CHAPTER VI

VARIETIES OF BLACKBERRIES

Acme. i. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 24. 1909.

The 1909 catalog of the American Pomological Society lists this sort and recommends it for culture in northern New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado.

Agawam. 1. Am. Hort. Ann. 85. 1871. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:665. 1893. 3. Ibid. 278:138. 1906. 4. Ont. Dept. Agr. Fr. Ont. 254, fig. 1914. 5. Card Bush-Fr. 215. 1917.

Long a favorite early blackberry, Agawam is still widely grown but is now no longer rated as a standard commercial sort. Its most notable good qualities are productiveness of plant, high quality and earliness of fruit. The berries, while not of largest size, are large, very attractive in appearance, ship and keep well. The plants suffer somewhat from winter killing, but still are as hardy as the average blackberry. They resist drouth well, have comparatively few and small thorns, and produce their fruit over a long season. Unfortunately the berries are too variable in size and color, and require so many pickings that the variety is not now set in a commercial plantation. The plants have peculiarities of continuing to bloom after the first fruits are ripe and of having the leaves heavily tinged with red late in the season. Agawam was found growing in a pasture between 1865 and 1870 by John Perkins, Ipswich, Massachusetts. In 1889 the American Pomological Society added the variety to its fruit catalog list.

Plants above medium in size and vigor, upright-spreading, fairly hardy, very productive, healthy; canes numerous, stocky, angular, glossy green changing to dark reddish brown, slightly pubescent; prickles comparatively small, medium in thickness, strength and number, greenish; leaflets 3-5, roundish oval, light green, heavily tinged red late in the fall, dull, rugose, pubescent, with serrate margins; petiole medium in length and thickness, with few prickles. Flowers very early, blooming period long; petals white, oblong; clusters short, medium in compactness, leafy; pedicels long, slender, glandular; calyx slightly tomentose. Fruit early, season very long, ships well; medium in size, broad-oblong, glossy, attractive black; drupelets large, rounded, with strong coherence; core soft; flesh rather soft, sweet and pleasant; quality very good.

Albion. 1. Rural N. Y. 11: in. 1860. 2, Downing Fr. Trees Am. 443. 1869.

A white sort found in the wild prior to 1860 by John B. Orange, Albion, Illinois. Although introduced as having productive plants and large fruit, Downing found the plants unproductive, the fruit only fair in size, imperfect and without flavor.

Albro. 1. Farmer Cat, 14. 1922.

A variety of unknown parentage which originated in 1917 with Lewis Albro, Marathon, New York, by whom it was introduced in 1922. Described as having very hardy plants; fruit larger than Snyder, and of the same shape: flavor excellent.

Alfred. 1. Emlong Cat 11. 1925.

Offered for sale in 1925 by Henry Emlong et Sons, Stevensville, Michigan. Plants very productive and very hardy; fruit large, sweet, fine flavored, coreless, a week earlier than Eldorado, with a long ripening season, bearing blossoms and ripe fruit at the same time.

Alger. i. Am. Hort. Ann. 85. 1871.

Described in 1870 as a new sort from Cleveland, Ohio. Fruit of good size, oblong, deep claret in color, sweet, rich.

Allen. 1. U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt. 27. 1894. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:135. 1906.

Sent to the Pomologist of the United States Department of Agriculture in 1894 by W. B. K. Johnson, Allentown, Pennsylvania. As grown at this Station it is inferior to standard sorts in productivity, hardiness, and size of fruit. Allen was placed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1899, and remained in the last catalog in 1909. Plants moderately vigorous, dwarfish, not hardy, moderately productive; fruit small, elongated; attractive black in color, firm, juicy, mild; good; early.

Ambrosia. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 215. 1917.

Of unknown origin. Introduced prior to 1917 by A. L. et H. J. Bradley, Makanda, Illinois. Trial at this Station shows this to be a promising early variety. Plants of medium height and vigor, upright-spreading, very productive; canes slender, pubescent; prickles numerous, long, slender, green; fruit uniformly of medium size, conic, somewhat irregular; drupelets medium in size and number, strongly coherent; glossy black, juicy, firm, subacid; good; core soft; early.

Americus. 1. U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt. 27. 1894.

Sent to the Pomologist of the United States Department of Agriculture in 1894 by J. H. Langille, Kensington, Maryland. It was found in a field of Early Harvest and was thought to be a seedling of that variety, although the plants and fruit resemble Erie. Fruit medium to large, irregular, oval or oblong, conic, jet black, moderately firm, melting, juicy, acid; very good; seeds large; ripens between Early Harvest and Erie.

Ancient Briton. 1. Horticulturist 27:318. 1872. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:665. 1893. 3. Cornell Sta. Bul. 99:521. 1895. 4, Mich. Sta. Bul. 187:54. 1901. 5. Af. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:135. 1906.
This sort has the reputation of being the hardiest of all blackberries and is therefore a prime favorite where hardiness is a requisite. The plants are very vigorous, very productive, with a characteristic stocky, sturdy, erect growth. While the berries are not large nor especially handsome, they are of very good quality and keep and ship well. Ancient Briton is still a standard late blackberry, and would no doubt be more generally grown were it not for the fact that for some reason or other it is more-often misnamed by nurserymen than any other blackberry, so that it is now almost impossible to get the variety true to name. The origin of this variety is somewhat in doubt. The most authentic report credits it with being a Wisconsin seedling, found by A. H. Briton, for whom it was named, the name later becoming changed to Ancient Briton. The American Pomological Society added the variety to its fruit catalog list in 1875.

Plants medium to tall, rather vigorous, upright-spreading, unusually hardy, very productive, susceptible to orange-rust; canes moderately numerous and stocky, green changing to reddish brown, dull, glabrous; prickles rather large, thick, very numerous; leaflets 5, medium in size, thick, dark green, rugose, heavily pubescent, with serrate margins; petiole long, thick, prickly, glandular. Flowers midseason, numerous, in long, open prickly, leafy clusters; pedicels long, slender, nearly smooth. Fruit late midseason; medium to above in size, slightly elongated, tapering, glossy black; drupelets large, elliptical, with strong coherence; core soft; flesh juicy, tender, sweet or pleasantly sprightly; quality good to very good.

Autumn King. 1. Burbank Cat. 33. 1893.

A second generation seedling from a cross of Lawton by Oregon Everbearing raised by Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, California. Plants described as very vigorous and thorny with handsome palmate foliage; fruit large, aromatic, sweet, ripening late in the fall.

Badger. 1. Wis. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 247. 1895.

Named by a committee of the Wisconsin Horticultural Society in 1895; described as the earlier of two sorts grown in that State as Ancient Briton.

Bagnard. 1. Rural N. Y. 48:606, fig. 232. 1889.

Originated on the farm of L. Bagnard, near Muscatine, Iowa, prior to 1889. Thought to be a seedling of Snyder. Plants hardy and productive; fruit medium in size; good; ripening with Early Cluster.

Bangor. 1. Me. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 125. 1888,

Originated prior to 1888 on the farm of Henry W. Brown, Newburg, Maine. Plants hardy, very productive of small, insipid fruits which fail to ripen properly.

Barnard. 1. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 170. 1874. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:665. 1893.

Grown from seed of the wild blackberries of Belmont County, Ohio, prior to 1874, by a Mr. Barnard, Waukon, Iowa. Hardiness has made it popular in northern Illinois and Iowa. Plants lacking vigor, hardy; canes few, strong, with numerous prickles; foliage large; fruit resembles Snyder, medium in size, oblong-oval, black, sometimes drying up before ripe; very good; late.

Best of All.

Introduced in 1923 by J. H. Black, Son et Company, Hightstown, New Jersey; said to have been found by Frank Russel near Vineland about ten years previous.

Big Early. 1. Childs Cat 130. 1916.

Introduced in 1916 by John Lewis Childs, Floral Park, New York. Described as having very large fruits; very early, ripening over a period of four weeks.

Black Chief. i, N. Y. Sta. Bul. 111:283. 1896.

Received at this Station in 1896 from J. H. Haynes, Delphi, Indiana. Plants vigorous, not hardy, unproductive; canes small, green, with numerous small prickles; fruit of medium size, roundish, mild, sweet; good.

Black Diamond. 1. Rural N. Y. 74:293. 1915. 2. U. 5. D. A. Farmers' Bul. 1403:17.

1924.

Star. 3. Rural N. Y. 73:765. 1914. Ewing Wonder. 4. N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 31. 1914. Atlantic. 5. Lovett Cat. 6. 1915.
A seedling of Oregon Evergreen which originated in 1896, with George H. Liepe, Cologne, New Jersey, by whom it was introduced in 1909, It is so similar to Oregon Evergreen that a separate description is not necessary.

Blowers. 1. Rural N. Y. 63:116. 1904. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Sp. Rpt. 82. 1904-05. 3. Card Bush-Fr. 216. 1917. 4. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 285. 1922.

Perhaps there is greater diversity of opinion in regard to the merit of Blowers than of any other blackberry. It is championed by some, condemned by most, differences in opinion arising for the .reason that the plants are exceedingly capricious and vary greatly as grown in different seasons, soils and climates. Where grown best, however, many of the berries are imperfect and worthless as a commercial product. Despite these defects recognized by experimenters and fruit growers generally, nurserymen continue to offer it as a valuable variety. It is of the type of Snyder, but not nearly as reliable as that standard sort. Blowers originated withH. W. Blowers, Westfield, New York, about 1888. The American Pomological Society added the variety to its fruit catalog in 1909.

Plants tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, somewhat tender to cold, variable in yield and health, susceptible to orange-rust; canes medium in number, stocky, angular, greenish red later mingled with brown, rather dull red at maturity, glabrous, eglandular; prickles large, thick, numerous; leaflets usually 5, large, ovate or oval, tinged red late in the fall, dull, rugose, very pubescent beneath, with serrate margins; petiole long, thick. Flowers self-fertile, midseason, in short, leafy clusters; petals white, roundish; pedicels long, glandular; calyx very pubescent. Fruit late midseason, ripening over a long period, ships well; not uniform in size, medium to sometimes very large, broadly cylindrical but variable, tapering, glossy black; drupelets average large but variable in size, coherence and number, round, some berries not well filled as if from lack of pollination; core soft; flesh juicy, mild, soft, sweet, or pleasantly sprightly; good in quality.

Bonanza. 1. Rural N. Y. 48:606. 1889.

