BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES, WITH ABBREVIATIONS USED.

In this list it is hoped that there will be found all horticultural books in America dealing with the plum. No attempt has been made to include botanical works. Only such European books are recorded as were found useful in preparing the volume. All the agricultural and horticultural periodicals to which references are to be found in the preceding pages are given, but no more. The reports and bulletins of experiment stations and horticultural societies are not included since the abbreviations used for such publications are readily recognized. The date of copyright has been preferred to that of publication though sometimes it has been necessary to use the latter, as when there were several editions from the same copyright.

Abercrombie, Gard. Ass't.....The Gardeners Daily Assistant. By John Abercrombie.  London: 1786.

Am. Gard.................. American Gardening. New York: 18921904. (Before its union with Popular Gardening in 1892, was known as American Garden. Both Popular Gardening and American Garden resulted from the union or absorption of several other horticultural periodicals.)

Am. Gard. Mag.............. American Gardener's Magazine. See Mag. Hort.

Am. Hort. An..............American Horticultural Annual. A Year Book of Horticultural Progress, etc., under the general editorial care of Dr. George Thurber. New York: 1867-1871.

Am. Jour. Hort.............. The American Journal of Horticulture and Florist's  Companion. Boston: 18671869. Continued as Tilton's Journal of Horticulture and Floral Magazine, 1869-1871.

Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt.......... American Pomological Society Report. Issued usually  biennially from 1852 to date.

Ann. Hort.................. Annals of Horticulture and yearbook of information on  practical gardening. London: 184650. 5 vols.

Ann. Pom. Beige............ Annales de Pomologie Beige et fitrangere; publiees par la Commission royale de Pomologie, institute par S. M. le Roi des Beiges. 8 vols. Bruxelles: 1853-1860.

Bailey, Ann. Hort........... Annals of Horticulture in North America. A record of Horticultural Progress, appearing annually from 1889-1893. By L. H. Bailey. New York.

Bailey, Cyc. Hort............ Cyclopedia of American Horticulture. By L. H. Bailey, assisted by Wilhelm Miller. In Four Volumes. New York: 1900.

Bailey, Ev. Nat. Fruits...... A sketch of the Evolution of Our Native Fruits. By L. H. Bailey. New York: 1898.

Bailey, Sur. Unlike.......... The Survival of The Unlike. By L. H. Bailey. New York: 1906.

Baltet, Cult. Fr............. Traits de la Culture Fruitiere Commerciale et Bourgeoise. Par Charles Baltet. Quatrieme fidition. Paris: 1908.

Barry, Fr. Garden........... The Fruit Garden. By P. Barry. New York: 1851-Revised edition, 1883.

Bartrum, Pears et Plums..... The Book of Pears and Plums. By E. Bartrum. London and New York: 1903. Being Volume XI of Handbooks of Practical Gardening, edited by Harry Roberts.

Bradley, Gard.............. New Improvements of Planting and Gardening, both Philosophical and Practical. In three parts. By Richard Bradley. Seventh edition, London: 1739.

Bridgeman, Gard. Ass't......The Young Gardener's Assistant. Three parts. By Thomas Bridgeman. New York: 1857.

Brookshaw, Pom. Brit....... Pomona Brittanica or a collection of the Most Esteemed Fruits at Present cultivated in Great Britain. By George Brookshaw. London: 1817.

Budd-Hansen, Am. Hort. Man. American Horticultural Manual, etc. By J. L. Budd and N. E. Hansen. In 2 vols; vol. 2. New York and London: 1903.

Cal. Fr. Grower............. The California Fruit-Grower. San Francisco: 1888 to date.

Can. Hort.................. Canadian Horticulturist. Toronto: 1878 to date.

Cat. Cong. Pom. France......Societd Pomologique de France. Catalogue descriptif des fruits adoptes par le Congres pomologique. Lyon: 1887. Ibid.: 1906.

Cole, Am. Fr. Book.......... The American Fruit Book. ByS.W. Cole. Boston: 1849.

Country Gent............... Country Gentleman. Albany: 1853-1865. The Cultivator and Country Gentleman. Albany: 1866-1897. The Country Gentleman. Albany: 1898 to date.

Coxe, Cult. Fr. Trees........ A View of the Cultivation of Fruit Trees. By William Coxe. Philadelphia: 1817.

Cultivator.................. Albany: 1834-1865. In 1866 united with the Country Gentleman.

Decaisne et Naudin', Man. Am. des Jard.................. Manuel de L'Amateur des Jardins. By Jh. Decaisne and Ch. Naudin. Tome quatrieme. Paris.

De Candolle, Or. Cult. Plants., Origin of Cultivated Plants. By Alphonse De Candolle. Geneva [Switzerland]: 1882. New York: 1885.

Downing, Fr. Trees. Am.....The Fruits and Fruit Trees of America. By A. J. Downing. New York and- London: 1845. Second edition, same text, with colored plates, 1847. First revision, by Charles Downing. New York: 1857. Second revision, by Charles Downing. New York: 1869. First appendix, 1872. Second appendix, 1876. Third appendix, 1881.

