CHAPTER IV

VARIETIES OP BLACK RASPBERRIES

AcUl 1. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt 65. 1886-87. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bui 63:672. 1893.
A chance seedling which originated with Henry Young, Ada, Ohio, about 1882; supposed by him to be a cross between Doolittle and McCormick. It was introduced in 1889 by T. R Longenecker, Dayton, Ohio. As grown at this Station the plants are very vigorous but lack productivity. Fruit small, firm, sweet; fair; late.

Adams Black Perfection. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt 160. 1920.

Introduced in 1915 by Brown Brothers Company, Brown's Nurseries, Welland County, Ontario. Described as vigorous, very hardy and productive; fruit large, firm, handsome black, rich; earlier than Gregg.

Ak-Sar-Ben, 1. Card Bush-Fr. 161. 1898.

A chance seedling discovered by Ex-Gov. R. W. Pumas, Brownville, Nebraska. Plants described as hardy and very productive; fruit large, good color; quality fair.

Alaska* 1. Wis. Nur. Cat 1921.

Received in a lot of strawberry plants from Iowa by the Wisconsin Nursery Company, Union Grove, Wisconsin, who introduced it as a hardy sort in 1921. As grown at this Station, the fruit is small, many berries are undeveloped and the flavor is inferior. Plants dwarfish, not vigorous, drooping, moderately productive; canes rather slender, greenish, tinged with reddish brown, heavily glaucous; prickles medium in number, strong; fruit small, roundish oblate, of medium coherence, separates readily from the torus, glossy black, juicy, firm, very sprightly; fair; midseason.

American Black. 1. McMahon Am. Gard. Cal. 518. 1806. 2. Prince Treat Hort 40. 1828. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 515. 1845.

This is the common black raspberry, which grows everywhere in the North Atlantic States in fields and along fences, and was frequently cultivated in gardens before improved sorts made their appearance. McMahon mentions it in 1806 and in 1845 Downing said that it was everywhere known. The American Pomological Society placed it in the fruit catalog of the Society in 1862 and it was in succeeding catalogs until 1881 when Doolittle took its place. See the description of R. occidentalis.

American Everbearing. 1. Ann. Hort 198. 1891. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:672. 1893. Introduced in 1890 by the Cleveland Nursery Company, Rio Vista, Virginia, who obtained it from a Mr. Hatfield, Wayne County, Indiana, near whose farm it originated. It was introduced as an autumn-fruiting blackcap; as grown at this Station it produced considerable fruit in late August and through September. Fruit medium in size, firm, juicy, nearly sweet; midseason; autumn-fruiting.

American White. 1. Prince Treat Hort. 40. 1828. 2. N.Y. Sta. Bui 63:690. 1893. White Cap. 3. Am. Hort. Ann. 103. 1867.
White-fruited forms of R. occidentalis occur in the wild, which from time to time are introduced into cultivation, although they have never become popular. The fruit is usually a pale yellow, but varies from white to a golden color.

Arctic. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:673. 1893.
Received at this Station in 1892 from an unknown donor. Fruit medium in size, firm, juicy, sweet; midseason.

Babbit. 1. U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt. 265. 1892.

A chance seedling which originated in 1883 in the nursery of a Mr. Babbit, College Springs, Iowa. In 1892 W. R. Laughlin of that place sent it to the United States Department of Agriculture. Plants strong, vigorous, hardy and productive; fruit of medium size, roundish oblate, with numerous small drupelets, dull black, without bloom, moderately firm, juicy, subacid; good; long-ripening season.

Beebe. 1. Mich. Sta. Bui 55:22. 1889. Beebe Golden. 2. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 65. 1886-87.
This yellow blackcap was introduced in 1886 by James Beebe, Cassadaga, New York. Plants of medium vigor, hardy, productive; fruit small, round, firm; color orange, becoming unattractive dirty brown; fair; early.

Belle. 1. Rural N. Y. 45:461. 1886.

Received at the trial grounds of the Rural New-Yorker in 1885, from L. C. Carlow, Batavia, Illinois. Described as one of the most hardy, vigorous and productive blackcaps on trial; the earliest to ripen. Fruit as large as Gregg, firm; of inferior flavor.

Belmont. 1. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 118. 1880.

Raised by John Scobs, Barnesville, Ohio, and introduced about 1879. Fruit larger, a week earlier and plant more productive than McCormick.

Beyer. 1. Rural N. Y. 45:914. 1906. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:128. 1906.

Originated by Hugo Beyer, New London, Iowa, prior to 1904 when plants were sent out. Plants moderately vigorous, with light green foliage; fruit medium in size, firm, not very juicy, seedy, acid; good; autumn-fruiting.

Bishop. 1. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 82. 1898. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:128. 1906.

Originated prior to 1898 by L. Bishop, Parker, Kansas. As grown at this Station, the plants are vigorous, hardy, unproductive; fruit medium in size, firm, dull, unattractive black, covered with bloom, seedy, moderately juicy; fair.

Black Pearl. 1. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 213. 1912. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bui 403:218. 1915. 3. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 281, fig. 245. 1922.
In 1914 Black Pearl was named as the most promising of the new varieties of black raspberries on the grounds of this Station. Since that time it has become one of the standard fruits of its kind. The plants are characterized by their small, dark green leaves. The green betokens vigor and healthiness in spite of the small size of the leaves. The plants are as hardy and productive as those of any other black raspberry; the berries are large, glossy black, very inviting in appearance, of good quality, and fall short only in being a little too variable in size. The crop matures a week or more earlier than the well-known Gregg, but unfortunately has a somewhat shorter season. Black Pearl is about the best raspberry for cold climates, and, on the other hand, stands hot, dry summers as well as any other sort. Black Pearl was found as a chance seedling in a plantation of Kansas in 1905 by Herman Krumrei, St. Joseph, Missouri. The variety was introduced by Holsinger Brothers, Rosedale, Kansas, in 1907.
Plants above medium height, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, very productive, variable in health, susceptible to anthracnose; canes very stocky, dull brownish red, heavily glaucous; prickles numerous, slender, strong; leaflets usually 3, broadly lanceolate, small, luxuriant dark green, rugose, with finely serrate margins; petiole rather long, of medium thickness, glabrous, prickly. Flowers early; pedicels very short, pubescent. Fruit early, ships well, appears to withstand drouth exceptionally well; large but variable, hemispherical, glossy black, adheres fairly well to the torus; drupelets rather small, cohering strongly so that the berries do not crumble; flesh firm, juicy, pleasantly sprightly, rich' quality very good.

Bonanza. 1. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 141. 1890.

Originated in 1888 on the grounds of W. C. Freeman, Greene County, Missouri. Fruit described as juicy and with a peculiar aromatic flavor; a good keeper.

Bronze Queen. 1. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 182. 1886.

Mentioned at a meeting of the Missouri Horticultural Society as being cultivated by a Mr. Holman. Plants very vigorous, hardy, with immense canes rooting at the tips; fruit a peculiar bronze color, sweet; very good.

Burkhart. 1. Wash. Sta. Bul. 87:28. 1909.

A chance seedling found about 1901 on the farm of Rev. F. Walden, Zillah, Washington; introduced by M. E. Burkhart, by whom it was named. It is supposed to be a seedling of Gregg which it resembles. Plants very vigorous, healthy, drouth resistant and very productive; foliage large, dark green; fruit large, pure black, firm, and of excellent quality.

Burns. 1. Horticulturist 28:352. 1872.

Originated with A. M. Burns, Manhattan, Kansas, prior to 1872. Plants described as drouth resistant, earlier and more productive than Doolittle; fruit medium in size and quality.


Calyx. 1. Ohio Sta. Bul. 146:38. 1903.

On trial at the Ohio Station. Described as a satisfactory sort; similar to Gregg in size, color, and season of fruit.

Canada. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 964. 1869.

Introduced into Ohio from Canada prior to 1869 by a gentleman who found plants in cultivation along the Canadian shore of Lake Erie. Similar to Doolittle but later.

Carman. 1. Rural N. Y. 45:621, fig. 360. 1886. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:673. 1893. A chance seedling found in a fence corner about 1874, by A. H. Sherwood, Southport, Connecticut. It was acquired by G. H. et J. H. Hale, South Glastonbury, Connecticut, who named it Carman in honor of the editor of the Rural New-Yorker, and introduced it about 1886. When tested at this Station it was considered one of the best early sorts.
Plants vigorous, hardy and productive; fruit medium in size, firm, mildly subacid, moderately juicy; good; very early.

Centennial. 1. Gard. Mon. 23:304. 1881.

According to S. Miller in the report of the Missouri Horticultural Society for 1884, two sorts with this name originated in Missouri. George Husmann found one near Hermann, about 1860 while a Mr. Grayhill, Springfield, Missouri, found another near Carthage. The latter seems to have been the one which was generally disseminated. It was sent out by Samuel Miller, Bluffton, Missouri, about 1880. Fruit large, conic, without bloom, sweet, highly flavored; early.

Champion. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:14. 1894.

A small, early sort found in the wild in Clarke County, Ohio. Sent out a few years prior to 1894 by Frank Murphy, Donnelsville, Ohio.

Chapman. 1. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 44. 1871.

Originated as a chance seedling with a Mr. Chapman, near Cincinnati, prior to 1863. It was brought to attention by a Mr. Bailey of Ross County. Fruit larger, brighter, and blacker than McCormick. By some it was considered identical with Ohio.