Found in the wild by John Tuckerman, Bridgewater, New York. Plants dwarfish, spreading, productive; fruit small, round, slightly bitter; fair; midseason.

Boschen Early, 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 159. 1920.

Originated with a Mr. Boschen, Toronto, Kansas. Plants bushy, not fully hardy; fruit similar to that of Early Harvest, large, jet black; good shipper; coreless.

Bow Cane. i. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:143. 1906.

Plants were received at this Station from Broome Brothers, McLoud, Oklahoma, in 1900. Plants dwarfish, somewhat trailing, moderately vigorous, not hardy, unproductive; fruit of medium size, roundish, unattrative in color; drupelets large, acid; fair.

Braden, 1. Rural N. Y. 44:868. 1885.

Described by T. V. Munson in 1885 as recently coming from southwest Texas. Plants very vigorous, drooping, very productive, free from rust, thorny; fruit borne singly or in small clusters, black; good; early.

Brewer. 1. N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 30. 1921.

A chance seedling discovered in 1909 by C. H. Brewer, Rahway, New Jersery, who sent out plants in 1920 for trial. Plants vigorous, free from rust, and productive; fruit above medium in size, firm; fair quality; ripens over a long period.

Brill, i. Slaymaker Cat. 13. 1904.

Introduced In 1904 by Slaymaker et Son, Dover, Delaware, as a new early sort from J. F. Brill, Texas. Plants upright; fruit as early and as large as those of Lucretia.

British. 1. Bunyard Cat. 18. 1913-14.

George Bunyard et Company, Maidstone, England, list this sort, describing it as quite the best blackberry for flavor, when grown under garden culture.

Brunton Early. 1. Ill Hort. Soc. Rpt. 125. 1878.

Originated with a Mr, Brunton, Centralia, Illinois, prior to 1877. Deficient in pollen and little fruit is produced when the variety is planted alone. It was placed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1883 and remained in the last catalog in 1909. Plants similar to Early Harvest, not hardy, unproductive; fruit of medium size, oblong, black; good; very early.

Buckeye.

A chance seedling found by Mortimer Ewart, Mogadore, Ohio. Plants were sent to this Station in 1914. As grown here it is very similar to Agawam.

Bundy. 1. Rural A7. Y. 74:293. 1915.

Originated about 1905 with T. B. Bundy, Piedmont, Missouri. Supposed to be a seedling of Early Harvest. As grown at this Station the plants are too tender to cold to be of much value. Plants tall, vigorous, upright, moderately productive; fruit very variable in size, averaging medium, cylindrical-oval, glossy black, melting, sweet; good; early.

Burbank Thornless. 1. Burbank Cat. 14. 19x5-16.

Originated in 1904 by Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, California, who describes it as a cross of a West Virginia wild blackberry and Himalaya. Introduced by Burbank in 1914. Plants very vigorous, the canes sometimes reaching a length of twenty feet, very productive; fruit uniform in size, firm; good; early.

Bushel. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 208. 1922.

Introduced by the Shady Lawn Nurseries, Hammonton, New Jersey. Young plants at this Station are of the type of Oregon Evergreen, but have larger, coarser foliage, and the petals are entire instead of tripartite.

California Evergreen. 1. Cat. Sta. Rpt. 376. 1895-97.

On trial at the California Station in 1895. Plants very productive; fruit watery, flavor inferior; long ripening season.

Cape May. 1. Fuller Sm. Fr. Cult. 175. 1867.

Described by Fuller in 1867 as a good sort for home use, but too tender for market. Fruit very large, black when first ripe, but changing to a dull red, soft, sweet.

Cardinal Balloonberry. 1. Burbank Cat. 17. 1911-12. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 163.

1920.

Originated from an unknown Chinese species by Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, California, who introduced it in 1912. Plants vigorous, upright, stiff, productive, not hardy, thorny; fruit larger than that of the raspberry, cardinal red; flesh yellowish red, mild; good; ripens with strawberries.

Carlo, i. N. Y. Sta, Bul. 63:665. 1893.

On trial at this Station in 1893. Plants vigorous, unproductive; canes arched, with slender branches, and few small prickles; fruit small; drupelets large, subacid; fair.

Cazadero. 1. Oregon Nur. Cat. 28. 1920.

Found growing in the woods on Cazadero Mountain, east of Portland, Oregon, by H. Cline, Hillsboro, Oregon; introduced in 1915 by the Oregon Nursery Company, Orenco, Oregon. Described by them as a seedling of the native wild blackberry. Plants vigorous, probably not hardy in the East; fruit small with a rich snappy flavor making it desirable for culinary purposes; early.

Chautauqua. 1. N. y. Sta. J?+Z. 278:135. 1906.

Plants were received at this Station in 1903 from K. E. Downer, Forestville, New York. Plants vigorous, stocky, hardy and productive; fruit large, roundish, attractive black; drupelets large, acid, pleasing; good.

Chesnut. 1. Texas Farm Jour. 2$:No. 29, 2. 1905. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 286. 1921. Found growing in a field of Dallas in 1901 by J. T. Chesnut, Keene, Texas, by whom it was introduced in 1904. The variety has value in Texas because of its earliness, productivity and good shipping qualities. As grown at this Station the plants are tender to cold and produce little fruit. Plants vigorous, sprawling; canes slender, reddish, thickly covered with reddish prickles; fruit large, sweet, firm; early.

Claret. 1. Fuller Sm. Fr. Cult. 179. 1867.

Adair Claret. 2. Am. Jour. Hort. 1:292, fig. 1867.

A chance seedling which originated about 1860 with D. L. Adair, Hawesville, Kentucky. Plants erect, stocky, not fully hardy; canes light green; fruit of medium size, claret colored, soft, mild, pleasant; season a week earlier than Lawton.

Clark. 1. Rural N. Y. 56:598. 1897. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:135. 1906.

Originated with G. B. Clark, Remington, Indiana. Introduced about 1900 by Matthew Crawford, Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio. As grown at this Station the variety is inferior to standard sorts. Plants vigorous, rather tender to cold, moderately productive; fruit of medium size, roundish, slightly elongated, unattractive dull black, sprightly, soft; good; late.

Clifton. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:141. 1906.

Received at this Station in 1898 from L. J. Clifton, Memphis, New York, with the statement that it came from the West a few years previously. Plants vigorous, not very hardy, productive; fruit varies in size from large to small, attractive black, roundish to slightly elongated, acid, pleasing; good.

Colonel Wflder. 1. Mag. Hort. 30:360. 1864.

Originated prior to 1864 by John B. Orange, Albion, Illinois. Fruit of medium size, oblong, slightly pointed, light cream color, moderately firm, does not develop well; very good.

Colossal. 1. Ann. Hort. 128. 1893. 2. Salzer Cat. 16. 1900.

Introduced in 1893 by the John A. Salzer Seed Company, La Crosse, Wisconsin, who describe the plants as vigorous and hardy; fruit large, firm, juicy, sweet, delicious; season

long.

14

Coral-Berry. i. Rural N. Y. 61:578. 1902.

On trial at the test grounds of the Rural New-Yorker in 1902. Described as belonging to an unidentified species, but probably closely related to the Golden Mayberry. Plants much hardier than that sort, ornamental, the under side of the leaves being silvery white; fruit similar to the Golden Mayberry, but the color is bright orange-red, shading to a clear color tint, firm, astringent, making a fine-flavored jelly.

Cory Thornless, 1. Cal. Cult 48:30. 1917. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 159. 1920.

Thornless Mammoth. 3. Ibid. 284. 1921.

Discovered by Martin Meuli, Tuolumne County, California, in 1909. The variety was propagated by W. C. Cory, and introduced in 1916 by the Ekstein Nursery Company, Modesto, California. Possibly this is a dewberry or a hybrid. Plants very vigorous, thornless when propagated from tips but very thorny when propagated from roots; productive; fruit large, almost seedless; core small and firm; flavor much like the wild blackberry of California, being less acid than the loganberry; season very early.

Cox. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 24. 1909. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 283. 1921.

Found in Erath County, Texas. Introduced by F. T. Ramsey, Austin, Texas, prior to 1901. It was placed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1909. Fruit of medium size, round, reddish black; good; early.

Crystal White. 1. Elliott Fr. Book. 196. 1859.

Orange's Crystal. 2. Mag. Hort. 30:359. 1864.

Raised from seed by John B. Orange, Albion, Illinois, prior to 1859. Plants vigorous, not hardy, suckering freely, very productive when grown with other sorts; prickles few, weak; fruit of medium size, oblong-oval, light creamy white, translucent, sweet; good.

Cumberland. 1. Fuller Sm. Fr. Cult. 174. 1867.

According to Fuller this variety was largely cultivated by J. Cox, Bridgeton, New Jersey. Plants hardy, productive; fruit of medium size, black, sweet; good; early with short season.

Cutter Mulberry. 1. Mag. Hort. 25:397. 1859.

Introduced by G. B. Cutter, Newton, Massachusetts, about 1859. Plants very productive; fruit long, slender, very sweet.

Dehring. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 55:26. 1889.

On trial at the Michigan Station in 1889. Plants weak, trailing, not hardy, moderately productive; fruit small, irregular, oblong-oval, black, firm; good; early.

Delicious. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 159. 1920.

Originated by Luther Burbank by whom it was introduced in 1912. Said to be a tenth or twelfth generation seedling of Himalaya. Plants very vigorous, moderately hardy, very productive; canes thorny; fruit medium in size, shape of Himalaya, black, sweet; superb quality; season August and September in California.

Dodge Thornless. 1. Horticulturist 24:75. 1869.

Originated with N. E. Dodge, Fredonia, New York, prior to 1869. Plants hardy and productive; canes thornless; fruit small.

Dorchester, i. Mag. Hort. 7:384. 1841. 2. Ibid. 23:402. 1857.

Improved High Bush. $. Ibid, 17:20, fig. 4. 1851.

For a discussion of this old sort, see page 185. The American Pomological Society placed Dorchester in its catalog in 1856, where it remained until 1899. Plants vigorous, upright, subject to winter injury, productive; canes strong with numerous strong prickles; fruit of medium size, elongated, attractive black in color, juicy, sweet; good.

Dr. Warder. 1. Mag. Hort. 30:360. 1864.

Raised by John B. Orange, Albion, Illinois, prior to 1864. Fruit large, dark rosy red; good.

Dublin Best. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 159. 1920.