Elliott, Fr. Book............ Elliott's Fruit Book: or the American Fruit-Growers' Guide. By F. R. Elliott. New York: 1854. Revised edition, 1859.

Fish; Hardy-Fr. Bk......... The Hardy-Fruit Book. By D. T. Fish. Two volumes. London: probably 1882.

Floi. et Pom................ The Florist and Pomologist. A Pictorial Monthly Magazine of Flowers, Fruits and General Horticulture. Conducted at first by Robert Hogg and John Spencer, later by Thomas Moore and William Paul. London: 1862-84.

Floy-Lindley,Guide Orch. Gard. A Guide to the Orchard and Fruit Garden. By George Lindley; edited by John Lindley. American edition by Michael Floy. New York; 1833. New edition with an appendix, 1846.

Forsyth, Treat. Fr. Trees,.... A Treatise on the Culture and Management of Fruit Trees. By William Forsyth. London: 1802. Same with Introduction and Notes, by William Cobbett. Albany: 1803. Seventh edition [English] London: 1824.

Gallesio, Pom. Ital.......... Pomona Italiana Ossia Trattato Degli Alberi Fruttiferi Di Giorgio Gallesio. Tomo Secondo. Pisa: 1839. Volume 2 includes two large books, Testo 2, which contains the fruit descriptions and Tavole 2, which contains the plates.

Gard. and For............... Garden and Forest. Charles S. Sargent, editor. New York: 1888-1897.

Gard. Chron................ Gardeners' Chronicle, etc. London: 1841 to date.

Garden..................... Garden. London: 1872 to date.

Gardening.................. Gardening. Chicago: 1893 to date.

Gard. Mon.................. Gardener's Monthly, etc. Thomas Meehan, editor. Philadelphia: 1859-1887.

Gard. World................ Gardening World, illustrated. A weekly paper exclusively devoted to all the branches of practical gardening. London: 1884-1909. In Vol. 20, 1903, the title was changed to The Gardening World, an illustrated journal for country gentlemen and professional gardeners. The editor from May, 1895, has been John Fraser; previously the editor had been Brian Wynne, but in the earlier years the editor's name is not given.

Gaucher, Pom. Prak. Obst... . Pomologie der Praktischen Obstbaumzuchters. Von N. Gaucher. Stuttgart: 1894.

Gen. Farmer................ Genesee Farmer. Edited by Luther Tucker. Rochester: 1831-1839. Then consolidated with the Cultivator. Another periodical of the same name was published in Rochester from 1845 to T^65- Also New Genesee Farmer and Monthly Genesee Farmer.

Gerard, Herball............. The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes. By John Gerard. Enlarged and amended by Thomas Johnson. London: 1636.

Goodrich, N. Fr. Cult........ The Northern Fruit Culturist, or Farmers' Guide. By Chauncey Goodrich. Burlington, Vt.: 1849.

Guide Prat................. Guide Pratique de L'Amateur de Fruits. Description et Culture des Varietes de Fruits Classees Par Series deMerite. Composant les Collections Pomologiques de L'Etablissement Horticole Simon-Louis Freres. A Plantieres-les-Metz. (Lorraine Annexed) Deuxieme Edition. Revue et Corrigee par les Chefs de Culture de L'Etablissement. Paris and Nancy: 1895.

Hoffy, N. Am. Pom......... Hoffy's North American Pomologist. Edited by William D. Brinckle. Book No. 1. Philadelphia: i860.

Hoffy, Orch. Com........... Hoffy's Orchardist's Companion or Fruits of the United States. A quarterly journal. Vol. 1, 1841-2, Vol. 2, 1842-3. Alfred Hoffy, Editor and Publisher. Philadelphia.

Hogg, Fruit Man............ The Fruit Manual. By Robert Hogg. First edition, London: i860. Second edition, 1861. Third edition, 1866. Fourth edition, 1873. Fiftil edition, 1884.

Hooper, W. Fr. Book........ Hooper's Western Fruit Book. By E. J. Hooper. Cincinnati: 1857.

Horticulturist............... The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste. Albany, Philadelphia and New York: 1846-1875. Founded by A. J. Downing. Other editors were Barry, Smith, Mead, Williams and the Woodwards.

Hovey, Fr. Am............. The Fruits of America. Two Volumes. C. M. Hovey. Boston: 18.51.

Jour. Hort......, [, 0 o o [,,..... Journal of Horticulture began as: The Cottage Gardener; or Amateurs' and Cottagers''guide to out-door gardening and spade cultivation. London: 1849-1861. 25 vols. (Edited Vols. 1-13 by G. W. Johnson, vols. 14-25 by G. W. Johnson and R. Hogg.) Continued as The Journal of Horticulture, Cottage Gardener and Country Gentleman. . . . New Series. London: 1861 1880. 38 vols. (edited by G. W. Johnson and R. Hogg) continued under the same title as ... Third Series. London: 1880-1909. 59 vols. (edited by R. Hogg).

Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc......... Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society. London: 1846 to date. Vols. 1-9; 1846-55, bear the title of Journal of the Horticultural Society of London.

Kenrick, Am. Orch.......... The New American Orchardist. By William Kenrick. Boston: 1832. Second edition revised, 1835. Seventh edition, enlarged and improved, with a supplement, 1844. '

Knoop; Fructologie......... Part 1. Pomologie ou Description des Meilleures Sortes de Pommes et de Poires. Part II. Fructologie ou Description des Arbres Fruitiers. Par Jean Herman Knoop. Amsterdam: 1771.

Koch, Deut. Obst. .,........ Die Deutschen Obstgeholze. By Karl Koch. Two Parts. Stuttgart: 1876.

Kraft, Pom. Aust........... Pomona Austriaca. Abhandlung von dem Obstbaumen. By Johann Kraft. Wein: 1792.

Lange, Allgem. Garten....... Allgemeines Gartenbuch. By Theodore Lange. Two Volumes. Second Edition, Leipsic: 1879.

Langley, Pomona........... Pomona; or the Fruit Garden Illustrated. By Batty Langley. London: 1729.

Lauche, Deut. Pom......... Deutsche Pomologie. Von W. Lauche. Berlin: 1882.

Le Bon Jard................ Le Bon Jardinier. 126th Edition Almanach Horticole, 1882 and the 129th Edition, 1884. Paris.

Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat......... A Catalogue of the Fruits Cultivated in the Garden of the Horticultural Society of London. London: 1826. Second edition, 1831. Third edition, 1842. A supplement was published in 1853.

Loudon, Arb. Frut. Brit.....Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum. By J. C. Loudon. Second Edition, Volume 2. London: 1844.

Loudons Enc. Gard.......... An Encyclopedia of Gardening, etc. By J. C. Loudon. New edition. London: 1834.

Lucas, Vollst. Hand. Obst. . . . Vollstandiges Handbuch der Obstkultur. Von Ed. Lucas. Stuttgart: First edition, 1880; second edition, 1886; third edition, 1893. Third edition edited by Fr. Lucas. 1894.

Mag. Hort.................. Magazine of Horticulture. Boston: 1837-1868. First published under name American Gardener's Magazine, 1835-6. Edited by C. M. Hovey with P. B. Hovey, Jr., associate editor during 1835-6.

Manning, Book of Fruits..... Book of Fruits. By Robert Manning. Salem: 1838. Second edition with title, New England Fruit Book. Revised by John M. Ives. Salem: 1844.

Mas, Le Verger............. Le Verger. Par M. Mas. Tomes 8. Paris: 1866-1873. Tome 6. Prunes.

Mas. Pom. Gen............. Pomologie Generale. Par M. Mas. Tomes 12. Paris: 1872-83. Tome 2, 1873. Prunes.

Mathieu, Nom. Pom.........Nomenclator Pomologicus. Von Carl Mathieu. Berlin: 1889.

Miller, Gard. Diet........... Gardener's Dictionary. By Philip Miller. London: 1754. Revised edition, Volumes I and II. By Thomas Martyn. London: 1807.

Miller, Gard. Kal............ Gardener's Kalendar. By Phillip Miller. London: 1734.

Mclntosh, Bk. Gard......... The Book of the Garden. By Charles Mclntosh. Two Volumes. London: 1855.

McMahon. Am. Gard. Cal. . . . The American Gardener's Calendar. By Bernard McMahon. Philadelphia: 1806.

Nat. Hist. N. Y.............Natural History of New York. Part V. Agriculture. By Ebenezer Emmons. Vol. Ill devoted to fruits. Albany: 1851.

Nat. Nur...................National Nurseryman. Edited by R. T. Olcott and later by John Craig. Rochester: 1893 to date.

N. E. Farmer Dict...........The New England Farmer or Georgical Dictionary. By Samuel Deane. Second Edition. Worcester, Mass.: 1797.

Nicholson. Diet. Gard........ The Illustrated Dictionary of Gardening. By George Nicholson, assisted by J. W. H. Trail and J. Garrett. Four volumes, London. Supplement to same. By George Nicholson et al. London: 1900.

Noisette, Man. Comp. Jard.. . Manuel Complet du Jardinier. Par M. Louis Noisette. Paris: 1860.

Oberdieck. Deut. Obst. Sort. . Deutschlands beste Obst-Sorten. Von. F. G. C. Oberdieck. Leipzig: 1881.

Oregon Agric............... Oregon Agriculturist. Edited by W. E. Williamson. Portland: 1891 to date.

Parkinson, Par. Ter......... Paradisi in Sole. Paradisus Terrestris. By John Parkinson. London: 1629.

Phillips, Com. Orch.......... The Companion For the Orchard. By Henry Phillips. New Edition. London: 1831.

Poiteau, Pom. Franc........ Pomologie Francaise. Recueil des Plus Beaux Fruits Cultives en France. Par Antoine Poiteau. Tomes 1-4. Paris: 1846.