Chesterfield. 1. Rural N. Y. 43:18. 1884.

A chance seedling found in Chesterfield County, Virginia. Plant heat and drouth resistant with fruit very large, very dark, medium juicy, aromatic; good.

Clark. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:153. 1899.

On trial at the Michigan Station in 1898. Plants moderately productive, subject to drouth injury; fruit round, black, firm, not juicy, sprightly, rich; early midseason.

Coloma. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 206:57. 1903.

Sent to the Michigan Station about 1902 by John Wenslick, Coloma, Michigan. Plants of moderate vigor, thornless; fruit medium in size, jet black; good; midseason.

Conrath. 1. Ann. Hort. 198. 1891. 2. Rural N. Y. 54:164. 1895.

A chance seedling, discovered in 1886, near a patch of Gregg by C. H. Woodruff, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Mr. Woodruff worked up a stock of plants which he sold to Conrath Brothers of Ann Arbor, who named and introduced it in 1894. In some sections it has value as an early sort. It was recommended in the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1901 and 1909. Plants vigorous, healthy, drouth resistant, productive; fruit large, firm, black, parting readily; good; early.

Corinth. 1. Mass. Sta. Bul. 22:12. 1893.
On trial at the Massachusetts Station in 1893. Plants productive; fruit medium in size, firmness, and quality; late.

Cottier Everbearing. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 163. 1898.

Originated with M. T. Thompson, Rio Vista, Virginia. Autumn-fruiting.

Crawford. 1. Mass. Sta. Bui 7:4. 1890.

On trial at the Massachusetts Station in 1890. Plants vigorous, hardy, unproductive; fruit of medium size; fair; early midseason.

Cream. 1. Mich. Sta. Bui 111:16. 1894.

A yellowcap mentioned by William Parry, Parry, New Jersey, in 1870.

Cromwell. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 67:14. 1890. Butler. 2. Rural N. Y. 47:678. 1888.

Received without name at the Michigan Station in 1887 and again in 1890 for trial, from G. S. Butler, Cromwell, Connecticut. It was called Butler until introduced in 1890 by G. H. et J. H. Hale, South Glastonbury, Connecticut, as Cromwell. It was of the type of Souhegan. Plants moderately vigorous; fruit of medium size, round, black; fair; early.

Cumberland. 1. Rural N. Y. 55:624. 1896. 2. Can. Hort. 23:357, fig. 1892. 1900. 3* Hedrick Cyc. HardyFr. 281. 1922.
For many years Cumberland was the most widely and most commonly grown black raspberry. The assets which gave it high standing were productiveness and hardiness of plant, and large size and high quality of fruit. The fruits are especially firm, and therefore in favor with shippers. The berries hold their size well until the close of the season. It is now losing in popularity because of susceptibility to anthracnose, the streak disease, and rosette. Cumberland originated with David Miller, Camp Hill, Pennsylvania, and after having been grown locally for some years was introduced in 1896. In 1899 the American Pomological Society added Cumberland to its fruit catalog list. The variety was supposed to be a seedling of Gregg but this origin is doubtful.
Plants tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, unusually hardy, very productive, susceptible to anthracnose and rosette, contract streak disease rapidly; canes smooth, greenish changing to light reddish brown, heavily glaucous; prickles large, long, thick, strong, very numerous, greenish; leaflets 3 to 5, of medium size, broadly ovate, rugose, with dentate margins; petiole medium in length and thickness, prickly, glabrous, glaucous. Flowers early; pedicels prickly, pubescent; calyx smooth. Fruit early midseason, ships well, usually holds up in size to the close of the season; large, conical, attractive black, clings well to the short, small, roundish torus, although the berry is released readily, heavily glaucous; drupelets large, round, with strong coherence so that the berries do not crumble; flesh juicy, firm, sweet, rich; quality very good.


Daily Bearing, 1. Ohio Hort Soc. Rpt. 51. 1866. Griggs Daily Bearing. 2. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 42. 1867.

Originated about 1860 from seed of Ohio Everbearing by a Mr. Griggs, Perry County, Ohio. Plants more productive and fruit larger and of better quality than the Ohio Everbearing.

Davis. 1. Mick Stat Bui 111:19. 1894.

Found on the banks of the New River in North Carolina about 1884 by a woman named Davis; brought to notice by L. P. Hodges, Sands, North Carolina. It is a yellowcap, earlier than Golden Queen, and satisfactory near the place of its origin.

Davison. Damson Thornless. 1. Fuller Sm. Fr. Cult. 143. 1867. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 168. 1867. Sinton. 3. Rec. Hort. 2:55. 1868. A thornless variety which originated about 1859 on the grounds of Mrs. Mercy Davison, Gowanda, New York; similar to Doolittle, but a few days earlier. It was placed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1873 and remained there until 1883. Canes strong, stocky, without prickles; fruit large, sweet; early.

Diamond. 1. Mich.Sta.Bul. 142:171. 1897. 2. CardBush-Fr. 152. 1917. 3. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 281. 1922. Black Diamond. 4. Rural N. Y. 57:123. 1898.

Diamond was much grown in western New York for several years because of the beauty and high quality of the fruit. It turns out, however, that it is very capricious as to soils and climate, and is suitable to but few localities. Moreover, the berries are small and variable in size. The plants are quickly injured by drouth and are very susceptible to anthracnose. The variety was never much grown out of western New York, and seems now well on the way to oblivion. According to information received from C. W. Stuart et Company, Newark, New York, who introduced this variety about thirty years ago, the first bush was found by L. J. Bryant, Newark, about 1888 in an old peach orchard. While the parentage is unknown, Mr. Bryant believed that it might be a seedling of Gregg and Ohio.
Plants tall, vigorous, spreading, nearly hardy, productive, severely attacked by anthracnose; canes stocky, green changing to light reddish brown, heavily glaucous; prickles of medium size and thickness, strong, medium in number, greenish; leaflets usually 3, oval, attractive dark green, rather small, rugose, somewhat pubescent, with prickly midribs and serrate margins; petiole long, of medium thickness, glabrous. Flowers midseason; pedicels prickly, pubescent; calyx smooth. Fruit late midseason; variable in size, broadly hemispherical, irregular in shape, black with a tinge of red until fully ripe, adheres fairly well to the torus which is roughish and rounded; drupelets of medium size and coherence; flesh juicy, firm, pleasantly sprightly; quality fair to good.

Doolittle. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 84. 1858. 2. Gard. Mon. 3:75. 1861. 3. Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits. 282. 1898. Joslyn. 4. Horticulturist 16:381. 1861. American Black. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 96. 1862. American Improved. 6. Fuller Sm. Fr. Cult. 142. 1867.
It is doubtful if Doolittle can now be found under cultivation, and this rarity makes a technical description unnecessary. Neither is it necessary to give it a general discussion, since in the account of the domestication of the black raspberry it came in for full discussion as the first black raspberry to acquire prominence as a commercial fruit. Once the most popular of all raspberries, it was superseded after several decades of culture by Souhegan, which, in its turn, gave way to Gregg, which is now succumbing in competition with Black Pearl and Plum Farmer. A resume of its history, as given on page 14 follows; This variety was found growing wild by Leander Joslyn, Phelps, New York. It was introduced by H. H. Doolittle, Oaks Corners, New York, about 1850. The variety was known under various names for many years. The American Pomological Society first used the name 'Doolittle,' but it had previously appeared in the Society's catalog under the name "American Black" being changed to Doolittle in 1891. The original American Black was quite distinct from Doolittle.

Doomore. 1. Mich. Sta. But. 55*22. 1889.

A seedling found in 1884 near plants of Doolittle by Gustus Swabley, Tiffin, Ohio, and sent to the Ohio Station for trial. The first plants sent out were mixed with seedlings of Gregg but Mr. Swabley later grew the variety pure. Plants tall, erect, productive; canes deep blue; fruit medium in size, without bloom; early.

Duncan. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 75. 1875. Kentucky. 2. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 417. 1882.

Mentioned at the meeting of the American Pomological Society in 1875 as a new sort from Bullitt County, Kentucky. Very similar to Gregg; fruit slightly earlier and turning a pinkish yellow before ripe.


Earhart. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bui 63:673. 1893. Earhart Everbearing. 2, Rural AT. Y. 44:789, fig. 497. 1885.

Found about 1870 in a grove near Mason, Illinois, late in the summer, loaded with ripe fruit. Mr. Earhart, the finder, removed it to his garden, cultivated it for a number of years, when it attracted the attention of G. H. et J. H. Hale, South Glastonbury, Connecticut, who introduced it in 1887. It was considered one of the best of the autumn-fruiting sorts, bearing a light summer crop and a fall crop on the new canes of the current year. The American Pomological Society placed Earhart in its catalog in 1889; it remained in the last catalog in 1909. Plants vigorous, healthy, sometimes not hardy, unproductive; prickles stout; foliage rugose; fruit small, dull, unattractive black, firm, not juicy, crumbling, sweet; good; early.

Early Prolific. 1. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 79. 1883.

Described in 1883 by Dr. J. Stayman, Leavenworth, Kansas, as the best early blackcap he had seen. A very strong grower, very hardy, healthy, very productive, nearly thornless; fruit as large as that of Souhegan; of best quality; early.

Ebon Beauty. 1. Ann. Hort. 198. 1891.

