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CHAPTER III

LEADING VARIETIES OF PLUMS

ABUNDANCE

Prunus triflora

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt 96. 1887. 2. Am. Gard. 9:360. 1888. 3. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 51, 52, 53, 99. 1889. 4. Bailey Ann, Hort. 103. 1889. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 106, 125. 1891. 6. Am. Gard. 13:700. 1892. 7. Rural N. Y. 52:666. 1893. 8. Cornell Sta. Bul. 62:19, 27, 32. 1894. 9. Tex. Sta. Bul. 32:488. 1894. 10. Rev. Hort. 160. 1895, 11. Mich. Sta. Bul. 118:52. 1895. 12. Cornell Sta. Bul. 106:41, 43, 44, 47, 48, 49. 1896. 13. Va. Sta. Bul. 67:96. 1896. 14. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:195. 1897. I5+ Ibid. 139:37, 3S, 39, 40. 1897. 16. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 26. 1897.

17. Cornell Sta. Bul. 175:141, 142, 143. 1899. 18. Waugh Plum Cult. 132, 135. 1901. 19. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:242, 248. 1899. 20. Ont. Fruit Exp. Sta. Rpt. 15. 1902. 21. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:254, 255. 1905. 22. Texas Nur. Co. Cat. 9. 1907. 23. Ga. Sta. Bul. 68:7, 28. 1905.

Abundance 7. Babcock (?) 15, 17. Babcock 12, 16, 18. Botan 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10. Botan 12, 16,

18. Botankio 12. Botankio 3. Burbank No. 2. 11, 12. Chase 12. Chase 14, 15, 17. Douglas 9, 15, 18. Douglas 17. Hattankio 8, 15. Hattonkin 12. Hytankayo 8, 9. Munson 8. Munson 9, 18. Oriole 22. Sweet Botan 7. Sweet Botan 15. Yellow Fleshed Botan 3, 6, 8, 17, 23. Yellow Fleshed Botan 5. Yellow Japan 12. Yellow Japan 8, 14.

abundance Though Abundance has been in America only a quarter of a century, it is now about as well known as any other plum, being probably the best known of the Triflora plums. The two chief assets which have given the variety its great popularity so quickly are adaptability to a wide diversity of soils and climates and, as its name implies, abundance of fruit, for it bears not only heavily but yearly. As a market plum Abundance has been overplanted since it ships and keeps poorly, is much subject to brown-rot, matures unevenly and drops rather too readily as it ripens. Whether for market or home use, the fruit of this variety should be picked before it is quite ripe as it develops in flavor best when so picked and the dropping and rot are thus avoided to some extent. It is an exceedingly variable plum and undoubtedly several well marked strains could be selected, some of which are not as hardy or otherwise as valuable as others. While Abundance has passed the heyday of its popularity it is still one of the most desirable of the Triflora plums.

This variety was imported from Japan by Luther Burbank in 1884, and was introduced by John T. Lovett, Little Silver, New Jersey, under the name Abundance, in 1888. A large number of Japanese plums that have since been introduced have proved to be either identical or so nearly like the Abundance that much confusion has arisen. Abundance was first known as Botan, but that name was dropped as it refers to a group of plums in Japan rather than to a variety. Babcock, which is said to have been imported by Burbank in 1885 and named for Colonel E. F. Babcock, a nurseryman of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been described by Bailey as indistinguishable from Abundance. Botankio, described in the Georgia Horticultural Society Report for 1889, proved to be the Abundance as tested at the Cornell Experiment Station. The Chase plum, also disseminated in New York under the name Yellow Japan, was bought by the R. G. Chase Company, Geneva, New York, for the Abundance, but as it was thought to blossom and fruit later than that variety, it was distributed as a new plum; in 1897 Bailey considered it the same as Chabot, but in 1899 he stated that it and Abundance were identical. The Douglas plum is also identical. Dr. J. T. Whitaker of Tyler, Texas, imported this variety and introduced it in 1886 under the name of Hytankavo. Bailey, who tested Whitaker's variety from trees obtained from T. V. Munson, Denison, Texas, found a yellow-fruited strain and to distinguish the purple form named the latter Munson. As this name had been applied to a native plum, R. H. Price, of the Texas Experiment Station, in 1894 renamed the variety calling it Douglas.  There have been two types of this Douglas plum disseminated; Bailey, in 1899, found no difference between it and Abundance except that the Douglas seemed to have a little drier flesh; others testing Douglas found it to be identical with the Chabot. Burbank No. 2, imported by Luther Burbank in 1885 and introduced by him in 1889, is very similar if not identical with the Abundance. Oriole, recently introduced by the Texas Nursery Company, Sherman, Texas, is so nearly like Abundance as to be unworthy of a separate name. The American Pomological Society added Abundance to its fruit catalog list in 1897.

Tree large, vigorous, vasiform, open-topped, hardy in New York, very productive, susceptible to attacks of shot-hole fungus; branches rough, dark ash-gray, inclined to split when overloaded, with few, slightly raised lenticels; branchlets slender, short, with short internodes, red early in the season changing to dark brown, glossy, glabrous, with numerous, inconspicuous, small lenticels: leaf-buds small, short, conical, plump, free.

Leaves folded upward, narrow-obovate or oblanceolate, peach-like, one and three-eighths inches wide, three and one-quarter inches long, thin; upper surface light green, smooth, glabrous, with grooved midrib; lower surface pale green, pubescent on the midrib and larger veins; apex taper-pointed, base cuneate, margin very finely serrate, with small, brownish glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, slightly pubescent along one side, reddish, glandless or with from one to five small, globose, green or reddish glands usually on the stalk.

Blooming season early; flowers appearing with the leaves, medium in size; borne in clusters on lateral buds and spurs, in pairs or in threes; pedicels of medium length and thickness, slightly pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes obtuse, with ciliate margins, glabrous, erect; petals broadly oval, entire, abruptly clawed; anthers yellowish; filaments of average length; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit early, season short; one and three-eighths inches in diameter, roundish-ovate, halves nearly equal, slightly compressed; cavity medium in depth and width, abrupt, regular; suture shallow, distinct; apex pointed; color pinkish-red changing to darker red, mottled, with thin bloom; dots numerous, of medium size, russet, conspicuous; stem one-half inch long, glabrous, parting easily from the fruit; skin thin, tough, bitterish, separating readily; flesh yellow, very juicy, tender and melting, sweet except next to the pit, pleasantly aromatic; good; stone clinging, three-quarters inch by one-half inch in size, oval, somewhat compressed, pointed, rough, ridged along the ventral suture; dorsal suture grooved.

AGEN

Prunus domestica

1. Kraft Pom. Aust. 2:38, Tab. 189 fig. 1. 1796. 2. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 143, 147, 152, 153. 1831. 3. Prince Pom. Man. 2:75, 100. 1832. 4. Poiteau Pom. Franc. 1. 1846. 5. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 309. 1845. 6. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 30. 1854. 7. Thompson Gard. Ass't 519. 1859. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 86. 1862. 9. Oberdieck Deut. Obst. Sort. 427. 1881. 10. Hogg Fruit Man. 683. 1884. 11. Mas Le Verger 6:81, fig. 1866-73. 12. Cal. State Bd. Hort. 291. 1885-86. 13. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 343. 1887. 14. Cal. State Bd. Hort. 49, 50. 1887-88. 15. Ibid. 233, 235, 340. 1890. 16. Ibid. 96, 105, PI. 1. 1891. 17. Guide Prat. 160, 353. 1895. 18. Oregon Sta. Bul. 45:24. 1897. 19. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:191. 1897. 20. U.S.D.A. Div. Pom. Bul. 7:315, 316. PL IV, fig.4. 1898. 21. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:241, 242. 1899. 22. Cal. Fr. Gr. Con. 29. 1901, 23. Waugh Plum Cult. 94, 95 fig. 1901. 24. Baltet Cult. Fr. 495, fig. 331, 506, 507, fig. 336. 1908. 25. Wickson Cal. Fruits 225. 1908. 26. Cal. Fr. Grower 40:18, 19, fig. 1909.

Agen 22. Agener Kaiserzwetsche 17. Agen Date 3. Agen Datte 5, 10. Agener Pflaume 17. Agener Pflaume 9. Agen Prune 21. California 20. California 16. D'Agen 2, 10, 11, 17, 24. D'Agen 3, 5, 8, 13, 20. D'Ast 13, 17. Date 21. Datte 17. De Brignole 17. D'Ente 13, 17, 24. D'Ente d'Agen 13. Datte Violette 1, 13, 17. Die Blaue Dattelpflaume 17. Die Blaue Dattelpflaume 1. Du Roi 17. French 20. French Prune 15, 18, 23, 25. French Prune (?) 2, 12, 14, 15, 26. Lot d'Ente 18. Petite 20. Petite d'Agen 14, 20, 26. Petite Prune 18. Petite Prune 23. Petite Prune d'Agen 25. Prune d'Agen 5, 6, 7, 8, 15, 17, 19, 25. Prune d'Agen 14, 16, 18, 23. Prune de Brignole (of some) 5, 7, 17. Prune d'Ante 3. Prune d'Ast 5, 7, 10, 11. Prune d'Ente 7, 12, 18. Prunier d'Agen 3. Prunier d'Agen 6. Prune d'Ente 22. Prune du Roi 10. Robe de Sergent 3, 5, 7, S, 11, 13, 17, 18. Robe de Sargent 10, 12. Roi d'Agen 2. Saint Maurin 2, 4. St. Maurin 5, 7, 10, 17. Saint Mauriniana 4. Violette Dattelzwetsche 17.

agen Agen is the plum par excellence for prune-making in France and America. Several qualities make it admirably fit for curing into prunes.

To begin with, it has a high percentage of sugars and solids so that the plum cures readily into a firm, sweet, long-keeping prune which in cooking needs comparatively little sugar; again, the trees bear regularly, abundantly and the plums are uniform in size, productiveness, regular bearing and uniformity of size of fruit being necessary attributes of a good prune-making plum; lastly, it hangs well on the tree as it ripens and afterwards so that the curing really begins on the tree. Besides making most excellent prunes, the Agen is a very good dessert plum- one of the best- and ought to be in every home orchard and, where it attains sufficient size, in every commercial plantation. Lack of size is the defect in this variety which has kept it from being more largely grown outside of prune-making regions. If by pruning, thinning and other cultural treatment the size of the plums could be increased, the Agen should prove a valuable commercial fruit in New York.

The name of this variety is derived from Agen, a region in France where it is extensively grown. Tradition says that on their return from the Crusades, the Benedictine monks brought with them from Turkey or Persia what was then known as the Date plum and planted it in the garden of their abbey on the River Lot, in the vicinity of Bordeaux, France, and that afterwards this became the Agen. Its first recorded importation into the United States was made in 1854 by the United States Patent Office, though it was described by Prince as early as 1832. The most important introduction was made, however, in 1856, when Louis Pettier of San Jose, California, introduced Agen on the Pacific Coast, where it soon became and still is the leading plum, though with curious persistency the fruitgrowers there call it the " French Prune " and the " Petite Prune." In 1862 this variety was added to the fruit catalog list of the American Pomological Society. There are many strains of Agen in America, due to the numerous importations of grafts from various parts of France, where the plum orchards are frequently grown from seedlings or from sprouts; some of these strains are worthy of varietal recognition.

Tree of medium size, upright-spreading, dense-topped, hardy, very productive; branches ash-gray, smooth, with numerous, large, raised lenticels; branchlets slender, short, with short internodes. greenish-red changing to dark brownish-drab, dull,pubescent, with small lenticels; leaf-buds of medium size and length, conical, free.

Leaves folded upward, obovate or oval, one and three-quarters inches wide, three and one-quarter inches long, velvety; upper surface with few fine hairs and a narrow, grooved midrib; lower surface pale green, thickly pubescent; apex abruptly pointed, base acute, margin doubly serrate; petiole one inch long, slender, pubescent, tinged red, with two or three small, globose, greenish-brown glands usually on the stalk.

Season of bloom intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and one-eighth inches across, white; borne on lateral spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels five-eighths inch long, thick, glabrous except for a few short hairs, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, pubescent; calyx-lobes obtuse, somewhat pubescent within, with glandular margin, reflexed; petals broadly oval or obovate, entire, tapering to short, broad claws; anthers yellowish; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit late, season short; one and one-half inches by one and one-eighth inches in size, obovate, the base necked, halves equal; cavity shallow, narrow, flaring; suture very shallow, indistinct; apex roundish or flattened; color reddish or violet-purple, overspread with thin bloom; dots numerous, small, brown, obscure, clustered about the apex and interspersed between russet flecks; stem thick, seven-eighths inch long, glabrous, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, tough; flesh greenish-yellow, tender, sweet, aromatic; very good to best; stone semi-free or free, seven-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, oval, flattened, with pitted surfaces, rather abrupt at the base and apex; ventral suture somewhat narrow, furrowed, with distinct wing; dorsal suture widely grooved.

AITKIN

Prunus nigra

1. Minn. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 426. 1896. 2. Wis. Sta. Bul. 63:24, 27, 28 fig. 11, 43. 1897. 3. Jewell Nur. Cat. 1899-1906. 4. Waugh Plum Cult. 169. 1901. 5. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 43:29. 1903. 6. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 227. 1904.

Aitken 4. Beatty 6 incor.. Itasca 1 incor..

Aitkin is very favorably mentioned in the references given above and undoubtedly has value for the Northwest. It was listed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1899. The variety was found growing wild in Aitkin County, Minnesota, by D. C. Hazelton on land adjoining his farm. It seemed to possess merit and was introduced in 1896 by the Jewell Nursery Company of Lake City, Minnesota. Because of having originated near Itasca Lake, it has been confused with the Itasca plum, which preceded it by nearly ten years. The following description is a compilation:

Tree vigorous, productive, ripening its wood very early; fruit earliest in season of its group; large for its class, oval, deep red, with no bloom; skin thin, not astringent; flesh yellow, juicy, sweet and rich; good; stone large, oval, flattened, clinging.


ALHAMBRA

[(Prunus triflora X Prunus cerasifera X Prunus domestica] X [(Prunus simonii X Prunus triflora) X (Prunus americana X Prunus nigra)]

1. Vt. Sta. Bul. 67:5. 1898. 2. De Vries Plant Breeding 213. 1907.

Although it is over a decade since Alhambra was offered to fruitgrowers, it has made little headway in popularity and is chiefly of interest because of its breeding. It is not often that we can trace the pedigree of a plant for more than one or at the most two generations, but in Alhambra we are particularly fortunate. Luther Burbank, the originator, began by crossing Kelsey and Pissardi, and the offspring from this cross was fertilized with Agen pollen. This tri-hybrid was in turn fertilized with pollen from a complex hybrid of a cross of Prunus simonii and Prunus triflora pollinated by a cross of Prunus americana and Prunus nigra. As might be expected, the offspring of this final cross was extremely variable and from it was selected the Alhambra. The variety was named by the originator in 1898.

The fruit as described by Waugh is "egg-shaped, large or very large; cavity medium shallow, abruptly rounded; suture shallow; apex pointed; color dark, dull red; dots many, small, yellowish; bloom thin, purplish; skin firm; flesh yellow inside, reddish outside; stone medium to large, flat, pointed, nearly smooth, clinging; flavor brisk subacid; quality first rate"

ALTHAM

Prunus domestica

1. Jour. Hort. N. S. 17:228., 1869. 2. Lange Allgem. Garten. 2:419. 1879. 3. Oberdieck Deut. Obst. Sort. 432. 1881. 4. Lauche Deut. Pom. 19, PI. IV. 1882. 5. Hogg Fruit Man. 692. 1884. 6. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 420. 1889. 7. Gaucher Pom. Prak. Obst. 94, PI. 1894. 8. Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom. 550 fig. 1904. 9. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 468, fig. 1906. 10. Baltet Cult. Fr. 490, fig. 328. 1908.

Althan's Reine Claude 6, 7. Althann's Reine Claude 2, 3, 4, 6. Althahn's Rote Reine-Claude 6, 7. Althann's Reine Claude 7. Count Althann's Gage 5. Count Althann's Gage 6, 7. Graf Althan's Reine-Claude 6. Graf Althann's Reine-Claude 7. Hathen's Red Gage 1. Reine-Claude Rouge de Hathen 1. Reine-Claude d'Althann 5, 6, 7. Reine-Claude Comte Althan 5, 6. Reine-Claude de Comte Hathem 5, 6. Reine-Claude du Comte Hathem 6, 7. Reine-Claude du Comte d'Althan 8. Reine-Claude Althan's 5, 6, 7. Reine-Clattde Comte d'Althan 6. Reine-Claude d'Althan 8. Reine-Claude d'Althan 6, 7, 10. Reine-Claude Rouge Comte Althan 6, 7. Reine-Claude Rouge du Comte Hethau 6. Reine-Claude rouge du comte Hethan 7. Reinette Claude Comte d'Althan 9. Reinette Claude d'Althan 9.

Altham is an excellent plum for dessert or home use. The color is a trifle too dull for market purposes and yet it is better colored than McLaughlin, which sells fairly well. The fruit is the type of the last named plum but is later. In Europe this variety is well known and highly esteemed for its quality, but unfortunately it is almost unknown in America. The variety is well worth trial in this country as a fine plum of the Reine Claude group. Altham is a seedling of Reine Claude, raised by Herr Prochaska, gardener to Count Michael Joseph Althann, of Swoyschitz, in Bohemia. It was noted in the English Journal of Horticulture for 1869 as a new plum sent out by Thomas Rivers.

Tree of medium size, upright-spreading, dense-topped, productive; leaf-scars prominent; leaves folded upward, obovate, two and one-quarter inches wide, nearly four inches long, very thick, leathery; margin doubly crenate, with few, small, dark glands; petiole thick, with from one to four globose, yellowish-green glands on the stalk; season of bloom intermediate, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch across, yellowish at the apex of the petals; borne on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in twos.

Fruit mid-season; one and one-half inches by one and five-eighths inches in size, oblate, strongly truncate at the base, compressed; color dark purplish-red over a yellow ground, covered with thick bloom; dots russet surrounded with a dark red ring; stem adhering strongly to the pulp; flesh light golden-yellow, firm but tender, sweet, mild, pleasant; very good to best; stone semi-clinging, seven-eighths inch by five-eighths inch In size, flattened, irregular-oval, with pitted surfaces, contracted at the base into a short oblique neck; ventral suture prominent, heavily furrowed, often with distinct wing; dorsal suture wide, deep.

AMERICAAmerica plum image

Prunus munsoniana X Prunus triflora

1. Burbank Cat. 3. 1898 2. Vt. Sta. Bul. 67:5. 1898, 3. Rural N. Y. 59:706. 1900. 4. Vt. Sta. An. Rpt. 14:273. 1900. 5. Mich. Sta. Bul. 205:37 1903. 6. Del. Penin. Hort. Soc, Rpt. 36. 1905. 7. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:254, 255. 1905. 8. Ga. Sta. Bul. 68:8, 35. 1905.

America is illustrated and described in full chiefly because it is the most promising cross between Prunus munsoniana and Prunus triflora. The fruit of the variety is unusually attractive in appearance, golden-yellow with a red cheek and waxy lustre turning currant-red when ripe, ships exceptionally well and is of very good quality for cooking, but is without merit as a dessert plum. The trees are large, very vigorous, as hardy as either of its parents or possibly more so, and enormously productive. The qualities of fruit and tree are such that the variety ought to succeed in commercial plantations where any but the hardiest native plums are cultivated. America is almost phenomenally free from rot, considering its parentage.

This variety is one of Luther Burbank's productions, grown from a seed of Robinson fertilized by pollen from Abundance. It was introduced by the originator in 1898 and has been since that time well tested at several places in the eastern states and is very generally well spoken of for a plum of its kind for the East.

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, somewhat open-topped, hardy, very productive; branches roughish and with cracked bark, slightly zigzag, dark ash-gray, with numerous, conspicuously raised lenticels ; branchlets willowy, long, with short internodes, green with a reddish tinge changing to dark chestnut-red, glossy, glabrous, with numerous, small, raised lenticels; leaf-buds small, short, conical, free.

Leaves folded upward, broadly lanceolate, peach-like, one and one-half inches wide, three and one-fourth inches long, thin; upper surface reddish late in season, smooth and glossy, with deeply grooved midrib; lower surface light green, sparingly pubescent along the midrib and larger veins which are more or less red; apex taper-pointed, base abrupt, margin finely and doubly crenate and with numerous, small, dark glands; petiole one-half inch long, tinged red, pubescent along one side, glandless or with one or two small globose, reddish glands on the upper part of the stalk.

Blooming season intermediate and long; flowers appearing after the leaves, one-half inch across, white; borne in clusters on short lateral spurs and buds, in pairs or in threes; pedicels five-sixteenths inch long, slender, pubescent, green; calyx-tube greenish, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes obtuse, with a trace of red along the margin, glandular-serrate, glabrous, with marginal hairs, erect; petals small, roundish, entire, tapering abruptly to narrow claws; anthers yellowish; filaments three-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, longer than the stamens.

Fruit early, season of medium length; one and three-eighths inches in diameter, roundish-oval, halves equal; cavity shallow, flaring; suture shallow, a distinct line; apex roundish; color clear, dark, currant-red over golden-yellow, mottled, with thin bloom; dots numerous, small, whitish, inconspicuous; stem slender, one-half inch long, glabrous, adhering to the fruit; skin thin, bitterish, separating readily from the pulp; flesh yellow, juicy, fibrous, somewhat tender, sweet, not high in flavor; fair in quality; stone clinging, seven-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, oval, pointed, with pitted surfaces, broadly ridged along the ventral suture; dorsal suture grooved.

AMERICAN

Prunus domestica

1. Oregon Sta. Bul. 61:17, 18. 1900. American Seedling 1.

American originated with a Mr. Peterson of Elkton, Douglas County, Oregon, as a sprout from an old tree. It has never been extensively disseminated, but seems to be a variety of considerable promise. The fruit as grown on the Station grounds resembles Hand rather closely; is large for a plum of its type, is a handsome golden color, is high in quality and will probably keep and ship well. Too little is known of its tree-characters to recommend it unqualifiedly.

Tree above medium in size, vigorous, round-topped, dense, productive; branches numerous; branchlets thick, marked by grayish scarf-skin; leaves flattened, oval or obovate, two and one-quarter inches wide, four and one-half inches long, dark green; margin serrate or crenate; blooming season intermediate, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and three-eighths inches across, singly or in twos, fragrant.

Fruit mid-season; very large, roundish-oblate, truncate, golden-yellow, indistinctly streaked with green, mottled, covered with thin bloom; flesh light golden-yellow, tender, sweet, pleasant flavor; good to very good; stone clinging, one inch by three-quarters inch in size, broadly oval, flattened, surfaces pitted; dorsal suture wide, deep.

AMERICAN EAGLE

Prunus americana

1. Cornell Sta. Bui, 38:36. 1892. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 37. 1899. 3. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 105. 1900. 4. Waugh Plum Cult. 142. 1901. 5. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 43:28. 1903. 6. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:254, 255. 1905.

Of the origin of this very good Americana variety little is known except that it probably came from Missouri, as it was introduced, in the fall of 1859, by the Osceola Nursery Company, Osceola, Missouri. Although an old variety it was not listed by the American Pomological Society until 1899. In regions where Americana plums are grown, American Eagle ought to be better known, its chief defect being the dull color of the fruit.

Tree vigorous, spreading; leaves large; petiole glandular. Fruit mid-season; large, varies from roundish-oval to nearly oblate, dark red, covered with thick bloom; stem short, pubescent; flesh yellow, juicy, fibrous, sweet, aromatic, with characteristic Americana flavor; of good quality; stone clinging, three-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, roundish, turgid, conspicuously winged; surface smooth.

AMESAmes plum

Prunus americana X Prunus triflora

1. Vt. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:220. 1899. 2. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 112. 1899. 3. la. Sta. Bul. 46:261.

1900. 4. Waugh Plum Cult. 203. 1901; 5. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 293. 1903. 6. S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 93:9. 1905. 7. III. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 422. 1905. 8. Rural N. Y. 65:730. 1906.

De Soto x Oregon No. 3 6. Japan Hybrid No. 32.

Though Ames has been known to the public scarcely ten years, its good qualities have given it relatively high rank among Americana plums with which it must be compared. Though supposed to be a cross between Prunus americana and Prunus triftora, the variety shows few, if any, traces of the Triflora parentage, except, possibly in the shape and color of the fruit. The variety is distinguished from other Americana plums by reddish dots on the fruit instead of the yellowish dots commonly found on the plums of this species. The fruit of Ames is very attractive in color, the quality is fair, it keeps and ships well and it is fairly free from rot, characters which make it desirable where the native plums are grown. This variety was produced by Professor J. L. Budd of Ames, Iowa, by crossing De Soto with pollen of a " large Japanese plum received from Oregon/* For a long while it was known as De Soto x Oregon No. 3 and as Japan Hybrid No. 3, but was named Ames by Professor John Craig, now of Cornell University.

Tree of medium size, spreading, dense-topped, hardy, productive; branches rough-ish, thorny, the trunk shaggy, dark ash-brown, with numerous, large, raised lenticels; branchlets willowy, thick, long, with long internodes, green changing to dark chestnut-red, glossy, glabrous, thickly strewn with conspicuous, large, raised lenticels; leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, plump, appressed.

Leaves falling early, flattened, oval, two inches wide, four inches long; upper surface dark green, glabrous, slightly rugose; lower surface light green, pubescent; apex taper-pointed, base abrupt, margin coarsely serrate, the serrations ending in hair-like tips, eglandular; petiole seven-eighths inch long, slender, pubescent, tinged red, gland-less or with from one to three globose, greenish-red glands.

Blooming season medium in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, nearly one inch across, white; borne in clusters on lateral buds and spurs, in threes or fours; pedicels one-half inch long, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, somewhat acute, reflexed, pubescent on the inner surface, the margin faintly pubescent and with a trace of red; petals small, oval, somewhat dentate, tapering below to long, narrow, slightly hairy claws; anthers yellowish; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length, frequently defective.

Fruit mid-season, one and seven-sixteenths inches by one and five sixteenths inches in size, ovate or oval, sides compressed, halves equal; cavity shallow, narrow, flaring; suture a line; apex roundish; color light to dark red over a yellow ground, covered with thin bloom; dots numerous, small, brownish-red; stem slender, glabrous; skin medium in thickness and toughness, adhering; flesh golden-yellow, juicy, coarse, fibrous, tender and melting, semi-sweet; of fair quality; stone nearly free, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, irregular-oval, flattened and elongated at the base, abruptly pointed at the apex, very smooth; ventral suture winged and furrowed; dorsal suture acute.

APPLEApple plum

Prunus triflora X ?

1. Burbank Cat. 2. 1898. 2. Vt. Sta. Bul. 67:6. 1898. 3. Vt. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:220. 1899. 4. Am. Gard. 21:36. 1900. 5. Waugh Plum Cult. 203. 1901, 6. Ga. Sta. Bul. 68:12, 35. 1905. 7. Mass. Sia. An. Rpt. 17:161. 1905.

The Apple is a conspicuous plum; its shape, color, size, flavor; its firm, blood-red flesh and long-keeping quality, all distinguish it. Even the tree is marked with its robust growth, flat-topped head, peculiar, light brown bark, handsome foliage and wood that can be propagated from cuttings with surprising ease. It is difficult to predict the future of this interesting plum, but probably it will remain for most part a curiosity. Its peculiar flavor is not pleasant at first taste and it is doubtful if many will learn to like it. Unpalatability is the defect of the variety which will most often be counted against it. In general the Apple is inferior for dessert or kitchen to the Satsuma, itself none too good, which it most nearly resembles of all plums. In the Station collection tree and fruit are quite susceptible to both fungus and insect pests and the fruits ripen unevenly. The fruit of the variety keeps and ships remarkably well and these qualities may be its saving grace, both so well developed as to make it valuable for breeding purposes when these characters are desired.

In his catalog for 1898 Burbank announces the Apple as a new plum and says, "Among the welcome surprises found three years ago among a lot of some twenty-five thousand plum seedlings was this one, bearing a cruel load of enormous plums when only two years old. * * * * It was at once named Apple from the very close resemblance in form, color general appearance, and rare keeping qualities. * * * * Its parentage is not known, except that it is a second generation seedling from cross-bred seedlings, and no doubt Satsuma and probably Robinson are in its line of ancestry." Satsuma characters are readily detected in tree and fruit and especially its hard, red flesh, but in no way is its descent from Robinson apparent.

Tree of medium size, fiat-topped, spreading, dense-topped, slow-growing, semi-hardy, productive; branches rough and thorny, with numerous fruit-spurs, dark ash-gray, reddish and with numerous lenticels; branchlets often with a rosette of flower-buds on the apex of the shoots, slender, with short internodes, greenish-red changing to dark brown, glossy, glabrous, with numerous, conspicuous, large, raised lenticels; leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, plump, appressed.

Leaves folded upward, obovate or oblanceolate, one and one-quarter inches wide, three and three-quarters inches long, thin, leathery; upper surface purplish-red late in the season, glossy, glabrous, with grooved midrib; lower surface light green, pubescent at the base of the veins; apex acutely pointed, base cuneate, margin finely and doubly crenate and with small amber glands; petiole five-eighths inch long, pubescent, red along one side, with from three to ten large, conspicuous, reniform, red or yellowish glands on the stalk.

Blooming season early and of medium length; flowers appearing before the leaves, white; borne in clusters on lateral buds and spurs, in threes or fours; pedicels medium in length and thickness, glabrous; calyx-tube obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, obtuse, glandular-ciliate, glabrous, erect; petals oval, entire, short-clawed; anthers yellowish; filaments of medium length; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens, often defective.

Fruit mid-season; one and one-half inches long, one and three-quarters inches wide, roundish-oblate, compressed, halves equal; cavity medium in depth and width, flaring, with concentric russet rings; suture shallow; apex depressed and at one side; color dull dark red, with waxy bloom; dots numerous, large, russet, conspicuous, clustered about the apex; stem five-eighths inch long, glabrous; skin tough, bitterish, separating from the pulp; flesh dark red, juicy, firm but tender, sweet, with pleasant mild flavor, aromatic; good; stone clinging, three-quarters inch by five-eighths inch in size, oval or obovate, turgid, pointed, roughish, winged on the ventral, deeply furrowed on the dorsal suture.

APRICOT

Prunus domestica

1. Parkinson Par. Ter, 578. 1629. 2. Rea Flora 209. 1676. 3. Quintinye Com. Gard. 6j, 6g. 1699. 4. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:93, PI. XIII. 1768. 5. Knoop Fructologie 2:52, 53, 54. 1771. 6. Kraft Pom. Aust. 2:28, Tab. 173 fig. 1; 2:34, Tab. 183 fig. 1. 1796. 7. Prince Pom. Man. 71. 1832. 8. Henrick Am. Orch. 255. 1832. 9. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 327. 1849. 10- Elliott Fr. Book 424. 1854. 11. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:498. 1860. 12. Downing Fr. Trees Am. .896, .952. 1869. 13. Mas Pom. Gen. 2:133. 1873. X4- 1^ ^on Jard. 338. 1882. 15. Hogg Fruit Man. 684. 1884. 16. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 421, 431, 454. 1889.

Apricocke 1. Apricock Plum 2. Abricot de France 5. Abricot Blanc 16. Abricot Blanche 5. Abricot ordinaire 5. Abricote 5. Abricote blanc 7, 12. Abricotee 4, 13. Abricotee 6, 7, 10, 12, 16. Abricotee Perdrigon 6. Abricotee Blanche 7, 12, 15, 16. Apricot Plum of Tours 7. Abricote de Tours 7. Abricotee de Tours 7, 10, 12, 13, 15, 16. Apricot Plum 8. Apricot Plum of Tours 10, 12, 16. Abricotee Blanc 12. Aprikosenartige Pflaume 13. Apricot 13. Aprikosenartige Pflaume 16. Apricot Plum 16. Aprikosen Perdrigon 16. Die Abrikosenartige Pflaume 6. Die Morillenpflaume 6. French Apricot 9. Frwfo? G^Zfo Kaiser Pflaume 16. 6^fo Apricosenartige Pflaume 13. ###]# Dauphins 16. ##$# Reine-Claude 16. Gelbe Aprikosenpflaume 16. Lieflander Gelbe Pflaume 16. Morillen Pflaume 16. OZc? Apricot 12, 13, 15, 16. Prune-Abricot 11. Prune Abricote'e 14. Prune Abricote'e Blanche 11. Prune Abricotee de Tours 8. Prune Abricote 8. Prune d'Abricot Ordinaire 5. Prune d* Abricot Blanch 5. Prune dJAbricot bigarree 5. Prune d'Abricot de France 5. Prune dy Abricot 16. ifed Apricot 10 incor. Reine-Claudenartige Aprikosen Pflaume 16. Susina Massina Piccola 16. 77t# New Apricot Plum 16. Virginale 5. White Apricot Plum 7, 12. Wahre Aprikosen Pflaume its. White apricot 12, 16. Weisse Aprikosen Pflaume 16. Yellow Apricot 10, 12,13, 15, 16.

Since John Parkinson described the "Apricocke" plum in 1629, several types of this variety have appeared in literature and these have become so badly confused that it is impossible to separate them. However, as the variety is nearly extinct, and will probably never be revived, this confusion is happily of historic rather than of economic interest. Nearly all writers recognize at least two types, one of which is superior to the other. The better of these can readily be identified as the " Abricotee " of Duhamel, and should be considered the true Apricot. Little is known of the early history of this variety other than that it was very generally distributed throughout Europe early in the Seventeenth Century. The American Pomological Society rejected Apricot in 1858, though it is doubtful if they had the true type. This variety is not to be confused with the Prunus simonii, commonly called " Apricot," or the native plum of that name.

The following description is compiled: tree large, vigorous, productive; fruit mid-season; large, roundish or slightly elongated, with prominent suture, yellow, blushed with red, overspread with thin bloom; flesh yellow, sweet, pleasant, slightly musky; good; stone small, free.

ARCH DUKEArch Duke plum image

Prunus domestica

1. Hogg Fruit Man. 684. 1884. 2. Ont. Fr. Gr. Assoc. Rpt. 35. 1891. 3. U.S.D.A. Pom. RpU 45. 1895. 4. W.N. Y.Hort.Soc. Rpt. 42:83. 1897. 5. Cornell Sta. Bui 131:182. 1897. 6. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:241, 242. 1899. 7+ Ibid. 187:77, 78. 1901. 8. Waugh Plum CuU. 95. 1901. 9. Thompson Gard. Ass't 4:156. 1901. 10. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:242, 243 fig., 254, 255. 1905.

Late Diamond 1.


Arch Duke ought to become one of the leading plums for the market in New York. The qualities which fit it for a high place among commercial varieties are: large size, handsome colora rich, dark purple with thick bloomand firmness of flesh and skin so that it both keeps and ships well. The accompanying color-plate does not do the variety justice, either in beauty, color or size of fruit. Arch Duke compared with Grand Duke, known by all plum-growers, is nearly as large, neck thicker, the same color, bloom heavier, quality higher, flesh firmer, stone free and ripens earlier. The tree-characters, like the fruit-characters, are all good. While this variety is suitable for both home and market use it appears after a thorough test in many parts of the State for nearly twenty years to be especially well adapted for a market fruit.

Arch Duke was raised by Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England, from seed of De Montfort, and was sent out in 1883. It was first noted in America by the Ontario Fruit Growers' Association in 1891 and was imported into the United States by S. D. Willard of Geneva, New York, about 1892.

Tree of medium size, upright-spreading, hardy in New York except in exposed locations, very productive; branches smooth, dark ash-gray, with small, raised lenticels; branchlets of medium thickness and length, with long internodes, greenish-red changing to brownish-red, glossy, covered thinly with bloom and with sparse pubescence; lenticels numerous, very small, obscure; leaf-buds large, long, pointed, free; leaf-scars swollen.

Leaves folded upward, oval or obovate, one and five-eighths inches wide, three and five-eighths inches long, thickish, stiff; upper surface dark green, glossy, glabrous, with grooved midrib; lower surface silvery-green, sparingly pubescent; apex and base acute, margin doubly serrate, with small, dark glands; petiole three-quarters inch long, pubescent along one side, tinged red, usually with two large, globose, greenish-yellow glands on the stalk or on the base of the leaf.

Blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and one-eighth inches across, in the bud creamy-yellow changing to white when expanded; borne in scattering clusters on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels nine-sixteenths inch long, glabrous, green; calyx-tube greenish, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate and with marginal hairs, slightly reflexed; petals obovate or oval, crenate, with short, broad claws; anthers yellowish, with a trace of pink; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit late, season very short; one and three-quarters inches by one and three-eighths inches in size, long-oval, slightly compressed and necked; cavity shallow, narrow, compressed, abrupt; suture shallow and rather broad, prominent; apex elongated; color reddish-purple changing to dark blue at full maturity, overspread with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, brownish-russet, inconspicuous; stem often inserted at one side of the base, five-eighths inch long, glabrous, adhering well to the fruit; skin tough, adhering; flesh deep golden-yellow often a little reddish, juicy, coarse, firm, but somewhat tender, sweet, pleasant and sprightly; good; stone free, the cavity larger than the pit, one and one-eighth inches by five-eighths inch in size, long-oval, necked, abruptly tipped at the apex, often reddish, rough; ventral suture broad, blunt, slightly furrowed; dorsal suture with an indistinct shallow groove.

ARCTICArctic pic

Prunus domestica

1. Downing Fr. Trees Ant. 3d App. 182. 1881. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 38. 1881. 3+ Country Gent. 49:106. 1884. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 96. 1887. 5. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 289, 290. 1889. 6. Gard. & For. 6:526. 1892. 7. Can. Hort. 16:301. 1893. 8. Mich. Sta. Bul. 103:35. 1894. 9. Out. Fr. Exp. Sta. Rpt. 120. 1896. 10. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:189. 1897. 11. Ohio Sta. Bul. 113:160. 1899. 12. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:241, 242. 1899. 13. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 43:33. 1903. 14. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 304. 1903. 15. Ga. Sta. Bid. 67:278. 1904. 16. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:256, 257. 1905.

Moore Arctic 8, 15. Moore's Arctic 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 16. Moore's Arctic, 13, 14.

Arctic is very generally supposed to be preeminent in two qualities, hardiness and productiveness. On the grounds of this Station it is both hardy and productive and from its behavior here it might well be recommended for these qualities, but as to its hardiness elsewhere pomologists do not agree. In the references given above, Downing says it is the hardiest plum known; in Michigan it is reported very tender in the nursery row; a Canadian writer says it is not hardy enough for Canada; and it is reputed in the prairie states to be not hardier than Lombard. The place of its origin, where few plums are grown, and the fact that it is one of but few that can be grown in parts of Canada and New Brunswick establish the claim that it is one of the hardiest of the Domesticas, possibly not more so, however, than Lombard, Voronesh and a few others. The small size and mediocre quality of the fruit and the dwarfish trees should rule Arctic out where less hardy varieties can be grown.

This variety was first noted in 1881 by Downing who says it originated on the grounds of A. T. Moore, Ashland, Maine, about forty miles north of Bangor. The parentage of Arctic is unknown. According to the originator, it was grown from a seed of a medium sized blue plum bought at a fruit-stand in Boston. In 1881 Arctic was added to the American Pomological Society catalog, where it still remains.

Tree small, of medium vigor, upright-spreading, very hardy, productive, an early bearer, subject to attacks of fungi; branches somewhat rough, dark ash-gray, with small lenticels; branchlets strongly inclined to develop spurs and blossom-buds, short, slender, with short internodes, greenish-red changing to dark brownish-drab, dull, sparingly pubescent, with inconspicuous, raised lenticels; leaf-buds short, obtuse, appressed.

Leaves obovate or oval, two inches wide, three and three-eighths inches long; upper surface dark green, covered with numerous hairs, the midrib grooved; lower surface silvery-green, pubescent; apex abruptly pointed or acute, base acute, margin finely serrate, with small, black glands; petiole five-eighths inch long, tinged red, pubescent, with from one to four globose, green glands usually at the base of the leaf.

Blooming season of medium length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and three-sixteenths inches across, in the bud creamy-yellow changing to white as the petals expand; borne in clusters on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels five-eighths inch long, pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, pubescent; calyx-lobes narrow, obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, serrate, with ciliate margins, reflexed; petals narrow-obovate or oval, crenate, short-clawed; anthers yellowish; filaments one-half inch long; pistil pubescent at the base, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period long; one and three-eighths inches by one and one-quarter inches in size, oval or ovate, slightly swollen on the suture side, compressed, halves equal; cavity very shallow and narrow, abrupt; suture shallow, indistinct; apex roundish; color dark purple becoming purplish-black at full maturity, covered with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, russet, inconspicuous, clustered about the apex; stem slender, seven-eighths inch long, pubescent, adhering to the fruit; skin of medium thickness and toughness, separating readily; flesh light yellow, juicy, coarse and fibrous, somewhat firm but tender, sweetish, mild; fair in quality; stone nearly free, characteristically small, seven-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, oval, flattened at the apex, acute at the base, rough and pitted; ventral suture ridged, faintly winged; dorsal suture broadly and shallowly grooved.


ARKANSASArkansas plum pic

Prunus munsoniana

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 162. 1881. 2. Cornell Sta. Bul. 38:60, 86. 1892. 3. Tex. Sta. Bul. 32:478. 1894. 4. Wis. Sta. Bul. 63:27. 1897. 5. Waugh Plum Cult. 192, 194 fig. 1901. 6. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 293. 1903. 7. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 488. 1904.

Arkansas Lombard 1, 2, 3, 4, 7. Arfomyas Lombard 5, 6.

Arkansas, as the synonymy shows, originally, and even now, usually has Lombard as a suffix, but the name is misleading as the plum is in no wise like a Lombard and following the rules of the American Pomological Society it has been dropped in The Plums of New York. On the grounds of this Station, Arkansas is one of the most valuable plums of its species, being unusually attractive in size, color and shape and one of the best in quality of its kind. Its chief fault is a lack of robustness in the tree. While it would not prove profitable as a market plum in New York, it could be well planted in a commercial orchard in regions where native plums must be grown, and in New York it would at least add a pleasing variety to any collection of plums. This variety was brought to notice by T. V. Munson in 1881. It originated in Arkansas and was introduced by J. D. Morrow & Sons of that state.

Tree small, flattened, spreading, dense-topped, symmetrical, hardy, productive, somewhat subject to shot-hole fungus; trunk shaggy; branches rough, zigzag, sparingly thorny, dark ash-gray, with numerous lenticels; branchlets slender, with very short internodes, greenish-red changing to reddish-brown, glossy, glabrous, with few, conspicuous, raised lenticels; leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, free.

Leaves folded upward, lanceolate, peach-like, one and one-quarter inches wide, three and one-half inches long, thin; upper surface light green, smooth, glabrous, with grooved midrib; lower surface pale green, sparingly pubescent along the midrib and larger veins; apex taper-pointed, base acute, margin finely serrate, with light brown glands; petiole one-half inch long, slender, pubescent on one side, dull red, with from one to six small, globose, yellow or brownish-red glands.

Blooming season late and long; flowers appearing after the leaves, five-eighths inch across, in the buds creamy-yellow changing to white as they unfold; with a strong disgreeable odor; borne in very dense clusters on lateral buds and spurs, in threes or fours; pedicels one-half inch long, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes short, sparingly pubescent on the inner surface, glandular-serrate, faintly hairy and with a trace of red on the margin, erect; petals obovate, crenate, with narrow claws, somewhat hairy at the base; anthers yellowish; filaments nearly one-quarter inch in length; pistil glabrous, slightly shorter than the stamens.

Fruit early, season very long; one inch by seven-eighths inch in size, roundish-ovate, halves slightly unequal; cavity shallow, flaring, regular; suture an indistinct line; apex roundish or pointed; color bright currant-red, with thin bloom; dots smallish, white, conspicuous, clustered about the apex; stem very slender, five-eighths inch long, glabrous, not adhering to the fruit; skin thin, tough, bitter, separating readily; flesh orange-yellow, juicy, fibrous, somewhat tender and melting, sweet at the skin but sour at the center, aromatic; good; stone clinging, three-quarters inch by one-half inch in size, oval, flattened and prolonged at the base, sharp-tipped at the apex; ventral suture acute, faintly ridged; dorsal suture acute.

AUTUMN COMPOTEAutumn Compote picture

Prunus domestica

1. Mclntosh Bk. Gard. 2:533. I^55- 2* Gard. Chron. 26:364. 1866. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 351. 1866. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 897. 1869. 5. Mas Le Verger 6:71, fig. 36. 1866-73. 6. Hogg Fruit Man. 685. 181:4. 7. Thompson Gard. Ass't 4:156. 1901.

Autumn Compote 5. Compote d'Automne 5.

This plum is well and favorably known in England, but it is scarcely grown in America, though it has much in the character of its fruit at least to recommend it. The plums are attractive in appearance and while not of the highest flavor are yet far above the average in the qualities which make a good dessert fruit, while for culinary purposes it ranks among the best. The trees are productive, hardy and fairly vigorous and may be especially noted as holding their crop well. Autumn Compote is a seedling of Cooper, raised by Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England, about 1840.

Tree of medium size and vigor, spreading, rather low and open-topped, hardy, very productive; branches smooth, dark brownish-gray, with lenticels intermediate in number and size; branchlets few, slender, very short, with long internodes, greenish-red changing to dark brownish-red, dull, sparingly pubescent early in the season, becoming heavily pubescent later, with few, inconspicuous, small lenticels ; leaf-buds long, pointed, free.

Leaves drooping, folded backward, long-oval or obovate, two and one-eighth inches wide, four and one-fourth inches long, thick; upper surface dark green, smooth, hairy, with deeply grooved midrib; lower surface pale green, pubescent; apex acute, base tapering, margin crenate, eglandular; petiole thick, one-half inch long, tinged red, glandless or with from one to four globose, greenish-yellow, large glands usually on the stalk.

Season of bloom medium, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and one-quarter inches across, in the buds creamy-yellow changing to white as the flowers open; borne in clusters on short lateral spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels nearly one-half inch long, glabrous, green; calyx-tube greenish, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, glandular-serrate, sparingly pubescent on both surfaces, reflexed; petals oval, narrowly dentate, with very short and broad claws; anthers yellowish; filaments nearly seven-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, longer than the stamens.


Fruit late, ripening period of medium length; one and five-eighths inches by one and three-eighths inches in size, oval or slightly ovate, halves unequal; cavity shallow, narrow, abrupt; suture shallow, a distinct line; apex roundish or slightly pointed; color purplish-red over a yellow ground, covered with bloom of medium thickness; dots numerous, small, light russet, conspicuous; stem glabrous, adhering to the fruit; skin thin, tender, separating readily; flesh golden-yellow, dry, firm but tender, sweet, not high in flavor; fair in quality; stone clinging but not tenaciously, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, irregularly and broadly ovate, flattened, roughish, slightly compressed and necked at the base, blunt or acute at the apex; ventral suture narrow, winged, strongly furrowed; dorsal suture acute or faintly furrowed.

BARTLETT

Prunus triflora X Prunus simonii

I. Cal. State Bd. Hort. 53. 1897. 2. Vt. Sta. Bul. 67:7. 1898. 3. Burbank Cat. 1899. 4. Can. Hort. 25:411. 1902. 5. Ga. Sta. Bul. 68:6. 1905. 6. De Vries Plant Breeding 226. 1907.

Bartlett was grown by Burbank from a cross of Prunus simonii with Delaware, the latter one of his earliest hybrids. The originator disposed of the variety in 1899 and it immediately became popular with nurserymen and was soon offered for sale in all parts of the United States. Fruitgrowers have not received it so well, however, and most of those who have tried it have discarded it or hold the variety as a curiosity. The fruit is attractive in appearance and the Bartlett pear flavor is agreeable, but the skin cracks badly in this State and the flesh is too soft for shipping. The tree with its stiff, upright branches resembles a Lombardy poplar and with its bright, glossy green foliage is an attractive ornamental. It is still further peculiar in bearing thick clusters of flowers at the ends of lateral spurs.

Tree lacking in size and vigor, upright, open-topped, not very hardy, productive; branches rough, with numerous fruit-spurs; branchlets slender, short, glabrous throughout the season; leaf-buds plump; leaves folded upward, oblanceolate, one and one-half inches wide, three and one-quarter inches long, thin; margin finely serrate, in two series, eglandular or with small, dark glands; petiole slender, with from one to four small glands; blooming season early, long; flowers appearing before the leaves.

Fruit very early; one and three-eighths inches by one and one-quarter inches in size, long-cordate to slightly oval, dark purplish-red over yellow, covered with thick bloom; skin tender, bitter; flesh yellow, not very juicy, tender, sweet, with a peculiar but pleasant flavor; of good quality; stone clinging, seven-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, elongated-ovate, narrow, blunt at the base, long drawn out at the apex, the surfaces rough.


BASSETT

Prunus maritima

1. Gard, Mon. 17:335. 1875. 2. Cornell Sta. Bul. 38:75. 1892. 3. Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 214. 1898. 4. Waugh Plum Cult. 229. 1901. 5. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:254, 255. 1905. 6. 5. Dak. Sta. Bul. 93:10. 1905.
Bassett's American 2, 3. Bassett's American 4.

Bassett, the best known of the few cultivated varieties of Prunus maritima, was found growing wild in New Jersey and was turned over to a nurseryman, Win. F. Bassett of Hamilton, New Jersey, who introduced it in 1872. After its introduction it became somewhat popular in the West, gaining quite a reputation as being "curculio proof.'* However, its marked inferiority to varieties of other species, in both size and quality, has now banished it from all commercial plantings. The following description is compiled.

Tree vigorous, spreading. Fruit late mid-season; very small, roundish, dull red, covered with thin bloom; skin thick, tough; flesh greenish-yellow; quality poor; stone of medium size, roundish, smooth, free.

BAVAYBavay picture

Prunus domestica

1. Gard. Chron. 6:65. 1846. 2. Mag. Hort. 12:340. 1846. 3. Horticulturist 1:527. 1846. 4. Lee Gen. Farmer 10:241. 1849. 5- Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 328. 1849. 6. Elliott Fr. Book 423. 1854. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 210. 1856. 8. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 370. fig. 1857. 9. U. 5. D. A. Rpt. 190, PI. XII. 1865. 10. Hogg Frmt Man. 379. 1866. 11. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 897. 1869. 12. Pom. France 7:No. 6. 1871. 13. Mas Le Verger 6:93, fig. 47. 1866. 14. Ober-dieck Deut. Obst. Sort. 437. 1881. 15. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 363. 1887. 16. Rev. Hort. 515. 1888. 17. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 422. 1889. 18. Mich. Sta. Bul. 129:32, 33. 1896. 19. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:191. 1897. 20. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:241, 242. 1899. 21. Waugh Plum Cult. 96. 1901. 22. Va. Sta. Bul. 134:40. 1902. 23. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:241. 1905.

Bavay's Green Gage 17, 21. Bavay's Green Gage 11. Bavay's renkloie 12. Bavay's Reine Claude 17. Bavays Reine-Claude 13. De Bavay 15. Monstreuse de Bavay 15. Monstrueuse de Bavay 10, 11, 12, 17. Prune de Bavay 12, 17. Queen Claude of Bavay 6. Reine Claude 21, 23. Reine-Claude de Bavay 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 16, 19. Reine-Claude de Bavay 6, 11, 13, 17, 18, 21. Reine-Claude Monstreuse de Bavey 1. Reine-Claude Monot 17. Reine-Claude von Bavays 14. St. Claire 10. Saint Clair 11, 17. Sainte-Claire 17. Saint-Claire 12.

Bavay is one of the best of the green plums, a worthy rival in all respects and in some superior to its parent Reine Claude. It is unexcelled as a dessert plum and its delicious flavor is retained in cooking, making the somewhat rare combination of a first rate dessert and a first rate culinary fruit. Bavay is not only satisfactory in the qualities which make it desirable to the consumer but it is a good market plum for it both keeps and ships well. The flavor is not quite equal to that of Reine Claude, one of the best of all plums in quality, but in tree-characters the Bavay surpasses the older variety. The trees bear young, annually and heavily, sometimes too heavily, and while not as hardy, as large, as robust or as long-lived as could be wished, yet in these respects they are superior to those of most of the varieties of Reine Claude plums. Some horticulturists recommend that the Bavay be top-worked on a more vigorous, hardy and longer-lived stock but the behavior of trees so treated in this vicinity makes top-working a very doubtful expedient. Lombard is usually recommended as a stock upon which to work it. Bavay is indispensable in home orchards and can be recommended for much more general planting in commercial orchards.

This variety is a seedling of Reine Claude produced by Major Esperin of Malines, Belgium, about 1832, and dedicated by him in 1843, to M. De Bavay, Director of the Royal Nurseries, at Vilvordes, near Brussels. Though this variety is distinct from its parent in tree-characters, in having a later season, smaller fruit and a different flavor, the two plums have become confused by many nurserymen and horticulturists. In 1856, the American Pomological Society placed Bavay on its fruit catalog list where it still remains.

Tree of medium size and vigor, upright-spreading, open-topped, hardy, very productive, somewhat susceptible to sunscald; branches smooth except for the few, large, raised lenticels, light ash-gray; branchlets medium in thickness and length, with inter-nodes of variable length, dull brownish-red, pubescent, with numerous, inconspicuous, small lenticels; leaf-buds large, long, pointed, appressed.

Leaves folded backward, oval, or slightly obovate, wide, long, thick; upper surface nearly smooth, covered sparsely with hairs; lower surface thickly pubescent, especially along the midrib and larger veins; apex acute; margin crenate, glandless; petiole thick, long, tinged lightly with red, glandless or with from one to three globose, greenish-yellow glands on the stalk or base of the leaf.

Blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and one-eighth inches across, whitish or creamy at the apex of the petals; borne on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels three-eighths inch long, pubescent, green; calyx-tube greenish, obconic, pubescent at the base; calyx-lobes rather broad, obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, reflexed; petals broadly obovate, crenate, tapering below to short, broad claws; anthers yellowish; filaments three-eighths inch long; pistil pubescent on the ovary, longer than the stamens.

Fruit late, season long; of medium size, roundish-oval, halves equal; cavity intermediate in depth and width, abrupt; suture a line; apex roundish; color greenish-yellow changing to dark straw-yellow, obscurely streaked and splashed, covered with thin bloom; dots numerous, small, grayish, obscure, clustered about the apex; stem thick, short, pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin rather tough, separating readily; flesh rich golden-yellow, juicy, slightly fibrous, tender, sweet, pleasant flavor; very good; stone free, seven-eighths inch by five-eighths inch in size, oval, slightly necked, blunt at the apex, with pitted surfaces; ventral suture winged, deeply furrowed; dorsal suture widely and deeply grooved.

BEJONNIERES

Prunus insititia

1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 898. 1869. 2. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 472. 1887. 3* Ibid. 453. 1906.

Des Bejonnieres 2, 3. Prune des Bejonnieres 1.

This variety is so highly prized in France that it is here recommended for trial even though the trees as they grow in this part of New York have not been productive. It is too small for a dessert plum but might become of value here if used as in France for tarts, spices, preserves and drying. The plum originated about 1827 in the nursery of Andre Leroy, Bejonnieres, Angers, France.

Tree medium in size and vigor, upright-spreading, unproductive; leaf-scars swollen; leaves oval, medium in width and length; margin with small dark glands, finely serrate; petiole with none or from one to six glands, usually on the stalk; flowers appearing after the leaves, tinged creamy-white as they open; borne on lateral buds and spurs, in pairs or in threes.

Fruit late, season of medium length; one and three-eighths inches by one and one-quarter inches in size, obovate, a little necked, yellow, blotched with red on the exposed cheek, covered with thin bloom; stem long; apex strongly depressed; flesh pale yellow, firm but tender, sweet, aromatic; very good; stone semi-clinging, three-quarters inch by one-half inch in size, oval.

BELGIAN PURPLE

Prunus domestica

1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 373. 1857. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 351. 1866. 3. Pom. France 7: No. 27. 1871. 4. MasLe Verger6:105. 1866-73. 5- Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1877. 6. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 340. 1887. 7. Guide Prat. 153, 352. 1895.

Bleue de Perk 4. Bleue de Bergues 3,7. Bleue de Belgique 1, 7. Bleu de Perque 1. Blaue von Belgien 4, 7. Bleu de Bergues 6. Bleue de Peck 6. Belgian Purple 4, 6, 7. Bleue de Belgique 7. Belgische Damascene 7. Bleue de Perck 7. Bleu de Belgique 6. Fertheringham 3 incor. Prune Bleue de Belgique 3.

Belgian Purple is a medium grade plum of little value for dessert but rather highly esteemed for culinary purposes, especially in Europe. It probably has but a small place in American pomology. Concerning the origin of the variety, nothing is known although it is generally believed to have originated in Belgium prior to 1850.

Tree large, vigorous, round and dense-topped, not always hardy, very productive; branchlets numerous, thick, pubescent throughout the season; leaf-scars prominent; leaves flattened or folded upward, oval, one and five-eighths inches wide, three and one-half inches long; margin serrate or crenate; petiole five-eighths inch long, gland-less or with from one to two small glands usually at the base of the leaf; flowers nearly one inch across, white, with a peculiar greenish and creamy tinge near the apex of the petals and often splashed with pink towards the base; borne on lateral buds and spurs; calyx-tube thickly pubescent.

Fruit mid-season; medium to below in size, roundish-oval, purplish-black, overspread with thick bloom; flesh rich, golden-yellow, medium juicy, firm, sweet, mild; fair to good; stone nearly free, of medium size, oval, flattened, often with a distinct wing.

BELLE Belle plum pic

Prunus domestica

1. Horticulturist 10:71. 1855. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 394. 1857. 3; Flor. & Pom. 144, PL 1863. 4. Hogg Fruit Man. 351, 384. 1866, 5. Mas Le Verger 6:27, fig. 14. 1866-73. 6. Le Bon Jard. 341. 1882. 7. Barry Fr. Garden 410. 1883. 8. Decaisne & Naudin Man. Am. des Jard. 4: 382. 9. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 449, 451. 1889. I0+ Garden $012g$. 1896. 11. Rivers Cat. 33. 1898. 12. Fish Hardy-Fr. Bk. 2:55. 13. Thompson Gard. Ass't 4:156. 1901. 14. Waugh Plum Cult. 96. 1901.

Autumn Beauty 11. Autumn Beauty 9. Belle de Septembre 9, 11, 14. Belle de Septembre I] 3] 4] 7; IO; I2] I3+ Gros Rouge de Septembre 3, 4, 9. Lawrence Early 9. Regina nova 6. Reine-Claude Rouge 9. Reine-Claude Rouge de Septembre 5, 9. Reine-Claude Rouge of September 2 Reine-Claude Rouge de Van Mons 5, 6, 8. Reine-Claude Rouge de Van Mons 9. Reine-Claude Rouge Van Mons 4, 9. Reine Nova (Berre) 9. Reina Nova 2, 3, 4, 9. Rote Claude 9. Reine Nova 9. Schone September Konigspflaume 9. Van Mons Konigspflaume 9. Van Mons Konigspflaume 5. Van Mons Red 9. Van Mons' Red 4. Van Mons Red Gage 5, 9.

Belle is an unusually large, handsome plum but unfortunately is not of very high quality. It is much like Pond but is brighter red, a little smaller, less necked, the stem is shorter, the apex more blunt and it is more of a clingstone. European authorities say that Belle is second to none for culinary purposes and its handsome appearance gives it value across the seas as a dessert plum. As Belle grows on the grounds of this Station, it seems not to be found elsewhere in New York, the tree-characters are quite above those in the average variety of plums and when considered with the fine, late fruits, indicate that the variety might be grown with profit for market purposes. It well deserves to be tried by commercial plum-growers.

Belle came from Brussels, Belgium, and was propagated by the famous horticulturist, Van Mons. Nothing further is known of its origin.

Tree above medium in size, vigorous, upright, open-topped, hardy, productive; branches smooth, dull dark ash-gray, with small, numerous, raised lenticels; branchlets thick, with short internodes, green changing to brownish-red, often marked with scarf-skin, dull, very pubescent early in the season becoming less pubescent as maturity advances, with numerous, small lenticels; leaf-buds of medium size and length, conical, free.

Leaves flattened or folded upward, obovate, one and seven-eighths inches wide, four and one-half inches long, thick, leathery; upper surface dark green, with deeply grooved midrib, sparingly hairy; lower surface silvery-green, pubescent; apex acute, base cuneate, margin shallowly but broadly crenate, with few small dark glands; petiole one and one-eighth inches long, thick, pubescent, tinged with light red, glandless or with one or two small, globose, yell-owish glands on the stalk or base of the leaf.

Blooming season late and long; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and one-eighth inches across, the buds cream-tipped changing to white on expanding; borne on lateral buds and spurs, usually singly; pedicels about seven-sixteenths inch long, thick, pubescent, green; calyx-tube greenish, campanulate, glabrous except towards the base; calyx-lobes above medium in width, obtuse, slightly pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, erect; petals broadly ovate, crenate, with short, broad claws; anthers yellowish; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit late, season of medium length; one and seven-eighths inches by one and three-quarters inches in size, roundish-oval, slightly compressed, halves nearly equal; cavity shallow, flaring; suture shallow, rather wide, prominent; apex roundish or depressed; color light purplish-red over a greenish-yellow ground, overspread with thin bloom; dots numerous, small, russet, inconspicuous; stem one-half inch long, thickly pubescent, adhering strongly to the fruit, with fleshy ring about the base; skin of average thickness and toughness, sour, separating from the pulp; flesh pale yellow, juicy, coarse, firm, sweet at the skin, but tart at the center, pleasant, aromatic; good; stone clinging, one and three-sixteenths inches by three-quarters inch in size, oval, turgid, blunt at the apex, with rough and pitted surfaces; ventral suture winged, with few but prominent ridges; dorsal suture widely and deeply grooved.

BERCKMANS

Prunus triflora

1. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 53, 99. 1S89. 2. Cornell Sta. Bul. 62:20. 1894. 3. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 95. 1895. 4. Cornell Sta. Bul. 106:43, 44. 1896. 5. Rural N. Y. 56:614. 1897. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 26. 1897. 7. Cornell Sta. Bul. 175:138, 143. 1899. 8. Rural N. Y. 62:582. 1903. 9. Ga. Sta. Bui 68:9, 28. 1905.

Botan of some 2, 4. Botan White 6. Sweet Botan 1. Sweet Botan 2, 3, 4. True Sweet Botan 2, 4, 9. White-fleshed Botan 1. White-fleshed Botan 2, 4, 8, 9.

This variety was introduced by Luther Burbank in 1887 from imported stock. P. J. Berckmans of Augusta, Georgia, who had secured some Botan trees from Burbank, noted that this plum differed from the rest and, in order to distinguish it, named it Sweet Botan. The nomenclature of Botan was confused and indefinite and Bailey, in 1894, renamed the new plum Berckmans. As it is very similar to Abundance, still more confusion has arisen in regard to it. Compared with Abundance, Berckmans is more spreading in growth; fruit less pointed, with dryer and more insipid flesh; color brighter red and the stone usually freer; but it is neither as productive nor as free from rot. In 1897 the American Pomological Society placed the variety on its fruit list. As Berckmans is inferior to Abundance and ripens at the same season, it is not worth recommending for general planting. It is to be regretted that so distinguished a horticulturist as Mr. Berckmans is not to have his name perpetuated in a better plum than the one named in his honor.

BERGER

Prunus triflora

1. Cornell Sta. Bul. 62:20, 21 fig , 31. 1894. 2. Ibid, 106:45, 62, 67. 1896. 3. Ibid, 139:46. 1897. 4. Ibid, 175:132, 133 fig. 26. 1899. 5. Texas Sta. Bul. 32:486 fig. 7, 490, 492. 1899. 6. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 92. 1899. 7. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:248 fig., 254, 255. 1905.

Honsmomo 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Red Nagate 1, 2 incor. Satsuma 1, 2 incor. Shiro Smomo 1, 2, 5. Strawberry 1, 3, 6. Strawberry 2, 4. Uchi Bene 6. Uchi-Beni 1, 2, 5. Ucki-Beni 3, 4. Ura-Beni 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

At first sight Berger is a wholly insignificant plum, being no larger than a sweet cherry; but the variety is so distinct in several characters that every collection should have a tree or two of it and the plum-breeder will find it most interesting and valuable. Its peculiarities are: A flavor quite distinct from that of any other Triflora plum; its cherry-like appearance; early ripening, maturing in this State shortly after the middle of July; its pronounced upright habit of growth; its light green foliage; and its habit of bearing its fruit close to the old wood. In common with many other Japanese varieties, the nomenclature of Berger is badly confused. According to Bailey, who received specimens of this variety from various sections of the country, H. H. Berger & Company of San Francisco sent out this plum under several names. Berckmans of Georgia received it as Red Nagate; N. S. Platt of Connecticut as Satsuma; to another person in the South it came as Shiro Smomo, while T. V. Munson of Texas grew it under the name of Berger, a term finally adopted by Bailey. In the meanwhile, Stark Brothers of Louisiana, Missouri, introduced a plum very similar to this under the name Strawberry but the variety was dropped by them in 1893. Whether or not this "Strawberry " or " Uchi-Beni," as it was sometimes called, was really the Berger it is impossible to say but it is certain that both of these names have been applied to the Berger. The following description is a compilation.

Tree vigorous, upright, open-topped, medium hardy; leaves narrow, light colored; blooming season early; flowers white, small.

Fruit very early; unusually small, roundish but truncate at the ends, attractive light to dark red, covered with thick bloom; flesh firm, meaty, light yellow, sweet, of pleasant flavor; fair to good; stone very small and cherry-like, free, with smooth surfaces.

BLACK BULLACE

Prunus insititia

1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 576, 578. 1629. 2. Gerard Herball 1498. 1636. 3. Miller Gard. Diet. 3:1754. 4. Abercrombie Gard. AssH 13. 1786. 5. Deane N. E. Farmer Diet. 266. 1797. 6. Miller Gard. Diet. 3:1807. 7. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 144 . 1831. 8. Phillips Com. Orch. 306. 1831. 9 Prince Pom. Man. 2:105. 1832. 10. Hogg Fruit Man. 689. 1884. 11. Jour. Hort. 27:476. 1874. 12, Garden 59:226. 1901.

Black Bulleis 1. Bullesse 2. Earley's November 11.

This variety is interesting chiefly as an early type of the Insititia plums, its thorny branches, wayward growth, small and austere fruit, all bespeaking a wild fruit. The plums when ripened by frost are not unpleasant to taste and are borne in prodigious quantities. The variety, however, is surpassed by many other Insititias and has little value other than to show the steps between wild and highly cultivated fruits.

Black Bullace is one of the oldest of cultivated plums and all data in regard to its origin have been lost. It resembles the wild forms of its species very closely and it may have been selected from the wild. Parkinson, writing in 1629, (References, 1) gives a short description of this variety; and Gerard, in 1636, (References, 2) says: "The Bullesse and the Sloe tree are wilde kindes of Plums, which do vary in their kind, even as the greater and manured Plums do. Of Bullesse, some are of greater and of better taste than others. Sloes are some of one taste, and some of others, more sharp; some greater and others lesser; the which to distinguish with long descriptions were to small purpose, considering they be all and every of them known even to the simplest; therefore this shall suffice for their several descriptions." Black Bullace has long been known in England and was among the first European varieties cultivated in this country. Deane in The New England Farmer, 1797, describes this variety briefly as under cultivation at that time but it did not prove popular in North America and after Prince, 1832, it seems to have dropped from American plum literature.

Tree of medium size and vigor, upright or slightly spreading, dense-topped, hardy, very productive; branches smooth except for the numerous, small, raised lenticels, dark, ash-gray; branchlets long, with short internodes, green changing to dark brownish-drab, thickly pubescent, with numerous, inconspicuous, small lenticels; leaf-buds small short, obtuse, free.

Leaves oval, one and one-half inches wide, three and one-quarter inches long; upper surface dark green, rugose, hairy, with grooved midrib; lower surface silvery-green, heavily pubescent; apex abruptly pointed or acute, base acute, margin serrate or crenate, with a few, smallish, dark glands; petiole three-quarters inch long, green, thickly pubescent, glandless or with one or two small, globose, greenish-brown glands on the stalk or at the base of the leaf.

Blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing with the leaves, seven-eighths inch across, white; borne on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels three-eighths inch long, pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, pubescent only at the base; calyx-lobes narrow, obtuse, pubescent at margin and base, with few glands, reflexed; petals oval, entire, tapering abruptly to short claws; anthers yellowish; filaments three-eighths inch in length; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit late, season long; one and one-eighth inches by seven-eighths inch in size, distinctly oval, necked, not compressed, halves equal; cavity small, shallow, narrow, flaring; suture lacking; apex roundish, with stigma usually adhering; color purplish-black, covered with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, brown, inconspicuous; stem one-half inch long, pubescent, adhering to the fruit; skin of medium thickness and toughness, slightly astringent, adhering somewhat; flesh greenish-yellow, juicy and fibrous, firm, sour or agreeably tart late in the season; stone clinging, three-quarters inch by one-half inch in size, irregularly oval or ovate, slightly necked at the base, acute at the apex, with pitted surfaces; ventral suture swollen, blunt; dorsal suture acute or partially furrowed.

BLACKMAN

Prunus hortulana X Prunus persica x. Gara. Mon. 24:82. 1882. 2. Ibid, 29:45, 302, 1887. 3. Cornell Sta. Bul. 38:77. 1892.

Blackman is supposed to be a hybrid between the Wild Goose plum and a peach. According to Bailey, a Mrs. Charity Clark secured plum pits from an orchard of Wild Goose and Washington plums in Rutherford County, Tennessee, about 1865 and gave them to Dr. Blackman of Nashville of that State. One of the seedlings appeared promising and was disseminated by a local nurseryman under the name Blackman. A rival nurseryman in attempting to procure cions of this variety inadvertently cut them from an adjacent tree, a barren seedling from the same lot of seed. Unfortunately the spurious Blackman received a wide distribution while the true variety remained practically unknown. Afterwards in order to avoid confusion the original Blackman was rechristened Charity Clark under which name it is now known. The tree of the second Blackman is strong and vigorous but rarely produces its plum-like fruit. The foliage is about midway in character between the plum and peach; the fruit-buds are formed abundantly but seldom open. From a horticultural standpoint, the variety is of course worthless but the hybrid, one of the first of its kind, is interesting and worth recording.

BLEEKER

Prunus domestica

1. Prince Pom. Man. 25. 1828. 2. Kenrick Am. Orch. 255. 1832. 3. Manning Book of Fruits 104. 1838. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 273. 1845. 5- Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 54. 1852. 6. Thompson Gard. Ass't 515. 1859. 7. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 899. 1869. 8. Mas Le Verger 6:21. 1866-1873. 9. Hogg Fruit Man. 686. 1884. *[] Mathieu Nom. Pom. 423. 1889. 11. Guide Prat. 158, 364. 1895. 12. Waugh Plum Cult. 96. 1901.

Bleecker's 11. Bleecker's German Gage 1. Bleecker's German Gage 2. Bleecker's Gage 2, 4. 5, 6, 7. Bleecker's Gage 9, 10, 11, 12. Bleeker's Gage 3. Blucher's Gage 6. Bleecker's Yellow 7, Bleeker's 10. Bleecker's Yellow Gage 7, 8, n. Bleecker's Gage 8. Bleeker's Yellow 9. Bleeker's Gelbe Zwetsche 11. Bleeker's Gelbe Zwetsche 10. Bleeker's Yellow Gage 9, 10. Bleeker's Gelbe Reine-Claude 10. Bleeker's Gelbe Renklode n. Bleeker's Yellow 10. German Gage 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11. Jaune de Bleeker 10, 11. Reine-Claude de Bleeker 10. Reine-Claude de Bleecker 8, 11.

Just why this old and one time popular plum is now so seldom grown cannot be said. It is a delicious dessert plum of the Reine Claude group, much like Yellow Gage but distinguished from it by a longer and stouter stalk. Its tree-characters in New York are good and the fruit in all the qualities that make plums desirable is as good as that of most of its class. The variety originated with a Mrs. Bleeker of Albany, New York, about 1810 from a pit given her by Rev. Mr. Dull of Kingston, New York. This stone had come from Germany and was thought to have been that of a German prune but this is probably an error as the seedlings of that variety come true or nearly so. Bleeker was listed in the catalogs of the American Pomological Society from 1852 to 1897.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped, productive; trunk and branches thick and covered with rough bark; branches slightly pubescent; leaves two and one-quarter inches wide, four inches long, oval, stiff; upper surface somewhat rugose; margin serrate; petiole five-eighths inch long, thick, tinged red, with from two to three glands usually on the stalk.

Fruit early; nearly one and one-half inches in diameter, roundish-oval, greenish-yellow, striped and splashed with green becoming golden-yellow at full maturity, overspread with thin bloom; flesh golden-yellow, dry, coarse, firm, sweet, mild; of good quality; stone semi-clinging, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, obovate, acute at the apex, medium turgid, with pitted surfaces.

BLUE PERDRIGON

Prunus domestica

1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 576. 1629. 2. Rea Flora 208. 1676. 3. Quintinye Com. Gard. 67, 68, 69. 1699. 4- Langley Pomona 92, PI. 23 fig. 4. 1729. 5. Duhamel Trait* Arb. Fr. 2:85. 1768. 6. Prince Pom. Man. 2:66. 1832., 7. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 290. 1845. 8. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 280, 293, 383. 1846. 9. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 287. 1853, 10. Hogg Fruit Man. 687. 1884. 11. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 452. 1889. 12. Guide Prat. 154, 361. 1895.

Blue Perdrigon 6, 7, 11, 12. Brignole Violette 7, 10, 11, 12. Battle Monument 10, 11. Blaue Fasanen Pftaume 11, 12. Blauer Perdrigon 11, 12. Blew Perdrigon 2, 3. 4. Perdrigon 1, 3, 9. Perdrigon Violet 5, 12. Perdrigon Violet 6, 8, 11. Perdrigon Violette 7, 10. Perdigon 8. Per-digevena 8. Violet Perdrigon 4, 6, 7, 10, 11. Violet Perdrigon 6, 8. Violetter Perdrigon 11. Violette Fasanen Pflaume 11. Violette Huhner Pflaume 11. Violette Rebhuhn Pftaume 11. Violette Fasanenpftaume 12. Violette Huhner pftaume 12. Violetter Perdrigon 12. Violettes Rebhuhnerei 11, 12.

Early records indicate that the Blue Perdrigon was introduced into England from Italy. Hakluyt, writing in 1582, says, "Of late time the Plum called the Perdigevena was procured out of Italy, with two kinds more, by the Lord Cromwell, after his travel." Gough, in his British Topography, states that Lord Cromwell introduced the "Perdrigon plum" into England in the time of Henry VII. From these accounts it would seem that this plum was established in England some time during the latter part of the Fifteenth Century. For three hundred years it thrived so well in England that writers had no hesitation in pronouncing it their best plum. From England it came early to America. Probably it was included in the shipment of plum pits ordered from England by the Governor and Company of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in New England in 1629. In spite of its Old World reputation, however, it never found favor here and is now rarely if ever seen even in collections. The older writers mentioned a Black Perdrigon which they considered distinct from the variety under discussion. Inasmuch as all plums until recently were propagated from seed, it is more than likely that there were all gradations in color and that some attempted to classify the darker seedlings as a distinct variety. This hypothesis is borne out by the fact that after grafting and budding became the common method of propagation the so-called Black Perdrigon became extinct. The following description is a compilation.