Pom. France................ Pomologie de la France. Ou Histoire et Description De To us Les Fruits Cultives En France. Ouvrage Public avec le concours des Societes d'Agriculture et d'Horticulture Francaises. Tome VII. Lyon: 1871.

Pom. Mag................... Pomological Magazine. Three Volumes. London: 1828 30. This work has also been published under the title Pomona Brittanica.

Popular Gard............... Popular Gardening. An illustrated periodical devoted to Horticulture in all its branches. Vol. 1, Buffalo: 1886. Continued as Popular Gardening and Fruit Growing. An illustrated periodical devoted to Horticulture in all its branches, Vols. II-VL Buffalo: 1887 91. All six volumes edited by E. A. Long; these consolidated with American Garden and continued as American Gardening. New York: 1892-1904.

Prince, Treat. Hort.......... A Short Treatise on Horticulture. By William Prince. New York: 1828.

Prince, Pom. Man........... The Pomological Manual, or a Treatise on Fruits. By William Robert Prince, aided by William Prince. Second edition. Parts I and II. New York: 1832.

Quintinye, Com. Gard.......The Complete Gardiner; or Directions for Cultivating and Right Ordering of Fruit Gardens and Kitchen Gardens. By Monsieur De la Quintinye. Second edition. London: 1699.

Ray, Hist. Plant............ Historia Plantarum. By John Ray. London: 1688.

Rea, Flora................. Flora: Seu, De Florum Cultura; or A Complete Florilege. By John Rea, Gent. London: 1676.

Rec. Hort.................. Woodward's Record of Horticulture. Edited by A. S. Fuller. (An annual.) New York: 1866-1868.

Rev. Hort.................. Revue Horticole. Paris: 1829 to date.

Rural N. Y................. Rural New Yorker. Rochester and New York: 1850 to date.

Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom... Societe Nationale dJHorticulture de France. Section Pomologique. Les Meilleurs Fruits au debut du XXe Siecle. Paris: 1904.

Sou. Cult................... Southern Cultivator. Augusta, Ga.: 1843.

Thomas, Am. Fruit Cult...... American Fruit Culturist. By John J. Thomas. First edition, Geneva and Auburn, N. Y.: 1846. Edition of 1849, Auburn, N. Y. Edition of 1867, 1875-1885-, New York. Twentieth edition, revised and enlarged by William H. S. Wood. New York: 1897.

Thompson, Gard. Ass't......The Gardener's Assistant. By Robert Thompson. Two volumes. London: 1859. Same, revised by William Watson. Six volumes. London: 1901.

Traite Prat. Sech. Fruits.....Traite Pratique du Sechage des Fruits et des Legumes. Par J. Nanot et L. Tritschler. Paris: 1893.

U.S.D.A. Rpt............. Reports of the United States Department of Agriculture: 1862 to 1894.

U.S.D.A. Yearbook........ Reports of the United States Department of Agriculture: 1894 to date.

U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt.......... Reports of the Agricultural section of the United States Patent Office: 1837 to 1861.

Waugh, Plum Cult.......... Plums and Plum Culture. By F. A. Waugh. New York: 1901.

Wickson, Cal. Fruits......... California Fruits. By Edward J. Wickson. Second Edition. San Francisco: 1891. Same, Fourth edition. Los Angeles: 1909.

Willich, Dom. Enc.......... Domestic Enclycopedia or a Dictionary of Facts, etc. By A. F. M. Willich. First American edition with additions by James Mease. In five volumes. Vol. 4, Philadelphia: 1803.



1 Waugh, P. A. Vt. Sta. An. Rpt. 11:273. 1897-98.

2.  Waugh, F. A. Vt. Sta. Bui 53:51. 1896.

3.  Goff, E. S. Wis. Sta. An. Rpt. 18:302. 1901.

4.  Waugh, F. A. Plum Cult. 297-300. 1901.

5.  Hansen, N. E. S. D. Sta. Bui 93:67. 1905.

6.  Carriere, E. A. Prunier Saint Julien. Revue HorticoU 438-439. 1892.

7. Waugh Plum Cult. 247. 1901.

8.  Hansen, N. E. S. D. Sta. Bul. 87. 1904. Ibid. 93:68. 1905.

9.  Wickson, E. J. California Fruits 348. 1891.

10.  Atkinson, G. F. Leaf Curl and Plum Pockets Cornell Sta. Bul. 73:319-355, Pis. 1-20. 1894.

11.  Sturgis, W. C. A Leaf Curl of the Plum Conn. Sta. Rpt. 19:183, PI. 2. 1895.

12.  Arthur, J. C. Plum Leaf Fungus N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt 5:276-281, Pis. 6-10. 1887.

13.  Duggar, B. M. Fungous Diseases of Plants 314, figs. 147, 148. 1909. Pierce, N. B. A Disease of Almond Trees Jour. Myc. 7:66-67, Pis. 11-14. 1892.

14.  Scribner, F. L. Leaf Rust of the Cherry, etc. U. S. Dept. Agr. Rpt. 353-355, PL 3. 1887. Hedrick, U. P. Prune Rust Oreg. Sta. Bul. 45:67. 1897.