Found by the roadside, in a woodland, in 1887, by P. L. Piers, Barden, Indiana, who named and propagated it. As grown at the Indiana Station it was inferior to Gregg in every respect, ripening with that variety, but having a shorter season.

Ebony. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:673. 1893.

A chance seedling which originated on the farm of W. W. Farnsworth, Waterville, Ohio, about 1885; sent out about 1890. Plants vigorous and productive; fruit medium to large, firm, very seedy, moderately juicy, sweet; good; midseason.

Edmunds. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 171:286. 1899.

On trial at the Michigan Station in 1899. Plants vigorous, productive; fruit above medium in size, very irregular in shape, jet black, dry, firm, very crumbly; good; early.

Elsie. 1. Fuller Sm. Fr. Cult. 143. 1867.

Raised from seed of Surprise *by Samuel Miller, Bluffton, Missouri, prior to 1867; very similar to its parent. Plants productive; fruit large; good.

Emperor. 1. Mich. bra. Bul. 24. 1894.

A colored plate of this variety appeared in the catalog of A. M. Purdy, Palmyra, New York, in 1871.

Eureka. 1. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 155. 1893. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:128. 1906.

Found growing wild about 1886 on the farm of Jacob Smith, Miami County, Ohio, by J. C. Kester, New Carlisle, Ohio. It was introduced in 1890 by D. M. Mohler, New Paris, Ohio. In its day, this was one of the best early blackcaps, producing good crops of large, attractive, high quality fruit. The American Pomological Society placed Eureka in its catalog in 1896, where it remained in 1909. Plants tall, moderately vigorous, fairly hardy, very productive; canes stocky, with heavy bloom; foliage dark green; fruit large, roundish, attractive black, moderately juicy, firm, mild, sweet; good; early.

Everbearing (I). 1. Ind. Sta. Bui 48:10. 1894.

On trial at the Indiana Station in 1894. Plants vigorous, hardy and productive; fruit medium in size, round, black; fair; early.

Everbearing (II). 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 284. 1921.

Offered for sale by the F. W. Brow Nursery Company, Rose Hill, New York, but discarded as not coming up to expectations. Plants upright, vigorous, productive; fruits from June until frost.

Everlasting. 1. Rural N. Y. 42:589. 1883.

Received by the Rural New-Yorker in 1882 from Lawrence County, Pennsylvania, with the statement that it was found in the wild some years previously in New Castle County of that state. Roots from tips sparingly. Fruit the size of Gregg; good; autumn-fruiting.

Everyday. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:25. 1894.

Reported by Dr. J. A. Warder in 1870 as being thought identical with Ohio Everbearing, but with him it was a more continuous bearer, fruiting almost constantly until frost. Fruit large, grayish black, moderately juicy; early.


Fadely. 1. Penn. Sta. Bul. 32:11. 1894.

Received at the Pennsylvania Station in 1893 from Joshua Fadely, Sassafras, West Virginia. Plants vigorous, unproductive; berries crumble badly.

Fainnount.

Received at this Station in 1905 for trial from Charles Mills, Camillus, New York. Plants moderately vigorous, fruit large, black with considerable bloom; drupelets small; good.

Fancy. 1. Rec. Hort. 45. 1866.

A seedling of Surprise, received by A. S. Fuller, about 1865, from Samuel Miller, Avon, Pennsylvania.

Farnsworth. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 106:134. 1894.

Received for trial at the Michigan Station in 1892 from W. W. Farnsworth, Waterville, Ohio. While on test it was considered a promising sort for home and market purposes.
Plants vigorous, healthy and productive; fruit above medium in size, borne on long stout fruit-stalks, firm, moderately juicy; good; early.

Fay. 1. Cult et Count. Gent. 39:550. 1874. Fay Thornless. 2. Gregg Fr. Cult. 134. 1877.

A. S. Fuller is quoted in the Rural New-Yorker as saying that Fay ranks first as an early blackcap; the fruit is of good size, firm, black, with very little bloom, does not become dull in rainy weather. The plants are thornless.

Ferndale. 1. U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt. 293. 1893.

A chance seedling found along the Delaware River prior to 1890 by W. B. K. Johnson, Allentown, Pennsylvania. Plants very vigorous, fairly hardy, productive; prickles few, large; fruit large to very large, round-oblate, regular, crimson black with heavy bloom; drupelets large, flattened, coarse, firm, moderately juicy, sweet, aromatic; very good; earlier than Gregg.

Florence. 1. Cult. et Count. Gent. 43:151. 1878.

Described as a yellowcap introduced from New Jersey about 1875. Plants hardy, vigorous, productive; prickles white, strong; fruit of medium size, round, orange-yellow, firm, seedy, juicy, sprightly; good.

Freseman. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 284. 1921.

A chance seedling which originated about 1899 with A. A. Freseman, Lennox, South Dakota, by whom it was introduced about 1904. Plants hardy, productive; fruit large, shiny, excellent.


Galloway. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 161. 1920.
Introduced by Galloway Brothers, Waterloo, Iowa. Plants vigorous, stocky, very productive; fruit very large, firm, black.

Garden. 1. Rec. Hort. 2:57. 1868.

Originated with H. H. Doolittle, Oaks Corners, New York, by whom it was sent out in 1867. A good cooking sort, lighter in color and more acid than other sorts.

Gardiner. 1. Fuller Sm. Fr.Cult. 147. 1867.

Received by A. S. Fuller about 1866 from S. Miller. Described as a new variety of peculiar habit, the leaves on the young canes in the spring being dark purple and very ornamental. Canes strong, very stocky; spines numerous and strong; fruit very large, covered with dense bloom; good.

Gault. 1. U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt. 27. 1894. 2. Am. Gard. 15:491, PL 1894. 3. N. Y. Sta. Bui 278:116. 1906.

A chance seedling found by the roadside a few years prior to 1892 by W. C. Gault, Ruggles, Ohio; introduced in 1892 by Storrs et Harrison, Painesville, Ohio. As grown at this Station it was inferior to standard sorts; the plants were subject to drouth injury and the fruits crumbled. Plants tall, very vigorous, upright, fairly hardy, and productive; canes stocky; prickles medium in number, strong; fruit medium in size, roundish; drupelets weakly coherent, dull black, coarse, firm, not juicy, seedy, sweet; fair; season early, very long.

General Negley. 1. Gard. Mon. 12:278. 1870.

Raised by a General Negley, several years previous to 1871. Exhibited at a meeting of the Ontario Fruit Growers Association in 1870 as a large perpetual-bearing blackcap.

Giant

Received at this Station in 1904 from J. G. Studt, Solon, Iowa. While on test it was a promising early sort. Plants vigorous, spreading, hardy and productive; canes stocky, covered with heavy gray bloom; prickles numerous, large, long; fruit of medium size, attractive black, with considerable bloom, firm, sweet; good; early.

Gibraltar. 1. King Bros. Cat. 35. 1916.

Originated about 1902, with N. E. Mallory, Blenheim, Ontario, by whom it was introduced in 1908. Plants stocky, vigorous, hardy and productive; prickles medium in number and size, the same color as the canes; fruit large, roundish, black with considerable bloom; drupelets above medium in size, strongly coherent, firm, sprightly; good.

Gold Dollar* 1. Townsend Cat. 20. 1922.

Found growing in a graveyard on a farm in Wicomico County, Maryland, several years previous to 1922. Introduced in 1922 by E. W. Townsend et Sons, Salisbury, Maryland. Described as propagating from tips; fruit golden yellow in color, more productive, larger, earlier and sweeter than Golden Queen.

Golden Cap. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1873.

Supposed to be a seedling of the Old White Cap; originated about 1860 in Cedar County, Iowa. It was in the catalog of the American Pomological Society from 1873 until 1883. Plants hardy and productive; fruit medium in size, round, yellow; good; midseason.

Golden Thornless. 1. Cult. et Count. Gent. 34:136. 1869. 2. AT. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:691. 1893.

Brought from Minnesota prior to 1869 by Purdy et Johnson, Palmyra, New York. Placed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1873, and removed in 1883. Plants vigorous, hardy, very productive; canes whitish, with slender branches, nearly free from prickles; fruit of medium size, orange, becoming darker when fully ripe, moderately firm, inclined to crumble, juicy; good.

Green. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:28. 1894.

Discovered about 1890 on the grounds of Green's Nursery Company, Rochester, New York; introduced in 1894. As grown at the Michigan Station the fruit was small, although the plants were fairly productive; fruit round, black; good; midseason.

Gregg. 1. Am. Hort. Ann. 87. 1871. 2. Roe Sue. Sm. Fr. 233. 1881. 3. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:278. 1894. 4. Card Bush-Fr. 155. 1917.

