CHAPTER XI

VARIETIES OP BLACK CURRANTS

African Queen. 1. Can. Hort. 19:297. 1896.
Supposed so be a seedling of Lee; promising in Canada thirty years ago.

American Black. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 292. 1832. 2. Fuller Sm. Fr. Cult. 199. 1867.
A native species of R. americanum, considerably better flavored than the European black currant. Fruit medium in size, roundish oval, black; clusters small, tapering.

Baldwin. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul.95:430, PI. V, fig. 15. 1895. Baldwin's Black. 2. U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt. 395. 1891. Carter's Champion. 3. Jour. Hort. 3rd Ser. 13:250, 275. 1886.
This variety originated more than half a century ago in Kent, England. It has long been popular with English growers; but sparingly planted in America. On the grounds of this Station the plants are moderately vigorous and productive; fruit variable, small or large, flavor subacid but milder than most black currants; fair; midseason.

Bang Up. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 492. 1869. Black Bang-up. 2. Horticulturist 9:162. 1854.
An old variety of English origin similar to the Common Black and classed by some as identical with that sort. Plants vigorous, moderately productive; bunches large; berries medium to large, black; skin thick; briskly subacid; good; midseason.

Beauty. 1. Can. Cent. Exp. Farm Bul.56:18. 1907.
Originated by William Saunders, London, Ontario, prior to 1887, from a seedling of Naples. Plants moderately vigorous and productive; fruit medium in size, in medium-sized clusters, briskly subacid; fair; ripens unevenly from midseason to late.

Bella. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 399. 1895.
Another of William Saunders' seedlings. Plants moderately vigorous, unproductive; bunches short; berries small, black; good; early.

Black Grape. 1. Bunyard Cat. 23. 1915-16. Ogden. 2. Can. Cent Exp. Farm Bul.56:17. 1907.
This variety has been grown in England for more than 80 years. Plants vigorous, very productive; bunches medium; berries uneven, below to above medium, skin moderately thick, fairly tender; briskly subacid; fair; ripens unevenly, usually in late midseason.

Black Victoria. 1. Can. Hort. 22:508. 1899. Victoria. 2. Rivers Cat. 17. 1909-10.
Originated in England. As grown at this Station the plants are medium in size and vigor; clusters short; berries variable in size, averaging large, dull black, subacid; good; ripens unevenly; general appearance very attractive.

Blacksmith. 1. Bunyard Cat. 26. 1921. 2. Laxton Bros. Cat. 13, fig. 1923.
Recently introduced by Laxton Brothers, Bedford, England. Plants vigorous, productive; berries medium in size, in rather long clusters; late.

Boskoop Giant. 1. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 32:381. 1902. 2. Jour, Pom. 1:77, figs. 14 et 15. 1919. 3. Bunyard Cat. 26, fig. 1921.
If Boskoop Giant can be purchased in America true to name, it is probably the best of the black currants here as it is in many parts of Europe. The characters which recommend it are very large, sweet, richly flavored berries and vigorous, productive bushes. The fruit ripens evenly and is easily picked. The clusters are variable in size but average larger than those of any other black currant, but are sometimes a little too loose. It is one of the earliest of the black currants to ripen, although the flowers are late. The crop can usually be gathered at one picking, and the berries hang long on the bushes after ripening. This variety was raised more than forty years ago by a Mr. Hoogendyk, Boskoop, Holland. Later it was imported into England and was introduced in 1895 by George Bunyard et Company, Maidstone, England. Soon after it was brought to America.
Plants large, vigorous, upright, healthy, productive; young shoots numerous; leaf-buds pale dull gray with reddish tinge on those nearest the tips, large, long, obtuse, plump, free; leaves large, deeply cordate at the base, with moderately short-pointed lobes, semi-glossy, rugose, glabrous, with coarsely serrate margins; petiole of medium length, thick, greenish. Flowers late, large, partly closed, dull greenish red, heavily pubescent on the buds, in few- to medium-flowered, rather loose, drooping clusters; calyx-tube greenish, tinged dull red, campanulate, pubescent, slightly resinous; calyx-lobes oblong, narrow, acute, heavily pubescent, with tinge of dull red; ovary resinous, slightly pubescent. Fruit midseason, ripens evenly; clusters often very long for a black currant, loose, with well-filled tips; cluster-stems long, glandular, 8-14 berries; berry-stems long, medium thick, glandular, heavily pubescent; berries variable in size, averaging large, cling well, roundish, dull black; skin glandular, thin, opaque; flesh greenish, tinged red near the skin, juicy, rich, sprightly becoming sweet, aromatic; quality very good.