15.  Stewart, F. C. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 191:323-324. 1900. Rolfs, F. M. Die Back of Peach Trees Science 26:87. 1907.

16.  Smith, E. F. Science 17:456-7. 1903. Ibid. 21 :so2. 1905. Clinton, G. P. Report of Botanist Conn. Sta. Rpt. 273. 1905.

17.  Hedrick, U. P. Gumming of the Prune Tree Oreg. Sta. Bul 45:68-72. 1897.

18.  Stewart, F. C. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 101:324-326. 1900.

19.  Pammel, L. H. New Fungous Diseases of Iowa Jour. Myc. 7:99-100. 1892.

20.  Jones, L. R. Studies upon Plum Blight Vt. Ex. Sta. Rpt. 15:231-239. 1902.

21.  Smith, E. F. The Peach Rosette Jour. Myc. 6:144. 1891.

22.  Waugh, P. A. Plum Cult. 329. 1901.

23.  Starnes, H. N. Japan and Hybrid Plums Ga. Sta. Bul. 68:22-24. 1905.

24.  Hedrick, U. P. Curl-leaf of the Italian Prune Oreg. Sta. Bul.45:72-74. 1897.

25.  Smith, E. F. Field Notes Jour. Myc. 6:108. 1891.

26.  Riley, C. V. An. Rpt. State Entomol. Mo. 1:50-56, 1869; 3:11-29. 1871.

27.  Ibid. 3:39-42. 1871.

28.  Beutenm-filler, W. Sesiidae of America, etc. 266-271. 1901. 28a. Ibid. 291292. 1901.

29.  Riley, C. V. An. Rpt. State Entomol Mo. 1:46-47. 1869.

30.  Lowe, V. H. N. Y. Sta. Bul.180:122-128. 1900.

31.  Wilson, H. F. The Peach-tree Barkbeetle U.S.D.A. Bur. Ent. Bul.68:91-108. 1909.

32.  Hunter, W. D. The Aphididae of N. A. la. Sta. Bul.60:103. 1901.
Ibid. 107, 108.
Ibid. 108, 109.

33.  Gillette, C. P. A Few Orchard Plant Lice Col Sta. Bul.133:41. 1908.
Ibid: 39,

34.  Maria tt, C. L. The San Jose or Chinese Scale U.S.D.A. Bur. Ent. Bul. 62:1-89. 1906.

35.  Lowe, V. H. The New York Plum Lecanium N. Y. Sta. Bul.136.583. 1897.

36.  For references to these scales see Fernald, Mrs. M. E. Coccidae of the World Mass. Sta. Bul.88:1-360. 1903.

37.  Lowe, V. H. The Apple-tree Tent Caterpillar N. Y. Sta. Bul. 152:279-293. 1898.

38.  Riley, C. V. An. Rpt. State Entom. Mo. 2:94-103. 1870.
Ibid. 7:83-90. 1875.

39.  Saunders, W. Insects Injurious to Fruits 95, 96. 1883.

40.  Riley, C. V. and Marlatt, C. L. The Clover Mite Insect Life 3:45-53. 1890.

41.  Saunders, W. Insects Injurious to Fruits 159. 1883.
Ibid. 150-153. 1883.

42.  Lowe, V. H. The Pistol Case-bearer N. Y. Sta. Bul. 122:221-232. 1897.

43.  Riley, C. V. Insect Life 1:133. 1889.

44.  Hedrick. U. P; The Relation of Weather to the Setting of Fruit. Bul. 299. 1908.

45.  Bechstein Forstbot. Ed. 5. 424. 1843.

46.  Schneider, C. K. Hand. Laub. 631. 1906.

47.  Bailey, L. H. Cyc. Am. Hort. 1447. 1901; Hudson Fl. Anglic. 212. 1778.

48.  Heer Pflanz. Pfahlb. 27, fig. 16.

49.  Bostock and Riley Nat. Hist, of Pliny 3:294. 1892.

50.  Koch, K. Dend. 1:94, 96. 1869. Ledebour. Fl. Ross. 2:5. 1829. Boissier. Fl. Orient. 2:652.

51.  Koch, K. Deut. Obst. 146. 1876.

52.  Kalm, Peter Travels into North America 3:240. 1771.

53. Watson's Annals of Philadelphia 1:17. 1844.

54.  Mass. Hist. Soc. Collections, 1st Ser. 1:118.

55.  Josselyn, John, Gent. New England Rarities London. 1672.

56.  Samuel Deane, D.D. The New England Farmer or Georgical Dictionary 265. 1797.

57.  Beverly, Robert History of Virginia 279. 1722. Reprint 1855.

58.  Lawson, John History of North Carolina no. 1714.

59.  Ramsey's History of South Carolina 2:128, 129, Ed. 1858.

60.  Forbes, James Grant Sketches of the Floridas 87, 91, 170. 1821.

61.  In 1763 Dr. Andrew Turnbull established a colony of fifteen hundred Greeks and Minorcans at New Smyrna, Florida, for the cultivation of sugar and indigo. But they cultivated other plants as well, among the fruits grown there being the grape, peach, plum, fig, pomegranate, olive and orange. Forbes, James Grant Sketches of the Floridas 91. 1821.