Paradoxically enough one may name more good qualities for Gregg and at the same time more defects than in almost any other black raspberry. The defects are in the plants; the good qualities, in the fruit. The berries are about all that could be desired, large, handsome and of the very best quality; the fruit is about the best of all black raspberries for evaporating, a smaller quantity of fresh fruit being required for a pound of dried fruit than of any other variety. The serious faults which mar the plants are: They are susceptible to rosette, anthracnose and streak disease; they winter kill badly where several other varieties are perfectly hardy; they are adapted to comparatively few soils; they make a late growth which sometimes does not mature in short seasons; and they require a rich soil and high cultivation to induce even average productivity. The parent plant of this variety was found growing wild in a ravine on the farm of R. et P. Gregg, Ohio County, Indiana, in 1866. The American Pomological Society added Gregg to its fruit catalog list in 1879.
Plants tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, ripen their wood late in the fall, somewhat tender to cold, variable in yield, not very healthy, susceptible to rosette, anthracnose and the streak disease; canes medium to thick, numerous, dull brown, variable in amount of bloom; prickles of average thickness, strong, rather few, brownish; leaflets quite large, 3-5, usually 3, with the lower two often lobed, oval, thick, attractive dark green, rugose, with serrate margins; petiole medium in length and thickness, slightly prickly, glabrous. Flowers late, numerous, in clusters near the tips of the branches; pedicels short, very prickly; calyx small, pubescent. Fruit late, quite susceptible to injury by unfavorable weather conditions; large to very large, broadly hemispherical, black with tinge of purple and with heavy bloom; drupelets large, round, usually cohering strongly, yet crumbling on some soils; flesh juicy, firm, rich and highly flavored but variable; quality usually good.


Hale Early. 1. N. Y. Sta. Rpt. 278. 1890.

Sent out for trial in 1888 by G. H. et J. H. Hale, South Glastonbury, Connecticut, but proving inferior to other sorts was never introduced. Plants vigorous, unproductive; fruit of medium size, firm, seedy, sweet; very good; early midseason.

Hamilton. 1. Horticulturist 24:274. 1869.

Discovered in the wild in 1867 by a Mr. Hamilton, Bartlett Station, Tennessee, who brought it under cultivation. Fruit large, sweet.

Hannibal. 1. U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt. 265, PL IX. 1892. Extra Late. 2. Ibid. 394. 1891.

Sent to the Pomologist of the United States Department of Agriculture in 1891 by W. J. Bradt, North Hannibal, New York, under the name Extra Late, which was changed to Hannibal at the suggestion of H. E. Van Deman, pomologist. Described by him as vigorous, productive; fruit large, roundish oblate; drupelets numerous, regular, black, without bloom, excellent; several days later than Gregg.

Hanover Pink.

A chance seedling found in a fence corner in 1919 by Samuel Higgs, Forestville, New York, who propagated it, and sent plants to this Station for trial in 1921. This variety has value only as a curiosity, the fruits crumble, are not high in quality and are an unattractive amber color.

Harrison, 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 100. 1891.

A chance seedling found about 1874 by H. S. Harris, Whig Lane, Salem County, New Jersey. In 1891 it was exhibited at a meeting of the American Pomological Society by R. G. Chase et Company, Geneva, New York. Fruit medium to large, rather dry, firm, black, with less bloom than Gregg; good; autumn-fruiting,

Haskell Yellow. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:31. 1894.
Taken from Massachusetts to Illinois, about 1836 by a Dr. Haskell. Favorable reports regarding it appeared a few years later.

Hawkeye. 1. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 535. 1884.
A variety cultivated in Iowa in 1884; said to have come from Indiana. Fruits earlier, as large and as firm as those of Gregg.

Hawkins Orange. 1. Cult. et Count. Gent. 41:470. 1876.

Exhibited at the Centennial Exposition in 1876 and described by W. L. Shaffer, chairman of the Pomological Committee, as an amber-colored blackcap not superior to existing kinds.

Hilborn. 1. Ont. Fr. Gr Assoc. Rpt. 18. 1884. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:674. 1893. A chance seedling which came up in an old plantation of black raspberries on the farm of W. W. Hilborn, Leamington, Ontario, about 1878; introduced in 1886. The variety has considerable merit as a market sort, producing good crops of fairly large, firm, attractive, finely-flavored fruit. The American Pomological Society placed Hilborn in its list of recommended varieties in 1889; it remained in the last list in 1909. Plants vigorous, hardy, and productive; fruit medium to large, firm, juicy, sweet; very good; early.

Hixon, 1. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 290. 1886.
Recommended in the fruit list of the Kansas Horticultural Society in 1886 for culture in the northern district of that State.

Hoag. 1. Card Bush~Fr. 166. 1898. Harkness. 2. Minn. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 28. 1876.
Originated with Charles R. Hoag, Kasson, Minnesota. It is said to resemble Gregg, but is more hardy in Minnesota.

Honeysweet. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 161. 1920. 2. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 282. 1922.

As the name suggests, this variety is characterized by its sweetness, a rich, honey-like, distinct flavor, made more delectable by an enticing aroma. The berries are of large size, glossy black, very handsome, so that, with the high quality they are nearly perfect in fruit characters. 4 The crop ripens in early midseason and can be left on the bushes longer than that of most other varieties, keeping so well after maturity that the season's product can be harvested in two pickings. The berries are very good for all culinary purposes, requiring less sugar than most other black raspberries, and are said to make the best evaporated product. A characteristic of the plants is that they bear their fruits in very compact clusters so that the crop is easily harvested. Unfortunately the plants, while hardy and productive, are highly susceptible to several of the serious ills of black raspberries. The original plant of this variety was found as a chance seedling by A. B. Katkamier on his farm at Macedon, New York, in 1912.
Plants above medium in height, vigorous, with upright tendency, hardy, productive, variable in health; canes rather stocky, with thick bloom; prickles of medium length, strength and number, slender, greenish; leaflets 3-5, broad-oval, rugose, dull, with dentate margins; petiole slender, prickly, glabrous, glaucous. Flowers midseason; pedicels prickly, slightly pubescent. Fruit early midseason, period of ripening short; medium to large, frequently bunched in compact clusters, roundish conic, glossy black, with scarcely any bloom, adheres strongly to the torus which is roughish and blunt-pointed; drupelets of medium size, cohering strongly so that the berries do not crumble; flesh juicy, very firm but tender, markedly sweet; very good in quality.

Hoosier. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 49. 1909. 2. U. S. D. A. Yearbook 429, PL 36. 1910.
Originated about 1895 by John W. Durm, Pekin, Indiana. It is said to be a cross between Gregg and McCormick made in an effort to produce a variety that would be both hardy and resistant to anthracnose. It was disseminated in 1898 by Alvia G. Gray, Pekin, Indiana. The plants are not always hardy and are susceptible to anthracnose. It was placed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1909. Plants medium in size and vigor, upright, productive; canes medium in number, stocky, glaucous with a medium number of strong, straight, prickles; leaflets large, dark green; fruit large, variable in size, irregular, roundish; drupelets large, numerous, round, strongly coherent; glossy black, firm, juicy, subacid, rich; good; midseason.

Hoosier Mammoth. 1. Gard. Mon. 23:304. 1881.

Described as a very promising blackcap, just introduced. Plants vigorous, hardy and very productive; fruit very large, black, rich. .

Hopkins. 1. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 416. 1882. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bui 278:129. 1900.

Brought into cultivation from the woods near Kansas City, Missouri, about 1872 by a Mrs. Mahoney. The variety came into the possession of G. W. Hopkins, Springfield, Missouri, secretary of the Missouri Horticultural Society, and was named in his honor by the Society. The stock was disseminated soon after by Frank Holsinger, Rodedale, Kansas. As grown at this Station the plants lacked productiveness. It was in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1889 and 1891. Plants moderately vigorous, hardy and moderately productive; fruit large, nearly firm; drupelets medium in size; attractive black, sweet; good; early midseason.


Idaho. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. hi:35. 1894.

Sent out by F.-R. Palmer, Mansfield, Ohio, in 1890. Received by him from a Mr. Ellis, Dayton, Washington, with the statement that it came from the mountains near Lewiston, Idaho. Plants vigorous, productive; fruit large, roundish oblate, nearly black with a dense pubescence, sprightly, vinous; good; late midseason.

Ideal. 1. Rural N.Y. $2:430. 1893.

Described in 1893 by C. P. Augur, of Connecticut, as having been found by him in 1890 growing near a Gregg plantation. As good as Souhegan and larger and better than Gregg on his heavy soil.

Indiana. 1. Rural N. Y. 47:678. 1888. 2. Mich. Sta. Bul. 55:22. 1889.

Received at the Michigan Station in 1884 from E. Y. Teas, Irvington, Indiana. As grown at the Michigan Station the variety was no improvement over Doolittle. The plants lacked vigor, but were productive; fruit large, roundish oblate, black with considerable pubescence, firm, lacking juice, rich, pleasing; midseason.

Ironclad. 1. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 112. 1887-88.

Originated about 1885 by a Mr. Wilson, Forest, Ohio, but had not been disseminated in 1887. Very vigorous, healthy, productive; fruit good; earlier than Tyler.


Johnson Sweet. 1. Rural N. Y. 46:122. 1887.

Key's Prolific. 2. N. Y. Sta. Rpt. 256. 1886.

In 1883 Robert Johnson, Shortsville, New York, received this variety from John B. Hoag, Judsonia, Arkansas, where it had been growing in the garden of a Mr. Key for twenty years. Johnson sent out plants for trial in 1886 under the name of Key's Prolific, but introduced it in 1887 as Johnson Sweet. As grown at this Station, the fruit was sweet, but too small to be of value. It was placed in the American Pomological Society's fruit catalog in 1889 and removed in 1899. Plants above medium height, medium in vigor, upright, not fully hardy, productive; canes numerous, medium in size, glaucous; prickles medium in size and number, strong; flowers small; fruit small, variable in size, roundish oblate; druplets medium to few in number, medium size, of medium coherence; dull black, firm, sweet to mildly sprightly; good; midseason.