A chance seedling found on the farm of a Mr. Tackett; introduced about 1918 by S. P. Sitton et Son, Dublin, Texas. Plants trailing the first season, becoming more erect the second; fruit very similar to that of Mayes.

Duncan Falls. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 445. 1869.

Introduced by J. C. Neff, Duncan Falls, Ohio. Plants very vigorous, upright; fruit large, black, moderately firm, juicy, sweet; ripens before Kittatinny.

Early Cluster. 1. Rural N. Y. 43:587. 1884. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:666. 1893.

The original plant was found about 1872 in a plantation of Missouri Mammoth on the farm of Charles W. Stam in southern New Jersey. At this Station the plants are tender to cold and of little value. Plants upright, moderately vigorous, variable in hardiness, productive; canes stout; prickles numerous, moderately strong; fruit medium in size, short oblong; drupelets large, glossy black, sweet; very good; core soft; season early and short. *

Early Harvest. 1. Rural :N. Y. 42:638. 1883, 2. N: Y. Sta. Bul. 278:142. 1906. 3. Card Bush-Fr. 218. 1917. 4. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 286, fig. 249. 1922.

In the early stages of blackberry culture in this country, Early Harvest was considered valuable as an extra early variety. It is now little grown as the plants suffer much from winter injury in the North and in the South are very susceptible to orange-rust. The variety is prized in parts of California and is an extra early sort in some parts of the South. The fruits are small with small drupelets but are very uniform in size, jet black, and are very distinct from that of other sorts in general appearance. They ship well and the quality is very good. The plants are so stocky, upright, and sturdy as to require no trellis, making the variety a desirable one for the home garden. This is an old variety, the original plant of which was found growing wild in Illinois some time previous to 1880. The American Pomological Society added the variety to its recommended list of fruits in 1883.

Plants dwarfish, branching freely, medium in height and vigor, very upright, requiring no trellis, tender to cold, variable in yield, susceptible to orange-rust in some localities; canes variable in number, deeply furrowed, green changing to dark reddish brown or red at maturity, dull, glabrous; prickles small, slender, medium to few; leaflets 3-5, oval-lanceolate, small, rather thin, light green assuming a reddish cast and persistent late in the fall, dull, with deeply serrate margins; petiole long, medium in thickness, prickly, pubescent. Flowers midseason, self-fertile, in short, leafy clusters; pedicels heavily pubescent. Fruit very early, ships well; distinctive in appearance, medium in size, conical, slightly elongated, glossy jet black; drupelets small, uniform, round, with fairly good coherence; core soft; flesh juicy, tender, very mild, sweet; quality fair to sometimes good.

Early King. i. Rural N. Y. 48:606, fig. 230. 1889. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:142. 1906.

King. 3. U. S. D. A. Farmers' Bul.. 643:12. 1915.

Originated in Missouri prior to 1885; brought to attention about 1889. It did not prove hardy or productive at this Station, but in the milder parts of the East is a good early sort. King was added to the American Pomological Society's fruit list in 1909. Plants vigorous, dwarfish, subject to winter injury, moderately productive, subject to rust; canes purplish, with numerous long prickles; fruit of medium size, roundish or slightly oblong, attractive black, firm, sweet; good; season early, short.

Early Mammoth. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:666. 1893.

Thompson's Early Mammoth. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 84. 1891.

Sent out about 1888 by the Cleveland Nursery Company, Lakewood, Ohio. It was said to be a hybrid between the blackberry and the dewberry, but at this Station it was very similar to Wilson, Jr., in habit of growth. Plants moderately vigorous, not hardy, productive; canes tinged red, covered with numerous slender prickles; fruit variable in size from small to very large, slightly elongated; drupelets large, many poorly developed, bright black, very juicy, subacid; good.

Early Wonder. 1. Fitzgerald Nur. Cat. 1915.

Found about 1902 by the Fitzgerald Nurseries, Stephenville, Texas, by whom it was introduced about 1910. Plants more productive than Dallas; foliage scanty; fruits as large as those of Mayes, ripening after McDonald, sometimes autumn-fruiting.

Eldorado. 1. U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt. 394. 1891. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:136. 1906. 3. Card Bush-Fr. 218. 1917.

This sort has several notable virtues which made it for many years a standard blackberry. It is still much prized for home and local markets in most of the blackberry regions of eastern America. The qualities which commend it are great hardiness and great immunity from the orange-rust which seldom attacks it. The fruits are large, handsome in appearance, and exceptionally high in quality. Eldorado is usually considered the first main crop variety to ripen. This variety originated about 1880 as a chance seedling near the village of Eldorado, Ohio. In 1899 the variety was added to the fruit list of the American Pomological Society.

Plants tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, productive, healthy, seldom attacked by orange-rust; canes obtusely furrowed, glossy, greenish red becoming dark red at maturity, glabrous, with small, almost sessile glands; prickles long, slender, numerous, reddish at the base; leaflets usually 5, oval, dull, somewhat smooth, pubescent, with serrate margins; petiole reddish, slender, nearly glabrous, with few small glands. Flowers self-fertile, early, in loose, leafy clusters; petals white, oblong; pedicels long, slender, glandular. Fruit early midseason, ripening period long; large, roundish to slightly elongated, jet black; drupelets large, round, few; core soft; flesh juicy, firm, sweet, rich, pleasantly flavored; quality good to very good.

English. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 284. 1921.

Discovered twenty miles north of Bonham, Texas. Plants hardy and productive; fruit large; good.

Erie, 1. Rural N. Y. 45:465. 1886. 2. Card Bush-Fr. 218. 1917. 3. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 286. 1922.

Uncle Tom. 4. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 15. 1885-86.

On the grounds of this Station, Erie has long been one of the best varieties, notable as yielding a good crop of extremely large, handsome, well-flavored berries. It has always seemed to the experimenters here that Erie is worthy of more general cultivation. The plants are very vigorous, usually productive, and nearly immune to the dreaded blackberry rust. It is not as hardy as might be wished but is above the average in this respect. While the fruits are large and handsome, they are not high in quality, usually, however, because the fruit is picked before it has matured. The berries of Erie remain hard and sour long after turning black, and if the picking is hurried, they are wretchedly poor in quality. Erie originated with L. B. Pierce, Tallmadge, Ohio, in 1876, probably as a seedling of Lawton. It was introduced by J. T. Lovett in 1886 under the name Uncle Tom, which name was later changed to Erie. The American Pomological Society added Erie to its fruit catalog list in 1889.

Plants medium to tall, vigorous, often much branched, upright-spreading, fairly hardy, productive, healthy, seldom attacked by orange-rust; canes numerous, very stocky, deeply furrowed, obtuse-angled, glossy, greenish changing to dull red, pubescent, glandular; prickles large, long, numerous, greenish; leaflets 5, large, thick, oval, light green changing to dull red late in the fall, dull, rugose, pubescent, with serrate margins, petiole thick. Flowers midseason, very large, borne in long, open, leafy clusters; pedicels thick, glandular. Fruit midseason; large to very large, broadly cylindrical to nearly globular, tapering irregularly, glossy, attractive black; drupelets numerous, rather small, round; core rather soft; flesh soft only when fully mature, juicy, sweet when fully ripe, pleasantly flavored; quality good.

Erskine Park. 1. Harris Nur. Cat. 62. 1911.

Originated about 1904 with E. J. Norman, Lenox, Massachusetts; supposed to be a sport of #Kittatinny. One year's test at this Station shows that the variety has considerable merit. Plants tall, vigorous, upright, branching freely, hardy and productive; canes stocky, dull green with reddish brown tinge, glabrous; prickles medium in number, strong; fruit medium in size, irregular, roundish conic to cylindrical; drupelets of medium size, cohering strongly, glossy black, juicy, tender, sweet; very good; core soft; season long.

Eureka, i, Mick. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 406. 1886.

Raised from seed of Wilson by William Parry, Parry, New Jersey, in 1876. After growing many seedlings for four years, the best was selected and named Eureka.

Eureka (of Texas). 1. Munson Cat. 10. 1899. 2. Rural N. Y. 61:578. 1902.

Brought from Alabama to Texas by H. A. Biles, Roanoke, Texas; introduced in 1899 by T. V. Munson et Son, Denison, Texas. As grown at the trial grounds of the Rural New-Yorker, the plants were tender, unproductive and thorny; the fruit large, round, jet black, firm, sweet, with a pleasing flavor.

Excelsior, i. Mass. Sta. Bul.j:^ 1890.

On trial at the Massachusetts Station in 1890. Plants tender to cold, productive; fruit large; good; midseason.

Farley. 1. Cult. et Count. Gent. 33:137. 1869.

Brought to notice in 1869 by A, M. Burns of Kansas, who obtained it from J. McClure, Pennsylvania. Plants hardy in Kansas; fruit nearly as large as Lawton, ripe as soon as black, two weeks earlier than Lawton.

Favorite Trailing. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 159. 1920.

Introduced by the Rosebud Nursery, Winner, South Dakota. Plants described as very productive, hardy, but needing some protection; fruit large, beautiful; good.

Felton. i. Fuller Sm.Fr. Cult. 175. 1867.

Introduced a few years prior to 1867 by Oscar F. Felton, Camden, New Jersey. At first it was considered identical with Wilson, but was later decided to be a distinct variety. Plants spreading; fruit very large, long, slightly conic, often poorly developed, sweet; good; early.

Florence. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:136. 1906.

A chance seedling found among other varieties by G. E. Goldsmith, Unionville, New York, in 1895. Plants were sent to this Station in 1902. Plants vigorous, rather tender to cold, productive; fruit varying in size from medium to very large, roundish, attractive black; drupelets large, juicy, sprightly; good.

Florida Marvel. 1. Fla. Grower 6:Nov. 29. 1924.

Discovered about 1904 by a Swedish woman near New Smyrna, Florida. First brought to attention by a Dr. Ballaugh, Daytona, Florida. It seems to have considerable value for Florida. Plants vigorous, trailing, bearing fruit at the intersection of every leaf, very productive; propagates by layers and root cuttings; fruit large, long, glossy black, firm, juicy, sweet.

Ford No. 1. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 111:284. 1896.

Received at this Station in 1892 from Frank Ford et Son, Ravenna, Ohio; inferior to standard varieties, the plants being only moderately productive and the fruits of but medium size; quality good.

Freed. 1. Mo. Sta. Bul. 10:9. 1889.