62.  Bartram, William Travels Through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida, etc. Dublin: 1793.

63.  Prince, William Treatise of Horticulture 24. 1828.
Ibid. p. 28.

64.  Prince, William Treatise of Horticulture 23. 1828,

65.  The frontispiece of The Plums of New York, showing a likeness of William Robert Prince, dedicates the book to this distinguished American pomologist. It is appropriate that the following biographical sketch of Mr. Prince, written for The Grapes of New York, should be reprinted here.

66.  Manning, Robert Hist. Mass. Hort. Soc. 33. 1880.

67.  Coxe, William A View of the Cultivation of Fruit Trees 6. 1817.

68.  Landreth's Rural Register and Almanac. 1872 and 1874.

69.  Bulletin of the Essex Institute 2:23.

70.  Downing, A. J. Hovey's Mag. 3:5. 1837.

71.  Boston Palladium, Sept. 9, 1822.

72.  The horticultural books published in America between 1779 and 1825 were: The Gardener's Kalender by Mrs. Martha Logan, Charleston: 1779; The American Gardener by John Gardiner and David Hepburn, Washington: 1804; The American Gardener's Calendar by Bernard McMahon, Philadelphia: 1806; A View of the Cultivation of Fruit Trees by William Cox, Philadelphia: 1817; The American Practical Gardener by an Old Gardener, Baltimore: 1819; The Gentleman1 s and Gardener's Kalendar by Grant Thorburn, New York: 1821; American Gardener by William Cobbett, New York: 1819; and The American Orchardist by James Thacher, M. D., Boston: 1822.

73.  During the quarter ending in 1825 two agricultural publications were in existence in the United States: The American Farmer, established in Baltimore in 1819, and the New England Farmer, founded in Boston in 1822. To these should be added the Massachusetts Agricultural Repository, not a journal in the strict sense of the word but published by the Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture, established in 1793, and continued until the New England Farmer was started in 1822. The Repository was the first agricultural periodical of the New World.

74.  At least three agricultural societies were founded soon after the close of the Revolution; the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture and the Agricultural Society of South Carolina were founded in 1785, and the Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture in 1792, while the first strictly horticultural society, the New York Horticultural Society, was not established until 1818.

75.  P. domestica cereola L. (Sp. PL 475. 1753), P. claudiana Poir. {Lam. Encycl. 5:677. 1804), P. italica Borkh. (Handb. Forstb. 11:1409. 1803).

76.  For a bibliography of this group see an article by Waugh in Gard. Chron. 24:465. 1898.

77.  Koch, K. Dent. Obst. 149. 1876.

78.  Schneider, C. K. Hand, der Laub. 630. 1906.

79.  Columella 10: lines 404-406.

80.  The Natural History of Pliny, Translated by John Bostock and H. T. Riley 3:294. London: 1892.

81.  Hogg, Robert The Fruit Manual Ed. 5:704. 1884.

82.  Targioni-Tozzetti, Antonio, Cenni storici sulla introduzione di varie piante nelV agricoltura ed horticultura Toscana. Florence: 1850.

83.  Parkinson, John Paradisus Terrestris 576. 1629.

84.  Rea, John A Complete Florilege 208. 1676.

85.  Ray Historia Plantarum 2:1529. 1688.

86.  Gallesio, Giorgio 2: (Pages not numbered). 1839.

87.  Phillips, Henry Comp. Orch. 306. 1831.

88.  These are the plums which Linnaeus called Prunus domestica galatensis (Sp. Pl. 475. 1753); Seringe, Prunus domestica pruneayliana {DC. Prodr. 2:533. 1825); and Borkhausen, Prunus oecono-mica (Handb. Forstb. 2:1401. 1803).

89.  Prince, William A Short Treatise on Horticulture 27. 1828.

90.  Of the prune, or, as they are termed in German, ' Quetsche,' there are a number of varieties, all which are of fine size, and considered as the best plums for drying as prunes; this is one of the largest of the varieties; the principal characteristic of these plums is that the flesh is sweet and agreeable when dried. I am informed that the ' Italian Prune ' ranks highest as a table fruit when plucked from the tree. The process of drying prunes seems to be so very easy that I should suppose it might be undertaken in this country with a certainty of success, and so as to totally supersede the importation of that article." Ibid.

91.  Wickson, E. J. California Fruits Ed. 2:82. 1891.

92.  Hedrick, U. P. in Bailey's Cyclopedia American Horticulture 1440. 1901.

93.  Miller says in his Gardener's Dictionary of the variety Perdrigon, " Hakluyt in 1582, says, of later time the plum called the Perdigwena was procured out of Italy, with two kinds more, by the Lord Cromwell, after his travel." Miller, Phillip Gardener's Dictionary. Edited by Thomas Martyn, 2: (no page). 1707.