Kansas. 1. Am. Gard. 12:120. 1891. 2. U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt. 394, PI. X. 1891. 3, N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:129. 1906.

Several serious faults have kept Kansas from becoming a standard commercial berry in the black raspberry regions of the country. A fault that is all but fatal is that of winter killing. In other characters the plants stand out conspicuously among their kind; thus they are very resistant to rosette; exceedingly productive; and well adapted to many soils. The fruits have many faults and a few merits: The berries are often imperfect and exceedingly variable in size and shape; and they crumble under unfavorable conditions. To offset these defects of the fruit, the berries, when well grown, are large, sweet and of the very best quality. The variety finds favor and is largely grown in many localities because of its great productiveness. The original plant of this variety sprang up as a chance seedling on the farm of A. H. Griesa, Lawrence, Kansas, in 1884. The variety was not generally introduced until about 1891. The American Pomological Society added Kansas to its catalog list of fruits in 1897.
Plants medium in size and vigor, upright-spreading, somewhat tender to cold, very productive, not always healthy, very resistant to rosette, susceptible to anthracnose, contract the streak disease slowly; canes numerous, stocky, green becoming brownish red, with very heavy bloom; prickles large, thick, strong, numerous, greenish; leaflets usually 3, broad-ovate to broad-oval, variable in size, dark green, dull, rugose, with dentate margins; petiole short, slender, prickly, glabrous, slightly glaucous. Flowers midseason; pedicels prickly, somewhat pubescent; calyx smooth. Fruit early midseason, or earlier; medium to rarely large, broadly hemispherical, variable in size and shape, often with many imperfect or malformed berries, glossy black or with more or less bloom, adheres well to the torus which is roughish and rounded; drupelets rather small, round, usually cohering strongly, although this varies on some soils; flesh not very juicy, firm, subacid or sweet to mildly sprightly; good in quality.

Kellogg. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 55:22. 1889.

A chance seedling which originated with George J. Kellogg, Janesville, Wisconsin, about 1875. Plants hardy, vigorous and productive; fruit with the appearance and season of Doolittle.

Kerr White. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 81:10. 1892.

On trial at the Michigan Station in 1892. Plants moderately vigorous; fruit large, roundish, light yellow, pubescent; good; early.

Kimball. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 138. 1885.

Mentioned at the meeting of American Pomological Society in 1885 by J. H. Bourn, Providence, Rhode Island, as new, and as ripening before Souhegan. It is a chance seedling found by him on the farm of James Kimball near Providence.

King of the Cliffs. 1. Bradley Bros. Cat. 12. 1913.

A chance seedling found growing among rocks in the spring of 1905; introduced in 1913 by Bradley Brothers, Makanda, Illinois, as a continual bearing sort. Plants tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, productive; canes stocky, greenish, heavily glaucous; prickles medium to few in number, strong; flowers early; torus smooth, round, very short, releasing the fruit readily; fruit of medium size, uniform, irregular, roundish oblate; drupelets medium in number, above medium in size, of medium coherence; black with moderate amount of bloom, medium juicy, firm, sprightly; good; early midseason.

Kumri. 1. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 405. 1917.

Reported at the 1917 meeting of the Iowa Horticultural Society as a new promising sort from Amazonia, Missouri. Plants as vigorous as those of Cumberland.


Lawrence. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 128:341. 1897.

Originated by A. H. Griesa, Lawrence, Kansas, prior to 1895, in which year it was introduced by the originator. As grown at this Station it is a fairly promising sort. Plants vigorous, nearly hardy, productive; fruit large, moderately firm, attractive black; fair to good; midseason.

Leffel. 1. Ohio Sta. Bul. 146:39. 1903.

Sent to the Ohio Station for trial about 1902. Late, resembling Gregg..

Lindsey. 1. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 478. 1882.
A medium-sized berry, better than Doolittle, cultivated in Iowa and said to have originated in Michigan.

Little. 1. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 169. 1882.

Originated with John Little, Granton, Ontario. Sent to T. T. Lyon in 1881 for trial and described by him as follows: Plants moderately vigorous, hardy; canes slender, reddish brown with very few purplish white spines; fruit small, round, glossy black, firm, seedy, juicy, acid, rich; early.

Livingston. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 177:25. 1899. 2* AT. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:130. 1906.

A chance seedling found in a vineyard by C. W, Middleton, Utica, Missouri. Plants were received from Mr. Middleton in 1898 at this Station. Plants vigorous, fairly hardy, productive; fruit medium to large, attractive black, firm, mild; good.

Lotta. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 132. 1887. Brackett No. 101. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bui 63:673. 1893.

A chance seedling which originated on the farm of G. C. Brackett, Lawrence, Kansas, prior to 1887. It is supposed to be a cross of a seedling and Gregg. Mr. Brackett sent it out about 1890 as Brackett No. 101, later naming it Lotta. It was placed in the fruit list of the American Pomological Society in 1897 and remained in the last list in 1909. Plants vigorous, hardy and productive; fruit large, attractive bright black, firm, moderately juicy, somewhat seedy; very good; midseason.

Lovett. 1. Lovett Cat. 15, PL 1891. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bui 36:639. 1891. Lovett's Early. 3. Rurat, N. Y. 50:558, fig. 203. 1891.

Originated as a chance seedling with Ezra Wood, Jefferson County, Indiana, about 1875. J. T. Lovett, Little Silver, New Jersey, purchased the stock for one thousand dollars and introduced it in 1891. As grown at this Station it is a fairly good sort, but not superior to standard varieties. Plants moderately vigorous, fairly hardy productive; canes slender; fruit large, attractive black, firm, moderately juicy, sweet; good; early.

Lum Everbearing, 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 172. 1867.

Raised from seed by H. B, Lum, Sandusky, Ohio, previous to 1865 in which year it was first exhibited before the Ohio Horticultural Society. Described as similar to the Ohio Everbearing. Plants stockier and not as tall as Doolittle; fruit large, black, sweet, resembling Doolittle in size and quality at summer fruiting, but berries much larger in the autumn crop.


McCormick. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 109. 1869. Mammoth Cluster. 2. Horticulturist 23:273. 1868.
This old sort is supposed to have originated near Collinsville, Indiana, prior to 1867. About 1867 A. M. Purdy, Palmyra, New York, began propagating it extensively under the name Mammoth Cluster. From that time its culture spread rapidly and it soon became the leading blackcap, a position it held until the introduction of the Gregg. Its popularity was due to its vigorous, healthy and productive plants. The fruit was considerably larger than that of the sorts then cultivated. It was generally known as Mammoth Cluster, but the American Pomological Society, recognizing the priority of the name McCormick, placed it upon its fruit catalog list in 1871 under that name, where it remained in 1909. Plants vigorous, hardy, productive; canes strong with few prickles; fruit of medium size, roundish, black, firm, juicy, rich; good; late midseason.

Mammoth. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt, 161. 1920.

Introduced by the Portland Seed Company, Portland, Oregon. Fruit black; good.

Manwaring. Manwaring No. 1. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 91:201. 1895.

A chance seedling received at this Station in 1893 from C. H. Manwaring, Lawrence, Kansas. Plants dwarfish, hardy; fruit small, black, firm, mildly subacid; inferior quality. Of no value.

May King. 1. Mich. Sta. Bui 151:164. 1897. Jackson's May King. 2. Mich. Sta. Bui 88:11. 1892.
Cataloged by Storrs et Harrison in 1887; on trial at the Michigan Station in 1892. Plants unproductive, very susceptible to anthracnose and easily injured by drouth; fruit small, jet black with considerable down; poor.

Miami. 1. Fuller Sin. Fr. Cult. 143. 1867.

An old sort found growing along the Miami River in Ohio prior to 1867. The variety has been confused with McCormick and has been given as a synonym of that variety, which it is said to resemble. Plants very vigorous, hardy and productive; fruit large, black with a brownish red cast, sweet, juicy; good; earlier than McCormick.

Midwest* 1. Card Bush-Fr. 159. 1917.

Said to be a cross between Cumberland and Cardinal originated by G. W. Alexander, Peru, Nebraska, prior to 1909. Despite the statement that Cardinal is one parent, this variety as grown at this Station shows no Strigosus characters, and is to all appearances a typical blackcap. Plants vigorous, upright, fairly hardy and productive; fruit large, roundish oblate; drupelets of medium coherence; black, firm, juicy, mildly sprightly; good; late.

Miller Daily. 1. Horticulturist 28:21, 86. 1872.
An autumn-fruiting sort found by Isaac Miller, Clinton County, Ohio, prior to 1870. Plants hardy, as vigorous as Gregg; fruit large, black, juicy; excellent.

Mills. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 128:341. 1897. Mills No. 15. 2. Ibid. 63:674. 1893. : A seedling of Gregg by Tyler raised in 1884 by Charles Mills, Fairmount, New York, by whom it was disseminated about 189iv The American Pomological Society placed Mills in its fruit catalog list in 1901, leaving it in the last list in 1909. Plants vigorous, fairly hardy, productive; fruit large, dull black with considerable bloom, firm, juicy, sweet, fine flavored; good; late.

Mills No. 1. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:674. 1893.
A seedling of Gregg by Tyler raised in 1884 by Charles Mills, Fairmount, New York.
Plants very vigorous and nearly hardy; fruit large, firm, seedy, moderately juicy, sweet; good; late.