Tree vigorous, but not always productive; young shoots pubescent; fruit mid-season; medium in size, obovate, compressed on the suture side, purple or blue, with thick bloom; stem slender; skin thick, very tough; flesh greenish-yellow, firm, rich, sweet, aromatic; good; stone small, flattened, clinging; fruit hangs on the tree until it shrivels.

BODDAERT

Prunus domestica

1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 26. App. 156. 1876. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1877. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 687. 1884. 4. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 423. 1889. 5. Lucas Vollst. Hand. Obst. 472. 1894. 6. Waugh Plum Cult. 97. 1901.

Boddaert's Green Gage i, 3. Boddart's Green Gage 2. Boddaert's Reine Claude 4. Boddaert's Green Gage 4, 6. Reine-Claude de Boddaert 4. Reine-Claude Boddaert 1, 3, 4. Reine-Claude von Boddaert 4.

Boddaert has much to commend it, the fruit being surpassed by that of but few other plums of its type, that of the Reine Claude. The plums are large, attractive and of very good quality. Since the variety has been known so long it must be that the tree has some fatal defect; otherwise it would be more largely grown. Boddaert is probably a Reine Claude seedling and is of foreign origin, the details of its early history not being known. Downing, in 1876, first mentioned the variety in America; the following year it was placed on the fruit list in the American Pomological Society catalog.

Tree large, medium in vigor, upright-spreading, open-topped, productive; trunk rough; branches smooth, except for a few, raised lenticels; branchlets of medium thickness, brash, thinly pubescent; leaves oval, two and one-quarter inches wide, four inches long, thick and leathery; upper surface dark green, rugose; margin crenate, with small dark glands; petiole pubescent, thick, tinged red, usually with two globose glands.

Fruit mid-season; about one and one-half inches in diameter, roundish-ovate, strongly compressed, yellow, mottled with green before full maturity, overspread with thin bloom; stem thickly pubescent; flesh light yellow, dry, meaty, tender, sweet; good in quality; stone semi-free or free, seven-eighths inch by five-eighths inch in size, oval or ovate, turgid, with pitted surfaces.

BRADSHAW

Prunus domestica

1. Mag. Hort. 12:341. 1846. 2. Horticulturist 10:15, 253. 1855. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 190,214. 1856. 4. Cultivator 8:25 fig. 1860. 5. Mas Pom. Gen. 2:3, fig. 2. 1873. 6. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 303. 1878. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 61, 118. 1883. 8. Hogg Fruit Man. 709. 1884. 9. Rural N. Y. 44:103. 1885. 10. Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 130. 1888. 11. Ibid. 144. 1889. 12. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 434. 1889. 13. Mich. Sta. Bul. 103:32, 33, fig. 6. 1894. 14. Guide Prat. 157, 359. 1895. 15. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:182. 1897. 16. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:242, 244. 1899. 17. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 44:91. 1899. 18. Thompson Gard. Ass't 4:158. 1901. 19. Waugh Plum Cult. 97. 1901. 20. Ont. Fruit Exp. Sta. Rpt. 16, 17 fig. 1902. 21. Va. Sta. Bul. 134:40. 1902. 22. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 43:33. 1903. 23. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:239, 254, 255, 256. 1905,

Black Imperial 5, 14. Blue Imperial 5, 14, 19, 20. Bradshaw 9, 14. Grosse Schwarze Kaiser Pflaume 12. Hart Prune 17. Large Black Imperial 8, 14, 18. Large Black Imperial 2, 3, 12. Mooney 9, 17. Niagara 7, 9, 10, 11. Niagara 13, 15, 17, ?i9, 20, ?22, 23.

Bradshaw leads all other plums in number of trees in New York, according to a survey of the leading orchards made in the preparation of The Plums of New York. A study of the variety does not justify this popularity. The trees grow rather slowly and are slow in coming into bearing; the fruit is not especially high in quality and in many regions is attacked by brown-rot too freely for profitable orchard culture. To offset these faults the trees are large and well formed, bear regularly and heavily, are hardy, robust and healthy, the best of recommendations, and the plums are large, attractive in appearance and keep and ship well especially if picked a little green. The variety, curiously enough, is not nearly as badly attacked by San Jose scale as other plums. Probably one of the reasons why Bradshaw is so largely grown in New York is that it is easily handled in the nursery and quickly makes a very good nursery tree. Bradshaw does not deserve the high place it holds with plum-growers, and must give way sooner or later to better varieties for commercial orchards. The value of the crop is greatly lessened in New York because it ripens in the midst of the peach season.

Unfortunately, the origin of this plum is not known. The Europeans and some Americans have held that it came from America but, since it is identical with the Large Black Imperial, it must be of foreign origin. It was named by C. M. Hovey in 1846, and was described in his Magazine of Horticulture with the following explanation: " For the want of a name to distinguish a very large and excellent plum, exhibited for three or four years in succession, by E. E. Bradshaw, Esq., Charlestown, we have called it the Bradshaw plum." Barry, in 1855, states in the Horticulturist that he " received it from Wm. Kenrick, a nurseryman in Newton, Massachusetts, under the name of Large Black Imperial; but as it has been described in Hovey's Magazine as Bradshaw, we have adopted that name in our catalog." Though the name Bradshaw is incorrect according to the rule of priority, it would now cause too much confusion to change it.

Niagara, a well known variety in this State, is identical with Bradshaw in all characters, in spite of a supposedly distinct origin. According to Mr. George Atwood of the State Department of Agriculture, a Mr. Moody of Lockport exhibited, about 1870, the Mooney plum, afterwards named the Niagara. Being interested in the variety, Mr. Atwood visited Mooney, at Lockport, the man from whom Moody had secured his stock. In Mooney's yard were found several bearing trees, which had been grown from sprouts taken from the original seedling tree, grown in Canada. These trees could not be told from the Bradshaw. If the Niagara is distinct as to origin, it is probably a seedling of Bradshaw. Bradshaw was recommended to fruit-growers as a promising variety by the American Pomological Society in 1856 and has since remained on the fruit list of the society.

Tree large, vigorous, broad-vasiform, dense-topped, hardy, very productive; branches smooth except for the numerous, small, raised lenticels, dark ash-gray; branch-lets short, with long internodes, greenish-red changing to brownish-red, often with heavy gray scarf-skin, dull, sparingly pubescent, with obscure, small lenticels; leaf-buds variable in size and length, pointed, free.

Leaves drooping, folded backward, obovate or oval, two inches wide, four and one-quarter inches long, thickish; upper surface dark green, rugose, pubescent, with a shallow groove on the midrib; lower surface grayish-green, thickly pubescent; apex acute, base abrupt, margin not regular, varying from coarsely crenate to serrate, egland-ular or with few, small, dark glands; petiole three-quarters inch long, pubescent, reddish, glandless or with from one to three large, globose, greenish-brown glands on the stalk or at the base of the leaf.

Season of bloom short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and three-sixteenths inches across, the buds creamy changing to white as the flowers expand; borne on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels nearly eleven-sixteenths inch long, pubescent, green; calyx-tube greenish, campanulate, pubescent only at the base; calyx-lobes wide, obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, margins ciliate, reflexed; petals broadly oval, erose, with short, broad claws; anthers yellowish; filaments seven-sixteenths inch long; pistil pubescent at the base, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit mid-season; two inches by one and three-quarters inches in size, oval or obovate, compressed, halves equal; cavity shallow, narrow, abrupt, with a fleshy ring around the stem; suture very shallow; apex roundish or flattened; color light purplish-red changing to dark reddish-purple at maturity, covered with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, russet, inconspicuous, clustered about the apex; stem thick, seven-eighths inch long, pubescent, adhering strongly to the fruit; skin thin, somewhat tough, sour, separating readily; flesh dull yellow, often with a trace of red when fully mature, juicy, fibrous, somewhat tender, sweet, pleasant; good; stone semi-free, flattened, one and one-quarter inches by three-quarters inch in size, irregularly oval, necked at the base, blunt at the apex, strongly roughened and pitted, often with numerous, small, deep pits near the margins of both ventral and dorsal sutures; ventral suture strongly furrowed and winged; dorsal suture with a deep, narrow groove.

BRYANSTON

Prunus domestica

1. Lond. Hort, Soc. Cat. 144. 1831. 2. Jour. Hort. N. S. 17:286. 1869. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 902. 1869. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 24. 1871. 5. Barry-Fr. Garden 411. 1883. 6. Hogg Fruit Man. 688. 1884. 7. Tenn. Sta. Bui 3:No. 5, 88. 1890. 8. Guide Prat, 155. 1895. 9. Thompson Gard. Ass't 42157. 1901. 20. Waugh Plum Cult, 98. 1901. 11. Mass. Sta, An. Rpt. 17:158. 1905.

Bryanstone 11. Bryanston Gage 1, 2, 6, 9. Bryanston's Gage 3, 5, 7. Bryanston* s Gage 10. Bryanstone Gage 4. Reine-Claude Bryanston 8.

The fruits of Bryanston fall not a little short, all things considered, of being as good as those of several other of the varieties in the Reine Claude group of which this plum is a member. For this reason Bryanston is not often rated by horticulturists as one of the best plums, but the large, vigorous trees growing on the Station grounds are so especially desirable for this variety, in a group which taken as a whole is noted for poor trees, that it is here described among the leading plums. The fruit is larger than that of Reine Claude but is less attractive in color and shape and the quality is not as high. It is later than the variety with which it has just been compared and the crop is not borne as regularly. While this plum can hardly be recommended for extensive orchard plantings, it yet has too many merits to be forgotten.

This variety is said to be the result of crossing Reine Claude and Golden Drop at Bryanston Park, Blandford, England. It was first noted in the London Horticultural Society fruit catalog in 1831 but no information in regard to the date of its origin seems to have been published. In 1871 the American Pomological Society added it to its fruit catalog list but dropped it in 1897.

Tree very large and vigorous, round-topped, open, hardy, very productive; branches smooth, becoming rough near the trunk, ash-gray, with lenticels of medium size and number; branchlets somewhat slender, short, with long internodes, greenish-red changing to dull reddish-brown, marked by scarf-skin, dull, glabrous, with few, inconspicuous, small lenticels; leaf-buds above medium in size and length, pointed, free; leaf-scars prominent.

Leaves folded backward, oval or obovate, one and five-eighths inches wide, three and one-quarter inches long, leathery; upper surface dark green, sparingly hairy, with a shallow groove on the midrib; lower surface yellowish-green, pubescent; apex abruptly pointed or acute, base acute, margin crenate, bearing small, dark glands; petiole one-half inch long, pubescent, with a little red, glandless or with one or two small, globose, yellowish glands.

Blooming season intermediate in time, short; flowers appearing with the leaves, one and one-eighth inches across, white, creamy at the apex of the petals in the newly opened flowers; borne on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels one-half inch long, thick, pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, pubescent at the base; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-ciliate, somewhat reflexed; petals roundish-ovate, erose; anthers yellow; filaments about one-quarter inch long; pistil glabrous except at the base, slightly longer than the stamens; stigma large.

Fruit mid-season; one and five-eighths inches by one and one-half inches in size, irregular roundish-truncate, halves unequal; cavity shallow, narrow, abrupt; suture usually shallow, prominent; apex flattened or depressed; color dull yellow with greenish streaks, sometimes with pinkish blush about the cavity, mottled, overspread with thin bloom; dots numerous, small, inconspicuous; stem thick, three-quarters inch long, pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, tough, sour, separating readily; flesh greenish-yellow, juicy, firm but tender, sweet, aromatic; very good; stone nearly free, seven-eighths inch by five-eighths inch in size, broadly oval, turgid, slightly contracted at the blunt base, roundish at the apex, with rough and pitted surfaces; ventral suture broad, with a distinct but small wing; dorsal suture widely and deeply grooved.

BURBANK

Prunus triflora

1. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 53, 99. 1889. 2. U.S.D.A. Rpt. 392. 1891. 3. Wickson Cal. Fruits 360. 1891. 4. Cornell Sta. BuL 106:46, 63. 1896. 5. Ala. Col. Sta. Bul. 85:445. 1897. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 26. 1897. 7. Am. Gard. 19:75, 132, 220, 792. 1898. 8. Mich. Sta. BuL 169:242, 249. 1899. 9. Cornell Sta. BuL 175:143. 1899. 10. Waugh Plum Cult. 134. 1901. 11. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 88. 1902. 12. Can. Hort. 25:272. 1902. 13. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 308. 1903. 14. Ga. Sta. Bul. 68:11, 28. 1905. 15. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:256. 1905. 16. DeVries Plant Breeding 170. 1907.

Persing Nos. 1 & 2, 15. Russian plum 20M. 4. Wassu 4. Wassu 9.

Probably Abundance holds first place among the Triflora plums in New York but Burbank is a close second and in many localities has first preference. Abundance is in the lead chiefly because the trees of this variety are larger and better formed and bear more fruit than those of Burbank. To offset the advantages of Abundance the fruit of Burbank is of better quality, more handsomely colored, keeps and ships better and is less susceptible to brown-rot. The fruit of Burbank ripens a week or more later than that of Abundance, which in most seasons is a slight advantage for the first-named variety. The trees of this plum are distinguished from those of all other plums by their low, spreading habit, flat top and somewhat drooping branches, characters which make them more or less difficult to handle in the orchard and very difficult to manage in the nursery. The wood of Burbank is brittle, true of all Trifloras, but a serious defect in this one. In common with other varieties of its species, Burbank is less troubled with curculio and black-knot than the European plums. The fruit of this variety begins to color some days before ripe and should be picked before fully matured if it is to be kept or shipped. Usually the best specimens of Burbank come from thinned trees and thinning is a necessary operation in all commercial orchards. The variety does not thrive in the South, being poor in quality and rotting badly. In New York, Burbank is not being planted nearly so largely as a few years ago, the Domesticas being much more profitable than this or other Triflora plums. It is a very desirable variety for home plantations in New York.

Burbank was produced from a plum pit sent to Luther Burbank by a Japanese agent in 1883 (179).  The fruit of this variety proved to be very superior and Mr. Burbank sent specimens of it to the Division of Pomology, United States Department of Agriculture in 1887, where it was named in honor of the introducer. Wassu, introduced by J. L. Normand, and the Russian plum, 20 M, sent out by Professor J. L. Budd proved to be indistinguishable from the Burbank as tested by Bailey, but Kerr thinks the Wassu is a distinct variety. The American Pomological Society added Burbank to the fruit list in its catalog in 1897.

Tree large, vigorous, distinguished by its low, sprawling habit and flat open top, unusually hardy for a Japanese variety, very productive, healthy; branches somewhat roughish, dark ash-gray, thickly covered with fruit-spurs, with few, large, raised lenticels; branchlets medium in thickness and length, with short internodes, greenish-red changing to dark brown, with gray scarf-skin, glossy, glabrous, with raised lenticels of medium size and number; leaf-buds short, obtuse, free.

Leaves folded upward, broadly oblanceolate, peach-like, one and one-eighth inches wide, three and three-quarters inches long, thin; upper surface light green, smooth, pubescent only on the deeply grooved midrib; lower surface glabrous, pubescent on the midrib; apex taper-pointed, base cuneate, margin finely and doubly serrate, with small amber 01 reddish glands; petiole nine-sixteenths inch long, sparingly hairy on one side, tinged red, with from one to four small, reniform or globose glands mostly on the stalk.

Blooming season early and short; flowers appearing with the leaves, white; borne in dense clusters on the lateral buds and spurs, in threes; pedicels one-quarter inch long, thick, glabrous; calyx-tube green, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, glandular-serrate, glabrous, erect; petals broadly oval, entire, short-clawed; anthers yellowish; filaments one-quarter inch long; pistil glabrous, longer than the stamens.

Fruit early, season long; variable in size, large when the tree is not overloaded, one and three-quarters inches in diameter, roundish-conic, halves equal; cavity deep, abrupt, regular; suture shallow; apex roundish; color dark red over a yellow ground, mottled, with thick bloom; dots numerous, large, russet, conspicuous; stem five-eighths inch long, glabrous, parting readily from the fruit; skin thin, tough, sour, separating from the pulp; flesh deep yellow, juicy, tender, firm, sweet, aromatic; good; stone clinging, three-quarters inch by five-eighths inch in size, roundish-oval, turgid, blunt but sharp-tipped, roughish, with a slightly winged ventral suture; dorsal suture acute.

CHABOT

Prunus triflora

1. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 29. 1886. 2. Ibid. 52, 99. 1889. 3- Am. Gard. 12:501. 1891. 4. Ibid. 13:700. 1892. 5. Rev. Hort. 132, PL 537. 1892. 6. CornellSta. Bul. 62:20, 22, 28. 1894. 7. Ibid. 106:44, 48, 51, 60. 1896. 8. Rogers Cat. 9. 1896. 9. Cornell Sta. Bul. 139:38. 1897. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 26. 1897. 11. Cornell Sta. Bul. 175:150. 1899. 12. Waugh Plum CuU. 134, 135 fig. 1901. 13. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 43:37. 1903. 14. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:250, 254, 255, 256, 257. 1905. 15. Ga. Sta. Bul. 68:12, 14, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32. 1905.

Babcock 15. Babcock !x$. Bailey 3, 4, 6, 7. Bailey 9, n, 12, 15. Chase 9, 15. Chabot 15. Douglas 15. Furugiya 7, 15. Furugiya 11, 12, 15. Hytankayo 14. Hytankayo 15. Hon-smomo 15. O-Hatankyo 11. Orient 6, 7. Orient 1.4. O-hattankio 15. Paragon 8. Red Nagate of some 7. JJchi Beni of some 11. Yellow Japan 9, 11, 12.

When properly handled the fruits of Chabot are far the most attractive of the many Triflora plums. They are large, beautifully molded and handsomely mottled in shades of red over yellow with occasional splashes of russet and a heavy but delicate bloom. To secure the best coloring, the fruit must be picked before ripe and be matured in dark storage. Early picking is necessary also because the season of ripening is very long and the fruit drops badly if permitted to hang to the trees until fully ripe. There should be at least three pickings for this variety. Unfortunately, the quality of Chabot belies its appearance, being at best not above the average. The fruits are firm and ship well and keep rather better than those of any other plum of its species. The trees are hardy and dependable in bearing but not as productive as could be wished. The blossoms of Chabot open later than those of most other Trifloras, enabling this sort occasionally to escape frosts which injure other varieties of this species. The stamens are often short, undeveloped and wholly or in part sterile.

Because of its attractive fruit this variety might well be grown more than it is for the markets.

Chabot was imported from Japan by a Mr. Chabot of Berkeley, California, and was introduced to the trade by Luther Burbank in 1886. As with Abundance, the nomenclature of Chabot is badly confused. Several names that have been found to be synonymous with the former have also been applied to the latter. J. L. Normand, Marksville, Louisiana, imported trees from Japan, among which was a tree that was different from any growing on his grounds. He named this variety after Bailey and introduced it in 1891. Later this was found to be identical with Chabot. Purugiya, another introduction by Normand, is undoubtedly Chabot. H. N. Starnes of the Georgia Experiment Station, who has tested many of the Japanese plums, published in Bulletin 68 of his station, the additional synonyms: Chase, O-hattankio, Hytankayo, Douglas, Hon-smomo and Babcock. Orient, introduced by Stark Brothers, Louisiana, Missouri, in 1893, is Chabot as tested at the New York and Ohio experiment stations. Paragon, introduced by the Rogers Nursery Company, Moorestown, New Jersey, has also proved to be identical. In 1897 the American Pomological Society added this variety to its fruit catalog list.

Tree large, vigorous, vasiform or upright-spreading, open-topped, slow-growing, hardy, productive, susceptible to attacks of shot-hole fungus; branches roughish, the fruit-spurs numerous, dark ash-gray, with raised lenticels variable in size; branchlets slender, with short internodes, greenish-red changing to dark chestnut-red, glossy, glabrous, with numerous, conspicuous, rather large, raised lenticels; leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, somewhat appressed.

Leaves folded upward, obovate or oblanceolate, peach-like, one and one-quarter inches wide, three inches long, thin; upper surface light green, smooth, with a shallow, grooved midrib; lower surface pale green, glabrous except at the base of the veins; apex acutely pointed, base cuneate, margin finely serrate, with small, amber or dark red glands; petiole one-half inch long, slender, slightly pubescent along the upper surface, heavily tinged with red, glandless or with from one to six small, globose or ren-iform, greenish-brown glands usually on the stalk.

Blooming season intermediate and long; flowers appearing with the leaves, white; borne in clusters on lateral spurs in pairs or in threes; pedicels three-eighths inch long, pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, obconic, pubescent at the base; calyx-lobes obtuse, glandular, somewhat serrate, pubescent at the base, erect; petals broadly oval, entire, with narrow, long claws; anthers shrivelled; filaments nearly sessile or one-eighth inch long; pistil glabrous, longer than the stamens; stigma small.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period long; one and five-eighths inches in diameter, cordate or roundish, halves equal; cavity deep, flaring, with concentric, russet rings; suture distinct; apex roundish or pointed; color light and dark shades of red over yellow, mottled, with occasional splashes of russet and with a thick but delicate bloom; dots numerous, small, russet or yellow, conspicuous unless obscured by the bloom, clustered around the apex; stem thick, one-half inch long, adhering to the fruit ; skin medium in thickness, tender, bitter, separating easily; flesh golden-yellow, very juicy, coarse and fibrous, tender, somewhat melting when fully ripe, sweet, although somewhat tart at the center, sprightly, with characteristic Triflora flavor; good; stone clinging, three-quarters inch by one-half inch in size, oval, turgid, slightly necked, with pitted surfaces; ventral suture wide; dorsal suture unfurrowed.

CHALCO

Prunus simonii X Prunus triflora

I. Burbank Cat. 4. 1898. 2. Rural N. Y. 57:184, 653. 1898. 3. VL Sta. Bul. 67:8. 1S98. 4. VL Sta. An. RpL 14:273. 1901. 5. Ga. Sta. Bul. 68:12, 35. 1905.

Chalco has been extensively advertised by several nurseries but, from the reports received, it is doubtful if it will ever be grown commercially. The trees, in the East at least, are slow in coming into bearing; the fruits are small; and the flavor such that consumers will have to learn to like it although it is much better in quality than the Simon plum, one of its parents, being quite free from the bitterness of this parent. The tree is rather better than that of the Simon plum or of the Wickson, the two plums with which it must be compared. The amateur may care to plant Chalco but here its usefulness ends. Burbank in introducing this plum in 1898, stated that it was the first fruit offered after twelve years' work in crossing Prunus simonii with Prunus triflora and American species. The parentage of Chalco is given as a Simon-Burbank cross. The following description is compiled:

Tree vigorous, upright or somewhat vasiform, very productive; leaves large, dark green. Fruit matures shortly before Burbank; large when well grown, oblate, dark red; flesh yellowish, firm, very juicy, aromatic, sweet; good; stone small, oval, slightly flattened, semi- free.

CHAMBOURCY

Prunus domestica

I. Rev. Hort. 39. 1898. 2. Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom. 560, fig. 1904. 3. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt- 433- 1905. 4. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 473 fig. 1906.

Reine-Claude Tar dive De Chambourcy 2. Reine-Claude Tar dive Latinois 1. Reine-Claude Tardive de Chambourcy 1. Reine-Claude Latinois 2, 4. Reine-Claude tardive 1. Reine-Claude Verte 4. Reine-Claude Tardive 2, 4. Reine-Claude de Chambourcy 3. Tardive de Chambourcy 4.

This fruit was found at the beginning of the Nineteenth Century at Chambourcy, France, in the garden of M. Bourgeois; no record of its parents seems to have been made. M. Latinois introduced it into commerce in 1885-1886 and consequently his name became attached to the variety. The plum is not well known in America, there being only one published American reference. This Station received the variety for testing in 1899 from the United States Department of Agriculture. It has value on account of its high quality and its lateness, and is worthy of extensive testing.

Tree small, upright-spreading, dense-topped, productive; branchlets develop fruit-spurs near the base; leaf-buds strongly appressed; leaves folded upward, long-oval or obovate, one and five-eighths inches wide, three and three-quarters inches long, somewhat leathery; margin doubly serrate or crenate, with small dark glands; blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, over one inch across; borne in thin clusters on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs.

Fruit very late, season of medium length; nearly one and one-half inches in diameter, roundish, slightly truncate, yellowish-green, with a delicate bloom and a pink blush on the exposed cheek; flesh greenish-yellow, very juicy, firm but tender, sweet, aromatic, ot high flavor; very good to best; stone semi-free or free, three-quarters inch, by one-half inch in size, irregular-oval, flattened, rather blunt at the base and apex, with roughened surfaces; ventral suture strongly furrowed, often with a distinct wing.

CHAMPION

Prunus domestica

1. Wickson Cal. Fruits 360. 1891. 2. Oregon Hort. Soc. Rpt. 147. 1893. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 150. 1895. 4. Oregon Sta. Bul. 45:30. 1897. Champion Prune, 1, 2, 3.

The Champion was introduced with the expectation that it would be a valuable fruit for curing into prunes. It has not proved to be a good plum for prune-making, as it is too juicy, about three-fourths of its bulk evaporating, but the western plum-growers have found it a very good plum for shipping in the fresh state. It is very attractive in appearance, firm, free of stone, sweet and pleasant and withal of rather high quality. The tree-characters, as the plums grow in Geneva, are in the main very good, falling short, if at all, in productiveness. They are such as to lead to the recommendation of a trial for this plum by plum-growers in general in New York.

This variety is a seedling of the Italian Prune produced by Jesse Bullock, Oswego, Oregon, about 1876, and introduced by C. E. Hoskins, Springbrook, Oregon. Since the Italian Prune comes nearly true to seed at is very doubtful if this variety is a pure-bred seedling judging from the characters of the fruit as given below:

Tree of medium size and vigor, upright-spreading, open-topped, hardy, productive, an early bearer, subject to sun-scald; branches ash-gray, rather smooth, with few, small lenticels; branchlets short, with very short internodes, greenish-red changing to brownish-red, dull, sparingly pubescent throughout the season, with few inconspicuous, small lenticels; leaf-buds below medium in size, short, obtuse, free, plump.

Leaves folded upward, oval, one and five-eighths inches wide, three inches long; upper surface somewhat rugose, covered with numerous, fine hairs, with a shallow groove on the midrib; lower surface silvery-green, pubescent; apex abruptly pointed or acute, base acute, margin crenate, with small black glands; petiole one-half inch long, green, pubescent, with from one to three medium to large, globose, brownish glands mostly at the base of the leaf.

Blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch across, white with a yellowish tinge at the apex of the petals; borne on lateral spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels five-eighths inch long, with a few scattering hairs, green; calyx-tube greenish, campanulate, sparingly pubescent; calyx-lobes obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, somewhat reflexed; petals roundish, crenate, tapering to short, broad claws: anthers yellow; filaments three-eighths inch long; pistil glabrous, slightly shorter or equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit earlier than Italian Prune; about one and one-half inches in diameter, roundish, compressed, halves equal; cavity very shallow, abrupt, narrow, regular; suture shallow; apex roundish, with a slight depression at the pistil-point; color dark purplish-black, with thick bloom; dots small, russet, somewhat conspicuous, clustered about the apex; stem five-eighths inch long, sparingly pubescent, parting readily from the fruit; skin thick, tough, sour, adhering but little; flesh attractive yellow, juicy, firm, sweet, pleasant flavor; very good; stone free, the cavity larger than the pit, three-quarters inch by one-half inch in size, irregular-oval, the surface distinctly roughened and pitted; ventral suture swollen, rather narrow, often with a wing; dorsal suture with a shallow, narrow, indistinct groove.

CHENEY

Prunus nigra

1. Wis. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 15, 38. 1885. 2. Minn. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 126. 1890. 3. Cornell Sta. Bul. 38:36, 86. 1892. 4. la. Sta. Bul. 31:346. 1895. 5. Wis. Sta. Bul. 63:24, 31 fig. 13. 1897. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 24. 1897. 7. Gard. & For. 10:367. 1897. 8. Colo. Sta. Bul. 50:33. 1898. 9. Minn. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 412. 1899. 10. Waugh Plum Cult. 169. 1901. 11. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 294. 1903. 12. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 43:29. 1903. 13. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 488. 1904. 14. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:254, 255. 1905. 15. S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 93:11. 1905. 16. la. Sta. Bul. 114:129. 1910. Cherry 16 incor.

Cheney is of little value except towards the northern limits of fruit culture in America where, because of its great hardiness, it is a most desirable fruit-plant. Of the varieties illustrated and described among the leading plums in this text, Cheney is the sole representative of Prunus nigra, the wild plum of Canada and of northern United States. The accompanying description shows that while the fruit of this variety is not such as to recommend it where other species can be grown, the tree has some characters most desirable wherever plums are grownhardiness, vigor, productiveness and good formso that this variety might well be used in breeding plums. The trees are very ornamental whether in flower, full leaf or fruit, but especially when in full bloom as they bear a great profusion of large white flowers which change to a pleasing pink before falling. This plum, according to a letter from the discoverer, E. Markle, of La Crosse, Wisconsin, was found in the brush on a ridge, in Vernon County, Wisconsin, about twenty-five or thirty years ago. Mr. Markle thought it must have sprung from a seed dropped by an early voyager of the Mississippi River as there were no similar plums in the region. Noting its good qualities Mr. Markle introduced the variety, the date of introduction being about 1887. The American Pomological Society added Cheney to its fruit catalog list in 1897, where, however, it remained but two years.

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, dense-topped, hardy, productive, bears early, somewhat susceptible to disease; branches numerous, dark brownish-gray, very thorny, with large lenticels; branchlets long, with long internodes, greenish-red changing to dull reddish-brown, dull, thickly pubescent early in the season, the pubescence decreasing at maturity, with raised lenticels which are variable in size; leaf-buds smallish, short, conical, free.

Leaves folded upward, oval, one and three-quarters inches wide, three and five-eighths inches long, thin; upper surface dark green, nearly smooth, pubescent only along the midrib which is deeply grooved; lower surface yellowish-green, pubescent along the midrib and larger veins; apex taper-pointed, margin crenate, usually in two series, sometimes with small, dark glands; petiole one-half inch long, rather slender, pubescent, tinged red, glandless or with from one to three small, globose, greenish-yellow glands usually on the stalk.

Blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, showy, about one inch across, white changing to pink; borne in clusters on lateral spurs, in pairs or in threes, very fragrant; pedicels nine-sixteenths inch long, pubescent, green with a trace of red; calyx-tube obconic, glabrous, red on the outer surface but green within and pinkish along the margin; calyx-lobes obtuse or acute, serrate, with small red glands and with marginal hairs, narrow, sparingly pubescent on the inner surface, reflexed; petals broadly oval, crenate, often toothed, tapering below to long narrow claws; anthers yellowish; filaments nearly one-half inch in length; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period very long; medium in size, irregular roundish-oval, strongly oblique, halves equal; cavity shallow, regular, flaring; suture shallow or a line; apex roundish, somewhat oblique; color at first yellowish-green with a light carmine blush changing to deep carmine on a yellow ground, covered with thin bloom; dots numerous, very small, russet, inconspicuous, densely clustered about the apex; stem slender, five-eighths inch in length, slightly pubescent, adhering to the fruit; skin thick, tough, sour, separating readily; flesh deep yellow, very juicy, fibrous, tender and melting, sweet next to the skin but tart at the center, not high in flavor; fair in quality; stone adhering, seven-eighths inch by five-eighths inch in size, broadly oval, distinctly flattened, blunt-pointed, with ridged and furrowed surfaces; ventral suture acute, narrow; dorsal suture slightly furrowed.

CLIMAX

Prunus triflora X Prunus simonii

1. Rural N. Y. $7:653, 818. 1898. 2. Cat. State Board Hort. 52. 1897-98. 3. Vt. Sta. Bul. 67:9. 1898. 4. Vt. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:222. 1899. 5. Burbank Cat. 2. 1899. 6. Nat. Nur. 8:117. 1900. 7. Vt. Sta. An. Rpt. 14:273. 1901. 8. Rural N. Y. 62:643. I903+ 9* Mich. Sta. Sp. Bul. 30:18. 1905. 10. Ga. Sta. Bul. 68:8, 35. 1905. 11. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 66. 1907.

Royal 1. Royal i, 3, 4.

It is hard to judge as to the merits of this variety. From the behavior of the trees on the grounds of this Station where we have had fruit of it for eight years, we should say at once that Climax has no place in the plum-growing regions of the East but others who have grown it speak so well of it, the fruit in particular, that the unfavorable opinion of the variety formed here may be unjust. Some of the expressions regarding this fruit in the foregoing references may be dismissed at once as the most wildly extravagant and absurd to be found in plum literature. From its behavior on these grounds and in the plum-growing regions of the East in general, it seems certain that Climax cannot stand the vicissitudes of the climate, suffering both in winter and summer. The trees, in size, vigor and habit of growth, are inferior to those of most Triflora varieties, and those under observation in this part of New York are not as productive as the standard Trifloras with which Climax must be compared. The fruit is handsome in shape and color, more so in color than the accompanying illustration shows, and is of good quality. Unfortunately it is very susceptible to the brown-rot, so much so that because of this defect alone Climax could hardly become a profitable commercial plum in this region. It has been quite well tested in various parts of New York and has proved so uniformly disappointing in tree-characters, in particular, that it cannot be recommended as other than a plum for the home collection where, because of its beauty and quality, it is most desirable.


Climax is another of Luther Burbank's plums, having been introduced in 1899. The originator states that it is a selected hybrid between the Simon and Botan plums. The variety was first described as the Royal but since this name had been previously given to a European plum it was renamed Climax.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, somewhat straggling, dense-topped, semi-hardy, medium productive; branches dark ash-gray, short and stout, with numerous lenticels; branchlets short, with very short internodes, brownish chestnut-red, glossy, glabrous, with numerous conspicuous, small, raised lenticels; leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, plump, free.

Leaves folded upward, oblanceolate, peach-like, one and one-quarter inches wide, three and three-eighths inches long, thin; upper surface light green, smooth, with a grooved midrib, glabrous; lower surface light green, glabrous except on the midrib and larger veins; apex taper-pointed, base cuneate, margin finely serrate or crenate, with small, dark brown glands; petiole nine-sixteenths inch long, sparsely pubescent, tinged red, glandless or with from one to seven small, globose or slightly compressed, reddish glands.

Blooming season early and of medium length; flowers appearing with the leaves, white; borne in clusters of three, on lateral spurs; pedicels, long, thick, glabrous, green; calyx tube greenish, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes obtuse, with a few hair-like glands, glabrous, erect; petals roundish-oval, entire; anthers deep yellow; filaments short; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length; stigma very small.

Fruit very early, season short; one and three-quarters inches in diameter, cordate or roundish, slightly compressed, halves unequal; cavity deep, abrupt, regular, marked with faint, reddish, radiating streaks; suture deep, broad; apex pointed; color dark red, mottled; bloom of medium thickness; dots numerous, variable in size, russet, conspicuous, clustered about the base; stem thick, nine-sixteenths inch long, glabrous, parting readily from the fruit; skin thick, bitter, with a tendency to crack, separating easily from the pulp only when fully ripe; flesh yellowish, very juicy, somewhat fibrous, tender and melting, sweet, pleasant flavored, aromatic; good; stone adhering, seven-eighths inch by five-eighths inch in size, somewhat long-oval, pointed, roughish, conspicuously winged and grooved on the ventral suture; dorsal suture slightly grooved.

CLING STEM

Prunus domestica 1. N. Y. Sta. Rpt. 9:347. 1890.

This plum belongs to the Reine Claude group, a group in which there is room for new varieties only at the top. Cling Stem is inferior, falling short chiefly in quality, for a plum of its type, and it is doubtful if it is worth general planting. This Station alone seems to have tested the variety, hence the rather full description which follows of a plum which cannot be recommended. The variety was sent here in 1890 from North Ferrisburg, Vermont, by L. M. Macomber.

Tree large and vigorous, spreading, dense-topped, very productive; branches rough, the bark marked by concentric rings, with numerous spurs and with many, small, raised lenticels; branchlets short, pubescent; leaf-scars swollen; leaves folded upward, oval, one and three-quarters inches wide, three inches long, rather thick and leathery; margin doubly crenate, eglandular or with small, dark glands; petiole pubescent, tinged red, glandless or with from one to three globose glands usually at the base of the leaf; blooming season of medium length; flowers over one inch across, white with yellowish tinge near the apex of the petals; borne on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs.

Fruit mid-season; one and one-half inches by one and five-eighths inches in size, nearly roundish, dull light yellow, sometimes mottled with red on the exposed cheek, overspread with thin bloom; skin thin, sour ; flesh greenish-yellow, tender and melting, sweet near the surface but acid at the center, mild, pleasant, but not high-flavored; stone clinging, three-quarters inch by five-eighths inch in size, nearly round, turgid; surfaces pitted; ventral suture broad, heavily furrowed, with a short, distinct wing.

CLYMAN

Prunus domestica

1. U.S.D.A. Rpt. 574. 1888. 2. Cat. State Board Hort. 236, 239, PI. II figs. 3 and 4. 1890. 3. Wickson Cal. Fruits 358. 1891. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 25. 1897. 5. N. Mex. Sta. Bul. 27:124. 1898. 6. Ohio Sta. Bul. 113:158. 1899. 7. Waugh Plum Cult. 98. 1901. 8. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:236, 237 fig., 254, 255. 1905.

Clyman has special merit as one of the earliest good Domesticas. The fruit resembles that of Lombard somewhat, but is smaller and is much better in quality. As grown in California the Clyman commands high prices for shipping eastward. Whether it could be grown profitably in the East remains to be seen but it deserves to be rather widely tested for an early home and market plum. In New York it has a few serious faults: the plums are susceptible to rot, they drop as soon as ripe and the trees seem not to be quite hardy at Geneva; though in the Ohio reference given above they are said to be " rather hardier than those of most other European sorts." Otherwise than in hardiness the trees at this place are quite satisfactory. The variety is characterized by very long stamens. Clyman is well deserving of trial with the possibility that it may prove to be the best of our early Domesticas.

This plum was raised from a Peach plum stone planted in 1866, by Mrs. Hannah Clyman, Napa City, Napa Valley, California. The original tree was cut down but several suckers were taken from the roots and planted in an orchard. These bore fruit for many years, never failing to mature a crop. In 1886, Leonard Coates, a nurseryman and fruit-grower of Napa City, became interested in the plum on account of its extreme earliness and offered it to his customers. The American Pomological Society added Clyman to its fruit catalog list in 1897.

Tree rather large, vigorous, round and dense-topped, semi-hardy in New York, productive; branches ash-gray, nearly smooth, with numerous, small, raised lenticels; branchlets thick, rather long, with internodes of medium length, greenish-red changing to brownish-red, dull, heavily pubescent throughout the season, with numerous, indistinct, small lenticels; leaf-buds of medium size and length, conical, appressed; leaf-scars prominent.

Leaves folded backward, obovate, one and seven-eighths inches wide, three and one-quarter inches long; upper surface dark green, rugose, sparingly hairy; lower surface pale green, pubescent; apex abruptly pointed or acute, base acute, margin serrate or crenate, covered with small dark glands; petiole nearly seven-eighths inch long, pubescent, reddish, glandless or with from one to three globose, greenish-yellow glands variable in size and position.

Blooming season early and short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and one-eighth inches across, white, the buds creamy at the apex when unfolding; borne in clusters on lateral spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels about one-half inch long, thick, pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, pubescent; calyx-lobes narrow, obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, serrate, renexed; petals obovate, dentate, tapering to short, broad claws; anthers yellow; filaments about seven-sixteenths inch long; pistil pubescent near the base, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit very early, season short; one and one-half inches by one and three-eighths inches in size, oval, halves equal; cavity narrow, abrupt, regular; suture shallow and often indistinct; apex roundish or slightly depressed; color dark purplish-red, covered with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, russet, inconspicuous; stem five-eighths inches long, pubescent, adhering poorly to the fruit; skin tender, sour, separating readily; flesh pale yellow, dry, firm, sweet, mild but pleasant; of good quality; stone free, seven-eighths inch by five-eighths inch in size, somewhat flattened, irregular-oval, with pitted surfaces, tapering abruptly at the base, nearly acute at the apex; ventral suture of medium width, usually rather blunt; dorsal suture with a wide, deep groove.

COLUMBIA

Prunus domestica

1. Mag. Hort. 8:90. 1842. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 292. 1845. 3- Cole Am. Fr. Book 216. 1849. 4* Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 334. 1849. 5* -^w. Pom. Soc. Cat. 86. 1862. 6. Mas Pom. Gen. 2:159. 1873. 7. Hogg Fruit Man. 691. 1884. 8. Wash. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 135. 1893.

Columbian Gage 2, 4. Columbia Pflaume 6. Columbia Gage 7.

When grown on strong soils and in some climates, Columbia is possibly a plum of value and sometimes of superiority, but in New York in the average plantation it falls far short of other fruits of its typethat of the Reine Claude. The trees are productive and the fruit large and handsome but not of highest quality and moreover drops badly and is very susceptible to the brown-rot. Columbia originated early in the second quarter of the Nineteenth Century with L. V. Lawrence of Hudson, New York, from seed of Reine Claude.

Tree large, medium in vigor, upright-spreading, open-topped, productive; trunk stocky, rough; branches thick; branchlets pubescent; leaves folded upward, one and seven-eighths inches wide, four and one-quarter inches long, oval, thick, leathery; upper surface rugose; margin serrate or crenate, with small, dark glands; petiole thick, tinged red, pubescent, with from one to three globose glands.

Fruit mid-season; when well grown nearly one and one-half inches in diameter, roundish-oval, the smaller specimens rather ovate, dark purplish-red, overspread with thick bloom; stem surrounded by a fleshy ring at the cavity; skin tender, sour; flesh golden-yellow, dry, firm, sweet, mild; of good quality; stone semi-free or free, seven-eighths inch by three-quarters inch in size, roundish-oval, flattened; ventral suture prominent; dorsal suture widely and deeply grooved.

COMPASS

Prunus besseyi X Prunus hortulana mineri

I. Northwestern Agr. 348. 1895. 2. Vt. Sta. Bul. 67:10. 1898. 3. la. Sta. Bul. 46:266. 1900. 4, Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 294. 1903. 5. S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 93113. 1905. Compass Cherry 2. Heideman Sand Cherry.

In 1891 H. Knudson of Springfield, Minnesota, pollinated the Sand Cherry with pollen from the Danish Morello cherry and the Miner plum. The seed of the resulting cross, beyond question that of the Sand Cherry and the plum, was planted on August seventh of the same year and, in 1894 produced fruit for the first time. In 1893 C. W. H. Heideman of New Ulm, Minnesota, secured a cion from this tree and another the following year. In 1895 Heideman introduced as his own, under the name of Heideman Sand Cherry, a hybrid between the Sand Cherry and a plum. In the controversy which followed it developed that the two hybrids were identical and that Knudson was the real originator. Subsequently C. W. Sampson of Eureka, Minnesota, introduced Knudson's plum under the name Compass. The variety is of interest to plant-breeders and may have some commercial value in the Northwest but is worthless for its fruit in New York.

Tree inferior in size, spreading, open-topped, productive; branches and branchlets slender, the branchlets marked by very conspicuous, large, raised lenticels; leaf-buds plump; leaves folded upward, one and one-eighth inches wide, three inches long; margin serrate; petiole tinged red, glandless or with from one to three globose glands usually on the base of the leaf; blooming season late, of medium length; flowers appearing after the leaves, seven-eighths inch across, creamy-white as the buds unfold; borne on lateral spurs, in threes and fours.

Fruit early, season short; seven-eighths inch by three-quarters inch in size, ovate or roundish-oval, light red changing to dark red at maturity, the skin speckled with small red dots before fully ripe; skin tough, astringent; flesh light greenish-yellow, very juicy, melting, sub acid except near the skin; poor; stone clinging, five-eighths inch by three-eighths inch in size, large, elongated-oval, with smooth surfaces.

COPPER

Prunus domestica

1. Coxe Cult. Ft. Trees 234. 1817. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 2:93. 1832. 3. Elliott Ft. Book 425. 1854. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 906. 1869. 5- Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1875. 6. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:183. 1897. 7. Waugh Plum Cult. 98. 1901.

Copper 2. French Copper 3, 4. French Copper 1, 2, 6.

It is supposed that Copper came from France but very little is actually known regarding its history. The round early variety described by Coxe and Prince is distinct from the Copper now grown in this country. It is probable that the Copper of Downing and of the American Pomological Society are either distinct, or are early strains of the fruit described here, since both are mid-season plums while the variety of the following description is distinctly late. This old sort has been recommended of late by nurserymen and some plum-growers and it may be worth putting on the markets again as the trees are extremely productive, the fruit ships well, and its extreme lateness might extend the plum season. The fruit is not fit for dessert but makes an attractive, dark red, well-flavored sauce.

Tree variable in size and vigor, round and dense-topped, productive; branches numerous, with large lenticels; branchlets twiggy, marked with scarf-skin, glabrous throughout the season; leaves folded upward, obovate or oval, one and one-half inches wide, three and one-half inches long; upper surface rugose; margin serrate or crenate, eglandular or with small dark glands; petiole pubescent, tinged red, glandless or with one or two globose glands; blooming time mid-season, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, seven-eighths inch across; borne singly or in pairs.

Fruit very late, season of medium length; one and one-half inches by one and three-eighths inches in size, roundish-oval, slightly necked; cavity almost lacking; color a metallic brownish-purple, overspread with thick bloom; skin thick, tough, somewhat astringent; flesh dull yellow, medium juicy, firm, moderately sweet; poor; stone free, seven-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, irregular-ovate, abruptly contracted at the base, with roughened surfaces; dorsal suture prominent.

CRITTENDEN

Prunus insititia

x. Hogg Fruit Man. 695. 1884. 2, Mathieu Nom. Pom. 426. 1889. 3. Am. Gard. 14:146. 1893. 4* Guide Prat. 163, 353. 1895. 5. Rural N. Y. 55:622. 1896. 6. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131: 184. 1897. 7. Garden 53:266. 1898. 8. Waugh Plum Cult. 127, 128. 1901.

Crittenden's Damson 2. Crittenden's Prolific Damson 2. Crittenden's 1. Crittenden* s Prolific 1. Cluster 1. Cluster 3, 8. Cluster Damson 2. Cluster Damson 4. Damson Cluster 4. Farleigh Damson 6. Farleigh Prolific 7. Farleigh 5. Prolific 1. Prolific Damson 2.

This Damson came to notice early in the last century in the orchard of James Crittenden of East Farleigh, Kent, England. In both Europe and America it seems to be as well known under the names Farleigh and Cluster as under its true name. Crittenden ranks high among the Damsons in England but in America it is not a great favorite; just why is hard to say. It is likely that it fails in some tree-character, for, with the exception of being a little too tart, the fruit has few faults.

Tree of medium size, upright-spreading, open-topped, productive; branches very thorny and spinescent; branchlets pubescent throughout the season; leaf-buds plump; leaves folded upward, obovate or oval, one and one-eighth inches wide, two and one-half inches long, thin; margin finely serrate, with small dark glands; petiole one-half inch long, glandless or with one or two glands; blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, seven-eighths inch across, densely clustered; borne usually in twos, fragrant.

Fruit late, season of medium length; seven-eighths inch by three-quarters inch in size, oval, slightly necked, purplish-black, overspread with very thick bloom; flesh greenish-yellow, medium juicy, firm but tender, sour, sprightly; probably good for preserves; stone clinging, five-eighths inch by three-eighths inch in size, oval, acute at the base, with surfaces nearly smooth.

CZAR

Prunus domestica

1. Hogg Fruit Man. 693. 1884. 2. Ellwanger & Barry Cat. 27. 1886. 3. Gard. Chron. 10: 333. 1891. 4. Guide Prat. 153, 359. 1895. 5. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:183. 1897. 6. Rivers Cat, 34. 1898. 7. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:242, 244. 1899. 8. Ohio Sta. Bul. 113:159. 1899. 9. Waugh Plum CuU. 99. 1901. 10. Thompson Gard. Ass't 4:157. 1901. 11. Nicholson Diet. Gard. 3:166. 12. Garden 68:303. 1905. 13. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:236, 237 fig., 254, 255. 1905.

Le Czar 4. The Czar 2. 6, 11. The Czar 4.


Czar seems to have a very good reputation in Europe, in England especially, as a culinary fruit but in America it is but second rate for cooking and cannot be called a dessert plum at all. Its earliness might make it valuable were it not for the fact that Clyman is as early and in nearly all other respects is a better plum. The Czar, like Clyman, is not quite hardy and lacks somewhat in productiveness. The stone of Czar is usually covered with a granular, gummy exudation about the apex and its flowers are peculiar in being more or less doubled. It is doubtful if this variety is worth planting in New York. This plum was raised by Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England, from a Prince Englebert seed fertilized by Early Prolific. It first fruited in 1874 and was named for the Czar of Russia who visited England during the same year. Ellwanger & Barry, of Rochester, New York, offered it for sale in the United States in 1886.

Tree intermediate in size and vigor, round and open-topped, not always hardy, moderately productive; branches covered with many fruit-spurs, smooth except for the numerous raised lenticels and transverse cracks in the bark; branchlets covered with thick pubescence throughout the season, with numerous small lenticels; leaf-buds large, strongly free; leaves folded upward, oval, one and three-quarters inches wide, three inches long; petiole one-half inch long, thick, pubescent, eglandular or with one or two large, yellowish-green glands at the base of the leaf; blooming season intermediate in time, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch or more across, white, with a yellowish tinge at the apex of the petals; borne in clusters on lateral spurs, in pairs or in threes; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous except at the base, slightly longer than the stamens.

Fruit very early, season short; one and one-half inches in diameter, irregular roundish-oval, compressed, dark purplish-black, overspread with thick bloom; flesh yellow, coarse and somewhat granular, fibrous, tender, sweet, pleasant flavor; good; stone free, three-quarters inch by five-eighths inch in size, oval or slightly ovate, blunt at the base, somewhat acute at the apex, with ridged and roughened surfaces; ventral suture wide, broadly furrowed, with a short blunt wing; dorsal suture acute or with a narrow, shallow, indistinct groove.

DAMSON

Prunus insititia

1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 578. 1629. 2. Gerard Herball 1496, 1498. 1636. 3. Quintinye Com, Gard. 67. 1699. 4. Langley Pomona 94. 1724. 5. Forsyth Treat. Fr. Trees 21. 1803. 6/ Am. Gard. Cat. 588. 1806. 7. Phillips Com. Orch. 306. 1831. 8. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 145, 146. 1831. 9. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 297. 1845. IO; Thomas Ant. Fruit Cult. 342. 1849. IX- Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 86. 1862. 12. Hooper W. Fr. Book 244. 1857. 13. Mas Pom. Gen. 2:69. 1873. J4+ Manning Hist. Mass. Hort. Soc. 4. 1880. 15. Hogg Fruit Man. 695. 1884. 16. De Candolle Or. Cult. Plants 212. 1885. 17. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 438. 1889. 18. Am. Gard. 14:146, 147. 1893. August Pflaume 17. Blacke Damascene ?i. Blew Damson 1. Black Damascene 5. Black Damson ?8. Black Damson 9, n, 17. Blew Damask 3. Black Damosine 4. Blue Damson 10, 11. Bullace 17. Common Damson 6, 15. Common Damson 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 17. Damascene 2. Damascene 7, 16. Damson 17. Damas Noir ?8. Damascus ?8. Damas Commun 13. Early Damson of many 9, 10, 17. Haber Pflaume 17. Hafer Schlehe 17. Jakobs Pflaume 17. Kleine Blaue Julians Pflaume 17. Kreke 17. Krieche 17. Purple Damson 9, 10, 17. Prunus Insititia 17. Round Damson 8, 15. Round Black Damson ?8. Small Round Damson 8. Sankt-Julians Pflaume 17. Schlehen Pflaume 17. Wahre Schlehen Damascene 17. Zipperle 17. Zipperlein 17.

The common Damson, the Damson of the ancients, probably little changed since before Christ's time, is still worthy of cultivation even though a score or more of its offspring are offered to take its place. In productiveness, vigor of tree and hardiness it is scarcely surpassed by any of its kind and while its fruits are smaller and more astringent than the best of its offspring they are not surpassed for the chief use of all Damsons, the making of preserves. The chief asset of the Damson is its great adaptability to various soils and climates, surpassing all newcomers of its type in this respect. So while undoubtedly some of the improved Damsons surpass the parent variety under many conditions, there yet remain localities in which the original stock is possibly most valuable.

The Damson takes its name from Damascus from whence it was brought into Italy at least a century before the Christian era. What is a Damson?  In England and America it is an oval, usually black, Insititia The European continental countries have an entirely different conception of a Damson from that of the English and Americans. The Germans speak of our common plums as Damson-like, while the French use the term Damas indiscriminately. The English, however, have not always made a sharp distinction for Parkinson in 1629 speaks of the great Damaske or Damson Plummes as sweet prunes imported from France and Gerard in 1636 described the Damson tree as synonymous to the Plum. The term Damson is applied to a group as well as to a variety. For a further history of this plum in Europe and America see the index for references to the Damson in Chapter I.

DAWSON

Prunus domestica

Dawson Seedling. American Prune.

Dawson is a prune-like plum characterized by an elongated neck, a peculiar putty-like color of flesh and by large size. The quality is very good and the trees in all characters are well up to the average of those of the plums on the Station grounds. The plum is worthy a more extensive trial than it has yet had. The following history of the variety is given by its originator: In 1884, P. P. Dawson of Payette, Idaho, planted a lot of Italian prune pits. In 1891 one of the seedlings produced fruit which was so distinct as to size that Mr. Dawson deemed it worthy of propagation. The variety was introduced by Mr. Dawson and A. F. Hitt, Weiser, Idaho, about 1898.

Tree above medium in size, vigorous, round and dense-topped, productive; branch-lets thick, short, twiggy, marked with scarf-skin; leaf-scars prominent; leaves flattened, oval, two and one-quarter inches wide, four inches long, dark green, rugose; margin doubly crenate, eglandular or with small dark glands; petiole pubescent, glandless or with one or two small glands usually at the base of the leaf; blooming season late, short; flowers appearing with the leaves, white with yellowish tinge; petals fringed at the apex.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period short; medium in size, strongly obovate, distinctly necked, dark reddish-purple, overspread with medium thick bloom; flesh light but dull yellow, tinged red near the surface, dry, firm, medium sweet, mild but pleasant; of good quality; stone clinging, above medium in size, long-oval or ovate, flattened, distinctly necked, with roughened surfaces; ventral suture broad, blunt.

DECAISNE

Prunus domestica

1. Gard. Chron. 23:461. 1863. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 2:43. I^]73- 3; Cat, Cong. Pom. France 411. 1887. 4. Guide Prat. 159. 1895.

Decaisnes Pflaume 2. Prune Decaisne 1, 2.

Though a supposed seedling of Golden Drop this variety has all of the ear-marks of one of the Reine Claude group. It is inferior to several other plums of the last named group and is not worth recommendation. Decaisne was originated about 1846 by Jamin and Durand, nurserymen, at Bourg la-Reine, near Paris, France, from seed of Golden Drop. In the. United States, it has been mainly distributed by EUwanger & Barry of Rochester, New York, and by the California Nursery Company of Niles, California.

Tree intermediate in size and vigor, upright-spreading, rather open-topped, productive; trunk rough; leaves two inches wide, four inches long, oval, thick, leathery; upper surface rugose; lower surface thinly pubescent; petiole with from two to three large, globose or reniform glands.

Fruit mid-season or later; one and seven-eighths inches by one and five-eighths inches in size, oblong-oval, greenish-yellow, overspread with thin bloom; skin sour; flesh greenish-yellow, tender, mild; good; stone clinging, one inch by seven-eighths inch in size, broad-oval, with pitted surf aces; ventral suture rather prominent, heavily grooved, with a short but distinct wing; dorsal suture wide, deep.

DE CARADEUC

Prunus cerasifera

I. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 86. 1871. 2. Am. Pom. Soc, Cat. 38. 1877. 3. Barry Ft. Garden 418. 1883. 4. Cornell Sta. Bul. 38:66, 71, 86. 1892. 5. Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 212. 1898. 6. Vt. Sta. An. Rpt. 13:369. 1900. 7. Waugh Plum Cult. 230. 1901. 8. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 310. 1903. 9. Ga. Sta. Bul. 67:274. 1904. 10. Ga. Hort. Soc. Cat. 13. 1905.

Caradeuc 1.

De Caradeuc is without value in this climate for its fruit and is described at length and illustrated in The Plums of New York only because it is one of the few representatives of Prunus cerasifera cultivated for its fruit. The plums are garnet-red, very attractive in appearance and are borne so much earlier than those of other species that the variety may be worth planting in home orchards to lengthen the season and for the sake of variety. This plum is grown rather commonly in the South where the fruits are said to keep well and not rot. The trees are handsome ornamentals bearing remarkably rich, green foliage and a profusion of white flowers which are followed by beautifully colored fruits. The variety can be recommended for lawn or park where a small, compact, flowering tree is wanted.

De Caradeuc originated with A. De Caradeuc, Aiken, South Carolina, between 1850 and 1854. Mr. De Caradeuc brought plum trees from France and planted them in the vicinity of several native plum trees. From the seed of the former he produced this variety. The originator believed his new plum to be a hybrid but practically all students of plum botany think that it is a pure offshoot of Prunus cerasifera. The variety was introduced by P. J. Berckmans of Augusta, Georgia. In 1877 De Caradeuc was placed on the American Pomological Society fruit catalog list where it is still maintained.

Tree very large, vigorous, spreading, open-topped, variable in productiveness; trunk rough; branches slender, roughish or smooth, dark ash-gray, with numerous, large, raised lenticels; branchlets very numerous, twiggy, slender, medium to long, with long internodes, tinged with red when young, changing to dull reddish^brown, glossy, glabrous, with few, small lenticels; leaf-buds very small and short, obtuse, appressed.

Leaves numerous on the branchlets, becoming scattering in the interior of the tree, folded upward, oval, one and one-eighth inches wide, two inches long, thin; upper surface dark green, sparingly pubescent, smooth, with broadly grooved midrib; lower surface pale green, pubescent; apex acute, base broadly cuneate, margin often in two series of fine serrations, without glands; petiole slender, one-half inch long, slightly pubescent, tinged red, eglandular or with one or two very small, globose, greenish glands usually at the base of the leaf.

Blooming season rather early, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, seven-eighths inch across, white; borne on lateral buds and spurs; pedicels eleven-sixteenths inch long, below medium in thickness, glabrous, green; calyx-tube reddish, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, slightly glandular-serrate, pubescent, strongly reflexed; petals roundish or ovate, crenate, not clawed; anthers yellow; filaments one-quarter inch in length; pistil glabrous, longer than the stamens, somewhat defective.

Fruit very early, season short; one and one-quarter inches in diameter, roundish, halves usually equal; cavity shallow and narrow, abrupt, regular; suture a dark red line; apex roundish; color light or dark crimson-red over a yellow ground, overspread with thin bloom; dots few, light russet, clustered about the apex; stem slender, eleven-sixteenths inch in length, glabrous, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, tough, parting readily; flesh medium yellow, very juicy, fibrous, tender and melting, slightly sweet, lacking in flavor; inferior in quality; stone clinging, five-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, roundish-oval, turgid, blunt, with somewhat pitted surfaces; ventral suture acute, furrowed; dorsal suture distinctly and broadly grooved.

DE SOTO

Prunus americana

1. Ill Hort. Soc. Rpt. 225. 1877. 2. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 356. 1879. 3. Ibid. 159. 1880. 4. Ibid. 237. 1882. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 42. 1883. 6. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 366. 1883. 7. III. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 63. 1890. 8. Cornell Sta. Bui 38:37, 86. 1892. 9. Wis. Sta. Bui 63:24, 35, 36 fig. 16. 1897. 10. Waugh Plum Cult. 147. 1901. 11. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 295. 1903. 12. Can. Exp. Farm Bui 43:30. 1903. 13. S. Dak, Sta. Bui 93:15. 1905.

Traer 3. Trayer 4.

De Soto probably holds first place among the Americana plums in the favor of fruit-growers. The qualities which commend it are: -A tree rather better suited to the orchard than other varieties of Prunus americana having little of the waywardness of most sorts of its species and somewhat the manner of growth of the European plums. The trees, too, are enormously productive, so much so that in many cases their vitality is weakened by over-bearing unless thinned. The fruits of De Soto, while not as large nor as brilliantly colored as some of the Americanas, are not surpassed by any of the native plums in quality and keep and ship as well as any. The variety becomes, therefore, a market sort of value in some regions. The fruits are a little more subject to curculio than those of most of the native plums and the trees blight in the South somewhat and do not stand the drouths of the Mississippi Valley as well as some other varieties. Notwithstanding these defects, speaking generally, the De Soto may be recommended as one of the best of its species.

De Soto was found on the bank of the Mississippi River near De Soto, Wisconsin. The first settler to call attention to the plum was a Mr. Tupper who settled on the land where it was found in 1853 or J8S4. The Trayer Brothers bought the place in 1855 and in clearing the farm they removed all the plum trees except a grove of what was at first called Trayer, afterwards De Soto. Later Stephen Heal came into possession of the property and in 1864 Elisha Hale, Lansing, Iowa, commenced to cultivate and disseminate the variety. De Soto was placed on the American Pomological Society fruit catalog list in 1883, dropped in 1891, and restored again in 1897.

Tree small, intermediate in vigor, spreading, open-topped, perfectly hardy, produces heavy crops annually, bears young; branches rough and shaggy, somewhat zigzag, thorny, dark ash-brown, with inconspicuous, small, raised, lenticels; branch-lets numerous, long, green, changing to dull reddish-brown, pubescent at first, becoming glabrous late in the season, with conspicuous, large, raised lenticels; leaf-buds below medium in size, pointed, appressed.

Leaves falling early, folded upward, oval, one and three-quarters inches wide, four inches long; upper surface dark green changing to greenish-yellow, glossy, with scattering hairs and a narrow, grooved midrib; lower surface finely pubescent; apex taper-pointed, base somewhat abrupt, margin very coarsely and deeply doubly serrate, petiole five-eighths inch long, of medium thickness, pubescent, tinged red, glandless or with one or two globose, brownish glands on the stalk.

Blooming season medium to late and of average length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and one-eighth inches across, white; borne in clusters on lateral buds and spurs, in twos and threes; pedicels eleven-sixteenths inch in length, below medium in thickness, covered with short, thick pubescence, greenish; calyx-tube green, cam-panulate, pubescent; calyx-lobes somewhat acute, eglandular, thickly pubescent on both surfaces, with a swollen ring at the base of the lobes, semi-reflexed; petals oblong or ovate, erose, tapering abruptly into long, narrow claws; anthers yellowish; filaments three-eighths inch in length; pistil glabrous, equal to or shorter than the stamens.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period short; one and one-half inches in diameter, roundish, varying to oval or ovate, compressed, often strongly truncate at the base; cavity shallow or medium, abrupt; suture very shallow or a line; apex roundish or somewhat pointed; color yellowish-red becoming a light or dark crimson over an orange-yellow ground, overspread with thin bloom; dots very numerous, small, light russet, inconspicuous; stem rather slender, three-quarters inch long, sparingly pubescent; skin thick, tough, very astringent, clinging to the pulp; flesh golden-yellow, very juicy, fibrous, tender and melting, of medium sweetness, mild; fair to good; stone nearly free, seven-eighths inch in size, oval, turgid, blunt-pointed, smooth; ventral suture bluntly acute and with slight furrows; dorsal suture acute, not furrowed.


DIAMOND

Prunus domestica

1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 146. 1831. 2. Kenrick Am. Orch. 259. 1832. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 298. 1845. 4* Lee Gen. Farmer 6:141. 1845. 5* Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 222, 244. 1858. 6. Hogg Fruit Man. 696. 1884. 7. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 327. 1889. 8. Guide Prat. 159, 355. 1895. 9. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 382. 1895. 10. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:183, fig. 40 VI. 1897. 11. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 25. 1897. 12. Vt. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:214, 217. 1899. 13. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:244. 1899. 14. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 92. 1899. 15. Garden 56:168. 1899. 16. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 43:33. 1903. 17. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 423. 1903.

Black Diamond 9. Black Diamond 11, 13. Diamant 8. Diamantpflaume 8. Dymond 15. Kentish Diamond 17. Kingston 14 incor. Smith's Prune 7. Smith Prune 14.

To judge Diamond by appearance would be a grievous error. It is a large, beautifully colored, well-formed plum, tempting the palate; but one taste out of hand is a sufficiency. The flesh is coarse and the flavor not at all pleasant to one accustomed to good plums. Hogg says, in the reference given, that Diamond is one of the best preserving and cooking plums but in this case we doubt Hogg's judgment unless, as may be, Diamond is much better in England than in America. The firm flesh and tough skin of the variety commend it as a market plum and the trees are above the average in size, vigor, hardiness and productivenessall characters excepting quality bespeaking the favor of plum-growers. It is planted largely for the markets where, of course, it sells upon its appearance.

According to Downing, this variety was raised from seed by an Englishman, in Kent, named Diamond. Kenrick and Hogg, however, state that it was raised in the nursery of a Mr. Hooker, in Kent. The London Horticultural Society briefly described this variety in its fruit catalog for 1831 so that its origin antedates that year. The American Pomological Society rejected Diamond for its catalog in 1858 but placed it in its fruit list in 1897.

Tree above average in size and vigor, upright-spreading, somewhat dense-topped, hardy, very productive; branches ash-gray, roughish, with numerous, small lenticels, the bark marked with transverse lines; branchlets of medium thickness and length, with long internodes, greenish-red changing to dark brownish-red, dull, somewhat pubescent, with numerous, small lenticels; leaf-buds large, long, pointed, appressed.

Leaves folded upward, obovate or oval, one and seven-eighths inches wide, three and one-quarter inches long; upper surface dark green, with few hairs and with a grooved midrib; lower surface pubescent; apex obtuse to acute, base acute, margin serratet with small, brown glands; petiole five-eighths inch long, slender, pubescent, reddish, with from one to four small, globose or reniform, greenish-yellow glands on the stalk or base of the leaf.

Blooming season early or medium, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch across, the buds yellow-tipped changing to white on expanding; borne on lateral spurs, in pairs; pedicels five-eighths inch long, somewhat slender, pubescent, green; calyx-tube greenish, campanulate, pubescent; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, reflexed; petals broadly oval or roundish, entire or slightly crenate, tapering to short, broad claws; anthers roundish, yellow; filaments five-sixteenths inch in length; pistil lightly pubescent at the base, longer than the stamens.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period short; one and seven-eighths inches by one and three-quarters inches in size, oval, slightly necked, swollen on the ventral side, compressed; cavity very narrow and abrupt; suture shallow, often a line; apex roundish or pointed; color deep reddish-purple changing to dark purplish-black at full maturity, with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, russet, inconspicuous; stem slender, one inch long, finely pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, rather sour, separating readily; flesh pale or golden-yellow, sometimes with a faint red tinge next the skin, not juicy, coarse, firm but rather tender, mild subacid to nearly sweet, not high in flavor; of fair quality; stone with a trace of red, semi-clinging, one and one-eighth inches by five-eighths inch in size, long-oval, necked at the base, abruptly sharp-pointed at the apex, with pitted surfaces; ventral suture rather broad, lightly furrowed; dorsal suture widely grooved.

DOUBLE FLOWERING GAGE

Prunus domestica 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:92. 1768. 2. Knoop Fructologie 57. 1771. 3. Kraft Pom.

Aust. 2:32, Tab. 179 fig. 2. 1796. 4. Prince Pom. Man. 2:49. I^32+ 5+ Mag. Hort. 9:165. 1843. 6. Downing Ft. Trees Am. 316. 1845. 7+ Poiteau Pom. Franc. 1:1846. 8. Mas Pom. Gen. 2:47. 1873. 9. Guide Prat. 163, 363. 1895.

Die grosse Konigin Klaudia Pflaume mit halbgefullter Bluthe 3. Dauphin a Fleurs semi-doubles 5. Dauphin a Fleurs doubles 5. Dauphin a fleurs semi-doubles 5. Double-blossomed 5. Double-blossomed Plum 6. Gelbe Reneclode Mit Gefullter Bluthe 8. Prune a Fleurs Doubles 8. Prunier a fleurs semi-double 8. Prunier a fieur semi-double 1, 7. Prune a Fleurs Doubles 2. Pru-nier a fleur semi-double 4. Prune Semi-double 4. Prune a fieurs semi-double 4. Reine-Claude Semi-Double 8. Reine-Claude a fieur semi-double 4. Reine-Claude a Fleurs Semi-double 5, 9. Reine-Claude mit Halbgefullter Bluthe 9. Semi-double flowering Reine Claude 4.

This is an ornamental variety of the Reine Claude type first noted by Duhamel in 1768. It was probably well known in Europe at this time for a little later it was mentioned by Knoop of Holland and Kraft of Austria. Duhamel described two varieties; one with small fruit which was insipid when over-ripe, and the other large and of good flavor. In 1846, Poiteau thought the latter was probably identical with a variety growing at Luxembourg but he did not think the former was extant. In the third edition of the London Horticultural Society's catalog, yellow and purple forms were mentioned, showing that the variety has been represented by more than one type. It is worthy of note that the double blossoms, except in strong soils, are apt to degenerate and become single. The following description is compiled.

Tree irregular and spreading, unproductive; branches brown on the shaded side and blood-red on the sunny side; flowers large,semi-double, with from twelve to eighteen petals; fruit mid-season; large, spherical; suture shallow, sometimes a line; flesh greenish-yellow, tender, soft, juicy, sweet, agreeably aromatic; clingstone.

DOWNING

Prunus munsoniana

1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 287. 1887. 2. Ibid. 275, 448. 1893. 3. Ibid. 334. 1894. 4. Wis. Sta. Bul. 63:24, 30. 1897. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 24. 1897. 6. Waugh Plum Cult. 185. 1901. 7. Wis. Sta. Bul. 87:12. 1901. 8. la. Sta. Bul. 46:269. 1900. 9. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 445. 1903. 10. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:247 fig., 254, 255. 1905. 11. 5. Dak. Sta. Bul. 93:15. 1905.

Charles Downing 1, 2, 3, 4, 7. Charles Downing 5, 6, 8, 11.

Downing is one of the best varieties of its species. The trees are large, usually productive, not often sterile as are some of its near of kin sorts and for a southern plum the variety is remarkably hardy, never having suffered in Geneva from cold. The only fault that can be found with the tree is that the foliage is quite susceptible to the shot-hole fungus. The fruit is particularly attractive with its bright, solid, garnet-red skin, golden flesh and sweet, pleasant flavor. Unfortunately the flesh is a little too fibrous and clings too tenaciously to the stone for pleasant eating. Downing adds a pleasing variety to any collection of plums and in some regions ought to sell with profit to the grower for the markets.

H. A. Terry of Crescent, Iowa, grew Downing from seed of the Wild Goose, which the originator thinks was fertilized by some Americana variety. The Downing, however, shows no traces of Americana parentage. It is reported as originating in 1882 and first fruiting in 1885. The American Pomological Society placed this variety on its fruit catalog list in 1897.

Tree large, spreading, flat-topped, hardy in New York, variable in productiveness; branches rough, dark gray, with a few large lenticels; branchlets slender, with very short internodes, greenish-red changing to dull reddish-brown, glossy, somewhat pubescent, with numerous, small, slightly raised lenticels; leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, appressed.

Leaves folded upward, broadly lanceolate, peach-like, one and three-eighths inches wide, three inches long, thin; upper surface reddish late in the fall, smooth, glabrous, with deeply grooved midrib; lower surface glabrous except along the midrib and larger veins; apex taper-pointed, margin very finely serrate, eglandular or sometimes with small dark glands; petiole thirteen-sixteenths inch long, slender, tinged with red, pubescent along one side, glandless or with from one to five small, globose, yellowish-red glands usually on the stalk.

Blooming season medium to late, long; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and one-sixteenth inches across, the buds yellow-tipped changing to white when expanded, with a strong, disagreeable odor; borne in dense clusters on lateral buds and spurs, in threes; pedicels eleven-sixteenths inch in length, very slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes below medium in width, acute, finely pubescent on the inner surface only, somewhat reflexed, glandular-serrate, the glands numerous and dark colored; petals oval, narrow, long, crenate, tapering beneath to long, narrow claws; anthers pale yellow, with a faint reddish tinge; filaments seven-sixteenths inch in length; pistil slender, glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period short; about one and one-eighth inches in diameter, rather large for its class, roundish-ovate, not compressed, halves equal; cavity shallow, narrow, flaring; suture very shallow and obscure; apex roundish or slightly conical; color garnet-red, with thin bloom; dots numerous, variable in size, grayish-yellow, conspicuous, clustered around the apex; stem slender, about three-eighths inch in length, glabrous, parting readily from the fruit; skin thin, slightly astringent, adhering but little; flesh golden-yellow, juicy, coarse, fibrous, tender and somewhat melting, very sweet next the skin but tart toward the center, aromatic; good; stone clinging, three-quarters inch by one-half inch in size, oval, somewhat oblique, turgid, roughish; ventral suture narrow, strongly winged; dorsal suture acute, unfurrowed.

DRAP D'OR

Prunus insititia

1. Quintinye Com. Gard. 2:69. 1699. 2. Langley Pomona 94, 97, PI. 24 fig. 5. 1729. 3. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:96. 1768. 4. Knoop Fructologie 57. 1771. 5. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 233 etg- 2- 1817. 6. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 146. 1831. 7. Prince Pom. Man. 2:75. 1832. 8. Kenrick Am. Orch. 261. 1832. 9. Mag. Hort. 9:163. 1843. I0+ Downing Fr. Trees Am. 274. 1845. ** Poiteau Pom. Franc. 1:1846. 12. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 297, 383. 1846. 13. Thompson Gard. AssH 516. 1859. 14. Hogg Fruit Man. 359, 371, 387. 1866. 15. Pom. France 7:No. 12. 1871. 16. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1875. 17. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 350. 1887. 18. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 428. 1889. *9; Guide Prat. 153, 359. 1895. 20. Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom. 538 fig. 1904. 21. Baltet Cult. Fr. 489, 503. 1908.