94.  In the first edition of Species Plantarum Linnaeus called these plums Prunus domestica perni-cona; in the second edition the varietal name was changed to " Pertizone." In the Prodromus Seringe designates the group as Prunus domestica touronensis.

95.  The Prunus domestica aubertiana of Seringe. (DC. Prodr. 2:533.

96.  Rea, John A Complete Florilege 209. 1676.

97.  Parkinson, John Paradisus Terrestris 576. 1629.

98.  Koch, It. Deut. Ohst. 560. 1876.

99.  Bauhin Pin. 443 n 23.

100.  Bul. Soc. Dauph. fasc. VIII. 1881.

101.  Dendrol. 316. 1893.

102.  Rhein. Reise-Fl. 67. 1857.

103.  Handb. Laubh. 1: 631. 1906.

104.  Pickering, Charles Chron. Hist. Plants. 218. 1879.

105.  Heer Pflandz. Pfahl. 27, fig. 16c.

106.  Hooker Fl Brit. Ind. 2: 315. 1879.

107.  The reader who desires fuller information regarding the botany of this species should consult the references given with the botanical description of Prunus insititia.

108.  McMahon, Bernard Gardener's Calendar 587. 1806.

109.  Samuel Deane, D.D, New England Farmer 265. 1797.

110.  Koch, Karl Deut. Obst. 150. 1876.
111.  This subject is well discussed in an article by E. A. Carriere in Revue Horticole 438. 1892.
112.  Handb. Laubh. 628. 1906.

113.  Fl. Siles. 1:2, 10. 1829.

114.  FL Nied. Ostr. 819. 1890.

115.  FL Siles. 1:2, 10. 1829.

116.  Enum. PL Trans. 178. 1866.

117.  Handb. Laubh. 1: 630. 1906.

118.  Flora 9:748.1826.

119.  Sched. Crit. 217. 1822.

120.  Boiss. Diag. 2nd Ser. 96. 1856.

121.  Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien. 435. 1864.

122.  Flor. Or. 11: 625. 1872.

123.  In pre-Linnaean literature Prunus cerasifera is mentioned by Clusius as Prunus myrobalanus (Rar. Plant. Hist. 46 fig. 1601), and by Tournefort under the same name (Inst. Rei Herb. 622. 1700).

124.  Ledebour Ind. Hort. Dorp. Suppl. 6. 1824.

125.  Schneider Handb. Laubh. 632. 1906.

126.  Dippel Handb. Laubh. 3:633. 1893.

127.  Jack Gar. and For. 5:64. 1892.

128.  Bailey Cornell Sta. Bul. 38:34- 1892.

129.  Handb. Laubh. 1:633. 1906.

130.  Beitr. Nat. 6:90. 1791.

131.  Handb. Forstb. 11 :i$g2. 1803.

132.  Fedde Repert. 1:50. 1905.

133.  Pl. David 2:33. 1888.

134.  IK. Bot. His. Mountains and FL of Cash. 1:239. 1839.

135.  Several apricots and the loquat of southern Japan are also called Japanese plums. The name Triflora for common usage avoids this confusion and conforms with the growing usage in horticulture of using the specific name alone.

136.  Bailey says, (Cornell Sta. Bul. 62:6. 1894) speaking of these specimens: " I have no hesitation in saying that our Japanese plums are the same." The writer examined the specimens in the summer of 1909 and recognized them at once to be the same as the cultivated Triflora plums.

137.  February 23, 1909.

138.  Jpp. 10, 45-

139.  March 12, 1909.

140.  Fl. Indica 501. 1824.

141.  Forbes and Hemsley Jour. Linn. Soc. 23:219. 1886-88.

142.  Cornell Sta. Bul. 62:3. 1894.

143.  Berckmans, L. A. Rpt. Ga. Hort. Soc. 15. 1889.

144.  Bailey, L. H. Cornell Sta. Buls. 62, 106, 139, 175.

145.  Waugh, F. A. Plum Cult. 1901.

146.  Georgeson, C. C. Amer. Gard. 12:74. 1891.

147.  Carriere, E. A. Rev. Hort. 152. 1891.

148.  The New York Agricultural Experiment Station stands on the site of the old Indian village of Kanadasaga, founded by the Seneca Indians. The records of Sullivan's raid just after the Revolution show that when this village was destroyed by the Whites there were orchards of apples and plums (see Conover's Kanadasaga and Geneva (Mss.) Hobart College) crudely cultivated. On the adjoining farm of Mr. Henry Loomis descendants of these old trees still grow. The plums are Americanas, and Mr. Loomis, now in his 94th year, says that when a boy the Indians and Whites alike gathered them, soaked them in lye to remove the astringency of the skins and then cooked, dried or otherwise preserved them.

Poiteau 1: (Unpaged). 1846.

149.  Waugh, P. A. Plum Cult. 51, 282-307. 1901.

150.  Goff, E. S. Wis. Sta. Bul. 63:4. 1897.

The Prunus mollis of Torrey {Fl. U. S. 1:470. 1824) was Prunus nigra, as Torrey's specimen, now in the herbarium of Columbia University, plainly shows.