Brown Fruited. 1. Fuller Sm. Fr. Cult. 211. 1867. Russian Green. 2. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 67. 1842.
This is a very old English sort with greenish brown fruit when ripe. Berries dry, hard, astringent; worthless.

Buddenborg. 1. Can. Cent. Exp. Farm Bui 56:16. 1907. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 287. 1921.
Origin unknown. Plants vigorous, moderately productive; bunches medium in size; berries large; skin thick; pleasantly flavored; good; late.

Champion. 1. Gard. Chron. N. S. 18:818. 1882. Black Champion. 2. Flor. et Pom. 174. 1881. Carter's Champion. 3. Jour. Hort. 3rd Ser. 13:250, 275. 1886.
When the law permitted black currants to be grown in New York, Champion was one of the favorites because of its vigorous, productive bushes and large, mild-flavored currants. The variety has the fault of not ripening its crop evenly. The clusters are usually ripe on some parts of the bush and not on others, so that several pickings are necessary. It is a late sort. Champion was obtained by W. H. Dunnett, Dedham, Essex, England, more than fifty years ago, probably as a chance seedling. Soon after its introduction in England, the variety was brought to America. In 1897 the American Pomological Society added Champion to its list of recommended fruits.

Plants large, vigorous, upright-spreading, very-dense, productive, healthy; young shoots numerous; leaf-buds pale greenish brown, with trace of red, very large, very long, obtuse, very plump, free; leaves large, long, deeply cordate at the base, with moderately long-pointed lobes, thin, semi-glossy, slightly rugose, glabrous, with coarsely serrate margins; petiole greenish, pubescent. Flowers late, large, partly closed, dull greenish red with a grayish cast before opening, in short, loose, drooping, few-flowered clusters; calyx-tube greenish, sometimes tinged with red, campanulate, pubescent, resinous; calyx-lobes oblong, acuminate, thickly pubescent, tinged dull red; petals large; ovary resinous, nearly glabrous. Fruit late; clusters short, loose, tips well filled, 4-8 berries; cluster-stems medium in length and thickness; berry-stems long, slender, heavily pubescent; berries variable in size, small to large, averaging above medium, round, dull black; skin glandular, medium in thickness and toughness, opaque; flesh yellowish, tinged red at the skin, not very juicy, firm, sprightly becoming nearly sweet, aromatic; quality good to very good.

Charmer. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 400. 1895. Originated by William Saunders, Ottawa, Canada. Plants weak, unproductive; bunches short; berries small, of fair quality; midseason.

Climax. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 399. 1895.
Originated by William Saunders, London, Ontario, about 1887, from a seedling of Naples. Plants vigorous, productive; bunches large; berries large, with thick skin, briskly subacid; good; midseason.

Clipper. 1. Can. Cent. Exp. Farm BuL 56:18. 1907.
Another variety raised by William Saunders from a seedling of Naples about 1887. Plants vigorous, productive; bunches large; berries large, with moderately thick skins, tender, briskly subacid; good; midseason to late.

Collins Prolific. 1. Can. Cent. Exp. Farm BuL 56:17. 1907.
A variety of Canadian origin which is considered of value commercially. Plants vigorous, productive; bunches large; berries large, with thick skin, acid; fair; late.

Common Black. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 94. 1862. 2. N. Y. Sta. BuL 95:430, PL V, fig. 20. 1895. Black English. 3. Kenrick Am. Orch. 292. 1832. Cassis Commun. 4. Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom. 226, fig. 1904. English. 5. Can. Cent. Exp. Farm BuL 56:17. 1907.
An ancient English variety once commonly grown. On the grounds of this Station the plants are spreading, vigorous and productive; fruit variable, averaging medium in size, acid and strongly flavored; ripens unevenly.