Cloth of Gold 2, 5, 7, 12, 14, 18, 19. Cloth of Gold Plum 15. Damas Jaune 15, 18, 19. Dop-pelte Mirabelle 18. Drap d'Or 1, 2. Drap d'Or Pflaume 15. Drap d'Or 7, 15, 18, 19, 20, 21. Double Drap d'Or 17. Double Mirabelle 17. Glauzende gelbe Mirabelle 15. Gldnzende Gelbe Mirabelle 18, 19. Gold Pflaume 18. Goldfarbige Pflaume 15, 18, 19. Goldstoff 18. Goldzeng 18. Grosse Mirabelle ?7, 15, 18, 19, 21. Grosse Mirabelle 8, 21. Grosse Mirabelle Drap dfOr 18, 19. Mirabelle 15, 17. Mirabelle Double 19, 21. Mirabelle Double 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 14, 18. Mirabelle Double de Metz 20. Mirabelle de Nancy 19, 21. Mirabelle de Nancy 14, 18. Mirabelle Drap d'Or 15, 18, 19. Mirabellen 15. Mirabelle grosse double de Metz 15, 18, 19. Mirabelle Grosse de Nancy 20. Mirabelle Grosse 15, 17, 20, 21. Mirabelle la grosse 7, 15, 18, 19. Mirabelle Grosse 6, ?7, 10, 13, 14, 15, 19. Mirabelle Perlee 15, 18, 19. Mirabelle von Metz 15. Perdrigon Hatif 15, 20, of some 17, 18, 19. Perdrigon Jaune 20. Yellow Damask ?i4. Yellow Damask 14, 18. Yellow of some 5, 7. Yellow Perdrigon 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19. .

Drap d'Or represents a type of the plum hardly known in America but very popular in continental Europe and most popular of all plums in France, the chief plum-growing country of the Old World. It is probable that the division of Prunus insititia represented by Drap d'Or, the Mirabelle plums, will thrive in America as well as the commonly grown Damsons of the same species. These plums certainly deserve to be far more generally planted than they now are. It is certain from the behavior of the few trees of the Mirabelle group now growing in New York that they have very decided merit. Drap d'Or is probably not the best of the yellow, sweet Insititias but it is at least well worth trial.

According to Pomologie De La France, this variety was cited by Merlet in 1675 and is of old and uncertain origin. Merlet placed the Mirabelle and the Drap d'Or in the Damas class, but Poiteau thought that the latter was probably a cross between Reine Claude and Mirabelle since it resembled the former in quality and shape and the latter in color and size. Yellow Damask, Mirabelle de Nancy, Yellow Perdrigon, Gross Mirabelle and others have proved to be identical with the Drap d'Or as tested in Europe. Whether all of the other synonyms mentioned are the true Drap d'Or is a question; their number indicates that there are many variations in this type of the plum. The American Pomological Society placed Drap d'Or in its catalog list in 1875 and withdrew it in 1899.

Tree small, upright-spreading, dense-topped, hardy, productive; branches ash-gray, with a brownish tinge, smooth, with very few, small lenticels; branchlets of average thickness and length, greenish-red changing to brownish-red, dull, sparingly pubescent throughout the entire season, with few, obscure, small lenticels; leaf-buds of medium size and length, conical, appressed.

Leaves folded upward, oval, one and one-fourth inches wide, two and one-half inches long; upper surface slightly roughened, covered with numerous hairs, the midrib grooved; lower surface silvery-green, pubescent; apex pointed or acute, base abrupt, margin serrate or crenate, eglandular or with small dark glands; petiole one-half inch long, pubescent, tinged red, glandless or with from one to three globose, greenish-yellow glands usually on the stalk.

Flowers fifteen-sixteenths inch across, the buds creamy changing to white when expanded; borne in clusters on lateral spurs, usually in pairs; pedicels nine-sixteenths inch long, sparingly pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, nearly glabrous; calyx-lobes obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, somewhat reflexed; petals broadly oval, crenate or sometimes notched at the apex, tapering below to short, broad claws; anthers yellowish; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit mid-season; one and one-eighth inches by one inch in size, roundish-oval, compressed, halves equal; cavity shallow, narrow, flaring; suture very shallow, often a line; apex roundish or depressed; color greenish-yellow changing to golden-yellow, somewhat mottled and blotched, occasionally with a faint bronze blush on the exposed cheek, overspread with thin bloom; dots numerous, small, whitish, inconspicuous; stem slender, sparingly pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, separating readily; flesh light golden-yellow, moderately juicy, coarse, firm but tender, sweet, mild; of good quality; stone free, five-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, oval, flattened, nearly smooth, blunt at the base and apex; ventral suture wide, blunt, smooth; dorsal suture shallowly grooved.

DUANE

Prunus domestica

1. Prince Treat. Hort. 25. 1828. 2. Kenrick Am. Orch. 260. 1832. 3. Prince Pom. Man. 2:100. 1832. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 297. 1845. 5+ Horticulturist 1:115, 116 fig. 36. 1846. 6. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 419. 1846. 7. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 343. 1849. 8. Elliott Fr. Book 418. 1854. 9. Horticulturist 10:253. 1855. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 191. 1856. 11. Hooper W. Fr. Book 244, 250. 1857. 12, Bridgeman Gard. Ass't 3:127. 1857. I3* Downing Fr. Trees Am. 910. 1869. 14. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 303. 1878. 15. Mas Le Verger 6:77, fig. 39. 1866-73. 16. Mich. Sta. Bul. 103:32. 1894. 17. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:184. 1897. 18. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:254, 255. 1905. 19. Waugh Plum Cult. 100, 102 fig. 1901.

Apricot 5 incor. Dame Aubert Violet 12. Duane's Plum 5 incor. Duane's Purple 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17. Duane's Purple 15, 19. Duane's Purple French 1, 2, 3, 4. Duane's French Purple 12. Duane's Large Purple 3. Duane's Large Orleans 3. Duane's Purple French 8, 9. English Pond's Seedling 8. Pourpre*e De Duane 15. Pourpree Duane 13. Purple Magnum Bonum of some 12, 13. Purple Egg of some 12. Red Magnum Bonum of some 9.

This handsome, purple plum, very well shown in the color-plate, is one of the half-dozen leading fruits of its kind grown in New York, favorably known the country over and in Europe as well. Its popularity is due to its large size, well-turned shape, royal purple color, and firm, golden flesh, characters which fit it admirably for the store and the stand. But appearance is the only asset of the fruit so far as the consumer is concerned the flesh is dry, tough, sour and clings to the stone, making a plum unfit for dessert though it does very well for culinary purposes. The fruit ripens slowly and colors a week or more before ripe; it is at its best only when fully mature. The trees excel in size, vigor and productiveness and are usually hardy and bear their crof]et well distributed and not clustered as in most varieties of plums. In minor characters, the trees are distinguished by large leaves, pubescence on the under side and by grayish-drab shoots covered with dense pubescence. Duane is generally found to be a very profitable market plum and if it were only better in quality we could heartily join in recommending it.

Duane originated as a seedling in the garden of James Duane, Duanes-burgh, New York, about 1820. For several years, the variety was distributed by the Prince nurseries under the name Duane's Purple French. This error was caused by Judge Duane's accidentally sending William Prince, of Flushing, grafts of this seedling instead of a French plum which he had imported in 1820. When this mistake was discovered by Downing and Tomlinson about 1846, the word French was dropped and the plum became known as Duane's Purple and later, according to the rules of the American Pomological Society, as Duane. In 1856, it was listed by the American Pomological Society as promising well and in 1862 it was placed on the list of the fruit catalog.

Tree large, vigorous, round and dense-topped, hardy and productive; branches ash-gray, smooth except for the numerous small, raised lenticels; branehlets medium to thick, variable in length, with short internodes, greenish-red changing to dark brownish-drab, dull, thickly pubescent, with raised lenticels intermediate in number and size; leaf-buds of average size and length, conical or pointed, free.

Leaves folded backward, obovate or oval, one and one-half inches wide, three and one-half inches long; upper surface dark green, pubescent, rugose, with a narrow groove on the midrib; lower surface silvery-green, pubescent; apex acute, base cuneate, margin serrate, eglandular or with small amber glands; petiole one-half inch long, pubescent, tinged with red, eglandular or with one or two small, globose, greenish-brown glands on the stalk or base of the leaf.

Blooming season rather early, of average length; flowers appearing before the leaves, one inch across, white; developing from lateral buds, singly or in pairs; pedicels nine-sixteenths inch long, thick, pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, pubescent; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, erect; petals roundish, entire, short-clawed; anthers yellowish; filaments one-quarter inch long; pistil pubescent on the ovary, longer than the stamens.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period of average length; one and three-quarters inches by one and five-eighths inches in size, broadly oblong-oval or obovate, compressed, halves unequal; cavity shallow, narrow, abrupt; suture variable in depth; apex roundish or depressed; color dark reddish-purple changing to purplish-black on the sunny side, overspread with thick bloom; dots numerous, light russet; stem three-quarters inch long, pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin below medium in thickness, tough, sour, separating readily; flesh pale yellow, lacking in juice, firm, sour unless fully ripe; of fair quality; stone adhering, seven-eighths inch by five-eighths inch in size, oval, with pitted surfaces, blunt at the base and apex; ventral suture wide, blunt; dorsal suture with a broad, deep groove.

EARLIEST OF ALL

Prunus triflora

1. Gard. Mon. 368. 1887. 2+ Cornell Sta. Bul. 62:32, 1894. 3. Normand Cat. 2. 1895-96.

4. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult, 516. 1897. 5. Cornell Sta. Bul. 175:130, fig. 24. 1899. 6. Waugh Plum Cult. 135. 1901.

Earliest of All 4. Wasse Sumomo 5, 6. Wasse Sumomo 3. Yosobe 1. Yosete 4. Yosebe

5, 6. Yosobe 2. Yosebe 2.

Earliest of All was imported by H. H. Berger of San Francisco from Japan under the name Yosebe, which later became changed to Yosobe, and in 1897 L. H. Bailey gave the variety the name Earliest of All to avoid the confusion in the earlier nomenclature. The Wasse Sumomo introduced by J. L. Normand, Marksville, Louisiana, in 1895, is the Earliest of All. The variety may have some value because of its extreme earli-ness. It is, however, too small, too unattractive in color and too poor in quality ever to be other than a kitchen plum.

Tree intermediate in size and vigor, vasiform, unproductive; branchlets dark redt marked with thick scarf-skin; leaf-scars prominent; leaves reddish late in the season, narrow-obovate, one and one-half inches wide, three inches long; margin finely serrate, with small, reddish-black glands; petiole tinged red, glandless or with from one to seven glands usually on the stalk; blooming season early ; flowers appearing before the leaves, white with a little pink; borne in threes and fours.

Fruit very early; one inch in diameter, roundish or roundish-oblong, light or dark pinkish-red, covered with thin bloom; flesh light yellow, rather dry, soft, inferior in flavor; of poor quality; stone clinging, five-eighths inch by three-eighths inch in size, flattened, oval.

EARLY ORLEANS

Prunus domestica

1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:80, PL XX fig. 1. 1768. 2. Forsyth Treat. Fr. Trees 21. 1803. 3. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 150, 151. 1831. 4. Prince Pom. Man. 2:62, 68. 1832. 5. Kenrick Am. Orch. 260, 269. 1832. 6. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 304. 1845. 7. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 286, 289, 294, 382, 383. 1846. 8. Poiteau Pom. Franc. 1:1846. 9. Thompson Gard. Ass't 516. 1859. I0- Hogg Fruit Man. 360. 1866. 11. Pom. France 7:No. 16. 1871. 12. Mas Le Verger 6:85. 1866-73. I3; Mathieu Nom. Pom. 430. 1882. 14. TraiU Prat. Seek. Fruits 172. 1893. 15. Guide Prat. 152, 360. 1895. 16. Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom. 542 fig. 1904.

Altesse du Roi 16. Damascena Dominicalis Praecox 13, 15. De Monsieur 16. De Monsieur Hdtive 15. Du Roi 15. Early Monsieur 12. Early Monsieur 4, 5. Early Orleans 11, 12, 13, 15. Fruhe Herrnpflaume 13. Frilhe Herrnpflaume 11. Fruhe Herzogspflaume 11, 13, 15. Fruhe Hernn-pflaume 12. Friihe Herrnpflaume 15. Grimwood Early Orleans 10, 13. Grimwood's Early Orleans 3, 6, 9, 11, 15. Hampton Court 3, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15. Konigspflaume 11, ?i3, ?i$. Monsieur 11, 13 & 15 incor. Monsieur Hatif i, 7, 11, 12, 15. Monsieur Hdtif 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 16. Monsieur Hdtive 4. Monsieur Hdtif de Montmorency 3, 6, 9. 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, New Early Orleans 3, 6, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15. New Orleans 3, 6, 9, 10, 13, 15, 16. Neu Orleans 11. Orleans 3. Prune de Monsieur Hdtif 13. Prune de Monsieur Hatif 8. Prune de Monsieur Hdtive 12. Prunus damas-cena domimcalis praecox n. Prune du Roi 14. Prune du Roi 11, 13. Red Orleans 11, 13, 15. Wilmot's Early Orleans 4, 7. Wilmofs Early Orleans 3, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15. Wilmofs Large Orleans 3, 4, 6. Wilmofs Late Orleans ?y. Wilmot's New Early Orleans 3, 5, 6. Wilmot's New Early Orleans 7. Wilmofs Orleans 3, 7, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15.

Early Orleans has been planted very little in America and then chiefly because of its reputation in Europe. While it appears to be a very good plum in most respects as it grows on the Station grounds, being attractive in appearance, of good flavor, a freestone and firm enough to ship well, it surpasses in none of these characters and the fruit is so small as to make it a poor competitor among the purple plums of its season. It does not deserve the reputation in America that pomologists have given it in Europe. In France the Early Orleans, under the name of Prune du Roi, is used in prune-making but it seems not to have been so used in America.

Early Orleans is old and of unknown origin. Duhamel in 1768 considered it a variety of the Orleans, differing only in the time of ripening but there are additional differences as can be seen in the descriptions of the two. It is true, however, that these two plums are very similar. According to Kenrick, Wilmot's New Early Orleans was raised by John Wilmot, an Englishman. Though it may be of separate origin it is practically identical with the Early Orleans.

Tree small, upright-spreading, hardy, productive; branches ash-gray, smooth, with small, inconspicuous, oval lenticels; branchlets thick, with rather short internodes, covered with thin bloom and marked with scarf-skin, dull brownish-drab, pubescent, with a medium number of small, raised lenticels; leaf-buds intermediate in size and length, conical, free, plump; leaf-scars enlarged.

Leaves folded upward, two and one-quarter inches wide, four inches long, roundish-oval or obovate, thick ; apex abruptly pointed, base- acute, margin crenate and with small, dark glands; upper surface light green, sparingly pubescent and with a grooved midrib; lower surface silvery-green, pubescent; petiole three-quarters inch long, thick, pubescent, faintly tinged red, with from one to three large, globose glands mostly on the stalk.

Season of bloom intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, nearly one-half inch across, white, the buds yellow-tipped as they unfold; borne in clusters on short lateral spurs, in pairs; pedicels one-half inch long, thick, pubescent, green; calyx-tube greenish, campanulate, thinly pubescent; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, glandular, pubescent on both surfaces, reflexed; petals roundish, entire, not clawed; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.


2OO">

Fruit early, season short; one and one-quarter inches in diameter, roundish-oval, slightly truncate, halves equal; cavity shallow, narrow, abrupt; suture shallow or a line; apex roundish to flattened or sometimes depressed, often oblique; color dark reddish-purple, covered with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, russet, inconspicuous; stem of average thickness, five-eighths inch long, pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, tough, not astringent, separating readily; flesh lemon-yellow, juicy, coarse, firm, sweet, mild but pleasant; very good; stone free, three-quarters inch by five-eighths inch in size, oval, slightly oblique, blunt-pointed, with rough and slightly honey-combed surfaces.

EARLY RIVERS

Prunus domestica

1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 314. 1845. 2; Horticulturist 4:40. 1849. 3. Elliott Fr. Book 419. 1854, 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 912. 1869. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 99. 1871. 6. Mas Pom. Gen. 2:117. 1873. 7. Jour. Hort. 30:273. 1876. 8. Oberdieck Deut. Obst. Sort. 409, 411. 1881. 9 Hogg Fruit Man. 699. 1884. 10. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 447. 1889. 11. Lucas Vollst. Hand. Obst. 470. 1894. 12. Guide Prat. 152, 356. 1895. 13. Rivers Cat. 35. 1898.

Early Fruchtbare 12. Early Prolific 4. Early Rivers 4, 10, 12. Early Prolific 2, 3, 6, 10, 12, 13. Fertile Precoce 10. Fertile Pr^coce 6, 12. Fruhe Fruchtbare 6. Fruhe Fruchtbare 8. Proli-fique Hdtive 10, 12. Rivers' Early No. 2 1, 2, 3, 4, 10. Rivers' Early Prolific Plum 2. Rivers' Early Prolific 4, 9, 10, 12. Rivers1 Early 6. River's Early 5. Rivers' Blue Prolific 7. Rivers' No. 2 9, 10, 12. Rivers Fruhpflaume 8, 11. Rivers' Fruhe Fruchtbare 10.

Early Rivers is widely known because of its earliness, productiveness, regularity of bearing and desirability for culinary purposes. In New York, however, the plums are so small and drop so badly as they ripen that the variety is worthless for commercial purposes. Hogg, in the reference given above, notes the following peculiarity of the trees of this variety: " The original tree throws up suckers, which, when removed and planted out, do not bloom for several years; but scions taken from the original tree and grafted, bloom the second year. A curious fact is that the grafted trees fruit abundantly, and the branches are so brittle they break off; in those raised from suckers the branches never break. The grafted trees in spring are full of bloom, sparing of shoots, and very few leaves; the suckers are more vigorous in growth, have no bloom, but an abundance of foliage, even when six years old." This variety is a seedling of Early Tours raised by Thomas Rivers of Sawbridgeworth, England, about 1834. It was first disseminated under the names Early Prolific and Rivers' Early No. 2 but, in 1866, Hogg with the permission of the originator, renamed it Early Rivers under which name it is now generally known.

Tree medium in size and vigor, round-topped, productive; branchlets thick, short, pubescent throughout the season; leaves roundish-oval or obovate, one and three-quarters inches wide, nearly three inches long, leathery; margin crenate or serrate, with few, small, dark glands; petiole pubescent, with from one to three small glands usually on the stalk; blooming season intermediate, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, seven-eighths inch across; borne on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in twos; petals roundish.

Fruit early, season short; one and one-quarter inches by one and one-eighth inches in size, roundish-oval or ovate, dark purplish-black, overspread with thick bloom; flesh dull yellow, firm, sweet, mild, pleasant; of good quality; stone semi-free, three-quarters inch by one-half inch in size, rather flat, oval, with rough and pitted surfaces.

EARLY ROYAL

Prunus domestica

x. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 153. 1831. 2, Mag. Hort. 6:93. 1840. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 313. 1845. 4. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 341, fig. 260. 1849. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 86. 1862. 6. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 452. 1889. 7. Thompson Gard. AssH 4:159. 1901.

Early Royal 3, 4, 6. Marian 6. Mirian 3, 4. Mivian 2. Miviam 6. Miriam 7. Royal Hative 1, 2, 5, 7. Royale Hative 3, 4. ' Roy ale Hdtive 6. Violette IC6nigspflaume 6.

While the fruits of Early Royal are not remarkably attractive in color, shape or size, the quality is high and its flesh is so firm that the variety should ship well. This sort is worthy of more extensive trial than it has yet had in America. Early Royal is a French variety introduced by M. Noisette of Paris, about 1830. Thompson made the first complete description of the variety in 1839 from the fruits of a tree in the gardens of the London Horticultural Society. Although recommended in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1862 it has not been extensively planted in this country.

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, rather open, productive; branches and trunk roughish; branchlets thickly pubescent; leaf-scars enlarged; leaves folded upward, oval or obovate, one and three-quarters inches wide, three and three-eighths inches long; margin serrate, with small, dark glands; petiole thickly pubescent, with one or two smallish glands; blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing with the leaves, one inch across, white, tinged yellow at the apex of the petals; borne on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period long; about one and three-eighths inches in diameter, roundish-ovate, dark reddish-purple, marked by irregular russet streaks, covered with thick bloom; dots conspicuous; stem thick, pubescent; flesh greenish-yellow, rather dry, firm, very sweet, mild, pleasant flavor; very good; stone nearly free, three-quarters inch by five-eighths inch in size, roundish-oval, blunt at the apex and base, with but slightly roughened surfaces; ventral suture prominent and with short wing; dorsal suture with a wide, shallow groove.

EARLY TOURS

Prunus domestica

1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:67, 69. 1768. 2. Kraft Pom. Aust. 2:31, Tab. 177 fig. 2. 1796. 3. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 151. 1831. 4. Prince Pont. Man. 2:64. 1832. 5. Kenrick Am. Orch. 265. 1832. 6, Poiteau Pom. Franc. 1:1846. 7. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 282, 283. 1846. 8. Hogg Fruit Man. 376. 1866. 9. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 937. 1869. 10. Mas Le Verger 6:143. 1866-73. JI- Mathieu Nom. Pom. 443. 1889. 12. Guide Prat. 156, 361. 1895.

Blue Perdrigon of some 3, 9, 11, 12. Die frfthe Pflaume von Tours 2. De Monsieur 12 incor. Damas de Tours 8, 9, n. Early de Tours 5. Early Tours 7, 9, 11. Early Violet 3, 7, 9, 11, 12. Gros Damas de Tours 1. Hdtive de Tours 12. Madeleine 11, ?i2. Monsieur 11 incor. Noire Hdtive 3, 8, 9, 11, 12. Perdrigon Violet of some 3, 9, 11, 12. Pre*eoce de Tours 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. Precoce de Tours 2, 4. Prune de la Madeleine 4, 9, 11. Prune noire Hdtive 4. Prune de Gaillon 8, 9, 11. Prune de Monsieur 11 incor. Saint Jean ?n, 12. Violette de Tours 8, 11. Violette Hdtive 9, n. Violet de Tours 9, 11, 12. Violette Hative 7. Violet 7.

Duhamel described this variety, Gros Damas de Tours and Gros Noire Hative in the same publication, his descriptions of the three varieties being nearly identical. Following Duhamel many horticultural authorities continued to separate the varieties, but Downing, Floy-Lindley and Mathieu give Damas de Tours as a synonym of Early Tours, and Thompson, Hogg, Downing, Mathieu and the Guide Pratique give Noire Hative as a synonym, while Prince holds Prune Noire Hative to be synonymous.

With this great similarity in the names and descriptions, it seems doubtful if these are separate varieties, but not having the fruit of the three to compare, it has been thought best in The Plums of New York to follow the nomenclature of the oldest authorities. Several writers have also named the Blue Perdrigon and the Perdrigon Violet as identical with Early Tours but neither can be, as all descriptions indicate that both are at least a month later in ripening than the variety under discussion.

Early Tours is considered in continental Europe one of the best early plums for dessert. It is said when fully ripened to be a veritable sweetmeat. As the variety grows in the Station collection it can hardly be lauded as highly as in Europe. Yet it is at least worthy of a place in a home orchard as a delicious early plum.

Tree intermediate in size, upright-spreading, rather open-topped, productive; branchlets thickish, pubescent; leaves falling early, folded upward, obovate or oval, one and seven-eighths inches wide, three and one-quarter inches long; margin crenate; petiole pubescent, glandless or with from one to three glands usually on the stalk; blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and one-eighth inches across; borne on lateral spurs or from lateral buds.

Fruit very early; one and one-quarter inches by one and one-eighth inches in size, slightly oval, dark purplish-black, covered with thick bloom; skin thick, tough, sour; flesh greenish-yellow, firm, sweet, pleasant flavored; good to very good; stone semi-free, three-quarters inch by one-half-inch in size, irregular oval.

EARLY YELLOW

Prunus domestica

1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 575, 576. 1629. 2. Rea Flora 206, 207. 1676. 3. Ray Hist. Plant. 2:1688. 4. Quin tin ye Com. Gard. 70. 1699. 5. Langley Pomona 90, PI. 20 fig. 1. 1729. 6. Duhamel Trait, Arb. Fr. 2:66. 1768. 7. Forsyth Treat. Fr. Trees 19. 1803. 8. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 297, 382. 1846. 9. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 925. 1869. 10. Country Gent. 41:518. 1876.

11, Mathieu Nom. Pom. 424. 1889. 12. Guide Prat. 152, 354. 1895.

Amber Primordian 1,2. Amber Primordian 3, 8, 9, 11, 12. Avant Prune blanche 9, 11, 12. Bilboa 9, 11. Catalonia 1, 2, 3, 12. Castellan 4. Catalonian 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. Cerisette Blanche

9, 11, 12. Castelane 11, 12. Catalane 11, 12. Catalonische Pflaume n, 12. Catalonischer Spilling

12. Catalonischer Spilling 11. Catalonische Kricke 11. De Catalogne 6, 11. De Catalogne 12. D'Avoine 9, 12. Die gelbe fruhzeitige Pflaume 12. Early Yellow 9, 10, 11, 12. Early John 9, 11. Early White Plum 11, 12. Gelbe Spindel Pflaume 11. Gelber Kleiner Spilling 11. Gelbe Fruhzeitige 11. Gelbe friihe Pflaume 11, 12. Jaune precoce 11, 12. Jaune de Catalogne 9, 11, 12. Jaune Hative 6, 8. Jaune Hative 11, 12. Jaunhative 7. JeanHettiveg. Jean-hative 5. Jean White 11, 12. Kleine gelbe Fruh Pflaume 11, 12. London Plumb 5. London Plum 9, 11, 12. Monsieur Jaune 11 incor., 12. Prune de Catalogne 8, 9, 11. Prune de St. Barnabe 8, 9. Prune d'Avoine 11. Picket?s July 9, 11, 12. Prune Monsieur Jaune 9. Prune d'AUesse blanche 9, ? 11. Primordian

10, 11, 12. Prunus Catalana 11, 12. Prunus Catelana 11. Prunus Catalonica 11, 12. Stf. Barnabee 9. ;Sa+';/ Barnabe 11, 12. Siebenbilrger Pflaume f 11, 12.

The Early Yellow goes back as far as the history of plum-growing in northwestern Europe is recorded. Because of its synonyms it is thought to have originated in Spain whence it was gradually taken northward, crossed the boundary and spread through the fertile valleys of France. Early in the Seventeenth Century it was firmly established in England and was described by Tradescant and Parkinson. From that time till the present it has kept a place in European and American horticulture, in spite of the introduction of hundreds of improved varieties. It is described as follows:

Tree hardy, moderately vigorous and productive; branches long, slender, upright until bent down with fruit; branchlets pubescent. Fruit very early, small, obovate; stem short, slender; color pale yellow, with thin bloom; flesh yellow, tender, sweet, moderately juicy, pleasant; good; freestone.

EMPIRE

Prunus domestica

1. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt. 9:347. 1890. 2. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:184. 1897. 3. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:241 fig., 254, 255. 1905. 4. Rice Bros. Cat. 15. 1908. Empire State 4. Rood 1, 2.

It is possible that Empire deserves more attention from fruit-growers than it has had. It is attractive in appearance, pleasant in flavor and gives promise of shipping well. Wherever the variety proves productive, as it is to a fair degree on the grounds of the Station, this plum might well be grown. Empire was grown by Ezra Rood, Cortland, New York, about 1875, from seed purchased at the State Fair. In 1890, E. Smith & Sons of Geneva found this plum in Mr. Rood's yard and procured cions of it, afterwards introducing the variety under the name Rood. The year that they made the discovery, John Hammond, also of Geneva, found the same variety at another place in Cortland and secured cions from which he subsequently disseminated the plum under the name Empire, by which it is now generally known.

Tree intermediate in size and vigor, spreading, open-topped, productive; branches covered with short, thick, fruit-spurs; branchlets short and stubby, pubescent throughout the season; leaf-scars prominent; leaves folded upward, oval or obovate, one and one-half inches wide, three and one-quarter inches long, thick, stiff; margin crenate, egland-ular or with small dark glands; petiole thick, reddish, with a few large, globose or reni-form glands; blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, over one inch across, yellowish-white; borne singly or in twos.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period very long; about one and five-eighths inches in diameter, round, dark reddish-purple, covered with medium thick bloom; dots numerous, conspicuous; stem thick, surrounded by a fleshy ring at the cavity; skin sour; flesh golden-yellow, dry, firm but tender, sweet, mild, pleasant in flavor; of good quality; stone nearly free, seven-eighths inch by three-quarters inch in size, oval, turgid, with roughened surfaces; ventral suture broad, with short but distinct wing; dorsal suture wide, deep.

ENGLEBERTEnglebert

Prunus domestica

1. Horticulturist 10:71. 1855. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 392. 1857. 3+ Cultivator 6:312 fig. 1858. 4. Hogg Fruit Man. 376. 1866. 5. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 344. 1867. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 24. 1871. 7. Mas Le Verger 6:61. 1866-73. 8. Barry Fr. Garden 415. 1883. 9. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 357. 1887. 10. Wickson Cal. Fruits 354. 1891. 11. Guide Prat. 154, 361. 1895. 12. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:190. 1897. 13. N. Mex. Sta. Bul. 27:125. 1898. 14. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:242, 244. 1899. 15. Waugh Plum Cult. 101, 103 fig. 1901. 16. Va. Sta. BuL 134:42. 1902.

Englebert 9. Prince Englebert 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, n, 12. Prince Engelbert 10, 13. Prince Englebert 15, 16. Prinz Engelbert n.

In common parlance Englebert is a prune, its origin, shape, color and firm golden-yellow flesh all marking it as such, but in prune-making regions it is usually marketed in the green state, if grown at all, and is little used in curing. It cannot be said to be much more popular as a plum than it is as a prune, chiefly because it is not of high quality, but also because it is none too attractive in color, size or shape, cutting a rather poor figure in comparison with a great number of other Domestica plums. The variety fails in tree as well as in fruit. The trees are variable in size, suffer from cold in exposed situations and while rather productive bear their crops in clusters hard to pick and well placed to insure infection from brown-rot when that disease is epidemic. For some reason the fruit of this variety shrivels at this Station not only after being picked, but while still on the tree. In New York, Englebert has been thoroughly tested, has been found wanting and is not now recommended.

This variety was obtained from a seed of the "Date Prune," by M. Scheidweiler, Professor of Botany at Ghent, Belgium. The date of origin has not been given, but it was probably produced about the middle of the last century since it was described as a new fruit in the Horticulturist for 1855. Englebert was added to the American Pomological Society catalog fruit list in 1871 under the name Prince Englebert, but in 1897, according to the rules of the Society, the name was simplified to Englebert.

Tree variable in size, vasiform, dense-topped, hardy except in exposed locations, productive; branches ash-gray, smooth except for the numerous, long-oval, raised lenticels; branchlets thick, rather short, with internodes above medium in length, green changing to dark brownish-drab, dull, heavily pubescent throughout the season, with few, inconspicuous, small lenticels; leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, appressed.

Leaves folded upward, oval or obovate, one and seven-eighths inches wide, three and one-quarter inches long; upper surface covered with very fine hairs, with a shallov groove on the midrib; lower surface pale green, finely pubescent; apex roundish-pointed, base obtuse, margin finely crenate, eglandular or with small dark glands; petiole three-quarters inch long, pubescent, faintly tinged red, glandless or with one or two small, globose, greenish-yellow glands at the base of the leaf.

Blooming season early to medium, of average length; flowers appearing after the leaves, about one inch across, white except for a yellowish tinge near the apex of the petals; borne in clusters on lateral buds and spurs, usually in pairs; pedicels one-half inch long, below medium in thickness, pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanu-late, pubescent; calyx-lobes obtuse, sparingly pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate and with marginal hairs; petals broadly oval or roundish, crenate, abruptly tipped with short, broad claws; stamens often inclined to revert to petals; anthers yellowish; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, longer than the stamens.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period short; one and five-eighths inches by one and three-eighths inches in size; oval, swollen on the suture side, halves equal; cavity shallow, narrow, abrupt; suture a line; apex bluntly pointed or roundish; color dark purplish-black, overspread with thick bloom; dots numerous, russet; stem three-quarters inch long, pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, sourish, separating readily; flesh golden-yellow, juicy, coarse, rather firm, sweet, pleasant-flavored, sprightly; good; stone one and one-eighth inches by five-eighths inch in size, oval or broadly ovate, strongly flattened, with roughened and deeply pitted surfaces, blunt at the base and apex; ventral suture narrow, strongly grooved, not prominent; dorsal suture acute, with a shallow, often indistinct groove.

ENGRE

Prunus triflora

1. Normand Cat. 1891. 2. Kerr Cat. 1894-1900. 3. Cornell Sta. Bul. 175:131. 1899. 4. Tex. Sta. Bul. 32:488. 1899.

This variety is one of the earliest of the Triflora plums and although the flavor is not as agreeable as that of the best sorts of its species, as Burbank or Abundance, it is much better than that of Earliest of All, with which it competes in season. Almost nothing is known regarding the history and origin of Engre. It was first mentioned in 1890 in the catalog of J. L, Normand, Marksville, Louisiana, and in all probability is one of his numerous importations from Japan. The origin of the name is not known.

Tree of medium size, vasiform, dense-topped, productive; branches slightly thorny, with numerous fruit-spurs; branchlets very short and stubby, glabrous; leaf-buds plump; leaves reddish when young, oblanceolate, one and three-eighths inches wide, three inches long; margin doubly crenate, with small brownish glands; petiole tinged red, glandless or with one or two small, reniform glands on the stalk; blooming season early; flowers appearing with the leaves, five-eighths inch across; borne on lateral buds and spurs, in twos or in threes; calyx-lobes red at the margin; anthers pinkish.

Fruit very early; about one and one-quarter inches in diameter, roundish; cavity deep; color dark pinkish-red, covered with thin bloom; dots numerous, conspicuous; skin astringent; flesh yellowish, tender and melting, sweet near the surface, but sour next the pit, low in flavor; poor; stone clinging, five-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, roundish-oval, turgid; ventral suture broad, blunt.

ESPEREN

Prunus domestica

1. Mag. Hort. 15:298. 1849. 2+ Downing Fr. Trees Am. 380. 1857. 3- Plor. & Pom. 4, PL 1863. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 916. 1869. 5. Pom. France 7: No. 1. 1871. 6. Mas Le Verger 6:65. 1866-73. 7. Lauche Deut. Pom. 12. 1882.

Cloth of Gold Esperen 4. Cloth of Gold 2, 7. Drap d'Or of Esperin 1,2. Drap d'Or dy Esperen 3, 6, 7. Drap d'Or Esperen 4. Drap d'Or d'Esperen 5. Drap d'Or of Esperen 6. Esperen's Gold-pflaume 7. Golden Esperen 5* 7. Golden Esperen 4. Golden Esperen Plum 3.

Were there not so many handsome, well-flavored plums of the Reine Claude group, Esperen might well be recommended to the amateur at least, for it is first class in appearance and quality. But the fruits are small and the tree-characters are not such that the variety can compete with the standard Reine Claude plums. Esperen was produced from seed in 1830 by Major Esperen of Malines, Belgium; it was first fruited in 1844, and was introduced in 1847 by Louis Van Houtte of Ghent, Belgium. It obtained the designation Drap d'Or from its close resemblance to that variety.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, productive; trunk stocky, rough; branches rough, with numerous, large, raised lenticels; branchlets brash; leaves flattened, two and one-half inches wide, five inches long, obovate or oval; margin serrate; petiole thick, tinged red, pubescent, with from two to five large, globose glands.

Fruit mid-season; about one and one-half inches in diameter, roundish-oval; cavity-shallow, narrow, often lipped; color yellow streaked and mottled with green, overspread with thin bloom; skin thin, tender, rather sour; flesh yellow, tender, sweet, aromatic; of good quality; stone free, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, oval, with pitted surfaces; ventral suture blunt; dorsal suture wide, deep.

EXCELSIOR

Prunus triflora X Prunus munsoniana

1. Glen St. Mary Cat. 1891-2. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 26. 1897. 3. Vt. Sta. Bul. 67:11. 1898. 4. Ga. Sta. Bul. 68:9, 36. 1905.

Excelsior has not fruited on the Station grounds and is placed in the list of leading varieties because of the prominence given it in the above references. The variety was originated by G. L. Tabor, Glen Saint Mary, Florida, in 1887, from seed of Kelsey supposed to have been pollinated by Wild Goose, although some authorities believe De Caradeuc to have been the male parent. It seems to be a promising variety and was mentioned in the last three catalogs of the American Pomological Society.

Tree vigorous, vasiform; branches slender; leaves of medium size, narrow; margin finely crenulate, glandular; petiole short, with from one to three small glands; flowers small, scattered; fruit early; of medium size, roundish, dark red with heavy bloom; skin tough; flesh firm, yellowish with red tinge towards the center; quality good; stone of medium size, compressed, clinging.

FIELD

Prunus domestica

1. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 288. 1889. 2. Am. Gard. 14:50, 395. 1893. 3. Rural N. Y. 55: 622. J896. 4. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:184. 1897. 5. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:244. 1899. 9. Ibid. 187:77, 78. 1901. 7. Waugii Plum Cult. 101, 104 fig. 1901. 8. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:239, 240 fig., 254, 255. 1905. Early Bradshaw 2.

This offspring of Bradshaw resembles its parent in tree, and in size, color and shape of fruit, though not so closely as to be readily mistaken for the older variety. Differences which distinguish the fruits of the two are: The Field is a trifle smaller, the fruit is more nearly round, lacking the prolonged neck of Bradshaw and is more plump at the base, the parent plum being markedly obovate; Field is earlier than Bradshaw, the latter difference accounting for the synonym, " Early Bradshaw." The quality is not such as to commend either of these plums, but of the two Field is slightly the better. In tree-characters, Bradshaw excels in having a larger tree and in being more productive. The foliage of Field is very good, it ripens its wood well and begins to bear while young, but it is inclined to a biennial bearing habit which makes the average in quantity of fruit a little too low for a market plum which Field is, if worth planting at all. A good quality of this variety is that it withstands the brown-rot very well. It is doubtful if Field is worthy of a place in the fruit-growing regions of New York, unless, perhaps, where a plum of the Bradshaw type, but a little earlier, is wanted. Like Bradshaw, Field is comparatively little attacked by San Jose scale.

Field is a seedling of Bradshaw grown in Schoharie County, New York. It was first noted by S. D. Willard of Geneva, New York, in 1889, as "a variety worthy of cultivation."

Tree of medium size and vigor, upright-spreading, dense-topped, hardy, productive; branches ash-gray, smooth except for the numerous, small, raised lenticels; branchlets slender, short, with internodes of medium length, greenish-red changing to brownish-drab, with a trace of red, dull, pubescent becoming slightly less so at maturity, with numerous, inconspicuous, small lenticels; leaf-buds below medium in size, short, obtuse, appressed.

Leaves folded backward, obovate, two and one-sixteenth inches wide, four and three-eighths inches long; upper surface dark green, nearly glabrous, with shallowly grooved midrib; lower surface sparingly pubescent; apex abruptly pointed, base acute, margin serrate, with a few, smallish, black glands; petiole seven-eighths inch long, thick, tinged with red, sparingly pubescent.

Season of bloom intermediate, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch across, white, with a yellowish tinge at the apex of the petals; scattered on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels five-eighths inch long, thick, with few, short, scattering hairs, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes above medium in width, obtuse, slightly pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, somewhat reflexed; petals broadly oval, entire, tapering below to short, broad claws; anthers yellowish; filaments three-eighths inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit mid-season, period of ripening short; one and seven-eighths inches by one and five-eighths inches in size, oblong-oval, compressed, halves equal; cavity shallow, narrow, abrupt; suture shallow, broad; apex roundish; color dark purplish-red, overspread with very thick bloom; dots numerous, small, russet, clustered about the apex; stem three-quarters inch long, sparingly pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, slightly sour, separating readily; flesh greenish-yellow, medium juicy, sweetish, mild; of fair quality; stone clinging, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, ovate with roughened and deeply pitted surfaces, blunt at the apex and base; ventral suture broad, distinctly furrowed; dorsal suture acute.

FOREST GARDEN

Prunus hortulana mineri

1. Minn. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 81. 1882. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 42. 1883. 3* Minn. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 412. 1889. 4. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 55. 1890. 5. Cornell Sta. Bul. 38:37, 86. 1892. 6. Mich. Sta. Bul. 118:53. 1895. 7. Wis. Sta. Bul. 63:24, 37. 1897. 8- Wis. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 136. 1899. 9. Waugli Plum Cult. 148. 1901. 10. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 43:30. 1903. 11. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162: 254, 255. 1905. 12. S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 93:17, 49 & 54 PI. 1905.

Forest Garden is placed by most horticulturists in Prunus americana, but the trees growing on the Geneva Station grounds belong to the Miner group of Prunus hortulana and the herbarium specimens of foliage and flowers sent from other stations make it probable if not certain that the trees here are true to name. This variety is little grown in the East, but it is widely distributed in the central West where both in tree and fruit-characters it seems adapted to the needs of the climate and soil. It is one of the latest of its group, maturing at a good time for shipping, for which it is further adapted by its tough skin and firm flesh. While Forest Garden is not preeminently a dessert plum, it has a spicy flavor that makes it pleasant eating and it is admirably adapted for culinary purposes, especially for preserving.

This variety is from a wild plum found in the woods bordering on the Cedar River, near Cedar Rapids, Iowa, by Thomas Hare, and introduced by H. C. Raymond, of the Forest Garden Nurseries, Council Bluffs, Iowa, about 1862. The American Pomological Society placed the variety on its fruit catalog list in 1883, dropped it in 1891, and replaced it in 1897.

Tree medium to large, often very vigorous, spreading, with sprawling habit, inclined to be flat-topped, perfectly hardy, variable in productiveness, bearing young, somewhat susceptible to shot-hole fungus; trunk small in proportion to the size of the tree, shaggy; branches rather rough, zigzag and inclined to split, thorny, dark ash-brown, with numerous, small lenticels; branchlets thick, long, willowy, with short internodes, greenish changing to dark chestnut-red, glossy, with thin pubescence when young, which disappears in autumn, with conspicuous, numerous raised lenticels; leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, plump, appressed.

Leaves falling early, folded upward, elongated-oval, or obovate, peach-like, one and three-quarters inches wide, four and one-quarter inches long, thin and leathery; upper surface smooth, with a shallow, grooved midrib; lower surface silvery-green, pubescent; apex taper-pointed, base somewhat abrupt, margin doubly crenate, glandular; petiole three-quarters inch long, sparingly pubescent, faintly tinged with red, usually with two conspicuous, globose, brownish glands below the base of the leaf.

Blooming season late and long; flowers appearing with the leaves; seven-eighths inch across, white, with a strong, disagreeable odor; borne in dense but scattering clusters on lateral buds and spurs, in threes or in fours; pedicels nine-sixteenths inch in length, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, narrowly campanulate or ob-conic, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, obtuse, slightly pubescent, margined with few hairs and with dark-colored glands, slightly reflexed; petals oval, erose, tapering to long claws of medium width; anthers yellowish; filaments seven-sixteenths inch in length; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit variable in season which is usually late and short; about one and one-eighth inches in diameter, rather large, roundish-ovate or nearly oval, slightly compressed, halves equal; cavity shallow, wide, flaring; suture a line; apex roundish or somewhat pointed; color light or dark red, with thin bloom; dots numerous, russet, conspicuous; stem slender, five-eighths inch long, glabrous, detaching from the fruit at maturity; skin thick, tough, slightly astringent, adhering ; flesh dark golden-yellow, juicy, coarse, fibrous, melting, sweetish next the skin but rather sour toward the center, with a strong and peculiar flavor, aromatic; fair to good; stone clinging, three-quarters inch by five-eighths inch in size, oval, turgid, blunt and slightly flattened at the base, ending in an abrupt but sharp point at the apex, nearly smooth; ventral suture narrow, faintly ridged; dorsal suture acute.

FOREST ROSE

Prunus hortulana mineri

1. Mick. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 290. 1889. 2. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 55. 1890. 3. Cornell Sta. Bul.

38:55, 86. 1892. 4. Mich. Sta. Bul. 123:19. 1895. 5. la. Sta. Bul. 31:346. 1895. 6. Colo. Sta.

Bul. 50:36. 1898. 7. Ohio Sta. Bul. 113:154. 1899. 8. Waugh Plum Cult. 173. 1901. 9. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 296. 1903.

Forest Rose, like Forest Garden, belongs to Prunus hortulana mineri, the two being similar in many respects. Forest Rose, however, is not as attractive in color as the other variety, the difference not being well brought out in the color-plates, is smaller and does not keep nor ship quite as well. The variety under discussion is better in quality than Forest Garden and better adapted than the last named variety for the home orchard at least. While somewhat variable in productiveness, in most localities it bears annually and abundantly. The trees are rather more thorny than most of its species.

This variety is said by H. A. Terry of Crescent, Iowa, to be a seedling of Miner, grown by Scott & Company, a Missouri nursery firm, and introduced by William Stark, Louisiana, Missouri, in 1878. Terry offers no evidence to show that this plum is a seedling of Miner and there is a question as to whether more is really known of its parentage other than that it came from Missouri.

Tree medium to large, intermediate in vigor, upright-spreading, open-topped, hardy, variable in productiveness somewhat susceptible to attacks of shot-hole fungus; trunk very rough and shaggy; branches rough, thorny, dark ash-gray, with numerous lenticels; branchlets numerous, slender, variable in length, with internodes of medium length, green changing to dull reddish-brown, glossy, glabrous, with numerous, small, raised lenticels; leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, appressed.

Leaves falling early, folded upward, elongated-oval or obovate, one and one-half inches wide, four inches long, thin; upper surface dull red in the fall, rugose, glabrous, with the midrib and larger veins deeply grooved; lower surface light green, somewhat pubescent along the midrib; apex acuminate, base acute, margin crenate or serrate, with small, dark glands; petiole slender, five-eighths inch in length, sparsely pubescent along one side, tinged with red, glandless or with from one to three small, globose or oval, greenish-brown glands on the stalk.

Flowers seven-eighths inch across, white, with a disagreeable odor; borne in dense clusters on lateral buds and spurs, in pairs or in threes; pedicels five-eighths inch long, below medium in thickness, glabrous, greenish: calyx-tube green, narrowly campanu-late, glabrous; calyx-lobes short and narrow, acute, serrate, somewhat reflexed, glabrous on the outer surface, but more or less pubescent on the inner surface and along the margin, which is strewn with red glands; petals oval, dentate, tapering below into narrow, lightly pubescent claws of medium length; anthers light yellow; filaments one-half inch in length; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit late, season short; one and one-eighth inches by one inch in size, roundish-oval; cavity shallow, narrow, flaring; suture a line; apex roundish; color dull crimson overspread with thin bloom; dots very numerous, small, gray, conspicuous; stem slender, three-quarters inch long, smooth, not adhering to the fruit; skin thick, tough, astringent, inclined to crack under unfavorable conditions, adhering; flesh dull apricot-yellow, juicy, fibrous, tender and melting, sweet next to the skin but tart toward the center, aromatic; fair to good; stone clinging, five-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, oval, acute at the apex, with pitted surfaces; ventral suture somewhat blunt.


FOTHERINGHAM

Prunus domestica

I. Rea Flora 208. 1676. 2. Langley Pomona 91. 1729. 3. Miller Gard. Diet. 3:1754. 4. Forsyth Treat. Fr. Trees 19. 1803. 5. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 299. 1845. 6. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 286, 383. 1846. 7. Thompson Gard. Ass't 517. 1859. 8. Hogg Fruit Man. 701. 1884. 9. Waugh Plum Cult. 102. 1901.

Foderingham 1. Fotheringay 8. Foderingham Plum 2. Grove House Purple 5, 7, 8. Red Fotheringham 8. Sheen 2, 5, 6, 7, 8.

Fotheringham is probably one of the oldest varieties of plums now cultivated. Although but little if at all grown in this country, it has maintained its place among standard English varieties for at least two and a half centuries. The exact time of its origin is not certain, but it was undoubtedly during the first half of the Seventeenth Century as Hogg records a reference made to it by Rea in 1665. It was first grown extensively at Sheen, in Surrey, England, about 1700 by Sir William Temple, who gave it the name Sheen. The variety is described as follows:

Tree hardy, vigorous, productive. Fruit matures just before Reine Claude; of medium size, obovate; suture distinct; stem one inch long; color reddish-purple with thin bloom; flesh greenish-yellow, sweet, sprightly; good; freestone.

FREEMAN

Prunus domestica

As this variety grows in the Station orchard it is a remarkably fine plum. The fruits are attractive, of high quality and the tree-characters are for most part very good. It is certainly a desirable plum for any home plantation, and if it proves as productive elsewhere as about Geneva, it may well be worth growing in commercial orchards.

Freeman is a chance seedling found in the yard of a Mr. Freeman of Cortland, New York, about 1890 and shortly afterwards introduced by E. Smith & Sons of Geneva, New York, but is as yet hardly known by plum-growers.

Tree intermediate in size and vigor, upright-spreading, productive; branchlets slender, pubescent; leaves oval, one and one-half inches wide, two and three-quarters inches long; margin serrate or almost crenate, eglandular or with small dark glands; petiole reddish, glandless or with from one to four globose glands; blooming season intermediate, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, creamy-white, usually in scattering clusters at the ends of lateral spurs; borne singly or in twos.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period short; about one and one-half inches in diameter, roundish or roundish-oval; cavity very shallow, small, often lipped; color golden-yellow, blushed and mottled with red on the exposed cheek, covered with thin bloom; flesh light golden-yellow, firm but tender, sweet, pleasant flavor; very good to best; stone dark colored, free, seven-eighths inch by five-eighths inch in size, irregular-oval, somewhat flattened, abruptly contracted at the base, with surfaces roughened; ventral suture prominent.

FREESTONE

Prunus insititia

1. Am. Gard. 14:148. 1893. 2. Waugh Plum Cult. 129. 1901. Freestone Damson 2.

Freestone is a Damson separated from other Damsons chiefly in being sweeter and more free of stone. It is so inferior to varieties of its species in several particulars as to have little value for commercial planting. The fruits are smaller and the pits larger in proportion to the amount of flesh than with several better known Damsons and the trees do not bear as large crops as plums of this species should; these faults of fruit and tree condemn the plum. To offset the defects in the tree, freedom from black-knot and immunity to leaf-blight may be mentioned as compensating somewhat. Still Freestone is hardly to be mentioned as worth planting in either home or commercial orchard. The origin of this Damson is unknown. Stark Brothers, Louisiana, Missouri, who introduced the variety about 1889, describe it as "a selected sort which is very hardy, free from insects, and productive."

Tree of medium size and vigor, upright-spreading, vasiform, hardy, not always productive; branches dark ash-gray, thorny; leaves folded upward, oval, one and one-quarter inches wide, two and one-quarter inches long; upper surface dark green, rugose; lower surface silvery-green, pubescent; margin finely serrate, eglandular or with small, brownish glands; petiole five-eighths inch long, glandless or with one or two small glands; blooming season late and of medium length; flowers appearing after the leaves, seven-eighths inch across, the buds creamy, changing to white when expanded; borne in clusters on lateral buds and spurs, usually in pairs; anthers reddish; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil shorter than the stamens.

Fruit late, season long; seven-eighths inch in diameter, roundish-oval; cavity very shallow and narrow; flesh yellowish-green, juicy, tender, sweet, mild; fair in quality; stone free, tinged red, five-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, oval, turgid, with roughened surfaces, acute at the base, blunt at the apex; ventral suture broad, blunt; dorsal suture with a broad, shallow groove.

FRENCH

Prunus insititia

I. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 289. 1889. 2. Ibid. 64. 1891. 3. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:184 fig. 40 I. 1897. 4* Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:245. 1899. 5. Waugh Plum Cult. 129. 1901, French Damson 4. French Damson 1, 2, 3.

Far better than the Freestone just discussed is the French Damson, which in some respects surpasses all other plums in its group. Thus it is the largest of the Damsons, so large, indeed, as to lead many to believe that it may be a hybrid with some Domestica plum, the size of the trees, blossoms and foliage also leading to such a supposition. This excellent Damson is largely grown for the market in western New York, good quality as well as size and appearance aiding in selling the product. The fruits have but one defect, the pit is large for the amount of flesh. Curiously enough in some seasons the stone clings and in others is perfectly free. It is in tree-characters that the French plum best shows its superiority over other Damsons. The trees are large, the largest of the Damsons in New York, hardy, bear abundantly and annually and carry their foliage so well that fruit and wood usually ripen perfectly even when the trees are not sprayed. The season is a little after that of the more commonly grown Shropshire, which in most years is an advantage. French, while becoming popular, is still too little known in New York, where its behavior warrants quite general planting.

S. D. Willard, a nurseryman of Geneva, New York, probably introduced French in this country; at least it was brought to notice mainly through his recommendation. The origin is unknown, but it is probably an introduction from France and may be an old variety renamed. The figure of Prune Petit Damas Violet given by Poiteau is so very similar as to suggest that French may be identical with that sort.

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, dense-topped, hardy, productive; branches numerous, ash-gray, roughish, thorny, with lenticels variable in size; branchlets inclined to develop spurs at the base, rather slender, short, with short internodes, greenish-red changing to dark brownish-drab, dull, somewhat zigzag, thickly pubescent, with inconspicuous, small lenticels; leaf-buds intermediate in size and length, pointed, free.

Leaves folded upward, long-oval, one and one-quarter inches wide, three inches long; upper surface dark green, covered with fine hairs, with a grooved midrib; lower surface pubescent; apex abruptly pointed, base abrupt, margin serrate or nearly cre-nate, with a few, small, dark glands; petiole eleven-sixteenths inch long, rather slender, pubescent, faintly tinged with red, usually having two very small, globose, greenish-brown glands on the stalk or base of the leaf.

Blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and five-sixteenths inches across, white; borne on lateral spurs, usually in pairs; pedicels five-eighths inch long, slender, covered with short pubescence, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, obtuse, glabrous on the outer surface, thinly pubescent along the margin and at the base of the inner surface, glandular-serrate, reflexed; petals oval, dentate or fringed, tapering below to short, broad claws; anthers distinctly reddish; filaments seven-sixteenths inch in length; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit late; one and one-half inches by one and one-eighth inches in diameter, ovate, halves equal; cavity very shallow, narrow, flaring; suture a line; apex roundish; color dull black, overspread with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, brownish, inconspicuous; stem slender, three-quarters inch long, sparingly pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, tough, separating readily; flesh greenish, juicy, fibrous, tender, sweet, pleasant and sprightly; good; stone variable in adhesion, seven-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, oval, roughened, acute at the base, blunt at the apex; ventral suture rather narrow, heavily furrowed and somewhat winged; dorsal suture with a shallow groove of medium width.

FROGMORE

Prunus insititia

1. Flor. & Pom, 265, PI. 1876. 2. Mich, Hort. Soc. Rpt. 289. 1889. 3. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser. 3:51. 1900. 4. Waugh Plum Cult. 130. 1901. Frogmore Damson 1, 2. Frogmore Prolific Damson 3.

Frogmore may be considered among the best of the Damsons in quality for the culinary purposes to which this fruit is commonly put. The flesh is tender, sweet and good, but adheres rather too tightly to the stone. The tree of Frogmore is all that could be desired in productiveness and quite equals most other Damsons in general and probably surpasses them all, at least on the grounds at this Station, in length of time that the fruit hangs on the tree. The habit of growth of this variety varies from that of Prunus insititia as commonly found, the leaves being larger, the tops more spreading and the branches less thorny. The variety has hardly been tried enough in New York to warrant either recommending or condemning it. According to the Florist and Pomologist, published in 1876, this variety originated a few years previous to the date of publication in the Royal Gardens at Frogmore, England.

Tree inferior in size and vigor, round-topped, open, hardy, very productive; branches thorny, the bark on the older branches splitting transversely to the direction of growth, making grooves or rings about three inches apart and two inches or more in length; branchlets slender, almost glabrous throughout the season, covered with light bloom; leaves bright red on first opening, somewhat folded backward, obovate, one and three-eighths inches wide, three and one-half inches long; upper surface dark green, rugose; lower surface silvery-green, pubescent, margin eglandular; petiole five-eighths inch long, slender, greenish, glandless or with one or two small, globose, yellowish-green glands usually at the base of the leaf; blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch across, white, in scattered clusters on lateral spurs; borne singly or in pairs; anthers yellow with tinge of red; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit late, season of medium length; one and one-eighth inches by one inch in size, roundish-oval, compressed, purplish-black, overspread with thick bloom; flesh golden-yellow, juicy, tender, sweet; good; stone clinging, three-quarters inch by one-half inch in size, oval, smooth, somewhat acute at the base and apex; ventral suture blunt or with a short, narrow wing; dorsal suture with a narrow, shallow groove.

FROST GAGE

Prunus domestica

1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:52. 1832. 2. Mag. Hort. 4:45. 1838. 3. Hoffy Orch. Comp. 2:1842, 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 300. 1845. 5+ Horticulturist 3:446. 1848. 6. Cole Am. Fr. Book 219 1849. 7* Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 54. 1852. 8. Hogg Fruit Man. 362. 1866.

American Damson 8. Frost Plum 4, 6, 8. October Gage 3.

Frost Gage is too small for market purposes and moreover the fruit withers rather quickly after picking; the quality is above the average. The plum is not a Gage, only green fruits being entitled to this name. At one time this was one of the most popular commercial varieties in the Hudson Valley, but because of its susceptibility to black-knot it has lost favor with growers. Downing in 1838 traced the history of this variety to a tree standing on the farm of a Mr. Duboise, Dutchess County, New York, Mr. Dubois stating that the original had been planted by his father. It is doubtful if this is the first tree, however, for in 1849 Charles Hamilton of Canterbury, Orange County, reported trees of Frost Gage thirty to forty years old on his place.

Tree of medium size, upright, very productive; branchlets thick; leaves flattened, oval or obovate, one and one-half inches wide, two and three-quarters inches long; margin crenate or serrate, with few, small, black glands; petiole short, usually with one or two glands; blooming season intermediate, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, white, with a little yellowish tinge; borne on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in twos.

Fruit late; about one and one-eighth inches in diameter, roundish, dark purplish-black, covered with thick bloom; stem slender, persistent; skin tough, sour; flesh greenish-yellow, juicy, firm, sweet, mild; fair to good; stone clinging, small, irregular-ovate, somewhat oblique.


FURST

Prunus domestica

1. Mas Le Verger 6:45. I^73' 2+ Lange Allgem. Garten. 2:421. 1879. 3; Oberdieck Deut-Obst. Sort. 413. 1881. 4. Lauche Deut. Pom. 8, PL 1882. 5. Guide Prat. 159, 363. 1895.

Eugen Fursts Friihzwetsche 4, 5. First's Fr{ihzwetsche 2, 3, 4. Furst's Fruhzwetsche 1, 4, 5. Quetsche Pr^coce de Ftirst i, 5.

Furst would undoubtedly be well worthy of very general cultivation in plum orchards were it not for the fact that it is very similar to the Italian Prune. The two fruits differ only in season, the Furst being a few days earlier, and in the tendency of the variety under discussion to shrivel about the neck. It may be that Furst will succeed in some localities where the Italian Prune is not a success.

Furst was propagated by the Baron of Trauttenberg, Prague, Bohemia, who had received it from Professor Pater Hackl, Leitmeritz, Bohemia, under the name Furst, given in honor of Eugene Furst, son of the founder of the School of Horticulture of Frauendorf, Bavaria. Furst Damson has been confused with this variety, but it is a different plum. Its fruits are distinctly necked and much inferior in quality, and its shoots are glabrous, while in this variety they are not. The United States Department of Agriculture introduced Furst in 1901 and through them this Station received cions for testing.

Tree of medium size, round-topped, productive; branchlets thick, marked with slight scarf-skin; leaf-scars very prominent; leaves folded upward, obovate, two and one-half inches wide, four and one-half inches long; margin doubly serrate or almost crenate, eglandular or with small dark glands; petiole thick, pubescent, glandless or with from one to three globose glands usually on the stalk; blooming season late; flowers one and one-eighth inches across, white, the opening buds tipped with yellow; borne on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in twos.

Fruit late; one and seven-eighths inches by one and one-half inches in size, oval, slightly necked, purplish-black, covered with thick bloom; dots numerous, reddish, conspicuous; stem thick; flesh greenish-yellow, juicy, very fibrous, firm, sweet, mild, with pleasant aroma; good to very good; stone one and one-eighths inches by five-eighths inch in size, free, irregular-oval, with rather long, tapering, oblique apex, the surfaces heavily pitted; ventral suture prominent, often winged; dorsal suture wide.

GEORGESON

Prunus triflora

1. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 52, 99. 1889. 2. Am. Gard. 12:308, 501, 574. 1891. 3. Ibid. 13:700. 1892. 4. Cornell Sta. Bul. 62:23, 27. 1894. 5. Tex. Sta. Bul. 32:488, 489. 1894. 6. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 94. 1895. 7. Cornell Sta. Bul. 106:$i, 58. 1896. 8. Ibid. 139:40, 44. 1897. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 26. 1897. 10. Cornell Sta. Bul. 175:145. 1899. 11. Waugh Plum Cult. 136. 1901. 12. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 13. 1904. 13. Mass. Sta. An. Rpt. 17:160. 1905. 14. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162: 250, 254, 255, 256, 257. 1905. 15. Ga. Sta. Bul. 68:10, 30, 32, $3. ^S-

Hattonkin N0.1. 3, 4, 7. Hattankin No.1. 5. Hattonkin 7, 11. Hattankio 7. Hattankio ?1. Hattankio 2Vcm, 6, 9, 12, 15. Hattonkin No.1. 2. Mikado 10, 11, 12, 15. Normand 4, 5, 7, 8, 14. Normand Yellow 2, 3. Normand Japan 3. Normand's Japan 4, 5. Normand Yellow 4, 5, 7. Normand ?i$. White Kelsey 10, 11, 15. Yeddo 10, n, 15.

Georgeson is not worth the trouble it has caused pomologists in straightening out its nomenclature; and Professor Georgeson deserves to have his name attached to a far better plum. The rich yellow color of the fruit makes this a particularly handsome plum, but here praises end. The flesh is so astringent and clings so tenaciously to the stone as to unfit the variety for either dessert or culinary use. Moreover, the fruits are exceedingly variable in color, size and shape, in the last character ranging from flattish to round, with sometimes round and sometimes pointed apex. The tree has too much of the sprawling habit of Burbank to make it a good orchard plant. This plum, and those that have been confused with it, can be spared without great loss to American pomology.

Georgeson was imported by H. H. Berger & Company, San Francisco, California, and brought to notice chiefly by J. L. Normand, Marksville, Louisiana, who named it for Professor C. C. Georgeson, then of Manhattan, Kansas, a student of Japanese fruits. In the Georgia Horticultural Society Report for 1889, L, A. Berckmans mentions two types of Hattankio, one of which may be this variety. Normand, in 1891, said that he received two varieties of Hattonkin from different sources and in order to separate them he numbered the earlier, No. 1, the later No. 2. Bailey and Kerr, however, in 1894, published Hattonkin No. 1 as a synonym of Georgeson and Hattonkin No. 2, the later, as a synonym of the Kerr. The Georgia Horticultural Society accepted this latter nomenclature in their report published in 1895. The Mikado, White Kelsey and Yeddo as tested by this Station have proved to be identical with Georgeson, but as tested by Kerr, the Mikado alone is the same. Normand, which is said to have been imported and introduced in 1891 by J. L. Normand, is also indistinguishable from this variety. In 1897, Georgeson was placed on the American Pomological Society fruit catalog list.

Tree medium in size and vigor, upright-spreading or broad-vasiform, not always hardy, productive; branches roughish, slightly thorny, often with bark cracked longitudinally, zigzag, dark ash-gray; branchlets glabrous, with characteristic raised lenticels; leaf-scars enlarged; leaves folded upward, broadly oblanceolate or obovate, one and three-eighths inches wide, three and three-quarters inches long, thin; margin crenate or serrate, with small, amber glands; petiole five-eighths inch long, reddish, with from one to ten brownish-red glands usually on the stalk; blooming season early to medium, of average length; flowers appearing before the leaves; borne in clusters on lateral spurs, in pairs or in threes; petals pinkish at the base; anthers reddish; pistil longer than the stamens.

Fruit early, ripening period short; one and five-eighths inches in diameter, roundish-cordate; cavity deep, wide, usually with concentric, russet lines; color greenish-yellow changing to deep yellow as the fruit reaches full maturity, with thin bloom; flesh golden-yellow, fibrous, firm, sweetish except near the center; fair to good; stone clinging, five-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, oval, turgid, with pitted surfaces; ventral suture broad, slightly ribbed; dorsal suture acute.

GERMAN PRUNE

Prunus domestica

1. Knoop Fructologie 2:53, 61. 1771. 2. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 235, fig. 7. 1817. 3. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 152. 1831. 4. Prince Pom. Man. 2:77, 78. l832- 5+ Downing Fr. Trees Am. 310. 1845. 6. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 286, 383. 1846. 7. Poiteau Pom. Franc. 1:1846. 8. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 335. 1849. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 214. 1856. 10. Hooper W. Fr. Book 245. 1857. 11. Thompson Gard. Ass't 519. 1859. 12. Hogg Fruit Man. 378. 1866. 13. Pom. France 7:No. 17. 1871. 14. Mas Pom. Gen. 2:171. 1873. 15. Lange Allgem. Garten. 2:418. 1879. 16. Lauche Deut. Pom. 1:1882. 17. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 434. 1889. 18. Wickson Cat. Fruits 355. 1891. 19. Guide Prat. 155, 362. 1895. 20. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:185, fig. 43. 1897. 21. Oregon Sta. Bul. 45:29 fig. 1897. 22. Waugh Plum Cult. 102. 1901. 23. Ohio Sta. Bui, 162: 254, 255. 1905.

Altesse ordinaire 13, 17, 19. Backpflaume 17, 19. Bauernpflaume 17, 19. Common Quetsche 3, 5, 11, 17, 18, 19. Couetsche 4, 19. Couetche 17. Couetch 13, 19. Couetsche Ordinaire 17, 19. Covetche 5. Covetsche 17. Damas Gros 3, 5, 11, 17, 19. Damask 3, 5, 11, 17, 19. Damas Long 1. Damas Violet of some 3, 11, 17, 19. Damas Violet Gros of some 3, 5, 11, 17, 19. Deutsche Blaue Herbstzwetsche 17, 19. Die Hauszwetsche 19. D'Allemagne 19. Die Hauszwetsche 16. Dutch Prune 10. Early Russian 11, 12, 13, 17, 19. Enkelde Backspruim 17. Enkelde Blackpruim 19. Fellemberg 13, 17 in cor., 19. Gemeine Zwetsche 13, 14, 17, 19. Gemeine Hauswetsche 14. German Plum 4, 14. German Prune 3, 5, n, 12, 13, 14, 17, 19. German Quetsche 12, 13, 17, 19. Grosse German Prune 3. Grosse Hauspflaume 17, 19. Hauszwetsche 15. Hauszwetsche 13, 14, 16. Haus-pflaume 14, 17. Imperatrice Violette Grosse of some 3, 5, 11, 17, 19. Imperatrice Violette of some 3, 5, 11, 13, 17, 19. Koetsche 13, 17, 19. Large German Prune 4, 17. Leipzig 3, 12, 13, 17, 19. Leipzic 5. Leipziger Zwetsche 16, 17, 19. Monsieur tardif ? 19. Monsieur Tardif 17. Prune d'Allemagne la commune 4. Prune d'Allemagne 3, 5, 11, 12, 13, 16, 17. Prune d'Altesse 1. Prune Imperatrice Violette 7. Prune Plum ? 2. Prune Allemand 4. Prunier Allemand 4. Prune Plum 4. Prune Quetsch 7. Prunus Oeconomica 17. Prune Zwetschen 14. Quastche 7. Quetsch 7, 13, 19. Quetsche 4, 6, 8, 14, 17, 19. Quetsche ? 1, 3, 5, 6, 11, 12. Quetsch Allemande 1. Quetsch Hongroise 1. Quetschen 4. Quetcshe Commune 4, 13, 14, 16, 17. Quetsch Longue ? 1. Quetsche d'Allemagne Grosse 3, 5, 11, 17, 19. Quetsche Commune 19. Quetsche d'Allemagne 3, 17, 19. Quetsche D'Allemagne 13. Quetsche des Allemands 7. Quetsche Grosse 3, 5, 17, 19. Quetsche de Lorraine 13, 14, 17, 19. Quetsche de Metz 13, 16, 17, 19. Quetsche Domestique 14. Quetsche de Malogne 13, 17, 19. Quetzen 6, 17. Sweet Prune 5, 11, 12, 13, 17, 19. Teutsche blaue Zwetsche 16, 17, 19. Wahre Zwetsche 16. Wetschen 13, 17, 19. 7Yw[? Large German Prune 4, 5, 17, 19. Turkish Quetsche 5, 11, 12, 13, 17, 19. Zwespe 17, 19. Zwetsche 3, 5, 7, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17, 19. Zwetschen 4. Zwetschke 3, 11, 17, 19.

Although one of the oldest plums under cultivation, probably the oldest of the prune type, the German Prune is still as largely grown, the world over, as any; and is seemingly more widely disseminated than any other plum. It is a little difficult, in America at least, to see why this fruit holds its popularity so long, for it is surpassed by other plums in many horticultural characters, and when all of its characters, most of which are very good, are combined there are still plums which it does not excel. In most of the attributes which gratify the senses, color, size, shape, taste and smell, it falls below expectations for a plum so universally planted. Undoubtedly the wide distribution of this plum is due somewhat to its many variations. The fruit comes almost true to seed and is often propagated by planting pits, a practice which has given many slightly different strains of this variety, each with somewhat different adaptations.

In the Old World the number of strains of this plum, especially in Germany, is legion, so many that it is probably impossible to segregate them at this late date. In America, while there are a number of these more or less distinct strains it is yet possible to distinguish the chief ones. In New York, the most commonly grown German Prune is the Rochester strain and since it agrees most closely with the fruit described in the best works on pomology, it is the strain described and illustrated in this work. The trees from which this description was made came from Ellwanger and Barry, Rochester, New York, who have long maintained a stock tree of this strain. Another German Prune, fruit of which we have not been able to obtain, is the Dansville strain grown in the nurseries of Dansville, New York. Still another of these plums is the Weedsport German Prune so like the Rochester type as to be hardly worth distinguishing. The Latz German Prune is a very distinct strain; it is larger, thicker and broader than the type here described and is more of a clingstone. In some respects this is the best of the German Prunes. All accounts agree that this plum was introduced into America from Prussia by a Mr. Latz about 1850.

All of these German Prunes are characterized by large, hardy, vigorous, healthy, productive trees, characters so marked that one can say at once that it is the tree that gives the German Prune its great value. The fruit is excellent for all culinary purposes, especially for canning, and cures into a small but very good, tart, meaty, freestone, elastic prune, The chief objection to the plum for these purposes is that the fruits run small. The plums are too tart to have much value as dessert fruits. This variety is likely to remain a standard for some time in New York but will eventually be superseded by a larger fruit.

The origin of this plum is uncertain. German writers very generally hold that it came from Asia whence it was carried during the Crusades to Europe. Lauche, a German authority, says, " In the Sixteenth Century, the first dried prunes were introduced into Italy, Switzerland and Germany from Hungary. The tree on the contrary is said not to have been introduced by us until the end of the Seventeenth Century." A Prune Plum was noted in America by Coxe in 1817, but it is impossible to say whether he meant the German Prune. Prince, however, in 1832, described the variety under its present name. In 1856, the American Pomological Society placed the German Prune on the list of the varieties promising well and six years later added it to its fruit catalog. The German Prune is used only in the fresh state in New York, but on the Pacific Coast, in some one of its several types, it is one of the half-dozen leading sorts for curing.

Tree medium to large, vigorous, round and dense-topped, hardy, usually very productive; branches ash-gray, somewhat rough, with lenticels variable in size; branch-lets slender, short, with internodes of medium length, green changing to brownish-red, dull, glabrous, with numerous, small, obscure lenticels; leaf-buds intermediate in size and length, conical, free.

Leaves falling early, oval or obovate, one and one-half inches wide, three inches long, thinnish, velvety; upper surface pubescent, slightly rugose, with a shallow groove on the midrib; lower surface yellowish-green, heavily pubescent; apex abruptly pointed or acute, base acute, margin finely serrate, with small glands; petiole one-half inch long, pubescent, tinged with red, glandless or with one or two small, globose glands usually at the base of the leaf.

Blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, nearly one inch across, inconspicuous on account of their greenish-yellow color, which characterizes the variety; borne on lateral spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels


22 2" five-eighths inch long; below medium in thickness, pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, lightly pubescent at the base; calyx-lobes long, narrow, acute, thinly pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, erect; petals narrow, long-oval or obovate, erose, tapering to broad claws of medium length; anthers yellowish; filaments seven-sixteenths inch long; pistil very pubescent at the base, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit late, ripening period very long; one and five-eighths inches by one inch in size, oval, slightly swollen on the ventral side, halves unequal; cavity very shallow, narrow, flaring; suture a faint line; apex pointed; color purplish-black, overspread with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, brown, inconspicuous, clustered about the base; stem below medium in thickness, five-eighths inch long, adhering well to the fruit; skin tough, separating readily; flesh yellowish-green, medium juicy, firm, sweetish, mild, pleasant flavor; good to very good; stone free, seven-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, the cavity larger than the pit, flattened, obliquely long-oval, pointed at the apex and base, with rough and pitted surfaces; ventral suture narrow, conspicuously winged; dorsal suture narrowly and shallowly grooved.

GIANT

Prunus domestica

1. Gard. & For. 7:420. 1894. 2. Burbank Cat. 5, fig. 1895. 3. Cal. State Board Hort. 47. 1897-98. 4. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:185. 1897. 5; Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:245. 1899. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 39. 1899. 7. Am. Gard. 21:36. 1900. 8. Mich. Sta. Bul. 187:77, 78. 1901.

Giant Prune 4, 7, 8. Giant Prune 5, 6.

Giant is distinguished for its large size and attractive color. The accompanying color-plate shows the color and shape very well, but the fruit is a little too small. Unfortunately Giant is somewhat inferior in quality, a disappointment to all, as with Agen for a parent high quality was to be expected. In quality, as in all fruit-characters, the variety resembles the male parent, Pond. The flesh is coarse, fibrous, lacking in juice, clings more or less to the stone and rots quickly under unfavorable conditions. The trees, too, lack somewhat in both vigor and productiveness. Introduced as a prune, it was supposed that this variety would prove a great boon to prune-makers, but it does not cure well and is now hardly used for drying. Giant is proving to be one of the very best shipping plums, as would be expected because of its firm, dry flesh. It is unfortunate that so attractive a plum cannot be unqualifiedly recommended, but it is doubtful if it is worth planting on a commercial scale in New York.

Giant was grown by Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, California, from a seed of Agen fertilized by Pond, the Hungarian Prune of the Pacific Coast. The stock of this variety was offered for sale to nurserymen in 1893 and 1894, but not to fruit-growers until 1895, and then by the originator. The American Pomological Society placed it on their fruit catalog list in 1899 as a promising variety for this region and southern California.

Tree medium in size and vigor, round and dense-topped, hardy, usually productive; branches short, stocky, dark ash-gray, with large lenticels; branchlets short, with inter-nodes of medium length, greenish-red changing to dark brownish-red, dull, thinly pubescent, heavily marked with scarf-skin and with few, small, inconspicuous lenticels; leaf-buds small to medium, short, conical, appressed.

