m high, black or red brown, furrowed and armed with a few small straight prickles. Leaves green, glabrate or downy beneath, simple, cordate-ovate, acute, 3-to 5-lobed and palmately veined, lobes acute, the middle one larger, contracted at its base, the margins coarsely unequally serrate and notched; petioles and mid veins beneath pubescent and armed with scattered hooked prickles; stipules linear-lanceolate. Flowering branches pubescent, leaves often only 3-lobed; flowers small, few or several, fascicled or clustered in a short raceme, short stalked, a few lower ones sometimes axillar and longer stalked; bracts lanceolate; calyx more or less pubescent, lobes ovate-deltoid, acuminate; petals white, about as long, elliptic, clawed, crimped at the margins, spreading in the open flower; stamens in one row; pistils numerous, glabrous. Fruit half round, shining deep or black blood red, edible.

Northern China, Korea, and Japan; a robust plant with a spreading rootstock, very hardy. On good soil the leaves of the turions reach 20-30 cm in diameter. Only the leaves on flowering shoots can be compared with Crataegus; those of the turions resemble more the leaves of the maple. Although the fruit is edible, it has been little cultivated as a fruit plant, but has been recommended for planting on loose rough banks, where the strong spreading rootstocks help to hold the soil.

Rubus corchorifolius. Linnaeus fil. Suppl. Syst. VegeL 263. 1781; Focke Spec. Rub. 2:131. 1911; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3026. 1916.

Spreading by suckers, 1.5-2.5 m high, canes terete, finely downy and with broad-based straight prickles, branching near the top. Leaves simple, purplish when young, cordate-ovate, 8-15 cm long or more, those of the new canes deeply 3-lobed, dull green above, pubescent beneath, irregularly toothed; petiole much shorter than the blade, prickly as well as the midveins. Flowers solitary or few together on short lateral twigs, white. Fruit large, bright red, said to be delicious and of a vinous flavor.

Japan, China; a rather variable species. Introduced by E. H. Wilson, in 1907. It is cultivated in England; perhaps also in the United States.

Series 2. Spectabiles. Focke Spec. Rub. 2:142. 1911; Ibid. 3:260. 1914.

Canes erect or procumbent. Leaves mostly ternate; flowering branches usually short; flowers mostly large and showy.

Six species, natives of the Sandwich Islands and of the Pacific Coast of North America.

A. Erect shrubs; canes smooth, only with a few prickles near the base; flowers pink or rose colored

B. Leaves and calyx glabrate or sparingly pubescent............R. spectabilis

BB. Leaves and calyx densely tomentose beneath.....................R. franciscanus

AA. Procumbent shrubs; canes tomentose and with fine bristly prickles; flowers pale....R. macraei

Rubus spectabilis. Pursh Fl. Am. Sept. 1:348. 1814; Card Bush-Fr. 322, fig. 60. 1898; Focke Spec. Rub. 2:142. 1911; Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:440. 1913; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3026. 1916; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:147. 1923.

Salmonberry. Erect shrub, reaching 2-5 m, freely suckering; new canes armed with fine prickles at the base, smooth for the rest, terete. Leaves 3-foliolate; stipules linear or subulate; petiole slender, glabrous, rarely with a few fine prickles; lateral leaflets sessile, obliquely ovate, acute, terminal one larger, ovate or rhomboid, acuminate, round or subcordate at the base, 4-10 cm long, incisedly double serrate, all rather thin, glabrous and green on both sides. Flowers showy, usually solitary or 2-3, terminal on small sideshoots; peduncles slender, glabrous, with or without a small bract below the middle. Calyx-lobes ovate, acute, pubescent with adpressed hairs. Petals elliptic, pointed, rose colored, twice as long as the calyx-lobes. Stamens and styles numerous. Fruit large, ovoid, orange-yellow, or dark wine-red, 15-20 mm long and 12-15 mm across, edible.

Western North America; from Alaska south to Idaho and California, common in wet woods, along streams, etc. This plant is hardy in England and many parts of Europe, where it is grown as an ornamental shrub. It is hardy at Geneva, but it does not reach more than about 3 feet and seldom flowers. It is not very productive even in its native home, although the fruits are handsome and agreeable, but perhaps it may be used in cross-fertilization with other hardier and more productive kinds. The orange-yellow or salmon-colored berries are said to be the better flavored ones, while the dark wine-colored berries have a bitter after taste. The two kinds grow together and are indistinguishable, except by the color of the fruit.

Hybrids are recorded with R. idaeus, R. idaeus var. viburnifolius and with R. idaeus var. canadensis. A closely allied species is the following:

Rubus franciscanus. Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:441. 1913.

Rubus spectabilis var. Menziesii. Watson Bot. Cal. 1:172. -1876; not R. menziesii, Hooker. 18*32.

Very similar in habit and structure to R. spectabilis, but the stems hairy at first, the leaves of a firmer texture, hairy above and densely white or grayish tomentose underneath; flowering branches, petioles, and peduncles equally hirsute; calyx-lobes densely silky from long adpressed shining hairs.

Central California to southern Oregon; chiefly in the Redwood belt. This is quite a distinct and very attractive species, but sometimes intermediate forms are encountered.

Rubus macraei. Gray U. S. Expl. Exp. 505, PI. 57. 1858; Pocke Spec. Rub. 2:143. 1911; Rock Jour. Hered. 2:147. 1921; U. S. D. A. Bur. PL Indust. Invent. 67, 87, PL VI. 1923.

Akalaberry, Hawaian Giant Raspberry. Stems procumbent, tomentose or pubescent and with fine bristly prickles. Stipules subulate. Leaves 3-foliolate, those of the flowering branches 3-lobate, of a firm, almost coriaceous texture, glabrous above and softly grayish tomentose underneath, irregularly and coarsely doubly incised serrate. Flowering branches short, apparently only at the end of the canes, with one-stalked flower; peduncle tomentose, unarmed, at the middle with a large, ovate-deltoid leafy bract; calyx unarmed, lobes oblong, lobately dentate; petals almost as long as the calyx-lobes, obovate, often emarginate, pale. Fruit very large, as much as 5 cm across, roundish or flattened, varying from orange-green to purplish or black, with numerous large, very juicy drupelets, containing small seeds. Hawaii; at about 4000-6000 feet on Mauna Kena, where " the atmosphere is always cool and the nights even cold, frost being not uncommon in the winter," usually fogs prevail during the greater part of the days. Seems to be allied to R. spectabilis. Native name Akala. It was introduced by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1921 under the name of the Hawaian giant raspberry. This Akala berry would be best adapted to a locality with mild winters and fogs, perhaps along the Pacific Coast.

Series 3. Rosaefolii. Focke Spec. Rub. 2:148. 1911; Ibid. 3:262. 1914.

Shrubs, but one species a perennial herb or subshrub; canes variously, erect, scandent or creeping. Leaves mostly pinnate or ternate; leaflets mostly acute, sharply doubly incisedly toothed. Flowers terminal or axillar, generally few, solitary or loosely panicled; petals white; stamens numerous, pistils small, very numerous; core soft at maturity of the fruit.

About 11 species, natives of subtropical and tropical eastern Asia and the Sunda Islands, one species of South Africa and Australia.

A. Stems 30-50 cm high, coming up annually from the root and flowering; leaflets lanceolate, acuminate...............................................R. illecebrosus

AA. Stems higher, biennial or perennial

B. Stems often climbing, leaflets pubescent on both sides..........R. rosaefolius

BB. Stems not climbing; leaflets glabrous...............................R. probus

Rubus illecebrosus. Focke Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen 16:278. 1899; Focke Spec. Rub. 2:152. 1911; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3029. 1916; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:149. 1923. R. sorbifolius Hort., not Maxim. R. rosaefolius. Card Bush-Fr. 149, fig. 28, not text 322. 1898.

Strawberry Raspberry. Perennial or subshrub; stems erect, 30-50 cm high, green, angular, glabrous, with scattered deltoid prickles; petioles, petiolules, midveins and peduncles equally with rather numerous similar prickles. Petioles about 5-6 cm long; stipules lanceolate or subulate, long pointed; leaves pinnately 5- to 7-foliolate, leaflets thin, green and with a few scattered hairs on both sides, oblong-lanceolate-acuminate and sharply doubly toothed, 7-9 cm long, lateral ones shortly stalked, the lowest and the terminal ones the longest. Flowers terminal and axillary, large, 4-5 cm across, 5-6 merous; peduncle 4-7 cm long, erect; calyx finely pubescent, smooth or with a few prickles, lobes broadly ovate, suddenly contracted into a long often foliaceous point. Petals broadly obovate, obtuse or emarginate, white; stamens very numerous, filaments flattened; pistils very numerous, glabrous. Fruit red, large, of the size of a strawberry.

Japan; in the mountains on Fudji-yama. Quite hardy at Geneva, but not very productive nor is the fruit of high quality but is said to be agreeable when cooked.

Rubus rosaefolius. Smith PI. Ic. (Ined. PI.) 60. 1791; Card Bush-Fr. 322, fig. 28. 1898; Focke Spec. Rub. 2:153. 1911; Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:153. I9I3*i Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3028. 1916; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:149. 1923.

Erect evergreen shrub, 2-2.5 m high, in temperate climes lower, stems erect or clambering, branching at the top, loosely hairy and glandular and with scattered recurved prickles. Leaves pinnately 5- to 7-foliolate, rarely also 9-11 leaflets, the uppermost 3-foKolate or simple; petioles hairy, prickly; stipules linear; leaflets thin, ovate or oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, large and regularly doubly serrate, light green and hairy on both sides, 5-7 cm long. Flowers terminal or axillary in few-flowered cymes, about 4 cm across; pedicels hairy, sometimes with a few stalked glands or fine prickles; calyx hairy, lobes ovate-lanceolate, caudate; petals roundish obovate, white; stamens numerous, with flattened filaments. Fruits rather large, thimble shaped, 26-35 mm across, with very numerous .small drupelets, glabrous, bright red or orange.

Southern and eastern Asia, Philippine Islands, New Guinea, eastern Australia; now subspontaneous in many tropical and subtropical countries, for instance in South Africa, Chile, Brazil, and the West Indies. ." In Porto Rico it is completely established. In the Aibonito district the fruit is gathered by children and sold to travelers along the Military Road. The fruit is bright red and attractive, although not of high quality." (Bailey I.e.)

R. rosaefolius vox. coronarius. Sims BoL Mag. PL 1283. 1816. This is a double-flowered form often planted in the tropics as an ornamental shrub, known as u Briar Rose " or " Bridal Rose."

Rubus probus. Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:150. 1923.

Erect shrub, 2-2.5 m high* similar to R. rosaefolius, but less prickly and glabrous on the petioles, leaf-blades and pedicels; new canes arching, not climbing. Leaflets 3-9, but mostly 7, broader and ovate-lanceolate or ovate, prominently and approximately veined, and margins deeply and sharply doubly toothed. Leaves on new canes 20-25 cm long, the leaflets 10 cm long. Flowers corymbose, rather numerous, about 9-10 together at the end of the branches, rather large; pedicels about as long as the petioles; calyx-lobes shortly pointed, not caudate, not or scarcely exceeding the petals. Fruit flat; drupelets very numerous, red, detaching from the receptacle like a ring, i. e., the central pistils have not been developed leaving thus a hole in the middle of the fruit.

Porto Rico; et cultivated plant, of doubtful origin; related to R. rosaefolius; perhaps R. ellipticus x rosaefolius.

The " Cardinal Balloon Berry " of Burbank is a native species from central China of this series, but of which it is not yet possible to say.

Series 4. Pungentes. Focke S^ec. Rub. 2:160. 1911; Ibid. 3:264. 1914.

Leaves 3-foliolate, but mostly pinnately 5- to n-foliolate. Flowers solitary or a few, loosely clustered, rather large. Drupelets less numerous than in the Rosaefolii, and the core dry at maturity.

About 15 species; mostly from China.

A. Peduncles smooth; petals white.......................................R. biflorus

A A. Peduncles hirsute and prickly; petals reddish purple..................R. lasiostylus

Rubus biflorus. Buchanan ex Smith in Rees Cyc. 30:32. 1819; Focke Spec. Rub. 2:166. 1911; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3027. 1916.

R. leucodermis Hort. not Dougl.

Robust shrub with stout erect stems, 2-3 m high; canes arching, branched, terete, armed with stout, straight, broad-based prickles and covered with a thick, white, waxy layer. Leaves pinnate, 3- to 5-foliolate, dark green and with scattered hairs above and white felty beneath, leaflets sessile, obliquely ovate, acute, sharply and irregularly doubly toothed, terminal ones broader more ovate and often somewhat 3-lobed; petioles long, with scattered hooked prickles, waxy white; stipules linear. Flowering branches short, leaves 3-foliolate, leaflets deeper incised. Flowers mostly 2-3, sometimes more, peduncles rather long, smooth or almost so, drooping. Calyx pubescent, lobes broadly ovate, mucronate or caudate: petals broad, round, white, exceeding the calyx; stamens and pistils numerous. Fruit drooping, rather large, roundish, yellow, edible.

Himalaya, up to 10,000 feet, and southwestern China; chiefly valuable as an ornamental shrub; very effective on lawns during winter because of its waxy white canes. The flowers are showier and larger than those of the common raspberry and its fruit is attractive. There is a variety, quinque-florus, Focke in Sargent PL Wilson. 1:53. 1911, which has 3-8 flowers. It comes from western Szechwan and is probably hardier and more productive.

Rubus lasiostylus. Focke in Hooker Ic. PL 1951. 1891; Focke Spec. Rub. 2:167. 3911; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3027. 1916.

Canes erect, 1.2-1.8 m high, stout, covered with a waxy bluish white bloom, glabrous, but covered with numerous slender pungent bristles. Leaves pinnately 3- to 5-foliolate; lateral leaflets ovate, coarsely and unevenly doubly toothed, terminal one much larger, cordate at the base, more or less 3-lobed and lobately toothed along the upper half, with scattered hairs above and densely white felty beneath. Flowers few, rather small; pedicels hirsute and prickly; calyx tomentose or prickly, lobes ovate-lanceolate-acurninate; petals reddish purple, shorter than the calyx-lobes, fugacious. Fruit roundish, red, downy, 25 mm across, with an agreeable acid taste.

Central China; from the Province Hupeh.

Usually cultivated for its white-colored canes; the fruits are said to be of little importance.

Series 5. Orientates Berger.

Shrubs with terete canes, smooth and with glaucous bloom or glandular hirsute, prickly. Leaves pinnate, petioles and midveins prickly. Inflorescence panicled, flowers usually small with pink petals.

Many species from temperate and subtropical eastern Asia, chiefly from China and Japan.

A. Stems or canes densely beset with bristles and stalked glands

B. Leaves mostly 3-foliolate, sparingly hairy above, white tomentose beneath......R. phoenicolasius

BB. Leaves mostly 5-foliolate, dull green and hairy on both sides. ... .R. adenophorus AA. Stems not so

B. Stems downy at least when young C. Stems downy, glandular and with straight prickles. Inflorescence densely glandular...............................................R. innominatus

CC. Stems downy when young, but not glandular

D. Leaves mostly 7-foliolate; leaflets ovate-lanceolate, silvery white underneath..R. niveus
DD. Leaves mostly 3-5 foliolate; leaflets ovate, grayish white underneath........

R. kuntzeanus BB. Stems glabrous also when young

C. Leaflets usually 9, ovate-lanceolate, white tomentose beneath; inflorescence elongate-panicled..........................................R. giraldianus

CC. Leaflets usually 7, ovate or rhomboid-ovate, glabrous on both sides or felt underneath not very conspicuous; inflorescence flat, cymose.......R. coreanus

Rubus phoenicolasius. Maximowicz Bui. Acad. St. Petersb. 8:293. 1871; Card Bush-Fr. 321. 1898; Focke Spec. Rub. 2:191. 1911; Gray New Man. 7th Ed. 487, 1911; Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:441. 1913; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3027. 1916; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:147. 1923.

Japanese Wineberry. Canes biennial, 1-3 m long, robust, arching, often rooting at the tip, terete, villous and densely covered with stalked, red-brown glands of various length, mixed with scattered, brown, straight prickles, as is the whole plant, the petioles, petiolules, midveins and the inflorescence. Leaves of the canes 3-foliolate, some lower ones often 5-foliolate, dark green and sparingly pilose or glabrate above, densely white tomentosa beneath, simply or doubly toothed; teeth broad/obtuse, mucronate; stipules filiform] petiole about as long as the lower leaflets; these obliquely ovate, with a short point, almost sessile, terminal leaflet stalked, large, cordate-ovate or somewhat 3-lobed, suddenly contracted into a short narrow point, from the middle lobately toothed. Flowering shoots often rather long with similar leaves; flowers near the top of the branches, the lower ones in stalked, few-flowered axillary clusters, the upper ones in a short raceme, the whole inflorescence extremely glandular; bracts linear; calyx-lobes long acuminate, tomentosa above, spreading at first; petals short, obovate, pink. Fruit roundish, bright red, acidulous, easily detaching from the yellow receptacle and disc.

Japan to western China; in the mountains; escaped from cultivation and subspontaneous in many places in the United States. It was introduced in 1890 by John Lewis Childs; into England about 1876. R. phoe-nicolasius has been hybridized with R. idaeus. One of these hybrids has been described as:

Rubus paxii. Focke Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen 19:204. 1908; Focke Spec. Rub. 2:192. 1911. R. phoenicolasius x idaeus. Wilson Rep. Int. Conf. Genet 209. 1906.

Habit and glandulosity much like that of R. phoenicolasius, but lower leaves often pinnately 5-foliolate and leaflets narrower. Petals and filaments white, rose colored at the base.
A similar hybrid has been produced at Geneva. It is a cross with the Empire raspberry. In some individuals of this cross the stems are more prickly, but scarcely glandular. Another interesting hybrid between R. phoenicolasius and the Agawam blackberry was raised at Geneva.

Rubus adenophorus. Rolfe Kew Bui. 382. 1910; Focke Spec. Rub. 3:270. 1914; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3027. 1916.