Originated about 1871 by George Freed, Columbiana County, Ohio. Plants very vigorous, upright, very hardy, but unproductive; prickles few; fruit small, oblong, juicy; good; ripening with Snyder.

French Lawton. 1. Scarff Cat. 15. 1910.

Introduced about 1903 by W. N. Scarff, New Carlisle, Ohio, as a selection from Lawton. At this Station the plants have proved tender to cold and rather unproductive; in no way superior to Lawton.

Fruitland. .1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 81:581. 1894.

Received at this Station in 1892 from W. N. Scarff, New Carlisle, Ohio. As grown here it is inferior to standard sorts. Plants vigorous, upright, fairly hardy, unproductive; canes tinged reddish, with numerous prickles; fruit of medium size, roundish; drupelets variable in size; sweet; good; late.

Gainor. 1. Ont. Fr. Gr. Assoc. Rpt. 68. 1883.

Found in a strawberry bed in 1878 by Jacob Gainor, Thorold, Ontario. Plants vigorous, hardy, very productive; fruit very similar to Erie, but larger; midseason.

Georgia Mammoth. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 159. 1920.

Originated with W. D. Beatie, Atlanta, Georgia. Plants strong, upright, branches long and drooping, often rooting at the tips, not very thorny, productive, non-suckering; fruit large, glossy black, rich, aromatic; fine quality; seeds small; core soft; early. .

German. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 284. 1921.

Introduced by the Lennox Nursery and Fruit Farm, Lennox, South Dakota. Root cuttings were said to have been brought from Germany in 1910. Plants very vigorous, requiring winter protection in South Dakota; fruit very large, dark glossy black, juicy, very firm.

Golden Mayberry. 1. Burbank Cat. 23. 1893. 2. Childs Cat. 154. 1894.

Originated by Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, California, as a supposed cross between Rubus palmatus and Cuthbert. Introduced in 1894 by John Lewis Childs, Floral Park, New York. Described by Burbank as having plants growing like trees, six to eight feet high, with spreading tops; flowers large, white, bell-shaped, pendant; fruit large, glossy golden color, translucent, sweet; very early.

Governor. 1. Ann. Hort. 152. 1892. 2. Salzer Cat. 16. 1900.

Introduced in 1890 by John A. Salzer, La Crosse, Wisconsin. Described as hardy and very productive; fruit very large, round to oblong, rich; early.

Grape. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. .j6. 1860.

Mentioned in a discussion at the meeting of the American Pomological Society in 1860. Plants trailing, shoots sometimes growing twenty feet long, very hardy and productive.

Green Hardy. 1. Green Nur. Cat. 1. 1906.

Discovered among wild blackberries about 1891 in Chili, New York, by E. H. Burson, Clifton, New York; introduced in 1907 by Green's Nursery Company, Rochester, New York. At this Station it is not equal to standard sorts. Plants vigorous, tall, upright-spreading, fairly hardy, unproductive; canes stocky; prickles numerous, strong; fruit medium in size, irregular, cylindrical-conic to round-conic; drupelets medium in number, cohering strongly; black, juicy, melting, subacid; good; core medium firm; midseason.

Haley. 1. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 50. 1884.

Found growing along the prairie ravines, Franklin County, Kansas, by E. Haley. Plants dwarfish; fruit of medium size; excellent quality.

Hesse. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 213:11. 1904.

On trial at the Michigan Station in 1903. Plants spreading, branching close to the ground, tender to cold; canes large; fruit attractive; of fine quality.

Himalaya, i. Gard. Mon. 17:206. 1875. 2. Rural N. Y. 71:625. 1912. 3. Ibid. 73:252, 765, fig. 1914. Theodor Reimers. 4. Fest. Pom. Rent. Inst. 130. 1910. Giant Himalaya. 5. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 287, fig. 250. 1922.
A full account of this berry is given elsewhere. (See page 191.) The variety is all but worthless in New York and the eastern states but is rather commonly grown for home markets on the Pacific Slope. The plants are too tender to cold for northern regions and in regions south of Pennsylvania, while they withstand the weather and seem vigorous, they are almost barren. Wherever grown the plants need cross pollination, and even so produce many imperfect fruits. The berries are not high in quality and are rather uninviting in appearance. The long, trailing, thorny evergreen canes are almost unmanageable on trellis or stakes. On the Pacific Coast, however, the plant is grown on arbors and trellises, and blooms and bears fruit all summer and autumn. There may be value in the variety for hybridization as the several hybrids now known, of which it is one parent, promise much. Vigor and productiveness of plants are characters for which it should be used in hybridization. The American Pomological Society added the sort to its fruit catalog list in 1909.

Plants extremely vigorous, trailing, tender to cold, variable in yield, susceptible to anthracnose; propagated from tips or root-cuttings; canes perennial, numerous, very stocky, greenish, tinged red, glossy, pubescent, cylindrical or furrowed; prickles long, thick, very strong, numerous, reddish at the base but green tipped; leaflets 3-5, oblong-oval to obovate, dull, luxuriant dark green, smooth, thick, slightly pubescent, with serrate margins; petiole thick, greenish red. Flowers late, said to require cross pollination, large, showy, few, pinkish, in rather short, open, leafy, prickly clusters; pedicels somewhat short, prickly. Fruit very late, season very long; extremely variable in shape and size, averaging medium, irregularly hemispherical, glossy black; drupelets intermediate in size, round, with fairly good coherence; core soft, with creamy red tinge; flesh juicy, tender, very tart becoming sprightly when fully ripe; quality fair to good.

Hoag. 1. Col 0. Hort. Soc. Rpi. 70. 1887.

Originated with Charles R. Hoag, Kasson, Minnesota, and named after him by the Minnesota Horticultural Society. Sent out for trial in 1887 by A. W. Sias, a vice-president of that organization. Plants productive with the originator, but a failure elsewhere.

Holcomb. i- Mag. Hort. 25:397. 1859.

Exhibited before the Hartford, Connecticut, Horticultural Society in 1855 by E. A. Holcomb, Granby, Connecticut. Plants vigorous, productive, and hardy; canes moderately stout; fruit large, roundish oval, black, moderately firm, sweet, rich, excellent; early.

Holt. 1. Col. 0. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 9. 1890.

Originated prior to 1890 with Samuel Holt, Worthington, Ohio. Described as promising because of vigor and productivity of plants and size and quality of fruit.

Honey Coreless. 1. Bradley Bros. Cat. 19. 1913. Hoco. 2. Ibid. 14. 1923.
Introduced in 1913 by Bradley Brothers, Makanda, Illinois. Plants described as vigorous, hardy, and very productive; fruit large, long, sweet, juicy, delicious, without core; early.

Hoosac Thornless. 1. Am. Jour. HorL 8:230. 1870.

Frank Ford, Ravenna, Ohio, found this sort near Hoosac Mountain, Rowe, Massachusetts, in 1864. Plants hardy, productive; canes thornless; fruit small, firm, sweet.

Hoosier. 1. Mass. Sta. Bul. 44:16. 1897.
On trial at the Massachusetts Station in 1896. Plants vigorous, hardy and very productive; fruit large; very good.

Howard. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 213:10. 1904.

Received at the Michigan Station in 1901 from Edgar Howard, Stevensville, Michigan. Canes medium in size, not very productive; fruit of medium size, slightly elongated, of good color, firm, pleasant.

Iceberg. 1. Jackson et Perkins Circ. 1897.

This white blackberry originated with Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, California, and is the result of three generations of crossing Lawton and Crystal White; introduced in 1897 by Jackson et Perkins, Newark, New York. It was added to the fruit list of the American Pomological Society in 1909. Plants moderately vigorous, upright, not hardy, unproductive; canes slender; foliage thin, narrow, tinged yellow; fruit large, type of Early Harvest; drupelets small, amber-white, soft, sweet; very good; midseason.

Ida. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:142. 1906.

Received at this Station in 1898 from Thompson Sons, Rio Vista, Virginia; said to be a seedling of Early Harvest. Plants moderately vigorous, semi-dwarfish, tender to cold, unproductive; fruit medium in size, elongated, dull black, juicy; fair; early.

Illinois. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 24. 1909. 2. Stark Bros. Cat. 94. 1910.

Found in a fence corner about 1890 by E. A. Riehl, Alton, Illinois; introduced by Stark Brothers, Louisiana, Missouri. The American Pomological Society added Illinois to its fruit list in 1909. Plants low, spreading, vigorous, half hardy and unproductive; fruit medium in size, roundish to conic; drupelets large, sweet; good; late midseason.

Johnson. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 221. 1917.

From Missouri. Said to be adapted to the South and to be popular there. Jordan. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 230. 1898.

The Austin Nursery Company, Austin, Texas, writes that this sort originated about 1895 with James Nimon, Denison, Texas, who later introduced it. It has some merit as a late sort in the South, but is of no value at this Station. Plants vigorous, semi-trailing, tender to cold, unproductive; fruit variable in size, usually large, broadly ovate, glossy black, juicy, melting, nearly sweet; good; core hard; late.

Joy. 1. Lovett Cat. 15. 1914.

A chance seedling found by Jacob Miehl, Atlantic County, New Jersey; introduced in 1914 by J. T. Lovett, Little Silver, New Jersey. At this Station the plants have shown considerable winter injury and many berries are poorly developed. Plants tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, half hardy, productive; canes stocky, reddish green; prickles very numerous, large, strong; fruit of medium size, irregular, cylindrical-conic; drupelets large, many failing to develop, black, juicy, soft, mildly subacid; good; core medium; midseason.

Kenoyer. i. Kenoyer Circ. 1904.

A chance seedling discovered in 1897 by F. L. Kenoyer, Independence, Kansas, by whom it was introduced in 1902. It is supposed to be a cross between Early Harvest and Kittatinny which were growing nearby. At this Station the plants require winter protection and are rather unproductive. Kenoyer was added to the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1909. Plants medium in height and vigor, upright, not hardy, unproductive; canes medium in size, green, nearly glabrous; prickles medium in size and number; fruit of medium size, irregular, cylindrical to slightly conic; drupelets large; black, juicy, soft, sweet; very good; midseason.

Kentucky White. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 445. 1869.

Introduced by D. L. Adair, Hawesville, Kentucky. Plants tender; fruit medium in size, oblong-oval, light dirty white; imperfect.

King Philip. 1. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 195. 1906.