Leaves folded backward, obovate or oval, two and one-quarter inches wide, three and three-quarters inches long; upper surface pubescent only along the midrib; lower surface pale green, lightly pubescent on the midrib and larger veins; apex abruptly pointed or acute, margin serrate or crenate, usually with small, dark glands; petiole three-quarters inch long, tinged red along one side, sparingly pubescent, glandless or with from one to four greenish-brown glands usually on the stalk.

Blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and three-sixteenths inches across, creamy in the buds, changing to white on opening, borne in scattering clusters on short, lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels three-eighths inch long, thick, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, glabrous or lightly pubescent; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, reflexed; petals oval, somewhat erose, with short, broad claws; anthers yellowish; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, longer than the stamens.

Fruit mid-season, period of ripening short; two inches by one and one-half inches in size, obovate, slightly necked, compressed, halves unequal; cavity shallow, narrow, abrupt; suture shallow; apex roundish or depressed; color light to dark purplish-red, overspread with bloom of medium thickness; dots numerous, smallish, russet, inconspicuous; stem seven-eighths inch long, thinly pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin of medium thickness and toughness, adhering but slightly to the pulp; flesh light golden-yellow, variable in juiciness, coarse, somewhat fibrous, firm, rather sweet, mild fair in quality; stone semi-clinging or clinging, one and one-eighth inches by five-eighth^ inch in size, long-oval, flattened, with rough and pitted surfaces; ventral suture strongly furrowed; dorsal suture with a shallow groove.

GLASS

Prunus domestica

1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 3rd App. 181. 1881. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 39. 1899. 3.  Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:245. 1899. 4. Waugh Plum Cult. 104. 1901. 5. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 43:34. 1903. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 57. 1907.

Glass Seedling 2. Glass Seedling 4, 5, 6.

Although found in some collections in the United States, Glass has never attained commercial importance in this country, probably because its place is taken by the Quackenboss, which it very closely resembles. The fruit is large and attractive in color and shape, but it is not high in quality and it must be rated among Domestica plums as only a mediocre fruit. The tree is said generally to give better satisfaction than the fruit. This variety originated with Alexander Glass, Guelph, Ontario, and has been cultivated extensively by Canadian growers to whom its productivity and hardiness recommend it.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open, productive, hardy; branches rough, stocky; branchlets rather slender, pubescent; leaves folded backward, obovate or oval, one and three-quarters inches wide, three and one-half inches long; margin finely serrate; petiole reddish, pubescent, with from one to three smallish, globose glands usually at the base of the leaf.

Fruit mid-season; one and one-half inches by one and three-eighths inches in size, oblong-oval, purplish-black, overspread with thick bloom; stem adhering firmly to the fruit; skin thin, tender, rather sour; flesh light yellow, juicy, firm, sweet, mild; of fair quality; stone clinging, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, irregular-oval, with oblique apex, the surfaces rough and pitted; ventral suture prominent, winged.

GOLDEN

Prunus munsoniana X Prunus triflora.

I. U.S.D.A. Rpt. 263. 1892. 2. Burbank Cat. 17. 1893. 3. Am] Pom. Soc. Rpt. 74. 1895. 4. Am. Gard. 18:715. 1897. 5. Cal. State Board Hort. 53. 1897-98. 6. Vt. Sta. Bul. 67:12. 1898. 7. Ohio Sta. Bul. 113:161. 1899. 8. Am. Gard. 21:36. 1900. 9. Vt. Sta. An. Rpt. 14:274. 1901. 10. Mich. Sta, Sp. Bul. 30:18 1905. 11. Mass. Sta. An. Rpt. 17:161. 1905. 12. Ga. Sta. Bul. 68:8, 36. 1905. 13. U.S.D.A. Yearbook 500. 1905.

Gold 3, 4, 7, 8, 10, 11. Gold 6, 9, 13. Late Klondike 5.

It would be hard to name another plum as showy as Golden. Large for its group, beautifully turned, it presents a most striking appearance long before it is ripe, with its bright yellow skin and crimson cheek, the whole plum turning to a brilliant currant-red with a delicate bloom at maturity. But the plum is little more than showy. The flavor is not good, the flesh is fibrous, excessively juicy and adheres to the stone, the skin is tough and astringent. In spite of the juiciness the plum ships well, owing to the tough skin, but the fruits are much attacked by brown-rot and the skin cracks badly under unfavorable conditions. The trees are rather small, uncertain in bearing, often enormously productive but do not hold the crop well, and the plums ripen unevenly. Strange to say, considering the parentage, the variety is hardy, according to Waugh standing the winters at Burlington, Vermont, almost perfectly. In tree and fruit the variety is more like its American parent than the Asiatic one. Golden can never be a money-maker in New York, but it is worth having in a home orchard for its handsome appearance.

The original tree of this variety was grown in 1887 or 1888 by Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, California, from a seed of Robinson fertilized by pollen of Abundance. In 1892, the variety was erroneously described in the United States Department of Agriculture Report as a seedling of Kelsey fertilized by Burbank. The same year it was named Golden by Burbank and in 1893 & was offered for sale in his catalog, New Creations in Fruits and Flowers. Soon after, the original tree and the right of introduction were purchased by Stark Brothers Nurseries and Orchards Company, Louisiana, Missouri, and in 1894 the variety was catalogued and disseminated under the name Gold. This name was registered as a trade-mark in the United States Patent Office in 1905, but as the prior application and publication of Golden entitles it to precedence according to the nomenclature of the American Pomological Society, the name Gold has generally been dropped by pomologists. The confusion as to the origin and nomenclature of this variety has been increased by its parentage being published as a cross of Robinson and Kelsey and by the California shippers labeling it Late Klondike.

Tree variable in size and vigor, usually small, somewhat vasiform, medium dense, hardy in all but the coldest localities, an uncertain bearer unless grown under favorable conditions, when it becomes very productive, susceptible to attacks of shot-hole fungus; trunk shaggy, sometimes gnarly; branches strong, unusually rough, grayish-brown, with longitudinal cracks in the bark, with very numerous, small, raised lenticels; branchlets willowy, numerous, long, with short internodes, green changing to dull reddish-brown, marked with gray scarf-skin, glossy, glabrous, with numerous, conspicuous, large, raised lenticels; leaf-buds small, short, conical, free.

Leaves usually flattened, broadly lanceolate, peach-like, one inch wide by three and one-half inches long, thin, somewhat rigid; upper surface light green, smooth, glabrous, with deeply grooved midrib; lower surface pale green, thinly pubescent; apex taper-pointed, base acute, margin serrate or crenate, with numerous, small, dark red glands; petiole slender, three-eighths inch in length, tinged red, sparingly pubescent along one side, glandless or with from one to seven small, globose, yellowish-green glands usually on the stalk.

Blooming season long; flowers appearing after the leaves, three-quarters inch across, white; borne in clusters on short lateral spurs and buds, in pairs or in threes; pedicels seven-sixteenths inch long, slender, glabrous, green; calyx-tube greenish,

185.  Cornell Sta. Bul. 106:52. 1896.

******************************campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, acute, sparingly glandular-serrate and pubescent, with scattering marginal hairs, erect; petals oval, entire, clawed; anthers yellowish; filaments one-quarter inch long; pistil glabrous, longer than the stamens.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period very long; medium to sometimes large, roundish-oblate, halves equal; cavity deep, flaring, regular; suture a line; apex roundish or pointed; color golden-yellow blushed or overspread with bright red, with thin bloom; dots numerous, very small, whitish, inconspicuous, thickly sprinkled around the apex; stem five-eighths inch long, glabrous, adhering fairly well to the fruit; skin rather tough, astringent, inclined to crack under unfavorable conditions, separating readily; flesh golden-yellow, unusually juicy and fibrous, tender and melting, sprightly, sweet next the skin but tart near the center; fair in quality; stone adhering, three-quarters inch by one-half inch in size, oval, turgid, flattened at the base, abruptly sharp-pointed at the apex, with pitted surfaces; ventral suture slightly winged; dorsal suture broadly grooved.

GOLDEN BEAUTY

Prunus hortulana

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 162. 1881. 2. Rural N. Y. 43:53. 1884. 3. Popular Gard. 4:38. 1888. 4. Am. Gard. 10:175. 1889. 5. Cornell Sta. Bul. 38:48, 49, 86. 1892. 6. Kerr Cat. 3. 1894. 7. Mich. Sta. Bul. 118:53. 1895. 8. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 41:55. 1896. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 26. 1897. 10. Wis. Sta. Bul. 63:39,42,48. 1897. 11. Vt. Sta. An. Rpt. 11:284. 1898. 12. Colo. Sta. Bul. 50:42. 1898. 13. Ohio Sta. Bul. 113:155. 1899. 14. Ibid. 162:247, 254, 255. 1905.

Honey Drop 8, 10, 14. Honey Drop 5, 11. Missouri Apricot 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13.

From the fruit-grower's standpoint, Golden Beauty is of little interest. The plums are so small and the quality so poor that the variety is not worth planting either for the home or for money-making. It is true that the firm, juicy fruits are very good for table use, in jellies in particular, and that they may be shipped long distances, but these characters cannot offset the handicap of small size and poor quality. The variety is of interest to botanists because it seems to be a wanderer out of the range of the species to which it belongs. As the history which follows seems to show, Golden Beauty was found in a part of Texas where Prunus hortulana does not grow (see the discussion of this species) and quite as remarkable if it really comes from so warm a part of Texas is the fact that it should be perfectly hardy here and even farther north. There is a mystery yet to be cleared up about this plum. The variety is very ornamental in flower, foliage and fruit.

According to current account, Golden Beauty was found wild by a German on the Colorado River in western Texas during the Civil War. After the war, the German planted his new plum in a yard in Victoria County, Texas, where it attracted the attention of Gilbert Onderdonk, Mission Valley, southern Texas. Onderdonk, noting its merits, propagated and introduced it in 1874. In 1886, Stark Brothers, of Missouri, introduced the Missouri Apricot, the Honey Drop of some, which they claimed was found wild in Missouri. Several pomologists have noted the close similarity of this variety to Golden Beauty and as tested at this Station they are identical in all respects and are therefore placed under the older name. In 1897 the American Pomological Society placed this plum on its fruit catalog list.

Tree above medium in size, vigorous, somewhat irregular in habit, usually spreading, low, dense and flat-topped, hardy, variable in productiveness, somewhat subject to attacks of shot-holo fungus; trunk rough, shaggy; branches roughish, thorny, zigzag, dark ash-gray, with numerous lenticels of medium size; branchlets long, slender, twiggy, with short internodes, green changing to greenish-brown, shining, glabrous, with numerous, conspicuous, large, raised lenticels; leaf-buds small, very short, obtuse, plump, appressed.

Leaves folded upward, narrowly oval, one and seven-eighths inches wide, four inches long, thin; upper surface smooth, glabrous, with a grooved midrib; lower surface light green, sparingly pubescent along the midrib and larger veins; apex acuminate, base abrupt, margin irregularly and doubly crenate, with small, dark brown glands; petiole seven-eighths inch long, slender, green, thinly pubescent along one side, gland-' less or with from one to eight very small, globose, blackish glands scattered mostly below the base of the leaf.

Blooming season late and of medium length; flowers appearing after the leaves, seven-eighths inch across, white; borne in clusters on lateral buds and spurs, with from four to six flowers in each umbel; pedicels nine-sixteenths inch in length, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes acute, erect, thinly pubescent within, glandular-serrate, the glands reddish; petals ovate or roundish-oval, erose, tapering below into long, narrow, pubescent claws; anthers light yellow; filaments five-sixteenths inch in length; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit very late, season of medium length; one inch in diameter, roundish to roundish-oval, somewhat compressed, halves equal; cavity shallow, narrow, slightly flaring; suture very shallow or a line; apex roundish or pointed; color orange-yellow, mottled, overspread with thin bloom; dots characteristic, numerous, large and small, yellowish, decidedly conspicuous producing a somewhat mottled appearance, clustered about the apex; stem very slender, five-eighths inch in length, glabrous, adhering poorly to the fruit; skin thick, tough, adhering to the pulp; flesh golden-yellow, juicy, coarse, fibrous, tender, mildly sweet, with a faint apricot flavor, somewhat acid when cooked; fair in quality; stone adhering, five-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, turgid, oval, abruptly pointed at the base and apex, smooth and with a coating of yellowish-brown, cottony substance; ventral suture broad, lightly furrowed; dorsal suture acute or with a shallow furrow.

GOLDEN CHERRY

Prunus cerasifera

I. Hoffy Orch, Com. 2:1842. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 295. 1845. 3. N. Y. Sta. Rpt. 15: 293. 1896. 4. Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 212. 1898. 5. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 401. 1898.

Golden Cherry Plum 2. Market Plum 1. Youngken Golden 3. Youngken's Golden Cherry 4. Yunkin Golden 5.

This plum is one of the few cultivated representatives of Prunus cerasifera. It offers some attractions because of real merit and because it adds variety to the list of plums for fruit-growers. Some of its qualities are strongly marked and the variety might prove of value in plant-breeding. Golden Cherry originated with Samuel Reeves, Salem, New Jersey, as a seedling of Myrobalan, in the early part of the last century.

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, dense-topped, unproductive; branches slender, sparingly thorny; branchlets twiggy; leaves oval, one inch wide, one and seven-eighths inches long; margin finely serrate, with few small glands; petiole reddish, eglandular; blooming season early, of medium length; flowers appearing before the leaves, well distributed on lateral buds and spurs.

Fruit very early; one and one-quarter inches in diameter, greenish-yellow changing to pale yellow with a tinge of red, overspread with thin bloom; flesh pale yellow, very juicy, melting, sweet next to the skin but rather tart at the pit, aromatic; good; stone clinging, five-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, oval, with a nearly smooth surface.

GOLDEN DROP

Prunus domestica

1. Pom. Mag. 2:57, Pl. 1829.  2. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 144. 1831. 3. Kenrick Am. Orch. 256. 1832. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 273. 1845. 5. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Card. 295, 383. 1846. 6. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 332, fig. 258. 1849. 7. Mag. Hort. 15:486, 487 fig. 42. 1849. 8. Hovey Fr. Am. 1:81. 1851. 9 Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 54. 1852. 10. Elliott Fr. Book 410. 1854. 11. Ann. Pom. Belge 43, Pl. 1855. 12; Thompson Gard. Asst 515. 1859. 13. Mas Le Verger 6:29, fig. 15. 1866-73. 14. Hogg Fruit Man. 691, 729. 1884. 15. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 425. 1889. 16. Guide Prat. 155, 357. 1895. 17. Oregon Sta. Bul. 45:26 fig. 1897. 18. Colo. Sta. Bul. 50:34. 1898. 19. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 211. 1899. 20. Ohio Sta. Bul. 113:158, PL XV. 1899. 21. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:242, 244. 1899. 22. Waugh Plum Cult. 104 fig. 1901. 23. Va. Sta. Bul. 134:42. 1902. 24. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:242, 254, 255. 1905.

Bury Seedling i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16. Coe 16, 21. Coe's 1, 2, 7, 8, 14, 15, 16. Coe Golden Drop 16, 23. Coe Golden Drop 21. Coe's Golden Drop Plum 1, 5, 11. Coe's Golden Drop 5, 8, 13, 15, 16, 17, 22, 24. Coe's Golden Drop 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 18, 20. Coe's Golden Drop Plum 13. Coe's Plum 12, 13, 16. Coe (Pride) 15. Coe's Imperial 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, io, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16. Coe's Rothgefleckte Pflaume 13, 16. Coe's Rotgefleckte Pflaume 15. Coe's Plum 5. Cooper's Large 15, 16 incor. Coe's Seedling 3. De Coe 16. Fair's Golden 15, 16. Fair's Golden Drop 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 14, 15, 16. Golden Drop 1, 2, 7, 8, 12, 14, 15, 16. Golden Drop Plum 16. Golden Gage 2, 4, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16. Goutte d'Or 13. Goutte d'Or 13, 16.  Goutte d'Or de Coe 15, 16. King of Plums 8. New Golden Drop 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 15 16. Nouvelle Goutte d'Or 15, 16. Parmentier ? 15, 16. Prune Goutte D'Or De Coe 11. Semis de Bury 15, 16. Silver Prune 17, 19. Silver Prune 22. The Coe's Plum 1. Waterloo of some 7, 8, ? 14, 15.

Unfortunately this fine old plum, the largest, handsomest and best of the yellow plums, is fit only for the amateur in New York and in the hands even of the most careful of amateurs it does not reach the perfection in either appearance or quality that is expected of it in Europe or on the Pacific Coast of America. In spite of special efforts to obtain specimens for illustration which would do this variety justice, the color-plate of Golden Drop is far from satisfactory as regards either size or color of the fruit. In this region trees of Golden Drop lack constitution and while hardy in tree, the fruit-buds are often caught by the cold. From lack of vigor and from injury by freezing, the variety is not productive. The trees, too, are slow in growth and the fruit needs a long season to reach perfect maturity, often failing to ripen in parts of New York where other plums mature well. Again, the trees are subject to nearly all the ills to which plums are heir and have a somewhat precarious existence because of insects and diseases though the fruit is not as subject to brown-rot as is that of the Yellow Egg with which this variety is usually compared. Golden Drop is seemingly fit for all purposes to which plums are put for dessert, cooking, canning, preserving and prune-making. For the last named purpose it is unsurpassed for a light colored prune of large size, readily selling at a fancy price in delicatessen stores. The fruit when carefully picked and handled keeps for a month or more, shrivelling somewhat but retaining its flavor and pleasing flesh-characters. A task for the plant-breeder is to breed a plum, of which one of the parents should be Golden Drop, which will give to this region a plum as good as the Golden Drop in regions where it is at its best. With all of its defects in the North and East, it is yet worth growing for the home and often for the late market.

Jervaise Coe, a market gardener, at Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, England, raised Golden Drop from a seed about 1809. Lindley (References, 5) says, " He [the originator] informed me it was from the stone of Green Gage, the blossom of which, he supposed, had been fertilized by the White Magnum Bonum, the two trees of which grew nearly in contact with each other in his garden." From a study of the fruit-characters this supposition is very probable. C. M. Hovey in discussing the synonyms of this variety writes, " The French have disseminated it considerably under the name of Waterloo; trees received under that name have fruited in our collection this year, and proved to be the Golden Drop." Robert Hogg, in his Fruit Manual, published in 1884, described Waterloo as a separate variety, found at Waterloo, Belgium, and introduced by Dr. Van Mons; the descriptions of the two are practically identical. The Silver Prune, well known on the Pacific Coast, at one time supposed to be a new variety, turned out upon investigation to be Golden Drop, though the growers there continue to call it by the new name they have given it. The variety under discussion came to America in 1823, when Knight, of England, sent a tree of it to John Lowell of Massachusetts. In 1852, the American Pomological Society valued it sufficiently to place it on the list of the fruits worthy of general cultivation. 

Tree medium to large, vigorous, spreading or roundish, open-topped, hardy, productive; branches ash-gray, roughish, with few, large lenticels; branchlets short, stout, with internodes variable in length, greenish-red changing to dull brownish-red becoming drab on the older wood, glabrous early in the season but becoming pubescent at maturity, with numerous, small lenticels; leaf-buds large, long, pointed, free.

Leaves folded upward, oval or obovate, one and three-eighths inches wide, two and three-quarters inches long, thickish; upper surface dark green, slightly rugose, pubescent, with the midrib but faintly grooved; lower surface silvery-green, pubescent; apex abruptly pointed or acute, base acute, margin serrate, eglandular or with small, dark glands; petiole one-half inch long, pubescent, tinged red, with from two to three globose, greenish-yellow glands usually at the base of the leaf.

Season of bloom medium, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch across, white, borne in clusters on lateral spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels five-eighths inch long, lightly pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, narrowly campanulate, pubescent; calyx-lobes obtuse, sparingly pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, reflexed; petals oval, dentate, tapering to short, broad claws; anthers yellowish; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit very late, season of average length; two inches by one and one-half inches in size, oval, tapering at the base to a short neck, slightly compressed, halves equal; cavity very shallow and narrow, abrupt; suture shallow and wide; apex depressed; color golden-yellow, occasionally with a faint bronze blush, showing greenish streaks and splashes before full maturity, overspread with thin bloom; dots numerous, small, russet, conspicuous; stem three-quarters inch long, thinly pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin tough, rather adherent; flesh light golden-yellow, juicy, intermediate in firmness and tenderness, rather sweet, mild, pleasant flavor; good to very good; stone free, one and three-eighths inches by three-quarters inch in size, oval or ovate, slightly flattened, irregularly ridged and roughened, acute at the base and apex; ventral suture wide, often conspicuously winged; dorsal suture widely and deeply grooved.


GOLIATH

Prunus domestica

1. Prince Treat. Hort. 26. 1828. 2. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 147, 153. 1831. 3. Kenrick Am. Orch. 260. 1832. 4. Mag. Hort. 9:164. 1843. 5; Downing Fr. Trees Am. 300. 1845. 6. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 287, 383. 1846. 7. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 343. 1849. 8. Mclntosh Bk. Gard. 2:531. 1855. 9+ Hooper W. Fr. Book 245. 1857. I0* Cultivator 8:25 fig. 1860. 11. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 86. 1862. 12. Hogg Fruit Man. 363. 1866. 13. Mas Pom. Gen. 2:15, fig. 8. 1873. 14. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 432. 1889. 15. Waugh Plum Cult. 105 fig. 1901.

Caledonian 1, 2, of some 5 & 8, 11, 12, 13, 14. Emperor 9. Goliath 1, 3. Goliath 9, 13. Nectarine 1, of some 2et8, 11et14 incor. Pfirschenpflaume 14. Prune-Peche ? 14. Saint Cloud 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, 13, 14. Steer's Emperor 2. Steers' Emperor 4, 5, 8, 12, 13, 14. Wahre Caledonian 13, 14. Wilmot's Late Orleans 2, 5, 8, 12, 13, 14.

This old English plum has never been popular in America and is now scarcely known on this continent. It is a large, handsome, purple plum, as the illustration well shows, but seldom fit for dessert. "Seldom fit" because it is quite variable in quality in some seasons and under some conditions. It is an excellent culinary plum and its firm, thick, meaty flesh fits it well for shipping. On the grounds of this Station the trees behave very well in all respects and usually bear very full crops of plums that would tempt purchasers in any market. It has all of the characters usually ascribed to a money-maker variety of any fruit and why not more grown in commercial orchards cannot be said.

Nothing is known of the origin of this plum except that it is English. William Prince, in 1828, wrote: "This plum is of very large size, and has attracted much notice in England; but it is only recently introduced to this country, where it has not yet produced fruit that I am aware of." The Nectarine plum was confused with the Goliath in the early part of the Nineteenth Century, but Robert Thompson, the English horticulturist, separated them so satisfactorily that they have ever since remained distinct in plum literature. He found that this variety had pubescent shoots and fruit-stalks, while the same parts of the Nectarine were glabrous, and that the season of Goliath is considerably later. The American Pomological Society placed Goliath on its fruit list in 1862, but dropped it in 1871.

Tree large, vigorous, round-topped, dense, hardy, very productive; branches stocky, with fruit-spurs numerous, ash-gray, smooth except for the large, raised lenti-cels; branchlets somewhat thick, short, with internodes of medium length, green changing to dull brownish-drab, heavily pubescent throughout the season, with few, inconspicuous, small lenticels; leaf-buds of average size and length, conical, free.

Leaves somewhat flattened, obovate, two inches wide, three and five-eighths inches long; upper surface dark green, nearly glabrous, with a grooved midrib; lower surface

186.  Pom. Mag. 3:148. 1830.

******************************heavily pubescent; apex obtuse or acute, base acute, margin finely serrate, eglandular or with few, small dark glands; petiole one-half inch long, thick, heavily pubescent, with a faint red tinge, glandless or with from one to three large, globose, greenish-yellow glands usually at the base of the leaf.

Blooming season early to medium, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch across, white; borne on lateral spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels nine-sixteenths inch long, pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, lightly pubescent; calyx-lobes, broad, obtuse, somewhat pubescent, glandular-serrate, erect; petals unusually large, roundish, finely crenate, not clawed; anthers yellowish; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, longer than the stamens, with a large style and stigma.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period short; one and five-eighths inches by one and one-half iriches in size, roundish-oblong, somewhat oblique, truncate, compressed, halves unequal; cavity narrow, abrupt, usually russeted; suture a line; apex flattened or depressed; color dark purplish-red, lighter colored on the shaded side, overspread with thick bloom; dots characteristic, numerous, large, russet, conspicuous, clustered about the apex; stem thick, three-quarters inch long, thickly pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, sour, separating readily; flesh golden-yellow, rather dry, firm, sweet, of mild, pleasant flavor; fair to good; stone free, seven-eighths inch by three-quarters inch in size, roundish-oval, somewhat flattened, blunt at the base and apex, roughened and irregularly furrowed; ventral suture wide, winged, heavily furrowed; dorsal suture with a wide groove variable in depth.

GONZALES

Prunus triflora X

1. Kerr Cat. 1899-1900. 2. Vt. Sta. Bul. 67:13. 1898. 3. Ohio Sta. Bui 162:252. 1905. 4. Penin. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 36. 1905. 5. Stark Bros. Cat. 1906. Gonzales 5. Red Gold 4. Red Gold 5.

Judging from the several published descriptions, Gonzales is a very promising plum, for the South at least. The writers have not seen the variety in the North, but there appear to be no reasons why it should not succeed in some northern soils and climates. It is a chance seedling found in Gonzales, Texas, about 1894, and was introduced by F. T. Ramsey, Austin, Texas, in 1897. About all that can be determined regarding its parentage is that it is the product of some Japanese variety pollinated by a native. In 1901, Waugh used this variety to typify a new species, Prunus hortulana robusta, composed of a number of hybrids between Prunus triflora and native species. The following description is compiled:

Tree vigorous, upright-spreading, open; leaves narrow, oval, tapering at both ends; upper surface glabrous; margin minutely glandular, finely crenulate; petiole short and slender, with two glands.

Fruit mid-season; resembles Burbank in size and shape; skin toughish; color bright red, sometimes striped and splashed with dark red; flesh yellow, tinged red, firm, sweet; good; stone of medium size, oval, clinging.

GRAND DUKE

Prunus domestica

1. Hogg Fruit Man. 703. 1884. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 432, 434. 1889. 3. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 39:100. 1894. 4. Can. Hort. 18:117, PI. 1895. 5. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:186, fig. 40 IV. 1896. 6. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 42:83. 1897. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 25. 1897. S.Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:245. 1899. 9. Ohio Sta. Bul. 113:159, PL XVI. 1899. 10. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser. 3:52. 1900. 11. Waugh Plum Cult. 106 fig. 1901. 12. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:243 fig., 244, 254, 255. 1905.

Grossherzog's Pflaume 2. Grand-Due 2. Grand Duke 2.

Grand Duke, now probably the favorite late shipping plum in this region, is, as stated in the history given below, a comparatively new plum in America. Its great popularity, gained in less than a quarter of a century, is due to much advertising by nurserymen coupled with such intrinsic qualities as large size, the true prune shape which seems most pleasing in some markets, handsome plum-purple and more than all else a firm, meaty flesh which fits the variety excellently for shipping. The flavor, as seems most often to be the case with these large blue plums, is not pleasant and the plum is not more than a second rate dessert fruit though it is very good in whatever way cooked for the table. The trees grow poorly in the nursery and even in the orchard are seldom large and vigorous enough to be called first class, though usually hardy. Some years ago plum-growers were advised to top-work this and other weak-growing plums on stronger stocks, but those who have tried such top-working usually condemn it because it is expensive and ineffective and because it so often gives a malformed tree. The trees come in bearing slowly but bear regularly and abundantly and hold the crop well, the plums being unusually free from rot and hanging in good condition a long time. Grand Duke deserves its popularity as a market plum and probably no better variety can be selected in New York for the last of the season.

Grand Duke is another of the many valuable plums produced by Thomas Rivers, of Sawbridgeworth, England. It was grown from an Autumn Compote stone and was sent out in 1876. When it was first introduced into America is not known, but in 1888 cions of it were distributed by Ellwanger and Barry of Rochester191, New York. In 1897, the American Pomological Society added this variety to its fruit catalog list and recommended it for this State and neighboring regions with similar climatic conditions.

Tree above medium in size, moderately vigorous, upright to slightly spreading, usually hardy, productive; branches ash-gray, with small, numerous lenticels; branch-lets slender, short, with internodes of medium length, greenish-red changing to brownish-red, many twigs retaining a tinge of green, shining, glabrous, with numerous, small lenticels; leaf-buds large, long, pointed, strongly appressed; leaf-scars large.

Leaves nearly flat, obovate, one and one-half inches wide, three inches long, thick; upper surface shining, slightly rugose, pubescent only along the grooved midrib; lower surface yellowish-green, lightly pubescent; apex taper-pointed, base acute, margin serrate, eglandular or with small, dark glands; petiole three-quarters inch long, nearly glabrous, slightly tinged red along one side, glandless or with from one to three globose yellowish glands on the stalk and base of the leaf.

Blooming season intermediate, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch across, white; borne in clusters on short lateral spurs and buds, singly or in pairs; pedicels one-half inch long, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes lightly pubescent, glandular-ciliate, slightly reflexed; petals obovate, entire, short-clawed; anthers yellowish; filaments one-quarter inch long; pistil pubescent at the base, longer than the stamens.

Fruit late, season medium; unusually large when well grown, two and one-eighth inches by two inches in size, elongated-oval or slightly obovate, halves unequal; cavity shallow, narrow, abrupt; suture wide, variable in depth; apex flattened, somewhat depressed or occasionally with a short, blunt tip; color dark reddish-purple or purplish-black, overspread with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, brownish, inconspicuous; stem three-quarters inch long, adhering well to the fruit; skin variable in toughness, somewhat astringent, separating readily; flesh golden-yellow, juicy, firm, sweet, mild, not high in flavor; good; stone clinging, sometimes tinged red, one and one-eighth inches by seven-eighths inch in size, irregularly oval, slightly flattened, roughish, acute at the base and apex; ventral suture broad, slightly winged; dorsal suture with a broad, shallow groove.

GUEII

Prunus domestica

1. Downing Ft. Trees Am. 3rd App. 181. 1881. 2. Can. Hort. 14:293, PL 1891. 3. Mich. Sta. Bul. 103:34, fig. 6. 1894. 4. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:187. 1897. 5. Ont. Fr. Exp. Sta. Rpt. 120. 1898. 6. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:242, 245. 1899. 7. Ohio Sta. Bul. 113:159. 1899. 8. Am. Pom. Soc, Cat. 39. 1899. 9. Waugh Plum Cult. 107. 1901. 10. Va. Sta. Bul. 134:42, 43 fig. 14. 1902.

Big Blue 1. Blue Magnum Bonum 1, 9. Bradshaw 1 incor. Geuii 3. Gueii 1. Guii 1, 6. Gweii 1.

Gueii is one of the standard plums of its season in New York, ranking among the first half-dozen in number of trees growing in the State, with many growers holding that it is the best general purpose plum of all Domesticas. The popularity of Gueii is due to its being a money-maker, as few would care to grow it for home consumption. The quality of Gueii is poor, especially for dessert, and it cannot even be called a particularly good-looking plum, though the illustration scarcely does the plum justice, especially in size. But the variety bears early and abundantly; the trees are large, vigorous, healthy and hardy and the plums are hardly surpassed for shipping, especially at the time at which the crop comes upon the market, about mid-season, the best shipping plums maturing a little later. The fruit is quite subject to brown-rot, a matter of more moment in other regions than in New York, and yet in some seasons very important in this State. The stone, curiously enough, sometimes clings rather tightly and under other conditions is wholly free. It could be wished that so popular a market plum were better in quality, but since high quality is seldom correlated in plums with fitness to ship well, it would be unfair to condemn Gueii for a market fruit because it cannot be eaten with relish out of hand. This plum, according to all accounts, originated with a Mr. Hagaman, Lansingburgh, New York, about 1830. It was brought to notice by John Goeway (Gueii) and was soon called by his name. For years it was not much grown and it was not until 1899 that it was placed on the fruit catalog list of the American Pomological Society.

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, open-topped, hardy, very productive; branches ash-gray, roughened by longitudinal cracks and by numerous, conspicuous, raised lenticels of various sizes; branchlets thick, of medium length, with short internodes, green changing to dark brownish-drab, dull, thickly pubescent throughout the season, with numerous, inconspicuous, small lenticels; leaf-buds short, conical, free.

Leaves obovate or oval, one and seven-eighths inches wide, four inches long, thick; tipper surface dark green, with scattering fine hairs and with a grooved midrib; lower surface silvery-green, thickly pubescent; apex abruptly pointed or acute, base variable but usually acute, margin doubly crenate, with small black glands; petiole five-eighths inch long, thick, pubescent, tinged red.

Blooming season short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and one-eighth inches across, whitish; borne in clusters at the ends of spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels thirteen-sixteenths inch long, pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, pubescent towards the base; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, reflexed; petals roundish, entire, with very short, blunt claws; anthers yellow; filaments three-eighths inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit intermediate in time and length of ripening season; medium to above in size, somewhat ovate, halves equal; cavity below medium in depth and width, abrupt, rarely sutured; apex bluntly pointed; color dark purplish-black, overspread with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, russet, inconspicuous, clustered about the apex; stem medium in thickness and length, pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, tender, slightly astringent, separating readily; flesh greenish-yellow changing to light golden-yellow* dry, firm but tender, sweet, mild, somewhat astringent towards the center; fair in quality; stone variable in adhesion but usually clinging, large, ovate or oval, blunt at the base and apex, strongly roughened and pitted; ventral suture faintly winged; dorsal suture acute or lightly grooved.

GUTHRIE LATE

Prunus domestica

1. Mclntosh Bk. Gard. 2:532. 1855. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 919. 1869. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 705. 1884. 4. Mathieu Norn, Pom. 434. 1889. 5. Rivers Cat. 1898. 6. Am. Gard. Mag, 21:173. 1900.

Guthrie's Minette 1. Guthrie's Late Green 6. Guthrie Green 6. Guthrie's Late Green 2. 3,4. Minette 2, 3, 4. Verte Tar dive de Guthrie 4.

Guthrie Late has never attained commercial importance in the United States, being found only in collections ; but in England, according to Hogg, it is a very fine dessert plum, rivalling the Reine Claude in quality and ripening a month later. On the grounds of this institution it has failed because the fruits are small, dull in color and do not keep well. Of the several varieties produced from seed of Reine Claude by Charles Guthrie, Taybank, Dundee, Scotland, about the middle of the last century, Guthrie Late is the best known.

Tree large, vigorous, round-topped, dense, productive; branches stocky; branch lets pubescent; leaf-buds large, short, with a peculiar brush-like apex; leaves folded upward, oval, one and seven-eighths inches wide, three and one-half inches long, thick, rugose; margin crenate, eglandular or with small, dark glands; petiole thick, glandless or with from one to four globose glands; blooming season short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch across, white tinged with yellow at the apex of the petals; borne on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period long; of medium size, roundish-truncate, dull greenish-yellow, often irregularly splashed and striped with green, overspread with thin bloom; skin thin, slightly astringent; flesh light golden-yellow, rather dry, fibrous, somewhat tender, sweet, pleasant in flavor; of good quality; stone free, seven-eighths inch by five-eighths inch in size, ovate or oval, medium turgid, with rough surfaces.
[Not to be confused with 'Gutherie', a Prunus angustifolia cultivar found in Florida, which is known for reduced suckering for the species and is sold by Mail-Order Natives. - Anton]

HALE

Prunus triflora

1. Burbank Cat. 19. 1893. 2. Ibid. 1894. 3. Cornell Sta. Bui 106:52. 1896. 4. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. XI. 1897. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 41. 1899. 6. Cornell Sta. Bul. 175:147, 148, fig. 37.  1899. 7. Am Gard 21:36 1900. 8. Waugh Plum Cult. 136. 1901. 9. Mich. Sta. Bul. 187:77, 79. 1901. 10. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt 89. 1902. 11. Ohio. Sta. Bul. 162:254, 255. 1905. 12. Ga. Sta. Bul. 68:10, 30. 1905. 13. Mass. Sta. An. Rpt. 17:160. 1905. J 1. J 3 Prolific 2. Prolific 3, 8, 12.

It is doubtful if the average person who grows the Hale would recognize it as shown in The Plums of New York, as it is supposed to be a yellow plum; nevertheless the illustration is a good one so far as the fruits go at least. When mature on the trees the fruits are yellow with a faint blush, but in storage the color quickly changes into a pale red, becoming, when the plum is at its best in appearance and quality, a light currant-red. Hale, though large and handsome of fruit, is of questionable value, failing both in fruit and tree. The flavor of this plum is good in the judgment of most fruit connoisseurs, but others find it a little too sweet and somewhat mawkish near the skin and close about the pit. All agree, however, that the flesh clings too tightly to the stone for pleasant eating and that the texture is too tender for good shipping. But it is the tree that fails most markedly. Even on the grounds of this Station, where the peach is practically hardy, Hale is but semi-hardy, failing most often because with the best of care the wood does not ripen properly. The habit of growth is not particularly good, the trees are slow in coming in bearing, are not regularly productive and are readily infected by brown -rot and the fruits much infested by curculio. On the whole, it is to be regretted that Mr. Hale did not choose a better plum to bear a name so distinguished in horticulture.

Luther Burbank offered this plum, a cross between Kelsey and Satsuma, for sale under the name J, in 1893, and the following year as Prolific. J. H. Hale, South Glastonbury, Connecticut, purchased the variety in 1894, and introduced it as the Hale in 1896. In 1899, the American Pomological Society considered it worthy a place on its fruit catalog list.

Tree above medium in size, vigorous, vasiform, open-topped, semi-hardy, variable in productiveness; branches smooth except for the numerous, small, raised lenticels, somewhat thorny, dark ash-gray, the fruit spurs numerous; branchlets willowy, of medium thickness and length, with short internodes, greenish-red changing to light brown, shining, glabrous; lenticels numerous, small; leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, plump, free.

Leaves sparse, folded upward, oblanceolate or narrowly obovate, one and three-quarters inches wide, three and one-half inches long, thin; upper surface glabrous except for scattering hairs, with a grooved midrib; lower surface light green, glabrous except along the midrib and larger veins; apex acute or abruptly pointed, base acute, margin finely serrate or crenate, eglandular; petiole nine-sixteenths inch long, slender, tinged red, glandless or with from one to four globose or reniform, greenish-yellow glands on the stalk.

Blooming season early and of medium length; flowers appearing before the leaves, white; borne in thin clusters on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels long, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes obtuse, with numerous hair-like glands, nearly glabrous, erect; petals roundish-ovate, entire, not clawed; anthers yellowish; filaments short; pistil glabrous except at the base, much longer than the stamens.

Fruit early, season short; one and three-quarters inches in diameter, roundish, halves equal; cavity of medium depth and width, abrupt, regular; suture a line; apex roundish; color light or greenish-yellow, more or less blushed with red on one side, becoming red at maturity, mottled, with thin bloom; dots numerous, small, whitish, conspicuous only where the skin is blushed; stem slender, five-eighths inch long, glabrous, detaching easily from the fruit; skin thin, tough, adhering; flesh yellowish, very juicy, fibrous, tender, melting next the skin but firmer at the center, sweet except near the pit; good in quality; stone adhering, three-quarters inch by five-eighths inch in size, roundish-oval, flattened, blunt but with a small, sharp tip, rough; ventral suture narrow and rather conspicuously winged; dorsal suture grooved.

HAMMERHammer time!

Prunus hortulana mineri X Prunus americana

1. Cornell Sta. Bul. 38:79. 1892. 2. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 275, 448. 1893. 3. Ibid. 334. 1894. 4. Wis. Sta. Bul. 63:24, 39. 1897. 5. Colo. Sta. Bul. 50:36. 1898. 6. la. Sta. Bul. 46:274. 1900. 7. Waugh Plum Cult. 150. 1901. 8. Ont. Fr. Gr. Assoc. 144. 1901. 9. Ga. Sta. Bul. 67:274. 1904. 10. 5. Dak. Sta. Bul. 93:18. 1905. 11. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:254, 255. 1905.

Hammer is one of the best native plums. On the Station grounds the trees of this variety make the best orchard plants of any of the native varieties, being large, vigorous, shapely and hardy, falling short only in being a little uncertain in bearing. The fruits are good in quality, handsome in appearance and keep and ship well, but crack badly in unfavorable weather and, according to some writers, are quite subject to brown-rot. Hammer extends the season of the Americana plums considerably, for though a hybrid, it may best be ranked with the Americanas, and is well worth planting in home orchards in New York, where the native plums are too seldom found; in particular, this variety can be recommended for the colder parts of this State where Domestica and Insititia plums are not hardy.

Hammer is one of H. A. Terry's numerous productions and was grown from a seed of the Miner evidently fertilized by an Americana. The blood of the latter is shown by its hardiness and its broad, Americana-like foliage. The variety first fruited in 1888 and was sent out in 1892.

Tree very large, vigorous, round-topped, widely spreading, hardy at Geneva, an uncertain bearer; trunk and larger limbs shaggy; branches long, rough, brash, thorny, dark ash-gray, with many, large lenticels; branchlets thick, very long, with long inter-nodes, green changing to dull reddish-brown, glabrous, with raised lenticels of medium number and size; leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, plump, free.

Leaves folded upward, oval or slightly obovate, two and one-eighth inches wide, four inches long, thin; upper surface somewhat rugose; lower surface pale green, very lightly pubescent along the midrib; apex taper-pointed, base obtuse, often unsymmetrical, margin coarsely and doubly serrate, eglandular; petiole three-quarters inch long, sparingly pubescent along one side, tinged red, glandless or with from one to four small, globose, greenish-brown glands on the stalk.

Blooming season medium to late, long; flowers appearing after the leaves, fifteen-sixteenths inch across, white, with a disagreeable odor; borne in clusters on lateral buds and spurs, in twos or in threes; pedicels five-eighths inch in length, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, obtuse, thinly pubescent within, glandular-serrate and with marginal hairs, somewhat reflexed; petals ovate or oval, irregularly crenate, tapering below into claws of medium length and breadth; anthers yellowish; filaments seven-sixteenths inch in length; pistil glabrous, equal to or shorter than the stamens in length.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period of average length; one and one-quarter inches in diameter, roundish-oval, slightly compressed, halves equal; cavity very shallow, narrow, flaring; suture an indistinct line; apex roundish; color crimson overspread with thick bloom; dots numerous, very small, light russet, inconspicuous; stem slender, five-eighths inch long, glabrous, not adhering to the fruit; skin thick, tough, inclined to crack under unfavorable conditions, separating readily; flesh golden-yellow, juicy, fibrous, tender and melting, sweet, strongly aromatic; good; stone semi-free, three-quarters inch by five-eighths inch in size, flattened, roundish-oval, somewhat compressed at the base, abruptly pointed at the apex, rough; ventral suture rather narrow, faintly ridged; dorsal suture with a narrow, shallow groove.

HANDHand plum

Prunus domestica

1. Horticulturist 2:436. 1847. 2. Ibid. 6:21 fig., 187, 294. 1851. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 190, 214. 1856. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 382. 1857. 5. Hogg Fruit Man. 362. 1866. 6. Mas Pom. Gen. 2:19, fig. 10. 1873. 7. Ont. Fr. Exp. Sta. Rpt. 120. 1896. 8. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:185. 1897. 9. Waugh Plum Cult. 108 fig. 1901. 10. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 314, 315 fig, 1903. 11. Mass. Sta. An. Rpt. 17:159. 1905.

Gen. Hand 1, 2. General Hand 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8. Genl. Hand 4. General Hand 9, 10. Montgomery 3 incor.

Unproductiveness and uncertainty in bearing keep this magnificent yellow dessert plum from being one of the most commonly grown of all plums in America. Even with these handicaps, it has maintained its popularity for a century, is grown in all collections and shown in all exhibitions of note. It is the largest of the Reine Claude plums, well molded, a golden-yellow and when allowed to become fully ripe is most excellent in flavor and pleasing in all the flesh attributes of a good dessert plum. It is not as high in quality as some other of the Reine Claude plums, as, for example the Washington, with which it is often compared, for it is a little coarser in flesh and not as sprightly, but it is better than is commonly thought, because it is seldom allowed to reach its best flavor by full maturity. The trees on the Station grounds are all that could be asked for even in bearing; and elsewhere size, vigor and hardiness are usually satisfactory but productiveness is a weak point. The amateur should always plant this variety and it would seem as if it were more often worth planting in commercial orchards. 

The history of this variety is well known. The original tree grew on the place of General Hand, on the Conestoga River, about a mile from Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and first fruited about 1790. Thirty years later a Mr. Miller procured grafts and succeeded in growing them. The variety was brought to the notice of fruit-growers by E. W. Carpenter, a nurseryman of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, who sent grafts to his brother, S. Carpenter, of Lancaster, Ohio, and Robert Sinclair, Baltimore, Maryland. To the latter the introduction of the Hand has been incorrectly attributed. In 1856, Hand was listed in the fruit catalog of the American Pomological Society.

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, dense-topped, hardy, variable in productiveness; branches dark ash-gray, rough, with small lenticels; branchlets of medium thickness and length, with long internodes, green changing to brownish-red, pubescent early in the season, becoming less so at maturity, with few, inconspicuous, small lenticels; leaf-buds large, long, obtuse, appressed; leaf-scars large.

Leaves folded backward, obovate or oval, two and three-eighths inches wide, four and one-half inches long; upper surface dark green, rugose, slightly hairy, with a shallow, grooved midrib; lower surface pale green, pubescent; apex and base acute, margin finely and doubly serrate; petiole three-quarters inch long, thickish, pubescent, tinged red, with from one to four small, globose, greenish-brown glands on the stalk or base of the leaf.

Blooming season intermediate in time, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and one-quarter inches across, white.; borne sparsely on lateral buds and spurs; pedicels seven-eighths inch long, very pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, pubescent; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, reflexed; petals roundish or obovate, slightly crenate, with short, broad claws; anthers yellowish; filaments three-eighths inch long; pistil lightly pubescent at the base, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period long; one and three-quarters inches in diameter, roundish-truncate or oblate, halves equal; cavity deep, flaring; suture shallow, distinct; apex flattened or depressed; color yellow, obscurely striped and mottled with green, overspread with thin bloom; dots numerous, whitish, inconspicuous, clustered about the apex; stem unusually long, averaging one and five-sixteenths inches in length, very pubescent, adhering strongly to the fruit; skin thick, tough, slightly astringent, separating readily; flesh golden-yellow, juicy, somewhat fibrous, firm, sweet, with pleasant, mild flavor; very good; stone semi-free or free, the cavity larger than the pit, seven-eighths inch by three-quarters inch in size, broadly oval, turgid, blunt at the base and apex, slightly roughened; ventral suture broad, sometimes winged; dorsal suture broadly and deeply grooved.

HARRIET

Prunus domestica

1. Gard. Chron. 18:441. 1882. 2, Hogg Fruit Man. 705. 1884.

Harriet is little known in America, but as the variety grows on our grounds it appears to be somewhat desirable. The type is that of Reine Claude, the fruit being slightly yellower; the quality is very good and the tree-characters are good. It is doubtful, however, in spite of these attributes to recommend it, whether, with the multiplicity of plums of this type, the variety in question can make headway in the United States. Harriet was originated by Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England, about 1870. While considerably grown in England, it can hardly be said to be one of the leading varieties in that country.

Tree medium in size and vigor, spreading, open, productive; branchlets thick, very short, pubescent throughout the season; leaf-buds large, long, tipped brush-like at the apex; leaves folded upward, oval, one and one-half inches wide, two and three-quarters inches long, the young leaves bright red when opening; margin serrate or almost crenate; petiole tinged red, glandless or with one or two glands usually at the base of the leaf; blooming season intermediate, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch across; borne on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period long; about one and three-eighths inches in diameter, roundish-oblate, somewhat oblique, golden-yellow, sometimes mottled with red, overspread with thin bloom; flesh golden-yellow, firm, sweet, pleasant in flavor; of very good quality; stone clinging, five-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, oval, turgid, with slightly roughened surfaces.

HAWKEYE

Prunus americana

I. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 287. 1887. 2. U.S.D. A. Rpt. 441. 1889. 3. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 55, 85. 1890. 4. Cornell Sta. Bui 38:38, 86. 1892. 5. Wis. Sta. Bui 63:40, 41. 1897. 6- Ant. Pom. Soc. Cat. 24. 1897. 7* Colo. Sta. Bui 50:37. 1898. 8. la. Sta. Bui 46:274. 1900. 9. Waugh Plum Cult. 151. 1901. 10. Ont. Ft. Gr. Assoc. 144. 1901. 11. Wis. Sta. Bui 87:13. 1901. 12. 5. Dak. Sta. Bul. 93:19. 1905. 13. Ohio Sta. Bui 162:254, 255. 1905.

This variety is a very satisfactory and widely planted Americana. It is typical of its species; and its foliage, fruit and pit in the color-plate herewith presented all represent Prunus americana very well. The fruit of Hawkeye is more satisfactory than the tree, being both attractive in appearance and pleasant to eat either out of hand or cooked; the chief fault of the fruit is that it seems to be easily infected with brown-rot. The trees are crooked in body and quite too straggling and at the same time too dense in growth to make good orchard plants. It requires very careful pruning and training to keep the trees at all manageable. In some of the references given above it is stated that Hawkeye on its own roots is a better tree than otherwise propagated. This variety belongs in the middle west but it might be grown for home use in northern New York where it is too cold for the European plums.

Hawkeye is a seedling of Quaker grown by H. A. Terry, Crescent, Iowa. It first fruited in 1882 and the following year was introduced by *****************1 y.the originator. In the Iowa Horticultural Society Report for 1887, Mr. Terry stated that the original tree had borne five crops in succession and he believed it to be the most valuable variety in cultivation for the West and Northwest. The American Pomological Society placed this plum on its fruit catalog list in 1897.

Tree large, vigorous, rather upright at first, becoming spreading, low-headed, hardy, usually productive, but variable in some locations, susceptible to attacks of shot-hole fungus; branches numerous, dark brown, rough, thorny, with numerous, large lenticels; branchlets long, willowy, with internodes of medium length, green, changing to dull reddish-brown, shining, glabrous, with numerous large, raised lenticels; leai-buds small, short, pointed, appressed.

Leaves tinged red late in the season, nearly fiat, oval or slightly obovate, two inches wide, four inches long, rather thin; upper surface dark green, smooth, glabrous, with midrib and larger veins deeply grooved; lower surface light green, lightly pubescent along the midrib and larger veins; apex taper-pointed, base very abrupt, margin coarsely and doubly serrate, the serrations often becoming spiny, eglandular; petiole rather slender, nine-sixteenths inch in length, tinged with pink, sparingly pubescent along one side, glandless or with one or two globose, greenish-brown glands.

Blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing with the leaves, showy on account of the numerous, pure white, flat petals, with a somewhat disagreeable odor; borne in clusters on lateral buds and spurs, in pairs; pedicels seven-sixteenths inch in length, glabrous, green with a distinct reddish tinge on one side; calyx-tube red, broadly obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes short, obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, eglandular, with a hairy, serrate margin, somewhat reflexed; petals ovate, crenate, but somewhat fringed, long and narrowly clawed; anthers yellowish; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period of medium length; about one and one-eighth inches in diameter, roundish-oval or ovate, not compressed, halves equal; cavity unusually shallow, very narrow; suture an indistinct line; apex roundish; color dull carmine, covered with thin bloom; dots numerous, gray or reddish, nearly obscure, with almost none around the base; stem slender, below medium in length; skin thick, tough, astringent, adhering; flesh pale, dull yellow, very juicy, slightly fibrous, watery and melting, sweet at first with a tart and somewhat astringent after-taste; good; stone adhering to the pulp, seven-eighths inch by five-eighths inch in size, roundish-oval, flattened, smooth, blunt at the base and apex, conspicuously winged on the ventral suture, with a deep but narrow groove on the dorsal suture.

HUDSON

Prunus domestica

1. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 289. 1889. 2. Mich. Sta. Bul. 103:35 1894. 3. Ohio Hort. Soc, Rpt. 30:168. 1896-97. 4. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:181 fig. 40 III, 187. 1897. 5- Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 2$. 1897. 6. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser. 3:52. 1900. 7- Waugh Plum Cult. 109. 1901.

Hudson River Purple 6. Hudson River Purple Egg 1, 3, 4. Htidson River Purple Egg 2, 5, 7. Purple Egg 2.

Hudson is limited in cultivation, belonging almost wholly to the Hudson River Valley where it has long been somewhat of a favorite for both home and market planting. The variety has few qualities of fruit to commend it especially outside of the region where it is now grown and even here its value is probably overrated. The fruits are of only medium size, not markedly attractive in appearance and the quality is below the average among standard plums. The trees are for most part very good in constitution and habit of growth and in particular bear very well; they have the faults of not bearing early and of being subject to black-knot. The variety, and perhaps it is well, is being less planted than formerly.

Nothing is known of the origin of the Hudson except that it has been grown in the Hudson River Valley for a good many years. About 1870 it attracted the attention of S. D. Willard of Geneva, New York, who, thinking it a valuable acquisition, commenced its propagation. In 1897, it was listed by the American Pomological Society as a successful variety for this region. J. R. Cornell, a well informed fruit-grower of Newburgh, New York, in a letter written February 21, 1910, says, " I recall Hudson very distinctly as it was grown when I was a small boy over fifty years ago. I would not be surprised, if the facts could be obtained, to learn that the variety came from Europe, in fact, I incline to that opinion."

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, very productive, hardy; branches ash-gray, smooth except for the small, raised lenticels; branchlets slender, with long internodes, greenish-red changing to brownish-red, dull, glabrous early in the season becoming lightly pubescent at maturity, with small, inconspicuous lenticels; leaf-buds below medium in size and length, conical, strongly appressed.

Leaves flattened, obovate or oval, two inches wide, three and three-quarters inches long; upper surface dark green, smooth, sparsely hairy along the grooved midrib; lower surface silvery-green, faintly pubescent; apex acute, base abrupt, margin serrate, eglandular or with small dark glands; petiole five-eighths inch long, thick, lightly pubescent, glandless or with from one to three greenish-yellow glands.

Blooming season short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and one-eighth inches across, white; borne in scattering clusters on lateral spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels nine-sixteenths inch long, glabrous except for a few scattering hairs; calyx-tube green, campanulate, pubescent at the base; calyx-lobes obtuse, lightly pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, reflexed; petals obovate, crenate, tapering to short, broad claws; anthers yellowish; filaments three-eighths inch long; pistil glabrous, longer than the stamens.

Fruit late, season of medium length; one and five-eighths inches by one and one-eighth inches in size, long-oval, halves unequal; cavity shallow, narrow, abrupt, regular; suture shallow; apex slightly pointed; color dark reddish-purple changing to purplish-black, overspread with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, russet, inconspicuous; stem slender, one inch long, sparingly pubescent; skin thin, tender, sour, separating readily; flesh golden-yellow, juicy, rather tender, sweet next the skin but sour towards the center, aromatic; good; stone one and one-eighth inches by five-eighths inch in size, sometimes reddish, ovate, roughened and faintly pitted, acute at the base and apex; ventral suture wide, with numerous ridges; dorsal suture with a wide, shallow groove.

HULINGS

Prunus domestica

1. Prince Treat. Hort. 23. 1828. 2. Kenrick Am. Orch. 261. 1832. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 277. 1845. 4. Horticulturist 1:166. 1846. 5. Ant. Pont. Soc. Cat. 86. 1862. 6. Hogg Fruit Man. 705. 1884. 7. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 435. 1885. 8. Guide Prat. 158, 366. 1895.

Gloire de NewYork, 6, 7, 8. Ruling's Superb 7, 8. Huling's Superb 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Huling's Treffliche 7. Keiser 2. Keyser's Plum 3, 6, 7, 8. Superbe de Hilling 8.

Hulings is one of the largest of the Reine Claude group of plums and a remarkably fine fruit in every respect. It is particularly agreeable to the taste because of its sprightliness, which so many plums of its type lack. As this variety grows in New York it has much to recommend it for commercial plantations. Its lack of popularity among planters is due somewhat to the wholesale substitution by nurserymen of spurious varieties for it. Hulings originated early in the last century with a Mr. Keyser of Pennsylvania who grew it from seed, but Dr. W. E. Hulings of the same state brought it to public notice.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, dense-topped, productive; branchlets brasn, thick, pubescent; leaves unusually large, obovate, three inches wide, six and one-half inches long, thick, leathery, rugose; margin crenate or serrate; petiole thick, tinged red, pubescent, with from one to three globose glands.

Fruit maturing in mid-season; about one and seven-eighths inches in diameter, roundish, dull greenish-yellow, overspread with thin bloom; skin thin, somewhat sour; flesh greenish, firm but tender, sprightly; good to very good; stone clinging, one and one-eighth inches by three-quarters inch in size, broad-oval, medium turgid, with short, thick, slightly oblique apex; ventral suture often winged; dorsal suture wide, deep.

HUNGARIAN

Prunus domestica

1. Knoop Fructologie 2:61. 1771. 2. Willichs Dom. Enc. 4:190. 1803. 3. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 143, 148. 1831. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 2nd App. 156. 1876. 5. Oberdieck Deut. Obst. Sort. 404. 1881. 6. Mas Le Verger 6:51, fig. 26. 1866-73. 7- Koch Deut. Obst. 568. 1876. 8. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 452. 1889. 9. Cat. State Board Hort. 111 fig. 11. 1891. 10. Lucas Vollst. Hand. Obst. 474. 1894. 11. Lange Allgem. Garten. 2:4.21. 1897. 12. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 465. 1893. 13. Oregon Sta. Bul. 45:33. 1897. 14. Waugh Plum Cult. 109. 1901. Autriche Viollette {Pr. de) 8. BlaueDattel Pflaume 8. Blue Egg-Plum ? 2. Dattede Hungrie 13, Dattelzwetscke 6. Datte Violette 8. Date de Hongrie 14. Datte de Hongrie 4, 14. Date Plum 7. D'Autriche 3. Fruhe Dattelzwetsche 10. Grosse u. Lange Frilh Zwetsche 8. Grosse Fruit Zwetsche 8. Hungarian Date 9. Hungarian Prune ? 3, 14. Hungarica 7. Hungarian Prune 4, 11, 12. Hungarian Plum 2. Lange Violette Dattel Zwetsche 8. Osterreichische Pflaume 8. Prune-Datte 3, 6. Prune Datte Violette 3. Prune d'Autriche 6, 8. Quetsche de Hongrie 8. Quetsche Datte Violette 8. Quetsche Datte 6, 8. Quetsche-Datte Violette 6. Quetsche Hongroise 1. Quetsche de Hongrie 6. SafoZ Pflaume 8. Spate Dattel Pflaume 8. Ungarische Pflaume 8. Ungarische Dattelzwetsche 5. Ungarishe Sabel Pflaume 8. Violette Dattelzwetsche 6. Violette Dattelzwetsche 8. Turkische Zwetsche 8. Ungarische Zwetsche 8. Virginische Ludwig's Pflaume 8.

This plum, representing a type hardly known in America, may be a descendant of a species distinct from Prunus domestica, and if not, must at least be considered a well-marked division of the species named. It differs but little from typical Domestica varieties in habit of growth but the leaves are smaller, distinctly folded, and droop, giving an aspect to the tree distinct from the Domesticas in general. But it is the fruit that differs most. Fruit and stone are more elongated than in other varieties of its supposed species and the stone is larger, flatter, more pitted and more pointed at the base and apex. The stem, too, is longer than in the average Domestica. These differences in leaf, fruit and pit may be wTell seen if the color-plate of this variety be compared with those of well-recognized Domesticas. It is doubtful if Hungarian is worth cultivating in New York though it is larger than the commonly grown German Prune, with which it must be compared, and is fully equal if not better in quality but its type is unknown and consumers hesitate to buy the unknown. It is well worth a place in private collections.

Nothing is known of the history of this plum other than that it has been long under cultivation and that, as its name suggests, it came from Hungary. As in the case of many of the varieties which came from Hungary there are several strains of this plum. The variety that is known in America as Hungarian was reported by Downing in 1876, as originating in Belgium, a mistake, as this is known to have been widely spread for a long time in Europe and European authorities trace it back to Hungary. The Ungarish of Budd, the Hungarian Prune of the Pacific Coast which is Pond Seedling, and the Date Plum, a yellow plum of Downing, all passing under the name "Hungarian" are distinct varieties.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, dense-topped, hardy, productive; branches ash-gray, smooth, with few, small lenticels; branchlets thick, long, with internodes of average length, greenish-red changing to brownish-red, dull, sparsely pubescent, with few, small, inconspicuous lenticels; leaf-buds of medium size and length, conical, appressed.


Leaves drooping, folded upward, oval or obovate, one and five-eighths inches wide, three and one-quarter inches long, thick; upper surface dark green, rough, hairy, with a deeply, narrowly grooved midrib; lower surface pale green, pubescent; apex and base acute, margin serrate, eglandular or with small brown glands; petiole nine-sixteenths inch long, pubescent, tinged red, glandless or with one or two globose, greenish-yellow glands usually at the base of the leaf.

Blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, seven-eighths inch across, the buds tinged yellow, changing to white on opening, not clustered but distributed on lateral spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels seven-eighths inch long, very slender, pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, pubescent; calyx-lobes narrow, acuminate, thickly pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, reflexed; petals narrowly ovate, serrate, converging at the base into narrow claws; anthers yellowish; filaments seven-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length, small, slender.

Fruit late, season short; one and five-eighths inches by one inch in size, distinctly oblong, somewhat necked, swollen on the suture side, compressed, halves unequal; cavity very shallow and narrow, abrupt; suture shallow; apex pointed; color dark reddish-purple, overspread with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, russet, inconspicuous; stem slender, one and one-eighth inches long, pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, tough, slightly sour, separating readily; flesh yellowish-green, juicy, firm but tender, sweet, mild; good to very good; stone semi-free to free, one and one-eighth inches by one-half inch in size, irregular long-oval, flattened, necked at the base, acute at the apex, with thickly pitted surfaces; ventral suture wide, blunt; dorsal suture with a wide, deep groove.

ICKWORTH

Prunus domestica

1 Gard. Chron. 1:734. 1841. 2. Ibid. 2:176. 1842. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 302. 1845. 4. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 345. 1849. 5* Elliott Fr. Book. 420. 1854. 6. Thompson Gard. Ass't 517. 1859. 7' Mas Le Verger 6:57, ^- 29- 1866-73. 8. Barry Fr. Garden 413. 1883. 9. Hogg Fruit Man. 706. 1884. 10. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 435. 1889. 1J- Wickson Cal. Fruits 358. 1891. 12. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:187. 1897. 13. Waugh Plum Cult. no. 1901.

Iekworth Imperatrice 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. Iekworth Imperatrice 13. Imperatrice Iekworth 10. Imperatrice Jckworth 7. Jckworth Imperatrice 7. Knight's No.6. 3, 5, 9, 10.

Ickworth is hardly known in America though in England it is a favorite late plum noted as being one of the best of all plums for late keeping. In New York the plums of this variety are too small for the market and are not high enough in quality for a home plum; moreover, the plums do not always ripen in this latitude. In California Ickworth has been found to make a very good prune and to ship very well in the green state but here again small size debars it from great commercial value. The habits of growth of Ickworth are very good and so markedly so that when considered with the late keeping qualities of the fruit, one wishes that this variety might be bred with a larger plum of better quality with the hope of an offspring from the union of especial value as a late plum.

Knight, the noted English pomologist, raised this plum from the Impera-trice fertilized by Golden Drop and named it after Ickworth Park, near Bury St. Edmunds. Knight aimed in raising this and other plums to produce a fruit containing sufficient sugar to keep well and not shrivel. In Ickworth he succeeded to a high degree.

Tree large, rather vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, productive; branches dark ash-gray, roughened by the numerous, large, raised lenticels; branchlets of medium thickness and length, with internodes of average length, green changing to brownish-drab, dull, lightly pubescent, with numerous, inconspicuous, small lenticels, leaf-buds small, short, conical, appressed.

Leaves folded upward, obovate or oval, one and three-eighths inches wide, three inches long, thick, leathery; upper surface dark green, shining, pubescent only along the grooved midrib; lower surface silvery-green, sparingly pubescent; apex abruptly pointed or acute, base acute, margin crenate, with small dark glands; petiole one-half inch long, thick, greenish, pubescent along one side, glandless or with from one to four large, reniform or globose, yellowish-brown glands usually on the stalk.

Season of bloom intermediate, long; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch across, white; borne in thin clusters on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels seven-sixteenths inch long, below medium in thickness, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, lightly pubescent, with few glands and marginal hairs, erect; petals roundish or roundish-oval, finely crenate, tapering below to short, broad claws; anthers yellowish; filaments one-quarter inch long; pistil glabrous, longer than the stamens.

Fruit very late, season long; one and three-eighth inches by one and one-quarter inches in size, oval or roundish-oval, sometimes slightly compressed, halves unequal; cavity shallow, narrow, abrupt; suture shallow, wide; apex one-sided, roundish or depressed; color purplish-red changing to purplish-black, mottled, overspread with thick bloom, dots numerous, very small, inconspicuous, scattered between irregular flecks and nettings; stem thirteen-sixteenths inch long, lightly pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin thick, tender, adhering; flesh dull yellowish, juicy, sweet, mild, pleasant; good; stone usually clinging, seven-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, irregularly oval, flattened, faintly pitted, acute at the base, blunt at the apex; ventral suture wide, heavily furrowed, swollen; dorsal suture widely and shallowly grooved.

IMPERATRICE

Prunus domestica

I. Quintinye Com. Gard. 67, 69. 1699. 2. Langley Pomona 95, PI. XXV fig. III. 1729, 3. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 105, PL XVIII. 1768. 4. Kraft Pom, Aust. 2:45, Tab- 2O0 % 2- 1796. 5. Miller Gard. Diet. 3. 1807. 6. Forsyth Treat. Fr. Trees 20. 1803. 7. Pom. Mag. 1: 33. 1828. 8. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 148. 1831. 9. Prince Pom. Man. 2:60. 1832. 10. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 290. 1845. XI+ Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 287, 383. 1846. 12. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 344. 1849. 13. Elliott Fr. Book 416. 1854. 14. Mclntosh Bk. Gard. 2:529. 1855. 15. Thompson Gard. Assft 515. 1859. I^+ Mas Pom. Gen. 2:101. 1873. J7; Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1877. 18. Hogg Fruit Man. 687. 1884. 19. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 423, 452. 1889. 20+ Guide Prat. 161, 358. 1895.

Blue Perdrigon, of some 2. Blaue Kaiserin 19. Blue Imperatrice 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18. Blue Imperatrice 16, 19. Die Veischenfarbige ICaiserinnpflaume 4. Empress 1. Empress 5, 6, 9, 18, 19. Fursten Zwetsche 19. Furstenzwetsche 20. Hoheitspflaume 19, 20. Imperatrice Blue 8. Imperatrice 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19. Imperatrice Violette 3, 16, 20. Imperatrice Violette 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19. Late Red Imperial 9. Late Violet, of some 2. Prin-zessin Pflaume 19. Prune d'Altesse ? 9. ifoi Magnum Bonum 9. i^d Imperial 9. Smith's large October ? 9. The Imperatrice Plum 7. Veritable Imperatrice 8, 10, 13, 14, 15, 19. Violette 8, 10, 13, 14, 15, 19. Violette Kaiserin 19. Violette Kaiserin 16, 20. Violet Empress 9, 19.

Imperatrice has been long known and widely grown but the variety has no especial cultural value in the United States, the fruit being too small and too poor in quality. If it has any merit, it is keeping quality, the fruit hanging well on the tree and keeping well, even improving after picking.

This is an old variety, well known in Austria, France and England during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Like most long-known varieties its nomenclature is badly confused. Writers have confounded it with Semiana, the Perdrigons, German Prune and other plums of similar appearance. Duhamel regarded this variety as Perdrigon Late, holding that the true Imperatrice is nearly round. Calvel, also, describes a roundish plum under this name in his Traite Complet sur les Pepinieres. It is probable, however, that both Duhamel and Calvel were mistaken as all other authors describe an obovate plum. This variety was introduced into America early in the last century but has never become popular. It is of interest, nevertheless, since it has been a leading European variety, is a parent of a number of other varieties and its name is given to a group of plums. The American Pomological Society added it to its fruit catalog list in 1877, but dropped it in 1883.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, productive; leaves obovate or oval, two and one-quarter inches wide, four and one-quarter inches long, slightly rugose; margin crenate; petiole one inch long, thick, tinged red, pubescent, glandless, or with one or two small glands usually at the base of the leaf.

Fruit late; one and one-half inches by one and three-eighths inches in size, roundish or ovate, purplish-black, overspread with medium thick bloom; flesh golden-yellow, rather dry, firm but tender, sweet; of fair quality; stone free, one inch by three-quarters inch in size, roundish-ovate, the surfaces often granular and with a reddish tinge.

IMPERIAL EPINEUSE

Prunus domestica

1. Cal. State Bd. Hort. 48, 50. 1897-98. 2. U.S.D.A. Div. Pom. Bul. 7:316. 1898. 3. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser. 3:53. 1900. 4. Bailey Cyc. Hort. 1378. 1901. 5. Wickson Cal. Fruits 221, 224. 1908.

Clairac Mammoth 1, 5. Imperial Epineux 3.

Imperial Epineuse is well worthy a trial in New York. It is not surpassed in quality by any other plum of its color. It is one of the largest plums in the Prune group and is made further attractive by a handsome reddish-purple color which is lighter or darker according to the exposure of the plums to the sun. As grown in two orchards near Geneva the tree-characters are exceptionally good; the crop is so borne on the main limbs as to be protected from the sun and the tree is particularly large and vigorous, its strong upright growth being a striking characteristic of the variety. If the variety proves to be as valuable elsewhere in the State in all characters as it is here it cannot but make a very desirable plum for the market.

The Imperial Epineuse was found growing as a chance seedling about 1870 in an abandoned monastery near Clairac, in the Valley of Lot, the great prune district of France. It was first brought to the United States by Felix Gillett of Nevada City, California, who received the variety with several others in 1883, three years previous to a similar importation made by John Rock of Niles, California. After testing the variety Mr. Gillett mentioned it, without a name, in his catalog in 1888 but owing to the scarcity of the trees was unable to introduce it to the trade until 1893 when it was sent out under the name " Clairac Mammoth," from the name of its place of origin. In 1895 E. Smith & Sons of Geneva, New York, received this variety from Gillett and grew it under the name "Clarice Mammoth".

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, fairly productive; branches numerous, covered with many fruit-spurs; branchlets twiggy, marked with scarf-skin; leaf-buds large, very free, broad at the base; leaves folded backward, obovate, one and three-quarters inches wide, three and one-half inches long, thick, rugose, glabrous except along the deeply and widely grooved midrib; petiole one inch long, tinged red, glandless or with from one to three globose glands; blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch across, singly or in threes.

Fruit rather late, season short to medium in length; large, slightly obovate, purplish-red, darker on the sunny side, mottled, overspread with thick bloom; flesh greenish-yellow, fibrous, rather tender, sweet, agreeable in flavor; good to very good; stone clinging, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, irregular-oval, flattened, obliquely but bluntly contracted at the base, with pitted surfaces; ventral suture narrow, prominent, often distinctly winged.

Notes from 2015 North Carolina:   As grown on Krymsk rootstock in an orchard between Apex and Pittsboro, fruit was abundant, but sour and lacked richness or notable flavor.  Prunes made from this cultivar remained sour.  Available pollinizers in this orchard were 'Pearl' and 'Geneva Mirabelle'.  Tree removed in 2016.  Not recommended for this area. ASC.

IMPERIAL GAGEImperial Gage small

Prunus domestica

1. Am. Gard. Cat. 588. 1806. 2. Prince Treat. Hort. 25, 26. 1828. 3. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 147, 148. 1831. 4. Prince Pom. Man. 2:56. 1832. 5. Kenrick Am. Orch. 209. 1835. 6. Mag. Hort. 6:123. 1840. 7. Cultivator 10:167 fig. 1843. 8, Downing Fr. Trees Am. 278 fig. 107. 1845. 9. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 302, 383. 1846. 10. N. Y. Agr. Soc. Rpt. 343 fig. 1847. 11. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 325, 326 fig. 254. 1849. 12. Mag. Hort. 16:454. 1850. 13. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 54. 1852. 14. Elliott Fr. Book 411. 1854. 15. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 148, Pl. 5 fig. 1. 1864. 16. Barry Fr. Garden 413. 1883. 17. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 443. 1889. 18. Wickson Cat. Fruits 355. 1891. 19. Mich. Sta. Bul. 103:34. 1894. 20. Guide Prat. 154, 364. 1895. 21. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:187. 1897. 22. Va. Sta. Bul. 134:42. 1902. 23. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162: 239, 254, 255. 1905.

Flushing Gage 7, 8, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 20. Flushing Gage 3, 9. Harper 22. Imperial Gage 17, 20. Imperial Green Gage 7. Jenkinson's Imperial 6, 14, 15. Prince's Gage 4, 12, 17. Prince's Imperial Gage 4, 5, 6, 10. Prinzens Kaiser Reine Claude 20. Prince's Kaiser Reine-Claude 17. Prince's Imperial Gage 8, 11, 14, 15, 17, 20. Prince's White Gage 4, 12, 17. Reine-Claude de Flushings 20. Reine-Claude Imperiale 20. Reine-Claude Imperiale 17. Reine-Claude Verte Imperiale 17. Reine-Claude Imperiale de Prince 17, 20. Reine-Claude Blanche de Boston 17, 20. Reine-Claude Verte Superieure 20. Superior Gage 9. Superior Green Gage 12, 14, 15, 17, 20. Superior Green Gage ? 3. Superiour Green Gage 8. White Gage ? 1, 2, 20. White Gage 14, 15. White Gage of Boston 7, 8, 11, 17.

Probably there is more contradictory evidence as to the value of Imperial Gage than of any other American grown plum. It is down in some of the fruit books as being the largest of all the Reine Claude plums and in others as being too small to be desirable; in some, as being of highest quality and in others as being quite too insipid to be called a dessert fruit. These contradictions have arisen because the variety grows quite differently in different soils. The Imperial Gage is best adapted to light sandy soils, growing largest and being best in quality on such soils and making the poorest show of all on heavy clay. The illustration in The Plums of New York shows it as it grows on an unsuitable soil- small, poorly colored, worthless for a money-crop and not very desirable for home use. The technical description is also based on trees grown and fruit produced on soil to which it is illy-dapted. The trees from which these fruits came are nearly perfect in habits of growth, vigorous, hardy, healthy and bearing large crops of plums- such as they are. On suitable soils the variety possesses all the qualities that constitute a fine plum, the product being adapted alike for dessert, canning, home and market. It has an especially agreeable flavor in all the various culinary preparations in which it can be used. Its capriciousness does not warrant its being largely planted but for selected locations it will prove a most valuable fruit.  The Princes in their nursery at Flushing, Long Island, New York, about the year 1790, planted the pits of twenty-five quarts of the Green Gage plum and from these produced, among others, a plum which they called the White Gage. William R. Prince, in order to distinguish this variety from the other Gage plums, changed the name to Prince's Imperial Gage, now shortened to Imperial Gage. In 1852, the American Pomological Society placed it on its catalog list of recommended fruits.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped, hardy, very productive; branches ash-gray, smooth, with conspicuous, transverse cracks in the bark, with len-ticels of medium size; branchlets slender, short, with internodes above medium in length, greenish-red changing to dark brownish-red, dull, sparingly pubescent throughout the season, with small, inconspicuous lenticels; leaf-buds medium in size and length, conical, appressed.