R. sagatus. Focke Spec. Rub. 1:198. 1911.

Deciduous shrub, 1.5-3 m high; stems erect or arching, stout, densely beset with bristles, large dark-stalked glands and broad-based prickles. Leaves pinnately 5-foliolate; petiole and petiolules bristly and glandular; leaflets 5-13 cm long, ovate, shortly pointed, roundish or cordate at the base, sharply and doubly toothed, dull green and hairy on both sides, the lateral ones sessile, the terminal one larger, subtrilobate and lobately doubly dentate in the upper half. Leaves of the flowering shoots similar, 3-foliolate, the uppermost simple. Flowers in terminal panicles, densely bristly and glandular; short stalked, calyx-lobes ovate, long mucronate; petals shorter, pink, toothed. Fruit round, almost 15 mm across, finally black, edible.

Central China, western Hupeh; introduced by E. H. Wilson in 1907. More an ornamental shrub for its fine foliage and the red glandular canes than a fruit plant.

Rubus innominatus. Moore Jour. Bot. 4:226. 1875; "FockeSpec. Rub. 2:195. 1911; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3027. 1916; Bean Trees et Shrubs 2:461. 1921.

Erect shrub, 2-2.5 m high; canes and petioles adpressedly downy, gray, glandular and armed with scattered straight prickles. Leaves pinnately 5-foliolate, rarely 7-foliolate, the uppermost 3-foliolate; leaflets irregularly and deeply toothed, teeth mucronate, with stiff hairs above and grayish or whitish tomentose beneath; lateral leaflets almost sessile, obliquely oblong or ovate-lanceolate, terminal ones ovate or ovate-lanceolate-acuminate; stipules small, filiform. Inflorescence panicled, tomentose and densely beset with short stalked glands and sometimes a few prickles; pedicels short; flowers small; calyx-lobes ovate; petals roundish, rose colored, shorter than the calyx-lobes. Fruit half round, orange-red.

Central and western China. Probably not in cultivation. A variety 'Van Fleet' came from a cross between R. " innominatus " x Cuthbert; (see under R. kuntzeanus).

Rubus niveus. Thunberg Dissert, de Rub. 9, fig. 3. 1813; Focke Spec. Rub. 2:182. 1911; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3029. 1916.

Strong-growing shrub, 1-2 m high or more; canes terete, with long straight or curved prickles, downy when young with a dense white bloom later on. Leaves with 2-4 or rarely 5 pairs of leaflets, but mostly 7-foliolate, leaflets oblong or rhomboid-oblong or ovate-lanceolate, with 6-et lateral veins on each side, variously coarsely and often doubly serrate, dull green and sparingly hairy above, silvery white tomentose underneath. Inflorescence paniculate, enlarged by lower axillar branches, villous or tomentose. Flowers small; calyx whitish tomentose, petals roundish, shorter than the calyx-lobes, rose colored or purple. Fruit subglobular, smooth, whitish, reddish later on and bluish black when ripe, edible, acidulous.

India; along the southern slopes of the Himalaya to Sikkim, at elevations from 4500-9000 feet, in southern China, in Ceylon, and cultivated in some places for its fruit. This species seems to have a wide distribution and to be rather variable. It does not seem to be cultivated in the United States, but may be useful in producing a raspberry for the warmer southern states.

Rubus kuntzeanus. Hemsley Jour. Linn. Soc. 23:232. 1887; Focke Spec. Rub. 2:195. 1911; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3028. 1916; Bean Trees et Shrubs 2:461. 1921.

R. innominatus Hort., not S. Moore.

Shrub 2-2.5 m high; canes grayish velvety downy and with scattered broad-based prickles. Leaves pinnately 3- to 5-foliolate, dark green and slightly hairy above, densely white tomentose underneath, irregularly toothed; lateral leaflets very short1y stalked, obliquely ovate, 5-10 cm long, rounded at the base, acuminate; terminal ones larger and broader, cordate and often somewhat 3-lobed; petiole and rhachis and midveins downy and prickly. Inflorescence a long narrow panicle, the lower branches axillary, peduncles and calyxes tomentose, not glandular nor prickly. Flowers small, shortly stalked; calyx-lobes ovate, shortly mucronate; petals scarcely longer, pink, suborbicular, fugacious. Fruits roundish, 2 cm across, orange-red, edible and of good flavor.

Central and western China; introduced by Augustine Henry in 1886 and again by E. H. Wilson about 1905. It comes near to R. innominatus S. Moore, but it is glandless. From this species the " Van Fleet Raspberry/' which is said to be a hybrid between R. innominatus and the variety Cuthbert is derived. All the characters of this hybrid seem to prove that it is a cross with R. kuntzeanus and not with R. innominatus S. Moore. The " Van Fleet" is entirely glandless and 3-foliolate on canes and inflorescence.

Rubus giraldianus. Focke in Engler Bot. Jahrb. 29:401. 1901; Focke Spec. Rub. 2:194. 1911; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3029. 1916.

Very prickly robust shrub, canes terete, stout, up to 3 m high, arching and with hanging branches at the summit, brownish, covered with a fine whitish blue bloom; prickles numerous, stout, hooked or straight, from a broad flat base. Leaves pinnate, leaflets usually 9, petiole and rhachis pubescent, glaucous and together with the mid veins with hooked prickles; lateral leaflets sessile, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, coarsely doubly serrate; terminal leaflets wider, larger, lobately doubly serrate, dull grass-green above, white tomentose at the back. Flowers small, in a terminal tomentose panicle, pedicels short, prickly; petals shorter than the calyx-lobes, pink or purple. Fruit small, black.

Central and northern China; introduced about 1907; rather more an ornamental for its habit and white stems than a fruit plant; quite hardy at Geneva.

Rubus coreanus. Miquel ProL Fl. Jap. 34. 1867; Focke Spec. Rub. 2:184. 1911; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3029. 1916; Bean Trees et Shrubs 2:456. 1921.

Canes terete, erect or arching, pale yellowish green to deep brown when older, smooth, covered with a dense white bloom, prickles variously scattered or remote, rather large, deltoid, straight or curved. Leaves usually with 7 leaflets, lateral ones sessile, ovate or rhomboid-ovate, pointed, coarsely simple or doubly toothed, terminal one larger and broader, cordate, and often 3-lobed or lobately incised in the upper half, glabrescent or glabrous on both sides; petiole and rhachis prickly. Flowering shoots glabrous, with 5-to 3-foKolate leaves. Inflorescence a many-flowered, short, and broad cyme; flowers small; calyx-lobes deltoid, lanceolate; petals shorter, elliptic, rose colored. Fruit small, red to black, edible, but of poor flavor.

Korea, China; a handsome, hardy shrub, but scarcely of importance as a fruit plant.

Series 6. Elliptici. Focke Spec. Rub. 2:198. 1911.

Large glandless climbing shrubs.

Two species from the Himalaya and central China, of which the following has been introduced:

Rubus ellipticus. Smith in Rees Cyc. 30: R. No. 16. 1815; Focke Spec. Rub, 2: 198. 1911; Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:442. 1913; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3027. 1916; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:147. 1923.

Golden Evergreen Raspberry. Vigorous shrub with perennial climbing stems, 1-5 m long; canes terete or obscurely angled, like the petioles densely hispid from long reddish hairs, mixed with flattened straight prickles. Leaves 3-foliolate; petioles 3-7 cm long, like the petiolules and midveins armed with recurved prickles; stipules small subulate; leaflets sharply and finely double-serrate, elliptic or obovate, obtuse or emarginate, coriaceous, dark green and almost or quite glabrous above, white or grayish tomentose beneath, the lateral ones shortly stalked or almost sessile, the terminal one longer stalked and larger. Flowers 15-25 mm across, clustered on axillar branchlets or terminal and paniculed, tomentose; calyx-lobes ovate, acute; petals white, obovate, scarcely longer. Fruit vellow to golden yellow, of the shape and size of a raspberry and of good quality.

Himalayas; in elevations from 3000-6000 feet, naturalized in Jamaica; grown in Florida and southern California, where the northern raspberries do not succeed, but chiefly as an ornamental plant to cover pergolas, arbors, and fences.

Series 7. Occidentales. Focke Spec. Rub. 2:201. 1911.

Canes long, arching, rooting at the tips or prostrate, with glaucous bloom and scattered usually stout prickles. Leaves 3-foliolate orpedately 5-foliolate. Inflorescence corymbi-form; pedicels usually prickly sometimes glandular.

About 8 species extending from western North America to Peru along the mountains.

A. Leaves white tomentose beneath

B. Fruit hemispherical; calyx-lobes not reflexed, spreading or enclosing the fruit;

leaflets with 4-8 lateral veins on each side of the midrib C. Flowers several, corymbose or panicled; petals shorter than the calyx-lobes D. Inflorescence without glands; tall plants; leaflets glabrous above

E. Prickles of the inflorescence only slightly curved or straight and scarcely flattened; leaflets broad, suddenly contracted into a point, dark green above; canes intensely bluish green, or purplish later on, with a dense bloom...............................................R. occidentalis

EE. Prickles of the inflorescence with a broad flat base and strongly hooked or falcate; leaflets less abruptly pointed, more yellowish green; canes more yellowish under the dense bloom...................R. leucodermis

DD. Inflorescence or calyx with stalked glands; smaller plants with prostrate canes; leaflets hairy above.

E. Canes puberulous, with a few small prickles................R. glaucifolius

EE. Canes glabrous, with many stout prickles..................R. bernardinus

CC. Flowers solitary or sometimes 2-3 together; petals about as long as the calyx-lobes.......................................................R. pringlei

BB. Fruit oblong; calyx-lobes reflexed; leaflets with 9-15 lateral veins on each side of the midrib

C. Leaflets glabrous above, long acuminate; fruit 8-15 mm across.......i?. glaucus

CC. Leaflets puberulent above, suddenly contracted to a long point; fruit 6-8 mm across....................................................R. eriocarpus

AA. Leaves green and glabrous on both sides; petals scarcely half as long as the calyx-lobes......................................................R. nigerrimus

Rubus occidentalis. Linnaeus Sp. PL 493. 1753; Card Bush~Fr. 319. 1898; Focke Spec. Rub. 2:201. 1911; Gray New Man. 7th Ed. 487. 1911; Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22: 443. 1913; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3028. 1916; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:147. 1923.
Black Raspberry, Blackcap, Thimbleberry. Vigorous shrub, turions or canes erect, arching and rooting at the tips, terete, greenish or purplish, covered with a fine white or bluish bloom, glabrous, remotely beset with flattened, deltoid, straight or hooked prickles, but without bristles. Lower leaves of the turions larger, 3-foliolate or pedately 5-foliolate, the lateral leaflets in the latter case stalked, the lowest sessile, in 3-foliolate leaves the lower leaflets sessile and often with a basal lobe, terminal leaflet long stalked, broadly cordate-ovate, all leaflets pointed and sharply doubly toothed, green above and densely white tomentose beneath. Petioles stout, like the petiolules and midveins prickly; stipules small, subulate. The upper leaves gradually diminishing in size, with narrower and longer pointed leaflets. Flowering branches green with remote slender prickles; leaves 3-foliolate, leaflets rarely cordate at the base, pointed and sharply serrate; petioles and petiolules pubescent. Flowers densely almost umbellately corymbose at the top of the branches on short and stiff pedicels, and a few usually 3-flowered clusters from the upper axils. Pedicels and calyx white tomentose with numerous spreading slightly curved prickles, without glands; calyx-lobes ovoid-deltoid with a long tip, unarmed, reflexed. Petals oblong, whitish, shorter than the calyx-lobes. Stamens numerous, filaments flattened, shorter than the styles. Fruit hemispherical, black, edible.
North America; from New Brunswick and Quebec to Minnesota in the west, and south as far as Colorado and Georgia, but in the south restricted to the mountains; chiefly in woods, along fences and in hedges; sometimes a nasty weed.
The species varies little; a variety, pallidus, Bailey Cyc. Am. Hort. 1582. 1902, or var. flavobaccus, Blanchard Rhodora 7:146. 1905, bears amber-yellow fruits. Hybrids with other species have been recorded, the most important see under R. idaeus. R. occidentalis has become a widely cultivated plant with numerous varieties.
The following is its Pacific sister-species:

Rubus leucodermis. Douglas in Hooker FL Boy. Am. 178. 1832; Torrey et Gray Fl. N, Am. 1:454. 1840; Rydberg N. Am. FL 22:444. 1911; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3028. 1916.

R. occidentalis var. leucodermis. Card Bush-Fr. 319. 1898; Pocke Spec. Rub. 2:201. 1911.

Very similar to R. occidentalis, and also very glaucous; canes armed with stout, flat, more recurved prickles. Leaves of the canes also similar, 3- to 5-foliolate, pedate; lower leaflets sessile, lateral ones stalked, the terminal one larger, sometimes sublobate, teeth variable. The prickles on petioles and petiolules and especially on the peduncles and pedicels with a broader flatter base and more falcate or hooked. Inflorescence much like in R. occidentalis, not glandular; pedicels usually glabrescent, not tomentose; calyx-lobes acuminate. Fruit dark reddish purple or blackish with tomentose drupelets.

Western North America; from Montana and Wyoming to south California in San Antonio mountains at about 3200 feet elevation, and north to British Columbia. It is a more robust and earlier plant than R. occidentalis, with more yellowish canes and the leaflets of a lighter green and less abruptly pointed.

Rubus leucodermis var. trinitatis Berger, n. var.

Leaves of flowering branches simple, cordate-orbicular, shortly 3-lobed, crenate. Flowers somewhat smaller, calyx-lobes with a short tip, white villous.

Northern California; Trinity County, near Douglas City; first collected June 13, 1896, by W. C. Blasdale. This form with round simple leaves corresponds to R. idaeus (strigosus) var. egglestonii (Blanch.) Fern, and to R. idaeus (vulgatus) var. obtusifolius Willd. The occurrence of such a form or variety in R. leucodermiswas not known before; it may also occur in R. occidentalis. A similar form is also known of R. rosaefolius.

Rubus glaucifolius. Kellogg Proc. Calif. Acad. 1:67. 1855; Rydberg AT". Am. Fl. 22:444. 1913.

Canes prostrate, rather slender, puberulous, with scattered, small, hooked prickles. Leaves 3-foliolate; lower leaflets almost sessile, obliquely ovate, terminal one rhomboid-ovate, all shortly pointed, with mostly simple, broadly ovate teeth, green and finely pubescent above, with a dense white felt underneath and 4-6 prominent veins on each half. Flowers smaller, clustered; pedicels and calyx pubescent, unarmed or more or less prickly, calyx-lobes glandular. Fruit with a few drupelets, red.

Northern California to southern Oregon; in open places in the mountain forests from 3000-4000 feet elevation. It is a dewberry in habit and is often mistaken for a form of R. leucodermis, but is quite distinct.

Rubus bernardinus. Rydberg N. Am. FL 22:444. 1913.

Canes apparently trailing on the ground, brown with a glaucous bloom and many strongly hooked prickles from a broadened base. Flowering shoots with 3-foliolate leaves, hairy above, densely white tomentose beneath; petioles prickly, hirsute and glandular; leaflets small, pointed, finely doubly serrate. Flowers few, pedicels and calyx-lobes tomentose and sparingly glandular. Berry hemispheric, pubescent, with numerous drupelets.

Southern California; about intermediate between R. leucodermis and R. glaucifolius.

R. eriocarpus. Liebm. Vidensk. MeddeL Kjoeb. 4:162. 1852; Focke Spec. Rub. 2:202. 1911; Rydberg N. Am. FL 22:442. 1913.

Stems obtusely angled, glaucous-pruinose, prickly; leaves of the turions pedately 5-foliolate, leaflets puberulent above, white tomentose beneath, finely doubly serrate, terminal one ovate, rounded or cordate at the base, suddenly contracted to a long point with about 10-15 lateral veins on each side, lateral leaflets ovate-lanceolate. Corymbs few flowered, tomentose and with weak prickles. Fruit oblong, 6-8 mm across and 10-12 mm long, drupelets villous-tomentose. Central Mexico to Panama.

R. pringlei. Rydberg N. Am. FL 22:443. 1913.

R. occidentalis var. vel subsp. mexicanus. Focke Spec. Rub. 2:201. 1911.

Leaves all ternate, dark green and finely puberulent above, white tomentose beneath; terminal leaflets from a rounded or acute base, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, long pointed, with about 6-8 lateral veins on each side, doubly serrate with narrow sharply cuspidate and mucronate teeth. Flowers larger than in the others, solitary or rarely 2-3 together; pedicels tomentose, bristly or prickly; calyx-lobes ovate, abruptly cuspidate, tomentose, enclosing the fruit later on; petals as long, white. Fruit hemispheric about 20 mm long and 15 mm across, red, at last purplish with a bloom.
Northern Mexico to Guatemala.

Rubus glaucus. Bentham PL Hartweg. 173. 1845; Pocke Spec. Rub. 2:202. 1911; Rydberg AT. Am. FL 22:442. 1913; Popenoe Jour. Hered. 12:387-393, fig. 1921; U. S. D. A. Bur. PL Indust. Invent 65, 66, PI. V. 1923.

Andes Berry. Vigorous shrub, canes half-climbing, 3-4 m long, rooting at the tip, glabrous, more or less densely covered with a white bloom, armed with scattered, rather small, hooked, compressed prickles. Leaves 3-foliolate, leaflets lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, long acuminate, roundish or subcordate at the base, sharply but not deeply doubly serrate, about 6-10 cm long, dark green and glabrate above, silvery white tomentose underneath, with 9-12 lateral veins on each side; petioles 5-12 cm long, like the petiolules and midveins with recurved prickles; petiolules 1-5 cm long; stipules subulate. Upper leaves simple, lanceolate, bract-like. Flowers in terminal racemes, lower flowers axillary and therefore the inflorescence often 15-30 cm long, glabrous or more or less tomentose and sometimes with a few glands; pedicels stiffly spreading, sparingly prickly; prickles almost straight and scarcely flattened at the base; calyx-lobes lanceolate, suddenly long acuminate, 10-16 mm long, more or less tomentose, sometimes with a few short prickles, strongly reflexed on the fruit; petals about as long, white. Fruit dark purple, round to oblong-oval, 25 mm long, and 8-15 mm across, with large drupelets, tomentose at first.

Tropical America; from southern Mexico to Ecuador and Peru on highlands; first collected by Hartweg on Mount Pichincha in Ecuador; also cultivated in Ecuador.