Crandall. 1. Card. Mon. 29:305. 1887. 2. Am. Card. 10:309, fig, 1889. 3. U. S. D. A. Rpt. 441, PI. III. 1889. 4. Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 401, fig. 103. 1898.
Crandall is the only representative of Ribes odoratum grown commonly in the United States. The variety is widely distributed throughout all parts of the country where currants can be grown as an ornamental of dooryards and parks. The tough skin and unpleasant flavor usually condemn it as a garden plant, but some like it, and since it succeeds in regions having hot summers, where most other currants fail, it is likely to be long kept under cultivation. The berries ripen so unevenly that they must be picked singly, which, of course, precludes its being a commercial plant. The bushes are usually unproductive, but a supposed productive strain is offered by some nurserymen. This currant is supposed to have originated by R. W. Crandall, Newton, Kansas, many years ago, from seed of a plant of a wild currant which he had found growing near his place. It was introduced in 1888 by Frank Ford et Sons, Ravenna, Ohio. In 1899 the American Pomological Society added the variety to its list of recommended fruits.
Plants of largest size, often 8 feet in height, very vigorous, upright, slightly spreading, very dense, usually unproductive but variable, healthy; young shoots light and dark brown, glossy, pubescent, numerous; leaf-buds tomentose, small, short, obtuse, moderately plump, appressed; leaves small, truncate at the base, with deeply and irregularly cut lobes, thin, deeply lobed, dull, light green, smooth, glabrous on both surfaces, pubescent on the margins and petiole, with coarsely dentate to deeply cut, serrate margins: petiole short, slender, pubescent, light green. Flowers midseason, large, partly closed, golden yellow, in short, dense, few-flowered, fragrant clusters; calyx-tube yellow, long-obconic, almost cylindrical, glabrous; calyx-lobes oblong, medium in width and thickness, glabrous, yellowish ; petals usually red-tipped, above medium in size, serrate; ovary glabrous. Fruit very late, period of ripening unusually long; clusters very short, loose, 1-4 berries; cluster-stems short, thick; berry-stems long, medium thick, pubescent; berries variable in size, small to very large, roundish oblate to slightly obovate, borne either singly or in ones and twos, seldom threes or fours, with leafy bracts, drop when ripe, smooth, glossy bluish black, tipped with a very long calyx; skin smooth, very thick, tough, opaque; flesh greenish yellow, not very juicy, somewhat soft, seedy, sprightly to rather tart, with a strong, unpleasant taste; quality poor to fair.

Daniels September. 1. Daniels Bros. Cir. 1924.
Found in an English garden about 10 years ago by Daniels Brothers, Norwich, England, who introduced it in 1923. Fruit large, borne in long clusters, among the latest to ripen.

Deseret. 1. Fuller Sm. Ft. Cult. 199, fig. 84. 1867.
Originated in Utah and supposed to be a strain of the Missouri Black, R. odoratum. Plants vigorous, rapid growing, productive; fruit large, round, black or dark violet, with slight bloom, pleasantly subacid.

Dominion. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 399. 1895.
A seedling raised by William Saunders, London, Ontario, about 1887. Plants of moderate vigor, productive; bunches long; berries of medium size, austere, acid; midseason.

Eagle. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 400. 1895. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 287. 1921.
Raised from a seedling of Naples prior to 1887 by William Saunders, London, Ontario. Plants vigorous, productive; bunches large; berries large, briskly subacid; fair; midseason.

Ethel. 1. Can, Cent. Exp. Farm Bul.56:18. 1907.
Originated about 1887 by William Saunders, London, Ontario. Plants vigorous, productive; bunches large; berries large; skin thick; briskly subacid; good; midseason.

Goliath. 1. Bunyard Cat. 28. 1923.
Plants upright; bunches short, compact; berries medium to large, unusually sweet for a black currant.

Grape. 1. Can. Cent. Exp. Farm Bul.56:17. 1907.
As grown in Canada this sort is distinct from Black Grape. Plants vigorous, spreading, unproductive; bunches medium in size; berries large, briskly subacid; good; midseason.

Henry. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 399. 1895.
Originated prior to 1887 by William Saunders, London, Ontario. Plants moderately vigorous; bunches short; berries large, with a mild, pleasant flavor.