Leaves folded upward, oval or slightly obovate, one and seven-eighths inches wide, three and one-quarter inches long, thick; upper surface dark green, rugose, pubescent, with a shallow groove on the midrib; lower surface yellowish-green, pubescent; apex abruptly pointed, base acute, margin crenate, with small dark glands; petiole one-half inch long, thick, pubescent, purplish-red along one side, glandless or with one or two small, globose, yellowish-green glands usually on the stalk.

Blooming season short; flowers one and one-eighth inches across, white; borne on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels three-quarters inch long, pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, pubescent, with a swollen ring at the base; calyx-lobes above medium in width, obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, slightly reflexed; petals broadly obovate, crenate, tapering below to short, broad claws; anthers yellowish; filaments three-eighths inch long; pistil glabrous, longer than the stamens; stigma large.

Fruit intermediate in time and length of ripening season; one and nine-sixteenths inches in diameter, oval or slightly ovate, compressed, halves equal; cavity very shallow and narrow, abrupt; suture shallow, often a line; apex roundish or depressed; color dull greenish-yellow, with obscure green streaks, mottled and sometimes faintly tinged red on the sunny side, overspread with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, grayish, obscure, clustered about the apex; stem three-quarters inch long, pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, tender, separating readily; flesh golden-yellow, juicy, firm but tender, sweet, mild; good to very good; stone nearly free, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, oval, flattened, with pitted surfaces; rather blunt at the base becoming acute in the largest fruits, very blunt at the apex; ventral suture wide, ridged; dorsal suture widely and deeply grooved.

ITALIAN PRUNE

Prunus domestica

1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 152. 1831. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 2:78. 1832. 3. Kenrick Am. Orch. 262. 1832. 4. Manning Book of Fruits 106. 1838. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 214, 220. 1856. 6. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 381. 1857. 7- Cultivator 8:52 fig. 1860. 8. Hogg Fruit Man. 366. 1866. 9. Downing Fr, Trees Am. 924. 1869. I0; Pom* France 7:No. 22, fig. 1871. 11. Mas Le Verger 6:69, fig. 35. 1866-73. I2- Oberdieck Deut. Obst. Sort. 442. 1881. 13. Lauche Deut. Pom. No. 2, PI. 4, 22. 1882. 14. Barry Fr. Garden 412. 1883. 15. Ca^. Cong. Pom. France 360. 1887. 16. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 436. 1889. 17. Wickson CaZ. Fruits 358. 1891. 18. Guide Prat. 155, 362. 1895. 19. Oregon Sta. Bul. 45:23 fig. 1897. 20. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:187, fig. 44. 1897. 21. Wasfc. Sfo. Bul. 38:7, 8. 1899. 22; w- N- Y- Hort. Soc. Rpt. 44:92. 1899. 23. Waugh Plum Cult. in fig. 1901. 24. U. 5. D. A. Div. Pom. Bul. 10:6. 1901. 25. Mass. Sta. An. Rpt. 17:158. 1905. Altesse Double 8, 9, 10, 15, 18. August Zwetsche 16. Auguste Zwetsche 10, 18. Blaue Riesen-zwetsche 16, 18. Bleue d'ltalie 15. Couetsche d'ltalie 18. Couetsche Fellenberg 10, 18. D'ltalie 18. Double Blackpruim 16, 18. Fausse Altesse 16, 18. Fellemberg 14. Fellemberg 8, 16, 18. Fellenberg 5, 9, 11, 16, 18, 19, 20, 23. Fellenburg 22. Fellenberg 5, 6, 7, 9, 17. Fellenburg 25. Feltemberg 10, 18. Fellenberg Quetsche 16, 18. Fellenberger Zwetsche 12, 13, 16, 18. Grosse Friih Zwetsche ? 16. German Prune 19,22. Italienische Blaue Zwetsche 11, 16. Italianische blaue zwetsche 18. Italian Guetsche 10, 18. Italian Prune 6, 7, 10, 11, 16, 17, 18, 25. Italian Quetsche 8, 9, 15, 16. Italianische Zwetsche 18. Italienische Pflaumen Zwetsche 16. Italienische Zwetsche 11, 13. Italianische Zwetsche 10. Italianische blanc Zwetsche 10. Italienische Zwetsche 12, 13, 16. Large German Prune 17. Prune d'ltalie 8, 9, 10, 16. Pflaume mit dem Pfirschenblatt 18. Pflaume Mit dem Pfirsichblatt 16. Prune Suisse 6. Quetsche 18. Quetsche Bleue d'ltalie 10, 11, 16, 18. Quetsche d'ltalie 1, 10, 11, 15, 18. Quetsche d'ltalie 3, 8, 9, 11, 16. Schweizer Zwetsche 12, 13, 16. Schwei-zerzwetsche 18. Swiss Prune 17, 19, 22. Semiana 8, 10, 16, 18. Turkish Prune 22. Zwetsche von Da'tlikon 16, 18.

The Italian Prune is one of the most widely grown of all plums. Its home is Italy and it is grown in all of the plum regions of continental Europe; is well known in England; is third or fourth in popularity in the Atlantic States of America; is by long odds the leading plum in the Pacific Northwest where it is chiefly used in prune-making and is grown somewhat for prunes and for shipping green in California. There are several reasons why this plum is so popular. To begin with,, it is finely flavored whether eaten out of hand, stewed or otherwise prepared for the table or cured as a prune. The fruit is a little too tart to be ranked as a first-rate dessert plum and yet it is one of the best of the prunes for this purpose, though it must be fully ripe to be fit for dessert; in cooking it changes to a dark, wine color, very attractive in appearance, with a most pleasant, sprightly flavor; as a cured prune the flesh is firm and meaty, yet elastic, of good color and a perfect freestone, making when cooked the same attractive looking, fine-flavored, sprightly sauce to be had from the green fruits; the prunes from this variety, too, are noted for long-keeping. In the un-cured state the variety keeps and ships well. The trees are usualfy large, hardy, productive, well formed and bear regularly; yet they are not ideal and the variety fails chiefly in tree-characters. The trees are often capricious to soil and climate, do not always bear well, seem to be susceptible to diseases, are preyed upon by insects and suffer in particular from dry or hot weather. Were all of these troubles of the tree to befall the variety at one time it would of necessity give way to better sorts, but happily they are to be found for most part in illy adapted conditions or in certain seasons ; the Italian Prune well cared for in locations to which it is suited must long remain one of the leading plums despite the faults of the trees.

The Italian Prune originated in Italy at least a century ago and has long been common in northern Italy, especially in the vicinity of Milan. The London Horticultural Society catalog for 1831 first mentions it in England and the following year it was described in America by Prince as an excellent prune recently introduced from Europe. The American Pomological Society recommended it in 1856 as worthy of further testing and in 1862 it was added to the fruit catalog list of this society. The origin of the name Fellenberg, a very common synonym, is explained by Lauche * who says: " It came to Germany through a Mr. Fellenberg and is therefore spread under his name and also under the names Sehwei-zerzwetsche and Fellenberger Zwetsche." He further adds that the variety " is still not known in Germany as it deserves, considering its quality, size and productiveness."

Tree of medium, size, rather vigorous, spreading or upright, low-topped, hardy, usually productive; branches ash-gray, smooth, with small, raised lenticels; branchlets short, with internodes of medium length, greenish-red changing to brownish-drab, pubescent, with small lenticels; leaf-buds of medium size and length, conical, appressed; leaf-scars large.

Leaves folded upward, obovate or oval, two inches wide, four and one-half inches long; upper surface dark green, pubescent; lower surface silvery-green, heavily pubescent; apex and base acute, margin doubly crenate, with small, dark glands; petiole five-eighths inch long, above medium thickness, pubescent, tinged red, with from one to three globose, greenish-brown glands usually on the stalk.

Season of bloom intermediate and short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and three-sixteenths inches across, in the buds tinged yellow, changing to white when expanded; borne on lateral spurs, rarely on lateral buds, singly or in pairs; pedicels three-quarters inch long, thick, pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, pubescent at the base; calyx-lobes long and narrow, acute or narrowly obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces and along the glandular-serrate margin, reflexed, inclined to curl at the tips; petals oval or obovate, dentate, tapering to broad claws of medium length; anthers yellowish; filaments seven-sixteenths inch long; pistil pubescent at the base, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit late, season short; one and seven-eighths inches by one and one-half inches in size, long-oval, enlarged on the suture side, slightly compressed, halves unequal;

1 Lauche Deut. Pom. No. 2. 1882.

cavity very shallow and narrow, abrupt; suture shallow to medium; apex bluntly pointed; color purplish-black, overspread with very thick bloom; dots numerous, small, light brown, somewhat conspicuous; stem inserted at one side of the base, one inch in length, pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, somewhat tough, separating readily; flesh greenish-yellow changing to yellow, juicy, firm, subacid, slightly aromatic; very good to best; stone free, smaller than the cavity, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, irregular-oval, flattened, roughened and pitted, necked at the base, abruptly tipped at the apex; ventral suture prominent, heavily ridged, sometimes strongly winged; dorsal suture widely and deeply grooved.

JAPEX

Triflora X

1. N. Y. Exp. Sta. Rpt. 12:611. 1893. Japanese Seedling X. 1.

This plum, parentage unknown, was received from Burbank by the New York Experiment Station in 1893 for testing, under the name Japanese Seedling X.  While in no way wonderfully remarkable, its earliness, attractive color, good quality and productiveness have been such that it has been retained, the cumbersome name having been changed to Japex. The majority of the characters of the variety are plainly those of Triflora, yet the fruits in appearance would lead one to call it a Domestica.

Tree very large, vigorous, vasiform, very productive; branches slender, sparingly thorny; leaf-scars thick; leaf-buds unusually short; leaves obovate or ovate, two and one-quarter inches wide, four inches long; margin finely serrate varying to crenate, with few dark glands; blooming season short; flowers appearing before the leaves; borne in clusters on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs.

Fruit very early, season short; one and one-eighth inches in diameter, roundish, dark purplish-red or purplish-black, covered with medium thick bloom; flesh light yellow, very juicy, somewhat melting, sweet next to the skin, but tart near the pit, aromatic; good; stone clinging, three-quarters inch by one-half inch in size, oval.

JEFFERSONpic

Prunus domestica

1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 279, 280 fig. 108. 1845. 2. Horticulturist 1:11, 93. 1846. 3. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 420. 1846. 4. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 325, 326, fig. 251. 1849. 5. Mag. Hort. 16:453 fig. 25. 1850. 6. Hovey Fr. Am. 2:1, PI. 1851. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 54. 1852. 8. Elliott Fr. Book 411. 1854. 9. Thompson Gard. Ass't 518, PI. 1. 1859. 10. Mas Le Verger 6:17, Pl 9. 1866-73. 11. Pom. France 7:No. 28. 1871. 12. Hogg Fruit Man. 707. 1884. 13. Gaudier Pom. Prak. Obst. No. 95, Col. p1. 1894. 14. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:188. 1897.

Bingham incor. 2, 8. Prune Jefferson 11.

Jefferson has long been popular in America and is highly spoken of by English, French and German pomologists as well, possibly ranking highest in the Old World of all Domesticas which have had their origin in America. The popularity of the variety is waning, however, chiefly because it is lacking in the essentials demanded in a market fruit. There can be no question as to the standing of Jefferson as to quality- it is one of the best of all dessert plums. Grown under favorable conditions and when fully ripe, it is a golden-yellow with a delicate blush and bloom, large for a plum in the Reine Claude group, a well-turned oval in shape, withal one of the handsomest plums. The color-plate maker did not do it justice. It fails as a market variety because the trees are late in coming in bearing, not always certain in bearing, a little particular as to soils and not quite hardy though one of the hardiest of all Reine Claudes. Both tree and fruit are too delicate for the market-grower and the market-men. As to its value for private places and fruit connoisseurs there can be no doubt it is one of the choicest. It would seem that there should be a place for Jefferson for the fancy trade in the markets, as it would grace the show-window of any delicatessen store; but unfortunately there are few fruit-growers in America to cater to such a trade.

Jefferson was raised by a Judge Buel, Albany, New York, about 1825. The originator presented a tree of this variety to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1829, and in 1841 trees were given to the London Horticultural Society which fruited in 1845. The parentage of the variety is unknown; Floy thought it was a seedling of Washington; Elliott suggested that it was "from a seed of Coe's Golden Drop, which in growth and wood, it closely resembles." In 1852, the American Pomological Society placed this variety on its catalog list of fruits worthy of general cultivation.

Tree medium to large, vigorous, spreading, open-topped, hardy at Geneva, productive; branches ash-gray, smooth, with small, numerous, lenticels; branchlets slender, short, with long internodes, greenish-red changing to dark brownish-red, dull, lightly pubescent, with inconspicuous, small lenticels; leaf-buds large, long, pointed, appressed.

Leaves folded upward, obovate, one and three-quarters inches wide, three and three-quarters inches long, thick; upper surface sparingly pubescent, with a grooved midrib; lower surface yellowish-green, pubescent; apex and base acute, margin serrate, with small, dark glands; petiole three-quarters inch long, tinged purplish-red along one side, glandless or with from one to three small, globose, yellowish glands usually on the stalk.

Season of bloom medium, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and one-eighth inches across, white; borne on lateral spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels three-quarters inch long, pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, glabrous, with a swollen ring at the base; calyx-lobes obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate and with fine marginal hairs, erect; petals roundish or obovate, dentate, tapering to very short and broad claws; anthers yellowish; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil pubescent at the base, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period long; one and five-eighths inches by one and one-half inches in size, roundish-oval, not compressed, halves equal; cavity shallow, narrow, abrupt; suture very shallow, indistinct; apex roundish; color greenish-yellow, changing to bronze-yellow, sometimes with faint pink blush on the exposed cheek, often indistinctly streaked and mottled with green before full maturity; dots numerous, very small, gray or reddish, inconspicuous; stem seven-eighths inch long, thinly pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, tough, slightly adhering; flesh deep yellow, juicy, firm but tender, sweet, mild, pleasant; very good; stone semi-free, one inch by three-quarters inch in size, flattened, broadly oval, abruptly tipped, with a short neck at the base, blunt at the apex, with rough and pitted surfaces; ventral suture heavily furrowed, winged; dorsal suture with a wide, deep groove.

JUICY

Prunus munsoniana X Prunus triflora

1. Burbank Cat. 20. 1893. 2. Cal. State Bd. Hort. 53. 1897. 3- Vt- Sta. Bul. 67:15. 1898, 4. Ohio Sta. Bul. 113:161. 1899. 5. Conn. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 155. 1900. 6. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:256. 257. 1905. 7. Mass. Sta. An. Rpt. 17:161. 1905.

Juicy has been widely tested and in general is considered of very little cultural importance, failing chiefly because of the inferior quality of the plums. The variety is an interesting cross, however, and has given a tree so much more vigorous and so much better adapted to orchard purposes than its native parent, quite equalling the Triflora parent in tree-characters, as to suggest the value of this cross for improving the trees of our native plums. This plum, like Golden, was grown by Luther Burbank from a seed of Robinson fertilized by pollen of Abundance. In 1893 the originator sold the new variety to John Lewis Childs, Floral Park, New York, who introduced it the following year. The variety has not escaped without some confusion as to its origin for its parentage has been published as a cross between Robinson and Kelsey.190

Tree very large, vigorous, spreading, open-topped, productive; branches sparingly thorny; leaves broadly oblanceolate or oval, one and one-quarter inches wide, three inches long; margin finely serrate or sometimes crenate, with dark reddish-glands; petiole short, slender, with from two to five globose glands on the stalk; blooming season of medium length; flowers appearing after the leaves, three-quarters inch across; borne in dense clusters on lateral buds and spurs, in threes or fours; anthers so numerous as to give a yellowish color to the flower-clusters.

Fruit mid-season, period of ripening long; one and three-quarters inches by one and three-eighths inches in size, nearly round, dark golden-yellow with bright red blush, covered with thin bloom; flesh golden-yellow, very juicy, melting, sweet next to the skin, but tart at the pit, aromatic; of fair quality; stone clinging, five-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, oval, turgid, with slightly pitted surfaces.

KELSEY

Prunus triflora

1. Gard. Mon. 24:339. 1882. 2. U.S.D.A. Rpt. 272. 1886. 3. Gard. Mon. 29:305, 335. 367. 1887. 4- U- S- D- A. Rpt. 635, 652. 1887. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 95, 126. 1887. 6. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 35. 1888. 7. Ibid. 51, 99. 1889. 8. Rev. Hort. 502, 542. 1890. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 105, 106, 125. 1891. 10. Am. Gard. 13:700. 1892. 11. Cornell Sta. Bui, 62:3,24. 1894. 12. Tex. Sta. Bul. 32:488 fig., 489. 1894. 13. Cornell Sta. Bul. 106:53. 1896. 14. Ala. Col. Sta. Bul. 85:447. 1897. 15. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 41. 1899. 16. Waugh Plum Cult. 137. 1901. 17. JV. C. Sta. Bul. 184:120. 1903. 18. Ga. Sta. Bul. 68:15, 31. 1905.

Botankin 7. Botankin 3. Hattankio 7. Kelsey's Japan 2, 3, 5. Sinomo 7. Togari 7.

Kelsey is distinguished as the largest, the latest and the tenderest to cold of all Triflora plums in America. The variety is not much hardier than the fig and cannot be safely planted north of Washington and Baltimore. The tree is vigorous, well formed and productive, having for its worst fault susceptibility to shot-hole fungus. The plums are large, very attractive in color and the flesh is firm, the plums being well fitted for shipping, with a rich, pleasant, aromatic flavor making the fruit very good in quality. In the South both curculio and brown-rot attack the fruits rather badly. It is unfortunate that this plum cannot be grown in this latitude.

Kelsey, the first of the Triflora plums introduced into America, was brought into the country by a Mr. Hough of Vacaville, California, in 1870, through the United States consul in Japan. John Kelsey of Berkeley, California, obtained trees from Hough and propagated it in his nursery to a limited extent. The first fruit was shown by Kelsey in 1877, though fruit is said to have been produced in 1876. In 1883, W. P. Hammon and Company, Oakland, California, secured stock of this plum from the heirs of Mr. Kelsey and the following year extensive sales were made. The plum was named in honor of the man who did most to bring it before the public. The American Pomological Society added the Kelsey to its fruit catalog list in 1889. The following description is compiled.

Tree vigorous, upright, vasiform, tender, productive, an early and regular bearer; leaves somewhat scant, small, lanceolate, narrow; blooming season early; fruit very late, season long; keeps and ships unusually well; large, cordate, conical, halves unequal; suture variable in depth; apex pointed; color rather unattractive yellow, tinged and splashed with red, often overspread with purple, with attractive bloom, more or less marked with conspicuous dots; stem sometimes adhering poorly to the fruit; skin tender; flesh delicate yellow, juicy, firm and meaty, rich, pleasant, aromatic; good to very good; stone clinging unless well ripened, small, in an irregular cavity larger than the pit.

KERR

Prunus triflora

1. Ga. Hort. Soc, Rpt. 52. 1889. 2. Am. Gard. 12:307, 501. 1891. 3. Ibid. 13:700. 1892. 4. Kerr Cat. 1894. 5. Cornell Sta. Bul. 62:25. 1894. 6. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 95. 1895. 7. Ala. Sta. Bul. 85:443. 1897. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 41. 1899. 9. Cornell Sta. Bul. 175:136. 1899. 10. Waugh. Plum Cult. 137. 1901. 11. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. XIII. 1904. 12. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:256, 257. 1905.

Hattankio 1. Hattankio 7. Hattankin No. 2. 2, 3. Hattonkin No. 2. 4, 5, 10. Hattonkin 9. Hattankio No. 2. 6, 11. Hattankio Oblong 9, 11. Hattankio 10. Hattan 10. Hytankio 10. Hytan-Kayo 10.

Kerr is about the best of the yellow Trifioras and is one of the best of all early plums of its species. It is very productive, sometimes overbearing, and should always be thinned. The quality of the plums is good and the fruits are attractive in appearance. The faults of the variety are that the fruits drop as they ripen, though they color if picked green, and in some localities the tree-characters are poor. This variety was imported from Japan by Frost and Burgess, Riverside, California, and was distributed under the group name Hattankio No. 2 or Hattonkin No. 2. As Georgeson was also distributed under the same name, though under a different number, confusion resulted. To better distinguish between the two, L H. Bailey, in 1894, named Hattonkin No. 2 Kerr, in honor of J. W. Kerr, the noted plum specialist, of Denton, Maryland. In 1899 the variety was placed on the fruit catalog list of the American Pomological Society. The following description is compiled.

Tree large, vigorous, upright, very productive; leaves large, thick; blooming season late. Fruit early; of medium size unless thinned, when it becomes large, variable in form, but usually heart-shaped, yellow with thin bloom; skin thick; flesh yellow, firm, subacid, sweet; fair to good; stone clinging, of medium size, oval, turgid.

KING DAMSON

Prunus insititia

1. Watkins Nur. Cat. 48. 1892 ?. 2. Am. Gard. 14:146, 147. 1893. 3. Garden 53: 265* 1898. 4. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser. 3:51. 1900. 5. Thompson Gard. Ass't 4:161. 1901.

Bradley's King 5. Bradley's King of Damsons 3. King of Damsons 1, 2.


The fruit of King Damson runs large for a Damson and the flavor is agreeable, so agreeable that the variety is really a very good dessert fruit late in the season. This Damson is little grown in America and deserves much wider cultivation. A peculiarity of the plum is that there is always more or less doubling of the petals. Very little is known regarding the history of this excellent variety, but it seems probable that it originated in Kent, England, where it is much grown.

Tree small, lacking in vigor, upright-spreading, dense-topped, usually productive; branchlets slender, pubescent; leaves folded upward, oval or slightly obovate, one inch wide, two and three-quarters inches long; margin serrate, usually with small dark glands; petiole with one or two glands on the stalk; blooming season intermediate, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, usually with more than five petals, one inch across, white with a yellow tinge at the apex; borne on lateral spurs or from lateral buds, singly or in pairs.

Fruit late, season long; one and one-eighth inches by seven-eighths inch in size, oval, slightly necked, black, with thick bloom; flesh greenish-yellow, juicy, firm, sprightly becoming sweet late in the season; of good quality; stone clinging, five-eighths inch by three-eighths inch in size, irregular-ovate, slightly necked.

KIRKE

Prunus domestica

1. Pom. Mag. 3:111, PI. 1830. 2. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 149. 1831. 3. Kenrick Ant. Orch. 263. 1832. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 306. 1845. 5+ Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 281, 382. 1846. 6. Mag. Hort. 15:488 fig. 43. 1849. 7- Thompson Gard. Ass't 518, PL 1. 1859. 8. Mas Le Verger 6:15, fig. 8. 1866-73. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1875. 10. Pom. France 7:No. 26. 1871. 11. Flor. & Pom. 47. 1876. 12. Oberdieck Dent. Obst. Sort. 430. 1881. 13. Lauche Dent. Pom. 16, PI. IV. 1882. 14. Hogg Fruit Man. 708. 1884. 15. Guide Prat. 154, 358. 1895. 16. Gard. Chron. 24:19. 1898. 17. Gaucher Pom. Prak. Obst. No. 96, Col. PI. 1894. 18. Rev. Hort. 500. 1898. 19. Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom. 536. 1904.

De Kirke 15. Kirke's 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 14, 17. Kirke's 8, 10, 15, 17. Kirke's Pflaume 12, 13. Kirke's Pflaume 8, 10, 15, 17. Kirke's Plum i, 5, 8, 10, 11, 16, 18. Kirk's Plum 3, 5. Kirke 17. Kirke's Plum 15, 17, 19. Prune de Kirke 18. Prune de Kirke 8, 10, 17. Prune Kirke 19.

All English descriptions of this variety rank it very high both as a dessert and a culinary plum. The variety stands well among the purple plums growing on the grounds of this Station, but since it has been grown in America eighty years, attaining a reputation only of being mediocre in most characters, it is probably not worth planting largely. It has many more worthy competitors in its class and season. Hogg, in the reference given, says the variety was introduced by Joseph Kirke, a nurseryman at Brompton, near London, who, he says, " told me he first saw it on a fruit stall near the Royal Exchange, and that he afterwards found the trees producing the fruit were in Norfolk, whence he obtained grafts and propagated it. But its true origin was in the grounds of Mr. Poupart, a market gardener at Brompton, on the spot now occupied by the lower end of Queen's Gate and where it sprung up as a sucker from a tree which had been planted to screen an outbuilding. It was given to Mr. Kirke to be propagated and he sold it under the name it now bears." The variety was introduced into America between 1830 and 1840. The American Pomological Society placed Kirke upon its list of rejected fruits in 1858, added it to the recommended list in 1875, an(i displaced it in 1899.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, productive; branchlets with long internodes, dull, marked with yellowish-brown scarf-skin; leaf-buds large, long, pointed, free; leaves flattened, obovate or oval, one and three-quarters inches wide, three and five-eighths inches long, thick, dark green; margin crenate, eglandular or with small, dark glands; petiole one inch long, tinged red, glandless or with from one to four small, yellowish-green glands; blooming season intermediate, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch across; borne on lateral spurs, singly or in pairs; filaments seven-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period long; about one and five-eighths inches in diameter, roundish-ovate, dark purplish-black, overspread with thick bloom; flesh greenish-yellow, fibrous, firm, sweet, mild and pleasant; good to very good; stone nearly free, one inch by three-quarters inch in size, ovate or oval, flattened, roughened and deeply pitted, tapering abruptly to a short, pointed apex; ventral suture narrow, with a short but distinct wing; dorsal suture with a wide groove.

LAFAYETTE

Prunus domestica

1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:96. 1832. 2. Tucker's Gen. Farmer 3:153. 1839. 3. Elliott Fr. Book 427. 1854. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 222, 244. 1858. 5. Hogg Fruit Man. 368. 1866. 6. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 916. 1869. 7. Guide Prat. 160, 359. 1895.

Gifford's Lafayette 1, 4, 6. Gifford's LaFayette 2, 3.

Lafayette originated in. New York sometime in the first quarter of the last century with a Mr. Gifford from a stone of the Orleans. It did not become popular and was rejected by the American Pomological Society in 1858, but just why it failed is not apparent, judging either from the descriptions given in the above references or by its behavior in the orchard at this Station. The fruit is good, though not remarkable for the richness of its flavor, its size is large and the color attractive. Moreover it is so late as to stand almost alone in its season. A retrial of this old sort commercially might be worth while. The tree is interesting because of a marked tendency in the flowers to develop petals from the stamens.

Tree of medium size, round-topped, productive; branchlets stocky, with long internodes; leaf-scars large; leaves folded upward, oval or obovate, two inches wide, four inches long, rugose; margin crenate, with small, dark glands; petiole pubescent, tinged red, having at the most three small glands usually on the stalk; blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and one-quarter inches wide, creamy-white; borne in pairs; calyx-lobes long and slender.

Fruit very late, season long; one and one-half inches by one and three-eighths inches in size, oval, purplish-black, overspread with very thick bloom; flesh greenish-yellow, medium juicy, tender, sweet, mild and pleasant; of good quality; stone free or nearly so, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, irregular-oval, flattened, with an acute and slightly oblique apex.

LAIRE

Prunus orthosepala ?

Laire is cultivated locally in Rooks and neighboring counties in Kansas and is highly spoken of by those who grow it. The description of the variety is made from information sent from the United States Department of Agriculture. For a further account of this plum the reader is referred to the discussion of Prunus orthosepala, page 97. The name is derived from that of the man who first brought the plums under cultivation some twenty or twenty-five years ago.

Tree dwarfish, dense-topped, not very productive; branches spiny, zigzag; branch-lets thick, reddish-brown changing to dark brown; leaves oblong-ovate, light green, acuminate, with margins closely serrate and seldom with glandular teeth; petiole slender, one-half inch long, with two glands at the apex; flowers white or tinged with pink, appearing after the leaves; borne in threes or in fours; pedicels thick, one-half inch long; petals narrowly clawed; stamens orange.

Fruit mid-season; one and one-eighth inches in diameter, roundish, greenish-yellow overlaid with deep red, covered with thick bloom; skin thick; flesh yellow, meaty, juicy, mild subacid; good to very good; stone clinging, five-eighths inch by nine-sixteenths inch in size, flattened, oval, with rugose surfaces: grooved on the dorsal and ridged on the ventral suture.

LARGE ENGLISH

Prunus domestica

1. Oberdieck DeuU Obst. Sort. 443. 1881. 2. Mathieu Nowi. Pom. 429, 433. 1889. Englische Zwetsche 2. Grosse Englische Zwetsche 2. Grosse Englische Zwetsche 1,2. Grosse Englische Pflaumen Zwetsche 2. Grosse Zwetsche ? 2. Schweizer Zwetsche 2 incor.

This appears to be a most excellent plum closely resembling the Italian Prune and surpassing that well-known variety in some respects. As compared with Italian Prune, the fruit of Large English runs larger, is slightly more conical, having the ventral swelling near the base, thus giving it more of a shoulder. The flavor is sweeter and richer than that of the Italian Prune. There appear to be practically no differences between the trees, the foliage and the flowers of the two kinds. Wherever the Italian is successfully grown it may be well worth while to try the Large English. The relation the word English has to this prune is unknown. Oberdieck, in 1881, wrote that this variety resembled the Italian Prune in fruit, but differed in that it had a noticeably broader leaf; he adds " it has been incorrectly called the Swiss Prune and is much spread in Germany under the name of Italian Prune." E. R. Lake, of the United States Department of Agriculture, brought it to America, in 1901, from the Pomological Institute, Reutlingen, Wurtemburg, Germany. Lake's stock was tested at this Station and the variety agrees with Oberdieck's description.

Tree of average size, vigorous, upright-spreading, dense-topped, productive; branchlets with. long internodes; leaf-scars enlarged; leaves folded upward, oval or obovate, nearly one and three-quarters inches wide, three and one-half inches long, thick, rugose; margin crenate or almost serrate, eglandular or with small dark glands; petiole pubescent, tinged red, with from two to four globose glands; blooming season intermediate in time, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch across; petals long, narrow, white, in the buds tipped with yellow; borne singly or in pairs; stamens tend to become petals.

Fruit late, season of medium length; one and three-quarters inches by one and one-half inches in size, long-ovate, purplish-black, with thick bloom; dots numerous, conspicuous; flesh yellowish with a trace of red at full maturity at both skin and stone, juicy, very sweet, aromatic, with a pleasant flavor; very good to best; stone free, the cavity larger than the pit, often brownish-red, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, irregular-oval, flattened, with an oblique apex; ventral suture prominent, usually with a distinct wing; dorsal suture with a wide, deep groove.

LATE MIRABELLE

Prunus insiiitia

1. Lond. Hort, Soc. Cat. 150. 1831. 2. Barry Fr. Garden 339. 1851. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 388. 1857. 4. Hogg Fruit Man. 353. 1866. 5. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 901. 1869. 6. Pom. France *?: No. 20. 1871. 7. Mas Le Verger 6:7. 1866-73. 8. Cat. Cong. Pom. France $$2. 1887. 9. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 442, 449. 1889. 10. Guide Prat. 162, 360. 1895. 11. Baltet Cult. Fr. 493. 1908.

Bricetta 9. Bricetta 5. Bricet 5, 9. Bricette 6, 8, 10. Brisette 6, 7, 10. Bricette 4. Die Brisette 9. Kleine Brisette 9. La Bricette 9. Mirabelle Tardive 1, 3, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11. Mirabelle Tardive 4, 5, 6, 9. Mirabelle d'Octobre 2. Mirabelle d'Octobre 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10. October Mirabelle 9. Petit Bricette 5, 9. Petite Bricette 4, 6, 10. Runde Brisette 9. Spate Mirabelle 6, 8, 9, 10.

In France, where all of the Mirabelles are highly esteemed, the Late Mirabelle is much grown because of its season. The variety is practically unknown in America, but, judging from its behavior at Geneva, well deserves widespread trial, as do all the Mirabelles. The history of this variety is unknown other than that it is an old sort, having been mentioned in the London Horticultural Society catalog as long ago as 1831. In 1851, Barry, of Rochester, New York, described the Mirabelle d'Octobre, which is identical with Late Mirabelle, and said that it had been recently introduced from France.

Tree medium in size and vigor, very hardy, productive; branches smooth; leaves small, oval, one and one-quarter inches wide, two inches long; margin finely serrate, with few, dark glands; petiole slender, glandless or with one or two glands at the base of the leaf.

Fruit late; small, roundish-oval, greenish-yellow, often with a light blush on the sunny side, covered with thin bloom; stem short, slender; flesh yellow, very juicy, aromatic, sweet; good; stone semi-free.

LATE MUSCATELLE

Prunus domestica

1. Lucas Vollst. Hand. Obst. 470. 1894. 2. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser. 3:53. 1900. 3. U.S.D.A. Div. Pom. Bul. 10:22. 1901.

Late Muscatel 2. Spate Muskateller 3. Spate Muskatellerpflaume 1.

This variety was obtained by the United States Department of Agriculture from the Pomological Institute at Reutlingen, Germany, in 1900, and was soon after sent to this Station to test. In some respects, in fruit-characters in particular, the variety is promising, but not sufficiently so to recommend it to fruit-growers, even for trial.

Tree of medium size and vigor, upright-spreading, productive; branchlets thick; with short internodes, pubescent; leaf-scars prominent; leaves drooping, folded upward, obovate, one and five-eighths inches wide, three and three-eighths inches long, leathery; margin crenate, eglandular or with few, small, dark glands; petiole thick, pubescent, glandless or with from one to three glands; blooming season intermediate in time; and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch across; borne in scattering clusters, singly or in pairs; petals white, creamy-white as they open; anthers tinged red.

Fruit late, season short; medium in size, roundish, slightly truncate, purplish-brown, splashed and mottled with russet about the base, overspread with thick bloom; flesh greenish-yellow, sweet; good to very good; stone often reddish, clinging, three-quarters inch by one-half inch in size, somewhat flat, irregular-oval, with slightly pitted surfaces.


LATE ORLEANS

Prunus domestica

1. Lond. HorL Soc. Cat. 151. 1831. 2. Mag. Hort. 164. 1843. 3; Jour. Hort. N. S. 15: 301. 1868. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 927. 1869. 5. Guide Prat. 161, 360. 1895. 6. Garden 49:268. 1896. 7. Rivers Cat. 33. 1898.

Black Orleans 1, 2, 5. Late Black Orleans 3, 4. Late Black Orleans 5. Late Orleans 5. Monsieur Noir Tardif 5. Orleans Late Black 5.

This is another variety having only a European reputation to recommend it in America. The fruits of Late Orleans are handsome in color and shape, but are not large enough to enable them to compete in the markets with other late purple plums and are so poor in quality as to be worthless as dessert fruits. In Europe the variety is rated high for culinary purposes and fruit-growers there like it because it hangs well to the tree and keeps and ships well. The trees are very satisfactory in practically all respects. It is doubtful if the variety is worth further trial in America.

Late Orleans was mentioned in the catalog of the Horticultural Society of London in 1831, but was not described. No account seems to have ever been published of its origin, but it is probably related to or descended from the Orleans since they are very similar in tree and shape of fruit, differing only in size and color of fruit.

Tree large, vigorous, round-topped, hardy, very productive; branches smooth, dark ash-gray, with numerous, small lenticels; branchlets medium to slender, with long internodes, greenish-red changing to dull reddish-brown, dull, pubescent, marked with gray scarf-skin and with small lenticels; leaf-buds intermediate in size and length, conical, appressed.

Leaves flattened, oval or obovate, one and one-quarter inches wide, two and one-quarter inches long; upper surface sparingly pubescent, with a deeply grooved midrib; lower surface heavily pubescent along the midrib; apex abruptly pointed, base broadly cuneate, margin finely crenate, with small, dark glands; petiole one-half inch long, slender, pubescent, faintly tinged with red, glandless or with from one to four small, globose, yellowish glands usually on the stalk.

Flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch across, white; borne on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels one-half inch long, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube, green, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes obtuse, pubescent, glandular-serrate and with marginal hairs, erect; petals roundish or broadly ovate, entire, short-clawed; anthers yellow with a reddish tinge; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit late, season long; about one and one-half inches in diameter, roundish, slightly compressed, halves equal; cavity shallow, narrow, flaring; suture aline; apex roundish; color dark purple, overspread with thick bloom; dots few, reddish-brown; stem three-quarters inch long, pubescent at the base, adhering well to the fruit; skin toughish, slightly astringent, separating readily; flesh golden-yellow, dry, tender, sweet, mild; fair in quality; stone clinging, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, oval, flattened, slightly roughened, blunt at the base and apex; ventral suture rather narrow, blunt; dorsal suture widely and deeply grooved.

LAWRENCE

Prunus domestica

1. Cultivator 10:167. 1843. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 54 1852. 3. Elliott Fr. Book 412. 1854. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 928. 1869. 5. Pom. France 7: No. 29. 1871. 6. Mas Le Verger 6:75. 1866-73. 7. Hogg Fruit Man. 710. 1884. 8. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 349. 1887. 9* Guide Prat. 364. 1895. 10. Waugh Plum Cult. 112. 1901.

Favorite de Lawrence 6, 9. Lawrence Favorite 5. Lawrences Reine Claude 9. Lawrence's Favorite 1, 2, 3, 4, 7. Lawrence's Gage 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9. Lawrence's Favorite 6, 8, 9, 10. Lawrence Gage 8. Prune Lawrence Gage 5. Reine-Claude de Lawrence 6, 9. Reine-Claude de Lawrence 4, 5, 8.

This variety is surpassed in the quality of its fruits by few plums. The trees bear young and abundantly and the fruit hangs well on the tree; unfortunately, the plums do not ship nor keep well and the variety thus fails as a market sort. It is, however, a delicious dessert fruit, deserving to be grown in every plum connoisseur's garden. Lawrence is a seedling of Reine Claude, and was grown by L. V. Lawrence of Hudson, New York, some time during the second quarter of the last century. As its large size and superior quality became known its popularity increased, until it was cultivated not only in America, but to some extent throughout western Europe. During the last twenty-five years, however, it has waned in popularity, having been superseded by better commercial varieties, though it still ranks high as a dessert plum. The American Pomological Society placed Lawrence in its catalog in 1852, and retained it there until 1899.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, productive; trunk and branches rough, with large lenticels; branchlets brash, dark reddish-brown, pubescent; leaves folded upward, oval, two inches wide, three and three-quarters inches long, thick, leathery, rugose; margin doubly serrate, with small glands; petiole pubescent, usually with two small glands.

Fruit medium early; one and three-eighths inches in diameter, roundish, greenish-yellow, covered with thin bloom; skin thin, tender, slightly astringent; flesh yellowish, fibrous, tender, sweet, aromatic; very good; stone free, seven-eighths inch by five-eighths inch in size, oval, turgid, nearly smooth.

LINCOLN

Prunus domestica

1. Lovett Cat. fig. 44. 1890-1900. 2. Rural N. Y. 56:595 fig. 253, 598. 1897. 3. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:242, 246. 1899. 4. Ohio Sta. Bul. 113:159. 1899. 5. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2d Ser. 3:53. 1900. 6. Waugh Plum Cult. 114. 1901. 7. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 317, 31S fig. 1903. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 254. 1903. 9. Ohio Sta. But. 162:236, 238 fig., 256, 257. 1905. 10. Mass. Sta. An. Rpt. 1*7:1 $9. i905-

Lincoln has never been popular in New York, but in Pennsylvania and New Jersey it is well thought of for home use and the markets. The trees in this State grow slowly and when fully grown are rather inferior. This is one of the sorts recommended to be top-worked on better growing varieties but, as has been said before in these notes, top-working in New York is far more often a failure than a success with plums. The fruit of this variety is unusually attractive in size and color and for quality it may be named among the best of the red plums. Unfortunately, the variety is readily infected by the brown-rot which when epidemic cannot be controlled. Lincoln has been so well tested in New York without becoming popular with plum-growers that it is hardly worth recommending for further trial, though the fruits in particular have much merit.

This plum originated in York County, Pennsylvania, about forty-five years ago, supposedly from seed of the Reine Claude, and was named after Abraham Lincoln. If it be a Reine Claude seedling it comes from a cross with some other variety, since it shows many characters not in Reine Claude. Lincoln was introduced by J. T. Lovett and Company, Little Silver, New Jersey.

Tree of medium size, vigorous, upright-spreading, but somewhat variable in habit, dense-topped, hardy, productive; branches ash-gray, rough; branchlets somewhat slender, short, with long internodes, greenish-red changing to brownish-red, dull, sparingly pubescent throughout the season, overspread with thin bloom, with small, inconspicuous lenticels; leaf-buds large, long, pointed, free; leaf-scars prominent.

Leaves somewhat folded backward, oval or obovate, two inches wide, four inches long, rather stiff; upper surface slightly rugose, pubescent only in the shallow, grooved midrib; lower surface silvery-green, pubescent; apex abruptly pointed, base acute, margin doubly crenate, with small, dark glands; petiole nearly one inch long, pubescent, reddish, with from one to four rather large, globose or reniform, yellowish glands variable in position.

Season of bloom medium; flowers appearing after the leaves, over one inch across, white; borne on lateral spurs and buds, singly or in pairs; pedicels about seven-eighths inch long, slender, pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, thinly pubescent; calyx-lobes broad, acute, somewhat pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, with marginal hairs, reflexed; petals oval, crenate, with claws of medium width; anthers yellow; filaments three-eighths inch or more in length; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit early, season short; somewhat variable but averaging about two inches by one and five-eighths inches in size, oblong-oval, slightly necked, halves usually equal; cavity very shallow, narrow, abrupt; suture shallow; apex roundish or depressed; color light or dark red over a yellow ground, overspread with thin bloom; dots numerous, small, light russet; stem one inch long, lightly pubescent, adhering poorly to the fruit; skin thick, rather sour, separating readily; flesh greenish-yellow, juicy, coarse and fibrous, firm but tender, sweet, mild, pleasant; good to very good; stone nearly free, one and one-eighth inches by five-eighths inch in size, long-oval, flattened, necked at the base, blunt at the apex, with markedly rough and deeply pitted surfaces; ventral suture narrow, distinctly furrowed, with a short wing; dorsal suture with a narrow groove of medium depth.

LOMBARD

Prunus domestica

1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 268. 1832. 2. Ibid. 224. 1841. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 303 fig. 124. 1845. 4+ Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 345 fig. 265. 1849. 5* Goodrich N. Fr. Cult. 84. 1849. 6. Elliott Fr. Book 412. 1854. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 190, 210. 1856. 8. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 929 fig. 1869. 9. Mas Le Verger 6:151, fig. 76. 1866-73. 10. Country Gent. 48:981. 1883. 11. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 423. 1889. 12. Guide Prat. 160, 359. 1895. 13. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:242, 246. 1899. 14. la. Sta. Bul. 46:279. 1900. 15. Waugh Plum Cult. 114 fig. 1901. 16. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 43:34. 1903. 17. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:240, 256, 257. 1905.

Beekman's Scarlet 3, 6, 8, n, 12. Bleecker's Scarlet 3, 4, 6, 8, 12. Bleeker's Scarlet 11. Bleeker's Rotepflaume 11. Bleekers Rothe pflaume 12. Bleeckers Rothe Pflaume 9. Lombard 11. Lombard Plum 1. Montgomery Prune 8, 11. Prune Rouge De Bleeker 9, 11. Rouge de Bleecher 12. Spanish King ? 14, 15. Variegated Plum 1.

The Lombard plum is known by all. It is not as largely planted in New York as a few other varieties, but it is probably more widely grown than any other plum if the whole continent be considered. The preeminently meritorious characters which enable it to take first place in American plum-growing are: The elasticity of its constitution whereby it adapts itself to widely different soils and climates; the robustness, healthiness, productiveness and regularity in bearing of its trees; the fact that the fruits are comparatively free from the scourge of the crescent sign, plum-curculio; and, lastly, its showy fruits tempting to the eye and readily salable. The tree-characters of Lombard are all good, making so superior a tree that it, more than any other variety, is recommended as a stock upon which to graft weak-growing plums. It is a virile variety and from it have come a considerable number of offspring mostly from self-fertilized seeds which have given us several nearly related varieties and strains. There are also a few very good cross-bred plums of which Lombard was one parent. Lombard would be preeminently the plum "for the millions" were it not for a fatal fault, it is very poor in quality. Canned, cooked, preserved or spiced, it does very well, but as a dessert fruit it falls in a category with the Ben Davis apple and Kieffer pear, "good-looking but poor".  The variety ripens so early as to come in direct competition with the peach and this hurts it not a little as a market plum. To be at its best the crop should be thinned and should be allowed to ripen fully on the trees. Lombard is now much used in the canneries in New York and is also planted in home orchards where only hardy plums stand the climate. In the markets it is usually a low-priced plum.

Lombard was raised by Judge Platt, Whitesboro, New York, from seed received from Amsterdam (References, 2). Another writer (References, 10) reports that the trees were brought over from Holland by some of the earliest Dutch settlers of Utica and Whitesboro. The name was given to the plum about 1830 by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in honor of Daniel Lombard of Springfield, who was the first to propagate the variety in that state. It was previously well known in New York as Bleecker's Scarlet (References, 3), but was never formally described under that name which must, therefore, though the older, be discarded. In 1856, it was placed on the recommended list by the American Pomological Society. Several varieties, as Communia, Tatge, Spanish King and Odell, are very similar, if not identical to the Lombard and, consequently, have caused much confusion in the nomenclature of the variety. This similarity is probably explained by the fact that the Lombard produces seedlings very nearly true to type. Professor J. L. Budd, in a letter written in 1898 to this Station, says, "The fruit of Communia is much like that of Lombard, but this can be said of a hundred or more east European varieties." Professor Budd had traveled much in Europe and knew plums very well. His statement, therefore, is entitled to credence and indicates, together with other circumstances, that Lombard is one of an old group of plums the varieties of which are very similar.

Tree of medium size, round-topped, very hardy, productive; branches stocky, dark ash-gray, smooth, with few, small lenticels; branchlets thick, medium to long, with long internodes, greenish-red changing to dull brownish-red, marked with gray scarf-skin, glabrous early in the season, becoming pubescent at maturity, with a few, inconspicuous, small lenticels; leaf-buds of medium size and length, conical, appressed; leaf-scars prominent.

Leaves long-oval or long-obovate, one and five-eighths inches wide, three and one-half inches long, medium to thick; upper surface dark green, thinly pubescent, with a grooved midrib; lower surface silvery-green, lightly pubescent; apex acute, base somewhat tapering, margin often doubly serrate, eglandular or with small, dark glands; petiole one-half inch long, thick, tinged red, pubescent, glandless or with one or two globose, yellowish-green glands usually at the base of the leaf.

Blooming season short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch across, the buds creamy-yellow, changing to white on expanding; borne in clusters on short, lateral spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels nine-sixteenths inch long, slender, nearly glabrous; calyx-tube greenish, campanulate, pubescent only at the base; calyx-lobes obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, strongly reflexed; petals oval, entire or occasionally notched at the apex, short-clawed; anthers yellow; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil pubescent only on the ovary, longer than the stamens.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period long; one and three-quarters inches by one and five-eighths inches in size, oval or roundish-oval, slightly compressed, halves unequal; cavity narrow, abrupt, roundish; suture usually a line; apex roundish or flattened; color light to dark purplish-red, overspread with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, light russet; stem slender, three-quarters inch long, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, tender, separating readily; flesh yellowish, juicy, slightly fibrous, firm and sweet, mild; inferior in quality; stone semi-free to free, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, daik colored, oval, flattened, roughened; base and apex acute; ventral suture slightly furrowed, acute; dorsal suture widely and rather deeply grooved.

LONG FRUIT

Prunus triflora

1. Wild Bros. Cat. 27. 1892. 2. Cornell Sta. Bul. 62:26. 1894. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 26. 1897-99. 4. Waugh Plum Cult. 138. 1901. Long Fruited 1.

Long Fruit is noted among the leading varieties of plums in The Plums of New York chiefly to condemn it. On the grounds of this Station and elsewhere in New York where tested, the trees are unproductive, the crop drops badly and the fruits are small and poor in quality. The variety was imported from Japan in 1885 by Luther Burbank.

Tree large, vigorous, vasiform to spreading, unproductive; branches roughened by numerous raised lenticels; branchlets slender, with short internodes, glabrous, marked by scarf-skin; leaves oblanceolate, somewhat peach-like, one inch wide, two and one-half inches long, thin; margin finely crenate, with small, amber glands; petiole slender, tinged with red, glandless or with from one to five small glands usually on the stalk; blooming season early; flowers appearing after the leaves, seven-eighths inch across; borne singly or in pairs; calyx-tube much swollen at the base.

Fruit early; one inch by one and one-eighth inches in size, roundish-oblate; cavity deep; color dark red over a yellow ground, covered with thin bloom; stem slender, adhering poorly to the fruit; skin thick, somewhat astringent; flesh greenish-yellow or pale yellow, tender, sweet, mild; poor in quality; stone semi-clinging, small, one-half inch by three-eighths inch in size, roundish-oval, turgid, blunt at the base, the apex terminating abruptly in a small, sharp point, with smooth surfaces.

LUCOMBE

Prunus domestica

l. Pom. Mag. 3:99. 1830. 2. Downing Fr. Trees .Am. 281. 1845. 3* Floy-Lkidley Guide Orch. Gard. 284, 383. 1846. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 222. 1858. 5. Hogg Fruit Man. 711. 1884. 6. Guide Prat. 163, 358. 1895. 7. Waugh Plum Cult. 117. 1901. 8. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 320. 1903.

Incomparable de Lucombe 6. Lucombe's Nonesuch 2, 3, 5. Lucombe's Nonsuch 1, 4. Lucombe's Nonsuch 6, 7. Lucombe's Unvergleichliche 6. Lucombeys Nonesuch 8. Luccombe's Nonesuch 3. Nonsuch 7. Nonesuch 8.

This old plum has a reputation of high excellence and is well entitled to it. Despite the fact that it must compete for favor with such estimable plums as Reine Claude, Washington and Hand, belonging to the same group with these, it is still much grown in England and is well thought of for home use in America. Hardly in accordance with its reputation, it was rejected by the American Pomological Society in 1858 for a place in its list of fruits. Lucombe originated as a seedling about 1825 with a Mr. Lucombe of Lucombe, Prince and Company, nurserymen, at Exeter, England, and was first described by Lindley in 1830 in the Pomological Magazine.

Tree large, of medium vigor, upright-spreading, productive; branches covered with numerous fruit-spurs; twigs very short, with heavy pubescence; leaves one and three-quarters inches wide, three and one-quarter inches long, dark green; margin finely serrate or crenate, with small, dark glands; petiole pubescent, glandless or with one or two small glands usually at the base of the leaf; blooming season intermediate, short; flowers appearing after the leaves; petals with a yellowish tinge as the buds unfold; borne on long naked spurs with tufts of leaves and flowers at the ends, singly or in pairs.

Fruit mid-season, period of ripening long; one and three-eighths inches by one and one-half inches in size, roundish-oblate or roundish-obovate, greenish-yellow, becoming golden-yellow, indistinctly splashed and streaked with green, covered with thin bloom; flesh golden-yellow, firm, sweet, pleasant, mild; very good; stone free, three-quarters inch by five-eighths inch in size, 'roundish, slightly necked, with pitted surfaces.

MAQUOKETA

Prunus hortulana mineri

1. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 290. 1889. 2. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 55,85. 1890. 3. Cornell Sta. Bul. 38:40. 1892. 4. Mich. Sta. Bui 118:53. 1895. 5. Ibid. 123:20. 1895. 6. la. Sta. Bui 31:346. 1895. 7. Wis. Sta. Bul. 63:46. 1897. 8. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 298. 1903. 9. Ga. Sta. Bul. 67:277. 1904. 10. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:256, 257. 1905.

Maquoketa is distinguished as one of the best of the native plums for culinary purposes. Nearly all of the plums brought in from the wild in America have so much astringency, most of it coming from the skins, that they are unpalatable to some. Now and then a variety is nearly free from this disagreeable taste and Maquoketa is one of these. The quality, as a dessert fruit, is very good for a native and the fruits keep and ship well. In the South the plums are subject to both curculio and brown-rot. The trees, like those of nearly all of the Miner-like plums, are rather better formed and more adaptable to orchard conditions than those of other species. After the Americana and Nigra plums, Maquoketa is one of the hardiest of our native varieties, growing even in Minnesota. The variety belongs in the South and Middle West and there are few, if any, places in New York where it is worth growing.

The origin of this plum is uncertain. It is reported in the references given as a native found on the banks of the Maquoketa River in eastern Iowa and also as a Miner seedling grown under cultivation. It has been known to fruit-growers since about 1889.

Tree of medium size and vigor, spreading, low-topped, open, hardy, variable in productiveness, susceptible to attacks of shot-hole fungus, the trunk shaggy; branches slender, rough, zigzag, with few thorns, dark, dull ash-gray, with numerous lenticels; branchlets slender, long, with internodes of medium length, green, changing to dull reddish-brown, glabrous, with numerous, conspicuous, small, slightly raised lenticels; leaf-buds very small, short, obtuse, appressed.

Leaves falling early, folded upward, broadly lanceolate, peach-like, one and three-quarters inches wide, four and one-half inches long; upper surface light green, changing to a dull red late in the fall, glossy, glabrous, with a narrowly grooved midrib and veins; lower surface silvery-green, thinly pubescent; apex taper-pointed, base rather abrupt; margin with serrations in two series, with very small, black glands; petiole five-eighths inch long, tinged with dull red, hairy, with from one to four globose, rather large, dark brownish-yellow glands.

Blooming season late and of medium length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch across, yellowish as the buds begin to open, changing to white, with a disagreeable odor; borne in clusters on lateral spurs and buds, varying from two to four flowers in a cluster; pedicels five-eighths inch long, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, narrowly campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, slightly obtuse, nearly glabrous on the outer surface, but pubescent within, serrate, with dark colored glands and marginal hairs, reflexed; petals oval or ovate, with long, tapering claws of medium width, sparingly hairy at the base; anthers yellowish; filaments seven-sixteenths inch in length; pistil glabrous, slender, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit late, ripening period short; below medium in size, ovate or roundish-ovate, halves equal; cavity shallow, rather wide, rounded, flaring; suture a distinct line; apex roundish or slightly pointed; colors some time before fully ripe becoming dark carmine, covered with thin bloom; dots numerous, small to medium, light brown, clustered about the apex; stem rather slender, glabrous, parting readily; skin thick, tough, astringent, semi-adherent, removing a thin layer of pulp when detached; flesh deep yellow, juicy, coarse, fibrous, nearly melting next to the skin, becoming firmer toward the center, sweet at first but astringent near the pit, with a strong flavor; inferior in quality; stone adhering, of medium size, oval, turgid, bluntly pointed at the base and apex, with slightly roughened surfaces; ventral suture acute, ridged; dorsal suture a narrow, shallow groove.

MARIANNA

Prunus cerasifera X ?

1. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 28. 1886. 2. Card. Mon. 29:148. 1887. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 38. 1889. 4. Neb. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 56. 1889. 5. Ill Hort. Soc. Rpt. 63. 1890. 6. Cornell Sta. Bui 38:66, fig., 71, S^t 86. 1892. 7. Tex. Sta. Bui 32:479, 480 fig. 1894. 8. Rev. Hort. 278. 1894. 9. Rural N. Y. 54:600. 1895. 10. Mich. Sta. Bui 152:210. 1898. 11. Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 208, 213. 1898. 12. Vt. Sta. An. Rpt. 13:336-369. 1900. 13. Waugh. Plum Cult. 36, 232. 1901. 14. Ga. Sta. Bui 67:277. 1904. 15. S. Dak. Sta. Bui 93:67. 1905.

Marianna has little or no value for its fruit. It is illustrated and discussed at length in The Plums of New York for two reasons. First, because it has long been an enigma which has baffled both horticulturists and botanists; second, because it is extensively used as a stock upon which other kinds of plums are propagated. In 1884, a plum of unknown species was introduced to the trade. Some said the new variety belonged to Prunus cerasifera and others that it was an offspring of some native species. The characters of the first named species are so apparent in Marianna that all are now agreed that this variety is from either a self or a cross-fertilized seed of Prunus cerasifera; if the latter the other parent must have been some native species, the particular variety possibly being Wild Goose, one of the Munsoniana plums. Its behavior on these grounds, its robustness and semi-sterility and its not fitting exactly into any known species, mark it as a hybrid. A curious character peculiar to this variety is that it grows very readily from cuttings and for this reason it is a cheap stock for plums of all kinds and is used even for peaches and apricots. Besides rooting readily, the Marianna does not sprout and may be budded as late or later than the peach. It is chiefly used in propagation in the South, but, for reasons stated in the discussion of stocks in Chapter II, the Marianna is not now employed by nurserymen as largely as formerly, though there are still conditions in which it is the best of stocks. The tree is a handsome ornamental at any season of the year and its broad, spreading top makes it a good shade tree.

Marianna originated as a seedling in a mixed orchard belonging to Charles G. Fitze, Marianna, Polk County, Texas; its parentage is unknown. The originator considered it a seedling of Wild Goose, but, it is probably an offspring of DeCaradeuc and, as stated in the foregoing paragraph, undoubtedly a hybrid. In 1884, Charles N. Eley, Smith Point, Texas, introduced the Marianna to fruit-growers; in 1889 it was placed on the fruit catalog list of the American Pomological Society.

Tree large, vigorous, broad, spreading, open and fiat-topped, hardy, unproductive, comparatively free from insects or diseases; trunk rough; branches numerous, usually-smooth, but sometimes roughened by the cracking of the bark, thorny, dark ash-gray, with numerous, very large, raised lenticels; branchlets slender, twiggy, with inter-nodes of medium length, green changing to dull reddish-brown, with gray scarf-skin, glabrous, with conspicuous, large, raised lenticels; leaf-buds very small and short, obtuse, appressed.

Leaves folded upward, elongated-oval, one and one-eighth inches wide, two and five-eighths inches long, thin; upper surface smooth, glabrous, with a shallow groove on the midrib; lower surface pale green, lightly pubescent along the midrib and larger veins; apex and base acute, margin very finely serrate, with small, black or amber glands; petiole slender, three-quarters inch long, pubescent along one side, usually tinged red, glandless or with from one to three very small, globose, greenish-brown glands variable in position.

Blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, three-quarters inch across, white; borne in clusters on lateral spurs, in twos or in threes; pedicels three-eighths inch long, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes acute, sparingly pubescent, ciliate, erect; petals very small, separated from each other, broadly oval, entire, tapering to narrow claws; anthers yellowish; filaments three-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit early, season of medium length; one and one-eighth inches or more in diameter, oval or roundish-oval, often not compressed, halves equal; cavity shallow, narrow, abrupt, regular; suture a line; apex roundish or blunt-pointed; color bright, light red changing to darker red, overspread with thin bloom; dots numerous, small, light russet, conspicuous, clustered about the apex; stem slender, five-eighths inch long, glabrous; skin tough, bitter, inclined to crack under unfavorable conditions, parts readily; flesh yellow, tinged red under the skin and next to the stone, unusually juicy, fibrous, watery and melting, sweet next to the skin, but acid near the pit, sprightly; inferior in quality; stone clinging, three-quarters inch by one-half inch in size, elongated-oval, blunt-pointed, surfaces pitted; ventral suture blunt, wide, slightly ridged; dorsal suture widely and deeply grooved.


MARU

Prunus triflora

1. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 29. 1886. 2. Ibid. 53, 99. 1889. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 105, 106. 1891. 4. Rev. Hort. 515. 1891. 5. Ibid. 278. 1894. 6. Cornell Sta. Bul. 62:26. 1894. 7. Tex. Sta. Bul. 32:489. 1899. 8. Cornell Sta. Bui 106:57. 1896. 9. Rural N. Y. 56:615. 1897. 10. Cornell Sta. Bui 175:143. 1899. 11. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:242, 249. 1899. I2+ Waugh Plum Cult. 138. 1901. 13. Ga, Sta. Bui 68:9, 31. 1905.

Maru is much in evidence in plum literature, the concensus of opinion being that it is little short of worthless. Its quality is not high and it comes in season about with Abundance which surpasses it in nearly all characters. The variety was introduced by Luther Burbank and is said to have been imported by him about 1885. In Japan this name is applied to any round plum, but so far in America it has been restricted to this variety.

Tree large, lacking in vigor, broad-vasiform, dense-topped, unproductive, somewhat susceptible to attacks of shot-hole fungus; trunk and branches rough; branchlets twiggy, marked with thin, russety scarf-skin, glabrous, with large, prominent lenticels; leaves folded upward, oblanceolate, peach-like, thin, one and three-eighths inches wide, three inches long; upper surface yellowish-green late in the season; margin very finely serrate, with small glands; petiole with from one to six glands usually on the stalk; blooming season early; flowers appearing after the leaves, three-quarters inch across; borne in clusters on lateral spurs, in threes or fours; pistil longer than the stamens.

Fruit early, about one and one-quarter inches in diameter, roundish-cordate, dull red, with medium thick bloom; flesh deep yellow, tender and melting, sweet next the skin, but slightly astringent near the pit; poor in quality; stone clinging, five-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, oval or roundish, turgid, with rough surfaces.

MAYNARD

Prunus triflora X Prunus simonii

1. Vt. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:226. 1899. 2. Nat. Nur. 11:5. 1903. 3. Oregon Nur. Cat. 24. 1903. 4. Can. Hort. 28:285. 1905.

The habit of the tree of Maynard is commendable and the plums are very acceptable to those who care for the Triflora fruits. The season follows Climax, a period when there is a dearth of Triflora plums. Maynard has been so widely advertised that it is hardly necessary to say that it is worthy of trial. The variety was first fruited in 1897 by Burbank after which it was tested by him for five years and was then sold to the Oregon Nursery Company by whom it was introduced in 1903. It was named by the originator in honor of Professor T. S. Maynard, then in charge of horticulture in the Massachusetts Agricultural College.

Tree large, vigorous, upright, open-topped, productive; branchlets thick, dark chestnut-red; leaves obovate, one and one-half inches wide, three and one-half inches long, thin; margin finely serrate, with small, dark glands; petiole slender, glandless or with one or two small glands usually at the base of the leaf.

Fruit early; about one and three-eighths inches in diameter, roundish-truncate, dark red, changing to purplish-black, overspread with thick bloom; flesh reddish, with a tinge of yellow near the pit, fibrous, tender and melting, sweet, aromatic; good to very good; stone semi-clinging, three-quarters inch by five-eighths inch in size, broadly oval, turgid, blunt at the base and apex, with pitted surfaces; ventral suture prominent, with deep furrows and with a narrow, blunt wing; dorsal suture acute or with an indistinct groove.

Mclaughlin

Prunus domestica

1. Horticulturist 1:195 fig. 54. 1846. 2. Cole Am. Fr. Book 209 fig. 1849. 3+ Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 332. 1849. 4+ Mag. Hort. 16:456, 457 fig. 28. 1850. 5. Hovey Fr. Am. 2:47, PI- l85I-6. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 36, 55. 1852. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 231. 1854. 8. Cultivator 6:52 fig. 1858. 9. Flor. & Pom. 200. 1870. 10. Mas Le Verger 6:137, fig. 69. 1866-73. I]E* Am. Card. 14:299 fig. 1893. 12. Gaucher Pom. Prak. Obst. 97, Col. PL 95. 1894. 13. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:189. 1897. 14. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:242, 246. 1899. I5; Waugh Plum Cult. 115, 116 fig. 1901. 16. Va. Sta. Bul. 134:43. 1902. 17. Mass. Sta. An. Rpt. 17:159. 1905.

M'Laughlin 2. McLaughlin's Gage Plum 9. MacLaughlin 12. MacLanglin 12.

McLaughlin stands well up with the best of plums in quality and when well grown is very attractive in appearance. Its flesh is sweet and yet not so sweet as to cloy the appetite; in flavor it is rich and delicate and while somewhat like that of Reine Claude, is different, so that the variety has a taste quite of its own; though the juice is abundant, the flesh is not watery; the texture is neither too coarse nor too fine, too fibrous nor too mealy, but in a fruit rightly matured is most pleasantly melting. There are few other plums in which the characters pleasing to the taste exist in such nice proportions. McLaughlin is a little smaller than some other plums of its group, but is quite large enough for a dessert plum. Unless at its best, it is not as attractive in color as Jefferson, Washington, Reine Claude and some others of its type, but at its very best, it is unsurpassed by any other plum in coloring; it has in perfection the delicate yellow skin which belongs to the Reine Claudes upon which is marbled tints of white, yellow and crimson, the blending of which the illustration shows but poorly. The fruit of McLaughlin has its imperfections, however. The flesh clings tenaciously to the stone, is too melting to keep or ship well and rots badly on the tree. These defects debar the variety in America, with present market demands, from commercial plantations. The tree is above the average in size and vigor and is as hardy as any, more so than most of the Reine Claude varieties. It comes in bearing early and is rather productive. The place for this plum, from the summary of its characters, is apparent at once in the home orchard and in the collection of the fruit connoisseur.

McLaughlin was raised by James McLaughlin of Bangor, Maine, first fruiting about 1840. The parentage of the variety is disputed, but no one doubts that it contains Reine Claude blood, though the tree is too vigorous to have been raised from the Reine Claude self-pollinated. Judging from the tree-characters, it may have sprung from the Washington or Imperial Gage fertilized by the Reine Claude. The American Pomological Society, in 1852, placed the McLaughlin with the plums that promised well, and at the next meeting added it to the recommended list.

Tree of medium size, variable in vigor, spreading, open-topped, hardy, medium to productive; branches stocky,ash-gray, smooth, with small, indistinct lenticels; branchlets few, thick, short, with short internodes, greenish-red changing to brownish-drab, lightly pubescent, with numerous, small lenticels; leaf-buds above medium in size, long, pointed, appressed; leaf-scars swollen.

Leaves oval, two inches wide, three and one-half inches long, thick; upper surface dark green, glossy, covered with fine hairs; lower surface pale green, pubescent; apex abruptly pointed, base acute, margin crenate, with small, black glands; petiole five-eighths inch long, thick, pubescent, tinged red, with one or two small, globose, yellowish glands usually at the base of the leaf.

Season of bloom intermediate, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, fifteen-sixteenths inch across, white, with yellow tinge near the apex of the petals; borne on lateral spurs and buds, singly or in pairs; pedicels one-half inch long, thick, very pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, obconic, pubescent; calyx-lobes narrow, obtuse, sparingly pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate and with marginal hairs, re-flexed; petals obovate, crenate, tapering below to short, broad claws; anthers yellowish; filaments one-quarter inch long; pistil glabrous except at the ovary, longer than the stamens.

Fruit early, season short; one and five-eighths inches by one and seven-eighths inches in size, roundish-oblate, compressed, halves equal; cavity shallow, narrow, abrupt; suture shallow; apex flattened or depressed; color greenish-yellow, blushed and mottled with red, overspread with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, light colored; stem thick, three-quarters inch long, pubescent, adhering well to the fruit, surrounded at the cavity by a fleshy ring; skin tough, slightly adhering; flesh light yellow, juicy, sweet, mild and pleasant; very good; stone clinging, one inch by three-quarters inch in size, irregular broad-oval, very blunt at the base and apex, heavily wrinkled and deeply pitted; ventral suture narrow, distinctly furrowed, winged; dorsal suture widely and deeply grooved.

MIDDLEBURG

Prunus domestica

1. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 31:60. 1886. 2. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 288. 1889. 3. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:189. 1897. 4. Ont. Fr. Exp. Sta. Rpt. 119. 1898, 5. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:242, 246. 1899. Ibid. 187:77, 79. 1901.

Middleburgh 1.

It is somewhat remarkable that so good a plum as Middleburg should have so long escaped the attention of fruit-growers and even of pomologists. Not even Downing has recorded it, though he lived not more than a hundred miles from the place of its origin, which must have taken place in his time. The fruits may be surpassed somewhat by other purple plums in appearance but few of them are better in quality, either for dessert or for cooking. It is especially valuable too, because it ripens late, hangs well to the tree and ships and keeps well, in the latter respect equalling the best of the prunes. Out of a collection of about three hundred sorts on the Station grounds, this would undoubtedly be chosen as the favorite purple plum of its season. The trees, while of only medium size, are robust, healthy, hardy and usually productive. In Schoharie County, eastern New York, where this variety originated and has long been grown, black-knot is usually epidemic and Middleburg and Palatine are said to be the sorts most free from the disease- so free that neither is much troubled by it. From its behavior here it is certain that, belying the looks of either fruit or tree, Middleburg will improve upon acquaintance and that when well known it will be wanted in home collections at least and more than likely some commercial fruit-growers will find it profitable.

Middleburg came from Middleburg, Schoharie County, New York, where it was found as a chance seedling. Mr. S. D. Willard, of Geneva, first called attention to the variety in 1886 at a meeting of the Western New York Hortcultural Society. Its origin is much older than the date given, as it has been extensively grown in Schoharie County for a half-century or more.

Tree above medium in size, vigorous, round and open-topped hardy, productive; branches ash-gray, smooth, with small lenticels; branchlets of medium thickness and length, with long internodes, greenish-red, changing to brownish-red, overspread with light bloom, dull, somewhat pubescent, with few, inconspicuous, small lenticels; leaf-buds of medium size and length, pointed, appressed.

Leaves folded upward, oval, one and one-half inches wide, three and one-half inches long, rather thick, stiff; upper surface dark green, sparingly pubescent on the grooved midrib and larger veins; lower surface silvery-green, pubescent; apex and base acute, margin doubly serrate, with a few, small, dark glands; petiole eleven-sixteenths inch long, pubescent, tinged red, glandless or with from one to three small, globose, greenish-brown glands on the stalk or base of the leaf.

Blooming season early to medium, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch across, white, borne in scattering clusters on lateral spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels three-quarters inch long, overspread with fine, short pubescence, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, pubescent at the base; calyx-lobes obtuse, thinly pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, somewhat reflexed; petals roundish or obovate, entire, with short, abrupt claws; anthers yellowish; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length, with a large, pubescent ovary.

Fruit very late, season long; one and five-eighths inches by one and one-half inches in size, distinctly oval, compressed, halves equal; cavity very shallow, narrow, flattened; suture usually lacking; apex roundish; color varies from light to deep purplish-red, overspread with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, russet, inconspicuous; stem one inch long, thinly pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, slightly sour, separating readily; flesh light yellow, rather juicy, somewhat coarse, firm, sprightly when first mature, becoming sweetish, strongly aromatic, pleasant flavored; very good; stone semi-free or free, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, irregular-oval, with pitted surfaces, slightly acute at the base and apex; ventral suture narrow, winged, faintly ridged; dorsal suture acute or with a shallow, narrow groove.

MILLER SUPERB

Prunus domestica

Of the two hundred and more varieties of plums which have fruited on the Station grounds, Miller Superb is one of the finest for dessert. The variety is of the Reine Claude group and is fully up with the best of these plums all noted for high quality. In size and appearance, the plums resemble those of the well-known Bavay though usually larger. This plum originated with Colonel Charles Miller of Geneva, New York, when, is not known. About 1889, M. F. Pierson of Stanley, New York, secured cions of the plum from Colonel Miller and named the variety Miller Superb. It has never been introduced and is grown locally only to a very limited extent. Its large size, productiveness and superior quality should recommend it strongly for more general cultivation.

Tree of medium size and vigor, upright-spreading, open-topped, productive; branches rough as they approach the rough trunk; leaf-scars enlarged; leaves flattened, oval, two inches wide, three and three-quarters inches long; margin serrate or crenate, with few, small, dark glands; petiole long, thick, reddish, pubescent, with from one to three glands usually at the base of the leaf; blooming season of medium length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch or more across, white with yellowish tinge; borne on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs.

Fruit intermediate in time and length of ripening season; one and three-quarters inches by one and five-eighths inches in size, roundish-oval or roundish-ovate, golden-yellow, mottled and splashed with green and sometimes with a blush on the exposed cheek, overspread with thin bloom; dots conspicuous; flesh light golden-yellow, juicy, firm but tender, sweet, pleasant in flavor; very good; stone clinging or semi-clinging, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, ovate or oval, somewhat flattened, usually winged; dorsal suture grooved.

MILTON

Prunus munsoniana X ?

1. Ia. Hort, Soc. Rpt. 287. 1887. 2. Ibid. 393. 1892. 3. Ibid. 334. 1894. 4. Neb. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 201. 1897. 5. Wis. Sta. Bul. 63:24, 48. 1897. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 40. 1899. 7. la. Sta. Bul. 46:280. 1900. 8. Ala. Col. Sta. Bul. 112:178. 1900. 9. Terry Cat. 6. 1900. 10. Waugh Plum Cult. 187. 1901. 11. Can. Exp. Farm. Bul. 43:31. 1903. 12. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 445. I903- *3+ Ca. Sta. Bul. 67:277. 1904. 14. Miss. Sta. Bul. 93:15. 1905. 15. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:256, 257. 1905. 16. III. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 420. 1905.

The special merits of Milton, as compared with other native varieties, are that it blooms late and ripens early. It thus escapes frosts, when, for example, its parent, Wild Goose, might be injured; and its early ripening prolongs the season for native plums. The fruits are large, of very good quality, though a little too juicy for pleasant eating or to ship well, very attractive in appearance, and, more important than all else for the regions in which it is likely to be grown, it is comparatively free from rot. Unfortunately, the flesh clings most tenaciously to the stone even after cooking. In its fruit-characters, Milton strongly resembles one of the Mineri plums, but the tree is very much like that of Wild Goose, its known parent. In New York, Milton is one of the best of the native plums but it is hardly so considered in the Middle West, where these plums are most grown, judging from the discussions of it in the references given above.

Milton, a seedling of Wild Goose grown by H. A. Terry, Crescent, Iowa, first fruited in 1885. The originator believed that the other parent was an Americana, but from the characters of the tree it was more likely one of the Mineri plums. The American Pomological society added Milton to its fruit catalog list in 1899.

Tree of medium size and vigor, round and dense-topped, symmetrical, hardy at Geneva, productive, healthy; branches brash, rough, thorny, dark brownish-gray, with numerous, large, narrow and much elongated lenticels; branchlets very slender, willowy, medium to long, with internodes of average length, greenish-red, changing to dull reddish-brown, thinly pubescent, with numerous, conspicuous, small, slightly raised lenticels; leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, free.

Leaves folded upward, broadly lanceolate or oblanceolate, peach-like, one inch wide, three inches long, thin; upper surface smooth, with a grooved midrib; lower surface thinly pubescent on the midrib and larger veins; apex taper-pointed; base slightly acute, margin serrate or crenate, with numerous, minute, dark glands; petiole seven-sixteenths inch long, slender, reddish, lightly pubescent, glandless or with from one to four small, globose, yellowish-brown glands usually on the stalk.