This plant is much esteemed for its excellent fruit, the flavor of which is said to resemble that of the red raspberry, being rich and aromatic. The fruit is also compared with that of the loganberry, but is said to be better and sweeter. The berries do not separate easily from the receptacle when ripe. This bramble is known as " Mora de Castillo " in its native countries, and is used " to cover arbors and fences, or can be trained into bush form, making a clump about 10 feet broad and high." It was introduced into the United States by Wilson Popenoe in 1920; it succeeds on all sorts of soil, but it likes a heavy soil and plenty of moisture best. It is very likely an important acquisition for the southern and southwestern United States, especially for breeding work.

Rubus nigerrimus. Rydberg N. Am. FL 22:445. i9*3-

Stems 1-2 m high, glaucous at first, brownish and shining later on, with numerous, straight, compressed, long prickles. Leaves 3-foliolate, or 5-foliolate on more robust canes; leaflets ovate, acuminate, coarsely doubly serrate, of rather firm texture, green and glabrous on both sides; lateral leaflets almost sessile, the terminal one with a petiolule 2-5 cm long, like the petiole and midvein armed with recurved prickles. Flowers corymbose and axillar; peduncle and pedicels with recurved prickles; calyx glabrous or sparingly glandular, lobes lanceolate with a long point, 12 mm long; petals less than half as long, white. Fruit almost black, drupelets tomentose.

Western North America; eastern and central Washington. Series 8. Idaei.

Canes more or less erect or nodding. There are 9 species known, natives of northern Asia, one extending to Europe and North America.

A. Canes green, densely tomentose and prickly; stipules deeply lacerate... .R. mesogaeus AA. Canes more or less brown, prickly or bristly; stipules entire, subulate.......R. idaeus

Rubus mesogaeus. Focke in Engler Bot. Jahrb. 29:399. 1901; Pocke Spec, Rub. 2:204. 1911; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3028. 1916.

Robust s b, canes erect, stout, green, densely tomentose and prickly, prickles straight or curved upwards, pubescent. Leaves 3-foliolate, petioles and petiolules tomentose and prickly like the stems; stipules lanceolate, deeply lacerate with subulate segments; leaflets sessile, obliquely ovate, acuminate, cordate at the base, terminal one broader and larger, cordate, lobately incised, finely doubly serrate, dark green and pubescent above and densely velvety pubescent underneath. Inflorescence a dense erect terminal cluster augmented by some lower erect axillar clusters; flowers small, short pediceiled, pubescent, petals small, white. Fruit small, globular.

Central China; rather insignificant as flowers and fruit are concerned, but the foliage is very ornamental. Quite hardy at Geneva.

Rubus idaeus. Linnaeus Sp. PL 492. 1753; Focke Spec, Rub. 2:207. 1911; Gray New Man. 7th Ed. 486. 1911; Fernald Rhodora 21:89. 1919; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:148. 1923.
Red Raspberry. Canes erect, slightly arching at the top, terete, more or less bristly or prickly, glabrous or downy, green or brownish, glaucous. Leaves usually pinnately 5-foliolate, leaflets more or less ovate, pointed and doubly serrate, lateral ones sessile, green above and usually more or less densely white tomentose underneath. Inflorescence terminal and axillary, racemose, pedicels slightly nodding; calyx-lobes ovate-deltoid to lanceolate-deltoid, cuspidate; petals oblong, white, about as long as the stamens. Fruit pendulous red or rarely amber colored, drupelets numerous, soft, sweet, tomentose.

Northern Hemisphere; in woods, on sunny and shady, dry and moist places, on poor as* well as on good soil, common through northern Europe, Asia, and America. A very variable plant, with several distinct geographical varieties, often considered as different species or subspecies, but usually connected by numerous intermediate forms, and not always readily identified.

The following is a key to these varieties: A. Inflorescence pubescent or felty with adpressed grayish or whitish hairs, more or less prickly, but without glands B. Canes not bristly to the top

C. Inflorescence elongately racemose........................1. R. idaeus vulgatus

D. Leaflets of flowering shoots 3-foliolate

E. Leaflets white underneath, narrow lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, strongly toothed.......................1 a. R. idaeus vulgatus forma angustifolius

EE. Leaflets green on both sides.......ib. R. idaeus vulgatus forma denudatus

DD. Leaflets of flowering shoots i-foliolate, rarely ternate, roundish, reniform,

more or less lobed................ic. R. idaeus vulgatus forma obtusifolia

CC. Inflorescence shortly racemose.......................2. R. idaeus nipponicus

BB. Canes bristly to the top C. Canes glabrous

D. Canes densely beset with usually pale prickles and thin flexible bristles

3. R. idaeus maritimus

DD. Canes densely beset with usually purplish black short subulate bristles......

4. R. idaeus melanotrachys

CC. Canes downy or pubescent...........R. idaeus canadensis forma eglandulosus

AA. Inflorescence glandular, bristly and prickly and usually the whole plant more or less glandular B. Bark of the canes orturions glabrous. (Canes without prickles, see R. idaeus strigosus forma tonsus)

C. Prickles rather stout and long with smaller ones between them, densely set; flowering branches, petioles, peduncles, and calyxes densely beset with mostly

dark reddish bristles and glands................5. R. idaeus aculeatissimus

CC. Prickles bristle form and not much thickened at base D. Leaflets of the new canes oblong to ovate, pointed E. Leaves of flowering shoots mostly pinnately 5-foliolate; calyx reddish, very prickly and glandular.........................6. R. idaeus arizonicus

EE. Leaves of flowering shoots 3-foliolate

F. Leaflets white tomentose beneath................7. R. idaeus strigosus

FF. Leaflets green on both sides, tomentose beneath when young

G. Leaflets not strongly veined.................8. R. idaeus peramoenus

GG. Leaflets strongly veined and plicate..........9. R. idaeus viburnifolius

DD. Leaflets all roundish, on the flowering shoots simple, reniform-orbicular......

10. R. idaeus egglestonii BB. Bark of the canes downy or tomentose

C. Turions or young canes green, tomentose and glandular. 11. R. idaeus heterolasius CC. Turions brown or purple

D. Prickles of the turions all bristle form

E. Leaflets green on both sides....................9. R. idaeus viburnifolius

EE. Leaflets white underneath......................12. R. idaeus canadensis

DD. Prickles of the turions of various size and longer, the stouter ones more conical at the base

E. Leaves of flowering branches 3-foliolate........13. R. idaeus acalyphaceus

EE. Leaves of flowering branches mostly 5-foliolate.... 6. R. idaeus arizonicus

1. Rubus idaeus Linn. var. vulgatus. Arrhenius Rub. Suec. Monogr. 12. 1839; Focke Spec. Rub. 2:207. 1911.

R. idaeus. Card Bush-Fr. 314. 1898; Rydberg AT. Am. Fl. 22:445. 1913; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3028. 1916.

Canes erect, slightly arching at the top, glabrous or finely downy the first year, more or less densely beset with bristles or weak prickles, smooth near the top. Stipules subulate, ciliate; petioles 3-6 cm long, like the petiolules finely downy, prickles small and short, few. Terminal leaflet stalked, ovate or broadly ovate, acuminate, roundish or subcordate at the base, coarsely doubly toothed in the upper half, teeth shortly mucronate; dark green, slightly bullate and soft and finely hairy or glabrous above, white tomentose beneath, 6-j cm long; lateral leaflets sessile, smaller, obliquely ovate, the lower half wide, coarser toothed and sometimes sublobed. Flowering branches downy, with short prickles, leaves mostly 3-foliolate, similar to those of the turions, the uppermost often simple, ovate or lanceolate. Inflorescence racemose, terminal and from the upper axils, pedicels slightly nodding with a few small curved prickles, like the calyx more or less white tomentose. Galyx rarely with a few prickles, lobes reflexed, long acuminate, felty on both sides; petals shorter than the calyx-lobes. Fruit thimble-shaped, deep red.

Europe, western Asia, eastern North America; from Quebec as far west as Minnesota, North and South Dakota. Named for Mt. Ida in Asia Minor. This is the mother species of the cultivated European red raspberries. It is a very variable plant, especially in color of canes, the shape, color, and number of prickles, and the shape of the leaflets, both of the turions and of the flowering shoots.

ia. R. idaeus vulgatus forma angustifolius, Schmidely Bui. Soc. Bot. Genkve 48. 1888.

This is a native of Europe and the Caucasus; it grows on streamlets in humid mountains at about 2400-3600 feet elevation.

ib. R. idaeus vulgatus forma denudatus. Schimp. et Spenn. FL Frib. 743. 1829. R. idaeus var. viridis. Doell Rhein. Flora ?66. 1843.

A native of central Europe, in damp forests.

ic. R. idaeus vulgatus forma obtusifolius. Willdenow Berl. Baumz. 2nd Ed. 409. 1811.

R. idaeus anomalus. Arrhenius Rub. Suec. Mon. 14. 1839; R. Leesi Babgt. in Steele Hdb, Field Fl. 60. 1847.

A strange form, occasionally found in Europe and quite remarkable for its foliage. Other forms described by Focke (1. c. 208) may be briefly mentioned, viz., id. forma pur pur ens, with dark brown red leaves like Fagus silvatica pur pur ea; ie. forma phyllanthus, a monstrosity with leafy cones instead of flowers; if. forma sterilis, leaves almost all 3-foliolate with leaflets similar to forma obtusifolius and sterile flowers; ig. forma inermis with unarmed canes; ih. forma asperrimus (R. idaeus var. asperrimus), Steele Hdb. Field FL 60. 1847; Rogers Hdb. Brit. Rubi. 2. 1900, the " White Raspberry " is the form with pale fruits. It is occasionally found wild, but may be chiefly a garden escape.

2. Rubus idaeus var. nipponicus. Focke Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen 13:471. 1896; Focke Spec. Rub. 2:209. 1911, as subspecies.

A more robust plant with numerous flowers in short racemes and obovate-oblong petals, and sparingly pubescent drupelets. Japan and probably western China.

3. Rubus idaeus var. maritimus. Arrhenius Rub. Suec. Mon. 13. 1839; Focke Spec. Rub. 2:209. 1911, as subspecies.

Canes with numerous unequal prickles and thin flexible bristles. Calyx often prickly.

Sweden and northeastern Germany; along the coast of the Baltic Sea.

4. Rubus idaeus var. melanotrachys. Pocke Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen 13:472. 1896; Focke Spec. Rub. 2:209. 1911, as subspecies and species; Fernald Rhodora 21:97. I9I9*; Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:445. 1913, as species.

Canes and twigs very densely bristly, bristles short, stiff. Similar to R. idaeus aculeatissimus, but bristles much shorter and without stalked glands. Northwestern America; Idaho.

5- Rubus idaeus var. aculeatissimus. Regel et Tiling FL Ajan. 87. 1858; Fernald Rhodora 21:96. 1919; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:149. X923.

R. idaeus subspec. melanolasius. Focke Abh. Nat Ver. Bremen 13:473. 1896; Focke Spec. Rub. 2:209. 1911.

R. melanolasius. Focke 1. c.; Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:448. 1913.

Canes erect, 0.5-1 m or more high, yellow or brownish, sometimes with a glaucous bloom, densely bristly, bristles mostly long and slender; flowering branches, petioles, petiolules, peduncles, pedicels as well as the calyx and the midveins of the leaflets densely beset with spreading bristles and stalked glands, usually of a dark purple color. Racemes few flowered.

Eastern Asia and western North America; from British Columbia and Alberta to Utah and Colorado, chiefly in the mountains, eastward as far as Michigan.

6. Rubus idaeus var. arizonicus Greene. Fernald Rhodora 21:98. 1911. R. arizonicus Greene. Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:446. 1913.

Young canes 0.5-1 m high slightly downy at first, glabrous later on, with brown bark, easily breaking and peeling off, more or less bristly or prickly, bristles short, of various + size. Leaves of the canes pinnately 5- to 7-foliolate; stipules small, subulate; petioles, petiolules, and midveins pubescent, prickly, and glandular; leaflets roundish at the base, acute or shortly pointed, doubly serrate, green above, densely white tomentose underneath, the lateral ones sessile, the terminal ones larger, more or less rhomboid-ovate. Flowering shoots prickly and glandular, leaves mostly 5-foliolate, leaflets similar but smaller. Inflorescence terminal, few or mostly 2-flowered; pedicels, calyx and calyx-lobes bristly and glandular.

Southwestern North America; New Mexico, Arizona, Chihuahua, in the mountains, at about 9000 feet. A rather distinct variety with smaller foliage.

7. Rubus idaeus var. strigosus Michx. Maximowicz Bui. Ac. St. Petersb. 17:161. 1872; Focke Spec. Rub. 2:209. 1911, as subspecies; Fernald Rhodora 22:96, 1919; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:149. 1923.

R. strigosus. Michaux FL Bor. Am. 1:297. 1803; Card Bush-Fr. 317. Rydberg N. Am. FL 22:447. 1913; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3028. 1916.

R. idaeus var. aculeatissimus. Robinson et Fernald in Gray New Man. 7th Ed. 486. 1908.

Canes erect, arching at the top, reddish or brownish, sometimes with a whitish bloom, glabrous and more or less densely beset with fine bristles. Leaves of the canes 3- but mostly 5-foliolate, rather thin, more or less glabrous above, white tomentose below; stipules small, setaceous; petioles, petiolules and midveins glabrous but finely bristly and glandular; lateral leaflets sessile, obliquely ovate, pointed, doubly serrate, the teeth ovate, mucronate; the lowest pair larger, often sublobed; terminal leaflet cordate-ovate, shortly acuminate or more or less 3-lobed, about 8 cm long. Flowering branches glabrous, but prickly and glandular, often glaucous. Leaves 3-foliolate, narrower and more pointed, uppermost simple lanceolate. Flowers racemose, drooping; pedicels and calyx and calyx-lobes not tomentose, distinctly glandular, bristly and prickly. Fruit hemispherical, light red.

Eastern Asia and North America; from southern British Columbia to southern Newfoundland, south to Oregon, Wyoming, the Great Lakes and Virginia. It varies a good deal but is always easily distinguished by its more slender habit, the canes are less erect, the leaves narrower and thinner than in R. idaeus vulgatus. From this variety the American cultivated red raspberries are derived.

7a. Forma albus Fuller. Fernald Rhodora 21:96. 1919.

R. strigosus var. albus. Fuller in Bailey Cyc. Am. Hort 1582. 1902. Fruits amber-white. New Hampshire.

7b. Forma tonsus. Fernald Rhodora 21:96. 1919. Canes glabrous, without bristles Eastern Canada, New England.

8. Rubus idaeus var. peramoenus Greene. Fernald Rhodora 21:98. 1919. Batidaea peramoena. Greene Leaflets, 1:241. 1906.

R. peramoenus. Rydberg TV. Am. FL 22:446. 1913.

Canes erect, 1-2 m high, yellowish or brown, shining and glabrous, sparingly beset with slender bristles and almost unarmed when old. Leaves 3- to 5-foliolate, thin, green on both sides, only when young somewhat grayish tomentose beneath; petioles glabrous, bristly; leaflets of the flowering branches usually a little more tomentose beneath. Inflorescence short, few flowered; pedicels and calyx puberulent and glandular-hispid.

Western North America; eastern Oregon and Washington through northern Idaho to western Montana.

9. Rubus idaeus var. viburnifolius Greene n. comb. Batidaea viburnifolia. Greene Leaflets 1:242. 1906. R. viburnifolius. Rydberg N. Am. FL 22:446. 1913.

Similar to the last. Canes glabrous or puberulent and more or less densely bristly. Leaflets also green on both sides or somewhat tomentose underneath when young, but strongly veined beneath and more or less plicate.

Western North America; Alaska to the Mackenzie River and south to British Columbia, and perhaps to Wyoming and Utah.

10. Rubus idaeus var. egglestonii Blanchard. Fernald Rhodora 21:97. 1919. R. egglestonii. Blanchard Torreya 7:140. 1907.

Similar in every way to R. idaeus var. strigosus, but the leaves of the new canes 3-folio-late and with roundish ovate or orbicular leaflets; the flowering branches with simple reni-form-orbicular more or less 3-lobed leaves.

Eastern North America; Vermont, on limestone ledges and on dry rocky soil; rather rare. A most remarkable variety which corresponds to R. idaeus obtusifolius and to R.leucodermis trinitatis. A similar form may be expected from R. occidentalism but has not yet been found.

11. Rubus idaeus var. heterolasius. Fernald Rhodora 21:97. *919

New canes as well as the branches and inflorescence greenish, tomentose, glandular and prickly with variously mixed larger prickles and bristles; leaflets white tomentose beneath, finely crenate.

Eastern North America; Maine; rare.

12. Rubus idaeus var. canadensis. Richardson Appendix in Frankl. Journey, 1st Ed. 747. 1823; Fernald Rhodora 21:97. 1919.

R. carolinianus. Rydberg N. Am. FL 22:447. I9X3-

R. subarcticus. Ibid. 22:448. 1913.

Canes 0.5-1 m high, brownish, densely tomentose and densely beset with fine spreading bristles, bristles of various length, some slightly stronger, more or less intermixed with stalked glands. Leaves of the young canes 5- or 3-foliolate; stipules subulate, small; petioles, petiolules and midveins pubescent, hispid from bristles and stalked glands; leaflets similar to those of var. strigosus, but somewhat broader, firmer in texture and the terminal ones more cordate especially on the 3-foliolate leaves. Flowering branches and petioles almost glabrous; sparingly and shortly prickly and little glandular, leaves 3-foliolate, doubly toothed, the uppermost simple, narrow. Pedicels and calyx densely bristly and glandular.

Eastern Asia, North America; from Alaska to Labrador, south to Nan-tucket and Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and locally in Michigan, South Dakota, Colorado, and in the mountains of North Carolina; often on swampy ground. The United States Department of Agriculture distributed several strains of this variety canadensis which were collected in 1916 by Mr. M. J. Dorsey in various parts of Manitoba, Canada, and were chosen for their productiveness as well as for the size and flavor of the fruits. This variety has a large geographical area and varies considerably in the canes as to color, tomentum, and bristles, the shape and size of the leaflets, the amount of glandulosity, and bristles in the inflorescence. The following forms are worthy to be recorded, but they are not the only ones.

12a. Forma caudatus Robinson et Schrenk. Fernald Rhodora 21:97. I9I9-

R. strigosus var. caudatus. Robinson et Schrenk Can. Rec. Sri. 7:14. 1896.

Leaflets much acuminate.