Originated with E. P. Powell, Clinton, New York. Introduced in 1906 by Matthew Crawford, Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio. Said to be very hardy.

Kittatinny. 1. Mag. Hort. 30:407. 1864. 2. Ibid. 31:272. 1865. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 445. 1869. 4. Rural N. Y. 42:248, fig. 179. 1883.

No variety has been more widely or commonly grown than Kittatinny in the prime of its popularity. It was one of the first good sorts and for more than half a century was the standard commercial blackberry in North America. In particular, it is noteworthy for its large, handsome fruits which are of the very best quality, having only the defect of being variable in size and shape in some years, probably because imperfectly pollinated. The plants are all that could be desired in vigor, but fail in hardiness, and are very susceptible to the orange-rust. The canes are stout and upright, giving a habit of growth which characterizes the variety. This berry is a native wilding found in the town of Hope, New Jersey, near the base of the Kittatinny Mountains, and was introduced by E. Williams, of Montclair, about 1865. The American Pomological Society included the variety in its fruit catalog list in 1867.

Plants tall, vigorous, upright to spreading, somewhat tender to cold, productive, susceptible to orange-rust; canes medium to numerous, stocky, grooved, green changing to reddish brown or red when mature, dull, slightly pubescent, eglandular; prickles large, thick, numerous, greenish; leaflets 5, oblong-oval, pubescent, with serrate margins; petiole intermediate in length and thickness. Flowers late, few, in rather short, open, leafy clusters; petals white, roundish; pedicels medium in length and thickness, with few glands; calyx pubescent, eglandular. Fruit early midseason, ripening period long; medium to very large, slightly elongated, variable in size and shape, quite irregular in some seasons as if imperfectly pollinated, large and long when well grown, attractive glossy black; drupelets large, round, with fairly good coherence; core soft; flesh juicy, sweet, rich, firm but tender; quality very good to best.

Knox. i. Ont, Fr. Gr. Assoc. Rpt. 48. 1883. 2* Mich. Sta. Bul. 205:18, 25. 1903.

Of unknown origin; of value as grown at the Michigan Station, but unproductive elsewhere. Plants vigorous, upright, moderately productive; fruit large, attractive; good; late.


La Grange. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Sp. Rpt. 82. 1904-05. 2. Lovett Cat. 75. 1910.

Said to have been brought from Russia to Illinois where it was grown for a number of year by Charles La Grange in Vermilion County; introduced in 1910 by J. T. Lovett, Little Silver, New Jersey. Plants tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, rather tender, moderately productive; canes stocky, glabrous; prickles medium in number, strong; fruit below medium in size, irregular cylindrical-conic; drupelets large, black, juicy, soft, subacid; good; core variable; midseason.

Laporte. 1. Horticulturist 28:223. 1873.

Found growing wild at Laporte, Indiana. Brought to notice by A. M. Purdy, Palmyra, New York, about 1873. Plants hardy, vigorous and productive; fruit of medium size, oblong, soft, sweet; excellent; early.

Lawton. 1. Gen. Farmer 15:157, fig. 1854. 2. Mag. Hort. 20:174. 1854. 3. Horticulturist 10:257. 1855. 4. Mag. Hort. 23:543. 1857. 5. Bailey Ev. Nat Fruits 302. 1898.

New Rochelle. 6. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 66$. 1857.

In a previous chapter we have seen that Lawton was the second named blackberry, and that it played a very important part in the early history of this fruit in America. It long ago passed into oblivion as a commercial sort in eastern America, but is still grown rather widely on the Pacific Slope. Lawton passed out of general cultivation because the plants are tender to cold and very susceptible to the orange-rust. The berries are not at their best until jet black, and are often picked too soon, when they are rather austere in flavor, and this perhaps has given the variety a reputation it does not deserve for fruits of poor quality. The variety was added to the American Pomological Society's fruit catalog list in 1854. (For a fuller account of the history see page 184.)
Plants tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, tender to cold, productive, variable in susceptibility to disease; canes stocky, green changing to brownish red; prickles numerous, large, thick; leaflets 5, dark green, pubescent, with serrate margins, in double series; petiole long, thick, prickly, pubescent. Flowers in compact, leafless clusters; petals white, roundish; pedicels glandular, pubescent. Fruit late midseason, period of ripening long; large, hemispherical to slightly elongated, jet black but becoming bronzed when over-ripe; core large, rather hard; flesh soft, acid at first, becoming sweet only at full maturity, rich, juicy; quality very good.

Leader. i. Card Bush-Fr. 222. 1917.

Originated with Daniel S. Kriebel, Kankakee County, Illinois. Plants very productive; fruit large; of best quality.

Lincoln. 1. Col. 0. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 70. 1887. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:667. 1893.

Discovered in 1874 near Lincoln's monument, Springfield, Illinois; introduced in 1887 by W. H. Lightfoot of that place. It has no merit as grown at this Station. Plants vigorous, upright, unproductive; prickles numerous, strong; fruit small, many berries imperfect, juicy, sweet; good; later than Snyder.

Lovett. i. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:667. 1893. Lovett's Best. 2. Lovett Autumn Cat. 16. 1891. Jewett. 3. III. Sta. Bul. 30:325. 1894.

A chance seedling from New Jersey prior to 1885; introduced in 1891 by J. T. Lovett, Little Silver, New Jersey. At this Station the variety is inferior to standard sorts. Plants tall, vigorous, upright, half hardy, unproductive; canes medium in size, green tinged brown, glabrous; prickles numerous, strong; flowers late; fruit small, irregular, roundish; drupelets medium in size, many failing to develop, glossy black, juicy, sprightly; fair; core soft; very late.

Luther. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:668. 1893.

A chance seedling found on the grounds of R. D. Luther, Fredonia, New York, by whom it was sent to this Station in 1891. Plants vigorous, fairly hardy; fruit of medium size, juicy, nearly sweet; good.

Lux. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 284. 1921.

Offered by W. L. Lux, Topeka, Kansas. Described as very hardy; fruit very large; finest quality; late.


McCracken. 1. Gard. Mon. 24:269. 1882.

Found in the woods near Fulton, Illinois, by a Mr. McCracken. Plants hardy, very productive; fruit large, good; early.

McDonald. 1. Rural N. Y. 60:566. 1901. 2. Rural N. Y. 73:252, fig. 1914. 3. Ibid. 76:419. 1917. 4. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 288, fig. 251. 1922.

McDonald is a blackberry-dewberry hybrid with rather remarkable qualities of both plants and fruits. The plants are very vigorous, remarkably productive, wholly immune to rust, better able to withstand drought than almost any other bramble, and ripen their crop two weeks before the blackberry season, the first of its kind to bloom and ripen fruit. The canes trail the first season, dewberry-like, but in succeeding seasons send up strong drooping canes partaking more of the blackberry parent. The berries are of largest size, borne in prodigous quantities, jet black and very handsome, among the best in quality, and hang in good condition on the plants for several days after ripening. The variety has one serious fault; it is self-sterile and must be interplanted with another blackberry or dewberry for a pollinizer. McDonald is not proving of very great value in New York and the East, but is much grown in Texas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. This blackberry-dewberry hybrid, probably of Texas origin, has been grown in several southwestern states for the past quarter century. In 1909 the American Pomological Society added McDonald to its recommended list of fruits.

Plants vigorous, spreading and drooping, tender to cold, variable in yield, healthy; canes long, variable in thickness, numerous; leaflets 5, rather small, long-oval, thin, dark green, glossy, with shallowly serrate margins. Flowers early, self-sterile, few, white, in long, open, leafy, slightly prickly clusters; pedicels long, medium in thickness, heavily pubescent, seldom prickly. Fruit very early; large, oblong-conic, jet black; drupelets numerous, rather small, with good coherence; flesh juicy, firm but tender when fully ripe, pleasantly sprightly if well ripened; quality very good.

Mammoth. i. Cornell Sta. Bul. 34:306. 1891. 2. Card. et For. 10:478. 1897. 3. U. S. D. A. Farmers' Bul. 998:23. 1918. California Mammoth. 4. Rural AT. Y. 60:550. 1901. 5. Ibid. 61:578. 1902. Black Loganberry. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 159. 1920. Lowberry. 7. Bunyard Cat. 19. 1923.
This is another blackberry-dewberry, which, since it partakes most of the blackberry parent, is usually listed with blackberries. The variety is grown very little in New York and the East because quite too tender to cold, but it is a standard bramble fruit in California, esteemed both for its healthy, vigorous, productive plants and for its enormous, handsome, richly flavored fruits. Well grown, the fruits are said to be larger than those of any other of the cultivated brambles. The plants of Mammoth are remarkable in that the canes grow upright several feet and then begin to trail, sometimes attaining a length of 25 or 30 feet. The canes are stout and covered with small, short spines. The plants are propagated from tips and usually fail to come from root cuttings, the method of propagating blackberries. The leaves are semi-evergreen in California. The blossoms are self-sterile and the loganberry is usually set for cross pollination. Two other varieties very similar to Mammoth are offered by nurserymen under the names Tribble and Cory Thornless. Californians say that they are distinct, however. The canes of the Cory Thornless are said to be thornless or nearly so. Mammoth was originated by Judge J. H. Logan, Santa Cruz, California, and is supposed to be a cross between the Texas blackberry and the western dewberry. The name was added to the list of fruits recommended for culture by the American Pomological Society in 1909. The variety has often been confused with Bartel which has also been called Mammoth.

Plants very vigorous, semi-trailing, tender to cold, unproductive in the East, but very productive on the Pacific Slope, healthy; propagated from tips; reported that it cannot be increased by root-cuttings; canes very long, cylindrical to slightly angular, green mingled with a tinge of dull red, pubescent, glandular; prickles variable in length, small and short, unusually numerous, purplish red; leaflets 3, large, ovate, dark green, rugose, pubescent, with dentate margins; petiole short, thick, very prickly. Flowers self-sterile, very late, in loose, leafy clusters; petals white, oblong; pedicels prickly, long, thick, eglandular; calyx tomentose, eglandular. Fruit early midseason, resists drouth very well, said to ship poorly; very large, regular in shape, cylindrical-conic, glossy black; drupelets medium in size, very numerous, with strong coherence; core soft; flesh juicy, tender, rather sour until fully ripe when it becomes pleasantly subacid; quality good to very good if properly ripened.

Mark Twain. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 159. 1920.
Introduced by the Sunny Slope Nursery, Hannibal, Missouri. Fruit large, glossy black, melting, sweet; core soft.