152.  Bot. Gaz. 24:462. 1896; Cornell Sta. Bul. 170. 1897; Ev. Nat. Fruits 194-208. 1898.

153.  Gar. and For. 10:340, 350. 1897. Plum Cult. 60-66. 1901.

154.  Waugh, F. A. Vt. Sta. An. Rpt. 14:277. 1900-01.

155.  Hakluyt Voyages 3:258.

156.  Silva of North America 4:28. 1893.

157.  Jack, J. G. Gard. and For. 7:206. 1894.

158.  Gar. and For. 3:625. 1890.

159.  Sandberg, J. H. Cont. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3:221. 1895.

160.  Coville, F. V. Cont. U. S. Nat. Herb. 5:99. 1897; and Chestnut, V. K. Cont. U. S. Nat. Herb. 7:356. 1902.

161.  Wickson, E. J. California Fruits 52. 1891.

162.  Torrey Bot. Club Bul., 21:301. 1894.

163.  Wickson, E. J. Calif. Fruits Ed. 4:35. 1909.

164.  Pittonia 3:21. 1896.

165.  The first published account of this plum is a brief non-technical description of it by Dr. Kellogg in Hutching's Mag. 5:7. 1859.
166.  Torrey Bot. Club Bul. 25:149. 1898.
167.  The writer has examined the type specimen of Michaux's Prunus chicasa in the herbarium of the Jardin des Plants in Paris and found it, though incomplete and poorly preserved, plainly not Prunus angustifolia but more likely some form of Prunus umbellata. Undoubtedly, however, the references which follow Michaux's are to Prunus angustifolia.
168.  "The Chicasaw plumb I think must be excepted, for though certainly a native of America, yet I never saw it wild in the forest, but always in old deserted Indian plantations: I suppose it to have been brought from the S. W. beyond the Mississippi, by the Chicasaws." Bartram Travels Through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida, etc. 38. 1793.

169.  Bailey Ev. Nat. Fr. 193. 1898.

170.  "The wild Plums of America are of several sorts. Those which I can give an account of from my own Knowledge, I will, and leave the others till a farther Discovery. The most frequent is that which we call the common Indian Plum, of which there are two sorts, if not more. One of these is ripe much sooner than the other, and differs in the bark; one of the barks being very scaly, like our American Birch. These Trees, when in Blossom, smell as sweet as any Jessamine, and look as white as a Sheet, being something prickly. You may make it grow to what Shape you please; they are very ornamental about a House, and make a wonderful fine Shew at a Distance, in the Spring, because of their white Livery. Their Fruit is red, and very palatable to the sick. They are of a quick Growth, and will bear from the Stone in five years, on their Stock." Lawson, John History of Carolina 105. 1714.

171.  "The third was known among the later colonists as the Indian cherry and was the product of a tree hardly exceeded by the English peach tree in girth and height, and showing an inclination for the soil of the valleys of the rivers, and of the narrow bottoms of the smaller streams. This variety was considered to be of extraordinary excellence in flavor; when ripe it was colored a dark purple, and there was only a single cherry to the stalk. There were two varieties of plums, resembling, both in size and taste, the English Damson." Bruce, Philip Alexander Economic History of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century 1:94. 1896.

172.  "The Sand Plums " Country Gentleman, Jan. 27, 1898.

173.  Lawson, John History of Carolina 105. 1714.

174.  Waugh Vt. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:235. 1899. Bailey Cyc. Am. Hort. 1449. 1901.

175.  Cont. Bot. Lab. University of Pa. 2:216. 1899-1900.

176.  DeVries, Hugo Species and Varieties, etc. 57. 1905.

177.  Cornell Sta. Bui 62:27. 1894.

178.  Tex. Sta. Bui 32:488. 1894.

179.  Statement in a letter from Mr. Burbank.

180.  Mr. Kerr in a letter written in 1909 says: "Wassu, as I have it, is radically different from descriptions of both Waugh and Bailey. The tree is as slovenly in habit as is that of the Burbank there all resemblance ceases."

181.  Introduced by Wiley and Company of Cayuga, New York in 1892. See Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:193, fig. 47.

182.  French plum proved to be the well-known Peach. See Horticulturist 1: 115. 1846.

183.  Mas Le Verger 6:61. 1866-73.

184.  Mr. Kerr writes: "As I have them here, Yeddo and White Kelsey are the same. If there is a difference between Georgeson and Mikado, I have failed to discover it, but Georgeson and White Kelsey or Yeddo are plainly distinct. The former is larger, rounder and more greenish in skin color."

185. Bailey, L. H. Cornell Sta. Bul. 38:43. 1892.

186. Heideman, C. W. H. Minn. Hort. Soc. RpU 187. 1895.

187. Waugh, F. A. Vt. Sta. Bul. 53- 1896.

188.  Mich. Sta. Bul. 118:52, 54. 1895.

189.  Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 493. 1897.

190. Cornell Sta. Bul. 106:53. 1896.
191. Can. Hort. 18:117. 1895.