12b. Forma eglandulosus n. f.

Young canes densely grayish brown tomentose, with fine scattered bristles, smooth and brown at length. Leaves 3- to 5-foliolate; petioles tomentose with slender bristles, scarcely glandular; leaflets firmer in texture, terminal leaflets cordate, broadly ovate, more or less 3-lobed or lobately doubly toothed. Flowering branches almost entirely glabrous, and also the petioles, pedicels and calyx without prickles and glands; pedicels and calyx white tomentose; leaflets of flowering shoots pointed and finely doubly toothed.

Canada; Manitoba, Big George Island, Lake Winnipeg; large open areas on the eastern shore.

Plants more than 5 feet high (Dorsey Invent. Seed et PL Imp. No. 43197). Young canes very peculiarly distinct, the flowering shoots much like R. idaeus vulgatus.

13. Rubus idaeus var. acalyphaceus Greene. Fernald Rhodora 21:98. 1919.

Batidaea acalyphacea. Greene Leaflets 1:240. 1906.

Rubus acalyphaceus. Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:448. 1913.

Young canes brown or purple, tomentose or pilose, densely bristly, some of the bristles stouter and stronger and flattened at the base. Leaves of the young canes 3- to 5-foliolate; petioles, petiolules and midveins pubescent, prickly, bristly and glandular as well as the peduncles, pedicels and calyx.

Western North America; from Nevada to Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana, in the mountains.

The cultivated varieties of red raspberries, as first grown in Europe, were of necessity R. idaeus vulgatus. When these were imported to America they did not grow as well as in their native country, and it was found that varieties raised from the indigenous R. idaeus strigosus were more satisfactory. At present American red raspberries show the influence of both the European and the American blood. Pure breds are scarce now, and hybrids prevail. Most of our varieties are crosses between European and American red raspberries, and in some supposedly pure reds a trace of R. occidentalis is found.

It is not always easy to determine to what botanical varieties of R. idaeus a given cultivated variety may belong. If there is no reliable account of its parentage, as is usually the case, one can only judge from the external characters. European varieties exhibit, of course, the characters of R. idaeus vulgatus, that is mostly pubescent flowering branches, mostly firm and broad leaflets, thickly white or silvery white tomentose beneath, felty pedicels and calyx-lobes, variously armed with slender, slightly curved prickles, but without glands throughout. American varieties derived from R. idaeus strigosus have the flowering branches scarcely or very slightly pubescent, the leaflets usually narrower, more acuminate, thinner and not quite as silvery white beneath, the pedicels and the calyx-lobes have little or no white felt, but are more or less densely glandular bristly, and similar glands occur on other parts of the plants, chiefly on the petioles.

The varieties derived from a cross between R. idaeus vulgatus x R. idaeus strigosus are very numerous. They are variously mixed, but are usually less glandular and less felty in the infloresence. Where the influence of R. occidentalis is traceable it is shown by the glabrous flowering branches, the pointed, very sharply toothed leaflets of the inflorescence, often bluish white underneath, the rather stiff, glabrous pedicels with many reflexed or falcate prickles, and the terminal pedicels more or less densely clustered.

The hybrids between Rubus occidentalis and R. idaeus var. strigosus were named

R. neglectus. Peck Ann. RpL N. Y. State Cab. 22:53. 1869. Britton et Brown III. FL 2:201, fig. 1895. 1897; Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 291, fig. 56. 1898; Bailey Stand: Cyc. Hori. 5:3028, fig. 3494. 1916; Bailey Cent Herb. 1:149- 1923; Rydberg N. Am. Ft. .22:443. 1913-

Purple Raspberries. Canes much like those of R. occidentalis, prickly, but not bristly, arching and rooting from the tip. Leaves variable, pedate or pinnate, or pedate and pinnate or trifoliolate, leaflets sharply doubly toothed; the terminal leaflet usually lobately dentate above the middle as in R. occidentalis. Flowering branches glabrous. Inflorescence mostly intermediate, flowers in axillar and terminal corymbs; pedicels rather stiff, more or less felty, prickly, prickles recurved as in R. occidentalis, occasionally with a few glands; sepals more spreading. Fruit dark red.

The plants of this hybrid group vary so much that it is hardly advisable to retain a specific name for them. Sometimes they resemble one parent; sometimes the other. Some are crosses between R. idaeus vulgatus and R. occidentalis. Pomologically they are of great importance as a very productive race of raspberries.

Subgenus XII. Eubatus. Focke Abh. Nat Ver. Bremen 4:148. 1874; Focke Spec. Rub. 3:48, 1914.

Shrubs, canes mostly biennial, erect or prostrate, variously armed; leaves digitately or pedately 3- to 5-folioIate. Drupelets uniting with the core and dehiscing together from the receptacles; known as dewberries and blackberries.


This subgenus inhabits the temperate regions of northwestern Asia, Europe, northern Africa, North America, and along the mountains in South America. It is abundantly rich in individuals and forms in Europe and northeastern America. This subgenus presents the greatest difficulties to the botanist. The various species with their numerous satelites, variously considered as subspecies, microspecies, varieties, forms, and hybrids, can be grouped in a number of series, which, if once understood, are in most cases readily distinguished. It must not be forgotten, however, that the many individual variations and the intermediate hybrid forms make it difficult to work out under each of these series satisfactory keys.

A. Plants with creeping or prostrate canes. Leaves often 3-foliolate. Inflorescence

usually few flowered or flowers at least never panicled (Dewberries) B. Plants more prickly, prickles sometimes mixed with bristles C. Canes glaucous with a bloom

D. Flowers bisexual, with perfect stamens and pistils. Berries rarely perfect, usually only a few drupelets maturing, the others abortive. European-Asiatic species............................................Series 1: Caesii

DD. Flowers usually with one sex only perfect. Berries always perfect, composed of many drupelets. Pacific species. Californian Dewberries............

Series 2: Ursini CC. Canes not glaucous

D. Canes with broad, more or less ovate leaflets, without bristles. Foliage deciduous (Northeastern Dewberries).................Series 3: Flagellares

DD. Canes with narrower, more lanceolate leaflets, and often with bristles between the prickles. Foliage often persistent (Southeastern Dewberries)........

Series 4: Triviales

BB. Plants with numerous fine retrorse bristles and a few prickles or none............

Series 5: Hispidi

AA. Plants with more or less erect canes, often tall, nodding or arching at the top, sometimes more so the second year, but not really prostrate, more or less angular. Leaves mostly digitately or pedately 5-foliolate. Inflorescence more or less panicled (Blackberries) B. Plants with setose bristles on canes and petioles; canes often decumbent or

prostrate the second year....................................Series 6: Setosi

BB. Plants not setose in the same way

C. Leaves white or grayish tomentose underneath

D. Leaves more or less oblong or even narrower. American plants............

Series 7: Cuneifolii

DD. Leaves more or less ovate or roundish. European plants.. Series 13: Fruticosi CC. Leaves more or less green underneath

D. Canes unarmed or only with a few prickles; plants almost glabrous and not

glandular; leaves thin.............................Series 8: Canadenses

DD. Canes armed with more or less stout prickles; plants mostly more or less pubescent

E. Inflorescence panicled, richly branched, very prickly. .Series 13: Fruticosi

EE. Inflorescence usually racemose or the lower peduncles sometimes branched

F. Inflorescence elongate, without leaf-like bracts or only with a few at the base, usually with numerous stalked glands.....Series 9: Alleghenienses

FF. Inflorescence less elongate corymbose and often with leaf-like bracts higher up, usually not glandular G. Leaflets of the flowering branches acute or acuminate

H. Leaflets of the canes usually narrow, acute; canes sharply angular and deeply furrowed; inflorescence not leafy. . . .Series 10: Arguti

HH. Leaflets of the canes usually broad and roundish; canes more or less terete when old; inflorescence decidedly leafy.. . Series 11: Frondosi

GG. Leaflets of the flowering branches short, obtuse or roundish..........

Series 12: Floridi Series 1. Caesii. Focke Spec. Rub. 31252. 1914, as subsection.

Rubus caesius. Linnaeus Sp. PL 493. 1753; Focke Spec. Rub. 3:253. 1914; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:153. - 1923.

R. dumetorum Hort. Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3033, fig. 506. 1916.

Sarmentose shrub, canes erect at first but soon curving down and decumbent or sub-scandent among shrubs or creeping and rooting on open ground, terete, usually glabrous, with a dense white bloom and numerous recurved, small prickles, sometimes undermixed with some rare short-stalked glands. Leaves 3-foliolate; petioles and mainveins prickly, puberulous and sparingly glandular, stipules lanceolate glandular-ciliate. Leaflets very variable in shape, the lower ones sessile or shortly stalked, obliquely ovate and sublobed on the lower, broader part the terminal leaflet stalked, ovate or rhomboid-ovate, subcordate at the base, all obtuse or pointed, sharply, doubly or incisedly serrate, rather thin, bright green, pubescent at least beneath. Flowering branches slender, puberulous, variously glandular and prickly; flowers fascicled, terminal and from axillary peduncles; calyx-lobes ovate, long pointed, more or less glandular, petals broadly elliptical, white. Fruit usually imperfect, composed of a few large, black drupelets with a glaucous hue.

Europe; from the Mediterranean to Scandinavia, everywhere common, in northwestern Asia as far as the Altai Mountains. Introduced into the United States by landscape gardeners as a ground cover for which it is well adapted. It is a very variable species, according to locality. The fruit is pleasant and not always imperfect, and as it flowers from spring to fall it is perhaps worthy the attention of the hybridizer. Spontaneous hybrids with other species, also with R. idaeus, are not uncommon in Europe.

Series 2. Ursini. Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:429, 433. 1913; Focke Spec. Rub. 3:302. 1914.

Vitifolii: Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:153. I923-

Vigorous shrubs with running, climbing or procumbent, terete canes, propagating from the tips; leaves usually 3-foliolate, or 5-foliolately pinnate, or pedate, often on the same cane. Flowers rarely hermaphrodite, usually by abortion either staminate or pistillate, the staminate flowers mostly showier, and larger. Pedicels and calyx densely and adpressedly pubescent, with more or less numerous, slender, patent bristles and sometimes with stalked glands; calyx-lobes narrow, acuminate, often with pinnately cut tips, strongly reflexed during the time of flowering. Fruit mostly somewhat elongate, smooth or pubescent, with erect sepals.

The Ursini-Rubus are all natives of the Pacific Coast, extending eastward to Idaho. They form an extremely variable group, all considered as one species by Focke, while five species have been recognized by Rydberg out of which three species are admitted here. The range of variation is such, however, that it is often difficult to say where one species ends and the next begins. The available herbarium material is insufficient as it usually lacks the characteristic new canes taken from the same plant. A satisfactory state of taxonomy can only be reached when all the region has been carefully explored and reliable material has been collected. Even of the three historical species of this group, R. vitifolius, R. ursinus, and R. macropetalus, only flowering branchlets have been collected. The Ursini are of great pomological importance as they form the Pacific Coast region dewberries.

A. Flowers usually either staminate or pistillate only, rarely hermaphrodite

B. Canes usually glabrous or thinly pubescent, often glaucous, with scattered often remote hooked prickles. Leaves thin, green on both sides, leaflets irregularly toothed, mostly pointed. Pedicels, calyx, and calyx- lobes with more or less numerous stalked glands. Fruits mostly glabrous.............R. macropetalus

BB. Canes varying from slightly pubescent to tomentose; prickles numerous and densely set, usually slender and straight or only slightly curved, mostly smaller ones between them. Leaves pubescent or more or less grayish tomentose beneath. Leaflets

usually more obtuse. Pedicels and calyx very rarely with glands

C. Canes pubescent, often becoming almost glabrous. Leaves glabrescent; the

middle ones on the flowering shoots 3-lobed....................R, vitifolius

CC. Canes tomentose, rarely becoming glabrous. Leaves grayish tomentose beneath;

the middle ones on the flowering shoots 3-foliolate..............2?. ursinus

AA. Flowers hermaphrodite, i.e., with perfect stamens and pistils

B. Leaflets broad, roundish, obtuse, grayish tomentose beneath; teeth roundish....R. loganobaccus BB. Leaflets sharply pointed, green on both sides; teeth sharp, lanceolate. .R. titanus

Rubus macropetalus. Douglas in Hooker Fl. Bor. Amen. 1:178, PL 59. 1832; Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:460. 1913; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3033. 1916; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:154, 1923.

R. vitifolius. Card Bush-Fr. 332, fig. 64. 1898; Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 355, fig. 78. 1898.

Canes terete, usually and at least in the second year glabrous, rarely thinly puberulous, green or reddish, often with a glaucous bloom, remotely beset with more or less hooked, small prickles from a broadened base. Leaves 3-foliolate or pinnately or pedately 5-folio-late; stipules linear-subulate, hirsute or glandular; petioles, petiolules and midveins with hooked prickles, pubescent or glabrescent; leaflets more or less ovate, acute, irregularly or lobately doubly sharply toothed, green on both sides, with scattered hairs above and often more densely pubescent beneath; terminal leaflet much larger, mostly with cordate or also with roundish base. Flowering branches varying in length from 5-25 cm, pubescent, slightly angular, beset with weak prickles. Leaves 3-foliolate; stipules linear-lanceolate, lateral leaflets sessile, all with a roundish base, and deeply often lobately toothed; upper ones simple, ovate or cordate-ovate. Flowers corymbose, few to 10 or more, terminal or from the upper axils. Pedicels mostly forked, of various length, densely velvety pubescent, more or less densely beset with spreading or slightly reflexed bristly prickles, often undermixed with dark-stalked glands. Calyx and the deltoid-lanceolate, long-pointed calyx-lobes villous-tomentose, with more or less numerous spreading bristles and glands; petals of the staminate flowers almost elliptic, 15-18 mm long, white, those of the pistillate flowers smaller. Fruit roundish or elongate, black, sweet; drupelets glabrous or puberulous.

British Columbia to south California and eastward to Idaho; chiefly along the coast, in the San Bernardino Mountains up to 3000 feet; first discovered by Douglas on banks of rivers and in low woods in the valley of the Columbia. It is a strong shrub with deep-growing roots and in places is a troublesome weed. It flowers from March to July, according to the locality. There is great variation in shape and size of the leaves, their dentation, and the degree of hairiness and the presence or absence of prickles and glands on the pedicels and calyx.

The following pomological varieties belong to R. macropetalus: Belle of Washington, Cazadero, Humboldt, Skagit Chief, and Washington Climbing. R. helleri. Rydberg N. Am. FL 22:460. 1913.

This is a form with smaller and more obtuse leaflets occurring in Washington and Vancouver Island.

Rubus vitifolius. Cham. et Schlecht. Linnaea 2:10. 1827; Schneider III. Hdb. Laubh. 1:508. 1905; Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:459. I9I3'; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:154. 1923.

R. ursinus var. vitifolius. Focke Spec. Rub. 2:303. 1914.

Canes terete, pubescent, at length glabrescent, often glaucous, with scattered, slender, straight or slightly curved prickles. Leaves of turions 3-foliolate or 3-lobed; petioles, petio-lules and midveins pubescent and prickly; stipules lanceolate-subulate, hirsute; leaflets shortly pointed or obtuse, doubly or irregularly dentate, slightly hairy or glabrescent, terminal leaflet or lobe larger. Flowering branches varying in length, angular, pubescent and "with scattered, straight prickles. Lower leaves 3-foliolate, the middle ones or all simple, some-what 3-lobed or roundish, irregularly or doubly dentate, teeth usually large. Flowers corymbose, 2-5, on rather long pedicels; pedicels pubescent with more or less numerous, spreading, yellowish prickles; calyx and the long acuminate often crenately tipped calyx-lobes strongly pubescent and bristly, but not glandular. Petals of the staminate flowers large, oblong, white.

Oregon to central California; originally collected near San Francisco by Adalbert von Chamisso.

Rubus ursinus. Cham. et Schlecht. Linnaea 2:11. 1827; Rydberg N.- Am. Fl. 22:459. 1913; Bailey Gent, Herb. 1:154. 1923.
Canes tomentose, terete, with numerous, slender, straight prickles. Leaves 3-foliolate, grayish tomentose beneath with adpressed hairs above, leaflets broadly ovate, roundish, doubly irregularly toothed; petioles tomentose and prickly, also the petiolules and the midveins. Flowering branches angular, tomentose, and with patent slender prickles; stipules lanceolate, hirsute; leaves 3-foliolate, lateral leaflets obliquely ovate, obtuse, almost sessile, the terminal ones subcordate, roundish ovate, bluntly pointed; the uppermost leaves simple, cordate-ovate or somewhat 3-lobed. Flowers corymbose, 3-5, on long pedicels; pedicels grayish tomentose like the calyx and with spreading, slender prickles, usually without glands; calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate with a long often crenate tip, grayish, inside whitish tomentose. Petals of the staminate flowers large, oblong, white.
California; first collected by Adalbert von Chamisso. This is the very large and partially erect form so common about most thickets at the lower levels. According to Bailey, Aughinbaugh, once much cultivated, belongs either to this species or to R. vitifolius.

Rubus loganobaccus. Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:155. 1923.
Canes stout, terete, tomentose at length glabrescent, densely beset with straight patent prickles. Leaves 3- to 5-foliolate, petioles and petiolules densely pubescent, prickly, like most of the veins beneath; stipules subulate, hirsute; lower leaflets sessile, obliquely ovate, obtuse, terminal one roundish cordate or subtrilobate, obtuse or bluntly pointed, irregularly or doubly toothed, rather thick, dark green above with a few scattered hairs, densely grayish tomentose beneath. Flowering branches copiously prickly; leaves 3-foliolate, similar to those of the turions, only smaller; the uppermost simple, cordate. Flowers corymbose, large, bisexual, pedicels long, stout, tomentose and with patent prickles; calyx and the ovate-lanceolate, long-pointed calyx-lobes pubescent and prickly; petals large, white. Fruit elongate, red, acidulous; drupelets tomentose.

Garden origin; only known as a cultivated plant; said to have originated in the garden of Judge J. H. Logan, Santa Cruz, California. The loganberry was at first said to be a hybrid between the "common Californian dewberry" and a raspberry. There is, however, no trace of a raspberry in the character of this plant. Most likely it is a mutant offspring of R. ursinus, from which it differs only in slight details and chiefly by its bisexual flowers, but such can occasionally also be observed on R. ursinus. A cross was raised at Geneva between the red raspberry Herbert and the loganberry.