Blooming season late and long; flowers appearing after the leaves, three-quarters inch across, the buds creamy when opening, changing to white, odor disagreeable; borne in thin clusters on lateral spurs and buds, singly, in pairs, or in threes; pedicels three-quarters inch long, very slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, slightly obtuse, pubescent within, with dark colored glands and marginal hairs, erect; petals oval, entire or deeply indented, tapering below to long, narrow claws margined with few scattering hairs near the base; anthers yellow with a faint trace of red; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil slender, glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit very early, season short; one and three-sixteenths inches by one inch in size, oval, slightly compressed, halves equal; cavity shallow, narrow, abrupt, regular; suture a distinct line; apex roundish or slightly pointed; color dark red, covered with thin bloom; dots very numerous, medium to large, russet, conspicuous; stem slender, seven-eighths inch long, adhering fairly well to the fruit; skin thin, tough, astringent, separating readily; flesh yellowish, the juice given off readily leaving a tough, fibrous pulp, sweet next the skin, but rather acid at the center, of pleasant flavor; fair to good; stone adhering, three-quarters inch by one-half inch in size, long-oval, slightly elongated at the base and apex, somewhat flattened, surface broken into irregular ridges; ventral suture blunt, faintly ridged; dorsal suture a narrow, shallow groove.

MINER

Prunus hortulana mineri

1. Horticulturist 22:332. 1867. 2. Am. Jour. Hort. 5:145. 1869. 3* Downing Fr. Trees Am. p31. 1869. 4. la. Agr. Soc. Rpt. 332. 1871. 5. Gard. Mon. 13:347* 34'. 1871. 6. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt, 152. 1873. 7. Ibid. 90. 1874. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1875. 9. Minn. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 81. 1882. 10. Cornell Sta. Bul. 38:55, 5[5, 58, 81, 86. 1892. 11. Mich. Sta. Bul. 118:54. 1895. 12. Guide Prat. 163, 359. 1895. 13. Vt. Sta. An. Rpt. 10:99, 103. 1897. 14. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 491. 1897. 15. Colo. Sta. Bul. 50:41. 1898. 16. Waugh Plum Cult. 173. 1901. 17. Minn. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 208. 1901. 18. Ga. Sta. Bul. 67:278. 1904. 19. 5. Dak. Sta. Bul. 93:25, 57 fig- *905- Chicasaw Chief 4, 10, 14. General Jackson 4, 10, 14. Gillett 3, 14. Hinckley 3, 6, 10, 14. Hinckley 5, 7. Isabel 3, 14. Minner 12. Old Hickory 4, 10, 14. Parsons ?io, 14, 16. Robinson 3, 14. Townsend 3, 6, 14. William Dodd 4, 10, 14.

Miner has the distinction of being the first of the native plums to be named and of being the typical plum in the sub-species to which its name has been given. Though lacking but a few years of having been in the hands of civilization a century (the Indians from whom it appears to have been taken had possibly cultivated it longer), Miner is still a standard variety and while not the best of the group of which it is the type, it is one of the best. This variety has the further distinction of being, after Wild Goose, the parent of more cultivated offspring than any other of our native plums and must be credited with having transmitted its characters, those of the tree being especially good, to a high degree. Miner is one of the parents of more than two score of named native plums in nearly all of which the resemblances to each other and to the parent are very marked. The variety is not grown, so far as is known, in New York and the trees on the grounds of this Station not being in bearing, it was impossible to illustrate the fruit in The Plums of New York though to do so was greatly desired. In the Middle West, Miner is probably as widely disseminated and as largely grown as any other plum, being particularly adapted to the northern limits of the cultivation of its species. The tree of this variety is robust, healthy, probably better in habit of growth for orchard management than any other of the native plums, and usually productive. The fruits are good in quality, attractive in appearance, comparatively curculio-proof and are especially suited for culinary uses. The variety is unproductive unless cross-fertilized.

Several accounts are given of the origin of Miner, none of which can be accurately verified at this late date. When all of the data is compared and that which is reliable is put together, the history of the variety runs about as follows: In 1813 William Dodd, an officer under General Jackson, found this plum growing in a Chicasaw Indian plantation at a place called Horse Shoe Bend, on the Tallapoosa River, Alabama. The plums were so attractive in size and excellent in quality that he saved seeds of the variety and in 1814 planted them in Knox County, Tennessee. When the trees came in bearing and their merits were discovered, the new plum was at once in demand and was rather widely distributed in Knox and neighboring counties under the names " Old Hickory " and " General Jackson." In 1823 or 1824, Dodd moved to Springfield, Illinois, taking sprouts of this plum with him. Dodd's young trees did not thrive and he asked a brother in Tennessee who was moving to Illinois, to bring more sprouts of the new plum. The brother, instead of going to Springfield, went to Galena, Illinois, taking with him the sprouts of Old Hickory. These fell into the hands of Judge Hinckley, who distributed them among his friends, one of whom, a Mr. Townsend, propagated the variety rather extensively. At Galena, from the circumstances just noted, the variety was called " Hinckley " and " Townsend." Meanwhile, the trees which the first Mr. Dodd had taken to Springfield came into bearing and the variety was propagated and distributed in the neighborhood as " William Dodd " and " Chicasaw Chief." A relative of the Townsends, at Galena, took trees of this plum to Lancaster, Wisconsin, where they were propagated by a man named Joel Barber. Barber named the plum after his father-in-law, a Mr. Miner, and this name, out of the dozen or more that have been given it, is the one under which the plum is now universally known. During the process of dissemination the variety received several other local names as Isabel, Gillett, Robinson and Parsons.

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, hardy at Geneva, unproductive unless cross-pollinized; branches smooth, reddish-brown, thorny; branchlets slender, long, with long internodes, greenish-red, changing to brownish-red, glossy, glabrous, with numerous, small, grayish lenticels; leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, appressed.

Leaves falling late, long-oval or obovate, peach-like, one and five-eighths inches wide, four inches long, thick; upper surface roughish, glabrous except for a few hairs on the narrowly grooved midrib; lower surface very thinly pubescent; apex acuminate, base abrupt and nearly acute, margin serrate, with small glands; petiole five-eighths inch long, pubescent on the upper surface, often tinged red, with from two to four reniform or globose, dark amber glands usually on the stalk.

Flowers late, often self-sterile, medium to large.

Fruit somewhat late; medium in size, roundish-ovate or roundish-oblong; cavity shallow, narrow, regular; suture indistinct; apex pointed; color dull, dark red, appearing some time before maturity, covered with thin bloom; dots numerous, minute, yellowish, conspicuous at first, becoming duller; stem slender, long, adhering strongly to the fruit; skin thick, tough, somewhat astringent; flesh pale amber yellow, juicy, nearly tender, mild, aromatic; good in quality; stone adhering, small to medium, roundish-oval, flattened, pointed at the base and apex, with nearly smooth surfaces.

MIRABELLE

Prunus insititia

1. Merlet Abrege des bons fruits 1675. 2. Rea Flora 207. 1676. 3. Quintinye Com. Gard. 68, 70. 1699. 4. Langley Pomona 93, PL XXIII fig. VIII. 1729. 5. Miller Gard. Diet. 3:1754. 6. Du-hamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:95, PL XIV. 1768. 7. Knoop Fructologie 2:52, 58. 1771. 8. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 149. 1831. 9. Prince Pom. Man. 2:76. 1832. 10. Poiteau Pom. Franc. 1:1846. 11. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 282 fig. no. 1845. I2; Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 330. 1849. 13. Thomp son Gard. Ass't 518. 1859. *4+ Hogg Fruit Man. 371. 1866. 15. Jour. Hort. N. S. 15:359- l868-16. Pom. France 7:No. 14. 1871. 17. Mas Le Verger 6:13, fig. 7. 1866-73. 18. Oberdieck Deut. Obst. Sort. 425. 1881. 19. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 431, 432. 1889. 20. Gaucher Pom. Prak. Obst. 93, PI. 69. 1894. 21. Guide Prat. 163, 361. 1895. 22. Garden 50:364. 1896. 23. U.S.D.A. Div. Pom. Bul. 10:11. 1901. 24. Baltet Cult. Fr. 489, 492 fig. 326, 503. 1908.

Aprikosenartige Mirabelle 16, 19, 20, 21. Damascena Armeniacea 21. Damascena Armeniaca 19. Damas Vert 7. De Mirabelle 21. ^Z6e Mirabelle 16, 17, 21. Gelbe Mirabelle 18, 19, 20. Geperlte Mirabelle 19. Green Damask ? 3. Kleinste Mirabelle 19. Kleine Mirabelle 19, 20, 21. La Mirabelle 9, 19, 20, 21. Lerchenei 19, 20. Li#te Mirabelle 9, 19, 20. Mirdbabelle 20. Mirabel 3. Mirabelle abricotee 16, 19, 20, 21. Mirabelle 14, 17, 19, 21. Mirabelle Blanche 7, Mirabelle Blanche 14, 16, 19, 20, 21. Mirabelle de Metz 15, 19, 20, 24. Mirabelle de Vienne 14, 16, 19, 20, 21. Mirabelle Jaune 7, 8, u, 13, 14, 16, 19, 20, 21. Mirabelle Perle 14, 20. Mirabelle PerUe 7, 16, 19, 20, 21. Mirabelle Petite 8, 9, 11, 13, 17, 19, 21. Mirabelle precoce 16, 17, 19, 20?, 21?. Mirabelle Petite 14. Mirabelle Simple ? 7. Mirabelle Verte 161 ?21. Mirabelle Verte ?7. Pi#+# JDra^ cTOr 9, 19, 20. Petite Mirabelle 9, 16, 19, 20. Petite Mirabelle 16, 17, 21, 24. P. Damascena Armeniacea 16. Prune de Mirabelle 9, 17, 19. Prune de Mirabelle 10. Small Mirabelle 9. Small Mirabelle 19, 20. Syrische Pflaume 19, 20. The Green Damosine Plum?2. White Mirabelle 14, 16, 19, 21. White Mirable 4. Wiener Mirabelle 19, 20.

Mirabelle, though described in an American fruit book as early as 1832 and mentioned in nearly every pomology since, is hardly known in America. In Europe, especially in France, it is one of the favorite varieties and is in great demand for canning, preserves, compotes, tarts and prunes. The trees of this variety on the grounds of this Station grow very well, producing fine crops of fruit, as it is probable they would do wherever the Damsons can be grown. The small, round, yellow fruits are attractive in appearance, and the sweet, pleasant flavor of the variety should fit it admirably in this country for the purposes for which it is so largely grown by the French. The trees are small but vigorous and healthy, the last two qualities having suggested in Europe their use as stocks, to which purpose they are sometimes put in France when a dwarfing stock is needed. European writers say that the variety may be reproduced from seed.

Mirabelle is a very old plum; it was noted by the pomological writers in the latter part of the Seventeenth Century and since that date it has held a conspicuous place in all of the European plum literature. This variety, though probably sparingly introduced in America at different times, has never been widely cultivated and is not now offered for sale by any of the nurserymen whose catalogs have been consulted for The Plums of New York.

Tree small, round and open-topped, hardy; branches dark ash-gray, smooth, with numerous, small lenticels; branchlets slender, of medium length, dull brownish-red, thorny, glabrous, with numerous, small, indistinct lenticels; leaf-buds of medium size and length, conical, free.

Leaves falling early, one and one-half inches wide, three inches long, folded upward, oval, rather thin; upper surface medium green, smooth, with few hairs scattered along the grooved midrib; lower surface silvery-green, pubescent; apex acute, base abrupt, margin crenate, with small, black glands; petiole one-half inch long, tinged red along one side, glandless or with from one to three small, globose glands usually on the stalk.

Flowers appearing in mid-season, after the leaves, seven-eighths inch across, white with a yellow tinge as the buds unfold; borne on lateral spurs and buds, in twos or threes; pedicels three-quarters inch long, slender, thickly pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, broadly obconic, glabrous except at the base; calyx-lobes of medium width, obtuse, glandular-serrate, pubescent on both surfaces; reflexed; petals oval, crenate, tapering to short, broad claws; anthers yellow with a tinge of red; filaments three-eighths inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit mid-season, period of ripening of medium length; seven-eighths inch in diameter, roundish-oval, slightly necked, swollen on one side,compressed, halves equal; cavity very shallow and narrow, abrupt; suture indistinct; apex roundish or depressed; color light golden-yellow, sometimes blushed and mottled with red on the exposed cheek, overspread with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, whitish, inconspicuous, clustered at the apex; stem slender, three-quarters inch long, pubescent, adhering poorly to the fruit; skin thin, tough, not astringent, separating readily; flesh light yellow, not very juicy, firm, but tender, sweet, mild, but pleasant; good to very good; stone free, five-eighths inch by three-eighths inch in size, oval, blunt, broadly ridged along one edge, roughish.

MIRACLE

Prunus insititia X Prunus domestica

1. Rural N. Y. 62:594. 1903. 2. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 25. 1904. 3. Rural N. Y. 64:280.

1905. 4. Oregon Nur. Cat, 4. 1906. 5. DeVries PL Br. 228. 1907.

Unfortunately, so far as is known, this much-talked-of plum has not been fruited in New York. About 1887, Luther Burbank imported from a French nurseryman a tree of the Prunier San Noyeau or Stoneless plum known as a curiosity in Europe for at least three centuries. With this fruit he crossed several of the best European varieties, producing hybrids which first fruited in 1893. Although there were several stoneless fruits in this lot, none were of any value and it was not until 1899 that one appeared worthy of consideration. In this seedling, developed from Agen pollen, the stone is represented by a small, hard scale near the base of the kernel. Burbank sold the new plum in 1903 to the Oregon Nursery Company by whom it was introduced in 1906. The following description is compiled:

Tree somewhat dwarfish, producing a roundish, compact head, very productive. Fruit larger than Agen, oblong, dark blue covered with thick bloom; cavity medium; stem short; flesh yellow, sweet, juicy; good; stone lacking, the kernel lying naked in the flesh.

MONARCH

Prunus domestica

1. Gard. Chron. 19:815. 1883. 2. Rev. Hort. 252, PI. 1892. 3. Guide Prat. 163, 360. 1895. 4. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:181 fig. 40 V, 189. 1897. 5. Rural N. Y. 57:670, 671 fig. 310. 1898. 6. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:242, 247. 1899. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 39. 1899. 8. Waugh Plum Cult. 116. 1901. 9. Thompson Gard. Ass't 4:158 fig. 956. 1901. 10. Garden 62:2g8. 1902. 11. Gard. Chron. 36:282. 1904. 12. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:242 fig., 256, 257. 1905.

Monarque 3. Prune Monarque 2.

No plum of recent introduction has so quickly attained popularity as the Monarch. Of the great number of plums imported from the Old World, this is one of the few which has proved worthy of a place with the best American varieties for American conditions, an illustration of the importance of testing all foreign fruits. The plate shows the fruit of this variety well, though the plums look smaller in the illustration than in naturean illusion always accompanying the reproduction in exact size of the photograph of a round object. The nicely turned form and the rich purple color of this plum make it a handsome fruit. While the quality is not of the best, Monarch ranks high among purple plums as a dessert fruit, few plums of this color being especially palatable to eat out of hand. The variety is not remarkable for any of its tree-characters, yet they average well with other plums and, with those of the fruit, make a variety quite above the average and give it a place among the best commercial sorts. Monarch is now so widely disseminated and so largely grown in New York, that we shall know shortly whether it is to hold the high place it has so quickly taken among market plums in this State.

Monarch, a seedling of the Autumn Compote, was grown by Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England and was introduced by the originator in 1885. English publications described and figured this variety in 1883 but there are no notices of it in American pomological literature until 1897. Two years later it was placed on the fruit list of the American Pomological Society catalog and recommended for the north-eastern section of the United States. Notwithstanding the fact that the variety is relatively new, it is now offered for sale by nearly every nurseryman in this country.

Tree of medium size and vigor, upright-spreading, open-topped, hardy at Geneva, usually productive; branches ash-gray, smooth, with small lenticels; branchlets of medium thickness and length, with internodes of average length, greenish-red, changing to brownish-drab, dull, thickly pubescent, with obscure, small lenticels; leaf-buds large, long, pointed, appressed; leaf-scars somewhat swollen.


Leaves broadly oval, wide, medium in length, thick, somewhat stiff; upper surface rugose, covered thinly with hairs; lower surface pubescent; apex abruptly pointed, margin serrate or crenate, eglandular; petiole short, thick, heavily pubescent, lightly tinged red, glandless or with one or two large, reniform or globose, greenish-brown glands usually on the stalk.

Season of bloom intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing with the leaves, one and one-eighth inches across, white; pedicels three-quarters inch in length, thick, pubescent, green; calyx-tube greenish, campanulate, pubescent; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, thickly pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, reflexed; petals oval, crenate, tapering to short and very broad claws; anthers yellow; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil pubescent, longer than the stamens.

Fruit late; two inches by one and three-quarters inches in size, roundish-oval, halves unequal; cavity deep, medium to narrow, abrupt; suture shallow, often a line; apex roundish or flattened; color dark purplish-red, often with russet flecks scattered over the surface, overspread with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, reddish-brown, conspicuous, clustered about the apex; stem thick, three-quarters inch long, pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, tender, slightly astringent, separating readily; flesh golden-yellow, juicy, somewhat fibrous, tender, sweet next to the skin, pleasantly tart towards the center, aromatic; good; stone clinging, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, long-oval, turgid, roughened and pitted, pointed at the base, blunt at the apex; ventral suture rather wide, shallowly furrowed, blunt; dorsal suture with a wide, shallow groove.

MONROE

Prunus domestica

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 189, 210. 1856. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 389. 1857. 3* Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 356. 1867. 4. Barry Fr. Garden 414. 1883. 5- Guide Prat. 163,364. 1895. 6. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:189. 1897. 7. Waugh Plum Cult. 116. 1901. 8. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:320. 1903.

Monroe Egg 1, 6. Monroe Egg 2, 7, 8. Monroe Gage 1, 2, 5, 7, 8. Monroe Gage 4. Reine-Claude de Monroe 5.

The fruit of Monroe is small and the trees produce well only in alternate years, defects that its high quality cannot overcome. Monroe originated with a Miss Durham, Penfield, Monroe County, New York, about the middle of the last century. At one time it was quoted by nearly all nurserymen but the variety is fast disappearing.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, productive; branchlets covered with fine pubescence; leaves oval, one and three-quarters inches wide, three and one-half inches long, thick, rugose; margin finely serrate; petiole tinged red, pubescent, with from one to three small glands.

Fruit matures in mid-season; one and three-eighths inches by one and one-quarter inches in size, oval, sometimes necked, golden-yellow, often mottled on the sunny side with red, overspread with thin bloom; stem adhering poorly to the fruit; flesh golden-yellow, tender, sweet, mild; of very good quality; stone semi-free or free, three-quarters inch by one-half inch in size, long and slightly irregular-oval, acute at the base and apex, with nearly smooth surfaces; ventral suture prominent, blunt.

MOREMAN

Prunus hortulana

1. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt. 91. 1885. 2* Cornell Sta. Bui 38:49, 86. 1892. 3. Mich. Sta. Bui 123:20. 1895. 4. Vt. Sta. An Rpt. 11:285. 1898. 5. Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 177, 206. 1898. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 40. 1899. 7. la. Sta. Bul. 46:280. 1900. 8. Kan. Sta. Bul. 101:135, 137. 1901. 9. Ohio Sta. Bui 162:256, 257. 1905.

Mooretnan 1.

Moreman is the hardiest of the Hortulana plums and possibly worthy of keeping before plum-growers for this reason. Its fruit-characters are not as satisfactory as those of several other varieties of its species. Dr. Wayland of Cadiz, Kentucky, according to T. V. Munson, grew a lot of seedlings from pits of wild plums found in his vicinity and either from this lot or from a seedling from them, came the Moreman. The variety was introduced by W. F. Heikes in 1881. It was listed in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1899. The following description is compiled.

Tree vigorous, spreading, hardy, productive; leaves of medium size, coarsely serrate; petiole usually glandless. Fruit late; small, roundish, bright red, bloomless; stem long, slender; dots numerous, yellow; flesh firm, yellow, pleasant in flavor; quality fair; stone small, roundish, clinging.

MOROCCO

Prunus domestica

I. Parkinson Par. Ter. 576. 1629. 2. Rea Flora 207. 1676. 3. Ray Hist. Plant. 2:1528. 1688. 4. Langley Pomona 91, PI. XX fig. III. 1729. 5. Miller Gard. Diet. 3:1754. 6. Knoop Fructologie 56. 1771. 7. Abercrombie Gard. AssH 13. 1786. 8. Forsyth Treat. Fr. Trees 19. 1803. 9. Pom. Mag. 3:103. 1830. 10. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 145, 146, 150. 1831. 11. Prince Pom. Man. 2:82. 1832. 12. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 306. 1845. X3* Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 282, 382. 1846. 14. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 338. 1849. 15. Loudon Enc. Gard. 921. 1834. 16. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 28. 1876. 17. Hogg Fruit Man. 714. 1884. 18. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 430. 1889.

Black Morocco 7. Black Morocco 9, 10, 12,13, 14, 17, 18. Black Damask 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 17,18. Black Damascus 13. Damas Noir 5. Damas Noir Hatif 6, 10. Damas Hatif 10. Damas noir hdtif 11. Early Damask 5, 8. Early Black Damask 9, 10, 13. Early Damson 10. Early Morocco 10, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18. Early Damask 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18. Early Black Damask 11. Early Black Morocco 12, 18. Fruhe Schwarze Pflaume 18. Fruhe Platte Damascene 18. Italian Damask 12 incor., 14. Mogul 16. Morocco 16, 18. Marokko Pflaume 18. Morocco Plumb 4. Morocco 5, 8, 9. Noire Hdtif 18. Saint Cyr 11


This variety is not popular in New York nor does it deserve to be, as there are many better plums of its season. Its faults are small size, an insipid flavor and poor keeping qualities. Morocco is one of the oldest of the cultivated plums. It has been known in Europe for three centuries at least and is undoubtedly much older, its early history not having been written. It is not known when the variety was introduced into this country but it has been grown in the Southern States for many years under the name Mogul. About 1894, it was reintroduced from England by the W. & T. Smith Nursery Company of Geneva, New York, under the name Mogul.

Tree large, vigorous, round-topped, rather tender to cold, productive; branchlets covered with heavy pubescence; leaves oval, one and three-quarters inches wide, three inches long; margin finely serrate or crenate; petiole short, thick, with one or two globose glands usually at the base of the leaf; blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and one-eighth inches across, white or creamy as the buds unfold; borne on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs.

Fruit late, ripening period short; below medium in size, round to oval or obovate, purplish-black, covered with thick bloom; dots conspicuous; flesh light golden-yellow, rather dry, moderately firm, sweet next to the skin, but rather acid near the center; poor; stone clinging, medium to small, oval or ovate, flattened, with rough surfaces.

MOTTLED PRUNE

Prunus domestica

This plum is placed among the leading varieties only that a full description of it may be put on record. The fruit is attractive in color but is inferior in quality. These defects are so prominent that the variety can hardly become popular. The Mottled Prune originated in Waterloo, New York, as a chance seedling in 1887; it was introduced by E. Smith & Sons, Geneva, New York.

Tree large, round and open-topped, very productive; branches stocky; branchlets heavily pubescent; leaves folded backward or flattened, oval or obovate, one and three-quarters inches wide, three and one-half inches long, thick and leathery, rugose; margin crenate, with few, small, dark glands; petiole thickly pubescent, dull dark red, gland-less or with from one to three smallish glands usually on the stalk; blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch across, white; borne in scattering clusters on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels very pubescent.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period short; one and three-quarters inches by one and one-half inches in size, ovate, dark purplish-red, somewhat mottled, covered with thick bloom; dots numerous, conspicuous; flesh pale yellow, juicy, firm, sweet, mild; of fair quality; stone free, one inch by three-quarters inch in size, oval, flattened, strongly roughened; ventral suture deeply furrowed, often with a short wing; dorsal suture with a narrow, shallow groove.

MYROBALAN

Prunus cerasifera

1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 576, 578. 1629. 2. Gerard Herball 1498, 1500. 1636. 3. Rea Flora 209. 1676. 4. Ray Hist. Plant, 2:1528. 1688. 5. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:111, PI. XX fig. 15. 1768. 6. Knoop Fructologie 55, 56. 1771. 7. Forsyth Treat. Fr. Trees 20. 1803. 8. Miller Gard. Diet. 3:1807. 9 Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 232. 1817. 10. Lond. Hort. Soc Cat. 144, 150. 1831. 11. Prince Pom. Man. 2:80. 1832. 12. Hoffy Orch. Comp. 2:1842. 13.^Downing Fr. Trees Am. 294. 1845. *4+ Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 285. 1846. 15. Poiteau Pom. Franc. 1. 1846. 16. Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc. N. S. 15:360. 1868. 17. Hogg Fruit Man. 690. 1884. 18. Gard. & For. 1:178. 1888. 19. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 448. 1889. 20+ C^- State Board Hort. 112, 113. 1891. 21. Cornell Sta. Bul. 38:66. 1892. 22. Rev. Hort. 204. 1894. 23. Neb. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 177. 1895. 24. Guide Prat. 157, 353. 1895. 25. Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 190 fig. 27, 209. 1898. 26. Vt. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:211, 212, 215. 1899. 27. 5. Dak. Sta. Bul. 93:66. 1905.

Arabische Kirsche 19. Asiatische Kirsche 19. American Cherry Plum 11. Cerisette 11. 18, 19. (Serizette 11. Ciriselle 6. Cerisette 6, 11. Cerisette Blanche 6. Cerise 19. Cherry 1, 11. Cherry Plum 7, 8, 11, 16, 19, 20. Cherry 13, 14, 17. Cherry Plum 9, 10, 18. De Virginie 10, 13, 14. Damasine 24, D'Amerique Rouge io, 13, 14. Early Scarlet 10, 11, 13, 17, 19. European Cherry Plum 11. Muscadine ?i. Kirschpflaume 18, 19. Kleine Kirschpflaume 24. Mirobalan 2. Mirabilon 3I Mirabolan 5 Myrobolan 13. Mirabolanenpflaume 19 Myrobalans 7. Mirabolane 19. Mirobalan 9, 11. Myrobalane 19. Mirabolan 14. Myrobalan 10, 11, 14, 17, 18, 19. Mir a-belle Rouge 24. Mirabelle Rouge 10. Miser Plum 19. Miser 12, 13, 14, 17. Prune d'Amerique Rouge 19. Prune Cerise n. Prune Cerizette 8. Prunus Myrobalana 11, 14, 19, 23. Prunus Cerasifera 10, 11, 13, 14, 19. Prune Ceriset n. Prune de Virginie 19. Prunier Myrobolan 15, 22. Prune Cerisette 15. Prunus Cerasifera fructu majore 19. Prunus Myrobolana 13. Queene Mother ?1. Red Mirobalane 1. Rote Kirschpflaume 19. Red Mirabelle 12. iet#/w? Mirabelle 24. Stambul Erik oder Irek 19. Turkische Kirsche 19. Virginian Cherry 10, 13, 14, 17, 19. White Mirobalane 1. The Myrobalane Plum 4.

Myrobalan is a group name rather than a varietal one. Plums of this group are grown from seeds and many varieties have appeared during the last three centuries, differing in color, shape, stone and in many minor characters. The red and reddish-purple plums and the round ones are apparently the most numerous though there are frequent references to the White Myrobalan and to heart-shaped fruits in this group. For a further discussion of these plums see Prunus cerasifera. The Myrobalan plums are used largely as stocks in the propagation of plums and closely allied plants; occasionally they are used for culinary purposes though with rather poor results.

NECTARINE

Prunus domestica

1. Pom. Mag. 3:148. 1830. 2. Lond. Hort. Soc. Gat. 150. 1831. 3. Kenrick Am. Orch. 264. 1832. 4. Downing Ft. Trees Am. 306. 1845. 5+ Horticulturist 1:115. 1846. 6. Cole Am. Fr. Book 215. 1849. 7- Thompson Gard. AssH 518. 1859. 8. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 448. 1889. 9. Guide Prat. 162, 365. 1895.

Bradshaw 6. Caledonian 1, 2, 3. CalveVs Pfirschenpflaume 8. Goliath of some 8. HoweVs 3. HowelVs Large 1, 2, 4, 7, 8. Jenkin's Imperial 2, 4, 7, 8, 9. Louis Phillipe 4. Louis Philippe 6, 7 8, 9. Large Early Black 6. Nectarine 1, 8, 9. Nectarine Plum 3, 7. Peach Plum 4, 7, 9. Peach 2, 8. Prune Peche 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8. Peche de Calvel 8. Prune d'Abricot 8. Peche of some 9. Rothe Nectarine 9. Rote Nectarine 8. The Nectarine Plum 1.

Much confusion has existed regarding the identity of the Nectarine, Peach and Goliath plums. These names have been interchanged indiscriminately for the three plums and it is now difficult to separate the varieties, especially as they are very similar. The Goliath, however, may be separated from the other two by its pubescent shoots, which the others do not have. The Peach plum is the largest of the three and has a reddish cast whereas the Nectarine and Goliath are dark purple. The earlier writers knew a Nectarine as a synonym of Peach but it was not until 1830 that the Nectarine was finally described as a separate variety. Nectarine is of unknown origin. The following description is compiled.

Tree vigorous, round-topped, productive; leaves large, oval; branches glabrous. Fruit early; large, roundish, flattened at the ends, dark purple with thin bloom; flesh greenish-yellow, tinged red at maturity, rather coarse, sprightly; fair to good; stone of medium size, compressed, oval, semi-clinging.

NEWARK

Prunus domestica

This fruit has little to recommend it to the commercial plum-grower; it is small in size and unattractive in color; the quality, however, is very good and the variety is worth planting for home use. Newark originated in Newark, New York, and in 1895 was bought by E. Smith & Sons of Geneva, New York, who disseminated it two years later.

Tree medium in size and vigor, upright-spreading, rather open, very productive; branches rough; branchlets marked by scarf-skin, leaf-scars prominent; leaves flattened, somewhat drooping, oval or obovate, one and three-quarters inches wide, three and one-half inches long, thick, rugose; margin coarsely serrate, with small, dark glands; petiole thick, pubescent, glandless or with one or two smallish glands usually on the stalk; blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch or more across, white with yellowish tinge at the apex of the petals; borne singly or in pairs; anthers yellow with a trace of red.

Fruit early, season short; one and one-half inches by one and three-eighths inches in size, oval, dull yellow mottled with red at full maturity, covered with thin bloom; dots numerous, conspicuous; flesh light greenish-yellow, rather dry, firm, sweet, mild; good to very good; stone free, three-quarters inch by one-half inch in size, irregular-oval, flat, with finely pitted surfaces; ventral suture usually winged; dorsal suture with a shallow, narrow, indistinct groove.

NEWMAN

Prunus munsoniana

z. Horticulturist 22:271. 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 934. 1869. 3. Am. Jour. Hort. 5:142. 1869. 4. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 39. 1874. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1875. 6. Barry Fr. Garden 418. 1883. 7. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 286. 1887. 8. Cornell Sta. Bul. 38:63, 86. 1892. 9. Mich. Sta. Bul. 123:20. 1895. 10. Wis. Sta. BuL 63:49. 1897. " Me. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:66. 1896. 12. Bailey Ev. Nat. Fruits 200 fig., 201. 1898. 13. Rural N. Y. 59:450. 1900. 14. la. Sta. Bul. 46:282. 1900. 15. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:256, 257. 1905.

Warren ? 8.

Newman is one of the oldest but still one of the standard varieties of its species. Its fruits are characterized by a firm, meaty flesh, which fits it well for shipping and storing; the plums are also attractive in shape and color but are too small and too low in quality to make the variety a first-rate one. The trees are large and vigorous and in all respects very satisfactory orchard plants. Both fruits and trees are usually reported as fairly free from diseases and insects. While the variety is gradually going out it still has some value for its crops and ought to make a good parent from which to breed a race of vigorous, firm-fleshed Munsonianas.

The origin of this plum is uncertain. In 1867 a Mr. Elliott of Cleveland, Ohio, reported in the Horticulturist that he had received samples of the "Newman Plum " from D. L. Adair, Esq., of Hawesville, Kentucky, and gave a brief description of the fruit which seems to tally with that of the variety under discussion. The American Pomological Society added this plum to its fruit catalog list in 1875 and removed it in 1891.

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, low and flat, dense-topped, hardy at Geneva, productive, subject to attacks of shot-hole fungus, the trunk shaggy; branches dark ash-gray, rough and shaggy, thorny, zigzag, with numerous, rather inconspicuous, large, elongated lenticels; branchlets very slender, twiggy, with internodes of average length, greenish-red, changing to dark brown, glabrous, with few, conspicuous, large, raised lenticels; leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, plump, nearly free.

Leaves lanceolate, peach-like, one and one-quarter inches wide, four inches long, thin; upper surface smooth, glabrous, with a grooved midrib; lower surface glabrous except along the midrib and larger veins; apex taper-pointed, base acute, margin finely crenate, with small, amber glands; petiole slender, seven-eighths inch long, lightly pubescent along one side, reddish, glandless or with from one to four very small, globose, yellowish-red glands on the stalk.

Blooming season late and long; flowers appearing after the leaves, three-quarters inch across, in the buds tinged yellow, changing to white on expanding, odor disagreeable ; borne in clusters on lateral spurs and buds, in twos or in threes; pedicels eleven-sixteenths inch long, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes small, narrow, slightly obtuse, pubescent on the inner surface, glandular-serrate and with marginal hairs, erect; petals ovate or oval, crenate, tapering at the base into long, narrow claws; anthers yellow, tinged with-red; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil slender, glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period very long; one inch by seven-eighths inch in size, strongly oval, not compressed, halves equal; cavity shallow, narrow, flaring; suture a distinct dark red line; apex depressed; color bright currant-red, with thin bloom; dots grayish, rather conspicuous, clustered near the apex; stem very slender, seven-eighths inch long, glabrous, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, very tough, astringent, separating readily; flesh deep yellow, juicy, tender and melting, sweetish next to the skin, but tart at the center; fair in quality; stone clinging, five-eighths inch by three-eighths inch in size, long-oval, turgid, necked at the base, blunt-pointed at the apex, with finely pitted surfaces; ventral suture narrow, inconspicuous; dorsal suture with a narrow, shallow groove.

NEW ULM Prunus americana

1. Minn. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 126. 1890. 2. Wis. Sta. Bul. 63:49 fig., 50. 1897. 3. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. in. 1899. 4- Ant. Pom. Soc. Cat. 37. 1899. 5. la. Sta. Bul. 46:282 fig. 1900. 6. Waugh Plum Cult. 158. 1901. 7. Ont. Fr. Gr. Assoc. 143. 1901. 8. 5. Dak. Sta. Bul. 93:26. 1905. 9. III. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 422. 1905. 10. la. Sta. Bul. 114:141. 1910.

Snooks 10.

New Ulm is worthy of attention because of its large, handsome, well-formed fruits. The plums are further distinguished by a peculiar flavor, somewhat suggesting that of the mandrake, pleasant to some but disagreeable to others. The flesh is a little too juicy for pleasant eating but the fruits ship well, the tough, thick skin firmly holding its contents. The fruits, however, do not keep well, for, despite the thick skin, the spores of the brown-rot find entrance and thrive so that the variety rots badly. The trees are hardy and productive but ill-shaped and hard to manage in either the orchard or the nursery for which reason the culture of the variety is discouraged by nurserymen and it is now almost impossible to buy New Ulm trees. The illustration of this variety shows well the characters of the western type of Prunus americana in leaf, fruit and stone.

New Ulm was raised from seed of a wild variety that grew in the neighborhood of the originator and introducer, C. W. H. Heideman, New Ulm, Minnesota. The fruit was exhibited at the Minnesota State Fair in 1890 where it attracted much attention, being the largest plum of fifty varieties exhibited. In 1899 the American Pomological Society placed the variety on its fruit catalog list. The Minnesota State Horticultural Society, in spite of the fact that this plum has gained a good reputation for its size and productiveness, removed it from its recommended fruit list in 1904 because of the difficulty of growing the trees in the nursery.

Tree of medium size, spreading and drooping, irregular, low and dense-topped, undesirable in habit of growth, hardy, usually productive, subject to attacks of shot-hole fungus; branches very rough and shaggy, zigzag, thorny, dark ash-gray, with large lenticels; branchlets thick, long, willowy, with long internodes, green, with a faint yellow tinge, changing to light and dark, dull reddish-brown, glabrous, with numerous, conspicuous, large, raised lenticels; leaf-buds small, pointed, strongly appressed.

Leaves drooping, folded upward, oval or ovate, two inches wide, four and three-eighths inches long, thin; upper surface dark green, changing to reddish-yellow late in the season, glabrous, with a grooved midrib; lower surface silvery green, lightly pubescent; apex taper-pointed, base abrupt, margin coarsely and doubly serrate, eglandular; petiole slender, five-eighths inch long, pubescent, tinged with red which deepens in color at the base, glandless or with from one to three globose, greenish-brown glands usually on the stalk.

Flowers intermediate in time and length of blooming season, appearing after the leaves, showy on account of the numerous pure white petals, one and one-sixteenth inches across, white; borne in dense clusters on lateral spurs and buds, usually in threes; pedicels seven-sixteenths inch long, thick, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube red, cam-panulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes long, narrowly obtuse, lightly pubescent on the inner surface, thickly pubescent along the glandular-serrate margin, erect; petals oval, entire or incised, tapering below to narrow claws of medium length and with reddish base; anthers yellow; filaments seven-sixteenths inch in length; pistil glabrous, much shorter than the stamens.

Fruit mid-season, intermediate in length of ripening period; about one and three-eighths inches in diameter, roundish-ovate, halves equal; cavity markedly shallow, very narrow; suture a line; apex roundish or slightly pointed; color carmine over a yellow ground, overspread with thin bloom; dots very numerous, russet; stem five-eighths inch long, glabrous, adhering somewhat to the fruit; skin thick and tough, astringent, adhering strongly; flesh golden-yellow, very juicy and fibrous, granular, tender and melting, sweet with a strong aromatic flavor; good; stone adhering, seven-eighths inch by nine-sixteenths inch in size, oval, slightly flattened, blunt at the base, pointed at the apex, with smooth surfaces; ventral suture distinctly winged; dorsal suture narrow, shallow, grooved.


NICHOLAS

Prunus domestica

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 61. 1887. 2. Kan. Sta. Bul. 101:121, 124 fig. 1901. 3. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 327. 1903.

Arab No. 2 Bielaya Nicholskaya 1. White Nicolas 1. White Nicholas 2, 3.

Although a fairly good early dessert plum it is doubtful if Nicholas has any commercial value as it is inferior in most characters of fruit and tree to standard varieties; in particular it drops badly as it begins to ripen. " White," as formerly and usually now put in the name, is a misnomer, as the fruit is red; how it came to be applied to this fruit does not appear. Nicholas was imported from Dr. Regel of St. Petersburg, Russia, by Professor J. L. Budd of the Iowa Experiment Station in the winter of 1881-82 and in 1888 was sent out for testing under the name Arab No. 2.

Tree of medium size, round-topped, productive; trunk rough; branches smooth except for the raised lenticels and longitudinal cracks in the bark; branchlets slender; leaves falling early, folded upward, obovate or oval, one and five-eighths inches wide, three and three-eighths inches long, rugose; margin serrate, with few, small, dark glands; petiole pubescent, tinged red, sometimes with several small glands; blooming season intermediate in time, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch or more across, white, tinged with yellow near the apex of the petals; borne on lateral buds and spurs, in scattering clusters, singly or in pairs.

Fruit early, one and three-eighths inches by one inch in size, long-oval, dark red, covered with thick bloom; stem adhering poorly to the fruit; flesh light yellow, juicy, fibrous, tender, sweet, mild; good; stone free, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, flattened, oval, somewhat obliquely acute at the base, with granular surfaces; ventral suture prominent, rather narrow, blunt; dorsal suture with a narrow, shallow groove.

OCCIDENT

Prunus triflora

1. Rural N. Y. 57:653. 1898. 2. Am. Gard. 19:826. 1898. 3. Burbank Cat. 1899. 4. Vt. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:229. 1899. 5. Rural N. Y. 60:658 fig., 662. 1901. 6. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 320. 1903. 7. Ga. Sta. Bul. 68:11, 37. 1905. 8. Rural N. Y. 65:730. 1906.

Burbank's Sultan 6. Garnet 1. Garnet 2. Occident 8. Oval Blood (unpublished). Sultan 2, 3, 5, 8. Sultan 4, 7.

Occident differs little from Apple in horticultural characters and need not be discussed at length as the reader can readily turn to the color-plate and description of the last named variety. At best this sort can hardly be called more than a curiosity, though an interesting one, of use, if at all, only for cooking and as a long-keeping, rot-resistant plum. It will add novelty to any amateur's collection because of the size, shape, color, flavor and red flesh of the fruits.

This variety was grown by Burbank and introduced by him in 1899 under the name Sultan. H. E. Van Deman, in the Rural New Yorker (References, 1), says that Occident is a cross between Wickson and Satsuma and that the name Garnet which he suggested, owing to the color of its flesh and skin, had been accepted by Mr. Burbank. About two months later the Division of Pomology of the United States Department of Agriculture called attention to the fact that " Garnet" had been previously given to another variety and the name was changed to Sultan. Waugh in 1899 substituted "Occident" for Sultan as the latter is the name of a European plum; Waugh's name has been accepted by all recent writers. Occident undoubtedly contains Satsuma blood but it has but few characters that suggest Wickson, and if a cross, which is likely, the other parent is undeterminable. The following description is compiled:

Tree vigorous, slow of growth, straggling, somewhat variable in habit, late in coming into bearing, productive; leaves numerous, large.

Fruit ripens with Burbank, keeps and ships unusually well, resistant to rot; large, roundish; cavity of medium depth; suture shallow, distinct; color dark red over a greenish ground; dots many, yellowish; stem thick, short, adhering to the fruit; skin somewhat thin, tough, slightly astringent; flesh dark red, firm, sweet, rather acid, changing to subacid as maturity advances, sprightly; good to very good; stone free or semi-clinging, of medium size, roundish, turgid, winged, rough.

OCHEEDA

Prunus americana

1. Cornell Sta. Bul. 38:41. 1892. 2. Wis. Sta. An. Rpt. 11:344. 1894. 3. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt.

34:112. 1899. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 37. 1899. 5. Waugh Plum Cult. 159. 1901. 6. Can.

Exp. Farm Bul. 43:31. 1903. 7. III. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 420. 1905. 8. S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 93:28. 1905.

Ocheda 7.

This variety is generally regarded as one of the valuable native plums but in New York it is surpassed by a number of other plums of its species in size of fruit and color though the quality is very good. We must rank it in this State as second rate among Americanas. Ocheeda was found by P. L. Hardow in 1872 growing wild on the banks of Ocheeda Lake, Minnesota, and in 1892 was introduced by H. J. Ludlow of Worthington, Minnesota.

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, open-topped, unproductive; branches shaggy, thorny, with large lenticels; branchlets willowy, pubescent; leaves folded upward, oval, nearly two inches wide, three and one quarter inches long; margin coarsely and doubly serrate; petiole densely covered with short hairs; blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, seven-eighths inch across, dull white; borne in scattering clusters almost entirely on one-year-old wood, many lateral buds remaining undeveloped, the bare limbs carrying tufts or clusters of blossoms, in threes or fours; petals long-obovate, nearly three times as long as wide, tapering to long claws, reddish at the base; stigma distinctly reddish when the flowers first open. Fruit mid-season, ripening period long; one inch by seven-eighths inch in size, ovate or roundish-ovate, slightly oblique, dull light to dark carmine over a yellow ground, somewhat mottled, overspread with thick bloom; skin slightly astringent; flesh dark golden-yellow, tender, melting, sweet, aromatic, pleasant in flavor; fair to good; stone dark colored, nearly free, three quarters inch by one-half inch in size, roundish-oval, turgid with smooth surfaces; ventral suture markedly winged.

OCTOBER

Prunus triflora

1. Cornell Sta. Bul. 106:58. 1896. 2. Cal. State Bd. Hort. 52. 1897-98. 3. Am. Gard. 20: 162 fig. 1899. 4. Rural N. Y. 59:104, 690. 1900. 5. Am. Gard. 21:36, 660. 1900. 6. Nat. Nur. 8:109, 123. 1900. 7. Waugh. Plum Cult. 139. 1901. 8. Rural N. Y. 62:756. 1903. 9. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:250 fig., 256, 257. 1905. 10. Mass. Sta. An. Rpt. 17:160. 1905.

October Purple 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10. October Purple 7.

There are but few late plums in Prunus triflora worth cultivating and one of the needs of horticulture is a late plum of superior quality in this species. At present October is the nearest approach to the plum desired but because of several faults it falls considerably short of filling the need. The fruits are large, attractive-looking, fairly suitable for dessert, very good for culinary purposes, hang well to the tree and keep and ship much better than the average Triflora variety; but still they are not far enough from mediocrity to make the variety especially desirable. The trees are well shaped, usually robust and healthy and the fruit is well borne on lateral spurs distributed over the old wood; but in New York, at least, the trees are very tardy in coming in bearing and cannot be depended upon to bear satisfactory crops regularlya fatal fault in a Triflora plum. October might be sparingly planted in New York to the pleasure of the amateur and possibly to the profit of the commercial fruit-grower who has a good local market.

October is said to be a cross of Satsuma and a seedling Triflora plum; it was first fruited by Luther Burbank in 1892 and was introduced by Stephen Hoyt's Sons, New Canaan, Connecticut, in 1897. The variety was named October Purple by Burbank but " Purple " has been dropped in accordance with the rules of the American Pomological Society.

Tree variable in size and vigor, upright-spreading, open-topped, hardy for a Triflora, not uniform in productiveness, healthy; branches rough, dark, dull ash-gray, with numerous, small lenticels; branchlets slender, long, with internodes of average length, greenish-red changing to dull reddish-brown, often with a green tinge on the winter shoots, glabrous; lenticels numerous, small; leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, free.

Leaves falling early, sparse, folded upward, oval or obovate, one and three-eighths inches wide, three and one-quarter inches long, thin and leathery; upper surface slightly rugose, with a broad groove on the lightly pubescent midrib; lower surface very thinly pubescent; apex and base acute, margin glandular, doubly serrate or crenate; petiole one-half inch long, hairy along the upper side, green, with from one to three small, globose, yellowish glands variable in position.

Blooming season early to medium, of average length; flowers appearing before the leaves, thirteen-sixteenths inch across, white; borne in dense clusters on lateral spurs and buds, in pairs; pedicels one-half inch long, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes obtuse, glandular-serrate, with numerous hairs along the edge, pubescent, somewhat erect; petals broadly ovate, entire, tapering to short, blunt claws; anthers yellow; filaments three-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, longer than the stamens.

Fruit mid-season or later, ripening period long; one and seven-eighths inches in diameter, roundish-cordate or slightly oblate, halves unequal; cavity deep, wide, flaring, with streaks radiating from the cavity; suture shallow or a line; apex roundish to slightly pointed; color dark red over a yellowish-green ground, with bloom of medium thickness; dots numerous, large, russet, conspicuous, clustered about the apex; stem somewhat slender, five-eighths inch long, glabrous, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, tough, sour, separating readily; flesh light yellow frequently tinged with red, very juicy, slightly fibrous, variable in firmness, sweet, mild, lacking the strong characteristic Triflora flavor; good; stone clinging, seven-eighths inch by five-eighths inch in size, roundish-oval, blunt but with a small tip, somewhat rough, ridged along the ventral, grooved on the dorsal suture.

OGON

Prunus triflora

1. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 29. 1886. 2. Ibid. 35, 58. 1888. 3. Ibid. 53, 99. 1889. 4. Col., O., Hort. Soc. Rpt. 81. 1892. 5. Cornell Sta. Bul. 62:27, 28 fig. 1894. 6. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 95. 1895. 7. Cornell Sta. Bul. 106:59. 1896. 8. Ibid. 131:194. 1897. 9. Ibid. 139:45. 1897. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 26. 1897. 11. Rural N. Y. 57:562. 1898. 12. Colo. Sta. Bul. 50:43. 1898. 13. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:242, 249. 1899. X4' Cornell Sta. Bul. 175:138 fig. 1899. 15. Ohio Sta. Bul. 113:157. 1899. 16. Waugh Plum Cult. 139. 1901. 17. Ga. Sta. Bul. 68:6 32. 1905. 18. Miss. Sta. Bul. 93:15. 1905.

Ogan 5. Ogden 1. Ogon 5. Shiro Smomo 6. Yellow Nagate 2.

Ogon, the Japanese for gold, is the name for one of the comparatively few varieties of Prunus triflora having a yellow color. This variety is further distinguished by being the only freestone sort of its species under cultivation in America. Ogon also has a flavor quite distinct, resembling somewhat that of the apricot, which is agreeable to some and not so to others; as the variety grows on the grounds of this Station it cannot be considered of high quality even for an early plum. The fruits crack rather badly on the tree and seem to be unusually susceptible to the attacks of curculio. In some of the references given, it is reported as making a poor tree and as having a weak constitution, and practically all agree that the variety is unproductive. These faults preclude its use in commercial plantations. The variety is distinct and interesting not only in its fruits but in its flowers which bear comparatively few stamens, many of which are abortive and show all degrees between perfect stamens and perfect petals.

Ogon was imported from Japan by H. H. Berger and Company, San Francisco, California. It was first mentioned as the Ogden in the Georgia Horticultural Society Report for 1886 and in the 1888 report of the same Society it was described as a new fruit. In 1897, the American Pomological Society added Ogon to its fruit catalog list.

Tree medium to large, vigorous, vasiform, dense-topped, hardy at Geneva, unproductive; branches slender, roughened by numerous spurs, sparingly thorny, dark gray, with numerous, small lenticels; branchlets sometimes swollen at the tips, of medium thickness and length, with internodes of average length, dark brown often with some green, partly overspread with gray scarf-skin, glossy, glabrous; lenticels medium in number and size, raised; leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, plump, free.

Leaves few, oblanceolate, peach-like, variable in size, averaging one and one-eighth inches wide, four inches long, thin; upper surface light green, shining, glabrous, narrowly grooved along the midrib; lower surface light yellowish-green, glabrous except at the base of the veins; margin finely crenate, with small, dark amber glands; petiole one-half inch long, glandless or with from pne to four globose, greenish glands on the stalk.

Blooming season early and of medium length; flowers appearing after the leaves, thirteen-sixteenths inch across, white; borne in clusters on lateral spurs and buds, in threes or in fours; pedicels five-sixteenths inch long, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, acute, slightly glandular-serrate, faintly pubescent, erect; petals broadly ovate, entire, tapering below to short claws; anthers yellowish, with a little pink; filaments three-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit early, season short; one and one-quarter inches by one and three-quarters inches in size, roundish-oblate, oblique, halves equal; cavity narrow, regular, flaring; suture variable in depth, prominent; apex roundish or slightly flattened; color lemon-yellow, with thin bloom; dots numerous, small, whitish, inconspicuous; stem slender, one-half inch long, glabrous, separating readily; skin thin, tough, astringent, inclined to crack, slightly adhering; flesh pale or amber-yellow, not as juicy as many of the Trinoras, firm and meaty, sweet, mild; of fair quality; stone free, five-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, roundish-oval, turgid, blunt but with a small short tip, oblique, slightly pitted; ventral suture faintly ridged and furrowed; dorsal suture not grooved.

ORANGE

Prunus domestica

1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 150. 1831. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 282. 1845. 3. Cole Am. Fr. Book 214. 1849. 4+ Mas Le Verger 6:25. 1866-73. 5+ Mathieu Nom. Pom. 442. 1889. 6. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 320. 1903.

Orange 5. Orange Gage 2, 5, 6. Pomeranzen Zwetsche 5. Wager 5, 6.

Orange belongs to the Reine Claude group. Taking its characters all in all it cannot compete with even the average varieties of the plums with which it should be compared. This variety was introduced by A. J. Downing who secured it from a Mr. Teller of Rhinebeck, Dutchess County, New York. Although Rhinebeck is probably its place of origin, it is not likely that Teller first grew the variety since it was quite generally disseminated in that vicinity at the time of its introduction. It is fast passing from cultivation.

Tree large, vigorous, upright, productive; branches roughened by the raised lenticels; branchlets numerous, pubescent; leaves oval or slightly obovate, two inches wide, four inches long, thick; margin crenate or serrate, with small grands; petiole tinged red, pubescent, with from two to three globose glands.

Fruit matures in mid-season; about one and one-half inches in diameter roundish-truncate, light amber-yellow with a blush, overspread with thin bloom; stem slender, adhering strongly to the fruit; flesh pale yellow, firm, sweet; of good quality; stone free or nearly so, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, obovate, acute at the apex, blunt at the base, with thickly pitted surfaces; ventral suture wide, usually blunt but sometimes distinctly winged; dorsal suture with a deep groove.

OREN

Prunus americana

1. la. Sta. Bul. 46:285 tig. 1900. 2. Waugh Plum Cult. 174, 1901. 3. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 299. 1903. Bartlett 1. Bingaman 1.

Waugh places Oren with the "Miner-like " plums but as the variety grows here it is a typical western Americana, the characters of this species in leaf, fruit and stone being well shown in the accompanying plate. It is one of the best of the Americanas in both fruit and tree. The fruits are large and of good shape, perhaps a little dull in color and not quite as good in quality as a few other Americanas but still averaging very well in all fruit-characters. The flesh is very nearly free from the stone. The trees are typical of the species, shaggy of trunk and limb, straggling and unkempt in growth of top, but hardy, robust, healthy and reliable in bearing. It wTould seem as if this variety is rather too good to be allowed to pass out of cultivation until there are more Americanas that are better. Oren was taken from the wild in Black Hawk County, Iowa, about 1878, by J. K. Oren. Mr. Oren grew trees of this plum on his farm and permitted all who came to take sprouts, cions and seed until the variety was very generally disseminated locally. Who introduced it to the trade and when is not known.

Tree small, spreading, low, dense-topped, hardy, often unproductive; branches roughish, slightly zigzag, thorny, dark ash-brown, with small lenticels; branchlets slender, long, twiggy, with internodes of average length, green changing to dark chestnut-brown, glabrous, with large, conspicuous, raised lenticels; leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, free.

Leaves falling early, oval or obovate, two inches wide, three and three-quarters inches long; upper surface dark green changing to golden-yellow late in the season, smooth and shining, with a narrow, grooved midrib; lower surface silvery-green, lightly pubescent; apex taper-pointed, base abrupt, margin coarsely serrate, the serrations ending in sharp points, eglandular; petiole five-eighths inch long, thick, tinged red, thinly pubescent, glandless or with one or two prominent, greenish-brown glands.

Blooming season late and of medium length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and one-eighth inches across, white; borne in clusters on lateral spurs and buds, in pairs or in threes; pedicels five-eighths inch long, slender, glabrous, green, tinged with red; calyx-tube red, campanulate, enlarged at the base, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, somewhat obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces and on the margin, reflexed; petals ovate, somewhat crenate or fringed, tapering below to long, narrow claws, sparingly hairy along the edge of the base; anthers yellow; filaments three-eighths inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit intermediate in time and length of ripening season; one and three-sixteenths inches in diameter, roundish, usually truncate and slightly oblique, compressed, halves equal; cavity very shallow, flaring; suture a line; apex roundish or flattened; color dull light or dark red over a yellow ground, mottled, with thick bloom; dots numerous, very small, light russet, inconspicuous; stem slender, five-eighths inch long, glabrous; skin tough, astringent, adhering; flesh dark golden-yellow, juicy, fibrous, soft and melting, sweet; fair to good; stone semi-free, seven-eighths inch by five-eighths inch in size, irregularly roundish or ovate, flattened, blunt at the base and apex, with smooth surf aces ; ventral suture strongly winged; dorsal suture acute, with a narrow and shallow groove.

ORLEANS

Prunus domestica

I. Quintinye Com. Gard. 68. 1699. 2. Langley Pomona 91, PI. XX fig. 4. 1729. 3. Miller Gard. Diet, 3:1754. 4. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:78, PI. VII. 1768. 5. Knoop Fructologie 2:52, 55] 56] 57- I77I- 6; Forsyth TVea2. Fr. Trees 19. 1803. 7. Kraft Pom. Aust. 2:32, Tab. 179 fig. 1. 1796. 8. Brookshaw Pom. Brit. PL XI. 1817. 9. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 145, 150. 1831. 10. Prince Pom. Man. 2:62, 67, 85. 1832. 11. Poiteau Pom. Franc. 1:1846. 12. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 289, 290, 383. 1846. 13. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 339. 1849. X4- Elliott Fr. Book 428. 1854. 15. Thompson Gard. AssH 519. 1859. *6. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 935. 1869. 17. Mas Pom. Gen. 2:37, fig. 19. 1873. J8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1875. 19. Oberdieck Deut. Obst. Sort. 414. 1881. 20. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 435. 1882. 21. Hogg Fruit Man. 715. 1884. 22. Guide Prat. 156, 360. 1895.

Anglaise Noire 16, 17, 20, 21, 22. -Awgtoise Noire 5. Brignole ? 1. Brugnole ? 1. Brignole Violette 17, 20, 22. Brignole Violette ? 5. Common Orleans 10, i6r 17, 20. Damas Rouge 10. Damas Rouge 5, 9. Damas Violet ? 5. #te Monsieur 17, 22. Die Herrnpflaume 7. English Orleans 10, 16, 17, 20. French Orleans 8. Hernnpflaume 17. Herrnpflaume 19. Herrnpflaume 22. Herzog von Orleans 20, 22. Italian Damask of some 14. Large Red Orleans 10. Late Monsieur 10, 16, 17, 20. Monsieur 4, 9, 10, 12, 17, 22. Monsieur 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 20, 21. Monsieur Ordinaire 9, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 22. OZ[i Orleans 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 22. Orleans 17, 20, 22. Orleans Red Damask 20. Prune de Monsieur 10, 16, 20. Prune de Monsieur 11. Prune dOrleans 16, 17, 20, 21. Prunelle ? 5. Prune Monsieur 7. Red Damask 10. l?e[2 Damask 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22. i^[i Orleans 10, 16, 17, 20. Red Orleans Plum 6.

In Europe Orleans is one of the most renowned of the plums cultivated. A proof of its popularity is the great number of names, as shown in the synonymy given above, under which it passes in England and on the continent. This variety, however, is almost unknown in America though described by all of the older American pomologists and probably introduced time and again during the last hundred years in our orchards. The French fruit books say that the variety thrives better in southern than northern France and nearly all of the European writers state that it does best in high, dry, light, warm soils. It is likely that our climate, and the soils in which plums are generally grown in America, are not suited to this sort. Unfortunately this Station has no trees of this variety and the brief description given is a compilation.

The Orleans has been cultivated for more than two hundred years. Langley said of it in 1729 " The Orleans Plumb tho a common, is yet a very valuable Plumb, as well for its fine firm juicy Pulp when well ripened, as its being a constant and plentiful bearer." The Red Damask and the Brugnole mentioned by Quintinye in 1699 are probably the Orleans; but the Prune de Monsieur of Knoop and the Monsieur of Tournefort, which are yellow, are distinct. The variety is evidently of French origin. Mas in his Pomologie Generale, 1873, states that it first bore the name Brignole Violette, but later was given the name it now bears in honor of Monsieur, Duke of Orleans, brother of Louis XIV. Damas Rouge is an old synonym, though Duhamel described it as a distinct variety. Herrnpflaume is the common name of the Orleans in Germany and Austria, while in France, it is often called the Monsieur. It has never been common in America, yet it was entered on the American Pomologieal Society catalog list in 1875.

Tree large, vigorous, hardy, productive, bearing annually; branches grayish, pubescent; leaves large, ovate, with crenate margins; flowers large, blooming early; petals roundish, imbricated.

Fruit early mid-season; medium in size, roundish-truncate, sides unequal; cavity usually shallow, wide; suture distinct; apex flattened; color dark or purplish-red, overspread with thin bloom, with a sprinkling of pale reddish dots; stem thick, short; skin tender; flesh yellowish, juicy, usually melting when properly matured, sweet near the skin but sprightly toward the center, pleasant-flavored; good; stone free, small, oval, flattened, with roughish surfaces.

OULLINSOullins plum

Prunus domestica

1. Hogg Fruit Man. 374. 1866. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 935. 1869., 3. Pom. France 7: No. 15. 1871. 4. Mas Le Verger 6:43. 1866-73. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 38. 1877. 6. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 366. 1887. 7. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 446. 1889. 8. Waugh Plum Cult. 117. 1901. 9. Thompson Gard. Ass't 4:158. 1901.

Massot 6, 7. Monstrueuse d'Oullins 2, 7. Ouillin's Gage 2, 7. Oullins Golden 1. Oullin's Golden 2, 9. Oullin's Golden 3, 4, 6, 7. Oullin's Golden Gage 2, 7. Oullins Golden Gage 5. Oullin's Green Gage 8. Prune-Massot 3. Reine-Claude d'Oullins 1, 2, 7, 9. Reine-Claude D'Oullins 3, 4, 6. Reine-Claude Pricoce 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 9. Reine-Claude von Oullins 7. Roi-Claude 3, 7.

Oullins came to America with the best of recommendations from European growers but it has fallen so far short of its reputation in Europe that it was dropped from the fruit list of the American Pomologieal Society and is gradually disappearing from cultivation. The fault is in the fruit which is but indifferent in quality for a plum of the Reine Claude group. In Europe the variety is rated as one of the best dessert sorts; in America it is hardly second-rate in quality. This difference may be due to differences in climate and soil; more probably, it is due to the greater number of better Reine Claude varieties grown in America with which it must compete. Hand, Jefferson, Washington, McLaughlin, Yellow Gage, Spaulding and Imperial Gage, the cream of the Reine Claude plums, are all Americans similar to Oullins but much better in quality. Oullins is hardly surpassed by any of its group in tree-characters and might well be used for breeding purposes as there are so few sorts of its kind having satisfactory trees.

This variety, probably a Reine Claude seedling, was found at Coligny, France, on the estate of M. Filliaud; it was propagated by M. Corsaint, gardener to the Baron de Toisy, near Cuiseaux (Department of Saone-et-Loire) and was introduced at Oullins (Department of Rhone) by M. Massot, nurseryman. The name is seldom spelled correctly in American fruit books, being either written with an apostrophe and s or with both left off, these spellings coming from the supposition that the name comes from that of a man, a mistake as the history shows. Oullins was placed on the American Pomological Society catalog fruit list in 1875 but was dropped when the catalog was revised in 1897.

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, open-topped, hardy, productive; branches ash-gray, somewhat rough, with numerous, large, raised lenticels; branchlets stout, the bark rough, medium to above in thickness, short, with short internodes, greenish-red changing to brownish-red, dull, lightly pubescent, overspread with faint bloom, with numerous, small lenticels; leaf-buds large, long, pointed, free; leaf-scars swollen.

Leaves oval or obovate, two inches wide, four and one-quarter inches long, thick; upper surface dark green, covered with fine hairs, the midrib grooved; lower surface pale green, pubescent; apex acute or abruptly pointed, base acute, margin serrate or crenate, with small black glands; petiole three-quarters inch long, thick, pubescent, tinged red, with from two to four globose, greenish-brown glands variable in size, usually on the stalk.

Blooming season medium to late, of average length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and one-quarter inches across, white, with a faint yellowish tinge; arranged on lateral spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels eleven-sixteenths inch long, pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, pubescent; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, reflexed; petals broadly obovate, crenate, tapering to short, broad claws; anthers yellowish; filaments three-eighths inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit early, season short; medium to below in size, roundish, halves equal; cavity shallow, below medium in width, abrupt; suture an indistinct line; apex flattened or depressed; color greenish-yellow changing to dull light yellow, overspread with thin bloom; dots numerous, small, whitish, inconspicuous, clustered about the apex; stem of medium thickness and length, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, slightly astringent, separating readily; flesh greenish-yellow or pale yellow, somewhat dry, firm, sweet, not high in flavor; good; stone half-free or free, three-quarters inch by five-eighths inch in size, broadly oval, flattened, roughened and pitted, blunt at the base and apex; ventral suture rather narrow, furrowed, with a distinct but not prominent wing; dorsal suture broadly and deeply grooved.


PACIFIC

Prunus domestica

1. U. S. D. A, Rpt. 292. 1893. 2. Am. Pont. Soc. Rpt. 150. 1895. 3. Oregon Sta. Bul. 45: 31. 1897. 4. Oregon Hort. Soc. Rpt. 474. 1898. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 40. 1899. 6. Waugh Plum Cult. 117. 1901. 7. Oregon Agriculturist i7:No. 24, 370. 1908.

Pacific 3. Pacific Prune 2, 3. Willamette 4, 5, 7. Willamette Prune 3.

No part of America is so well adapted to plum culture as the Pacific Coast and especially the inter-mountain valleys in Oregon. From the last-named State, though fruit-growing is a very recent development, a number of meritorious plums have been added to pomology. One of the best of these, as they grow in New York, is the Pacific, the fruits of which are well shown in the color-plate. Few purple plums are more beautiful than this in color and shape, few equal it in size and very few of its color excel it in quality. The trees are unusually robust, perfectly hardy and productive. In Oregon the Pacific has not proved a good prune-making plum but is reported as standing eastern shipment very well, which, if true, indicates that this plum would succeed as a market fruit in New York. Pacific is well worth trying in New York as a commercial variety.

This plum is hopelessly confused with the Willamette. The following is an abridged account of the two fruits as written us by H. M. Williamson, Secretary of the Oregon State Board of Horticulture, and one of the leading authorities on fruit-growing on the Pacific Coast.

*'About 1875 Jesse Bullock of Oswego, Oregon, sent to Germany for pits of the Italian or Fellenberg prune, and planted the pits received in a nursery row. When the trees from these began to bear, Mr. C. E. Hoskins went to Mr. Bullock's place, examined the fruit and selected trees which seemed promising, giving to each tree a number. From at least six of these trees he took scions, propagated them, and named them Bullock No. 1, Bullock, No. 2, etc. He finally decided that only two of these, Bullock No. 1 and Bullock No. 6, were of sufficient value to justify their further propagation. Bullock No. 1 was named Champion and Bullock No. 6, Willamette. Mr. Hoskins told me these names were given by the State Horticultural Society, but I find no record of this action. He propagated and sold a good many trees of both varieties, but more of the Willamette than of the Champion.

"Mr. Hoskins was strongly of the opinion that the Pacific is identical with the Willamette. I am as strongly of the opinion that they are distinct varieties. I base my opinion, first, upon the history of the origin of the Pacific given me by Henry Freeboro, Portland, Oregon, who introduced it; and, second, upon what appear to me to be marked differences in the two prunes. A number of years ago I went to Mr. Freeboro's place when prunes were ripe and obtained from him a supply of Pacific prunes grown on trees propagated by him from scions taken from the original Pacific tree. I took these prunes to Springbrook and compared them with the Willamette grown on Mr. Hoskins' place. I was thoroughly convinced that the two were decidedly different in character, but Mr. Hoskins did not think so. I noticed first a marked difference in the habits of growth of the trees. The Pacific trees were of unusually vigorous growth and had a decided upright tendency. The Willamette trees were very similar to the Italian in vigor and had the rather spreading habit of growth of the Italian. The Pacific prunes are larger in size than the Willamette and vary much more in size. One of the most decided indications of difference is the far greater tendency to brown-rot of the fruit of the Pacific than is the case with the fruit of the Willamette. This has been observed when scions of the Willamette and of the Pacific have been grafted on the same tree for the purpose of comparison. I have never seen a well dried specimen of the Pacific, but this may have been the fault of the men who dried the specimens I have seen. The Willamette dries easily for a prune of its size and gives a larger percentage of dried to fresh fruit than the Italian, according to Mr. Hoskins.

" I believe the Willamette is well worthy of more attention in the Willamette Valley, whereas the Pacific, on account of its extreme susceptibility to the brown-rot, does not appear to be a safe variety here, although when perfect it is a magnificent prune for eating fresh, and one of the very largest known. I am told that in eastern Oregon where climatic conditions keep out the brown-rot, the Pacific is proving one of the best varieties for shipping fresh. At the present time the two varieties are much confused. When the Pacific prune was introduced, Mr. Hoskins and other recognized authorities, pronounced it the Willamette, and nurserymen therefore obtained scions from Willamette treees and sold the propagated trees as Pacifies, and in a more limited way the reverse was done. The greater part of the trees supposed to be Pacifies are in fact Willamettes."

At this Station we have the two plums under discussion, the Pacific having been obtained from Fred E. Young, nurseryman, Rochester, New York, and the Willamette, under the name Pacific, from the Oregon Wholesale Nursery Company, Salem, Oregon. The differences between the two plums in New York are essentially those given by Mr. Williamson as distinguishing characters in Oregon.

Tree of medium size, upright-spreading, open-topped, hardy, productive; branches ash-gray, smooth, with small, raised lenticels; branchlets above medium in thickness, short, with short internodes, greenish-red changing to brownish-red, covered with heavy bloom and sparingly pubescent, with indistinct small lenticels; leaf-buds plump, of medium size and length, obtuse, free.

Leaves obovate, two inches wide, four inches long, the oldest thick and leathery; upper surface dark green, covered with fine hairs, with a widely and deeply grooved midrib; lower surface pale green, pubescent; apex acute or obtuse, base acute, margin crenate, with small dark glands; petiole seven-eighths inch long, thick, pubescent, tinged red, with from two to four large, globose, yellowish-green glands usually on the stalk.

Blooming season of medium length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and three-sixteenths inches across, white; borne on lateral spurs and buds, singly or in pairs; pedicels five-sixteenths inch long, thick, pubescent; calyx-tube green, campanu-late, pubescent only at the base; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, lightly pubescent on both surfaces but heavily pubescent along the serrate margin, renexed; petals oval, dentate, tapering to short, broad claws; stamens inclined to develop into rudimentary petals; anthers yellow; filaments seven-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit intermediate in time and length of ripening season; two inches by one and. five-eighths inches in size, ovate, halves equal; cavity shallow, narrow, flaring; suture shallow, indistinct; apex bluntly pointed; color bluish, overspread with thick bloom; dots small, brown, conspicuous, clustered about the apex; stem thick, one-half inch long, pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, tough, separating readily; flesh pale golden-yellow, juicy, firm, sweet, spicy; good; stone free, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, flattened, irregularly broad-oval, obliquely contracted at the base, blunt at the apex, with rough and pitted surfaces; ventral suture narrow, with numerous deep furrows, usually blunt; dorsal suture widely and deeply grooved.

PALATINE

Prunus domestica

This plum, scarcely known outside of two counties in New York, is of distinctly good quality and if all accounts are true is fairly immune to black-knot. In size and appearance the fruits are superior to many other Reine Claude plums, with which it must be compared, so much so that the variety is probably worth growing outside the region where the following interesting history shows it has been cultivated for nearly a century and a half.

Palatine, according to Mr. Washington Garlock of New York, originated in 1760 when a family of Palatines by the name of Best came from Germany to the United States and settled in Livingston Manor (East Camps) now Columbia County, New York. They brought with them plum pits which they planted and from them secured one tree. In 1762 they moved to Schoharie County, New York, taking with them the seedling tree. In their new home they propagated the variety, which they named Palatine, and disseminated it so industriously that it became thoroughly established throughout Montgomery and Schoharie counties and attained great popularity because of its apparent freedom from black-knot. That this popularity is merited is attested by the fact that after one hundred and fifty years it is still extensively grown in that vicinity.

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, dense-topped, productive; branches thick; branch-lets lightly pubescent; leaves flattened, slightly drooping, obovate, one and five-eighths inches wide, three and one-quarter inches long, thick, rugose; margin coarsely crenate, eglandular or with few, small glands; petiole pubescent, glandless or with one or two small glands; blooming season intermediate in time, short; flowers appearing after .the leaves, more than one inch across, white with yellow tinge at the apex of the petals; "borne singly; calyx-lobes thickly pubescent on both surfaces, strongly reflexed.

Fruit intermediate in time and length of ripening season; about one and one-half inches in diameter, roundish or roundish-oval, dull yellowish-green becoming greenish-yellow at full maturity, mottled and indistinctly blushed on the sunny side, overspread with thin bloom; skin thin, slightly sour; flesh light golden-yellow, juicy, fibrous, rfirm, sweet, pleasant in flavor; good to very good; stone dark colored, free or nearly so, seven-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, oval, with thickly pitted surfaces; ventral suture blunt or with a short, narrow wing; dorsal suture wide, shallow.

PAUL EARLY

Prunus domestica

1. N. Y. Exp. Sta. Rpt. 12:611. 1893. 2. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 42:83. 1897. Paul's Earliest 1, 2.

This variety seems to be under test only at this Station where it has fruited for a number of years. It is so similar to Early Rivers, a variety of small account in America, as to be an almost worthless addition to the list of plums. Paul Early originated with and was sent out by J. M. Paul, North Adams, Massachusetts, about 1888.

Tree very large, vigorous, round-topped, dense, very productive; branches covered with numerous fruit-spurs; branchlets twiggy, thickly pubescent; leaf-buds strongly appressed; leaves flattened, obovate or oval, two and three-eighths inches wide, four inches long; margin crenate, with few, small, dark glands; petiole reddish, pubescent, glandless or with one or two large glands; blooming season intermediate in time, short; flowers appearing before the leaves, one inch across; borne in scattering clusters, usually in pairs; pedicels very thick and pubescent; anthers tinged red.

Fruit very early, season short; one and three-eighths inches by one and one-quarter inches in size, roundish-oval, dark purplish-black, overspread with thick bloom; skin tender, slightly sour; flesh greenish-yellow becoming yellowish, tender, sweet near the surface but sour next the pit, mild; good; stone clinging, seven-eighths inch by five-eighths inch in size, irregular-oval, with roughened and thickly pitted surfaces; ventral suture prominent, seldom winged; dorsal suture with a narrow, shallow groove*

PEACH

Prunus domestica

1. AT. E. Farmer Diet, 266. 1797. 2. Prince Treat. Hort. 27. 1828. 3^ Prince Pom. Man. 2:106. 1832. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 307. 1845. 5; Horticulturist 1:113, 114 fig. 34, 147. 1846. 6. Poiteau Pom. Franc. 1:1846. 7. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 335, 336 fig. 262. 1849. 8. Horticulturist 6:132. 1851. 9. Elliott Fr. Book 422. 1854. 10. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 367. 1857. IX* Hooper W. Fr. Book 250. 1857. I2+ Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 86. 1862. 13. Hogg Fruit Man. 375. 1866. 14. Mas Le Verger 6:73, PI. XXXVII. 1866-73. *5+ Pom. France 7: No. 7. 1871. 16. Gard. Chron. N. S. 17:144. 1882. 17. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 466. 1883. 18. Wickson Cat, Fruits 353. 1891. 19. Wash. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 136. 1893. 20. Guide Prat. 156, 361. 1895. 21. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 462 fig. 1906.