Mason Mountain. 1. Mag. Hort. 31:122. 1865.
Introduced about 1865 by R. O. Thompson, Nebraska. Plants hardy; fruit large, conic, black, sweet, rich.

May Hardiest i. May Cat. 12. 1924.

Found on the grounds of the May Seed et Nursery Company, Shenandoah, Iowa; introduced by them in 1924. Supposed to be a seedling as it resembled no other sort they were growing. Plants very hardy; fruit large, jet black.

Maynard. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 239. 1898.

Found growing between Lucretia dewberry and Early Harvest blackberry on the farm of C. C. Maynard, Kincaid, Kansas, who sent it out about 1895. Plants productive, thriving on poor soil; fruit borne in clusters, large, round; drupelets few, very large, jet black, sweet.

MaxwelL 1. Ann. Hort. 128. 1893.

Maxwell Early. 2. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:410. 1903.

A chance seedling found in a patch of Kittatinny about 1878 by A. C. Maxwell, Chanute, Kansas. Plants low growing, vigorous, stocky; fruit very large, round, glossy black, soft, juicy; very good; early midseason.

Mersereau. 1. AT. Y. Sta. Bul. 81:581. 1894. 2. Cornell Sta. Bul. 99:523, fig. 91. 1895. 3. Rural N. Y. 56:838. 1897. 4. AT. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:139. 1906.
This sort is a standard for both commercial and home plantations in the northern and eastern states. It fails in the South because of its susceptibility to the orange-rust. Mersereau is a seedling of Snyder which it surpasses in vigor of plant and in size and quality of fruit, and because the fruits may be picked over a long season. It is above the average blackberry in hardiness. Nurserymen find it a difficult sort to propagate and a good many seem to substitute some other sort for it, so that there are many misnamed "Mersereaus" in the berry plantations of the country. This variety originated with J. M. Mersereau, New York, about 1890, as a seedling of Snyder, which it closely resembles. The American Pomological Society added Mersereau to its list of recommended fruits in 1909.
Plants tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, usually hardy although winter injury is variable, productive, variable in health, markedly susceptible to orange-rust; canes medium in number, stocky, very obtuse-angled, reddish mingled with green, glossy, glabrous, eglandu-lar; prickles large, thick, numerous, in color similar to the suckers; leaflets usually 5, oval, dull, medium green, tinged red late in the season, rugose, pubescent, with serrate margins; petiole thick. Flowers self-fertile, midseason, medium to numerous, in short, compact, slightly leafy clusters; petals white, oblong; pedicels long, slender, glandular. Fruit late midseason, period of ripening long; large, roundish to oblong-conic, glossy black, holding its color after picking; drupelets large, round, with strong coherence; core soft; flesh firm but tender, juicy, rather sprightly until fully ripe when it becomes sweet, rich and pleasantly flavored; quality very good.

Miller. 1. Storrs et Harrison Cat, 154. 1919. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 160. 1920.

Originated by D. J. Miller, Akron, Ohio, about 1909; introduced in 1919 by Storrs et Harrison, Painesville, Ohio. The variety has shown considerable promise on the first year's trial at this Station. Plants tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, productive; canes stocky, green with reddish tinge, nearly glabrous; prickles numerous, large; fruit uniformly large, irregular cylindrical-conic; drupelets medium in size and number, cohering strongly, black, juicy, melting, sweet; very good; core hard; midseason.

Minnewaska. i. Rural N. F. 43:559, fig. 436. 1884. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:668. 1893. Originated with A. J. Caywood, Marlboro, New York, prior to 1884; said to be a cross between Kittatinny and a wild blackberry. At this Station the variety is tender to cold. Minnewaska was placed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1879, and remained in the last catalog in 1909. Plants tall, vigorous, upright, half hardy, moderately productive; canes stocky, glabrous; prickles numerous, large, strong, green; flowers late; fruit large, roundish to slightly elongated; drupelets medium in size, strongly coherent, glossy black, juicy, rather soft, sweet when fully ripe; good; midseason.

Missouri Mammoth. 1. Ill Hort. Soc. Rpt. 113. 1868.

Introduced from Missouri more than half a century ago. Described as producing fruit of large size, black, firm, rich, juicy, sweet, without core; season early, ripening over a long period.

Montmorency. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 24. 1909.

Listed as a promising sort for the upper Missouri and Mississippi Valley in the catalog of the American Pomological Society for 1909.


Nanticoke. 1. Allen Cat. 28. 1912. 2. Rural N. Y. 73:764. 1914.

Introduced in 1912 by W. F. Allen, Salisbury, Maryland, who thinks it came originally from Norway. As grown at this Station the variety is of little value. Plants of medium height, very vigorous, upright-spreading, tender to cold, moderately productive; canes stocky, greenish with reddish tinges, pubescent; prickles numerous, strong, large; fruit of medium size, ovate; drupelets medium in size and number, many failing to develop, glossy black, moderately juicy, rather soft, sprightly; good; core soft; season very late and long.

Needham. 1. Mag. Hort. 18:490. 1852.

Introduced about 1850 by J. S. Needham of Massachusetts. It seems to have been of little value; unproductive in most localities; fruit small, lilac color, sweet, insipid; late.

Nevada, 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 55:26. 1889.

On trial at the Michigan Station but did not prove valuable. Plants usually hardy, productive; fruit large, oval, black; good; late.

Neverfail. i. Cornell Sta. Bul. 34:308. 1891.

Said to have originated in central Ohio. The Cornell Station received specimens from P. L. Wright, Plainfield, Michigan, who obtained it from Indiana. Plants very vigorous, but never producing fruit.

Newman Thornless. 1. Cultivator 4:52. 1856.

Discovered in the wild by Jonas Newman, Milton, New York, prior to 1857. Plants of medium height, moderately vigorous, usually unproductive; canes slender with very few small prickles; fruit medium in size, roundish oval, black, rather acid; good when fully ripe.


Ohmer. 1. Ann. Hort. 128. 1893. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:136. 1906.

Introduced in 1892 by N. Ohmer, Dayton, Ohio, who found it in a garden. In some places Ohmer is an excellent late sort, but as grown at this Station it is inferior to standard varieties. Plants moderately vigorous, spreading, fairly hardy, moderately productive; canes stocky with few prickles; fruit above medium size, roundish; drupelets large, juicy, acid; good; late.

Pan American, i. Townsend Cat. 28. 1923.

Introduced in 1922 by E. W. Townsend et Sons, Salisbury, Maryland. Plants were received from a New Jersey grower who stated that the variety came from Brazil. Described as very similar to Black Diamond, but differs in having leaves of a different shape.

Paradox. 1. Burbank Cat. 29. 1893,

A fourth generation seedling from a cross between Crystal White blackberry and Shaffer raspberry raised by Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, California, who introduced it in 1893. Plants intermediate between the parents; fruit large, oval, light red; superior quality.

Parish Pink. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 238. 1898.

Mentioned by Card as *'Another white variety of no more value than the rest."

Parnell. 1. La. Sta. Bul. 3:45. 1890.

On trial at the Louisiana Station in 1890. Originated by a Mr. Normand, Marksville, Louisiana.

Perfection.

Gray's Perfection. 1. Gray Cat. 1910-11.

Originated in 1907 by Alvia G. Gray, Salem, Indiana, who introduced it in 1910. Said to be a cross between Wilson and Lovett. Its record at this Station has been unsatisfactory. Plants upright, rather tender to cold, unproductive; canes stocky. Mr. Gray describes the fruit as very large, oblong, glossy black, very firm, with flavor of Wilson; late midseason.

Peruvian. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 227. 1917.

Described by Card as a variety of the common European blackberry. Plants very vigorous and dense; canes very long and large; fruit small, sweet, lacking character.

Piasa. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:160. 1899.

Piasasaw. 2. N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 192. 1900.

A chance seedling found by the roadside by E. A. Riehl, Alton, Illinois. It was sent out about 1895 and introduced in 1900 by Mr. Riehl. Plants dwarfish, spreading, unproductive; fruit small, irregular oblong, compact, lacking juiciness, mild; fair; midseason.

Purple Fruited. 1. Meehans' Mon. 5:185. 1895.

Mentioned by E. E. Bogue, Orwell, Ohio, as having purple fruit when ripe.

Queen. 1. Texas Nur. Cat. 33. 1909.

Introduced about 1900 by the Texas Nursery Company, Sherman, Texas. Said by them to be a native of the black land belt of northern Texas. At this Station the plants are tender to cold and unproductive. They are semi-trailing the first season, becoming upright later.

Rathbun. 1. Rural N. Y. 54:587. 1895. 2. Wis. Sta. Bul. 72:23. 1898. 3. Rural N. Y. 59:562. 1900. 4. AT. Y. Sta. BuL 278:143. 1906.
The berries of Rathbun commend the variety highly; they are large, handsome, and very good in quality. The plants, however, are far from flawless; they are only moderate in vigor and productiveness, sucker sparingly, are susceptible to the orange-rust, are tender to cold, and bear flowers that must be cross pollinated. Despite this long list of faults, the variety is well liked in mild climates. The plants propagate by rooting at the tips. Rath-bun originated about 1885 with Alvin Rathbun, Silver Creek, New York. It is a chance seedling which sprang up near a planting of Early Harvest and Kittatinny. Its habit of growth, however, indicates that it may be a blackberry-dewberry hybrid. Rathbun was introduced by James Vick's Sons, Rochester, New York. In 1909 the American Porno-logical Society added the variety to its list of recommended fruits.

Plants branching freely, upright-spreading to drooping, half-hardy, variable in health, susceptible to double-blossom in the South, moderately productive; propagated by tips as well as by suckers; canes rather few, very obtuse-angled, dull, pale greenish, glabrous; prickles tinged red at the base; leaflets 3, ovate, thick, dull, dark green, rugose, with coarse, serrate margins; petiole long. Flowers imperfect, self-fertile, large, few to medium, in short, open, leafy, almost spineless clusters; pedicels long, heavily pubescent, glandular; Calyx heavily pubescent; stamens sometimes irregular in formation. Fruit early, said to resist drouth very well; very large but somewhat variable, roundish to slightly elongated, glossy black; drupelets large, round, numerous, with strong coherence; core soft; flesh juicy, firm, sweet, rich; quality very good but variable.

Red Cluster, i. Rural N. Y. 50:670. 1891.