Rubus titanus. Bailey MSS.

Canes extremely robust, many yards long, terete, pubescent, glabrous later on, beset with numerous, stout, straight or hooked prickles from a broad base, with smaller ones between them. Leaves 3-foliolate, petioles and petiolules pubescent, very prickly, also along the midveins; stipules lanceolate-subulate, hirsute, lateral leaflets shortly stalked, obliquely ovate, acute, often with a small lower lobe, terminal leaflet ovate to ovate-lanceolate, rather long pointed, all rather thin, green on both sides, hairy when young but soon glabrescent especially above, doubly and sharply serrate-dentate, the teeth more or less lanceolate. Flowering branches more or less tomentose, angular, prickly; lower leaves 3-foliolate, upper one 3-lobed, the uppermost simple, cordate-ovate, all more or less pointed. Flowers axillar and terminal in a loose corymb, large, bisexual; pedicels tomentose, like the calyx with patent slender prickles, eglandular; calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate with long leafy or pinnate tips, not prickly; petals roundish oblong, white. Fruit black, sweet, elongate.

Garden origin; only known as cultivated plants, said to have originated in the garden of Judge J. H. Logan, Santa Cruz, California, and now much grown under the name of " Mammoth." Supposed to be a hybrid, but in reality nothing is known about its origin. It is also known as Lowberry. Crosses were made at Geneva, between Mammoth and Cuthbert (red raspberry), between Mammoth and Herbert (red raspberry), between Mammoth and Agawam (blackberry), between Mammoth and Snyder (blackberry), and between Mammoth and Nanticoke (blackberry).

Var. espinatus. Bailey MSS.

Canes almost smooth and without prickles; petioles, petiolules and midveins with only a few and small prickles. Fruit like those of R. titanus.

This variety is said to have been discovered in the mountain pass of Tuolumne County, California, and is much grown under the names of " Mammoth Thornless "or" Cory " or " Cory Thornless."

Series 3. Flagellares. Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:157. 1923.

Canes prostrate or procumbent, mostly glabrous, and with scattered recurved or hooked prickles. Leaves on turions 3- to 5-foliolate, leaflets more or less ovate or obovate, glabrescent. Flowering branches and leaves usually somewhat more pubescent, slightly prickly; glands absent, except perhaps in hybrids. Calyx-lobes often with foliaceous tips.

A. Canes more or less terete

B. Pedicels exceeding the leaves, elongate, the lower ones overtopping the terminal one; flowers few, often rather large.............................R. flagellaris

BB. Pedicels not exceeding the leaves. Flowers more corymbiform

C. Canes prostrate, more prickly; leaves more obtuse; flowers middle sized........

R. arenicola CC. Canes procumbent; leaves more pointed, those of the flowering shoots plicate

between the close veins; flowers small......................R. plicatifolius

AA. Canes strongly angular and furrowed, the prickles strong, placed along the angles; pedicels overtopping the leaves.......................................R. velox

Rubus flagellaris. Willdenow En. PI. 549. 1809; Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:473. 1911; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:157. I923-

R. procumbens. Muhl. apud auct.: Focke Spec. Rub. 3:81 (305). 1914; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5*3031. 1916.

R. canadensis T. et G. Fl. N. Am. 1:455. 1840.

R. Baileyanus. Britton Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 41185. 1894.

R. villosus. Card Bush-Fr. 329. 1898; Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 371. 1898; Gray New Man. 7th Ed. 492. 1911; not R. villosus Thunb. 1784; not R. villosus Ait. 1789.

R. subuniflorus. Rydberg in Britton Man. 497. 1901; Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:474.


R. aboriginum. Rydberg AT". Am. Fl. 22:473. I9I3-

Common Dewberry. Low shrub, canes prostrate, terete, several feet long, rooting at the tip, glabrescent, with numerous, irregularly scattered, small, strongly hooked prickles from a broad compressed base. Leaves pedately 3- to 5-foliolate, bright green with scattered hairs and pubescent along the veins on both sides/firm, sharply and irregularly often doubly toothed, teeth lanceolate, mucronate; lower and lateral leaflets sessile or almost so, obliquely ovate or rhomboid-acuminate, terminal leaflet distinctly stalked, broadly or roundish ovate, subcordate suddenly contracted into a long point, and coarsely toothed; petiole and petiolules pubescent, like the midveins with scattered, hooked prickles; petioles shorter than the leaflets; stipules lanceolate, cuspidate, puberulous and ciliate. Flowering branches erect, 10-30 cm long, slightly angular and puberulous, and with scattered, fine prickles. Leaves 3-foliolate, puberulous with scattered hairs, especially along the veins, sharply doubly toothed; leaflets ovate or rhomboid, tapering at both ends; the uppermost leaves simple, variously lanceolate pointed or broader and 2- to 3-lobed. Flowers terminal or axillary, 1-5 or more, pedicels exceeding the leaves, the terminal one usually the shortest, puberulous and with scattered, spreading prickles. Calyx-lobes ovate, shortly pointed, pubescent; petals longer, obovate; stamens and pistils numerous. Fruit roundish, calyx-lobes adpressed.

Eastern North America; from Maine to the Rocky Mountains and south to the Gulf of Mexico, mostly on dry open places, roadsides, banks, and often in sandy soil. A very variable plant according to locality, exposure to sunlight, and soil, especially in the flowering shoots and their leaves. From one and the same individual very different looking flowering shoots may be collected, which by an inexperienced observer might easily be considered as belonging to different varieties or species.

To this species belongs the cultivated variety Lucretia Sister, Gardena, and according to Bailey probably also Windom.

R. flagellaris var. roribaccus. Bailey Gent Herb. 1:160. 1923. R. canadensis var. roribaccus. Bailey Am. Gard. 11:642. 1890. R. villosus var. roribaccus. Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 373. 1898; Card Bush-Fr. 329. 1898.

R. roribaccus, Rydberg in Britton Man. 498. 1901.

R. procumbens roribaccus. Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3031. 1916.

Canes more robust, longer, with less hooked stouter prickles; stipules linear-lanceolate; leaves more pubescent, terminal leaflet longer stalked. Flowering shoots 20-80 cm long, lower leaves 3-foliolate, leaflets ovate, pointed, upper ones simple, ovate, pointed, rounded or cordate at the base. Pedicels longer, stouter, well overtopping the leaves, flowers very large and showy; calyx-lobes ovate with a long often foliaceous tip; petals 2 cm long or more, obovate, clawed. Fruit oblong with numerous drupelets.

This is the cultivated Lucretia. Crosses were made at Geneva between Lucretia and Erie (blackberry), Lucretia and Ancient Briton (blackberry), between Rathbun (blackberry) and (Lucretia x Agawam), and also between Lucretia and Snyder (blackberry).

R. flagellaris var. invisus. Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:161. 1923.

R. canadensis var. invisus. Bailey Am. Gard. 12:83. 1891.

R. invisus. Britton Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 4:115. 1893; Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 374. 1898; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3031. 1916; Card. Bush-Fr. 329. 1898.

Stems somewhat ascending but soon decumbent, not very prickly. Leaves light green, teeth of the leaflets, both on sterile and fertile branches, mostly simple, large and broadly rounded, shortly mucronate.

Central North America; apparently widely spread in western Missouri, Michigan, and Indiana. Here belong the formerly cultivated varieties Bartel, Never Pail, and General Grant. Plants from the southeastern states seem to represent a close and similar variety. To this seems to belong the cultivated variety Premo.

R. flagellaris var. geophilus Bailey.

R. geophilus. Blanchard Rkodora 8:148. 1906.

Stems robust, similar to var. roribaccus; leaves rather large, more or less pubescent, jagged and very coarsely serrate; also the leaves of the fruiting branches large and very variable in shape, the simple uppermost broadly cordate-ovate, of ten more or less 3-lobed, larger than in most cases. Pedicels stout, long, prickly, overlapping the foliage; calyx, lobes often with long foliaceous often pinnately incised tips; petals obovate, over 2 cm long. Fruit remarkably large.

Eastern North America; from Maine to Texas. Here belongs the cultivated variety Mayes. A cross was made at Geneva between Kansas (black raspberry) and Mayes, and between Mayes and Agawam (blackberry).

R. flagellaris var. michiganensis. Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:161. 1923.

R. villosus var. michiganensis. Card Bush-Fr. 329. 1898; Bailey Ev. Nat Fruits 374. 1898.

Robust shrub, similar in habit to var. geophilus, but the leaflets with large, sharp, and deeply cut often falcate teeth or almost lacinate-dentate, lateral leaflets sessile. Flowering branches pubescent; leaves lacerate-dentate, pubescent especially on the back, 1- to 10-flowered.

East central North America; Michigan, Indiana. R. arizonensis. Focke Spec. Rub. 3:307. 1914.

R. oligospertnus. Thornber ex Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:470. 1913; not Sudre 1909. Very similar to R. flagellaris; but floral branches only 5-10 cm long, with 3- to 5-folio-late leaves, 1-4 cm long, pubescent. Flowers 1-5, pedicels villous and with recurved prickles; sepals villous tomentose, petals 8-9 mm long. Fruits globose, 10-12 mm across with about 12-25 drupelets.

Arizona and south to Mexico; first collected by C. G. Pringle in the St. Catalina Mountains, Arizona, in 1881. R. enslenii. Tratt. Ros. Monogr. 3:63. 1823.

This is often cited in connection with R. flagellaris, but it is yet insufficiently known. The original specimen in the Vienna herbarium is a weak plantlet; its exact habitat is not known. Possibly plants grown near Biloxi, Mississippi, may represent this species.

Rubus arenicola. Blanchard Rhodora 8:151. 1906; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:167. 1923.

Canes perfectly prostrate, obscurely angular or terete, glabrous, with numerous, slender, recurved prickles. Leaves 3-foliolate, the lower ones often 5-foliolate, rather regularly and sharply and often doubly toothed, dark green above and paler beneath, almost glabrous on both sides, except for the veins beneath; lower leaflets sessile, small, middle ones short stalked, obliquely broadly ovate, shortly pointed, terminal leaflet larger and longer stalked, roundish or cordate at the base; on 3-foliolate leaves the lower leaflets oblique or obscurely lobed on the outer side, and the terminal one mostly broadly obovate, suddenly contracted into a short point. Petioles and petiolules slightly pubescent and prickly; stipules narrowly lanceolate, acute. Flowering branches pubescent, sparingly prickly; leaves 3-foliolate, leaflets obovate, obtuse or shortly pointed, doubly toothed. Flowers 5-10 or more, corym-biform; pedicels pubescent, sparingly prickly; calyx pubescent, lobes ovate, cuspidate; petals longer, obovate; stamens and pistils numerous. Berries roundish oblong.

Eastern North America; Nova Scotia to Massachusetts. There are no cultivated forms of this species as yet.

Rubus plicatifolius. Blanchard Rhodora 8:149. I906; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:167.


R. villosus. Aiton Hort. Kew. 2:210. 1789; not Thunberg 1784.

Canes procumbent, terete, glabrous, with scattered, slender, recurved prickles. Leaves 5-foliolate, bright green and glabrescent on both sides, except for the veins beneath, sharply and doubly serrately toothed; lower leaflets sessile, obovate, contracted into a more or less long point, terminal one stalked, longer and broader and more ovate, rounded or sub-cordate at the base; petioles long, glabrescent like the petiolules and the midveins, with scattered, recurved prickles; stipules long, lanceolate-linear, acute. Flowering branches slender, pubescent, sparingly prickly; leaves 3-foliolate, finely doubly toothed, paler" and pubescent underneath, with close, fine, prominent veins and the blade usually finely depressed or falted between them. Flowers corymbiform, 5-7 or more or less, rather small; pedicels slender, scarcely prickly, slightly pubescent; calyx pubescent, lobes ovate, cuspidate, white tomentose inside; petals narrowly obovate.

Eastern North America. No cultivated variety is referable to this species,

Rubus velox. Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:168. 1923.

Vigorous shrub, canes soon procumbent and creeping on the ground, several feet long, angular and furrowed, pubescent at first, along the angles with scattered, moderately stout, fine, somewhat recurved prickles from a broad base. Leaves 5-foliolate, rather thin, yellowish green, glabrescent above, underneath paler green and finely pubescent, especially along the veins, simply or doubly serrate; leaflets ovate-lanceolate, pointed, roundish or subcordate at the base; lower leaflets subsessile, middle ones stalked, terminal leaflets larger, 7-10 cm long and 5 cm wide or more, more oblong, longer stalked, with about 10-12 veins on each side; petioles, rhachis, and midveins pubescent, with several hooked prickles; stipules narrowly linear or subulate. Flowering branches erect, angular like the petioles, and pubescent, sparingly prickly, 15-20 cm long; leaves 3-foliolate, smaller and narrower towards the base, the uppermost simple, sometimes 3-lobed, with a broad, roundish or subcordate base. Flowers 1-4, axillar, pedicels not or scarcely exceeding the leaves, pubescent, almost without prickles. Calyx-lobes pubescent, tomentose inside, ovate, cuspidate, often with a large foliaceus-lobed tip. Petals oblong, 12-15 mm long; stamens and pistils numerous. Fruit oblong, 25 mm long or more, black.

Southwestern United States; Texas. The type of this species is the "blackberry dewberry" McDonald. Sonderegger Earliest comes very near to it as also does Honey Coreless. Dallas has deeper doubly serrate leaflets, very pubescent underneath, and the same is the case with the varieties Early Wonder and Texas Early; their leaflets, however, are shorter and rounder. Other varieties belonging to this species are Spaulding and Sorsby.

Series 4. Triviales. Rydberg N. Am. Ft. 22:435. I9I3-

Stems prostrate, slender, usually bristly and prickly. Leaves 3- to 5-foliolate, leaflets narrowly ovate to lanceolate, usually persistent, shining green and glabrous. Floral branches short, erect; flowers rather large, solitary or 3-5 or more together, on long, erect pedicels well above the foliage; prickles on stems, petioles and pedicels with a flattened base, more or less hooked.

About five species, all natives of the southeastern United States. Several cultivated varieties belong to this group and no doubt the pomo-logical importance of it will increase in the future.

A. Canes bristly and prickly B. Leaves simply serrate

C. Flowering shoots with small obovate-obtuse leaflets; flowers usually solitary or 1-3..........................................................R. trivialis

CC. Flowering shoots with long, narrow, long-pointed leaflets; flowers mostly solitary

R. mississippianus

BB. Leaves doubly serrate

C. Stems with reddish gland-bearing bristles; leaflets firm and thick, oval or oboval; flowers 3-7 together.................................R. rubrisetus

CC. Stems bristly but not glandular; leaflets thinner, elliptical; flowers 1-4 together

R. continentalis

AA. Canes not bristly, only with prickles. Leaflets lanceolate, simply serrate, shining green; flowers 2-6 together......................................R. lucidus

Rubus trivialis. Michaux FL Bor. Amer. 1:296. 1803; Card Bush-Fr. 330. it Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 376. 1898; Rydberg N. Am. FL 22:479. 1913; Focke Spec. Rub. 3:84. 1914; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3032. 1916; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:170. 1923.

Stems prostrate, 1-2 m long, terete, slender, brownish red, with very numerous bristles mixed with scattered, hooked prickles from a broad base. Leaves of the turions 3- to 5-foliolate, firm, glabrous on both sides, dark and shining green above, pale green beneath, simply serrate, teeth mucronate; leaflets lanceolate or oblanceolate, tapering at both ends, the lower ones shortly stalked or sessile, the terminal one stalked and longer, about 5 cm long and 2 cm wide; petiole and petiolules brownish red, bristly and prickly; stipules small, subulate. Flowering branches very short, with about 3 approximate 3-foliolate leaves, much smaller and more obtuse than those of the turions; petioles puberulous, sparingly prickly and without bristles. Flowers solitary or 2-3, pedicels 3-5 cm long, erect, well above the leaves, puberulous, with small, straight or curved prickles; occasionally also with soft gland-topped bristles. Calyx pubescent, lobes ovate, shortly cuspidate, white tomentose inside; petals obovate, 15 mm long; stamens and pistils numerous; fruit oblong, drupelets numerous, glabrous, black, calyx-lobes reflexed.

Southeastern United States; dry fields from Virginia to Florida, Texas, and Oklahoma. There are many varieties cultivated which probably are this species taken from the wild into gardens. The variety San Jacinto grown at this Station is one of them. The White Dewberry is also one of these cultivated forms. It differs by having slightly angular canes, numerous yellowish gland-tipped bristles, very prickly and bristly petioles, more oblong, broader, and less pointed leaflets, which are of a paler, not shining green. The flowers are produced on straight, densely glandular, bristly and prickly pedicels, 10-15 cm long; sepals ovate-deltoid, pubescent, tomentose inside. This may possibly belong to a different yet undescribed species.

R. rubrisetus, Rydberg in Britton Man. FL Northeast. St etc. 497, from Louisiana to Missouri, comes near to R. trivialis, but it has more oval or oboval, irregularly serrate leaflets and the flowers 3-7 together in corymbs; pedicels glandular bristly.

Rubus mississippianus. Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:171. 1923.

Canes prostrate, long creeping, thin and slender, glabrous, bristly and with slender, curved prickles. Leaves of the flowering canes 3- to 5-foliolate, shining green above, 5 glabrous or slightly pubescent along the veins underneath; leaflets oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, the terminal ones 3-$ cm long and 1-1.5 cm wide, sharply and simply serrate; petioles slender, prickly. Flowering shoots very short; flowers about 2-2.5 cm across, usually solitary, well above the leaves; pedicels slender, 7-10 cm long, prickly. Petals obovate, obtuse.

Southeastern United States; Mississippi, near Biloxi. There are no cultivated varieties known.

Rubus lucidus, Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:479. 1913; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:173. J923.

Canes trailing, 1-2 m long, slender, terete, brown or reddish, with flattened, recurved prickles but without bristles. Leaves mostly 5-foliolate, dark green and shining, glabrous except on the midveins beneath, regular and simply serrate, leaflets lanceolate, acute; petioles 2-4 cm long, prickly. Flowering shoots short, sparingly pubescent or glabrate, with 3-foliolate leaves. Flowers corymbose, 2-6 together; pedicels slightly pubescent, prickly; calyx tomentose, lobes ovate or ovate-lanceolate, cuspidate, white tomentose inside; petals obovate, 12-15 mm long. Fruit elongate, 8-10 mm long, drupelets small and rather dry.