Minnesota. 1. Cult. .et Count, Gent. 34:136. 1869.

An inferior sort from Minnesota variously described as straw colored or dark orange.

Missouri. 1. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 46. 1903.

A chance seedling, found in 1893 by Henry Wallis, Wellston, Missouri, and sent out by him in 1900. Plants said to be very hardy and the fruits very large.

Mohler. 1. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 155. 1893. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bui 81:586. 1894.

Originated by D. M. Mohler, New Paris, Ohio, from seed of Eureka planted in 1885. As grown at this Station Mohler is a promising early variety well recommended on account of size and attractiveness of fruit and productivity of plant. Plants large, vigorous, fairly hardy and very productive; fruit large, black, firm, juicy, nearly sweet; fair.

Moody. 1. Mo. Hort Soc. Rpt. 295. 1884.
Mentioned as a white sort; very productive; fruit of good size and flavor.

Mulatto. 1. Can. Hort. 28:25. 1905.

On trial at the Ontario Agricultural College prior to 1905. Originated with A. E. Sherrington, Walkerton, Ontario. A yellow sort of poor quality; soon discarded.

Munger. 1. Am. Gard. 18:255, % 74- l897- 2- Mich. Sta. Bui 171:287. 1898.

Grown from seed of Shaffer, about 1890, by Timothy Munger, western Ohio; introduced by W. N. Scarff, New Carlisle, Ohio, in 1897. On trial at this Station for two seasons, it has not shown itself equal to standard sorts. Neither the plants nor the fruits of this variety show any of the characters of its reputed parent. Plants above medium height, vigorous, upright, hardy, only moderately productive; canes stocky, greenish, heavily glaucous, with numerous, slender prickles; flowers medium in season; torus blunt-pointed, slightly rough, releasing the berry readily; fruit variable in size, averaging medium, regular, roundish to roundish conic; drupelets numerous, below medium in size, strongly coherent, black with a light bloom, juicy, firm, mild, sweet; good; late midseason.

Munson Everbearing. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 159. 1917.

Mentioned as the most reliable variety in Nebraska, but poor and small.

Mystery. 1. Minn. Sta. Bul. 25:247. 1892.

On trial at the Minnesota Station in 1892. Received there from Kentucky as an everbearing sort. Plants medium to large; fruit of fair size, lacking quality; not autumn-fruiting in Minnesota.


Nemaha. 1. Rural N. Y. 43:544- 1884.

Ex-Governor Robert W. Furnas found this sort about 1864 near the Missouri River in Nemaha County, Nebraska. About 1884 it was introduced by Green's Nursery Company, Rochester, New York. It is very similar to Gregg, but considerably hardier than that variety, this fact making it a valuable sort where hardiness is essential. The fruit is a little smaller, a little later, slightly blacker and of better quality than that of Gregg. Nemaha was placed in the fruit list of the American Pomological Society in 1889 and remained in the last list in 1909. Plants vigorous, hardy, moderately productive; fruit medium in size, roundish oblate, black, firm; good; late.

New American. 1. Stark Bros. Supl. Cat. 34. 1910.

Originated about 1893 with D. J. Miller, Millersburg, Ohio. Stark Brothers, Louisiana, Missouri, named and introduced it about 1910 and have propagated it in a moderate way since then. Plants vigorous, healthy, and hardy; fruit large and very firm.

New Haven. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 171. 1898.

A chance seedling which originated on the grounds of E. E. Clark, New Haven, Connecticut. Described as having large, vigorous plants; fruit large, juicy, with small seeds.

Norfolk. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 88:11. 1892.

On trial at the Michigan Station in 1892. Unsatisfactory. Fruit small, round, black; good; early midseason.

Northfield. 1. Mich. Sta. Bui 111:44. i#94-

Sent out a few years prior to 1894 by M. T. Thompson, Rio Vista, Virginia. Plants fairly vigorous, healthy, and productive; fruit small.


Ohio. 1. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 195. 1883. 2. Mick Sta. Bui 111:294. 1894. 3. Cornell Sta. Bul. 117:420. 1896.

With the decline of the evaporation of black raspberries Ohio is passing out. When the evaporation of this fruit was a great industry in New York, Ohio was the variety best suited for this purpose, since it yielded more pounds to a bushel of fresh fruit than any other black raspberry, for the reason that the seeds are large and heavy and the flesh is firm and dry. The fruits, however, are not of high quality, and are not liked either for general market or for canning. The plants are susceptible to the several diseases of this fruit and are quickly injured by drouths. They are very productive, fairly hardy, and are usually vigorous. The variety may be known by the silvery whiteness of the under surface of the leaves and of the stems. Ohio may be a seedling of Doolittle. At any rate it originated about 1865 in a bed of Doolittle plants on the farm of Hiram Van Dusen, Palmyra, New York. The American Pomological Society added Ohio to its fruit catalog list in 1883. Ohio should not be confused with Ohio Everbearing of Ohio origin, long since dropped from cultivation.

Plants of medium height and vigor, upright-spreading, hardy, very productive, susceptible to rosette, anthracnose and the streak disease; canes of medium thickness, light green changing to dull reddish brown, silvery white beneath, heavily glaucous; prickles of medium thickness and strength, numerous, greenish; leaflets 3, of medium size and color, rather small on the bearing canes, very light colored on the under surfaces, ovate, rugose, with serrate margins; petiole slender, glabrous, glaucous. Flowers midseason, numerous; pedicels short, of medium thickness. Fruit midseason, injured by drouth, season short, dries exceptionally well, somewhat seedy; medium to above in size, scarcely ever large, hemispherical, rather dull reddish black changing to an attractive color at maturity, glaucous, clings well but releases readily from the torus which is roughish and rounded; drupelets medium in size, roundish oval, variable in coherence; flesh but moderately juicy, very firm, seedy, sweet to pleasantly subacid; quality good to very good.

Ohio Everbearing. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 294. 1841. 2. Gard. Mon. 3:134. 1861.

This variety was cultivated as long ago as 1832. It was first recommended to eastern growers by Nicholas Longworth, Cincinnati, Ohio. The American Pomological Society placed Ohio Everbearing in its fruit catalog list in 1862 but dropped it in 1897. For a further discussion of this sort see page 12.

Older. 1. Am. Pom. Sog. Rpt. 83. 1891. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bui 63:675. 1893.

A chance seedling found about 1872 by a Mr. Older, Independence, Iowa. It attained some importance because of the vigor, hardiness and productivity of the plants and the large fruit. It was placed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1897 remaining in the last catalog in 1909. Plants trailing, vigorous, hardy, moderately productive; fruit large, glossy, black, without bloom, firm, moderately juicy, rich subacid; midseason.

Onondaga. 1. AT. Y. Sta. Bui 128:341. 1897. Mills No. 7. 2. Ibid. 63:674. 1893.

A seedling of Gregg by Tyler raised in 1884 by Charles Mills, Fairmount, New York. It was sent out as Mills No. 7, and in 1894 was named Onondaga. As grown at this Station it was promising, the plants being very vigorous, hardy and productive; fruit large, attractive, moderately juicy, firm, sweet; good.

Ontario. 1. Horticulturist 26:279. 1871.

Found in 1866, near Fairport, New York, by E. W. Lord, Newark, New York, by whom it was brought to notice. It seems not to have gone beyond the trial stage. Plants vigorous, hardy, and very productive; fruit large, deep black with thick bloom, very firm, juicy, sweet; good; early with long season.

Oregon. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:47. 1894.

Reported in 1877 as valuable in Oregon. P. W. Miller, Portland, Oregon, says this is the native sort which grows wild in Oregon and Washington. Fruit juicy, larger than Gregg.

Othello.

A chance seedling discovered about 1908 by Louis Graton, Trumansburg, New York. Plants were sent to this Station in 1915. As grown here, the plants are tender to cold, and unproductive; fruit medium in size, firm, seedy, sprightly; good.

Ozark. 1. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 182. 1886.
A seedling brought to notice by a Mr. Holman, of Missouri, in 1886. Similar to Gregg. Plants vigorous; fruit late.


Palmer. 1. Ann. Hort. 104. 1889. 2. N. Y. Sta, Bul. 91:202. 1895. Acme. 3. Ind. Sta. Bul. 31:8. 1890.

Originated by F. R. Palmer, Mansfield, Ohio, in 1882; introduced in 1888. It is a supposed seedling of Gregg by Tyler. It achieved some prominence as an early sort. At this Station the berries lack size, and the plants are not productive, but it is of value for its earliness. Palmer was placed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1897, and remained in the last list in 1909. Plants vigorous, usually hardy, moderately productive; fruit of medium size, dull black, firm, juicy, nearly sweet; good; early.

Pennock. 1. Colo. Sta. Bul. 60:10. 1900.
Originated by Charles E. Pennock, Bellvue, Colorado. Plants slender, vigorous, healthy.

Perpetual King. 1. Columbian Grape Co. Cat. 1897. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:131, 1906. Introduced in 1897 by the Columbian Grape Company, Kingston, Ohio. As grown at this Station, the plants are weak, dwarfish, thickly covered with prickles, not hardy and unproductive; fruit of medium size, unattractive black, moderately firm, slightly acid; fair.

Phoenix. 1. Mich. Sta. Bui 152:181. 1898.

On trial at the Michigan Station in 1898 where it failed to show any merit. Plants weak and unproductive; fruit medium in size, black, moderately juicy, mild; early.