Sent to the trial grounds of the Rural New-Yorker in 1886 by W. W. Hilborn, Leamington, Ontario. Fruit small, tender, sweet.

Reid. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 160. 1920.

Offered for sale by the Long Floral et Nursery Company, Dallas, Texas. Plants described as vigorous, upright, hardy, almost free from suckers; fruit large,-delicious; early.

Reyner. 1. N. Y, Sta. Bul. 81:582. 1894.

Received at this Station in 1892 for trial from S. R. Alexander, Bellefonta'ne, Ohio. Plants vigorous, moderately hardy, unproductive; canes large, greenish, with few prickles; fruit of medium size, roundish or slightly elongated; drupelets large, sweet; good.

Robison. 1. Munson Cat. 10. 1899.

Originated in 1895 with Willard Robison, Cisco, Texas. The variety did not succeed at this Station. The American Pomological Society cataloged it in 1901, but it was removed at the next revision of the catalog in 1909. Plants vigorous, upright, much branched; canes stocky, moderately thorny; fruit large, round, compact, black, firm, sweet; good; late.

Sable Queen. 1. Horticulturist 24:73, fig. 1869.

Found in an old pasture in Essex County, Massachusetts, prior to 1849 by Daniel Graves. The variety was placed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1883 and removed in 1897. Plants vigorous and productive; fruit variable in size, usually small, soft; good

Sadie. 1. Col 0. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 70. 1887.

Introduced about 1887 by Levi Hawbaker, Winchester, Iowa, as very hardy in that State. Fruit large, firm, sweet, without core; very early. 15

St. Jo. i. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 301. 1905.

Mentioned in 1905 as a new sort gaining some prominence near Springfield, Missouri.

Sanford. 1. Ann. Hort. 128. 1893. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 111:284. 1896.

A chance seedling found in a clearing by Henry Merrells, North Sanford, New York; introduced in 1893 by C. W. Graham, Afton, New York. The variety has little value as grown at this Station. Fruit small, oblong to oval, firm, moderately juicy, pleasant; fair.

Santa Rosa. 1. Burbank Cat. 7. 1920. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 160. 1920.

Originated about 1902 by Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, California, who introduced it in 1912. This is a thornless sort descended from a West Virginia blackberry. Plants very vigorous, canes reaching a length of twenty-five feet in a season; propagates by tip-rooting, thornless, very productive; fruit medium to large, black, firm, sweet; excellent; late.

Scruggs. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 160. 1920.

Offered without description by E. W. Townsend et Sons, Salisbury, Maryland.

SebastopoL 1. Burbank Cat. 7. 1920. 2, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 160. 1920.
Of the same origin as Santa Rosa, and differs from that sort in being a few days later and a little larger.

See Early. 1. III. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 125. 1878.

Originated near Centralia, Illinois, about 1878. Said to be so similar to Brunton Early that it might prove to be that variety.

Sensation, 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 284. 1921.

Introduced by L. G. Rathbun et Son, Orland, Indiana. Plants very hardy, bearing a full crop in the summer and a light autumn crop on new canes; fruit very large.

Snowbank. 1. Burbank Cat. 5. 1920. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 160. 1920.

A descendant of Iceberg, originated by Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, California, in 1906, and introduced by him in 1915. Plants upright, not hardy, unproductive at this Station; fruit of medium size, cylindrical, pearly white tinged yellowish, glossy, moderately juicy, mild, sweet; good; core soft; midseason.

Snyder. 1. U. 5. D. A. Rpt. 390. 1873. 2. Cornell Sta. Bul. 99:521, fig. 100. 1895. 3. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:140. 1906. 4, Card Bush-Fr. 228, PI. VII. 1917.
Because of the great vigor, good health, remarkable productiveness, and hardiness surpassed by no other blackberry, Snyder has been a standard commercial sort for many years. The fruits are far from being as satisfactory as the plants; they are not inviting in appearance, turn red after picking, and the quality is mediocre. Long a standard, several other blackberries are now more desirable, although the variety is still grown from the Atlantic to the Pacific except in the South, Snyder does particularly well on poor, light soils and withstands neglect rather better than most other sorts, except in the matter of withstanding drouths in a dry season. Both plants and berries suffer, the berries frequently withering before ripening. Snyder is a wilding found by Henry Snyder in 1851 on his farm at Laporte, Indiana. About 1860 the Laporte Horticultural Society named it Snyder and recommended it for general culture. The American Pomological Society added the variety to its fruit catalog list in 1875.
Plants tall, vigorous, upright, unusually hardy, healthy, productive; canes numerous, stocky, furrowed, glossy, pubescent, glandular, greenish red mingled with brown; prickles very large, thick, numerous, reddish at the base; leaflets mostly 5, ovate-lanceolate, smooth, pubescent, with finely serrate margins; petiole thick, with but few prickles. Flowers self-fertile, veiy early, in long, compact, somewhat leafy clusters; petals white, oblong; pedicels long, glandular. Fruit late midseason, injured by drouth; inferior in size, hemispherical, black, quickly becoming reddish black or brownish red; drupelets large, round, with good coherence; core soft; flesh juicy, firm, sweet, rather poorly flavored; quality good only when well grown and well colored.

Soft Core. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 159. 1920.

Originated about 1909 by J. M. Mack, Fallbrook, California; introduced in 1917. Plants were sent to this Station in 1918 by the United States Department of Agriculture. Soft Core is a cross between Texas Early blackberry and Gardena dewberry. Plants vigorous, upright, tender to cold, productive where hardy; fruit large, soft, sweet, spicy, rich; core soft.

Sonderegger Earliest. 1. Sonderegger Cat. 22. 1918.

A chance seedling found in an old orchard about 1911 by Arthur Modglin of Illinois, where Snyder and Early Harvest had previously been grown; introduced about 1918 by Sonderegger Nursery et Seed House, Beatrice, Nebraska. At this Station the variety is too tender and unproductive to be of value. Plants of medium size and vigor, tender, unproductive; canes slender, pubescent with a moderate number of slender prickles; flowers very late; fruit of medium size, irregular, cylindrical-conic; drupelets medium in size and number, black, juicy, moderately firm, subacid; fair; core medium; midseason.

Spaulding. I, Austin Nur. Cat. 21. 1901.

A chance seedling which originated with a Mr. Spaulding, Gonzales County, Texas t who introduced it about 1890. As grown at this Station the plants require winter protection and are unproductive unless so treated. Plants vigorous, semi-trailing, moderately productive; canes moderately stocky with numerous slender prickles; fruit large, long, cylindrical; drupelets numerous, cohering strongly, glossy black, moderately juicy, firm, sprightly; good; core soft; early.

Stayman Early. x. Ont. Fr. Gr. Assoc. Rpt. 47. 1883. 2. N. Y: Sta. Rpt. 337. 1887. Introduced about 1883 by Dr. J. Stayman, Leavenworth, Kansas. Plants not hardy; propagates by tips; fruit small; poor.

Sterling Thornless. 1. U. S. D. A. Rpt. 394. 1891. 2. Card Bush-Fr. 239. 1898.

A chance seedling, found on the farm of John F. Sterling, Benton Harbor, Michigan, in a field where Wilson and Lawton had been growing. Plants similar to Wilson, but nearly thornless; fruit borne in loose clusters with long pedicels like dewberries, medium to large size, roundish oblong; drupelets large, loosely set, moderately firm, juicy, sweet, with dewberry flavor. A *

Stone Hardy, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 18. 1881. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:140. 1906.

A chance seedling which originated near Rockford, Illinois, prior to 1881. Similar to Snyder, although some reports state that the fruit is larger and later than that of Snyder. Stone Hardy was placed in the fruit list of the American Pomological Society in 1881, and remained in the last list in 1909. Plants vigorous, upright, fully hardy, productive; canes slender with numerous long prickles; fruit small, averaging about the size of Snyder, roundish, juicy, nearly sweet; good.

Strawberry Flavored. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 159. 1920.

Originated about 1909 by J. M. Mack, Fallbrook, California. Introduced in 1917. The variety is a cross between Himalaya blackberry and Cuthbert red raspberry. The plant is of the type of Himalaya and shows considerable winter injury at this Station. Plants tall, vigorous, drooping, tender to cold, productive; canes stocky; prickles numerous, thick, strong, reddish; fruit of medium size, irregular, roundish, slightly elongated; drupelets large, of medium coherence, glossy black, juicy, tender, subacid; good; core soft; late; everbearing in California.

Success. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 81:582. 1894,

Received at this Station in 1892 from L. W. Carr et Company, Erie, Pennsylvania. Plants moderately vigorous, fairly hardy, productive; canes greenish, with numerous prickles; fruit above medium in size, roundish; drupelets of medium size, juicy, black; good.

Sugar Plum. 1. Childs Cat. 132. 1904. 2, Mich. Sta. Bul. 213:11. 1904.

Introduced in 1904 by John Lewis Childs, Floral Park, New York. At the Michigan Station the variety was without merit. The plants resemble those of the red raspberry; fruit of medium size, irregular, roundish, dull dark red, astringent and disagreeable.

Superb. 1. Burbank Cat. 5. 1920. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 284. 1921.

Originated by Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, California. The variety is of the type of Himalaya, the plants being described as more productive; the fruit larger, highly flavored, sweet and delicious.

Tartarian. 1. Farmer Seed et Nur. Cat. 106. 1918.

Introduced by the Farmer Seed et Nursery Company, Faribault, Minnesota. Plants described as strong, free from rust, very hardy and productive; fruit large, bright black, sweet, melting; of fine quality; core soft; season long.

Taylor. 1. Cult et Count. Gent. 42:150. 1877. 2. Cornell Sta. Bul. 99:523, fig. 104. 1895. 3. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:137. 1906.

Taylor's Prolific. 4. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 418. 1882.