Southeastern United States; South Carolina to Florida, west to Mississippi. No cultivated variety is known of this species.

Rubus continentalis. Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:173. *923-

R. carpinifolius. Rydberg in Small Fl. Southeast. U.S. 519. igi3;notWhe. 1824, nor Godron, nor Blox.

R. hispidus subsp. (?) continentalis, Focke Spec. Rub. 3:86. 1914.

Canes slender, trailing, 1-2 m long, more or less densely bristly and prickly, prickles recurved, small. Leaves 5-foliolate, leaflets elliptic or elliptic-ovate, acute or obtuse at both ends, 2-6 cm long, thin, glabrous on both sides, doubly serrate, teeth ovate, rather blunt; petioles and midvein prickly. Flowers 1-4, pedicels slender, 3-7 cm long, prickly and somewhat glandular-hispid. Calyx puberulous, lobes ovate-lanceolate; petals oval, white, 1 cm long. Fruit elongate, 1-2 cm long; drupelets numerous, glabrous.

Southern central United States; southern Illinois to Oklahoma, Texas, and Louisiana. Not yet in cultivation.

Series 5. Hispidi. Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:173. 1923.

Plants trailing on the ground; canes terete, with numerous, fine, retrorse bristles and a few prickles or none. Leaves 3- to 5-foliolate. Flowering branches erect, 3-foliolate; flowers corymbose, small. The Hispidi are of little importance as fruit plants and so far scarcely offer promising features for future development.

Rubus hispidus, Linnaeus Spec. PI. 493, 1753; Card Bush-Fr. 334. 1898; Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 377, fig. 73. 1898; Gray New Man. 7th Ed. 492. 1911; Rydberg N. Am, Fl. 22:478. 1913; Focke Spec. Rub. 3:84, (310). 1914; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3032. 1916; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:173. 1923.

R. obovalis. MichauxFZ. Bor. Am. 1:298. 1803.

R. sempervirens. Bigelow Fl. Bost. 26. Ed. 201. 1824.

Running Swamp Blackberry. Stems prostrate, trailing on the ground and rooting at the tip, slender, terete, glabrous, more or less densely beset with slender, recurved bristles, occasionally intermixed with a few stouter prickles. Leaves 3- to 5-foliolate; leaflets firm, dark green above, more or less persistent over the winter, glabrous on both sides, regularly simply or doubly toothed or serrate, obovate, shortly pointed or obtuse, attenuate towards and variously rounded at the base; in 3-foliolate leaves, the lower leaflets short stalked, oblique with lateral lobes, the terminal ones longer stalked and larger, rhombic-obovate. Petioles about as long or longer, glabrous and with recurved bristles, also the petiolules and the midveins; stipules linear-lanceolate, or almost subulate, acuminate. Flowering branches erect, glabrous, sparingly bristly, 15-30 cm long, leaves 3-foliolate, similar to those of the turions, the uppermost ones simple. Flowers rather small, 5-9 corymbiform and 1-3 lower axillary ones; pedicels 3-5 times as long as the calyx, pubescent and with long, slender, scattered bristles, some of them with glands. Calyx pubescent, lobes ovate-deltoid, cuspidate; petals white, 8 mm long. Berry with about 10-20 glabrous drupelets, dark red or purple.

Eastern North America; from Nova Scotia south to Georgia, west to Michigan, in damp woods, meadows, mostly in dense carpets. Also this species is rather variable. There occur some very robust forms, larger in all their parts. They have been named var. major; there exist, however, all degrees of intermediate forms. Normally the leaflets are rather obtuse or short pointed; some plants, however, have them decidedly pointed. The most pronounced of them has been named R. hispidus var. blanchardi-anus Bailey. It is a native of southern Vermont. Besides these forms, Blanchard segregated three allied species, which he found in Vermont.

Rubus cubitans. Blanchard, Torreya 6:148. 1906.

Plants not bristly nor glandular; leaves 5-foliolate, glabrous; leaflets narrowly oval to oval, wedge-shaped or at least narrowed towards the base.

Rubus trifrons. Blanchard Amer. Bot. 11:11. 1906.
New canes ascending or erect, bristly, without prickles; plants more or less glandular. Leaves mostly 3-foliolate.

Rubus jacens. Blanchard Torreya 6:147. 1906.

R. semierectus. Blanchard Rhodora 8:156. 1906.
New canes ascending or erect, bristly and prickly; leaves mostly 5-foliolate; pedicels often with a few stalked glands.

Rydberg considers the last three as hybrids of R. hispidus with R. vermontanus Blanch., one of the Setosi group. The latter, however, may perhaps be a hybrid with R. plicatifolius. Besides these there are other hybrids recorded with R. argutus, R. allegheniensis, and R. canadensis. Another interesting-hybrid, R. hispidus xR. pubescens, was found in a wood near Lake Ontario, east of Youngstown:

Rubus urbanianus Berger* n. hybr.

Stems slender, procumbent, rooting at the tips, with scattered, recurved prickles. Leaves 3-foliolate, petioles slender, prickly, stipules subulate; leaflets thin, dull green and with a few scattered hairs above, paler underneath and pubescent along the veins, obliquely ovate, sharply pointed and irregularly doubly toothed, lateral ones sessile, terminal ones shortly stalked. Flowering branches and petioles pubescent, sparingly prickly; leaflets rhomboid-ovate, acute at both ends, ciliate. Flowers solitary, terminal, peduncles pubescent, sparingly prickly or unarmed, with one or two leaf-like simple bracts; calyx-lobes ovate, acuminate or cuspidate, tomentose, adpressed or spreading in fruit. Fruit roundish, red, with 8-10 rather large drupelets.

Intermediate between the parents. It has the stems, prickles, and stipules of R. hispidus and the shape, texture, and dentations of the leaves of R. pubescens. The inflorescence, too, is more that of R. pubescens. A similar hybrid does not seem to be known.

Series 6. SetosL Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:176. 1923.

Canes at first erect or ascending and not over 1 m high, becoming decumbent or prostrate the second year, usually densely beset with fine not much pungent bristles, and usually without prickles. Leaves 5-foliolate; petioles bristly; leaflets glabrous or almost so, mostly sharply serrate, veins prominent underneath, impressed above, giving the leaflets a plicate appearance in the herbarium. Inflorescence shortly racemose; flowers small. Fruit hemispheric, drupelets not numerous, sour.

These blackberries of the Setosi group with their poor and sour fruits are of little interest to the pomologist. They are natives of the northeastern United States. The most outstanding species are R. setosus Bigel. and R. vermontanus Blanch.

Series 7. Cuneifolii. Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:180. 1923.

Erect shrubs, with stiff, angular, downy canes and stunted, more or less hooked prickles from a broad base. Leaflets firm, attenuate towards the base, and entire near the lower parts, densely grayish or whitish tomentose underneath. Pedicels stout, grayish felty like the calyx.

A group easily recognized by its habit and the nature of its stems and leaves. There are so far only two species known.

A. Leaflets more or less obovate-cuneate, grayish white on the back, simply serrate.

R. cuneifolius

AA. Leaflets from oblanceolate to oblong-obovate, grayish on the back, sharply doubly toothed......................................................... R. probabilis

Rubus cuneifolius. Pursh Fl. Am. Sept. 347. 1814; Card Bush-Fr. 327, fig. 62. 1898; Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 378, fig. 89. 1898; Gray New Man. 7th Ed. 491. 1911;

* Named in honor of George Urban, Jr., Buffalo, New York, much interested in horticulture, at whose summer camp the plant was found.

Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:461. 1913; Focke Spec. Rub. 3:(311) 87. 1914; Bailey Gent Herb. 1:180. 1923.

Sand Blackberry. Erect half evergreen shrub or straggling and procumbent, 0.5-1.5 m high; stems or canes angular and furrowed, brown, finely downy, along the angles with scattered, stout, recurved or hooked prickles from a broad, flat base. Leaves of the turions 3- to 5-foliolate, rather firm, dark green and glabrescent above, densely felty from white interwoven hairs underneath; leaflets obovate or cuneate-obovate, obtuse or rounded at the top, cuneate at the base, 3-6 cm long, simply serrate with sharp, ovate teeth, entire near the base. Petioles, petiolules and midveins tomentose and with recurved prickles; stipules subulate. Flowering branches and pedicels tomentose and prickly; leaves 3-folio-late, uppermost simple, leaflets smaller, more roundish but with cuneate base. Flowers 3-7 together, corymbiform; pedicels short and stiff; calyx tomentose, lobes broadly ovate, shortly cuspidate, white tomentose inside; petals obovate, 8-12 mm long; stamens rather short. Fruits with reflexed calyx-lobes, round to shortly oblong, black, with about 25-50 rather dry drupelets, but of excellent quality.

Atlantic United States; from Connecticut south to Florida, west to Louisiana, on rocky and sandy soil. "A straggling briar of gray aspect " (Pursh); easily to be recognized by its cuneate, gray-tomentose leaves and the stout prickles.

Rubus probabilis. Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:180, fig. 81. 1923.

R. Linkianus Collect., not Seringe.

Similar to R cuneifolius, but stouter, and stems stronger; canes more or less angular, downy, with strong, more or less curved prickles. Leaves 3- to 5-foliolate; petioles stouter, tomentose and prickly; stipules lanceolate-subulate; leaflets firm, larger, varying from oblanceolate to obovate-oblong or obovate, obtuse but contracted into a short point, attenuate towards the rounded or rarely subcordate base, dark green above, grayish felty underneath, finely and sharply doubly toothed except near the base. Flowering branches 3-foliolate, leaflets shorter, uppermost leaves simple. Inflorescence similar to R cuneifolius ] terminal and axillar, corymbose; pedicels felty and prickly. Fruits larger and juicy, drupelets with large tesselate seeds.

Southern Atlantic States; from North Carolina to Florida and Alabama. There are several cultivated varieties referable to this species; as, Perfection, Topsy, Nanticoke, and Robison.

Some forms of this species come near to the Argutus group. In herbaria specimens of this species are occasionally found labelled as R. Linkianus Seringe. This is, however, an obscure European species. Focke places the name as a synonym of a form of a subspecies of R. candicans.

Series 8. Canadenses. Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:180. 1923.

Canes angled and furrowed, from a very robust and erect habit to a weak and diffusing one, brown, unarmed or prickly; prickles straight, mostly slender; plants almost glabrous. Leaves 5-foliolate, thin; petioles slender, like the petiolules and veins, of a pale yellowish-green or reddish color; lateral and terminal leaflets long stalked, long acuminate or suddenly contracted into a long point. Flowering branches pale, slightly pubescent; inflorescence racemose; peduncle and pedicels slender, patent like the calyx, adpressedly puberulous, not glandular.

So far no horticultural varieties have been developed from this series, but some of the species offer possibilities.

A. Canes 1.5-4 m high, erect, robust, usually unarmed; larger leaflets with a cordate

base..........................................................R. canadensis

A A. Canes not as high, more or less prickly; only terminal leaflets cordate or rounded at

the base B. Canes erect, stouter

C. Leaflets oval or ovate........................................R. elegantulus

CC. Leaflets obovate or oblanceolate.................................R. amicalis

BB. Canes ascending, weaker; leaflets ovate with a long point..............R. randii

Rubus canadensis. Linnaeus Sp. PI. 494. 1753; Card Bush-Fr. 327. 1898; Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 385, figs. 92 et 93. 1898; Schneider III Hdb.Laubh. 1:519. 1905; Gray New Man. 7th Ed. 490. 1911; Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:468. 1913; Focke Spec. Rub. 3:91. 1914; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:180. 1923.

R. Millspaughii. Britton Bui. Torrey Bot. Club 18:366. 1891.

Thornless or Mountain Blackberry. Robust shrub, 1.5-4 m high; canes stout, erect, slightly arching at the top, angled and furrowed, brownish, glabrous, usually unarmed or with a few straight prickles; branching the first year. Leaves 5-foliolate, large; petiole and petiolules glabrous, usually brownish, unarmed, or rarely with a few prickles; stipules lanceolate-subulate; leaflets all, especially the terminal one, long stalked, ovate-lanceolate contracted into a long point, more or less cordate at the base, the terminal leaflet broader and longer, green above and paler underneath, glabrous on both sides, simply or doubly serrate, the teeth acute, directed forward; veins prominent underneath, pale or reddish. Flowering branches slender, yellowish green; leaves 3-foliolate, leaflets obliquely ovate or rhomboid-ovate, pointed, sharply irregularly serrate; petioles often slightly pubescent. Flowers in long lax racemes 8-15 cm long; peduncle and pedicels slender, unarmed, finely pubescent; lower bracts foliaceous, simple, obovate, upper bracts lanceolate, acute, pubescent; pedicels up to 6 cm long, slender, almost filiform, spreading; calyx minutely pubescent, lobes ovate, decidedly cuspidate, white tomentose inside; petals longer, 10-15 mm, obovate, clawed at the base; stamens and pistils numerous, filaments slender. Fruit roundish, black, sour or even bitterish, ripening late, drupelets numerous, rather large, glabrous.

Eastern North America; from Newfoundland west to Wisconsin, and southward in the mountains to North Carolina. The accounts about the quality of the fruit vary. Bailey, in Evolution of our Native Fruits, page 324, says they are " quite palatable and sweet to a hungry man/' Again, "that the fruit becomes ripe and black in September. The berries are large, long and slender and very sweet, lacking the sharply acid or bitterish quality of the berries of the lower mountains."

Rubus elegantulus, Blanchard Rhodora 8:95. 1906; Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:469. 1913; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:183. 1923.

Stems erect, rather slender, 1-1.5 m high, angled and furrowed, brown, glabrous, with rather numerous, scattered, retrorse or straight, slender prickles along the angles. Leaves of the turions 5-foliolate; petioles, petiolules and midveins glabrous with slender retrorse prickles; leaflets oval or ovate, long taper-pointed, dark green, slightly paler beneath, glabrous or almost so, finely and sharply doubly serrate; terminal leaflet usually rounded at the base, long stalked, the others mostly acute at the base, shorter stalked or the lowest almost sessile. Flowering branches slender, paler, slightly pubescent and with scattered, slender, retrorse prickles; leaves 3-foliolate, the upper ones simple, petioles and sometimes the veins at the back puberulous; leaflets oval or obovate, less pointed and coarser toothed. Flowers in racemes, the lower axillar, peduncle pubes.cent and prickly, pedicels spreading, filiform, pubescent and with a few very slender prickles; bracts lanceolate. Calyx finely pubescent, lobes ovate, shortly cuspidate; petals oval, 10-13 mm long. Fruit nearly globular or oblong, black and sweet.

Northeastern United States; from Maine to Vermont.

Rubus amicalis, Blanchard Rhodora 13:56. 1911; Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:468. 1913; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:183. 1923.

R. amabilis. Blanchard Rhodora 8:173. 1906; not Focke 1905.

Erect, 1-2 m high, canes angled and furrowed, brown, with scattered straight prickles. Leaves of the turions 5-foliolate; petioles and petiolules with minute recurved prickles or unarmed; leaflets obovate, or oblanceolate, long taper pointed, roundish or pointed at the base, finely doubly serrate, rather thick, dark green and shining above, when young with a few scattered hairs, paler and glabrous on the back; the middle one longer stalked than the lateral ones, the lowest almost sessile. Flowering branches with smaller, more obtuse 3-foliolate leaves. Flowers racemose, pubescent; pedicels slender, pubescent; bracts lanceolate; calyx almost glabrous, lobes ovate, mucronate, tomentose inside; petals white, 12-18 mm long. Fruits variable, small, oblong, black.

Eastern North America; from Nova Scotia to Maine. Blanchard's specimens of R. amicalis are very variable, some come near R. canadensisf some are nearer R. elegantulus; but this species should certainly not be included under R. canadensis, which is a very distinct species. There occur forms closely resembling this species with strong deltoid prickles and with the leaflets softly pubescent beneath. They may be hybrid forms with R. allegheniensis or some ally of this species.

R. amicalis was crossed at Geneva with the raspberries Erskine Park and Smith (I).

Rubus randii. Rydberg in Britton Man. 497. 1901; Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:4.69. 1913; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:183. I923

R. villosus var. Randii. Bailey in Rand et Redfield Fl. Mt. Desert 94. 1894. R. argutus Randii. Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 385. 1898.

Stems about 0.3-0.75 m long or more, ascending or diffuse, rather weak, angular and furrowed, greenish brown, glabrous, with slender patent or retrorse prickles. Leaves 5-foliolate; petioles long, slender, glabrous, with a few retrorse prickles; stipules subulate; leaflets thin, glabrous on both sides, sharply doubly toothed, ovate, with a long point, more or less acute at the base, shortly stalked or sessile, the terminal one longer stalked, broader and larger, more suddenly contracted into a long tip, roundish or subcordate at the base. Flowering branches slightly pubescent and sparingly prickly; the leaves 3-foliolate, the uppermost simple; petioles puberulous, stipules lanceolate. Flowers 5-13, in rather short racemes; bracts lanceolate; pedicels slender, finely pubescent, unarmed; calyx almost glabrous or finely puberulent, lobes ovate-lanceolate, cuspidate, tomentose inside; petals oblong, 12 mm long. Fruit half round, black, rather small and dry, drupelets few, glabrous. Eastern North America; from Nova Scotia to Massachusetts and New York, in woods.

Series 9. Alleghenienses. Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:183. I923-

Plants mostly stout; canes pubescent when young and glandular, glabrous when old, angled and furrowed and armed with strong prickles. Leaves 5-f oliolate, leaflets pubescent underneath, ovate and pointed, usually long stalked, especially the terminal ones; petioles and petiolules prickly, pubescent or villous and mostly glandular. Inflorescence racemose, usually many flowered and elongate, leafy bracted only at the base (except R. alumnus), more or less pubescent and glandular (except R. pergratus), and somewhat prickly. This group contains many important cultivated varieties of blackberries.