Pioneer. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:50. 1894. Progress. 2. Lovett Cat. 1889. Beinor. 3. N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt 162. 1894.
Originated with Jacob Muhl, Hammonton, New Jersey. J. T. Lovett, Little Silver, New Jersey, introduced the same berry as Progress. It was tried extensively but seems not to have become of any importance as grown at this Station. The plants are only moderately vigorous and fairly hardy; fruit medium in size, dull black, firm, acid; fair; midseason.

Plum Farmer. 1. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 218. 1907. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 364:191. 1913. 3. Card Bush-Fr. 161, PI. II. 1917. 4. Ind. Sta. Bul. 201:11. 1917. 5. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 283. 1922.
This variety is comparatively new, but has been under cultivation long enough to have its merits and faults judged. It is the concensus of opinion among the black raspberry growers of New York that Plum Farmer is one of the best commercial sorts. The plants are preeminently vigorous, hardy, healthy, and productive. Moreover, they withstand well the dry, hot weather that so often plays havoc with this fruit. Unfortunately they are quite susceptible to the several diseases which make the growing of black raspberries so hazardous in eastern America. The fruits, which ripen in early midseason, are large, beautiful, of high quality and ship well. The variety may often be told in the fruit plantation by its spreading habit of growth. The first plant of this variety was found by L. J. Farmer, Pulaski, New York, in a shipment of raspberries from Ohio, about 1892, from which introduction was begun in 1895.
Plants tall, vigorous, upright to quite spreading, hardy, very productive, contracting the streak disease rapidly, susceptible to anthracnose and rosette; canes numerous, stocky, green becoming brownish red, very heavily glaucous; prickles of medium length and thickness, numerous, greenish; leaflets usually 3, intermediate in size and color, sometimes dark green, and narrowly and deeply lobed, rugose, with coarsely dentate margins; petiole slender, prickly, glabrous, slightly glaucous. Flowers midseason; pedicels prickly, pubescent; calyx not prickly. Fruit early midseason, ships and dries fairly well; large, broadly hemispherical, very black but not glossy, with considerable bloom, adheres fairly well to the slightly roughened and rounded torus yet releasing the berries readily; drupelets rather small, rounded, cohering strongly so that berries do not crumble; flesh juicy, medium in firmness, sprightly at first becoming mild at full maturity; quality good.

Prairie Queen. 1. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 181. 1886-87.

Mentioned in the report of the Ohio Horticultural Society for 1886-87 as coming from A. D. Ashbaugh, Girard, Illinois. Plants hardy; fruit of fine quality; earlier than Souhegan.

Pride of Ohio* 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 206:58. 1903. 2. Va. Sta. Bul. 147:60. 1903.

A chance seedling which originated with A. D. Leffel, New Carlisle, Ohio, prior to 1909; introduced about 1901. At the Virginia Station in 1903 it was considered the most promising new sort.

Pride of the West. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 81:10. 1892.

On trial at the Michigan Station in 1892. Plants moderately vigorous and productive; fruit large, roundish ovate, glossy black; fair; early.


Queen of the West. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:52. 1894.

Originated in Douglas County, Kansas, prior to 1890. Plants more productive than Souhegan; fruit larger and later than that sort.

Quillen. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 161. 1920.

A cross between Cumberland and Hopkins which was grown about 1913 by Charles Quillen, Monrovia, Indiana. Introduced in 1917 by C. M. Hobbs et Sons, Bridgeport, Indiana. Plants medium to dwarfish, vigorous, spreading, half hardy, productive; canes stocky, with rather small prickles; fruit large, uniform, roundish oblate, drupelets cohering strongly, glossy black, firm, moderately juicy, subacid; good; later than Cumberland,


Rachel. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 162. 1917.

A chance seedling which originated with Rachel D. Mitchell, Geneva, New York, about 1892. Plants were received at this Station in 1910 and since then it has made an excellent showing. The plants are very vigorous, upright, hardy, productive and nearly immune to anthracnose; foliage healthy, dark green; fruit large, attractive black; drupelets cohering strongly; firm, medium juicy, mild, sweet; good; very late.

Ransom Everbearing. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:53. 1894.
Sent out by Stark Brothers, Louisiana, Missouri, in 1890. Plants moderately vigorous, productive; fruit small; good.

Rex. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:55. 1894.

Raised from seed of Gregg by John W. Perry, Covington, Ohio, about 1885. As tried at the Ohio Station it was inferior to Gregg, but with Mr. Perry it was superior to that sort.

Rowena. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 278:132. 1906. Stahelin. 2. Mich. Sta. Bul. 171:286. 1899.

A chance seedling found by F. C. Stahelin, Bridgman, Michigan. Plants were sent to this Station in 1897 and as grown here the variety is of little value. Plants very vigorous, hardy, productive; fruit below medium in size, dull black, with considerable bloom, firm; fair.

Rundell. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 88:11. 1892.

A chance seedling found in 1888 by Charles Rundell, New Buffalo, Michigan, who sent it out for trial, but being a yellowcap, and similar to Beebe, it met with little favor.


Sam Stewart. 1. Cult. et Count. Gent. 34:136. 1869. 2* ^m* Hort. Ann. 103. 1870.

Described in 1870 as a new sort from Michigan recently introduced by Purdy et Johnson, Palmyra, New York. Plants very productive; fruit large, oblong, attractive, firm.

Saunders No. 60. 1. Mich. St. Bd. Agr. Rpt. 307. 1895.

A seedling of Gregg raised by William Saunders, London, Ontario. Plants productive, not hardy at Ottawa; fruit very large, purplish black; inferior in quality; late.

Savanna. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:57. 1894.

Obtained from the woods near Savanna, Oklahoma, by T. V. Munson, Denison, Texas, who describes the plant as vigorous, upright, enduring climatic extremes, very productive; fruit large, sweet; very early.

Scarff. 1. Scarff Cat. 6. 1916.

Discovered about 1906 by Washington Taggart, New Carlisle, Ohio, growing near a field of Gregg, of which this is supposed to be a seedling. It was introduced in 1915 byW. N. Scarff, New Carlisle, Ohio. As grown at this Station Scarff has not shown much promise, the fruit being rather small, unattractive and seedy. Plants medium in height and vigor, spreading, moderately productive; canes rather slender to moderately stocky, green, heavily glaucous; prickles numerous, thick, strong, green; fruit of medium size, surface irregular; drupelets medium in size, cohering strongly, glossy black, firm, seedy; variable in flavor and quality; early.

Seneca. 1. Trans. Am. Inst. 231. 1867. 2; Horticulturist 24:310, 324, fig. 1869.

Raised prior to 1867 by a Mr. Dell, Seneca County, New York; introduced in 1867 by Doolittle et Wright, Waterloo, New York. It was widely disseminated but never became an important sort. The American Pomological Society added Seneca to its catalog in 1881, but removed it in 1883. Plants very vigorous, very productive; prickles reddish, strong, numerous; fruit of medium size, black with a purplish tinge, with light bloom, juicy, sweet; midseason.

Smith. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 40. 1879. Smith Ironclad. 2. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:59. 1894.

Found about 1875 in a lot of trees purchased from an agent by a Mr. Smith, in Kansas; probably an old sort renamed. The American Pomological Society placed Smith in its catalog list in 1879 where it remained until 1897. Fruit very large, round, black; good; midseason.

Smith Giant 1. Can. Hort. 15:233. 1892.

A supposed seedling of Gregg raised from seed by A. M. Smith, St. Catherines, Ontario, in 1888; said to be similar to Gregg. In Ontario it is considered a valuable sort for market. Plants vigorous, fairly hardy in Ontario, productive; fruit very large, black with heavy bloom; very good; late.

Smith (I). 1. Card Bush-Fr. 163. 1917.

Received at this Station in 1908 from S. A. Smith, Geneva, New York. It was used as a parent in breeding black raspberries at this Station and gave many promising seedlings.

Smith (II)- 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:675. 1893.
A chance seedling sent to this Station in 1889 by B. F. Smith, Lawrence, Kansas. Fruit of medium size, firm, sweet; very good.

Smith Prolific. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 63:675. 1893.

A chance seedling found about 1884 by Ezra G. Smith, Manchester, New York. It was placed in the fruit list of the American Pomological Society in 1897 and removed in 1899. Plants very vigorous, rather tender to cold, productive where hardy; fruit large, bright black, firm, juicy, seedy, sweet; good; early.

Souhegan. 1. Card. Mon. 23:304. 1881.
A chance seedling found in 1869 by J. A. Carlton, Mt. Vernon, New Hampshire. It was named after the Souhegan River near which it originated. The variety was introduced in 1881 by G. H. et J. H. Hale, South Glastonbury, Connecticut. Souhegan rapidly became the leading early sort, later sharing that place with Palmer and Tyler. The plants are hardy and productive, and bear handsome glossy black fruit which ripens very early. The American Pomological Society placed Souhegan in its catalog in 1881 and it remained in the last list in 1909. Plants vigorous, hardy, very productive; fruit medium in size, round, glossy black with slight bloom; drupelets small, firm; juicy, sprightly, rich; good; very early.

Spanish. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 111:61. 1894.

Grown and sold by Henry Geisler, Watervliet, Michigan, who says that it is popular in his section and earlier than other sorts. One report says this is Gregg renamed.

Springfield. 1. Card. Mon. 27:275. 1885.