Istnay Prolific. 1. Can. Cent. Exp. Farm Bul.36:17. 1907.
Plants moderately vigorous, unproductive; bunches small; berries medium in size, briskly subacid; good; late.

James Prolific. 1. Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc. 22:203. 1898.
A vigorous grower and light cropper; clusters short; berries of medium size, black; fair in quality.

Jelly. 1. Ar. Y. Sta. Bui 95:433] fig. 24. 1895.
This is a variety of R. odoratum which probably originated in Utah many years ago. As grown at this Station the plants are tall and upright; fruit borne in small clusters with leafy bracts; berries varying from medium in size to very large; skin thick, tough, bluish black; peculiarly flavored but more agreeable in taste than the ordinary European black currants.

Kentish Hero. 1. Can. Cent. Exp. Farm Bui 56:17. 1907.
Plants moderately vigorous and productive, spreading; bunches medium in size; berries varying from medium to large; skin thick, acid; fair; ripens unevenly from midseason to late.

Kentville. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 399. 1895.
Originated about 1885 by William Saunders, London, Ontario. Plants vigorous; bunches medium in size; berries large, pleasantly flavored, sweet; midseason.

Kerry. 1. Can. Cent. Exp. Farm Bul.56:18. 1907.
One of Saunders' seedlings from a seedling of Naples. Plants vigorous, very productive; bunches large; fruit large; skin thick, tender; briskly subacid, good; midseason to late.

Lanark. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 400. 1895.
Another of Saunders' seedlings from London, Ontario. Plants weak growers, unproductive; bunches short, with small berries; midseason.

/a>Lee. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul.95:430, PI. V,+fig. 17. 1895. Lee's Prolific. 2. Card. Chron. 145. 1870. Lee's Black. 3. Gard. Mon. 19:305. 1877.
Raised about 1860 by George Lee, a market gardener, of Clevedon, Somerset, England. The variety was brought to America many years ago where it has been widely disseminated. In 1883 the
American Pomological Society added it to the fruit catalog list. Grown at this Station the plants are medium in size, vigorous, upright-spreading, productive; fruit borne in short, thick clusters, of medium size; berries large, roundish, dull black, with thin skin, sprightly; good; midseason.

Lennox. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 399. 1895.
A seedling raised by William Saunders, London, Ontario, prior to 1887. Plants vigorous, productive; bunches of medium length; berries small; of fair quality; early.

Lewis. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 399. 1895.
Another of Saunders' seedlings; growth rather weak, unproductive; bunches of medium length; berries small, black, and of poor quality; midseason.

London. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 400. 1895.
One" of Saunders' seedlings. Plants moderately vigorous, productive; berries of medium size, in rather small clusters; good; midseason.

Louise. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 400. 1895.
Another seedling raised by William Saunders. Plants vigorous, productive; fruit large, borne in long clusters; good; early.

Magnus. 1. Can. Cent. Exp. Farm Bul.56:18. 1907.
Raised by William Saunders, London, Ontario, prior to 1887. Plant vigorous, very productive; clusters of medium size; berries large; skin thick; subacid; good; midseason.

Merveille de la Gironde. 1. Can. Cent. Exp. Farm Bul.56:17. 1907. 2. Bunyard Cat. 26. 1924.
Possibly of French origin. Plants vigorous, productive; bunches medium in size; berries medium; skin thick; briskly subacid; good; ripens unevenly from midseason to late.

Middlesex. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 399. 1895.
Another seedling raised by Saunders. Plants vigorous, productive; bunches long, well filled; berries small, mild, rather sweet; good; midseason.

Missouri Black. 1. Fuller Sm. Fr. Cult. 200. 1867.
This is an old variety of R. odoratum which originated in the Rocky Mountain region and from which several varieties of currants have originated. It is of little value except as an ornamental; the berries are large, jet black, hard dry, and bitter.

Monarch. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 399. 1895.
Raised by William Saunders, London, Ontario, prior to 1887. A strong, productive grower, bearing large, uniform, pleasantly flavored berries in medium-sized clusters; midseason.