A. Inflorescence not glandular, pedicels villous or pubescent............R. pergratus

AA. Inflorescence glandular

B. Inflorescence leafy bracted, flowers very large....................R. alumnus

BB. Inflorescence leafy only at the base C. Racemes long

D. Plants stout, tall, erect; terminal and lateral leaflets more or less cordate....

R. allegheniensis DD. Plants dwarf, ascending; terminal leaflet rounded, lower ones pointed at the base....................................................R. flavinanus

CC. Racemes short

D. Young canes, petioles and petiolules glandular..............R. frondisentis

DD. Young canes, petioles and petiolules not glandular.........R. andrewsianus

Rubus allegheniensis. Porter Bui. Torrey Bot. Club 23:153. 1896; Gray New Man. 7th Ed, 489. 1911; Rydberg N. Am. FL 22:464. 1913; Pocke Spec. Rub. 31(313) 89. 1914; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3031. 1916; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:183. 1923.

R. villosus. Bigelow FL Bost. 122, 1814; Focke Spec. Rub. 3:(313) 81. 1914; not Thunberg 1784; not Aiton 1789.

R. villosus var. sativus. Bailey Amer. Gard. 11:719. 1890.

R. nigrobaccus. Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 379. 1898; Card Bush-Fr. 324. 1898.

R. nigrobaccus var. sativus. Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 379. 1898. R. sativus. Brainerd Rhodora 2:26. 1900.

Common High-bush Blackberry. Vigorous shrub; canes vigorous, erect, arching above, 0.9-2 m high and more, obtusely angled and furrowed, sparingly puberulous when young, and with a few scattered glands below, more or less villous and glandular on the growing point, usually brown and glabrous when old, armed with stout, flat, straight or slightly curved prickles; often branching the first year. Leaves of the turions with petioles and petiolules more or less pubescent or villous, glandular and prickly, the prickles spreading or recurved, extending along the midveins; stipules subulate, glandular ciliate; leaflets 5, all stalked, especially the terminal one, ovate, abruptly contracted into a rather long point, cordate or rounded at the base, the terminal one larger and much broader, 5-15 cm long or more, dark green and more or less hairy above, paler and densely velvety pubescent beneath, chiefly along the veins. Flowering branches 10-30 cm long, villous, prickly and more abundantly glandular; leaves 3-foliolate, lower leaflets oblique, or obscurely lobed, sessile, all acute, but less acuminate; uppermost leaves simple. Flowers numerous, about 20, in a cylindrical raceme, 10-20 cm long, the lower ones leafy bracted and with branched pedicels; peduncle or rhachis and pedicels densely villous, glandular and prickly; bracts ovate or lanceolate, 5-10 mm long; pedicels slender, patent, 2-4 cm long; calyx pubescent and glandular, green, lobes ovate to lanceolate-ovate, cuspidate, white tomentose inside; petals oval or elliptical, 12-15 mm long. Fruit oblong or elongate, black, sweet, with numerous glabrous drupelets.
Eastern North America; from Nova Scotia to North Carolina, Arkansas, and Illinois. A fairly constant and easily recognized species; its variations extend to the size and shape of the leaves, the length of the racemes, and the degree of glandulosity on stems, petioles, and petiolules. The inflorescence is always glandular; this and the stalked, velvety pubescent leaflets always help to distinguish it. With its large white flowers, borne in long racemes, and its handsome leaves, it is an attractive shrub. Plants growing in the deep shade of the woods have much thinner and paler leaves and stems, R. allegheniensis was crossed at Geneva with the blackberry Erskine Park. [Note that the taxonomic classification of blackberries has changed since this book was written and remains in flux. -ASC]

Rubus flavinanus. Blanchard Amer. Bot. 10:69. 1906; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:185. 1923.

Rather dwarf, ascending, glabrous, with scattered gland-tipped hairs, armed with slender hooked prickles from a broadened base. Leaves 5-foliolate, when young pubescent beneath; leaflets narrowly ovate or obovate, acuminate, rather coarsely simply toothed; petioles and especially the petiolules prickly. Flowers in slender long racemes; bracts often foliaceous; pedicels very glandular; petals oblong. Fruit globose, sweet, black, with a few drupelets.

Northeastern United States; Vermont. According to Rydberg, N. Am. FL 22:469, this is a hybrid between R. elegantulus and R. nigrobaccus (R. allegheniensis). The same view is held by Brainerd and Peitersen, Vt. Sta. Bul. 217:56, 57. 1920. Plants from the type locality transplanted to the grounds of the Experiment Station, Burlington, Vermont, developed into large, robust shrubs.

From R. allegheniensis is derived a number of the most valued high-bush blackberries, which may be called for horticultural purposes the big-cluster varieties. The varieties descending from R. allegheniensis pure, or perhaps with some slight, scarcely traceable mixture of an allied species, are always easily recognized by their vigorous growth, the rather long-stalked lateral leaflets, and the mostly long racemose inflorescence, which is more or less densely covered with, stalked glands. The berries are mostly more elongate than roundish.

Here belong Agawam, Albro, Ancient Briton, Eldorado, Erskine Park, Snyder, and Taylor.

Some varieties seem to be crosses between R. allegheniensis and R. frondosus. In these the lateral leaflets are shorter stalked, the terminal leaflets are rounder and less deeply cordate; the inflorescence bears a larger number of leaf-like bracts, and is sparingly glandular. Here belong the varieties Ambrosia, Dorchester, and Early Mammoth.

A few other varieties are probably hybrids between R. allegheniensis and R. pergratus, with canes and leaves much like i?. allegheniensis, inflorescence villous, pubescent, and glandular, more leafy bracted and leaflets deeper toothed; pedicels more or less prickly. Here belongs Stone Hardy.

Rubus alumnus. Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:191. 1923.

Robust plant, with erect canes, about 2 m high, pubescent and glandular when young, glabrous when old, angular and with scattered, stout, straight or slightly curved prickles with a flat base. Leaves 3- to 5-foliolate, slightly pubescent above and softly pubescent underneath; leaflets broadly elliptic-ovate, acute or shortly pointed, coarsely doubly serrate; the terminal one longer stalked and larger, 8-12 cm long. Petiole, petiolules, and mid-veins strongly prickly and with stalked glands. Flowering shoots angular, prickly, leafy; the lower leaves 3-foliolate, the upper ones simple, all bearing flowers in their axils, hence the raceme very foliaceous; leaflets with large, simple, lanceolate teeth; lower pedicels remote, long, erect, the upper ones approximate and shorter, rising from smaller bracts, all pubescent, glandular, and with scattered, spreading prickles. Flowers large and showy, 3-4 cm across; calyx-lobes ovate, shortly cuspidate; petals broadly obovate. Fruits large 30-35 mm long and 18 mm in diameter, very sweet.

Central United States; western Missouri; in rich open woods. In Jackson County, Missouri, the wild fruits are sold on the markets in quantities and the plants are also taken into cultivation.

On account of its leafy inflorescence Bailey places this fine and distinct species among the " Frondosi." However, we prefer to associate it with the " Alleghenienses " for its glandular inflorescence.

Rubus pergratus, Blanchard Rkodora 8:96. 1906; Gray New Man. 7th Ed. 490. 1911; Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:467. 1913; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:185. I9^3-

R. orarius. Blanchard Rkodora 8:169. 1906.

Canes stout, erect, 1-2 m high, tomentose on the young parts, glabrous when old and brown, angled and furrowed; armed with some strong, straight or slightly bent prickles. Leaves of the turions 5-foliolate; leaflets stalked, ovate or oval, suddenly contracted into a sharp point, sharply serrate, almost glabrous above, paler and velvety pubescent underneath; the lowest leaflets shortly stalked, somewhat attenuated at the base and more or less oblique, the middle ones longer stalked, rounded or subcordate and the terminal one subcordate or cordate at the base, broader than the others. Petioles, petiolules, and mid-veins more or less villous and with recurved prickles, not glandular; stipules subulate. Flowering branches angular, villous, and prickly; leaves 3-foliolate, the uppermost simple; leaflets smaller, more obtuse and coarser toothed, the lateral ones sessile. Flowers in racemes, the lower ones axillar, racemes rather short, 7- to 12-flowered, rhachis and pedicels rather stout, densely villous, unarmed or with a few straight prickles but not glandular; bracts lanceolate. Calyx hairy, lobes ovate, shortly cuspidate, whitish felty inside; petals large, qbovate, white. Fruits oblong, large, black; drupelets large and pulpy, sweet and juicy.

Eastern North America; from Maine west to Ontario and Iowa, south to the Catskills of New York. At the type locality, Alstead, New Hampshire, this and R. allegheniensis grow side by side, according to Blanchard, and R. pergratus is two weeks earlier. Besides he states that R. pergratus goes up to higher altitudes. According to Brainerd and Peitersen, the wild berries are picked for the market in New England. R. pergratus is one of the parents of a large number of our most important big-cluster blackberry varieties. They are easily recognized by the eglandular raceme, the rather long and obtuse leaflets of the flowering shoots, with long sharp teeth; the pedicels are villous, occasionally with a few prickles.

Here belong the following varieties: Black Chief, Blowers, Early King, Ford No. I, Fruitland, Early King, Kittatinny, Lovett, Mersereau, Miller, Minnewaska, Sanford, Texas, Ward, and Watt. Some other varieties may be crosses between R, pergratus and R. frondosus. They resemble the foregoing, but the inflorescences are more leafy bracted. Among these are the following: Brewer, Erie, Green Hardy, La Grange, Ohmer, Success, Triumph, and Woodland. See also under R. allegheniensis.

Rubus frondisentis. Blanchard Torreya 6:119. 1906; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:183. 1923.

Erect, canes covered all over with weak prickles, bristles, and stalked glands. Leaves 5-foliolate, leaflets stalked, ovate, acute, more or less rounded at the base, terminal one broader ovate, serrate, almost glabrous and shining above, pubescent underneath at least when young; petioles and petiolules copiously prickly, bristly, and glandular. Racemes rather short, about 8- to n-flowered; bracts small, peduncle or rhachis and pedicels unarmed but densely glandular. Fruit small, cylindric.

Northeastern United States; Vermont, New Hampshire.

Rydberg, N. Am. Fl. 22:463. 1913, takes this species to be a hybrid between R. nigrobaccus (allegheniensis) and R. vermontanus; Brainerd et Peitersen, Vt. Sta. Bul. 217:62, 63. 1920, explain it as a hybrid between R. pergratus and R. setosus.

Rubus andrewsianus. Blanchard Rhodora 8:17. 1906.

Similar in habit to R. allegheniensis, but turions not glandular; leaves also similar. Petioles and petiolules villous but not glandular, very prickly, especially the latter. Inflorescence short, broadly corymbose-racemose; bracts leafy, mostly unifoliolate, upper bracts short, lanceolate; pedicels slender, spreading, pubescent with a few stalked glands and prickles. Fruits roundish or ovate.

Eastern United States; from Massachusetts to Virginia.

This species was never clearly understood and the numerous specimens collected and named by Blanchard, now in Dr. Bailey's herbarium at Ithaca, represent more than what was originally described. It is certainly not a synonym of R. argutus as it is treated in N. Am. Fl. I.e. 464, nor does Brainerd's and Peitersen's figure and description, Vt. Sta. Bul. I.e. 52, 53, correspond to Blanchard's specimens from the type locality. R. andrewsianus is still insufficiently known; possibly it is a hybrid.

Series 10. Arguti. Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:186. 1923.

Canes erect, sharply angled and furrowed, with stout prickles along the angles, plants pubescent or glabrous, and without glands. Leaves 5-foliolate, leaflets mostly narrower than in most of the other groups, oblong-obovate or narrower, the terminal leaflet usually broadest above the middle; petioles usually pubescent. Inflorescence shortly racemose, pubescent and prickly, without glands. This group comprises several cultivated varieties.

A. Leaflets oblong or obovate; fruits black

B. Leaflets obovate-oblong, sharply doubly toothed

C. Pedicels stout, prickly...........................................R. argutus

CC. Pedicels usually slender and unarmed..........................R. floricomus

BB. Leaflets from obovate-oblong to oblanceolate, rather finely serrate. .. .R. laudatus AA. Leaflets narrowly lanceolate, long pointed; fruits white.............: . .R. louisianus

Rubus argutus. Link Enum. 3:60. 1822; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3031. 1916; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:186, fig. 84. 1923.

Canes erect, pubescent when young but soon glabrous, angled and furrowed, brown when old, along the angles with scattered, stout, straight or curved prickles from a flat base. Leaves of the turions 3- to 5-foliolate; leaflets oblong, acuminate and somewhat attenuate towards the base, doubly sharply toothed, dark green and glabrous above, paler underneath and pubescent along the veins; petioles glabrous like the puberulous petiolules and midveins with scattered, recurved prickles; stipules lanceolate or lanceolate-subulate. Flowering shoots short, hirsute and prickly; leaves 3-foliolate or the upper ones simple, acute, more or less irregularly doubly toothed. Racemes short, about 6- to 8-flowered, rhachis and pedicels pubescent and with a few scattered, spreading or recurved slender prickles. Flowers 30-35 mm across; calyx puberulous, lobes ovate-deltoid, white tomentose inside; petals roundish oblong.

Eastern United States; from Virginia to Florida, west to Louisiana and Missouri and north as far as Indiana, and probably farther west. The name R. argutus has been wrongly applied to a great many different plants. Link's type specimen is reproduced by Prof. Bailey, I.e.

There are also one or two closely allied species or varieties, apparently natives of the southwestern states, with more glossy and subcoriaceous leaves. To one of these belongs the cultivated variety Soft Core, which was distributed from the United States Department of Agriculture Experiment Station at Chico, California.

Rubus laudatus. Berger n. sp.

Tall and vigorous canes, erect, sharply angled and deeply furrowed, downy when young, glabrous later on, more or less dark brown, along the angles with scattered, sharp, straight or retrorse prickles 5-7 mm long. Petioles rather stout, pubescent, with a few hooked prickles; stipules subulate; leaves 5-foliolate; lowest leaflets almost sessile, ovate-lanceolate, scarcely oblique, roundish or slightly acutish at the base; the middle ones stalked, larger; the terminal one on a longer stalk, obovate-oblong to oblanceolate, shortly acuminate, subcordate at the base; petiolules villous, leaflets green and glabrous above, paler and pubescent underneath, prickly on the midvein and with 10-12 prominent rather closely set lateral veins, rather finely and regularly simply or doubly serrate, teeth short, pointing forward. Flowers 7-8 in a leafy cluster; pedicels pubescent and sparingly prickly; calyx pubescent, green, lobes acuminate; petals roundish ovate. Fruit oval, early ripening, black/sweet.

Central United States; yet insufficiently known, but represented in cultivation by such varieties as Bundy, type of the species, which originated in Missouri, and probably Early Harvest. Here belongs also the variety Kenoyer which is a hybrid with Kittatinny (R. allegheniensis). This has pubescent canes, broader, and coarser-toothed leaflets, which are velvety pubescent underneath.

Rubus floricomus. Blanchard Amer. Bot. 9:106. 1905; Gray New Man. 7th Ed. 491. 1911; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:188. 1923.

Canes erect, angular and furrowed, glabrous, with retrorse rather slender prickles from a broad base. Leaves 5-foliolate, rusty velvety pubescent underneath, coarsely and sharply toothed; those on the pubescent flowering branches 3-foliolate with obovate-obtuse leaflets, the uppermost simple, ovate or lanceolate, simply or doubly serrate. Inflorescence corymbose-racemose, about 3- to 8-flowered; pedicels slender, pubescent, usually unarmed; flowers rather small for the group; calyx pubescent or hirsute, lobes ovate-lanceolate, shortly cuspidate; petals longer, roundish. Fruit subglobose, drupelets few, rather large.

Northeastern United States; Vermont. There are no cultivated varieties.

Another species probably of the Argutus group has been segregated as R. crux. Ashe Jour. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 19:8. 1903.

Rubus louisianus. Berger n. sp.

Swampberry. Canes erect, 1-2 m high, sharply angled and deeply furrowed, downy when young, glabrous later on, green or greenish brown, along the angles with scattered, middle sized or large straight or hooked prickles. Petioles rather stout, like the petiolules pubescent or villous and with scattered, hooked prickles which extend to the midveins; stipules subulate, ciliate; leaflets 5, narrowly lanceolate or oblanceolate, rather long pointed and somewhat narrower toward the base, bright dull green above, paler and pubescent underneath, rather regularly and sharply simply or doubly serrate; the terminal leaflet larger, longer pointed and longer stalked, roundish or even subcordate at the base, middle ones shortly stalked and lower ones sessile, all more or less acute at the base. Fruiting racemes pubescent, with 7-8 or more erect pedicels, pubescent and with a few hooked prickles; leaves 3-foliolate, leaflets cuneateat the base, the upper ones simple ovate-deltoid, shortly stalked. Calyx pubescent, lobes ovate-deltoid, tomentose inside. Fruit cylindrical with numerous small drupelets, whitish, sweet.

Southeastern United States; South Carolina and Louisiana, on damp roadsides, in ravines, known as Swampberry.

To this species belongs the variety Crystal White. Burbank's variety Iceberg is possibly the same renamed. It is too tender for the North, usually freezing back.

Series 11. Frondosi. Bailey Gent Herb. 1:188. 1923.

Robust brambles, canes erect, arching above or recurving, angular when young, more or less terete when old, glabrous, armed with scattered rather stout prickles. Leaves 5-foliolate, velvety pubescent beneath, leaflets mostly broad, roundish or roundish ovate, the terminal leaflet cordate; those on the flowering branches variable. Inflorescence leafy, pubescent, slightly prickly, usually without glands.

A. Inflorescence not glandular or glands not very conspicuous

B. Leaflets on turions, especially the terminal ones, roundish ovate, evenly toothed or serrate

C. Bract leaves broad, obtuse....................................R. frondosus

CC. Bract leaves pointed at both ends................................R. recurvans

BB. Leaflets on turions narrower, the terminal ones ovate, long pointed, in the upper half lobately doubly toothed or serrate C. Bract leaves very variable, narrow and acute or acuminate........i?. arundelanus

CC. Bract leaves ovate to lanceolate, obtuse or pointed................R. amnicola

AA. Inflorescence glandular

B. Glands very prominent; bract leaves broad, obtuse................R. alumnus

BB. Glands scarcely visible; bract leaves narrow, acuminate, variable in shape......

R. arundelanus

Rubus frondosus. Bigelow Fl. Bost. 2nd Ed. 199. 1824; Gray New Man. 7th Ed. 489. 1911; Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:466. 1913; Focke Spec. Rub. 31(318) 94. 1914; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3031. 1916; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:188. 1923.