Apricot Plum 5 incor. Caledonian 15, 20. Calvels Pfirschenpflaume 14, 20. D'Abricot {of Streets of Paris) 20. Duane's Purple 5 incor, 6, 11. HowelVs Large 15, 20, 21. Jenkin's Imperial 15, 20. Large Peach 16. Large Peach Plum 3. Nectarine 15, 20. Nectarine Rouge 21. Peach 15,20. Peach Plum 3, 5, 14, 20. Peach Plum 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 17. Peche 14, 15, 20, 21. Peche de Calvel 20. Prune PSche 3, 7, 9, 10, 14, 18. Prune Peche 4, 5, 6, 20. Prune-Peche De Calvel 14. Reine-Claude De Berger 13, 16. Roihe Nektarine 15, ?2o.

Peach, the largest early plum, is not high in quality but is justly esteemed where it can be grown for its earliness, large size and handsome appearance. Unfortunately this variety is capricious beyond most other plums as to climate and soils and refuses to thrive unless its needs are very well supplied in the matter of environment. In America it seems to find congenial soil and climate only on the Pacific Coast, and even then refuses to bear well except on strong, rich soils. In New York, even when grown upon soils similar to those upon which it does well elsewhere, the fruits are few and lacking in quality, though the trees are large, vigorous and about all that could be desired in a good plum tree. It may be possible to grow Peach in favorable locations in the East; in which case, a plum of its appearance and quality, coming as early in the season as it ripens, would make a most desirable addition to the list of plums. From its behavior elsewhere the situation that would suit it best in New York is a sunny exposure with a warm, rich, clay loam.

The origin of the Peach is unknown. Poiteau was unable to find any reference to it in the Eighteenth Century European literature and thought, therefore, that it must have been unknown to this period. Samuel Deane mentions a Peach plum in New England in 1797. It is doubtful, however, whether it is the Peach of this discussion, the name having been applied indiscriminately to several varieties, the Goliath, Nectarine and Apricot in particular. Prince, in 1832, described a Large Peach Plum which he said " had been introduced a few years since " but as his variety is oval and a clingstone, it is not the same as the Peach of Poiteau, the one discussed here, this plum being nearly round and a freestone. Judge James C. Duane of Schenectady, New York, seems to have first imported the Peach plum, with several others, from France, in 1820. The name of this variety was lost during the shipment and as the invoice called for an Apricot Plum, the names Apricot and Duane's Plum became locally applied to what afterwards turned out to be the Peach. C. H. Tomlinson of Schenectady and A. J. Downing in 1846 made a careful study of these imported plums and showed conclusively that this Apricot or Duane's Plum was the Peach of the French. In 1862, the [American Pomological Society???] added Peach to the fruit catalog list and recommended it for the eastern and western sections of New York.

Tree large, very vigorous, spreading, round or fiat-topped, hardy, medium in productiveness; branches stocky, smooth, dark ash-brown, with lenticels of medium number and size; branchlets thick, with internodes one inch long, light brown, covered with short, heavy pubescence; leaf-buds large, of medium length, conical.

Leaves large, oval, of average thickness; upper surface dark green; lower surface pale green, pubescent; apex obtuse, margin doubly crenate, with small glands; petiole three-quarters inch long, thick, pubescent, with a trace of red, usually with two, small, globose, greenish glands at the base of the leaf.

Fruit early; thick-set, without a neck, one and seven-eighths inches in diameter, roundish, slightly angular, halves equal; cavity deep, wide, compressed; suture shallow, distinct; apex flattened or depressed; color dark purplish-red, overspread with thin bloom; dots numerous, large, conspicuous; stem eleven-sixteenths inch long, glabrous, adhering well to the fruit; skin tough, adhering; flesh golden-yellow, medium juicy, firm, subacid, mild; good; stone free, one inch by three-quarters inch in size, roundish-oval, flattened, with rough and pitted surfaces, blunt at the base and apex; ventral suture wide, prominent, often distinctly winged; dorsal suture with a wide, deep groove.

PEARL Pearl plum
Prunus domestica

1.  Burbank Cat. 5. 1898. 2. Am, Gard. 21:36. 1900. 3. Waugh Plum Cult. 118. 1901.

One can grow seedlings of some plums with considerable certainty of getting respectable offspring- plums worth having in an orchard but the chances of growing a variety of superior qualities are small indeed.

It is a piece of good luck, a matter almost wholly of luck, when, as in this case, but one parent is known, to secure as fine a fruit as the Pearl plum. The variety now under notice is one to be pleased with if it came as a chance out of thousands; its rich, golden color, large size, fine form, melting flesh and sweet, luscious flavor, place it among the best dessert plums. In the mind of the writer and of those who have assisted in describing the varieties for The Plums of New York, it is unsurpassed in quality by any other plum. The tree-characters, however, do not correspond in desirability with those of the fruits. The trees, while of medium size and seemingly as vigorous and healthy as any, are unproductive. In none of the several years they have been fruiting at this Station have they borne a large crop. If elsewhere this defect does not show, the variety becomes at once one of great value. The fruits of Pearl are said to cure into delicious prunes to be readily believed by one who has eaten the fresh fruits. This variety ought to be very generally tried by commercial plum-growers and is recommended to all who grow fruit for pleasure.

Pearl is a recent addition to the list of plums and though its history is well known its parentage is in doubt. In 1898, Luther Burbank introduced the variety as a new prune grown from the seed of the well-known Agen. The male parent is not known but from the fruit and tree, one at once surmises that it was some variety of the Reine Claude group, its characters being so like those of the plum named that no one could suspect that it came from the seed of a plum so far removed from the Reine Claude as the Agen.

Tree of medium size, vigorous, vasiform, dense-topped, hardy, unproductive; branches ash-gray, with numerous, small, raised lenticels; branchlets twiggy, thick, long, with long internodes, greenish-red changing to brownish-red, very pubescent early in the season becoming less so at maturity, with numerous, small, raised lenticels; leaf-buds large, above medium in length, conical, appressed; leaf-scars prominent.

Leaves broadly oval, one and seven-eighths inches wide, three and one-half inches long, thick, leathery; upper surface dark green, rugose, covered with fine hairs, with a grooved midrib; lower surface pale green, pubescent; apex abruptly pointed, base abrupt, margin serrate or crenate, with small, black glands; petiole seven-eighths inch long, thick, pubescent, tinged red, glandless or with from one to three small, globose, brownish glands on the stalk.

Blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, showy on account of their size, averaging one and five-eighths inches across, white, with a tinge of yellow at the apex of the petals; borne on lateral spurs and buds, usually singly; pedicels one-half inch long, thick, strongly pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, pubescent; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate and with marginal hairs, strongly reflexed; petals obovate or oblong, entire, tapering to short, broad claws; anthers yellow; filaments nearly one-half inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit intermediate in time and length of ripening season; one and three-quarters inches by one and one-half inches in size, roundish-oval, compressed, halves unequal; cavity shallow, narrow, abrupt; suture a line; apex depressed; color golden-yellow, obscurely striped and splashed with dull green, mottled, overspread with thin bloom; dots numerous, small, whitish, inconspicuous, clustered about the apex; stem thick, three-quarters inch long, thickly pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin tough, separating readily; flesh deep yellow, juicy, a little coarse and fibrous, firm but tender, very sweet, with a pleasant, mild flavor, aromatic; very good to best; stone clinging, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, long-oval, slightly necked at the base, bluntly acute at the apex, with rough surfaces; ventral suture broad, blunt; dorsal suture with a wide, shallow groove.

[Notes from the North Carolina Piedmont:  Delicious, sweet and rich plums when ripened under warm and dry conditions, rots badly if ripening occurs in a wet period.  Only potential pollinizers are Imperial Epineuse and Geneva Mirabelle.  Ripens around xxx in the Raleigh-Durham area of North Carolina.  Grafted onto Krymsk x rootstock, the tree wil still quickly reach 20 feet tall unless pruned to a more manageable size. -ASC]

PETERS

Prunus domestica

1. Prince Pom. Man. 27. 1828. 2. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 151. 1831. 3. Cultivator 8:52 fig. 1860. 4. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 375 fig.392. 1867. 5. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 937. 1869. 6. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 289. 1889. 7. Mich. Sta. Bul. 103:35. 1894. 8. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131: 190 fig. 45, 194. 1897. 9. Waugh Plum Cult. 118 fig. 1901. 10. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man, 321, 322 fig. 1903.

Peter's Large Yellow 1, 2. Peter's Yellow Gage 10. Peters' Yellow Gage 3, 4, 6, 7. Peter's Yellow Gage 5, 8. Peters Yellow Gage 9.

Peters is an excellent old plum probably ranking in quality with the best varieties in the group to which it belongs- a sufficient recommendation to make it desirable in any home collection of fruit. This variety, however, is not equal in appearance to any one of several other sorts in its group, lacking size and color. The trees are large, hardy, robust and healthy, surpassing in these respects most of the other Reine Claude sorts. The tree-characters have made this variety a prime favorite in western New York for two generations, one pomologist after another recommending it for this section. The fruits are not sufficiently attractive to sell well, however, and the variety is now going out of cultivation except for the amateur. While a very good plum it does not appear to be worth growing in competition with Hand, Washington, McLaughlin, Jefferson, Spaulding and the latest comer among these high-quality plums, Pearl.

Of the origin of this old plum we have no certain information. William Prince, the first pomologist to mention it, gave a brief description of the variety in his "A Short Treatise on Horticulture " published in 1828 but says nothing in regard to its history. In 1831 the London Horticultural Society listed it in its fruit catalog but otherwise the variety is not mentioned in the European pomologies.

Tree very large, vigorous, round and dense-topped, hardy, productive; branches thick, ash-gray, smooth except for the numerous, rather large, raised lenticels; branch-lets thick, short, with short internodes, greenish-red changing to dark brownish-drab, dull, pubescent throughout the season, with numerous, inconspicuous, small lenticels; leaf-buds medium in size and length, pointed, free.

Leaves flattened, obovate or oval, two inches wide, four inches long; upper surface covered with numerous hairs, with a shallow groove on the midrib; lower surface silvery-green, heavily pubescent; apex abruptly pointed or acute, base rather abrupt, margin slightly crenate, eglandular or with few, small, dark glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, thick, tinged red, pubescent, glandless or with one or two small, globose or reniform, greenish-brown glands usually on the stalk.

Blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing with the leaves, one and one-eighth inches wide, white, creamy at the apex; borne on lateral spurs or buds, singly or in pairs; pedicels about one inch long, below medium in thickness, pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, obconic, pubescent; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate and with fine marginal hairs, reflexed; petals roundish-oval or obovate, dentate to slightly crenate; anthers yellow, with a slight trace of red; filaments three-eighths inch long; pistil glabrous, longer than the stamens.

Fruit late, season rather short; about one and one-half inches in diameter, roundish, compressed, halves equal; cavity very shallow, narrow, abrupt; suture shallow; apex flattened or depressed; color dull yellowish-green, often blushed or mottled on the sunny side, covered with thick bloom; dots numerous, large, whitish, conspicuous; stem one and one-eighth inches long, pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, tough, separating readily; flesh golden-yellow, juicy, somewhat fibrous, firm but tender, sweet next the skin but sour near the center, with pleasant flavor; very good; stone clinging, one inch by three-quarters inch in size, oval, turgid, somewhat acute at the base and apex, with pitted surfaces; ventral suture wide, indistinctly furrowed, often with a short wing; dorsal suture widely and deeply grooved.

POND

Prunus domestica

1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 151. 1831. 2. Mag. Hort. 9:165. 1843. 3- Horticulturist 6:560 fig. 1851. 4. Gard. Chron. 13:228. 1853. 5+ Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 214. 1856. 6. Ann. Pom. Beige 9, fig. 1857. 7. Cultivator 8:52 fig. 1860. 8. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 343. 1867. 9* Downing Fr. Trees Am. 937 fig. 1869. IO* Pom. France 7:No. 2. 1871. 11. Mas Le Verger 6:5, fig.3. 1886-73. 12. Mick. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 466. 1883. 13. Hogg Fruit Man. 717. 1884. 14. Cal. State Bd. Hort. Rpt. 292. 1885-86. 15. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 442. 1889. 16. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 465. 1893. 17. Guide Prat. 155, 366. 1895. 18. Oregon Sta. Bul. 45:29 fig. 1897. 19. Cornell Sta. Bui 131:190. 1897. 20. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 92. 1899. 21. Ohio Sta. Bul. 113:160, PL XVI fig. 1899. 22. Va. Sta. Bul. 134:44. 1902. 23. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 322. 1903. Chili (Kerr unpublished). Diamant 15 incor. Diamantpflaume 17 incor. Dorr's Favorite 12. English Pond's Seedling 3. Farleigh Castle 13, 15. Fonthill 4, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 17, 23. Gros Prune 14. Grosse Prune d'Agen 18, 20. Hungarian 18. Hungarian 20. Hungarian Prune 16, 19. Hungarian Prune 14. Oswego 20. Oswego 19. Plum de l'lnde ?3- Plum de VInde 9, 15. Pond's Purple 9, 10, 13, 15, 17. Pond's Seedling (English) 11, 14, 17. Pond's Seedling 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 16, 21. Pond's Seedling 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 23. Pond Seedling 20. Pond's Samling 15, 17. Pourpree de Pond 10, 15, 17. Pride of Waterloo 20. Semis de Pond 10, 15. Semis de Pond 17.

Pond is preeminent among plums for its large size. It is distinguished also by its form and its color, both being pleasing as well as distinctive. The three characters, size, form and color make this one of the handsomest of all plums. Despite the efforts of the color-plate makers, the peculiar red of this plum is not well shown in the illustration to the disparagement of the fruit. At one time Pond was very largely grown in New York but the fruits are not as perfect, grown here, as on the Pacific Coast and the trees are not regular in bearing. The eye is pleased with Pond but the palate is sadly disappointed; at best it is not even second-rate. The fruits, however, ship and keep well, as is demonstrated by the large quantities of this variety annually sent from California to the East for sale on fruit-stands where its showiness perennially beguiles the uninformed fruit-buyer. There is a fine opportunity for some one to cross this splendid-appearing plum with one of good quality in the hope of getting an offspring as handsome but of better quality.

This variety was obtained from seed by Mr. Pond, an English amateur grower of fruits, concerning whom there seems to be no further information. The London Horticultural Society mentioned the variety as long ago as in 1831. Another Mr. Pond, a nurseryman in Massachusetts, grew a variety very similar in appearance to the English plum and permitted his name to be given it to the great confusion of the nomenclature of the two. The Hungarian prune of the Pacific Coast is Pond, why so-called does not appear; with this as with several other plums the Pacific Coast fruit-growers persist in using a name known to have been wrongly applied to an old and well-known variety elsewhere called rightly. Oswego, a supposed seedling grown in Oswego, New York, is identical with the Pond as tested by this Experiment Station and by local growers. The American Pomological Society placed this fruit on its catalog list in 1856.

Tree of medium size, vigorous, upright, hardy, variable in productiveness; branches light gray, smooth, with small, raised lenticels; branchlets of medium thickness and length, with internodes of average length, greenish-red changing to brownish-drab, dull, sparingly pubescent, with inconspicuous small lenticels; leaf-buds large, long, conical, free; leaf-scars plump, often much enlarged at the apex of the twigs.

Leaves somewhat folded backward, oval, two and one-quarter inches wide, four inches long, thick, leathery; upper surface dark green, finely pubescent, rugose, with a grooved midrib; lower surface silvery-green, pubescent; apex abruptly pointed or acute, base abrupt, margin crenate or serrate, with small dark glands; petiole five-eighths inch long, thick, pubescent, tinged red, with one or two globose, yellowish glands variable in size, usually on the stalk.

Season of bloom intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and five-sixteenths inches across, white; borne in thin clusters on lateral spurs and buds, singly or in pairs; pedicels thirteen-sixteenths inch long, pubescent, greenish; calxy-tube green, campanulate, pubescent; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, lightly pubescent on both surfaces, margins with few glands and hairs, reflexed; petals roundish, crenate, tapering to short, broad claws; filaments seven-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to or shorter than the stamens.

Fruit late, season short; two inches by one and three-quarters inches in size, obovate or oval, frequently with a slight neck, halves equal; cavity shallow, narrow, abrupt; suture very shallow, often a line; apex roundish; color varies from reddish-purple to purplish-red, overspread with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, reddish-brown, obscure, larger in size but fewer in number towards the base; stem thick, seven-eighths inch long, heavily pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin tough, separating readily; flesh attractive golden-yellow, not very juicy, fibrous, firm, of average sweetness, mild, not highly flavored; fair in quality; stone semi-free to free, one and one-sixteenths inches by nine-sixteenths inch in size, long-oval, flattened, the surfaces roughened and deeply pitted, tapering towards the base and apex; ventral suture heavily furrowed, with a distinct but not prominent wing; dorsal suture usually widely and deeply grooved.

POOLE PRIDE Prunus munsoniana

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 108. 1885. 2. Cornell Sta. Bul. 38:50. 1892. 3. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 334. 1894. 4. Wis. Sta. Bul. 63:24, 53. 1897. 5. Ibid. 87:15. 1901. 6. Waugh Plum CuU. 186. 1901. 7. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 299. 1903. 8. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:245 fig., 256,

257- 1905-

Kroh 1, 6. Kroh 3, 7. Poole 2, 7. Poole 6. Poole's Pride 3, 4, 5. Poolers Pride 2, 6, 7.

As compared with other native plums growing on the grounds at this Station, Poole Pride has considerable merit. It is very attractive in appearance, it seems to have all the characters of a long-keeping and a good-shipping sort of its species and the trees are large, vigorous, hardy, healthy and productive. It is, however, lacking in the very important character of flavor though the texture of the flesh is all that could be desired. Its very peculiar flavor, incomparable with any other plum or fruit, while disagreeable to the writer, might be liked by some. The flesh of this plum is so transparent that the pit can be readily seen when the skin is removed. To those growing native plums, Poole Pride is recommended for trial. This variety was raised by P. H. Kroh, Anna, Illinois, and was exhibited by him under the name Kroh at the American Pomological Society meeting in 1885. Three years later the same plum was introduced by Stark Brothers, Louisiana, Missouri, under the name of Poole's Pride. The latter name has been so much more widely used that it has been retained even though the former is correct according to the rule of priority.

Tree large, vigorous, open and round-topped, hardy, productive, healthy; branches rough, zigzag, with few thorns, dark ash-gray, with numerous, small lenticels; branch-lets twiggy, slender, above medium in length, with short internodes, greenish-red changing to light chestnut-red, glabrous, with numerous, very conspicuous, large, raised lenticels; leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, plump, appressed.

Leaves folded upward, ovate or obovate, peach-like, one and three-eighths inches wide, three and one-half inches long, thin and leathery; upper surface dull red late in the season, smooth, glossy, with a narrow groove on the midrib; lower surface lightly pubescent; apex taper-pointed, base rather abrupt, margin finely crenate, with small dark glands; petiole seven-eighths inch long, slender, hairy, light purplish-red, with from one to four small, globose, reddish-brown glands on the stalk.

Blooming season late and long; flowers appearing after the leaves, five-eighths inch across, white; borne in clusters on short lateral spurs and buds; pedicels nine-sixteenths inch long, very slender, glabrous, green; calyx-tube greenish, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, obtuse, heavily pubescent within and along the margin which is serrate and covered with reddish glands, erect; petals small, ovate or roundish, crenate, tapering into long pubescent claws; anthers yellowish; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit early, season very long; one inch in diameter, roundish-oval, not compressed, halves equal; cavity very shallow and narrow; suture a distinct line; apex roundish; color clear, dark, currant-red, with thin bloom; dots few, large, light russet, conspicuous, clustered about the apex; stem slender, five-eighths inch long, glabrous, but overspread with a grayish bloom, adhering to the fruit; skin thin, tough, separating from the pulp; flesh semi-transparent, dark amber-yellow, very juicy, fibrous, tender and melting, sweet, with a strong, peculiar flavor not pleasant; of fair quality; stone adhering, five-eighths inch by three-eighths inch in size, long-oval, slightly flattened, compressed at the base, pointed at the apex, roughish; ventral suture blunt, faintly ridged; dorsal suture acute, entire.

POTTAWATTAMIE

Prunus munsoniana

1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 287. 1887. 2. Pop. Gard. 3:27 fig. 1887. 3. Cornell Sta. Bul. 38:64. 86. 1892. 4. Mich Sta. Bul. 123:20. 1895. 5. la. Sta. Bul. 31:346. 1895. 6. Wis. Sta. Bul. 63:53. 1897. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 25. 1897. 8. Ohio Sta. Bul. 113:156. 1899. 9* Ia* Sta-Bul. 46:287. 1900. 10. Waugh Plum Cult. 199 fig. 1901. 11. Ga. Sta. Bul. 67:279. 1904.

The plum under notice is possibly of greater cultural value than any other of its species especially for northern latitudes. It is of high quality for a native plum, the texture of the fruit being especially pleasing in eating, and though melting and juicy it keeps and ships very well because of a tough skin. It escapes both the curculio and the brown-rot to a higher degree than most of its kind. The trees, though dwarfish at maturity, are vigorous, productive and among the hardiest of the Munsoniana plums, growing without danger of winter injury to tree or bud as far north as the forty-fourth parallel. Pottawattamie is deservedly one of the best known of the native plums and if varieties of its species are to be grown in New York, is as desirable as any.

Pottawattamie, according to the most authoritative accounts, was taken from Tennessee to Iowa with a lot of Miner trees. It came under the notice of J. B. Rice, Council Bluffs, Iowa, in 1875, an^ was introduced by him and named after one of the counties of his State.

Tree medium in size, strong and vigorous when young becoming spreading and somewhat dwarfish when older, round-topped, hardy at Geneva, usually productive; branches dark brown, zigzag, thorny, roughened by the numerous, raised lenticels of various sizes which are often narrow and much elongated; branchlets slender, long, with internodes of medium length, greenish-red changing to dark chestnut-red, glabrous, with numerous, conspicuous, large, raised lenticels; leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, free.

Leaves flat or folded upward, lanceolate, peach-like, one and one-eighth inches wide, three and one-quarter inches long, thin; upper surface light green, reddish late in the season, smooth, glossy, with a grooved midrib; lower surface pale green, lightly pubescent along the midrib and larger veins; apex taper-pointed, base abrupt, margin finely serrate or crenate, with small, reddish glands; petiole one inch long, slender, tinged red, thinly pubescent, glandless or with from one to five very small, globose, reddish-yellow glands usually on the stalk.

Blooming season late and long; flowers appearing after the leaves, five-eighths inch across, creamy-white as the buds unfold changing to whitish, with a disagreeable odor; borne in clusters from lateral buds, in threes, fours or fives; pedicels five-eighths inch long, very slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, broadly obconic, glabrous, calyx-lobes narrow, somewhat acute, pubescent on the inner surface, serrate, with reddish glands and hairy margin, erect; petals small, oval, slightly toothed, narrowly clawed; anthers yellowish; filaments one-quarter inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit early, season of medium length; variable in size ranging from seven-eighths inch to one and one-eighth inches in diameter, roundish-oval, slightly compressed, halves equal; cavity very shallow and narrow, abrupt; suture indistinct; apex roundish or depressed; color clear currant-red, with thin bloom; dots few, medium to large, whitish, somewhat conspicuous, clustered about the apex; stem very slender, three-quarters inch long, glabrous, adhering poorly to the fruit; skin tough, cracking under unfavorable conditions, separating readily; flesh deep yellow, juicy, fibrous, tender and melting, sweet next the skin but sour at the center, of pleasant flavor; fair to good in quality; stone clinging closely, five-eighths inch by three-eighths inch in size, narrow, long-oval, turgid, smooth, flattened and necked at the base, abruptly sharp-tipped at the apex; ventral suture acute, inconspicuous; dorsal suture blunt, faintly grooved.

PURPLE GAGE

Prunus domestica

I. Pom. Mag. 3:129, PL 1830. 2. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 152, 153. 1831. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 308 fig. 127. 1845. 4- Poiteau Pom. Franc. 1. 1846. 5. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 339. 1849. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 54. 1852. 7. Ann. Pom. Beige 3:71, PL 1855. 8. Thompson Gard. Ass't 519, PL 1. 1859. 9. Hogg Fruit Man. 377. 1866. 10. Pom. France 7:No. 9. 1871. 11. Mas Le Verger 6:3 fig. 2. 1866-73. I2+ Cat. Cong. Pom. France 367. 1887. J3* Mathieu Nom. Pont. 452. 1889. 14. Guide Prat. 155, 364. 1895.

Blaue Reine-Claude 10, 11, 13 incor., 14. Die Violette Konigin Claudia 13. Die Violette Konigin Claudie 1. Die Violette Koning Claudie 3. Die Violette oder blaue Renoclode 10, 14. Die Violette oder Blaue Reneclode 11, 13. Purple Gage 2, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14. Prune Reine Claude Violette 4, 10. Reine-Claude Alex. Dumas 14. Reine-Claude Violette 2, y, 8, 11, 12, 14. Reine-Claude Violette 1, 3, 5, 9, 13. Violet Queen Claude 3, 5. Violet Gage 8, 9, 10, 12, 13 14. Violette Reine-Claude 13. Violet Gage 2. Violette Queen Claude 13. Violet oder Blaue Reneclode 13.

Purple Gage is worthy of attention as one of the best flavored of all purple plums. In all but color of fruit it is a true Gage, to say which is a sufficient characterization as to quality. In size it averages larger than most of the Gages or Reine Claude plums, and in color is a rich dark purple as attractive as any of the purple plums. Another good quality of the fruit is that of hanging to the tree until it shrivels at which time it is richest in flavor. Unfortunately the trees, while averaging very well in other respects, are not productive and the variety cannot be recommended for money-making though it well deserves a place in home orchards.

Purple Gage is a European variety of unknown origin, though in the Catalogue descriptif des fruits adoptes par le Congres pomologique for 1887, it is said to have been raised by M. Galopin of Liege, Belgium. As it was not mentioned by Duhamel in his Traite des Arbres Fruitiers in 1768, it is thought to have been unknown at that date. English and American authors generally apply the name Purple Gage to this variety but in continental countries the name Reine Claude Violette is most common. It was imported into America early in the last century and in 1852 was added to the recommended list of fruits in the American Pomological Society catalog.

Tree large, vigorous, round-topped, hardy, not very productive; branches numerous, light ash-gray, with few, small, raised lenticels; branchlets thick, above medium in length, with rather short internodes, greenish-red changing to brownish-red, marked with much scarf-skin, glabrous throughout the season, with few, small, slightly-raised lenticels; leaf-buds of medium size and length, conical, appressed; leaf-scars greatly enlarged.

Leaves folded upward, oval, one and three-quarters inches wide, three and one-half inches long, thick, stiff; upper surface dark green, distinctly rugose, lightly pubescent, with a shallow groove on the midrib; lower surface silvery-green, covered with thick pubescence; apex abruptly pointed or acute, base rather abrupt, margin serrate or crenate, eglandular or with small dark glands; petiole three-quarters inch long, thick, greenish, pubescent, glandless or with one or two rather large, globose, yellowish-green glands variable in position.

Blooming season late, of medium length; flowers appearing with the leaves, nearly one and one-quarter inches across, white; borne from lateral buds, usually singly; pedicels five-eighths inch long, thick, pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanu-late, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, obtuse, lightly pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, reflexed; petals obovate or oval, crenate, short-clawed; anthers yellow; filaments nearly one-half inch long; pistil glabrous except at the base, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit intermediate in time and,length of ripening season; one and one-half inches by one and three-eighths inches in size, roundish or ovate, slightly compressed, halves equal; cavity shallow, narrow, abrupt; suture very shallow, often a line; apex variable in shape; color dark purple or purplish-black, overspread with thick bloom; dots numerous, russet, conspicuous when the bloom is removed, clustered about the apex; stem five-eighths inch long, thinly pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, separating readily; flesh dull yellow, juicy, somewhat fibrous, firm but tender, sweet, of pleasant flavor; very good; stone semi-clinging, seven-eighths inch by five-eighths inch in size, irregular-oval, flat, often contracted at the base into a long narrow neck, blunt at the apex, with markedly rough and pitted surfaces; ventral suture swollen, rather wide, distinctly furrowed, often with a prominent wing; dorsal suture with a wide and deep groove.

QUACKENBOSS

Prunus domestica

1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 393. 1857. 2+ Cultivator 6:269 fig. 1858. 3. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 345. 1867. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 941. 1869. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 24. 1871. 6. Mas. Pom. Gen. 2:151, fig. 76. 1873. 7- Barry Fr. Garden 415. 1883. & Mich. Sta. BuL 103:34, fig. 6. 1894. 9. Ont. Fr. Exp. Sta. Rpt. 52. 1895. 10. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:191, fig. 40 II. 1897 11. Waugh Plum Cult. 119. 1901. 12. Va. Sta. Bul. 134:44. 1902.

Quackenbos 9, 12.

Though not a leading variety, Quackenboss is a prominent one in the list of commercial sorts for New York. Its fruits possess to a high degree the characters which make a good market plum; they are of large size, averaging nearly an inch and a half in diameter; round-oval, a better shape for the markets than the prune shapes; very prepossessing in color a handsome, dark purple with heavy bloom; the flesh is tender and juicy with a sweet, pleasant flavor making it one of the good purple plums, though not one of the best in quality. The tree is large, vigorous, hardy, with a round and spreading top. This gives it great bearing capacity but though productive in the Station orchard, the variety does not have the reputation of being fruitful and fails chiefly as a commercial sort for this reason. It is a late-maturing variety and comes on the market at a time when plums are wanted for home canning, the demand for this purpose, for which it is most suitable, helping greatly its sale. The variety has two peculiarities; the petals are comparatively distinct from each other giving the flower, or a tree in flower, an odd appearance; and the leaves are remarkably variable in size.

It is not quite certain when or where this variety first came to notice. C. Reagles, a competent authority, of Schenectady, New York, in describing the Quackenboss for The Cultivator in 1858, says " There is a seedling tree of this identical sort in the garden of Mr. S. C. Groot of this city, which is about thirty years old." If true, this puts its origin in Schenectady at about 1828. But beyond question a Mr. Quackenboss of Greenbush, New York, introduced the variety, though some years later, and it has taken his name. In 1871, the American Pomological Society placed the Quackenboss on its recommended fruit list.

Tree very large and vigorous, round-topped, hardy, productive; branches numerous, ash-gray, the trunk rough but the limbs smooth, with smallish raised lenticels; branchlets thick, with long internodes, greenish-red changing to brownish-drab over red, dull, pubescent, with numerous, small lenticels; leaf-buds of medium size and length, pointed, free.

Leaves flattened, obovate or oval, variable in size averaging one and seven-eighths inches wide by three and five-eighths inches long; upper surface very dark green, nearly glabrous, with a grooved midrib; lower surface pale green, pubescent; apex obtuse, base tapering, margin finely serrate, with small black glands; petiole five-eighths inch long, pubescent, faintly tinged red, glandless or with from one to four small, globose, greenish-yellow glands usually on the stalk.

Blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and one-eighth inches across, white, with a yellow tinge at the tips of the opening buds; scattered on lateral spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels three-quarters inch long, above medium in thickness, finely pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes obtuse, lightly pubescent, glandular-serrate, re-flexed; petals obovate, crenate, with broad claws of medium length; anthers yellow with a reddish tinge; filaments seven-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous except on the ovary, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit late, season short; one and five-eighths inches by one and three-eighths inches in size, roundish-oval, compressed slightly, halves equal; cavity narrow, abrupt; suture shallow, often lacking; apex roundish or depressed; color bluish-black, with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, yellowish-brown, inconspicuous; stem three-quarters inch long, pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin tender, somewhat astringent; flesh deep yellow, juicy, tender, sweet, of pleasant, mild flavor; good; stone semi-free, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, flattened, irregular-oval, tapering to a long, narrow neck at the base, bluntly acute at the apex, with rough and pitted surfaces; ventral suture prominent, heavily furrowed, distinctly ridged; dorsal suture acute, often with a narrow, indistinct, shallow groove.

RED APRICOT

Prunus domestica

1. Knoop Fructologie 2:52, 54. 1771. 2. Kraft Pom. Aust. 2:27, Tab. 172 fig. 1. 1796. 3. Prince Pom. Man. 2:72. 1832. 4. Poiteau Pom. Franc. 1.1846. 5. Goodrich N. Fr. Cult. 83. 1849. 6. Mas Pom. Gen. 2:127, fig. 64. 1873. 7. Hogg Fruit Man. 720. 1884. 8. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 447. 1889. 9. Lucas Vollst. Hand. Obst. 474. 1894.

Abricot Rouge 1. Abricote Rouge 3. Apricot Plum 5. Abricot^e Rouge 6. Abricot Rouge 6, 7, 8. Abricotee Rouge 7, 8. Die Aprikosenpflaume 2. Furstenzeller Pflaume 8. Furstenzeller Reine-Claude 8. Prune d'Abricot Rouge 1,8. Prune d'Abricos 2. Prune d'Abricot rouge 1. Prune Abricote*e Rouge 4. Red Apricot Plum 3. Rothe Aprikosenpflaume 6. Red Apricot 6, 8. Rote Aprikosenpflaume 8. Rote Aprikosenzwetsche 9.

This plum, well known in Europe, is probably not now grown in America and it may not deserve recognition here except for its historical interest. Red Apricot is probably an inferior off-shoot of the Apricot plum although no definite record of its lineage is obtainable. It does not seem to have been known until nearly one hundred and fifty years after the Apricot was brought to notice. Kraft figured and described a long prune-like red plum under this name but because of its shape his plum was undoubtedly spurious. The variety was rejected by the American Pomological Society in 1856. It is described as follows:

Tree vigorous, shoots glabrous; fruit mid-season, large, roundish; color red over yellow; suture shallow; cavity small;' stem an inch long, stout; flesh yellow, dryish, inferior in flavor; poor; freestone.

RED DATE

Prunus domestica

1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 576. 1629. 2. Rea Flora 208. 1676. 3. Ray Hist. Plant. 2:1529. 1688. 4. Kraft Pom. Aust. 2:43, Tab. 196 fig. 2. 1796. 5. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 147. 1831. 6. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 447. 1889.

A Fleur Double 5. Dattel Pflaume 6. Dattel Zwetsche 6. Die grosse rothe Feigenpflaume 4-Figue Grose Rouge 5. Figue Grosse Rouge 6. Fruh Zwetsche 6. Grosse Rote Feigen Pflaume 6. Lange Viohtte Dattel Zwetsche 6. Lange Violette Dattel Pflaume 6. Prune -figue grosse rouge 4. Prune oVAutriche 6. Prune Figue 6. Prune Datte 6. Pur pur Pflaume 6. Red Date-plum 3. Rote. Dattelzwetsche 6. Rote Feigen Pflaume 6. Turkische Zwetsche 6. Ungarische Zwetsche 6. Wilmot's Russian 5. Zucker Zwetsche 6.

Red Date is an interesting variety because of its very peculiar shape which is that of an elongated curved date. Its flavor is agreeable and all of the characters of fruit and tree are as good as in the average variety; yet it can probably be counted as nothing more than an interesting curiosity. Parkinson described the Red Date as long ago as 1629 and it seems to have maintained a place in horticulture since then. The variety was imported from France in 1901 by the United States Department of Agriculture from which source trees were obtained by this Station.

Tree of medium size, upright-spreading, dense-topped, productive; branches thorny; branchlets developing many laterals on the new wood at right angles to the direction of growth, thickly pubescent; leaf-buds free; leaves folded backward, obovate, one and one-half inches by three and one-quarter inches long; margin crenate, with small dark glands; petiole pubescent, rather long, glandless or with from one to three small glands; blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, seven-eighths inch across; borne in scattering clusters on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs.

Fruit mid-season; one and five-eighths inches by one inch in size, long irregular-oval, enlarged on the suture side, dark purplish-red, with thick bloom; flesh golden-yellow, rather dry, firm, sweet, mild; of fair quality; stone free, one and one-eighth inches by one-half inch in size, very long and narrow, somewhat oblique, acute and oblique at both base and apex; ventral suture blunt; dorsal suture with a long, narrow, deep groove.

RED DIAPER

Prunus domestica

1. Quintinye Com. Gard. 67, 68, 69. 1699. 2. Miller Gard. Kal. 184. 1734. 3. Knoop Fruct-ologie 2:57. 1761. 4. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:102, PL XX fig. 12. 1768. 5. Kraft Pom. Aust. 2:36, Tab. 185 fig. 2. 1796. 6. Willichs Dom. Enc. 300. 1803. 7. Pom. Mag. 1:6, PL 1828. 8. Prince Pom. Man. 2:69, 90.-1832. 9. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 298. 1845. IO+ Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 285, 287, 288, 383. 1846. 11. Poiteau Pom. Franc. 1:1846. 12. Horticulturist 3:20. 1848. 13. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 335, fig. 261. 1849. 14. Horticulturist 4:195. 1849. 15. Ann. Pom. Beige 75 PL 1853. 16. Bridgeman Gard. Ass't 128, 129, 130. 1857. 3E7; Pom. France 7: No. 10. 1871. 18. Mas Pom. Gen. 2:135, fig. 68. 1873. 19. Le Bon Jard. 339. 1882. 20. Hogg Fruit Man. 697. 1884. 21. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 345. 1887. 22. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 447. 1889. 23. Guide Prat. 158, 365. 1895.

Amalia Pflaume 22, 23. Bunte Herzformige Pflaume 17, 22. Cyprische Pflaume 22, 23. Dia-pree de Roche Corbon 22. Dame Aubert Rouge 22, 23. Diademe Imperial 22. De Chypre 23. Dia-deme Imperiale 23. Diaper 1, 10. Die Blutfarbige Pflaume 5. Diapre*e Rouge 3, 4, 9, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21. Diapree Rouge 5, 8, 10, 13, 16, 18, 22. Diapre Rouge 8, 22, 23. Die Rothe Eierpflaume

14. Diaper Rouge 16. Diaper 17, 20, 22. Die Blutfarbege Pflaume 17. Diaprea rubra 17. Diademe 19. De Briancon 21. Gluhende Kohle 22. Hoheits Pflaume 22, 23. Imperial Diadem 8, 9, 13, 20, 22. Imperial Diadem 10, 16. Imperial Diademe 17, 21. Imperatrice 19. La Roche-Corbon

22. La Courbon 17. Mimms 10, 16. Mimms 9, 13, 17, 20. Mimms Plum 10, 16, 22. Mimms Plum 7, 8. Mimms Pflaume 22. Matchless 22. Prune Diaprde Rouge 11. Prune Imperatrice

15. Prune Diademe 15. Prune de Briancon 17. Prune de Chypre 22. Prinzessin Pflaume 22,

23. Roche-Carbon 22. Rote Diapre*e 22. Rouge Corbon 22. Rote Eier Pflaume 22. .Rcte Cy-prische Pflaume 22. 2?[?te Marunke 22. Rote Osterei 22. i^te Masche 22. jR^fe i^ss Pflaume 22. Rothe Eierpflaume 23. Rothe Marunke 23. Roche Corbon 1. Roche Courbon 2. Roche Corbon 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22. Roch-courbon 6. Red Diaper 6, 10, 16, 17, 20, 21, 22. Roche Courbon 8. i[W jEgg Plum 14. Reine de Chypre 14. Red Imperial 16. Rothe Diapree 17. Rothe Violen Pflaume 17. J^^o7 Diaper Plum 17. Rothe Eierpflaume 17. Rothe Susse Pflaume 17. Rothe Diapre 18. Virginische Pflaume 17.

Red Diaper is of historical value only, as it is now rarely found. It does not seem to have been known as long as Violet Diaper and may be an off-shoot of the older variety. It probably originated in France, one of its synonyms, Roche Corbon, having been derived from a small village near Tours. The Mimms plum said to have been raised from a stone of the Blue Perdrigon about 1800 by Henry Browne, North Mimms Place, Hertfordshire, England, and the Imperial Diadem said to be a seedling of about the same date raised at Duckenfield, near Manchester, England, are identical with Red Diaper in spite of their supposed separate origin. The Chypre, or Prune de Chypre, thought by some to be a synonym of this variety, is undoubtedly distinct, as it is a clingstone and is earlier. The following description is compiled.

Tree of slow growth in the nursery, hardy, vigorous and productive in the orchard. Fruit mid-season; large, obovate; cavity slight; stem one-half inch in length; skin brownish-red; bloom thin; dots very numerous, brownish, conspicuous; flesh greenish-yellow, firm, fine-grained, sweet; good; stone small, free.

RED JUNE

Prunus triflora

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 106. 1891. 2. Cornell Sta. Bul. 62:28. 1894. 3. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 95. 1895. 4. Cornell Sta. Bul. 106:60. 1896. 5. Ala. Col. Sta. Bul. 85:444. 1897. 6. Cornell Sta. Bul. 139:45. 1897. 7. Rural N. Y. 56:615. 1897. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 26. 1897. 9. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:242, 243, 249, 250. 1899. 10. Cornell Sta. Bul. 175:136. 1899. 11. U.S.D.A. Rpt. 386. 1901. 12. Waugh Plum Cult. 140. 1901. 13. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 324. 1903. 14. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 43:37. 1903. 15. Mass. Sta. Ann. Rpt. 17:160. 1905. 16. Md. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 8$. 1905. 17. Ga. Sta. Bul. 68:5, 32. 1905.

Botan 14. Hytankayo 11. Long Fruit 3. Nagate no Botankyo 10, 11, 17. Red Nagate i, 2, 3, 6, 9. Red Nagate 4, 5, 11, 12, 13, 17. Red June 2, 3. Shiro Smomo 2, 4, 7, 11, 12, 14. Shiro Smomo 9.

Red June is variously estimated by fruit-growers and pomologists. A concensus of the opinions of those who have had actual experience with the variety shows that it closely follows Abundance and Burbank in popularity among the Trifloras. The variety is distinguished from all other plums by its fruit-characters; the plums are distinctly cordate in shape with a deep cavity and a very pointed apex; the color is a mottled garnet-red overlaid with thin but very distinct and delicate bloom; the flesh is a light yellow, firm enough to endure transportation well, peculiarly aromatized, sweetish and not wholly agreeable in flavor and ranking rather low in quality; the stone adheres tightly to the flesh. The trees are large, vigorous, spreading, hardy, healthy and productivevery good for the species to which the variety belongs. Other good qualities of the variety are that it blooms late for a Triflora, and that the fruits are comparatively immune to curculio and brown-rot and hang to the trees exceptionally well for an early plum. This is one of the Trifloras that varies in season of ripening, a peculiarity of several of the varieties of this species, but usually the fruits ripen a week or more before Abundance. Red June is reported to be somewhat self-sterile and in need of cross-pollination. This variety ought to have value as an early market plum in New York.

Red June was imported from Japan by H. H. Berger and Company, San Francisco, California, under the name Shiro Smomo, about 1887. Stark Brothers, Louisiana, Missouri, obtained the variety in 1892 and introduced it as the Red June in 1893. In 1897 it was added to the fruit catalog list of the American Pomological Society. The nomenclature of this variety is much confused. The true Japanese Red Nagate (Red Nagate is one of the synonyms of Red June) has red flesh while this one has not; this variety, to which the name Shiro Smomo is most often applied, is not a Smomo plum nor is it white, (Shiro is the Japanese for white) affording another instance of the confusion in the American application of the Japanese names of the Triflora plums.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, productive, healthy; branches rough, thorny, dark brown, with numerous lenticels of medium size; branchlets slender, long, with short internodes, dark brown, marked with considerable scarf-skin, glabrous, with numerous large, raised lenticels; leaf-buds small, medium in length, conical, free.

Leaves folded upward, oblanceolate, one inch wide, two and three-quarters inches long, thin; upper surface glabrous, with a lightly grooved midrib; lower surface light green, thinly pubescent along the midrib and larger veins which are tinged red; apex taper-pointed, base acuminate, margin finely serrate, with small glands; petiole one-half inch long, slender, tinged red, slightly hairy along one side, with from one to three small, brown glands usually at the base of the leaf.

Blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing before the leaves, white; borne in clusters on lateral buds and spurs, in twos or in threes* pedicels of medium length and thickness, glabrous except for occasional hairs, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, obtuse, sparingly glandular, with marginal hairs, glabrous on the outer side, thinly pubescent on the inner side,, erect; petals oval, entire, tapering at the base to short claws; anthers light yellow; filaments short; pistil glabrous, longer than the stamens.

Fruit early, one and one-half inches by one and three-eighths inches in size, roundish-ovate to roundish-cordate, sides unequal; cavity large, deep, narrow, regular, abrupt; suture deep, distinct; apex very pointed; color garnet-red, mottled; bloom thin; dots numerous, small, russet; stem one-half inch long, adhering to the fruit; skin above medium in thickness, tender, slightly astringent, separating easily; flesh light yellow, fibrous, somewhat meaty, sweet except near the center; good; stone clinging, five-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, irregular-oval, slightly flattened, pointed at both ends, with pitted surfaces; ventral suture prominently winged, narrow; dorsal suture not grooved.

RED MAGNUM BONUM

Prunus domestica

1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 576, 577. 1629. 2, Rea Flora 208. 1676. 3. Langley Pomona 92, PI. XX fig. V. 1729. 4. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:98, PI. XV. 1768. 5. Kraft Pom. Aust. 2:31, Tab. 178 fig. 1. 1796. 6. Willichs Dom. Enc. 4:300. 1803. 7. Prince Pom. Man. 2:59. l832* 8. Hoffy Orch. Com. fig. 1841. 9. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Card. 292. 1846. 10. Horticulturist 4:194. 1849. 1T* Ann. Pom. Beige 99, PI. 1853. I2; Elliott Fr. Book 428, 429. 1854. 13. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:499. 1860. 14. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 943. 1S69. 15. Mas Pom. Gen. 2:139, fig. 70. 1873. 16. Hogg Fruit Man. 721. 1884. 17. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 61. 1887. 18. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 445, 448. 1889. 19. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 87. 1890. 20. Guide Prat. 158, 358. 1895,

Askew's Purple Egg 12, 14, 16, 18. Blaue Kaiserpflaume 15, 18, 20 incor. Blaue Eier Pftaume 18 incor. Bockshoden 18, 20. Bocksdutten 18, 20. Bonum Magnum 18 incor., 20. Blue Impera-trice 7 incor., 8. Copper Plum 8. Die Kaiserliche veilchenfarbige Pflaume 5. Die Rothe Kaiser-pflaume 10. Dame Aubert 13. Dame Aubert Violette 14, 16, 18, 20. Die Rothe Eiperfiaume 14. Dame Aubert Rouge 17. Dame Aubert Rouge 19. D'Oeuf Violette 20. Early Forcing 12. Florence 12, 14, 16, 18, 20. Fruhe Treib Zwetsche 18. Fruhe Treibzwetsche 20. Great Imperial Plum 18, 20. Grosse Fruh Zwetsche 18 incor. Grosse Ungarische Zwetsche 18 incor. Imperiall 1. Imperial 3, 6. Imperiale Violette 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 14, 16, 18, 20. ImpeYiale Violette 4, 15, .20. Imperial Violet 7. Imperiale 7, 14, 16, 18, 20. Imperiall 9. Imperial 9, 14, 18. Imperiale Rouge 10, 14, 16, 18. Imperial Rouge 12, 18. Imperial Violet 14/18. Imperiale Hdtive 18, 20. Impe*riale rouge

20. Large Orlean 7. Mogul Rouge 16, 18. Oeuf Rouge 16, 18. Prune d'Oeuf Violette 18. Prinzessinpflaume 15. Prune-figue 13. Prune Impériale Violette 11. Prune d'oeuf 7, 14, 18. Purple Egg 7, 12, 14, 16, 18. Prune-oeuf 7. Purple Magnum Bonum 12, 14, 18. Red Magnum Bonum 8, 12, 20. Red Magnum 6. Red Imperiale 7, 8, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20. Red Bonum Magnum 3, 7, 18, 20. Red Egg Plum 10. Red Egg 12. Red Imperial 12. Red Egg 14, 16, 18. Red Aubert 17. Rote Eier Pflaume 18. Rote Kaiserpflaume 18. Rote Kaiser Zwetsche 18. 116 Riga 19. Rothe Kaiser-pflaume 20. Rothe Kaiser zwetsche 20. Shepler ?14, ?18. Sainte-Catherine (Belgien) 18, 20. The Imperial Plum 2. Violette oder Blaue Kaiserpflaume 15.

Once popular, Red Magnum Bonum is now but of historical interest. Three centuries ago this variety was cultivated in England by John Tradescant under the name Imperiall. It was mentioned by all of the early horticultural writers and it seems clear that the variety was well established in Europe at least as early as the beginning of the Seventeenth Century. As all plums at that time were propagated from seed, a large number of sub-varieties of this sort were produced and as these became established the nomenclature of the variety became much involved. In 1729 Langley called it the Red Magnum Bonum, a name it has since retained. It is not known when the variety was introduced into this country but its first appearance in American literature was in 1803. After its introduction nurserymen sold any large red plum as Red Magnum Bonum and it became difficult to find the true variety. Professor J. L. Budd apparently reintroduced this plum in 1881-1882 under the name Dame Aubert Rouge. Although very extensively grown in America at one time it has never been a favorite because of its poor quality. The American Pomological Society rejected it in 1858 from a list of candidates for its catalog. The following description is compiled.

Tree hardy, vigorous, productive; young shoots glabrous. Fruit mid-season; large, oval, deep red in the sun, pale red in the shade, covered with thin bloom; stem one inch long; flesh greenish, firm, slightly coarse, dry, brisk subacid; of fair quality; stone oval, free.

REINE CLAUDE

Prunus domestica

1. Quintinye Com. Gard. 67, 68, 69. 1699. 2. Langley Pomona 93, PL XXIII fig. 7. 1729. 3. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:89, PI. XI. 1768. 4. Knoop Fructologie 2:62. 1771. 5. Kraft Pom. Aust. 28, Tab. 173 fig. 2, 41, Tab. 193 fig. 2. 1796. 6. Forsyth Treat. Fr. Trees 20. 1803. 7. Miller Gard. Diet. 3. 1807. 8. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 237, fig. 14. 1817. 9. Phillips Com. Orch. 306. 1831. 10. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 147, 148. 1831. 11. Prince Pom. Man. 2:48. 1832. 12. Gallesio Pom. Ital., Pl. 1839. 13. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 276 fig. 106. 1845. 14. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 283, 382, 419. 1846. 15. Poiteau Pom. Franc. 1:1846. 16. Horticulturist 2: 178, 179 fig. 30, 291. 1847. 17. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 326 fig. 253, 329. 1849.  18. Hovey Fr. Am. 2:69, Pl. 1851. 19. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 54. 1852. 20. Elliott Fr. Book 410. 1854. 21. Thompson Gard Ass't 517. 1859. 22; Downing Fr. Trees Am. 917. 1869. 23. Mas Le Verger 6:55, fig. 28. 1866-73. 24. Pom. France 7:No. 5. 1871. 25. Oberdieck Deut. Obst. Sort. 434. 1881. 26. Lauche Deut. Pom. 20, PI. IV 20. 1882. 27. Hogg Fruit Man. 703. 1884. 28. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 433. 1889. 29. Guide Prat. 154, 363. 1895. 30. Bailey Sur. Unlike 176, 243. 1896. 31. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:186. 1897. 32. Botanical Gazette 26:423. 1898. 33. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 24:465. 1898. 34. Waugh Plum Cult. 22, 106, 107 fig. 1901.

Abricot Verd 5, 9. Abricot Vert 3, 7, 10, 11, 13, 14, 21, 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 29. Abricotée Sageret ?22, 28. Aloise's Green Gage 22, 24, 27, ?28, 29. Blanche Grosse Espece 10. Bonne Verte 5. Bradford Gage 13, 20, 21, 22, 28, 29. Bradford Green Gage 27, 28. Bradford Queen Gage 24, ?2 9. Brugnon Green Gage 10, 18, 21, 22, 24, 27, 28, 29. Brugnon Gage 20, 22, 28, 29. Bruyn Gage 13, 17, 18 incor., 20,22,28,29. Burgnon Gage 13, 24. Cant's Late Green Gage 22, 28. Claudia 12. Damas Gris 24, 28, 29. Damas Verd 9. Damas Vert 7, 10, 13, 18, 21, 22, 24, 27, 28, 29. Dauphine 5, 7, 10, 11, 13, 14, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 29. Die grosse Königin Claudiapflaume, die grüne Abrikose 5. Die Königin Klaudia 5. Dauphine 3. Dauphiny 6. Drap d'Or of some 10, 18, 28, 29. Echte Grosse Reine-Claude 28, 29. Gage Verte 28, 29. Great Green Damask 22, 27, 28. Great Green Damaski 24, 29. Great Queen Claudia 11. Green Gage 2, 6, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 27, 30, 31, 33, 34. Green Spanish 14, 18. Gros Damas Vert 11, 22, 28, 29. Grosse Königin Claudiapflaume 5. Green Gage 7, 9, 23, 24, 28, 29, 32, 34. Goring's Golden Gage 22, 24, 27, 28, 29. Grosse Reine 10, 13, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24, 27, 28, 29. Grosse Grüne Reine-Claude 25, 28. Grosse Reine-Claude 7, 25, 26, 28. Grosse Reine-Claude 3, 5, 10, 11, 13, 14, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 29. Gros Reine-Claude 14. Grüne Aprikose 5, 28, 29. Grüne Abrikose 5. Grüne Reineclaude 25. Gute Grüne 28, 29. Ruling's Reine-Claudia 22, 28. Ruling's Reine Claude 11. Ida Gage 22. Ida Green Gage 16. Ida Green Gage 20, 22, 24, 27, 28, 29. Isleworth Green Gage 13, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24, 27, 28, 29. Isleworth Green Gage 10. King of Plums 20. Königin Claudia 28, 29. Königin Klaudia 5. Large Queen Claude 11. La Grosse Reine-Claude 11. Large Queen Claudia 6. Large green claudia 11. Livingston Manor 22, 28. Louis Brun ?2 2, ?28. Mammola 12. Mirabelle Vert Double 22, 24, 27, 28, 29. Murray's Reine Claudia 22, 28. Murray's Reine Claude 11, 14, 22, 27. Prune de Reine Claude 15. Prunus Domestica Cereola 32. Prunus Domestica var. cereola 33. Prunus Domestica var. Claudiana 32. Queen Claude 2. Queen Claudia 11, 22, 24, 27, 28, 29. Reine-Claude Ancienne 23, 24, 28, 27. Reine-Claude Blanche Grosse Espece 10. Reineclaude d'oree 29. Reine-Claude Blanche La Grosse 11, 22. Reine-Claude 8, 10, 11, 13, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 27, 28, 33. Reine Claud 1. Reine-Claudia 2. Reine-Claude Blanche 10. Reine-Claude Dorée 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29. Reine-Claude Dore 18, 22. Reine-Claude Grosse 27, 28. Reine-Claude Verde Perdrigon 5. Reine-Claude Verte 23, 29. Rensselaer Gage 20, 22. Rensselvar Gage 24, 29. Rensselaar Gage 27, 28. Reine-Claude Verte Tiquetée 28, 29. Reine-Claudia Blanche La Grosso 22, 28. Royal Green Gage 28, 29. Schuyler Gage 20, incor. 22, 24, 27. Schuyler's Gage ?i3, 20, 28, 29. Sucrin Vert 10, 11, 13, 18, 21, 22, 24, 27, 28, 29. Sultaneck Erik ?28, 29. Susina Regina 12. Triomphe Garcon 24, 28, 29. Triomphe Valet 24, 28, 29. Trompe Garcon 22, 27, 28, 29. Tromp-Valet 7. Trompe Valet 22, 27, 28, 29. Verdacia 27, 28. Verdacchia rotonda 12. Verdoch 27; 32] 34- Verdochia 32. Verdochio 22, 24, 27, 28, 29. Verducia 22. Ferte Bonne 3, 7, 9, 10, 11, 14, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 28, 29. Vert Bonne 13, 22, 27. Verte d'Espagne 23, 28, 29. Wrte Tiquetée 22, 24, 27, 28, 29. Vilmot's Green Gage 29. Wilmot's Late Green Gage 29. Wilmot's Green Gage 10, 11, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24, 27, 28. Wilmot's Late Green Gage 11, 18, 20, 21, 22. Wilmot's Late Green Gage 10, 13, 18, 20, 21, 22, 28, 29. Wilmot's New Green Gage 10, 11, 13, 18, 20, 22, 28, 29. Waterloo 20.

In the pomological literature since Quintinye in 1699, Reine Claude has been the standard in quality for plums. For the qualities that gratify or assist in gratifying the sense of taste, -richness of flavor, consistency and texture of flesh, abundance of juice and pleasant aroma, -the Reine Claude is unsurpassed. It is, however, now probably equalled in quality by several of the great number of similar varieties which have originated in America and for which American plum-growing is justly distinguished. Under ordinary cultivation the Reine Claude is not a remarkably handsome plum but when grown on thrifty trees, the crop thinned, foliage and fruit kept free from pests and the fruits sufficiently exposed to the sun to color well, it is a beautiful fruit, its size, form and color all adding to its beauty. The tree is only of moderate size in the orchard and in the nursery is so small and wayward that nurserymen hesitate to grow it. The trees, though small, are productive and bear regularly, the chief defect being the susceptibility to sunscald whereby the bark on the trunk is killed and the beginning of the end is marked. The short life of the trees of this variety is largely due to this injury to the bark and has led to top-working on Lombard and other stocks, an operation successful only when done early in the life of the stock. Another serious fault is that the fruit cracks badly if showers occur at ripening time. Reine Claude is still one of the most profitable plums grown in New York and whether for the commercial or home plantation deserves a place in the plum orchard.

For a complete history of this variety the reader is referred to the discussion of the Reine Claude group of plums. The Bavay, a distinct variety, is called the true Reine Claude by many nurserymen and horticultural writers. Green Gage is a synonym of the Reine Claude and is preferred by some writers for this plum but since "Reine Claude " is as well known and much older it has been retained in The Plums of New York. The American Pomological Society placed this variety on its fruit catalog list in 1852.

Tree of medium size and vigor, round-topped, hardy, productive; trunk and branches of medium thickness and smoothness; branches ash-brown, with few lenticels; branchlets short, with short internodes, reddish-brown, lightly pubescent; leaf-buds large, long, conical or pointed, free; leaf-scars prominent.

Leaves four and one-half inches long, two inches wide, oval, thick, leathery; upper surface dark green, smooth, covered with fine, scattering hairs; lower surface pale green, pubescent; apex acute, margin often doubly crenate, glandular; petiole three-quarters inch long, tinged red, glandless or with one or two small, globose, greenish glands variable in position.

Fruit mid-season; one and three-quarters inches by one and five-eighths inches in size, roundish-oval, halves equal; cavity narrow, regular, abrupt; suture shallow, broad; apex pubescent, roundish or slightly depressed; color yellowish green, indistinctly streaked with green, becoming golden-yellow at full maturity, sometimes mottled on the sunny side with red, overspread with thin bloom; dots very numerous, small, grayish, conspicuous, clustered about the apex; stem thick, three-quarters inch long, pubescent; skin tough, adhering to the pulp; flesh greenish-yellow or golden-yellow, juicy, firm, sweet, mild; very good; stone semi-clinging, one inch by three-quarters inch in size, oval, turgid, tapering at the base, blunt at the apex, with thickly pitted surfaces; ventral suture wide, distinctly furrowed, often with a short wing; dorsal suture with a very wide and deep groove.

ROBINSON

Prunus munsoniana

1.  Ind. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 134. 1883. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 151. 1891. 3. Cornell Sta. Bul. 38:64, 86. 1892. 4. Me. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:67. 1896. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 89. 1897. 6. Wis. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 137. 1899. 7. Wis. Sta. Bul. 87:15. 1901. 8. Waugh Plum Cult. 199. 1901. 9. Kan. Sta. Bul. 101:131. 1901. 10. Ga. Sta. Bul. 67:280. 1904. 11. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:256, 257. 1905.

Robinson has long been one of the best known of its species though it is probably inferior in fruit-characters at least to several other Munsoniana sorts. The plums are attractive in coloring but small in size and comparatively low in quality. The trees are capricious in growth and not as hardy as some others of the species but where they can be grown are always productive. The variety is rated by some authors among those that need cross-pollination to insure large crops. Robinson may be worth growing in the South and in the States of the Plains but it cannot be recommended for any purpose in New York.

This variety is a seedling grown by a Mr. Pickett of Putnam County, Indiana, from a seed brought with him from North Carolina about 1835. In 1879, Dr. J. H. Robinson read a paper before the Indiana Horticultural Society on Chicasaw plums, and gave a very flattering description of this plum, which he had been growing since 1872. Later it was named by the Putnam County Horticultural Society in honor of Dr. Robinson. This name was used as a synonym of Miner by Downing in 1869 but at the present time that usage has almost disappeared in plum literature.

Tree variable in size, often large, vigorous, spreading, not uniform in habit, somewhat open and flat-topped, hardy, medium to productive; trunk shaggy; branches very rough, zigzag, thorny, dark ash-gray, with numerous, large, narrow and strongly elongated, raised lenticels; branchlets slender to medium, with internodes medium to below in length, greenish-red changing to dull, dark chestnut-red, glabrous, with numerous very conspicuous, large, raised lenticels; leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, free.

Leaves folded upward, lanceolate, peach-like, one and five-sixteenths inches wide, three and one-half inches long, thin; upper surface dark green, glabrous, with deeply grooved midrib; lower surface glabrous except along the midrib and larger veins; apex taper-pointed, base obtuse, margin very finely serrate, with small, dark red glands; petiole slender, five-eighths inch long, reddish, lightly pubescent along one side, glandless or with from one to seven small, globose, reddish-brown glands on the stalk and on the base of the leaf.

Blooming season medium to late, long; flowers appearing with the leaves, eleven-sixteenths inch across, whitish, somewhat self-fertile; borne in clusters on lateral buds and spurs, in twos, threes or fours; pedicels seven-sixteenths inch long, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, narrow-campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, slightly obtuse, glandular, pubescent and with marginal hairs, erect; petals ovate or oval, small, narrow, slightly crenate, tapering below to long, narrow claws; anthers yellowish; filaments one-quarter inch long; pistil glabrous, slightly shorter than or equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit early, season very long; less than an inch in diameter, roundish or roundish-oval, halves equal; cavity of medium depth and width, abrupt; suture a line; apex roundish; color clear currant-red, overspread with thick bloom; dots scattering, large, russet, conspicuous, clustered around the apex; stem slender, five-eighths inch long, glabrous, adhering to the fruit; skin tough, bitter, separating readily; flesh golden-yellow, very juicy, somewhat fibrous, tender and melting, sweet next the skin, with some astringency near the center, of mild but pleasant flavor; fair in quality; stone clinging, five-eighths inch by three-eighths inch in size, oval, turgid, very slightly flattened and necked at the base, abrupt-pointed at the apex, roughish; ventral suture blunt, slightly ridged; dorsal suture with a rather broad groove of medium depth.

ROLLINGSTONE

Prunus americana

I. Rural N. Y. 44:645. 1885. 2. Minn. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 279. 1885. 3. N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 186. 1885. 4. Wis. HorL Soc. Rpt. 32. 1885. 5. Minn. Sta. Bul. 10:73 fe- 1890. 6. Cornell Sta. Bui, 38:41, 86. 1892. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 24. 1897. 8. Wis. Sta. Bul. 63:56, 58 fig. 28. 1897. 9. Colo. Sta. Bul. 50:45. 1898. 10. Ohio. Sta. Bul. 113:153. 1899. 11. Waugh Plum Cult. 162. 1901. 12. Ga. Sta. Bul. 67:280. 1904. 13. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:256, 257. 1905.

Minnesota 2. Rolling Stone 3, 4.

Rollingstone is an old Americana sort which has been kept in cultivation chiefly because it is of very good quality for one of its species. The fruit is rather dull in color and small but not unattractive in appearance; the plums are little troubled by either the brown-rot or the plum curculio and ship very well because of the tough skin. The tree is dwarfish with a crooked trunk, shaggy bark, unkempt top and very twiggya typical Americana and most difficult to grow into a good orchard plant. The variety is characterized by long, conspicuous stamens, stigmas frequently defective and by very large leaves. The variety has little or no value in New York.

Rollingstone was found near an old Indian camping ground on the Rollingstone Creek, Winona County, Minnesota, by Mr. 0. M. Lord, Minnesota City, about 1852. Mr. Lord planted trees of this plum in his garden and found that they improved greatly under cultivation, so much so that they soon became very popular in the local market. About 1882 he introduced the Rollingstone to fruit-growers in general. Mr. H. M. Thompson of St. Francis, according to the Minnesota Horticultural Society Report for 1885, sent this plum out under the name Minnesota but fortunately it has not been distributed under its synonym widely enough to cause much confusion. In 1897 the American Pomological Society added Rollingstone to its fruit catalog list.

Tree dwarfish, variable in vigor, spreading, flat-topped, hardy, productive, healthy; trunk shaggy; branches dark ash-gray, thorny, rough, zigzag, with numerous, rather large lenticels; branchlets slender, twiggy, medium to short, with internodes of average length, greenish turning to dark brown, glossy, glabrous, with conspicuous, small, raised lenticels; leaf-buds medium in size and length, appressed.

Leaves falling early, folded upward, obovate or long-ovate, one and one-half inches wide, three and one-half inches long, thin; upper surface smooth, glabrous, with a narrow groove on the midrib; lower surface silvery green, lightly pubescent, the veins prominent; apex taper-pointed, base rather acute, margin coarsely and doubly serrate, eglandular; petiole slender, five-eighths inch long, tinged red, sparingly pubescent, glandless or with one or two small, globose, reddish glands on the stalk.

Blooming season late and short; flowers appearing after the leaves; three-quarters inch across, the buds creamy-white changing to white as the flowers expand; borne in clusters on lateral buds and spurs, in threes or in fours; pedicels seven-sixteenths inch long, below medium in thickness, glabrous, green; calyx-tube reddish-green, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, acute, eglandular, glabrous on the outer surface but lightly pubescent within, heavily pubescent on the margin and with irregular deep serrations, erect; petals oval or slightly ovate, dentate, tapering below into narrow claws reddish at the base; stamens conspicuous; anthers yellow; filaments three-eighths inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length; stigma often abortive.

Fruit mid-season or earlier, ripening period short; about one inch in diameter, roundish, halves equal; cavity shallow, flaring, marked before maturity with light-colored, radiating streaks; suture aline; apex roundish; color dark purplish-red, with thin bloom; dots numerous, small, light russet, inconspicuous; stem slender, nine-sixteenths inch long, adhering poorly to the fruit; skin thick, tough, semi-adherent; flesh orange-yellow, juicy, slightly fibrous, tender and melting, sweet, strongly aromatic; good; stone semi-free, five-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, roundish-oval, flattened, smoothish, blunt at the base and apex; ventral suture acute, faintly ridged; dorsal suture acute, with a narrow, shallow, indistinct groove.

ROYAL TOURS

Prunus domestica

1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:81, PI. XX fig. 8. 1768. 2. Kraft Pom. Aust. 2:35, Tab. 184 fig. 2. 1796. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Ant. 313. 1845. 4. Elliott Fr. Book 423. 1854. 5. Mas Le Verger 6:53, fig. 27. 1866-73. 6. Lange Allgem. Garten, 2:420. 1879. 7. Le Bon Jard. 2:341. 1882. 8. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 368. 1887. 9. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 438. 1889. 10. Guide Prat. 160, 365. 1895. 11. Waugh Plum Cult. 120, 121. 1901.

Damas de Tours 7. Die konigliche Pflaume von Tours 2. DieVs Konigspflaume 9 incor. Diels Konigpflaume 10. Fruhe Herrn Pflaume 9 incor., 10. Kings plum of Tours 6. Konigspflaume von Tours 5, 10. Konigspflaume von Tours 9. Konigliche Pflaume von Tours 9, 10. Konigs Pflaume 9 incor., 10. Konigliche Grosse Pflaume 9, 10. Konigin von Tours 9, 10. Morocco-pflaume 10. Morocco 9 incor. Prune Roy ale de Tours 5, 9. Rothe Konigspflaume 10. Roi 10. Royale 8, 10. Royale de Tours 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10. Royale de Tours 2, 4, 9, 10, 11. Royal Tours 3, 4, 9. Royal of Tours 4. Royal red Plum 8, 10. Worth 11.

This excellent variety should be grown generally in America for home use, at least, if it proves nearly as desirable as it is rated in Europe. Royal Tours is an old French sort supposed to have originated in the neighborhood of Tours, France, Although highly esteemed in Europe, it has not gained favor in this country and is rarely found here. Waugh states that in 1899 he secured specimens of it from North Carolina where it was grown locally under the name Worth. The following description is compiled.

Tree strong, vigorous; branches thick, short, smooth; fruit early mid-season; of medium size, irregularly roundish, swollen on one side, dark reddish-purple covered with thick bloom; cavity deep; suture prominent; stem short, thick; skin thick, firm; dots conspicuous; flesh greenish-yellow, firm, sweet; very good; stone large, oblong, rough, clinging.

RUTLAND PLUMCOT

Prunus triflora X Prunus armeniaca

1. Burbank Cat. 13 fig. 1901. 2. De Vries PI. Br. 218. 1907. 3. Fancher Creek Nur. Cat. 10 fig. 1909.

Plumcot 1, 2.

One of the interesting novelties of recent plum-breeding is the Plum-cot grown by Luther Burbank x from a cross between the plum and the apricot. Not having seen the fruit of this remarkable cross we are unable to judge of its value to the plum-grower. Out of a large number of extremely variable seedlings of this cross Burbank selected this, the Rutland Plumcot, named in honor of an Australian admirer of the fruit. The variety was introduced by the Fancher Creek Nursery in 1906 and 1907. The following description is partly compiled.

Tree vigorous, spreading, open, not a heavy bearer; branches thorny; branchlets rather slender, with short internodes, dull red; leaves folded upward, oval, one and five-eighths inches wide, two and seven-eighths inches long, rather stiff; margin finely and doubly crenate, glandular; petiole greenish-red, with from one to four globose glands.

The fruit in California attains a large size; suture and cavity deep; skin fuzzy like an apricot, purple; flesh deep red, subacid; quality fair; stone large, broad-oval.

Of this fruit Burbank writes to this Station under date of December 6, 1909, as follows: " I have this season also about 65,000 or 75,000 Plumcot seedlings,a wholly new fruit which promises great things for localities where it can be grown. These Plumcots vary more astonishingly from seed than anything which I have ever produced. No pure Apricots or pure Plums are produced, but every possible variety and every possible combination and all qualities are brought out strongly. The range of colors is astonishing,some new combinations of colors never before seen in fruits have been produced. The best California judges of fruits, the great growers and shippers, have pronounced some of these varieties the best fruit ever produced on this earth. Most of these fruits have a beautiful downy skin, many of them smooth flesh, orange, yellow, white, crimson or green; pits peculiar. The fruits vary from about the size of a medium peach down to the size of Green Gage plums, though the various ones are of every possible size, form, flavor, color, time of ripening, etc. The trees, in some cases, grow faster than any other fruit tree. Sometimes branches grow on even quite young trees twelve feet in length and an inch in diameter in a single season. Others are quite slow growers or even dwarfs."

SAINT CATHERINE

Prunus domestica

I. Quintinye Com. Gard. 67, 68, 69. 1699. 2. Langley Pomona 94, PI. 24 fig. 6. 1729. 3. Miller Card. Diet. 3. 1754. 4. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:97, PI. XX fig. 5, 109, PL XIX. 1768. 5. Knoop Fructologie 2:55. I77I- 6- Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 153. 1831. 7. Prince Pom. Man. 2:76,103. 1832. 8. Kenrick Am. Orch. 267. 1832. 9. Gallesio Pom. Ital. 2:PL 1839. 10. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 283 fig. 112. 1845. " Floy-Lindley ffw^^ Orcet. #ani. 298, 383. 1846. 12. Poiteau Pom. Franc. 1:1846. 13. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. XXX. 1854. 14. Ann. Pom. Beige 65, PL 1855. IS+ Thompson Gard. AssH 520. 1859. *6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 86. 1862. 17. Pom. France 7:No. 23. 1871. 18. Mas Lt Verger 6:89, fig. 45. 1866-73. I9- Hogg Fn*et ikfaw. 724. 1884. 20. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 431. 1889. 21. Wickson Cat. Fruits 356 fig. 1891. 22. Guide Prat. 161, 365. 1895. 23. Oregon Sta. Bul. 45:33 fig. 1897.

#nce* 7. Bricette 4, 7, 12. Bricette 7, 19. Bnsette 20, 22. Catherine (Prune de Ste.) 5. Catharinenpflaume 18, 20, 21. jD^ Sainte-Catherine 22. Gelbe Catharinenpflaume 20. Gelbe Catharinenpflaume 18, 22. GVZ6# Katharinenpflaume 17, 22. #wte Kathe 20. Mirabelle Tar dive 7. Petite Bricette 7. Pruneau de Tours 18. Prune de Sainte Catherine 7, 17, 20. Prune Sainte Catherine 13. Prune Sainte-Catherine 18. Prune Sainte-Catherine Jaune 18. Prunier Sainte-Catherine 14. Pruneaux de Tours 13. St. Catharine 1, 2, 7, 8, 16, 19, 23. Saint Catherine 7. Sainte Catherine 11, 20. Sainte-Catharine 3, 4, 12, 17, 18, 22. Sainte-Catherine de Tours 17, 20, 22. Sainte-Catherine jaune 20, 21. Sainte-Catherine ordinaire 17, 20, 22. St. Katharine 1. Spate Mirabelle 20 incor., 22. Susina Di Santa Caterina 9. Torlo d'Ovo 9. Torlo d'Uovo 9. Yellow St. Catharine 7.

This plum is grown only on the Pacific Coast in America and even there is to be found but locally and is now passing from cultivation. It is, however, one of the well-known sorts in Europe, especially in France where it is used for prune-making. It appears to be of the Reine Claude group in which group America has so many plums of surpassing merit that this one has no place on this side of the Atlantic. It is included in The Plums of New York largely because of its historic interest and because there seems to be no complete description of it made from trees and fruits grown on this continent.

The origin of this old plum is unknown. It was first mentioned by Quintinye in 1699. Wherever it originated, it is now grown most extensively in France and is known to commerce as the Prune of Tours. The people in Northern Italy cultivate it under the name Torlo d'Ovo (References, 9). The Belgians have used Saint Catherine incorrectly for the Imperiale Violette (References, 14). In America, according to Kenrick, it was not uncommon around Boston in 1832 but it evidently did not receive much recognition, for the United States Patent Office reimported it from France in 1854 and distributed it in the northeastern part of this country. The American Pomological Society added it to its fruit catalog list in 1862 and dropped it in 1899.

Tree large, vigorous, round-topped, usually hardy, productive; branches sparingly thorny, light ash-brown, smooth except for the few raised lenticels; branchlets thick, long, with long internodes, greenish-red changing to dark reddish-brown, marked with scarf-skin, nearly glabrous throughout the season, with few, conspicuous, large, raised lenticels; leaf-buds of medium size and length, conical or pointed, broad at the base, appressed.

Leaves folded upward, oval, one and one-half inches wide, three inches long; upper surface lightly pubescent, with a grooved midrib; lower surface silvery-green, pubescent; apex and base acute, margin crenate, with small, dark glands; petiole three-quarters inch long, thick, with a red tinge, pubescent, glandless or with from one to three conspicuous, globose, bright yellow glands variable in size, usually on the stalk.