Naples. 1. N. Y. Sta. Bul.95:430, PL V, fig. 16. 1895. 2. Hedrick Cyc. Hardy Fr. 306, fig. 269. 1922. Black Naples. 3. Pom. Mag. 1:43, PI. 1828. Cassis Royal de Naples. 4. Pom. France 8:No. 2, PL 2. 1873. Neapolitanische Schwarze. 5. Lucas-Oberdieck III. Handb. Obst. 7:276. 1875.
Possibly Naples is the most commonly grown black currant in America. Previous to the law compelling the cutting out of black currants, it was more generally grown in New York than any other kind. It does not, however, deserve its popularity, as the clusters and berries are exceedingly variable in size, the clusters are usually small, the flavor and aroma too pronounced to be pleasant, and the plants are not always productive. The variety has a characteristic habit of bearing its buds on short clusters well distributed over the canes. This is a European variety the origin of which is unknown. It was long a standard in England where it was quite generally distributed more than a century ago. It was brought to America early in the nineteenth century where it has been widely disseminated. The variety was added to the fruit catalog list of the American Pomological Society in 1852 under the name Black Naples. In the recent Society catalogs the name has been shortened to Naples.
Plants large, very vigorous, upright-spreading, very dense, unproductive, healthy; young shoots medium in number, the bark broken and netted irregularly and longitudinally, showing darker brown beneath; leaf-buds tinged red, large, long, obtuse, plump, free; leaves large, cordate at the base, with short-pointed lobes, dull, light green, rugose, glabrous, with slightly hairy, coarsely serrate margins; petiole short, green, tinged with red, pubescent. Flowers very late, partly closed, large, dull greenish red, with a grayish cast due to the pubescence present, in short, medium dense and drooping, few-flowered clusters; calyx-tube greenish, sometimes with a slight red tinge, campanulate, heavily pubescent, resinous; calyx-lobes oblong, medium in width and thickness, acute, pubescent, with tinges of dull red; ovary resinous, pubescent. Fruit very late; clusters short, loose, tips well filled; 4-8 berries; cluster-stems medium in thickness and length; berry-stems long, usually with 1 or 2 bractlets at attachment to the berry, with large bracts; berries variable, small to large, round, black, dull; skin glandular, tough, opaque; flesh light green, almost colorless, juicy, rather acid, aromatic; quality fair.

North Holland Black. 1. Bunyard Cat. 26. 1921.
A variety closely resembling Merveille de la Gironde except that the clusters are shorter.

Norton. 1. Can. Cent. Exp. Farm Bul.56:18. 1907.
Originated by William Saunders about 1887. Plants strong, vigorous, spreading, moderately productive; bunches short; berries medium, briskly subacid; fair; ripen unevenly from midseason to late.

Ontario. 1. Can. Cent. Exp. Farm BuL 56:18. 1907.
Another of Saunders' seedlings. Plants vigorous, very productive; bunches long; berries medium with thick skin, tender, briskly subacid; good; midseason.

Orton. 1. Can. Cent. Exp. Farm Bul.56:19. 1907.
Still another of Saunders' seedlings. Plants moderately vigorous, unproductive; bunches medium; berries large, with thick skin, subacid, well flavored; good; ripens unevenly but usually in midseason.

Oxford. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 399. 1895.
Raised by William Saunders. A vigorous grower, bearing medium-sized fruit in long, well-filled clusters; fair; midseason.

Parker. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 399. 1895.
A weak growing, unproductive seedling raised by Saunders; berries small, strongly flavored, borne in short clusters; midseason.

Pearce. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 399. 1895.
Another Saunders' seedling lacking vigor but productive; berries borne on long clusters, large, with a pleasant, mild, sweet flavor; midseason.

Prince. 1. Can. Cent. Exp. Farm Bul.56:17. 1907.
A rather vigorous but unproductive grower; bunches small; berries medium to large, briskly subacid, medium quality; late.

Prince of Wales. 1. Card. Mon. 7:119. 1865. 2. N. Y. Sta. Bul.95:430, fig. 21. 1895. Wales. 3. Can. Cent. Exp. Farm Bul.56:17. 1907.
It is uncertain whether this currant originated in Canada or England. The variety has been known in America for more than sixty years. In 1897 the American Pomological Society added the sort to its fruit catalog list. On the Station grounds the plants are vigorous, very productive; bunches small; berries vary from small to large, with a fairly mild, pleasant flavor, becoming quite sweet at maturity; good; late.