R. villosus var. frondosus. Torrey FL [7.5.1:487. 1824.

Robust shrub, canes erect or recurved, 1-2 m high, angular at first, more or less terete later on, brown and glabrous, with a few scattered, straight or slightly recurved prickles from a broadened base. Leaves mostly 5-foliolate; petioles rather stout, finely pubescent or glabrescent, petiolules more or less villous, scattered hooked prickles extending to the midveins of the larger leaflets; stipules linear-lanceolate, ciliate; lower leaflets sessile, obliquely ovate, shortly pointed, lateral ones shortly stalked, larger, broadly ovate, and abruptly pointed, terminal leaflet distinctly stalked, cordate, broadly ovate or roundish ovate, abruptly acuminate, 8-14 cm long and 6-10 cm wide; rather firm, dark green above and glabrous when mature, green and densely velvety pubescent underneath; doubly serrately toothed, teeth rather large and broad, mucronate. Flowering shoots very leafy, pubescent, sparingly prickly; prickles slender, recurved; lower leaves 3-foliolate, upper ones simple; stipules lanceolate, acute; leaflets 3-7 cm long, very variable, ovate or obovate, acute or roundish or subcordate at the base, shortly pointed and coarsely toothed, velvety pubescent underneath. Inflorescence short corymbiform, or with a few lower axillary pedicels; bracts lanceolate, villous; pedicels pubescent, rarely with a few prickles. Calyx green, pubescent; lobes ovate, more or less cuspidate, white tomentose inside; petals broadly oboval, about 10 mm long, white. Fruit black, roundish, sweet, pulpy; drupelets and seeds large.

Northeastern and central United States; from Massachusetts to Virginia in the South, to Kansas in the West and Ontario in the North, according to Rydberg, I.e.

R. frondosus is one of the parents of several important varieties of the big cluster blackberries in combination either with R. allegheniensis or with R. pergratus. There seem to be no pure-bred varieties of R. frondosus. R. brainerdi, Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:467. 1913; Brainerd et Peiter-sen Vt. Sta. Bul. 217:32, PI. 13. 1920; R. sativus, Brainerd Rhodora 2:26. 1900; not R. nigrobaccus var. sativus Bailey 1898, is similar to R. frondosus, but a much lower shrub, 0.3-0.6 cm high; with weaker canes and only sparingly prickly. It is perhaps nothing more than a dwarfed form of R. frondosus.

Rubus recurvans. Blanchard Rhodora 6:224. 1904; Gray New Man. 7th Ed. 490. 1911; Rydberg N. Am. Fl. 22:467. 1913; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:190. 1923.

Stems erect at first, recurving later on, rooting at the tips, glabrous, slightly angular at first, terete and brown when mature, armed with scattered, straight or retrorse, rather weak prickles. Petioles glabrous, petiolules pubescent, both beset with scattered, hooked prickles; stipules linear-lanceolate. Leaflets 3-5, the lowest sessile, obliquely ovate, acutish at both ends; the lateral ones stalked, broader, ovate, abruptly pointed, roundish at the base; the terminal leaflet cordate-ovate, suddenly contracted into a prolonged point; in 3-foliolate leaves the lateral leaflets broad and large with a lower lobe; rather firm in texture, glabrous and dark green above, slightly paler green and velvety pubescent underneath ; doubly serrately toothed, teeth rather large and broad, mucronate, like in R. frondosus. Flowering branches pubescent, sparingly prickly; lower leaves 3-foliolate, with obovate-cuneate, obtuse leaflets; the upper ones simple, the lower ones broadly lanceolate, the uppermost narrowly lanceolate, pointed at the base and long acuminate, with large simple or double teeth, all velvety pubescent underneath. Flowers not very numerous, in a leafy, pubescent or villous corymb; pedicels slender, occasionally prickly; calyx pubescent, lobes ovate, cuspidate, white tomentose inside; petals 12-15 mm long, elliptic, white. Fruit elongate, 10-15 mm l0net] black, sweet.

Northeastern United States; from Maine to northern New York. Differs from R. frondosus chiefly in less roundish leaves and in the upper leafy bracts being more pointed and deeper serrate.

R. jeckylanus, Blanchard Rhodora 8:177. 1906, is considered by most writers as a synonym of R. recurvans. Blanchard's specimens seem to represent intermediate forms connecting in some way R. frondosus and R. recurvans; they have, however, a more villous inflorescence than both, the bract leaves of the former, and the leaves of the turions of the latter.

R. recurvans and a plant grown as R. jeckylanus were both crossed with Erskine Park (blackberry), and also with Snyder at Geneva.

Rubus arundelanus. Blanchard Rhodora 8:176. 1906.

Canes angular when young, terete when old, with rather numerous and slender, straight, retrorse prickles from a broader base. Petioles slightly pubescent, the petiolules villous, both beset with numerous small hooked prickles; stipules linear or subulate-lanceolate. Leaves 5-foliolate, rather thin and light green on both sides, with scattered single hairs or glabrescent above, softly pubescent beneath, sharply and unequally doubly toothed, the teeth narrow and sharp; lower leaflets sessile, obliquely lanceolate or oblanceolate, acuminate, attenuate at the base; lateral leaflets longer stalked, larger and broader, sub-cordate at the base and suddenly contracted into a long point; terminal leaflet very long stalked, usually subcordate, ovate, long pointed, lobately doubly toothed, in the upper half, sometimes broader and ovate-deltoid, 7-10 cm long and 5-6 cm wide. Flowering branches pubescent, sparingly prickly; the leaves with scattered hairs above and pubescent at the back, extremely variable, mostly 3-foliolate, but often the lateral ones deeply lobate and thus seemingly 5-foliolate, sometimes also the terminal leaflet deeply 3-lobed; leaflets of the lower leaves usually more rounded, those of the upper ones much narrower, all attenuate at the base and deeply, often lobately doubly toothed; the uppermost leaves or leafy bracts narrowly lanceolate, acuminate. Flowers about 6-8, in a short corymb with several axillary ones below; pedicels about 2 cm long, pubescent or villous, sparingly prickly; calyx hirsute, like the pedicels with a few inconspicuous stalked glands, lobes lanceolate, cuspidate, white tomentose inside; petals oblong, 10 mm long.

Northeastern United States; Vermont. Although this species comes near to R. recurvans and R. frondosus it differs from both. It is remarkable for the variation of its leaves, chiefly on the flowering branches, further its flowers are smaller than those of its allies; also the leaflets of the turions are decidedly less rounded and more elongated than in those.

Rubus amnicola. Blancfyard Rhodora 8:170. 1906; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:190. 1923.

Canes tall, erect, recurving, brown, angled, with scattered, rather stout, spreading prickles. Leaflets on flowering branches oblong to oblong-lanceolate, long acuminate, rather regularly simply or doubly serrate, softly pubescent underneath. Petioles and inflorescence villous-pubescent; bract leaves often simple, ovate to lanceolate, obtuse or pointed. Pedicels short, sparingly prickly; calyx pubescent, lobes ovate, shortly mucronate, white tomentose inside; petals roundish oblong.

Northeastern America; from Maine to Nova Scotia. One of the many forms clustering around R. frondosus, certainly it is not allied to R. argutus, nor can it be a hybrid of this species with R. canadensis.

Rubus recurvicaulis. Blanchard Rhodora 8:153. 1906.

This is probably of hybrid origin, perhaps between R. recurvans and some procumbent stemmed plant of the Flagellares. Most of the specimens of Blanchard, now in Prof. Bailey's herbarium, Ithaca, New York, have subglabrous leaves, but some are densely tomentose at the back; other specimens are entirely glabrous and suggest some other origin.

R. recurvicaulis var. inarmatus, Blanchard Rhodora 8:155. 1906, is a hybrid form with some plant of the Frondosi group.

R. rossbergianus, Blanchard Rhodora g:7. 1907, is another hybrid form between some species of the Frondosi and the Flagellares.

Series 12. Floridi. Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:19.2. 1923.

Slender stemmed, elongate, erect or climbing, canes angular, prickly along the angles.

Leaves 3- to 5-foliolate, leaflets rather small, hard, and more or less persistent, on the short flowering shoots roundish obtuse or ovate and scarcely pointed; flowering branches short.

Southeastern United States; insufficiently known; there may be three or

more species.

Rubus floridus. Tratt. Ros. Monog. 3:73. 1823; Schneider III. Hdb. Laubh. 1:518.

1905; Rydberg AT. Am. Fl. 22:465. 1913; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3031. 1916; Bailey

Gent. Herb. 1:192. 1923.

R. argutus var. floridus. Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 385. 1898; Card Bush-Fr. 326. 1898, Canes rather slender, glabrous, angular, furrowed, brownish, prickles scattered along the angles, compressed, curved. Leaves of the turions mostly 3-foliolate but also 5-foliolate, elliptic, acute, not acuminate, dark green, paler underneath, pubescent along the veins. Flowering branches short, scarcely 5 cm long, pubescent, prickly; lower leaflets 3-foliolate, upper ones simple; terminal leaflet about ovate, obtuse or somewhat pointed, simple or doubly coarsely serrate, dark green and glabrous or almost above, paler underneath and pubescent at least on the veins; petioles sparingly pubescent. Flowers rather large, usually 3-6 or more together, the lower ones axillary, the upper ones from small lanceolate bracts, peduncle and pedicels more or less finely pubescent, pedicels 1.5-2 cm long; calyx almost glabrous or finely pubescent, whitish tomentose inside; petals roundish, 15 mm long. Fruit roundish with numerous drupelets.

Southeastern United States; from South Carolina to Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi (Bailey). This plant was first collected by Enslen and described by Trattinick, but no e!xact locality was given. It seems to grow erect or somewhat climbing, reaching 8-10 feet, in low woodlands and swamps. R. rhodophyttus, Rydberg in Small FL Southeast.

U. S. 518. 1903, and R. persistens, Rydberg I.e. 519, belong to this same species according to Bailey. R. betulifolius, Small FL Southeast.

U. S. 518. 1903, is an allied but distinct, small-leaved species. It occurs in swamps in Alabama. It fa a slender, thin4eaved plant.

Neither R. fioridus nor R. betulifolius have so far any pomological interest; but the former is very productive and may perhaps yield some valuable varieties for the South.

Series 13. Fruticosi. Bailey Gent, Herb. 1:194. 1923.

More or less robust brambles, with stout angular, variously armed biennial canes. Leaves wintergreen or at least more1 or less persistent, 3- to 5-foliolate. Inflorescence panicled, many flowered.

Under this group are comprised all the European blackberries, as far as they have been introduced into the United States, and are cultivated as fruit or ornamental plants. The European brambles of this series are extremely numerous, but besides those enumerated below they are of no interest to the pomologist, at least at present. A. Plants prickly

B. Leaflets much divided in narrow segments.........................R. laciniatus

BB. Leaflets not divided, at most somewhat lobed, white tomentose underneath

C. Inflorescence with very broad prickles...........................R. rusticanus

CC. Inflorescence prickly, but prickles with less broad base..............R. procerus

AA. Plants unarmed, white felty throughout.................R. ulmifolius var. inermis

Rubus laciniatus. Willdenow Enum. PI Hort Berol. 1:550. 1809; Schneider 111. Hdb. Laubh. 11517. 1905; Rydberg N. Am. FL 22:461. 1913; Focke Spec. Rub. 3:134. 1914; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3030. 1916; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:196. 1923.

Cutleaved or Evergreen Blackberry, Very vigorous climbing shrub, canes 3 m long or more, angular and furrowed, puberulous on the growing tips, but soon glabrous, brown, along the angles with scattered stout prickles, prickles hooked, compressed and flat at the brownish base. Petioles about as long as the lower leaflets, brownish, thinly puberulous #nd rather densely armed with short, stout, hooked prickles; stipules subulate, hairy. Leaves pedately 5-foliolate, petiolules pubescent and prickly, like the midveins; leaflets variously pinnate or pinnately cut, especially the lateral and the terminal ones, the segments ovate or lanceolate, acute at both ends, again deeply lobed, incised or coarsely serrate, the teeth manifestly mucronate; dark green and glabrous above, paler and pubescent underneath, at least on the veins, ciliate along the margins. Flowers numerous, in long, leafy pubescent or villous and prickly panicles, leaves similar to those of the turions, but 3-foliolate and the uppermost simple; calyx grayish tomentose, with numerous small, hooked, pale prickles, lobes with long leafy linear-lanceolate tips, white tomentose inside; petals white or pale rose, obovate, variously lobed, lobes rounded, the middle one shortly mucronate; stamens and pistils numerous. Fruit black, globose, large, of good quality.

Europe; first described after plants in the Botanic Garden at Berlin; now escaped from cultivation and naturalized in the Pacific Coast states from British Columbia to Oregon and perhaps farther south. According to Focke (1. c.) it is a mutation of R. vulgaris Wh. et N., a species common in western Europe; Focke states that he grew similar forms from seeds of this species.

Rubus rusticanus. Merc, in Reuter Cat. PI. Genbve 26. Ed. 279. 1861; Rogers Brit, Rub. 40. 1900; Focke Spec. Rub. 31(377) 153. 1914; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:197. I923-

R. Linkianus auct. Rydberg N. Am. FL 22:461. 1913; Bailey Stand. Cyc. Hort. 5:3030. 1916; not R. Linkianus Seringe. 1825.

Robust and vigorous shrub, canes angular, erect and arching or climbing, sparingly steliately hairy; prickles long, stout, from a very broad base, straight or mostly recurving. Leaves 5-foliolate; petioles and petiolules stout, pubescent, very prickly, prickles from a very broad base; stipules subulate-lanceolate, ciliate; leaflets firm, almost coriaceous, dark green and glabrous above, densely and softly white tomentose beneath, doubly serrate except near the base, ovate or obovate-cuspidate, the lower ones oblique, the terminal one long-stalked, subcordate, with about 7 lateral veins on each side. Inflorescence a long, leafy panicle, pubescent, and very prickly; prickles broad based, hooked; leaves 3-foliolate, uppermost simple, ovate-deltoid or sub-3-lobate; axillary peduncles cymose; pedicels felted, very prickly, prickles narrower and straighter. Calyx-lobes white tomentose on both sides, ovate, acute, reflexed. Petals roundish, pale or deeper rose-colored. Fruit ovoid, black, edible.

Europe and Africa; widely distributed from the Mediterranean region as far west as northwest Africa, the Canaries, Madeira, and the Azores and northwards through France and western Germany to England and Ireland. A very variable plant and in a broad sense included by Focke under R. uhnifolius Focke. A double-flowered, rather ornamental form (R. rusticanus fiore pleno) is cultivated in collections, but it is rather tender and apt to suffer severely in our winters. It is sometimes found under the names R. spectabilis flore pleno and R. fruticosus flore albo pleno.

According to the late R. A. Rolfe, Kew, R. rusticanus is one of the parents of the cultivated variety Mahdi, which was raised by Messrs. J. Veitch et Sons, at Langley, from the raspberry Belle de Fontenay crossed with the blackberry common in hedges at Langley.

The variety Mahdi has been crossed repeatedly at this Station with various other varieties. The seedlings of a cross between Mahdi and Herbert (raspberry) were partly like raspberry with pinnately 5-f oliolate leaves and partly like the blackberry in habit. The seedlings of Mahdi x Lucretia are of dewberry habit with the leaves digitately 3- to 5-f oliolate. Other crosses were Mahdi x (Mahdi x Lucretia), Mahdi x Agawam, Mahdi x Phenomenal, Mahdi x Mersereau, and Mahdi x Rubus odoratus. None of these crosses are of any pomological value.

Robus procerus. Muell. in Boulay Rone. Vosg. No. 6, 7. 1864; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:196. 1923.

R. hedycarpus Focke, subspecies procerus. Focke Spec. Rub. 3: (386) 162, 1914.

A huge, very thorny blackberry; canes several meters long and 3-4 cm thick, angled and furrowed, thinly downy or pubescent when young, soon becoming glabrous; prickles along the angles, numerous, long, and stout, straight or mostly hooked and compressed. Petioles stout, longer than the lower leaflets, glabrescent, with many smaller, broad-based, hooked prickles; stipules subular. Leaflets 5, rather firm, wintergreen, dark green above and with dense adpressed whitish felt underneath, sharply simply or in the upper half doubly serrate, teeth ovate, shortly mucronate; leaflets obovate, shortly pointed or contracted into a short point, the terminal one roundish obovate, with a long petiolule, lateral * ones smaller, narrower, shorter stalked, like the still smaller, almost sessile lower ones somewhat oblique; petiolules and midveins pubescent and very prickly. Inflorescence large, panicled, white tomentose and prickly; flowers numerous, 25 mm across; stamens and pistils numerous. Fruit black, firm, edible.

Western Europe; France and along the Rhine.

To this species belongs the cultivated variety Theodor Reimers, originated in 1889 by Garteninspector Reimers at Hamburg, now widely cultivated in Germany, and introduced into the United States and re-christened as Himalaya. Hybrids were raised at Geneva between the Himalaya and Lucretia (dewberry). Strawberry Flavored blackberry is a hybrid of the Himalaya and the Cuthbert raspberry. Crosses were made at Geneva between Strawberry Flavored and Lucretia (dewberry) and also with Snyder (blackberry).

Rubus ulmifolius var. inermis. Pocke Spec. Rub, 3:378. 1914; Bailey Gent. Herb. 1:197. 1925.

R. inermis. Willdenow Enum. PL Hort. BeroL 1:548. 1809.

A robust thornless blackberry; canes obtusely angled, more or less densely downy from grayish stellate hairs. Petioles shorter than the lower leaflets, unarmed and downy like the canes, stipules subulate; leaflets 3-5, rather firm in texture, green and mostly glabrous above, beneath with adpressed fine whitish felt, finely simply or doubly serrate, usually more irregularly so near the top of the terminal leaflets or on the outer margin of the lower ones, which are obliquely ovate and sometimes obscurely lobed, acute or roundish at the base and with a short sharp point; terminal leaflet longer, obovate-oblong, pointed from the upper third, rounded at the base. Inflorescence panicled. Berries black, edible.

This is a sport of a widely-spread and very variable European bramble, known in European gardens more than 100 years. It was introduced into the United States and put in trade by Luther Burbank under the varietal names Santa Rosa, Sebastopol, and Cory Thornless, which are identical with Willdenow's herbarium type specimens.