A chance seedling found about 1880 on the grounds of J. W. Adams et Company, Springfield, Massachusetts. After a brief trial it was considered worthless, and the stock given to a Mr. Chandler, on whose grounds it appeared so promising that Adams et Company introduced it. Plants vigorous, hardy, productive; canes without prickles; fruits small, firm, not juicy; good; early.

Spry Early. 1. AT. Y. Sta. Rpt. 280. 1890.

A chance seedling found about 1884 by John Spry, Port Atkinson, Wisconsin, It was introduced in 1888 by Coe, Converse et Edwards of the same place. Plants vigorous and productive; fruit medium in size, black, juicy, nearly sweet; early.

Stone Fort. 1. Lovett Cat. 12. 1908.

Sent out in 1908 by J. T. Lovett, Little Silver, New Jersey, and described by him as a chance seedling from Illinois. As grown at this Station it is inferior to standard sorts. Plants vigorous, upright-spreading, not always hardy, subject to anthracnose, productive; prickles medium in number, strong; fruit medium to large, roundish oblate; drupelets above medium in size, cohering strongly; glossy black, moderately juicy, firm, seedy, mild subacid; good; late midseason.

Success. 1. Card Bush-Fr. 174. 1898. Waters' Success. 2. Mich. St. Bd. Agr. Rpt. 318. 1895.

Sent out by J. M. Waters, Fernhill, Ontario, in 1893. It was considered very valuable on the trial grounds of the Rural New-Yorker, because of having large canes and large fruit.

Summit. 1. Fuller Sm. Fr. Cult. 144. 1867.

A chance seedling found prior to 1867 by Daniel Supher, Crawford County, Pennsylvania. Plants vigorous; canes pale orange-yellow with considerable bloom; prickles numerous, short, hooked; fruit of medium size, roundish oblate, orange with pink at base of drupelets which are small and compact, rather dry; very sweet.

Surprise. 1. Horticulturist 211272. 1866.
A chance seedling found in a fence corner in 1858 by George Husmann, Hermann, Missouri. Plants stiff, upright, vigorous; prickles few, short; fruit large, oblong or pointed, black, with heavy bloom, rich and sprightly.

Surrey. 1. Va. Sta. Bul. 22:107. 1892.

Introduced by the Cleveland Nursery Company, Rio Vista, Virginia, prior to 1892. The Virginia Station at first considered it promising but later discarded it as of no value. Plants lacking vigor and unproductive; fruit medium in size, firm; early midseason.

Sweet Golden. i+ Wis. Sta. Bul. 72:21. 1899.

A yellow-fruited blackcap received at the Wisconsin Station in 1893 from C. A. Sherwood, Whitehall, Wisconsin. Fruit small, dull, unattractive, sweet, mild.

Sweet Home. 1. Card. Mon. 22:111. 1880.

A seedling of Lum Everbearing which originated in Illinois and was considered better than McCormick by some. In most places the plant lacks vigor, productiveness and size.


Thompson Sweet. 1. Mass. Sta. Bul. 2:23. 1888.

On trial at the Massachusetts Station in 1888 where the plants were weak, not hardy, unproductive; fruit small, firm; good; early.

Townsend No. 2. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 91:202. 1895.

Plants were received at this Station in 1894 for trial from George Townsend, Gordon, Ohio, who raised the variety from seed of Gregg.. It proved inferior to standard sorts, the fruit being unattractive and inclined to crumble. Plants vigorous, hardy, productive; fruit medium in size, black with heavy bloom, firm, crumbly, seedy, sweet; good.

Tye. 1. Will Cat. 97. 1921.

Brought into cultivation from the wild by Otis A. Tye, Price, North Dakota. Introduced in 1921 by the Oscar H. Will Company, Bismarck, North Dakota, and said by them to be of value only for its hardiness.

Tyler. 1. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 360. 1882.
A chance seedling found growing among plants of McCormick and Seneca prior to 1876 on the grounds of Nathan Tyler, Auburn, New York. It was introduced about 1878 by Robert Johnson, Shortsville, New York, who named the variety Tyler. This variety is almost identical with Souhegan, differing from that sort in the fruit being a little later and the plants more vigorous and resistant to spring frosts. The American Pomological Society placed Tyler in its catalog in 1883; it remained in the last catalog in 1909. Plants vigorous, hardy and very productive; fruit of medium size, handsome jet black without bloom, firm, juicy; good; early.


Uncle Tom. 1. Hunt Cat. 1922.

A chance seedling found in a strawberry bed by Thomas R. Hunt, Sr., Lambertville, New Jersey, in 1910; introduced in 1921 by Thomas R. Hunt, Jr., of the same place. As grown at this Station from plants received in 1922, it seems to be a promising variety. The berries are very firm and attractive and the plants healthy and productive. Plants tall, vigorous, upright-spreading, apparently hardy, very productive; canes stocky, green, heavily glaucous; prickles very numerous, thick, strong; fruit uniformly large, some berries of irregular shape, roundish; drupelets medium in number, large, cohering strongly; glossy black with moderate amount of bloom, moderately juicy, very firm, slightly seedy, subacid; good; late midseason.


Virginia. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 88:11. 1892.
The Cleveland Nursery Company, Rio Vista, Virginia, sent plants to the Michigan Station for trial, where after several years test it failed to show much merit. Plants weak, subject to anthracnose and unproductive; fruit large, jet black, roundish conic, moderately firm; good.


Wade. 1. Ann. Hort. 194. 1892.

Found in 1884 under a grape trellis by John Wade, Veedersburg, Indiana. Introduced in 1892 by Albertson et Hobbs, Bridgeport, Indiana. Plants hardy, productive; fruit the size of Gregg; black.

Wallace. 1. Neb. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 216. 1900.

A seedling which originated about 1893 with a Mr. Wallace of Iowa. Described as having vigorous, hardy and productive plants; fruit medium to large, rather soft, tart, rich, later than Gregg with a long season.

Watson Prolific. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 207. 1922.

A chance seedling found in a fence corner in 1916 by Ira P. Watson, Fredonia, New York, who introduced it in 1920. It is in no way superior to Plum Farmer which it resembles. Plants vigorous, sprawling, productive, with dark green foliage; fruit large, attractive black; drupelets small, very firm, sprightly; good; early.

Wellesley. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Spec. Rpt. 80. 1904-05.

Described as "the very best and largest extra early Black Cap grown. Superb in quality, very productive, vigorous, and perfectly hardy."

Westchester. 1. Horticulturist 24:228, fig. 1869.

A chance seedling found about 1862 in the garden of L. J. Mabie, Tarrytown, New York. Advertised extensively by the originator but never became of importance. Plants vigorous; prickles numerous, large; fruit large, black with a light bloom, firm; good.

Wilmot. 1. S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 104:293. 1907.

A wild blackcap found near Wilmot, South Dakota, which has been used by Prof. N. E. Hansen of the South Dakota Station in his breeding work. It did not prove sufficiently hardy and the plants were very thorny.

Windom. 1. S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 104:293. 1907.

A wild blackcap from Windom, Minnesota, brought under cultivation by Prof. N. E. Hansen of the South Dakota Experiment Station, but which did not prove hardy.

Winfield. 1. U. S. D. A. Yearbook 380, PI. 34. 1909.

A chance seedling found in 1902 in a grape arbor by G. F. Kleinsteiber, Winfield, Kansas. Introduced in 1909 by the Winfield Nursery Company of the same place. When first tried at this Station it seeemd to have considerable merit, the fruits being of large size, attractive appearance and fine quality, but later the plants were severely injured by anthracnose and the fruit became crumbly and of inferior quality. Plants vigorous, spreading, fairly hardy and very productive; canes stocky with a medium number of strong prickles; fruit borne in dense, compact clusters, large, roundish oblate; drupelets large, numerous, of medium coherence; glossy black with heavy bloom at base of drupelets, firm, juicy, subacid; good; late midseason.

Winona. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bui 63:676. 1893.

Introduced in 1890 by B. B. Scarff, New Carlisle, Ohio, by whom it had been tested for seven years previously. It "seemed to have little merit, the plants lacking vigor and productiveness. It was placed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1901, remaining in the last catalog in 1909. Plants rather weak and unproductive; fruit medium in size, moderately juicy, firm, sweet; good; midseason.

Wonder. 1. Ann. Hort. 133. 1892. 2. Mich. Sta. Bui 111:68. 1894.

An everbearing variety which originated a few years prior to 1894 with J. H. Robbins, Arcadia, Indiana; introduced in 1892 by Albertson et Hobbs, Bridgeport, Indiana. Plants vigorous, moderately productive; fruit small, round, black with considerable bloom between the drupelets, soft; good.

Woodside. 1. Fuller Sm. Ft. Cult. 144. 1867.

Of New Jersey origin, being grown from seed by a neighbor of A. S. Fuller, Ridgewood. New Jersey. Canes light crimson with few prickles; fruit very large, round, black with little bloom, sweet, juicy; good; autumn-fruiting.


Yellow Pearl. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 974. 1869.

A yellow-fruited variety described by Downing. Plants vigorous, very productive; fruit dark yellow with slight bloom, sprightly.

Yosemite. 1. Am. Hort. Ann. 104. 1870. 2. Cal. Bien. St.Bd. Hort.Rpt. 233. -1885-86. Mentioned in 1870 as a new variety from Alameda County, California. Plants very vigorous and very thorny; fruit large and of poor color.