Resister. 1. Bunyard Cat. 26. 1921.
This variety was introduced in England in 1907. It is said to resist effectively attacks of the currant gall mite which is popularly called "big bud."

Ruler. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 399. 1895.
Raised by William Saunders, London, Ontario, prior to 1887. Plants vigorous, productive; bunches short; berries medium in size; inferior in quality; midseason.

Saunders. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul.67:19. 1890. 2. AT. Y. Sta. Bul.95:431. 1895.
Originated by William Saunders, London, Ontario, prior to 1887. The name was added to the American Pomological Society's list of recommended fruits in 1897. As grown. at this Station the plants are vigorous, productive; berries borne in medium-sized clusters, vary from small to large; skin thick; mildly acid; good; midseason.

Seabrook Black. 1. Bunyard Cat. 26. 1921.
This variety was introduced by W. Seabrook et Son, Chalmsford, England, in 1913. It closely resembles Merveille de la Gironde except that the clusters are thicker.

Siberian. 1. Bunyard Cat. 26. 1921.
This variety was introduced into England many years ago by H. J. Elwes, who found, it as a wilding near the Altai Mountains in Siberia. It is noteworthy on account of the large size of the berries.

Standard. 1. Can. Cent. Exp. Farm Bul.56:19. 1907.
Raised by William Saunders, London, Ontario, about 1887. Plants vigorous, unproductive; bunches small; berries large, pleasantly flavored, subacid; good; midseason.

Star. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 400. 1895.
This is a Saunders' seedling which has proved to be a weak and unproductive grower; bunches short; berries small, mildly and pleasantly flavored; midseason.

Stewart. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 399. 1895.
Another seedling raised by Saunders. Plants weak, unproductive; bunches short; berries small; poor; early.

Stirling. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 399. 1895.
This is a Saunders' seedling, which is moderately vigorous, and whose fruits, borne in long clusters, are small, pleasantly flavored, and ripen in midseason.

Success. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 399. 1895.
Another Saunders' seedling. Plants vigorous, productive; bunches medium in length; berries medium, very sweet, with a pleasant flavor; good; midseason.

Sweet Fruited Missouri. 1. Fuller Sm. Fr. Cult. 201. 1867.
Found in the mountains of Utah many years ago. It is a slight improvement over the native American Black. Berries large, roundish oval, in small clusters, sweet, with a musky flavor.

Thoburn. 1. Am. Pom, Soc. Rpt. 208. 1922.
Found in western Oklahoma and in the mountains of Colorado by J. B. Thoburn, former Secretary of Agriculture, introduced by the Noble Nursery Company, Noble, Oklahoma. The plants closely resemble R. americanum and are hardy and productive; berries rarely black, but varying in color from dull red, bright yellow, yellow with red stripes, and greenish amber; of good quality and excellent for pies, jellies, and preserves.

Topsy. 1. Ont. Fr. Gr. Assoc. Rpt. 79. 1902. 2. Can. Cent. Exp. Farm Bul.56:18. 1907.
This variety was raised about 1890 by William Saunders, Ottawa, Canada. It is a hybrid between a so-called Dempsey's Black currant and a seedling of the Houghton gooseberry. From this cross five plants grew, four of which had gooseberry foliage, and one, Topsy, black currant foliage and fruit. Plants vigorous, moderately productive; bunches large; berries large, with thick skin, briskly subacid, with a pleasant flavor; good; midseason.

Utah Black. 1. Card. et For. 3:375. 1890.
Rather widely disseminated many years ago, as an ornamental. Supposed to be a seedling of Missouri Black and an improvement over that sort. So very similar if not identical to Crandall that a further description is unnecessary.

Winona. 1. Can. Cent. Exp. Farm Bul.56:19. 1907.
Raised by William Saunders, Ottawa, Canada. Plants moderately vigorous, productive; bunches small to medium; berries large, subacid; good; early.

Wood. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt 400. 1895.
Another of Saunders' seedlings. Plants vigorous, productive; bunches long; berries of medium size, acid but pleasantly flavored; good; midseason.