Long a favorite commercial sort to follow Snyder, Taylor is now passing from cultivation because of faults of both fruits and plants. While the plants are hardy and remarkably immune to rust, they are not productive, or at best moderately so, and the fruits are only fair in quality and appearance. The plants also have the fault of overbearing in which case the fruits are small and poor in flavor. To offset this characteristic the plants should be pruned more closely than any other blackberry except Early Harvest, which often has the same failing. The plants may be told in blackberry plantations by the greenish yellow canes, usually tinted with red. The thorns are large and numerous, making picking more unpleasant than with most other varieties of this fruit. The long, thimble-like berries are borne in large clusters. Taylor may still be planted to close the blackberry season in New York, but is becoming less and less popular even for this purpose. This is an old variety of unknown parentage, introduced by a.Mr. Taylor, of Spiceland, Indiana, about 1867. In 1881 Taylor was added to the recommended fruit list of the American Pomological Society.
Plants upright-spreading, very hardy, variable in yield, variable in resistance to orange-rust; canes numerous, angular or nearly cylindrical, pale green mingled with red, becoming light brown with trace of yellow at maturity, lightly pubescent, glandular; prickles small to large, short, slender, numerous, green or tipped with dull brown; leaflets 3-5, oblong-lanceolate, thick, very lightly rugose, pubescent, with even and finely serrate margins; petiole long, glandular. Flowers early, 5-9, in long, loose, leafless, prickly clusters; pedicels long, thickly pubescent, prickly; calyx with few glands. Fruit late, borne in immense clusters, medium or below in size, elongated-conic, glossy black; drupelets rather small, uniform, with strong coherence; core soft, white; flesh rather soft, juicy, sweet, rich, pleasantly flavored; quality very good to best,

Tecumseh, 1. Card Bush-Fr. 231. 1898.

Originated in western Ontario. Of the type of Taylor but less hardy than that sort.

Texas Early. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 232. 1898. 2. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr, 290. 1922.

Crandall. 3. Cal. St. Bd. Hort. Bien. Rpt. 234. 1885-86. 4. U. S. D. A. Farmers' Bul.. 1399:14. 1924.

Macatawa. 5. Berrydale Card. Cat. 15. 1913.

Introduced into California from Texas prior to 1885 by Dr. J. R. Crandall, Auburn, California, after whom the variety was renamed. The original name, Texas Early, is retained here, although Crandall is more generally used. Macatawa,. introduced in 1913, proved to be identical with Texas Early at this Station. In southern California this sort is popular for its earliness, long-ripening period, and high quality. As grown at this Station the plants require winter protection, and the fruit is inferior to that of standard blackberries. It was placed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1901 as Crandall, remaining in the last catalog in 1909. Plants vigorous, semi-trailing, not hardy, productive, with few suckers; fruit large, firm, sweet; very good; very early.

Texas Evergreen, 1. Lovett Cat No. 3,5.1915.

Introduced in 1915 by J. T. Lovett, Little Silver, New Jersey, with the statement that it had been brought from South Africa by a Mr. Texas. As grown at this Station the plants are tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, moderately productive; canes very stocky with numerous thick, strong prickles; fruit of medium size, irregularly cylindrical, conic to short-conic; drupelets medium in number, large, glossy black, juicy, melting, subacid; good; core hard; late.

Texas Red. 1. Rural N. Y. 44:868. 1885. Texas Hybrid. 2. Card Bush-Fr. 238. 1898.
Described by T. V. Munson in 1885 as having plants of a trailing half-dewberry habit, thorny; fruit borne in clusters, clear, bright pink, very soft, sweet and pleasant; earlier than Snyder.

Topsy. i. Rural N. Y. 46:638. 1887. 2. Am. Gard. 10:244. 1889.

Childs1 Everbearing Tree. 3. Childs Cat. 150. 1893.

Childs* Tree. 4. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:144. 1906.

Plants of Topsy were sent to the trial grounds of the Rural New-Yorker in 1885 by J. T. Lovett, Little Silver, New Jersey. John Lewis Childs, Floral Park, New York, introduced" it as Childs1 Everbearing Tree blackberry about 1892. The variety has little merit as grown at this Station. Plants very dwarf, not hardy, unproductive; canes numerous, slender, covered with strong prickles; fruit variable in size from small to medium, roundish, acid; inferior in flavor.

Trinity Early. 1. Go. Sta. Bul. 33:519, fig. 1896.

Received at the Georgia Station prior to 1896 from the Dallas Nursery Company, Dallas, Texas. Plants dwarfish, trailing the first year, becoming more erect with age, lacking vigor, healthy, moderately productive; prickles very numerous, weak; fruit small, round; drupelets large, brisk and sprightly, but sweet; very early.

Triumph, x. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 16. 1897.

Western Triumph. 2. Gard. Mon. 12:158. 1870.

A chance seedling found in Lake County, Illinois, in 1858, by William Biddle, Wau-kegan, Illinois. The variety was placed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1883 and remained in the last catalog in 1909. Plants vigorous, hardy, very productive; fruit of medium size, roundish oblong; drupelets large, black, firm, juicy, sweet, rich; good; midseason.

Truman Thornless. 1. U. 5. D. A. Pom. Rpt 264. 1892.

Introduced by George P. Peffer, Pewaukee, Wisconsin, thirty years ago. Canes nearly thornless; plants rather dwarf, not very productive; fruit large; good; ripens early.

Tyler. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:141. 1906.

Received at this Station in 1897 from Birdseye et Son, Stanley, New York. Plants vigorous, very hardy, but less productive than Snyder; fruit medium in size, slightly elongated, variable in size and shape, nearly sweet; fair.

Veitchberry. 1. Laxton Bros. Cat. 42, PI. 1925.

A cross of the November Abundance raspberry by the English blackberry. Introduced by Laxton Brothers, Bedford, England, in 1925. Plants vigorous, semi-erect; flowers self-fertile, setting perfect fruits; fruit twice the size of the ordinary blackberry, color of a well ripened mulberry, sweet with the combined flavor of both parents.

Wachusett. 1. Aw. Jour. Hort. 4:220, fig. 1868. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:137. 1906.

Wachusett Thornless. 3. W. N.. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 54. 1879.

Found growing wild on Wachusett Mountain, Massachusetts, about 1863. Hardiness and freedom from thorns were its chief merits, but unproductiveness prevented it from becoming popular. Wachusett was added to the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1881 and remained in the last catalog in 1909. Plants moderately vigorous, hardy, usually unproductive; canes moderately stout, purplish red when mature; prickles very few and small; fruit small to medium in size, roundish or slightly elongated, glossy black, juicy, sweet; good; early midseason.

Wallace. 1. Cult. et Count Gent. 42:150. 1877.

Introduced about 1862 by a Mr, Wallace, Wayne County, Indiana. Plants stocky, upright, healthy and hardy; fruit the size of Lawton, sweeter and better than Kittatinny; season a week later than Snyder.

Wapsie. 1. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 192. 1888.

Had proved hardy and valuable for five years previous to 1888 with T. K. Bloom, Lisbon, Iowa.

Ward. I. Rural N. Y. 62:572. 1903. 2. N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt 38, 102. 1904. 3.

Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 290. 1922.

A chance seedling found about 1900 by Thomas H. Ward, Manalapan, New Jersey; supposed to be a seedling of Kittatinny which it resembles, but it is superior to that sort in vigor, productiveness, freedom from rust, and quality of fruit. It is especially valuable in New Jersey as a late variety but at this Station it is not fully hardy. Ward appeared in the last catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1909. Plants tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, half-hardy, moderately productive; canes stocky, green tinged reddish brown, nearly glabrous; prickles medium in number, large, strong; fruit of medium size, irregular cylindrical-conic, glossy black, juicy, melting, subacid; good; core hard; late.

Warren. 1. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. 119. 1880.

New in 1880. Plants fairly hardy and productive; fruit similar to that of Snyder in size and quality; ripens a week before Kittatinny.

Washington. 1. Mag. i!fof*. 25:3 9 7. 18 59. et

Raised by Prof. C. G. Page, Washington, District of Columbia, who exhibited it as new in 1859. Fruit large, black, sweet; good.

Watt. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Sp. Rpt. 82. 1904-05.

A chance seedling found growing in an orchard near Lawrence, Kansas, prior to 1905. Plants at this Station require winter protection and are very susceptible to rust. Plants tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, tender to cold, moderately productive when protected; canes stocky, tinged red, glabrous; prickles numerous, large, strong; fruit large, irregular, oblong, tapering slightly; drupelets large, cohering strongly, glossy black, juicy, melting, sweet, pleasant; very good; core soft; midseason.

Weston. 1. Card. Mon. 12:371. 1870.

Originated prior to 1870 with Adain Durkes, Weston, Missouri. By him it was considered more productive than Lawton; long ripening season.

White Cluster. 1. Cult. et Count. Gent. 32:244. 1868.
Discovered about 1856 in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania. Plants very vigorous, hardy and productive; fruit cream colored.

Wilson. i. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 16. 1897.

Wilson Early. 2. Mag. Hort. 32:110. 1866. 3. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:669. 1893.

Discovered about 1854 by John Wilson, Burlington, New Jersey. For a number of years this was a popular variety, especially valuable in New Jersey, where large fruits, earliness and productivity made it the leading sort. As grown at this Station the plants lack hardiness, must be covered to produce satisfactory crops, and many imperfect flowers, chiefly double, are borne. It is possible that this variety contained a mixture soon after its introduction as two types of plants are mentioned in early descriptions, one being erect and branching, the other slender and trailing, the latter form sometimes rooting at the tips. The American Pomological Society placed this variety in its catalog in 1867; it remained in the last catalog in 1909. Plants dwarfish, upright, moderately vigorous, half-hardy, productive where hardy; canes stocky, roundish, pubescent with numerous small prickles; flowers inclined to doubling; fruit large, oblong to oval, slightly pointed; drupelets large, many failing to develop as grown here, glossy black, firm, juicy, sweet; good; early.

Wilson, Jr. 1. Gard. Mon. 27:208. 1885. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:669. 1893.

Raised by William Parry, Parry, New Jersey, in 1875, from seed of Wilson. The variety is very similar to its parent and like that sort requires winter protection in this latitude. Wilson, Jr., was placed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1885 and removed in 1899. Plants intermediate in habit between dewberries and blackberries, dwarfish, moderately vigorous, tender to cold, moderately productive; canes tinged reddish; fruit variable in size, medium to very large, roundish to slightly elongated; drupelets large, sometimes imperfectly developed, very juicy, acid; good to very good; core hard; early.

Woodford. 1. Mass. Sta. Bul. 44:17. 1897.

On trial at the Massachusetts Station in 1896. Plants not vigorous, hardy, unproductive; fruit large, attractive; good.

Woodland. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 81:582. 1894.

Received at this Station in 1892 from W. H. Phillips, Staunton, Indiana. Plants vigorous, tender to cold, productive; fruit medium in size, roundish; drupelets large, with pleasant flavor; good.