Season of bloom intermediate, long; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch across, white, the buds tinged yellow as they open; borne on lateral spurs, in twos or in threes; pedicels nearly one inch long, slender, with thin pubescence, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes small, narrow, acute, pubescent on the inner surface, erect; petals oval, entire, not clawed; anthers yellow with a tinge of red; filaments three-eighths inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length, often abortive.

Fruit late, intermediate in length of ripening season; small, obovate or oval, slightly necked, truncate at the base, compressed, halves equal; cavity shallow, narrow, flaring; suture varies from shallow to deep, often prominent; apex depressed; color dull green, changing to golden-yellow, overspread with thin bloom; dots numerous, small, gray, inconspicuous, clustered about the apex; stem slender, very long, often one and one-eighth inches in length, glabrous, adhering well to the fruit; skin thick, tough, clinging slightly; flesh light golden-yellow, juicy, fibrous, sweet, mild, pleasant, not high in flavor; good; stone clinging, three-quarters inch by one-half inch in size, oval, flattened, slightly acute at the base and apex, with roughened surfaces; ventral suture finely grooved, blunt; dorsal suture with a wide, shallow groove.

SAINT JULIEN

Prunus insititia

1. Miller Gard. Diet. 3. 1754. 2. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 153. 1831. 3. Prince Pom. Man, 2:73. 1832. 4. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:500. 1860. 5. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 946. 1869. & Hogg Fruit Man. 725. 1884. 7. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 449. 1889. 8. Rev. Hort. 438. 1892. 9. Trait. Prat. Seek. Fruits 170. 1893. 10. Bot. Gaz. 26:425. 1898.

Common Saint Julien 3. Common Saint Julien 5, 7. French St. Julien 3, 5, 7. Gros Saint-Julien 3. Gros Saint-Julien 4. Kleine Blaue Julians Pflaume 7, Large Saint Julien ?3. Petit Saint Julien 4. Petit Saint Julien 3, 5, 7. Prunus Insititia var 7. Prunus Domestica Juliana 10. Prunier Saint-Julien 8. St. Julien 6. St. Julian 3. Saint Julien 3. Saint Julien Petit ?2. Saint-Julien Petit 3, 5, 7. The St. Julian Plum 1. Weichharige Schlehen Damascene 7.

The Saint Julien plums, as we now use the name, constitute a division of Prunus insititia used as propagating stocks. Whether the name was ever applied to a specific variety can not be said. Miller, in 1754, described a "St. Julian " and gave its chief use as a stock for plums, peaches and Bruxelles Apricot. Later writers recommend them chiefly, if not only, as stocks though in France it is said the fruits are dried and sold by the pharmacists and herbalists under the name Prunus medicines (medicinal prunes). Carriere, in Revue Horiicole 1892, speaks very highly of these plums as stocks and describes them as follows:

"Tree vigorous, with branches spreading-straggling, relatively short, branched at the extremity. Leaves numerous, slightly roughened by the prominence of the numerous nerves on the lower surface, short, oblong, usually rounded at the apex, attenuated at the base, where are found a few very small glands; petiole about two centimeters long, yellowish, lengthening out into a prominent midrib; buds short, oval, pointed, deep reddish-brown; dark green above, pale green below, bordered regularly with very close, short, slightly inclined teeth.

Fruits very abundant, pedunculate, spherical or oblong, peduncle a little bent, rather strong, nearly three centimeters long, inserted in a very small cavity, regularly rounded. Skin strongly attached to the flesh, even, glossy, purplish-black, more or less glaucous; flesh free from the seed, pulpy, very juicy, soft, greenish, sweet, leaving a taste a little strong, but not disagreeable; seed short oval, elliptical, flattened, ten millimeters in width, nearly fifteen to sixteen millimeters in length, with grayish-red surface roughened by small, regular projections. Matures from July to September/'

SAINT MARTIN

Prunus domestica

I. Lond. Hort. Soe. Cat. 144, 153. 1831. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 2:74. 1832. 3. Downing Ft. Trees Am. 295 fig. 119. 1845. 4* Poiteau Pom. Franc. 1. 1846. 5. Mag. Hort. 14:151 fig. 15. 1848. 6. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 336 fig. 260, 337. 1849. 7* Elliott Fr. Book. 423. 1854. 8. Thompson Gard. Ass't 515. 1859. 9+ Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 40. 1867. I0- Guide Prat. 162, 365. 1895.

Catherine violette 8, 10. Coe's Fine Late Red 8. Coe's Fine Late Red 1, 5, 7, 10. Coe's Late Red 3, 6, 9. Coe's Late Red 5, 6, 7, 10. Coe's sehr spate rothe Pflaume 10. De la Saint-Martin 10. Oktoberpflaume 10. Prune de la St. Martin 3. Prunier de Saint Martin 2, 5, 7. Red St. Martin 2, 7. Red Saint Martin 5, 6, 7. Rouge tardive de Coe 10. Saint Martin Rouge 5. Saint-Martin Rouge 1, 2, 3, 6/ 7, 10. Saint Martin 2, 3, 5. St. Martin 2, 6, 7, 8. St. Martin Rouge 8. Violette d'Octobre 10. Violette Oct over pflaume 8. Violette Oktober pflaume 10.

Saint Martin is an old French variety now hardly worth growing, brought into England by a Mr. Coe who called it Coe's Fine Late Red, a name continued by the London Horticultural Society in its catalog. In the United States, too, it became quite generally known as Coe's Late Red in spite of the efforts of Prince, Downing and Elliott to have it pass under its true name. The variety was mentioned in the American Pomological Society's catalogs from 1867 to 1897. It is described as follows:

Fruit very late; of medium size, roundish, bright purplish-red with thin blue bloom; suture distinct; cavity shallow; stem of moderate length and thickness; flesh yellow, with a vinous flavor; fair to good; freestone.

SATSUMA

Prunus triflora

i^Gard.Mon. 366, 367. 1887. 2. U.S.D.A. Rpt. 652, PI. I fig., 636. 1887. 3. Card. & For. 1:471. 1888. 4. Bailey Ann. Hort. 103. 1889. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 105, 106, 125. 1891. 6. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 54. 1892. 7. Cornell Sta. Bul. 62:29. 1894. 8. Rev. Hort. 458. 1894. 9. Ga, Hort. Soc. Rpt. 96. 1895. 10. Guide Prat. 165, 366. 1895. 11. Cornell Sta. Bul. 106:46, 53. 1896. 12. Ala. Col. Sta. Bul. 85:446. 1897. 13. Cornell Sta. Bul. 139:38, 42. 1897. 14. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 26. 1897. 15. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:243, 250. 1899. 16. Cornell Sta. Bul. 175:151. 1899. 17. Ohio Sta. Bul. 113:158. 1899. 18. Waugli Plum Cult. 141. 1901. 19. Mich. Sta. Bul. 187:77, 80. 1901. 20. Ga. Sta. Bul. 68:14, 33, 34. 1905. 21. De Vries PL Br* 170. 1907.

Beni Smono No. 4 ?6. Blood Plum 7, 9, 16, 18, 20. Blood Plum? 1. Blood Plum No. 4 }gt 13. Blood Plum No. 4 ?n. Honsmomo 11. Honsmomo ?9, n. Japan Blood Plum 3. Sanguine 10. Satsuma Blood 4. Yonemomo 5, 7, 9, 16, 20. Yonesmomo 5, 20.

There is a group of several varieties of Trifiora plums unique in having the flesh deep red in color and very firm and juicy. Of these red-fleshed plums, Satsuma was the first to be introduced into fruit-growing in America and is one of the parents of most of the others. While the fruit is not as large nor as handsome in color as in some of its offspring, it is still one of the best varieties for quality of frtiit and its trees are possibly as good as those of any of the other sorts of red-fleshed Trifloras. Satsuma, besides being one of the best of its class in quality for either dessert or culinary purposes, keeps and ships very well and if the plums are of sufficient size and have been allowed to color properly, the variety makes a good showing on the markets. Too often, however, it is so unattractive as it reaches the market that it does not sell well. In the South the plums are said to be much attacked by brown-rot but they are not more susceptible here than other plums. The trees are rather above the average for the species in size, habit, health, hardiness and productiveness though they bear sparingly when young. They bloom early in the season and are distinguished from other Triflora sorts by having many spurs and short branches along the main branches. Satsuma might possibly be found worth growing commercially in a very small way in some parts of the State.

Satsuma was raised from the same lot of plum pits from which the Burbank came, the seeds having been sent to Luther Burbank by a Japanese agent in 1883. In 1887 Burbank's tree was the only bearing one in America but since then it has been tested in all of the large plum regions, having been introduced by Burbank in 1889. In 1897 it was added to the fruit catalog list of the American Pomological Society. Even though this plum is very distinct, with its solid red flesh, it is much confused with other sorts. A Japanese in a letter x to L. A. Berckmans says " Beni-Smomo comprises a group of red-fleshed plums. In Satsuma, my native home, Hon-smomo and Yone-smomo are the most noted and familiar fruits of this group, the first is the smallest in size and deepest in color, while the second is the largest and most highly esteemed. In some districts, plums in this group are called Uchi-Beni, which means red inside." Hon-smomo or Blood Plum No. 4 was separated from the Satsuma or Yonemomo by the Georgia Horticultural Society but Bailey found them indistinguishable.

Tree medium to large, vigorous, upright-spreading, usually quite hardy, moderately productive, bearing heavier crops as the tree becomes older; branches grayish-brown; branchlets medium to above in thickness and length, with short internodes, dark chestnut-red, glabrous, with slightly raised lenticels of medium number and size; leaf-buds small, short, conical, appressed.

Leaves somewhat lanceolate, four inches by one and one-half inches in size, of medium thickness; upper surface dark green, with a shallow, grooved midrib; lower surface light green, glabrous; margin finely and doubly crenate, glandular; petiole three-quarters inch long, tinged red, with from one to three reniform, greenish-yellow glands variable in size, usually at the base of the blade.

Blossoms white; borne in pairs or in threes; pedicels nine-sixteenths inch long, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes medium in width, acute, somewhat serrate, with dark colored glands, glabrous, erect; petals tapering below to claws of medium length, reddish at the base.

Fruit mid-season or later; one and seven-eighths inches by two inches in size, variable in shape, ranging from roundish-cordate to somewhat oblate, flattened at the base, compressed, halves unequal; cavity deep, narrow, abrupt, compressed; suture variable in depth, prominent; apex pointed or roundish; color dark dull red, with thin bloom; dots numerous, of medium size, russet, somewhat conspicuous, clustered about the apex; stem slender, three-eighths inch long, glabrous; skin of medium thickness and toughness, bitter, semi-adherent; flesh dark purplish-red, juicy, tender at the skin, becoming tough at the center, sweet, with an almond-like flavor; of good quality; stone semi-clinging or clinging, seven-eighths inch by five-eighths inch in size, oval, strongly pointed, rough, tinged red; ventral suture narrow, winged; dorsal suture grooved.

1 Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 105, 1891.

SAUNDERS

Prunus domestica

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 143. 1885. 2. Can. Hort. 14:92, 223. 1891. 3. Ibid. 19:253. 1896. 4. Ont. Exp. Sta. Rpt. 45, 46. 1899. 5. Can. Hort. 27:244. 1904. Saunders Seedling 5.

The American Pomological Society recommends this variety for trial with the statement that the quality is of the best and that it is almost free from black-knot. But on the grounds of this Station, fruiting for several years, the plums have been inferior in size and somewhat so in quality and all told much less attractive than a number of other sorts of the same season. Saunders originated with John Arris of Belleville, Ontario, Canada. It was first exhibited before the Fruit-Growers' Association of Ontario at St. Catherines in 1883. In 1884, upon its being again exhibited before the same association, it was named Saunders in honor of the society's noted president. The variety was mentioned in the catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1897.

Tree of medium size, round-topped, very productive; branchlets brash, slender, very pubescent; leaves flattened, obovate or oval, one and three-quarters inches wide, four inches long, somewhat velvety, rugose; margin finely serrate, eglandular or with small dark glands; petiole pubescent, glandless or with from one to three small glands; blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and one-quarter inches across, white; borne on lateral buds and spurs, usually singly; pedicels very pubescent.

Fruit early, season short; one and one-half inches by one and one-eighth inches in size, oblong-oval, greenish-yellow changing to golden-yellow, covered with thin bloom; skin thin, tender, slightly sour, cracking when fully mature; flesh yellowish, tender and melting, sweet, mild; of good quality; stone free, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, long-oval, flattened, with rough surfaces' ventral suture winged; dorsal suture with a narrow, shallow groove.

SERGEANT

Prunus domestica

1. Col. State Bd. Hort. 49, 51. 1887. 2. Ibid. 234, 235. 1890. 3. Ibid. 105. 1891. 4. Wickson Cal. Fruits 357. 1891. 5. U,S. D. A. Div. Pom. Bul. 7:316, PL IV fig. 2. 1898. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 39. 1899. 7. Waugh Plum Cult. 121. 1901.

Prune d'Ente 2. Prunier Datte 1. Robe de Sergent 2, 5, 6. Robe de Sergeant 7. Robe de Sergent 1, 3, 4.

In France, from whence Sergeant was imported to California, Sergeant, Agen and Prunier Datte are held to be identical. But in America, only the first and last are identical, the Agen being quite distinct. It would seem that the French should know their own plums and that their nomenclature should be accepted but the Sergeant is now so widely distributed in America as distinct that we give a brief description of the plum. There may be more than one type of the Agen in France or American nurserymen may have received wrongly named varieties.

Tree upright, with branches and branchlets thickish, more robust than Agen; foliage large, lancet-shaped, glossy, much broader and more shiny than Agen; fruit mid-season; of medium size, roundish-oval, enlarged on one side; skin deep purple to blackish with a thick bloom; flesh greenish-yellow, juicier than Agen, sweet, high flavored; quality good; stone partially clinging; valuable for preserving and drying.

SHARP

Prunus domestica

I. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 153. 1831. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 315. 1845. 3. Ann. Pom. Beige 63, PL 1859. 4- Cultivator 8:25 fig. 1860. 5. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 948. 1869. 6. Guide Prat. 160, 358. 1895. 7. Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc. 21: Pt. 2, 222. 1897. 8. Waugh Plum Cult. 122, 123 fig. 1901.

Alderton 5. Dolphin 5. Dauphin 5. Denyer's Victoria ?2, 5, 7. Empereur de Sharp 3, 6. Imperial de Sharp 5. Imperiale de Sharp 6. Prune Imperiale de Sharp 3. Queen Victoria ?2. Royal Dauphine 5. Sharp 8 incor. Sharp's Emperor 1, 2 incor., 4, 5 incor. Sharp's Emperor 3, 6, 8 incor. Sharpe's Emperor 7. Sharps Kaiserpflaume 6. Victoria 5, 8 incor.

Sharp was briefly described in the London Horticultural Society catalog in 1831. Later, in 1845, A. J. Downing described the variety but thought it identical with the Victoria, as did other writers, as will be seen by referring to the Victoria. H. A. Pearson in the Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society, comparing these two sorts says, " Sharp's Emperor is a second rate plum, resembling Victoria, in appearance, but very inferior in point of cropping and quality, a decided clingstone, often gumming at the stone, and ripening a fortnight later than its supposed synonym, not worthy of cultivation." August Royer in the Annals de Pomologie Beige & Etrangere also separated the two varieties but describes them both as freestones. While there is a lack of uniformity in the descriptions yet the total evidence weighs in favor of two types which are very similar. The Victoria is probably the better plum of the two.

SHELDRAKE

Prunus domestica

Although extremely vigorous and productive this variety is so inferior in quality as to be of doubtful value. Sheldrake originated as a chance seedling on the shore of Cayuga Lake near the town of Sheldrake, New York. It was discovered and propagated by J. T. Hunt of Kendaia, New York, and has been under test at the Geneva Station since 1895.

Tree large, vigorous, round-topped, productive; branchlets thick, with long inter-nodes, pubescent; leaves drooping, somewhat flattened, oval, nearly two and one-half inches wide, four and one-quarter inches long; margin serrate with few, small, dark glands; petiole pubescent, tinged red, thick, glandless or with from one to four rather large glands usually at the base of the leaf; blooming season intermediate in time, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, nearly one and one-quarter inches across; borne singly or in pairs.

Fruit rather early; one and one-half inches by one and three-eighths inches in size, roundish-oblong; cavity very deep, abrupt; color purplish-black, overspread with thick bloom; dots conspicuous; stem thickly pubescent; skin thin, tender, slightly acid; flesh yellow, tender, sweet next the skin, but sour near the center, inferior in flavor; poor in quality; stone dark-colored, semi-clinging, one inch by three-quarters inch in size, broadly ovate or irregularly oval, flattened, with roughened and granular surfaces; ventral suture prominent, blunt.

SHIPPER

Prunus domestica

1. Gard. Mon. 24:339. 1882. 2. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 31:60. 1886. 3. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:191, fig. 42. 1897. 4. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:243, 247. 1899. 5* Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser. 3:56. 1900. 6. Mich. Sta. Bul. 187:77, 79. 1901. 7. Waugh Plum Cult. 119. 1901.

Pride 7. Shipper Pride 4. Shippers' Pride 7. Shipper's Pride 1, 2, 3, 5, 8.

This plum has never become an important commercial variety in New York yet it is offered for sale by a surprisingly large number of nurserymen. The variety has too many faults to succeed in competition with the many good plums of its color and season. The flesh is dry and the plums often shrivel on the tree, characters which fit it for shipping, but which when taken with poor quality and small size make it of little value after it reaches the market. Moreover it fruits sparingly under many conditions, though productive here, and the plums ripen somewhat unevenly and are susceptible to brown-rot. Some pomologists give a rather better estimate of the variety than that expressed here, but from all data at hand the value of the plum is not underestimated in the above statements. There are a great many better plums for New York than Shipper.

This variety was introduced by Mr. H. S. Wiley of Cayuga, New York. The plum was found by Mr. Wiley in a private garden at Port Byron, New York, about 1877. The man upon whose place it grew thought that it came from a stone of one of the several varieties in his garden but Mr. Wiley is not sure of this origin and suggests that it may have sprouted from a root.

Tree large, vigorous, round-topped, hardy, productive; branches thick, ash-gray, smooth except for the raised lenticels; branchlets of medium thickness and length, with long internodes, green changing to brownish-drab and with a red tinge, dull, covered with thick pubescence throughout the season, with inconspicuous lenticels of medium number and size; leaf-buds small, short, conical, appressed.

Leaves many, flattened or folded upward, obovate or oval, one and three-quarters inches wide, three and one-half inches long, thick, leathery; upper surface dark green, hairy, with a grooved midrib; lower surface silvery-green, thick, pubescent; apex abruptly pointed or acute, base acute, margin serrate or crenate, eglandular or with small dark glands; petiole one-half inch long, thick, pubescent, with a red tinge, glandless or with one or two globose, yellowish-green glands usually at the base of the leaf.

Season of bloom intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing with the leaves, nearly one and one-quarter inches across, white; borne on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels three-quarters inch long, pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, pubescent; calyx-lobes obtuse, lightly pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate and with marginal hairs, reflexed; petals broadly oval or obovate, slightly crenate or occasionally notched, with short, broad claws; anthers yellow; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit late, intermediate in length of ripening season; one and one-half inches by one and three-eighths inches in size, ovate, swollen on the suture side, compressed, halves equal; cavity shallow, abrupt; suture shallow; apex bluntly pointed; color purplish-black, overspread with thick bloom; dots small, russet, somewhat conspicuous; stem seven-eighths inch long, pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, tender, separating readily; flesh greenish-yellow, rather tart, firm, sweet, mild in flavor; inferior in quality; stone semi-clinging, often with red tinge near the edge, seven-eighths inch by three-quarters inch in size, irregular roundish-ovate, turgid, rough, blunt at the base and apex; ventral suture wide, ridged, distinctly winged; dorsal suture wide, deep.

SHIRO

Prunus simonii X Prunus triflora X Prunus cerasifera X Prunus munsoniana

1. Cal. State Bd. Hort. 53 fig. 1897. 2 Burbank Cat. 1899. 3. Waugh Plum Cult. 225. 1901. 4. Rural N, Y. 62:582. 1903.

Late Klondike 1.

Shiro has been in the hands of fruit-growers too short a time to permit a just estimate of it to be made. As the variety grows on the grounds of this Station, the fruits are large and handsome in form and color, as is well shown in the illustration. The flavor lacks character and is almost insipid but the flesh is tender, melting and juicy and so translucent that the pitcan be seen through the flesh. Despite the flavor, the plum is pleasant to eat and may be ranked as good in quality. Those who have had experience say that the variety ships very well if not fully mature but quickly goes down after ripening; the plums are also quite susceptible to brown -rot. The trees of this variety at Geneva are quite as vigorous, hardy, and productive as any of the sorts which Mr. Burbank gives as progenitors of Shiro and will generally, it is believed, surpass any of them in these respects. It may here be remarked that of the four species from which Shiro is supposed to have come, it most resembles Prunus triflora in both tree and fruit though the leaves have some resemblance to those of Prunus cerasifera. Shiro is still, so far as New York is concerned, in the list of plums deserving trial but with the chances against its becoming of great value either for home or commercial plantations.

This is another of Burbank's plums and is said to be a descendant of Robinson, (Prunus munsoniana,) Myrobalan, (Prunus cerasifera), and Wickson, (a cross of Prunus triflora and Prunus simonii) from seed of Wickson. Burbank in his catalog for 1889 says that the tree resembles a Myrobalan in foliage, growth and general appearance. But as the variety grows at this Station it has all the appearances of a Triflora. Shiro was described in the California State Board of Horticulture Report for 1898 and the following year it was introduced by the originator.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, tender to cold, productive; branches smooth, somewhat thorny, dull ash-gray, with few, small lenticels; branchlets slender, above medium in length, with short internodes, greenish-red changing to brownish-drab, glabrous, with inconspicuous, scattering, small lenticels; leaf-buds small, very short, obtuse, strongly appressed.

Leaves folded upward, obovate, one and five-sixteenths inches wide, two and three-quarters inches long, leathery; upper surface faintly rugose, glabrous, with a grooved midrib; lower surface lightly pubescent along the midrib and larger veins; apex acutely pointed, base rather acute, margin finely crenate, with small, dark glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, pubescent along one side, greenish-red, glandless or with one or two small, globose, yellowish glands on the stalk.

Blooming season early and of medium length; flowers appearing before the leaves, white; borne in clusters on lateral buds and spurs; pedicels short, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes obtuse, glandular-serrate, glabrous on the outer side, sparingly pubescent within, with a pink margin, erect; petals roundish, entire, tapering to short, abrupt claws; anthers yellow with a reddish tinge; filaments below medium in length; pistil glabrous, longer than the stamens.

Fruit very early, season short; one and one-half inches in diameter, roundish-conic, with halves equal; cavity intermediate in depth and width, flaring, regular; suture an indistinct line; apex roundish; color light yellow becoming deeper yellow as the season advances, occasionally with a blush of pink, with thin bloom; dots numerous, very minute, whitish, inconspicuous; stem three-eighths inch long, adhering to the fruit; skin thin, tough, sour, occasionally cracking, separating readily, although a thin coating of flesh is left clinging to the skin; flesh light yellow, semi-transparent, the stone being faintly visible, very juicy, fibrous, somewhat melting, sweet, mild, lacks character in flavor; good; stone clinging, seven-eighths inch by five-eighths inch in size, broadly oval, flattened, slightly elongated at the base, with rough surfaces; ventral suture faintly ridged and furrowed; dorsal suture very lightly grooved.

SHROPSHIRE

Prunus insititia

1. Rea Flora 209. 1676. 2. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 146. 1831 3. Prince Pom. Man. 2:90.. 1832. 4. Loudon Enc. Gard. 921. 1834. 5. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 297. 1845. 6. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 282, 383. 1846. 7. Thompson Gard. Ass't 520. 1859. 8. Hogg Fruit Man. 377. 1866. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1875. 10. Hogg Fruit Man. 695. 1884. 11. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 289. 1889. 12; Am. Gard. 14:146 fig., 147, 148. 1893. 13. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:192 fig. 46. 1897. 14. Garden 53:265. 1898. 15. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:243, 247. 1899. 16. Waugh Plum Cult. 130 fig. 1901. 17. Va. Sta. Bul. 134:44. 1902. 18. Ga. Sta. Bul. 67:281 fig. 1904.

Cheshire 14. Damascene 8, 10, 14. Damson Plum 3. Long Damson 2. Long Damson 7, 8, 10. Pruine Damson? 1. Prune Damson 2, 4, 5, 7, 14. Prune Damson 6, 8. Prune 10. Shropshire Damson ?6, 8, 10, 15, 16, 17. Shropshire Damson 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 18.

In America, Shropshire is probably the best known of the Damsons, being found not only in nearly all commercial plantations but in the smallest home collections as well. The qualities which make it so generally a favorite are for most part those of the tree, the French surpassing it in size and in quality of the fruit. The trees of the variety under notice are not surpassed by any other Insititia in size, vigor, hardiness and health nor are they, except in size, by any other European plum. Shropshire is enormously productive, bearing its load of fruit year after year until it is a standard among fruits for productivity and reliability in bearing. The trees have but one defect, -unless sprayed the foliage falls prey to fungi and drops early. The trees are comparatively easy to manage in such orchard operations as pruning, spraying and harvesting as they are not so thick-topped, twiggy and spiny as other Damsons. The fruit is of very good size and while in no sense a dessert plum may be eaten out of hand with relish when fully ripe or after a light frost, a point worth considering where only Damsons can be grown. It is one of the best of its kind for culinary purposes. This old variety is still to be recommended for both home and market.


Shropshire originated in England, sometime in the Seventeenth Century. It was noted by American writers early in the Nineteenth Century and in 1875 was placed on the American Pomological Society's fruit catalog list. Shropshire is a more familiar name in fruit literature than the references given indicate, being found in practically every English discussion of plums since 1676 and in all American notices of this fruit since Prince wrote in 1832. For a fruit so long under cultivation, it has few synonyms.

Tree large, vigorous, vasiform, hardy, productive; main branches numerous, ash-gray, smooth except for numerous scars from small spur-like branches, with many, small lenticels; branchlets twiggy, slender, with short internodes, green changing to dark brownish-drab, dull, covered with heavy pubescence throughout the season, with numerous, small lenticels; leaf-buds below medium in size, short, conical, appressed.

Leaves flattened, obovate, about one inch wide, two inches long, thin; upper surface dark green, pubescent along the grooved midrib; lower surface a paler green, with thin pubescence; apex obtuse or acute, base acute, margin finely serrate, eglandular; petiole one-half inch long, slender, greenish-red, with little pubescence, glandless or with one or two small, globose, greenish-yellow glands usually at the base of the leaf.

Season of bloom medium; flowers seven-eighths inch across, white; borne in clusters on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels three-eighths inch long, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, acute, glabrous, the margin glandular-ciliate, reflexed; petals roundish-oval, entire, short-clawed; anthers yellow; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit late, season long; one and one-half inches by one inch in size, oval, compressed, halves equal; cavity shallow, narrow, flaring; suture an indistinct line; apex roundish; color purplish-black, overspread with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, russet, inconspicuous; stem slender, one-half inch long, glabrous, adhering to the fruit; skin thin, tender, adhering; flesh golden-yellow, juicy, firm but tender, agreeably tart at full maturity, sprightly, pleasant; stone clinging, three-quarters inch by one-half inch in size, oval, acute at the base, blunt at the apex, with nearly smooth surfaces; ventral suture broad, blunt; dorsal suture acute, with a narrow, shallow, indistinct groove.

SIMON

Prunus simonii

1. Rev. Hort. in. 1872. 2. Horticulturist 27:196. 1872. 3. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 374., 378. 1881. 4. Ibid. 321. 1884. 5. Rural N. Y. 45:689 fig. 389. 1886. 6. Ibid. 46:766. 1887. 7. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 53, 99. 1889. 8. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 444. 1889. 9. Cal. State Bd. Hort. Rpt. 236, PI. II figs. 1 and 2, 238. 1890. 10. Rev. Hort. 152 fig. 40. 1891. 11. Penin. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 68. 1891. 12. Cornell Sta. Bui 51:55. 1893. 13. Mich. Sta. Bul. 103:35. 1894. 14. Guide Prat. 164, 362. 1895. 15. Neb. State Hort. Soc. Rpt. 175. 1895. 16. Kan. Sta. Bul. 73:192. 1897. *7. Vt. Sta. Bul. 67:29. 1898. 18. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 41. 1899. 19. Waugh Plum Cult. 14, 38, 234. 1901.

Apricot Plum 12, 19. Apricot Plum 9, 11. Plum Simon 2. Prune Eugene Simon 8. Prunier de Simon 8, 14. Prunus simoni 4, 7, 17. Prunus Simonii 2. Prunus Simonii 1, 3,6, 8, 10, 11, 14, 16, 19. Prunus simoni 8. Simon 19. Simon's Chinese Apricot Plum 7. Simon's Peach 15. Simon's Plum 5.

The Simon plum, a horticultural variety, constitutes the species Prunus simonii and has been fully discussed in the chapter of this text dealing with the botany of the plum. It is given further notice only to introduce the horticultural references and history and to estimate briefly its value in fruit-growing. As to the latter it may be said that the fruit is for most people unpalatable, and therefore of little worth as an edible product. Some of the crosses of which this variety is one parent are well known and esteemed in pomology and the Simon plum undoubtedly has value for plum-breeding in the future. The tree, where it succeeds, is a handsome ornamental. In New York the variety seems hardy wherever the peach can be grown and thrives on the same types of soils, sands, gravels and light loams. The tree is subject to diseases and unless well sprayed is liable to be short-lived. The variety can be recommended in New York only to the breeder of plums and for those who want the tree as an ornamental or a curiosity.

This interesting and distinct plum was obtained in China by Eugene Simon, a French consul, who sent it to the Paris Museum of Natural History in 1867. Later it was disseminated by the nurseries of Simon Brothers at Plantieres-Les-Metz. The date of its introduction into America is unknown, though it was offered for sale by the eastern nurseries as early as 1881. Ellwanger and Barry of Rochester secured their stock from France a few years previous to the date given but whether they were the only importers cannot be said. In 1899 the American Pomological Society added Simon to its catalog list. The variety is fully described under its species.

SIMPSON

Prunus domestica 1. Ohio Sta. Bul. 113:161. 1899. 2. Ibid. 162:256, 257. 1905.

The fruit of Simpson is too small and is so much below the average of its type, that of the Yellow Egg, in quality that it is not worth general introduction. It is given attention here chiefly as a matter of record. Although unquestionably a Domestica, Simpson was found growing wild in the woods west of Peoria, Illinois. It was introduced by H. Augustine of Normal, Illinois, about 1888.


Tree large, very vigorous, upright-spreading, dense, very productive; branchlets slender, with long internodes, thickly pubescent; leaf-buds large, long; leases flattened, oval, intermediate in width and length; margin serrate, eglandular; petiole pubescent, glandless or with from one to three globose glands usually on the stalk; flowers one inch across, borne in scattering clusters, singly or in pairs; calyx-lobes thickly pubescent on both surfaces.

Fruit mid-season; one and one-half inches by one and three-eighths inches in size, oval, golden-yellow, covered with thin bloom; flesh golden-yellow, juicy, firm but tender, sweet, mild; good; stone semi-free, seven-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, oval, acute at the base; ventral suture usually winged; dorsal suture widely and deeply grooved.

SMALL REINE CLAUDE

Prunus domestica

1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:91. 1768. 2. Kraft Pom. Aust. 39, Tab. 189 fig. 2. 1796. 3. M'Mahon Am. Gard. Cal. 587. 1806. 4. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 147, 148, 154. 1831. 5. Prince Pom. Man. 2:49. l832- [] Mag. Hort. 9:164. 1843. 7; Downing Fr. Trees Am. 288. 1845. 8. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 284, 383. 1846. 9. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 330. 1849. I0+ Downing Fr. Trees Am. 913. 1869. 11. Mas Pom. Gen. 2:93. 1873. 12. Oberdieck Deut. Obst. Sort. 435. 1881. 13. Hogg Fruit Man. 732. 1884. 14. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 437- 1889.

Die kleine Konigin Claudia 2. English Yellow Gage 9, 10. English Yellow Gage 11, 14. Gonne's Green Gage 6, 7, 10, 13, 14. Gonne's Green Gage 4. Kibitzenei 14. Kleine Dauphine 14. Kleine Reine-Claude 12, 14. Kleine Weisse Damascene 12, 14. Kleine Reine-Claude 11. Kleine Grune Reine-Claude 11, 12, 14. Little Reine Claude 5. Little Queen Claude 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, Little Queen Claude 8. Little Queen Claudia 3. Little Queen Claudia 5. Petite Reine-Claude 1. 11. Petite Reine-Claude 2, 5, 7, 8, 10. Petit Damas Vert 13, 14. Reine-Claude Petite Espece 14. Reine-Claude Blanche Petite Espece 5, 6, 7, 10. Reine-Claude Blanche 6, 7, 10, 14. Reine-Claude Petite 13, 14. Reine Claude (of some) 6. Small Green Gage 5, 7, 10, 14. Small Queen Claude 5. White Gage 6, 7, io, 13, 14. White Gage 4. Yellow Gage 4, 6, 7, 13. Yellow Gage 11, 14.

Small Reine Claude, an old variety of unknown origin, is now probably obsolete. Thomas and Downing described it as an English Yellow Gage but it cannot be found that it is ever so called in Europe. Since the variety was known in France and Austria in the latter part of the Eighteenth Century it is quite certain that it originated on the continent. From its name and close resemblance to the Reine Claude it is safe to state that it is a seedling of that sort. It is described as follows:

Tree of normal vigor; branches smooth; flowers small; fruit medium in size, nearly spherical, truncated on the stem side and slightly on the apex; suture wide and distinct, thus differing from the Reine Claude; stem medium in length; cavity shallow; skin tender, yellowish-green, often splashed with red on the sunny side; flesh greenish-yellow, fine, a little firm, sweet, rich and pleasant; freestone; ripens earlier than the Reine Claude.


SMITH ORLEANS

Prunus domestica

1. Prince Treat. ~H.0rt.2j. 1828. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 2:68. 1832. 3. Mag. Hort. 9:410. 1843. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 304, 305 fig. 125. 1845. 5* Mag. Hort. 14:152, 153 fig. 16. 1848. 6, Cole Am. Fr. Book 214 fig. 1849. 7. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 343. 1849. 8 Elliott Fr. Book 424. 1854. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 210. 1856. 10. Hooper W. Fr. Book 252. 1857. 11* Hogg Fruit Man. 382. 1866. 12. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 450. 1889. 13. Ont. Fr. Exp. Sta. Rpt. 52. 1895. 14. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:192. 1897.

Cooper's 5. Cooper's Large 5. Cooper's Large Red 5. Cooper's Red 6. Duane's Purple 3 incor. La Delicieuse 8. Large Orleans 3. Large Purple 3 incor. Monsieur de Smith 12. Purple Magnum Bonum 3. Red Magnum Bonum incor. 3, 4, 5, 6, 12. Smith's large Orleans 2. Smith's Orleans 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14. Smith's Orleans 5, 12. Smith's Orleans Pflaume 12. Smith's Herrn Pflaume 12. Violet Perdrigon incor. 3, 4, 5, 6, 12. Violetter Perdrigon 12 incor.

In the middle of the last century, Smith Orleans was considered about the best plum of its color in America. But the fruit is not high in quality, the texture of the flesh is coarse and it ripens at a time when fruits are plentiful, for which reasons it has ceased to be regarded with favor by either the amateur or the professional fruit-grower. The trees, however, seem to have some remarkably desirable characters and it may be that the variety should be retained for some locations and purposes and to breed from, at least. If the older pomologists have written truly few plums are adapted to a greater range of climates and soils than this one; so, too, the trees are usually spoken of as of large size, vigorous, healthy, of great productiveness and as holding the crop well. The trees in the soil and climate of this Station are quite as the older writers describe them and were the fruit only better in quality and somewhat more attractive in appearance, the variety could be highly recommended for a market plum and as a fruit for culinary purposes in the home orchard.

William Prince, in 1828, in his Treatise on Horticultureet, briefly described Smith Orleans, and seventeen years later A. J. Downing gave a short history of the variety. It is a seedling of the Orleans raised about 1825 by a Mr. Smith of Gowanus, Long Island, New York. By an error the variety was sent out as the Violet, or Blue Perdrigon, a smaller and very different fruit. Charles M. Hovey of Massachusetts, who secured trees of the Cooper from Prince, about 1831, believed this variety to be identical with the Smith Orleans in all characters. Downing could not agree with him but the present writers find that the two varieties are so much alike that it is impossible to distinguish between them. As is suggested under Cooper, they may be identical or they may have come true to seed from the same parent. The American Pomological Society recommended this plum for general cultivation in 1856.


Tree large, vigorous, spreading, open-topped, very productive ; trunk rather rough; branches smooth, with few lenticels; branchlets of medium thickness and length, with long internodes, green changing to dark brownish-red, covered with thin bloom, lightly pubescent early in the season becoming almost glabrous at maturity, with few, small lenticels; leaf-buds of medium size and length, conical, appressed.

Leaves flattened or somewhat folded backward, obovate, two inches wide, three and five-eighths inches long, thick, velvety; upper surface dark green, rugose, with but few hairs along the narrow, deeply grooved midrib; lower surface silvery-green, covered with thick pubescence; apex abruptly pointed or acute, base acute, margin crenate, with few small, dark brown glands; petiole one-half inch long, heavily pubescent, tinged red along one side, glandless or with one or two small, globose, yellow glands usually at the base of the leaf.

Season of bloom medium, short; flowers appearing with the leaves, one and one-quarter inches across, white, with a yellow tinge; borne in clusters on lateral buds and spurs; pedicels five-eighths inch long, pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanu-late, with few scattering hairs; calyx-lobes above medium in width, obtuse, sparingly pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate and with marginal hairs, reflexed; petals broad-obovate or oval, crenate, tapering to long claws of medium width; anthers yellow, filaments seven-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit intermediate in time and length of ripening season, one and five-eighths inches by one and one-half inches in size, oval, compressed, halves somewhat unequal; cavity shallow, narrow, abrupt; suture very shallow or sometimes a line; apex roundish or depressed; color dark purplish-black, overspread with thick bloom; dots numerous small, russet, inconspicuous; stem three-quarters inch long, pubescent, adhering to the fruit; skin below medium in thickness, tender, sour, separating readily; flesh pale yellow, juicy, tender, sweet, of pleasant flavor; good; stone clinging, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, oval, with very rough and deeply pitted surfaces, usually somewhat flattened, tapering abruptly at the base, blunt at the apex; ventral suture wide, blunt; dorsal suture with a groove variable in depth and width.

SOPHIE

Prunus munsoniana 1. U.S.D.A. RpL 263, PI. VI. 1892. 2. Kerr Cat. 1894. 3. Waugh Plum Cult. 189. 1901.

Sophie is fast being lost sight of among the multitudes of native plums recently introduced. Without any very distinct merits it yet stands high among plums of its kind. The variety is a seedling of Wild Goose at first supposed by the originator, J. W. Kerr, of Denton, Maryland, to have been pollinated by a German Prune which stood near. This is hardly the case, however, as no trace of Domestica blood can be detected in the variety. It is mentioned by the American Pomological Society in its catalog for 1899.

Tree large, very vigorous, spreading, open-topped, productive; branches thorny, shaggy, with long and unbranched limbs; branchlets willowy, slender; leaves folded upward, oval, one and three-quarters inches wide, three and one-quarter inches long, thin; margin shallowly crenate, with small, dark glands; petiole slender, pubescent, with from one to three small glands; blooming season late, long; flowers appearing after the leaves, nearly three-quarters inch across, white, pinkish as they open, with a disagreeable odor; borne in twos or threes; anthers yellow with an orange-red tinge.

Fruit maturing later than Wild Goose; large, one and three-eighths inches by one and one-eighth inches in size, obovate, slightly necked, pear-shaped, bright red, covered with thin bloom; dots conspicuous; stem slender, long; flesh deep yellow, juicy, coarse and fibrous, subacid, flat; of fair quality; stone clinging, three-quarters inch by three-eighths inch in size, somewhat angular, irregular-obovate, with a peculiar elongated, flattened, oblique base; apex abruptly acute; surfaces rough.

SPAULDING

Prunus domestica

1. Lovett Cat. 41, Col. PI. 1888. 2. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:192. 1897. 3* Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:243, 248. 1899. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 39. 1899. 5. Kan. Sta. Bul. 101:121, 122, PI. V. 1901. 6. Waugh Plum Cult. 122. 1901. 7. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:239. 1905.

Among the plums of comparatively recent introduction Spaulding holds a conspicuous place. It is particularly highly spoken of for its good quality and while not recommended for commercial orchards is often mentioned as very desirable for home use. As Spaulding grows at this Station, it does not sustain the reputation it has elsewhere. It is of the Reine Claude group of plums and while of high quality is not as good a dessert plum as several other similar sorts. Moreover, the fruits are small and too light in color to be especially attractive in appearance. The plums, too, are quite susceptible to brown-rot. The tree-characters of this variety are in the main very good but not at all out of the ordinary. It is very doubtful whether this sort can compete for any purpose with such similar plums as Hand, Jefferson, Washington, Bavay, Reine Claude, McLaughlin and Imperial Gage. It may be worthy a trial elsewhere in New York with the hope that it will more nearly approach the reputation that it has in other states than it does at Geneva, at best it cannot be more than a home variety.

Spaulding was brought to the notice of fruit-growers by J. T. Lovett, Little Silver, New Jersey, who introduced the variety in 1888. The plum came to Mr. Lovett from Francis Garriel with the statement that it originated as a seedling in the yard of Mr. Garriel's father in the Bowery, New York City. From the resemblance of Spaulding to the Imperial Gage it is probable that they are closely related. In 1899 the variety was placed on the fruit catalog list of the American Pomological Society as a successful variety in the north-eastern part of the United States and the neighboring parts of Canada.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, dense-topped, hardy, productive; branches ash-gray, smooth except for the raised lenticels of various sizes; branchlets of medium thickness and length, with long internodes, greenish-red changing to brownish-red, dull, lightly pubescent throughout the season, with obscure, small lenticels; leaf-buds of medium size and length, conical, appressed; leaf-scars prominent.

Leaves folded upward, nearly two inches wide, three and one-quarter inches long, thick; upper surface dark green, rugose, glabrous, with a shallow groove on the midrib; lower surface silvery-green, pubescent; apex abruptly pointed or acute, base acute, margin serrate or crenate, with small, dark glands; petiole nearly five-eighths inch long, thick, pubescent, tinged red, with from one to four small, globose, greenish glands usually on the stalk.

Blooming season intermediate in time and length, one inch or more across, white with a yellowish tinge at the apex of the petals in the newly opened flowers; borne on lateral spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels three-eighths inch long, thick, pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, lightly pubescent; calyx-lobes obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, reflexed; petals oblong, crenate, not clawed; anthers yellow; filaments one-quarter inch long; pistil glabrous or occasionally with a few hairs near the base, longer than the stamens; stigma large.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period long; one and five-eighths inches by one and three-eighths inches in size, oblong-oval or ovate, compressed, halves equal; cavity small, shallow, abrupt; suture shallow, often a line; apex roundish; color dull greenish-yellow, with stripes and splashes of light green, overspread with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, whitish, inconspicuous; stem three-quarters inch long, lightly pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, tender, separating readily; flesh greenish-yellow, juicy, fibrous, tender, sweet, mild, pleasant; very good; stone semi-free or free, seven-eighths inch by five-eighths inch in size, ovate, turgid, slightly pitted, blunt at the base, nearly acute at the apex; ventral suture rather broad, slightly furrowed, with a distinct but short wing; dorsal suture widely and deeply grooved.

STANTON

Prunus domestica

I. Gard. Mon. 29:116. 1887. 2. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 288. 1889. 3+ Cornell Sta. Bul. 131: 192. 1897.

Stanton's Seedling 2

This plum appears to be a very good late variety in several respects; it is a long-keeping fruit, is of very good quality for dessert and is a fine plum for canning and preserving. Its faults are that it is tardy in coming into bearing and the fruits drop badly from the trees as they begin to ripen; in localities where these faults are marked the variety is worthless. Stanton originated as a chance seedling in Albany County, New York, from whence it was sent to Hammond and Willard of Geneva, New York, who introduced it about 1885.

Tree very large and vigorous, round-topped, variable in productiveness; branches slender, marked by transverse cracks in the bark; leaf-scars enlarged; leaves folded upward, oval or obovate, one and one-half inches wide, three inches long; margin finely and doubly crenate, with few, dark glands; petiole short, glandless or with from one to three small glands usually on the stalk; blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and one-eighth inches across, borne in scattering clusters on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs.

Fruit late, season long; about one and one-quarter inches in diameter, roundish-oblate, truncate, purplish-black, overspread with very heavy bloom; flesh bright golden-yellow, fibrous, very sweet, rather high-flavored; good to very good; stone semi-free, three-quarters inch by five-eighths inch in size, irregular roundish-oval, turgid, with a blunt and oblique base, the surfaces nearly smooth; ventral suture enlarged, often with a short, distinct wing; dorsal suture shallow.

STODDARD

Prunus americana

1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 78. 1892. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 88. 1895. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 38. 1899. 4. la. Sta. Bul. 46:289. 1900. 5. U.S.D.A. Rpt. 478, PL LXIL 1902. Baker 2. Stoddart 1, 2.

Stoddard is usually rated as one of the best of the Americana plums and its behavior on the grounds of this Station sustains its reputation.

The firmness of the fruit makes it a good shipping plum of its kind and season. This variety was discovered by B. P. Stoddard of Jesup, Buchanan County, Iowa, about 1875, growing in a garden owned by Mrs. Caroline Baker who stated that her husband secured the trees from the woods, presumably along the Maquoketa River. The variety was subsequently introduced by J. Wragg and Sons of Waukee, Iowa, at dates variously reported from 1890 to 1895.

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, open-topped, productive; trunk shaggy; branches slender, thorny; branchlets slender, with conspicuous, large, raised lenticels; leaves falling early, flattened, oval or obovate, two and one-quarter inches wide, four inches long; margin coarsely serrate, eglandular; petiole tinged red, glandless or with from one to three glands usually on the stalk; blooming season late; flowers appearing with the leaves, one inch across, white.

Fruit intermediate in time and length of ripening season; about one and three-eighths inches in diameter, roundish-oblate; suture a distinct red line; color light to dark red over a yellow ground, mottled, covered with thick bloom; skin astringent; flesh dark golden-yellow, very juicy, tender and melting, rather sweet next the skin but tart near the center, with a characteristic flavor; good; stone clinging, seven-eighths inch by five-eighths inch in size, roundish to broad-oval, strongly flattened, with smooth surfaces; ventral suture narrow, winged.

STONELESS

Prunus insititia

1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:110, PI. 20 fig. 14. 1768. 2. Kraft Pom. Aust. 2:42, Tab. 194 fig. 2. 1796. 3. Mag. Hort. 9:165. 1843. 4; Poiteau Pont. Franc. 1. 1846. 5. Mas Pom. Gen. 2:121, fig. 61. 1873. 6. Hogg Fruit Man. 726. 1884. 7. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 450. 1889.

Die Pflaume ohne Stein 2. Jean Morceau 3. Kirke's Stoneless 6, 7. Pflaume Ohne Steine 5. Pitless 5, 7. Prune Sans-Noyau 4. Sans-Noyau 1, 5. Sans Noyau 3, 6, 7. Steinlose Zwetsche 7. Stoneless 5, 7.

This curious plum is attracting attention because of the publicity given it by Burbank in his breeding work. The variety is at least three hundred years old. It was known to Merlet, writing in the Seventeenth Century, and has been mentioned in plum literature many times since. The plum is remarkable because of the entire absence of a stone, the kernel lying naked in a cavity much larger than itself. The variety is worthless but presents opportunities for breeding purposes that should not be overlooked. Judging from the fruit-characters as given below it belongs to Prunus insititia. The Stoneless is supposed to have been introduced into England from the Royal Gardens at Versailles by George London. It was long sold as Kirke's Stoneless, having been much advertised by Kirke, a nurseryman at Brompton, England. It is described as follows:

Fruit small, oval, dark purple, with thick bloom; flesh greenish-yellow, harsh and strongly acid at first but assuming a more pleasant flavor as it shrivels upon the tree.

SUGAR 

Prunus domestica

I. Cal. State Bd. Hort. 47. 1897-98. 2. Burbank Cat. 5 fig. 1899. 3. Waugh Plum Cult 124. 1901. 4. U.S.D.A. Rpt. 275, PL XXXVI fig. 2. 1903. Sugar Prune 1, 4.

The introduction of Sugar to the Atlantic States was preceded by very flattering accounts of it from the originator, Mr. Burbank, and from Pacific Coast plum-growers. Possibly our expectations were too high; for we have been greatly disappointed in this plum as compared with its parent, Agen, as the two varieties grow at Genevait should be said at once that neither grows nearly as well in New York as in California. The fruits of Sugar on the Station grounds are not larger than those of the Agen, while in California it is said to be twice or three times as large; the flavor is not as pleasant and the flesh is fibrous in the offspring and not so in the parent at Geneva, though in California the Sugar is said to be of better quality than the Agen. As the two grow here, Sugar is rather more attractive in appearance and ripens earlier, the latter character a distinct advantage since Agen is very late in New York. The trees of the two plums are much alike though those of Agen are larger and more productive than those of Sugar as grown in New York. There are, however, but two trees of the latter variety on the Station grounds and these are young, set in 1899, so that too much importance must not be attached to the comparison of the trees. Sugar is worth further trial in New York under other conditions of soil and climate but it is extremely doubtful whether it will surpass the Agen in this State.

This plum, a seedling of the well-known Agen, was introduced by its originator, Burbank, in 1899. The California Experiment Station in analyzing this plum found it to be richer in sugar than the Agen and states that it is larger and more easily dried. Sugar has become of great commercial importance in the California prune districts and has been top-grafted on other plums and even on almonds to the extent of hundreds of acres in that State and in Oregon. As yet it is only under trial in New York.

Tree of medium size, usually vigorous, spreading, dense-topped, hardy, productive; branches ash-gray, tinged red, smooth except for the numerous, small, raised lenticels; branchlets slender, with long internodes, green changing to brownish-red, dull, sparingly pubescent throughout the season, with numerous, inconspicuous, small lenticels; leaf-buds large, long, somewhat pointed, strongly appressed.

Leaves folded backward, obovate or oval, two and one-half inches wide, five inches long; upper surface dark green, rugose, covered with numerous hairs, the midrib narrowly grooved; lower surface pale green, overspread with thick pubescence; apex abruptly pointed or acute, base acute, margin serrate, with small dark glands; petiole nearly one inch long, covered with thick pubescence, lightly tinged with red, glandless or with from one to three small, globose, greenish-yellow glands at the base of the leaf.

Flowers large, intermediate in time of bloom; calyx-tube green; stamens longer than the pistil.

Fruit intermediate in time and length of ripening season; small, ovate or oval, halves equal; cavity shallow, narrow, abrupt; suture shallow, often a line; apex roundish or pointed; color dark reddish-purple changing to purplish-black, covered with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, light russet, inconspicuous; stem slender, long, pubescent, adhering; skin thin, tender, separating readily; flesh golden-yellow, juicy, coarse, fibrous, tender, sweet, mild; good to very good; stone light colored, with a tinge of red, thin, of medium size, ovate, flattened, with rough and pitted surfaces, blunt at the base, acute at the apex; ventral suture rather narrow, distinctly furrowed, slightly winged; dorsal suture with a wide, deep groove.

SURPRISE

Prunus hortulana mineri ?

1. Wis. Sta. Bul. 63:61 fig. 30. 1897. 2. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 112. 1899. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 38. 1899. 4. Wis. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 69. 1900. 5. la. Sta. Bul. 46:289. 1900. 6. Wis. Sta. Bul. 87:18. 1901. 7. Waugh Plum Cult. 175. 1901. 8. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 228. 1904. 9. III. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 426. 1905. 10. S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 93:39. 1905.

Surprise is one of the best of the native plums in the Station orchard. The fruits are very attractive in appearance and while not of the rich flavor of the Domesticas they are yet of pleasant flavor with an abundance of juice which together make this a most refreshing fruit. The fruits keep well and would probably ship well. The color is a peculiar red which serves to identify the variety; on the whole the fruits resemble the Americana s while the trees are rather more of the Miner type. The variety is productive in New York and is so spoken of in Wisconsin by Goff, but in Iowa it is said not to bear abundantly. If a native plum is wanted in New York, this variety is worthy a trial.

Surprise, according to the originator, Martin Penning of Sleepy Eye, Brown County, Minnesota, is the best of a thousand or more seedlings grown from pits of De Soto, Weaver and Miner sown in 1882. In 1889, Penning introduced this plum and ten years later it was added to the fruit catalog list of the American Pomological Society. The parentage of the variety is unknown but it has usually been thought that the botanical characters indicate that it is a seedling of Miner. As the tree grows here, (they came to the Station from Mr. Penning,) it appears to be a hybrid of Prunus americana and Prunus hortulana mineri, characters of both species being evident.

Tree large, vigorous, upright, dense-topped, hardy, productive; trunk roughish; branches smooth, zigzag, thorny, dark ash-gray, with numerous, small lenticels; branch-lets slender, medium to long, with long internodes, green changing to dark chestnut-red, with brownish-gray scarf-skin, glossy, glabrous, with numerous, conspicuous, small, raised lenticels; leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, plump, appressed.

Leaves falling early, folded upward, oval or ovate, two inches wide, four and one-half inches long, thin; upper surface light green, glabrous, smooth, with a grooved midrib; lower surface pale green, lightly pubescent ; apex taper-pointed, base abrupt, margin often coarsely and doubly serrate, with amber glands which are not persistent; petiole thirteen-sixteenths inch long, slender, reddish, sparingly pubescent along one side, glandless or with from one to five small, globose, yellowish-brown glands usually on the stalk.

Blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing with the leaves, three-quarters inch across, creamy-white, with a disagreeable odor; borne in clusters from lateral buds, in threes or in fours; pedicels three-eighths inch long, slender, glabrous, green; calyx-tube greenish, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, acute, pubescent on the inner surface, serrate and with reddish glands, erect; petals roundish-ovate, entire, narrowly clawed; anthers yellowish; filaments one-quarter inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period short; one and three-eighths inches by one and one-eighth inches in size, halves equal; cavity shallow, flaring; suture very shallow, distinct; apex roundish or depressed; color dark red, covered with thin bloom; dots numerous, medium to large, russet, conspicuous, clustered about the apex; stem one-half inch long, glabrous, adhering to the fruit; skin thick, tough, clinging; flesh golden-yellow, juicy, fibrous, somewhat tender, sweet, insipid; quality fair; stone clinging, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, oval, flattened, pointed at the base and apex, with smooth surfaces.

TENNANT

Prunus domestica

1. Bailey Ann. Hort. 133. 1893. 2. Oregon Sta. Bul. 45:32. 1897. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat 40. 1899. 4. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser. 3:57. 1900. 5. Waugh Plum Cult. 124. 1901. 6 Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 326. 1903. Tennant Prune 1. Tenant Prune 4.

It is surprising that a variety of so much merit, especially of so great beauty, as Tennant, should not have been more widely tried in New York. In the survey of plum culture in this State in the preparation of the text for The Plums of New York, it could not be learned that the Tennant had been tried in more than four or five places. In size and beauty of form and coloring, all well shown in the illustration, Tennant has few superiors in the collection of plums growing at this Station. While it is not sufficiently high in quality to be called a first-rate dessert fruit it is more palatable than most of the purple plums. It ripens at a good time of the year, several days before the Italian Prune, and should, from the nature of its skin and the firmness of its flesh, both ship and keep well. A fault of the fruit as it grows here, a fault not ascribed to it elsewhere, is that it shrivels soon after ripening. Our trees are large, vigorous, healthy, hardy and productivealmost ideal plum-trees. This variety should be very generally tried in commercial plantations in New York and may well be planted in home collections for a culinary fruit at least. On the Pacific Coast it is cured for prunes, its meaty flesh fitting it very well for this purpose.

This is another promising plum from the Pacific Northwest. Tennant originated with Rev. John Tennant of Ferndale, Washington, and was introduced in 1893 by McGill and McDonald, Salem, Oregon. The variety is fairly well known in the region of its origin but is practically unknown in New York. It was listed in the American Pomological Society catalog in 1897 as successful in the Pacific Northwest.


Tree large, vigorous, round-topped, open, hardy, productive; trunk slightly roughened; branches stocky, smooth, with lenticels of medium number and size; branchlets thick, long, with long internodes, greenish-red changing to brownish-drab, with green patches and considerable scarf-skin, somewhat glossy, sparingly pubescent throughout the season, with small lenticels; leaf-buds large, long, pointed, appressed; leaf-scars prominent.

Leaves folded backward, oval or obovate, one and three-quarters inches wide, three and one-half inches long, thick, stiff; upper surface dark green, rugose, sparingly hairy, with a grooved midrib; lower surface silvery-green, with thick pubescence; apex abruptly pointed to acute, base acute, margin crenate, eglandular or with small, brown glands; petiole five-eighths inch long, thick, tinged red along one side, hairy, glandless or with one or two rather large, globose, brownish glands variable in position.

Blooming season early to medium, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch or more across, white, the buds tinged yellow; borne on lateral spurs; pedicels one-half inch long, thick, pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, often with a swelling around the base, campanulate, pubescent; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, with thick, marginal hairs, erect; petals roundish-oval, entire, tapering to short, broad claws; anthers large, yellow; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil pubescent at the base, equal to the stamens in length; stigma large.

Fruit intermediate in time and length of ripening season; one and three-quarters inches by one and five-eighths inches in size, roundish-truncate or roundish-oblong, with irregular surface which is somewhat ridged, halves equal; cavity narrow, abrupt, slightly compressed; suture variable in depth, distinct; apex deeply depressed; color dark reddish-purple, overspread with thick bloom; dots numerous, variable in size, whitish, conspicuous, clustered about the apex; stem thick, three-eighths inch long, pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin tough, adhering slightly to the pulp; flesh dark golden-yellow, somewhat dry, coarse, tough, firm, sweet, mild but pleasant; of good quality; stone clinging, seven-eighths inch by five-eighths inch in size, irregular-oval, flattened, obliquely necked, blunt at the apex, with deeply pitted surfaces, roughish; ventral suture prominent, heavily furrowed, not winged; dorsal suture usually with a narrow, shallow groove.

TRAGEDY

Prunus domestica

1. Cal. State Bd. Hort. 236, PL II fig. 5, 237. 1890. 2. Ibid. 109 fig. 8. 1891. 3. Wickson Cal. Fruits 358. 1891. 4. AT. Mex. Sta. Bul. 27:125. 1898. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 40. 1899. 6. Waugh Plum. Cult. 124. 1901.

Tragedy Prune 1, 3, 4.

Tragedy is another western plum which, like the Tennant, has not been well tested in the East. It is an older plum than the Tennant and somewhat better known in New York but still the reports of it are not sufficient in number or of great enough range to enable a fair opinion to be given as to its merits. As the variety grows at Geneva the fruits are very attractive in appearance, above medium size, a dark, rich purple color, and having the full, rounded form much liked by consumers in a dessert plum. The flesh is juicy, tender and sweet so that the quality may be called good; possibly the flesh is a little too soft for long shipping or long keeping as it grows here, though in one of the California references it is spoken of as "valuable for eastern shipment." The trees are very satisfactory except that in New York they are not quite as reliable in bearing as could be wished. A fault, as the variety grows here and which may be local, is that a large proportion of the pits are cracked and all are soft and granular. The tree is reported by some as " scale proof" but unfortunately this statement can neither be denied nor affirmed. A plum with the good qualities possessed by Tragedy, should be better known in New York.

The following history is contributed by Professor E. J. Wickson, Berkeley, California. Tragedy originated as a chance seedling on the farm of O. R. Runyon, near Courtland, Sacramento Count}7, California, probably in the late seventies. It was first offered to the trade in dormant buds by W. R. Strong and Company of Sacramento in 1887. Since the German Prune and Duane Purple grew on the place of its origin and as it shows characters of both, it has been noted as a probable cross of these varieties. The name Tragedy is understood to have been given to the fruit by Mr. Runyon because the plum was noted to be desirable on or about a day upon which a certain event held to be tragical occurred in the neighborhood. In 1899, the American Pomological Society considered Tragedy worthy a place in its list of fruits.

Tree large, vigorous, round-topped, hardy, variable in productiveness; branches ash-gray, usually smooth, with raised lenticels of various sizes; branchlets twiggy, thick, medium to short, with short internodes, greenish-red changing to dark brownish-drab, covered with thick pubescence, with obscure, small lenticels ; leaf-buds intermediate in size and length, obtuse, plump, appressed.

Leaves folded backward, oval or obovate, one and three-quarters inches wide, three and three-quarters inches long; upper surface dark green, glabrous except for the few hairs on the deeply and narrowly grooved midrib; lower surface pubescent; apex acute or obtuse, base acute; petiole five-eighths inch long, thick, pubescent, faintly tinged red, glandless or with one or two small, globose, greenish-brown glands usually at the base of the leaf.

Blooming season early, short; flowers appearing with the leaves, seven-eighths inch across, white; borne on lateral buds, usually in pairs; pedicels one-half inch long, thick, pubescent greenish; calyx-tube green, with roughened surface, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes acute, lightly pubescent, serrate, with many glands and marginal hairs, reflexed; petals broadly oval, crenate, short-clawed; anthers bright yellow; filaments nearly five-sixteenths inch long; pistil pubescent at the base, much longer than the stamens.

Fruit early, season short; one and five-eighths inches by one and three-eighths inches in size, oval, swollen on the suture side, compressed, halves unequal; cavity narrow, abrupt, regular; suture shallow, often an indistinct line; apex roundish; color dark purplish-black, covered with thick bloom; dots numerous, variable in size, russet, inconspicuous; stem five-eighths inch long, pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin of medium thickness and toughness, somewhat sour, separating readily; flesh greenish-yellow, juicy, tender, sweet, mild; good; stone clinging, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, irregular-oval, flattened, obliquely necked; apex acute; surfaces pitted, roughish; ventral suture narrow, prominent, not winged; dorsal suture narrowly and deeply grooved.

TRANSPARENT

Prunus domestica

1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 395. 1857. 2+ Flor. & Pom. 56, Col. PI. fig. 1862. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 383. 1866. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 950. 1869. 5. Jour. Hort. N. S. 17:258. 1869. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 91. 1869. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 24. 1871. 8. Pom. France 7:No. 25. 1871. 9. Mas Pom. Gen. 2:31, fig. 16. 1873. I0; Cat. Cong. Pom. France 365. 1887. 11. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 428. 1889. 12. Guide Prat. 154, 364. 1895. 13. Nicholson Diet. Gard. 3:166. 14. Waugh Plum Cult. 124. 1901. 15. Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom. 554 fig. 1904.

Diaphane 4, 12. Diaphane Lafay 4. Durchscheinende Reineclaude 9, 12. Durchscheinende Reine-Claude 11. Prune Diaphane 9. Prune Diaphane Lafay 4, 11. Reine-Claude De Guigne 9. Reine-Claude Diaphane 1, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15. Reine-Claude Diaphane 2, 3, 4, 5, 11. Reine-Claude Transparente 9, 11, 12, 15. Reine-Claude Transparent 4. Transparent Green Gage 6. Transparent Gage 3, 4, 7, 8, 13. Transparent Gage 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15. Transparent Gage Plum 2, 5.

In Europe Transparent is considered one of the best of all dessert plums but either it does not do as well in America or the American bred plums of the Reine Claude group, to which this variety belongs, are much better on this continent than in the Old World. At any rate in our soil and climate there are a dozen or more Reine Claude plums as good or better in quality than Transparent and much superior in other characters. It is, however, worth planting by the connoisseur for its quality and because of the transparency of skin-in the latter respect it is unique among Domestica plums. The flower-buds of this variety have a remarkable tendency to produce leaves in the place of floral organs.

Transparent is an old French variety. M. Lafay, a rose-grower at Bellevue, near Paris, raised it from the seed of the Reine Claude and named it Reine Claude Diaphane. It was grown previous to 1836, for, during this year, Thomas Rivers of England, while visiting M. Lafay, was told of its origin. In 1871, the American Pomological Society listed Transparent in its catalog as worthy of culture. The color of this variety leads to the suspicion that Reine Claude is not the only parent.

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, open-topped, hardy, productive; branches slender, ash-gray, roughish towards the trunk, with small lenticels; branchlets above medium in thickness, short, with internodes of average length, green changing to brownish-red often retaining some green, dull, pubescent, with small lenticels; leaf-buds of medium size and length, conical, somewhat appressed.

Leaves folded upward, obovate or oval, two and one-half inches wide, five inches long, above average thickness; upper surface rugose, nearly glabrous, with a grooved midrib; lower surface pubescent; apex abruptly pointed or acute, base acute, margin often doubly serrate or crenate, with small, dark glands; petiole seven-eighths inch long, thick, pubescent, faintly tinged red, glandless or with from one to four rather large, globose or oval, greenish-brown glands usually on the stalk.

Season of bloom medium, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and one-eighth inches across, white; borne in scattering clusters on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels five-eighths inch long, thick, pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes obtuse, lightly pubescent, glandular-serrate, reflexed; petals obovate, crenate, tapering to short, broad claws; anthers yellow with a tinge of red; filaments three-eighths inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens, often in pairs.

Fruit late, intermediate in length of ripening season; one and three-eighths inches by one and one-half inches in size, oblate, compressed; halves equal; cavity wide, flaring; suture a line; apex flattened or depressed; color red over a dark amber-yellow ground, mottled, covered with thin bloom; dots numerous, grayish or light russet, conspicuous, decreasing in number but increasing in size towards the cavity; stem thick, three-quarters inch long, pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, adhering but slightly; flesh golden-yellow, juicy, fibrous, tender, very sweet, aromatic, pleasant; very good to best; stone clinging, five-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, roundish-oval, turgid, blunt at the base and apex, with slightly pitted surfaces; ventral suture, wide, blunt, faintly grooved; dorsal suture with a deep groove of medium width.

UNGARISH

Prunus domestica

1. la. Agr. Col Bui 50, 51. 1886. 2. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. et6. 1890. 3. Mich. Sta. BuL 118: 53- I^95- 4+ Kan. Sta. Bul. 101:117, 119, 120 fig. 1901. 5. Waugh Plum Cult. 109. 1901. 6. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 102. 1902. 7. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. $26. 1903. 8. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 433. 1905.

Hungarian 3, ?6. Hungarian Prune 3. Hungarian Prune 4. Hungary 1. Ungarische 8. Ungarish Prune 2, 7. Quetsche de Hongrie 1. Zwstsche Ungarische 1.

Budd's Ungarish as grown at the New York State Experiment Station is nearly identical with the Italian Prune. The only differences to be detected are that the Italian Prune is a trifle smaller, a little more firm, not as broad and not quite as sweet as the Ungarish. The pit of the latter is usually tinged with red, while that of the former is rarely so colored. If the Ungarish prove as productive as the Italian Prune it may be more desirable because of its larger size. In 1883 Professor J. L. Budd of the Iowa Experiment Station imported trees under the name Quetsche de Hon-grie or Zwetsche Ungarische from C. H. Wagner of Riga, Russia and from Wilhelm Wohler of Wilna, Russia. Budd disseminated the variety as Hungary, a name soon changed to Hungarian Prune and later to Ungarish. This is not to be confused with the true Hungarian so well known in Europe as the Quetsche de Hongrie.

UTAH Prunus besseyi X Prunus watsoni

1. Dieck in Dippel Laubholzkunde 3:634. 1893. 2. Cornell Sta. Bul. 70:262, PL II fig. 3. 1894. 3. Tex. Sta. Bul. 32:490. 1894. 4. Vt. Sta. Bui 67:21. 1898. 5. Waugh Plum Cult. 225. 1901.

Black Utah Hybrid 2, 4, 5. Utah Hybrid 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

This interesting natural hybrid was grown by J. E. Johnson at Wood River, Nebraska, some time previous to 1870. Mr. Johnson planted seed of the native dwarf cherry which had grown near Sand plums and which supposedly had been pollinized by the plums. The resulting plants proved to be intermediates between the cherry and the plum and are now generally thought to be natural hybrids. From these seedlings, one was selected and propagated. Shortly afterwards Mr. Johnson moved to Utah taking his new hybrid with him and from there distributed it as Utah. In 1893 a German botanist, Dieck (References, 1), described this hybrid and gave it the specific name Prunus utahensis. The plant has no commercial value. It is described as follows:

Tree a dwarfish tree-like bush three or four feet in height; branches and branchlets zigzag after the habit of Prunus watsoni: leaves small, narrow-ovate, pointed at the ends; margins crenulate, glandless, sometimes small glands on the petioles; fruit early, small, round, dark mahogany-red, covered with bloom; skin very bitter; flesh melting; pleasant flavor; quality poor; stone small, round like that of a cherry.

VICTORIA

Prunus domestica

1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 153. 1831. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 315. 1845. 3- Ann. Pom. Beige 45, PL 1856. 4. Thompson Gard. Ass't 516. 1859. 5. Cultivator 8:26 fig. 1860. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 88. 1862. 7. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 349 fig. 379. 1867. 8. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 948. 1869. 9. Pom. France 7: No. 13. 1871. 10. Mas Le Verger 6:23, fig. 12. 1866-73. 11. Oberdieck Deut. Obst. Sort. 419. 1881. 12. Hogg Fruit Man. 728. 1884. 13. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 438. 1889. 14. Gaucher Pom. Prak. Obst. No. 98 fig. 1894. 15. Guide Prat\ 159, 367. 1895. 16. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:193. 1897. 17. Jour. Roy. Hort Soc. 21:222. 1897. 18. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:243, 248. 1899. 19. Garden 57:267. 1900. 20. Waugh Plum Cult, 122, 123 fig. 1901. Alderton 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15. Dauphin 8, 13. Denyer's Victoria ?2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15. Denyer's Victoria 4. Dolphin 8, 13. Imperial de Sharp 8, 13. Konigin Victoria 11, 13, 15. Konigin Victoria 9, 14, 15. La Victorine 1. Prune Reine Victoria 3. Queen Victoria ?2, 3, 13, 14, 15. Queen Victoria 9. Reine Victoria 9, 10, 13, 14, of some 15. Royal Dauphine 8, 13. Sharp 20. Sharp's Emperor 2, 8. Sharp's Emperor 3, 9, 10, 12, 13, by error 1.5, 20. Sharpens Emperor 17 incor. Victoria-Pflaume 14. Sharp's Kaiserpflaume 13. Victoria 8, 9, 13, 14, 20. Victoria's Kaiserzwetsche 14, 15.

For some reason Victoria, long known in America, has never attained great popularity in this country. It is a large plum attaining nearly the size of Pond, though the color-plate does not so show it, and has much the same color as the plum with which we have just compared it. Here resemblances cease for Victoria is not the same shape as Pond, is a little better in quality, is earlier and quite different in tree-characters. It would seem that this would make a good market plum as it is firm enough in flesh to ship well, as grown here keeps remarkably well, is better in quality than the average market plum and is handsome, though Americans seem to care little for red plums, preferring the yellow sorts and still more the purple kinds. Unfortunately, Victoria does not always color well in our climate. The trees of this variety at this Station, while productive, are not large nor robust, and the foliage is a little too susceptible to fungi. These defects of the tree may account for the lack of popularity of the variety in New York though even if they are to be found in all localities, which is probably not the case, this plum is still worth growing to some extent for home or market.

The origin of this plum and even its right to the name under which it is discussed here are matters of controversy. The London Horticultural Society in 1831 mentioned La Victorine in its catalog but since no description was given it cannot be identified as Victoria. Sharp's Emperor which has been confused with this variety, was described in the same publication. These two varieties were considered as identical by Charles Downing, Hogg, Mas and others; while Royer * who tested Sharp's Emperor, obtained from Liegel, thought it to be distinct, as did Thomas, the Guide Pratique and Pearson of England. Hogg in describing the Victoria says, " This is a Sussex plum, and was discovered in a garden

1 Aug. Royer Annales De Pomologie Beige & Etrangere 63. 1859.

*************************at Alderton in that county. It became known as Sharp's Emperor, and was ultimately sold by a nurseryman named Denyer, in the year 1844 at Brixton, near London, at a high price as a new variety under the name of Denyer's Victoria.'' Pearson in the Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society for 1897 says the reason that Hogg and other authorities had called these varieties identical is that they had not seen the true variety. At this Station we have not seen Sharp's Emperor but judging from the descriptions it is distinct though very similar. The American Pomological Society placed Victoria on its fruit list in 1862 but in 1871, Sharp's Emperor was substituted as the correct name with Victoria as a synonym. This change was probably made to comply with Downing's nomenclature of 1869. A review of the whole controversy cannot but lead to the conclusion that Victoria is the correct name and it appears also to be in most common use.

Tree of medium size and vigor, upright-spreading, hardy, productive; branches ash-gray, smooth, with few large lenticels; branchlets thick, short, stout, with short internodes, greenish changing to dark brownish-drab, dull, with thick pubescence, with few inconspicuous, small lenticels; leaf-buds large, long, conical or pointed, free.

Leaves folded backward, obovate, two and three-eighths inches wide, five inches long, thick, stiff; upper surface dark green, rugose, with a narrow groove on the midrib, sparingly hairy; lower surface medium green, thickly pubescent; apex abruptly pointed, base cuneate, margin serrate or crenate, eglandular or with small dark glands; petiole one inch long, covered with thick pubescence, tinged red on one side, glandless or with from one to three globose or reniform, yellow glands usually on the stalk.

Season of bloom medium, short; flowers appearing with the leaves, one and one-eighth inches across, white, the buds tinged yellow; borne in clusters on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels nearly three-eighths inch long, thick, heavily pubescent; calyx-tube green, campanulate, pubescent; calyx-lobes medium to narrow, obtuse, glandular-serrate, thickly pubescent on both surfaces, reflexed; petals roundish-obovate, entire or occasionally notched, tapering to short, broad claws; anthers yellow; filaments one-quarter inch long; pistil glabrous, longer than the stamens.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period of medium length; one and seven-eighths inches by one and one-half inches in size, long-oval, oblong, compressed, halves equal; cavity shallow, narrow, flaring; suture variable in depth, prominent; apex roundish or depressed; color dark red, mottled before full maturity, covered with thick bloom; dots numerous, russet, conspicuous; stem thick, three-quarters inch long, very pubescent, adhering strongly to the fruit; skin thin, tender, adhering but slightly; flesh light yellow, juicy, coarse, firm, sweet, mild but pleasant; good; stone free, one and one-eighth inches by three-eighths inch in size, broad-oval, strongly flattened, deeply pitted, roughish, blunt at the base and apex; ventral suture narrow, distinctly winged; dorsal suture widely and deeply grooved.

VIOLET DIAPER

Prunus domestica

1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 576, 578. 1629. 2. Langley Pomona 93, PI. XXIII fig. II. 1729.

3. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:101, PL XVII fig. 1768. 4. Prince Pom. Man. 2:70, 92. 1832. 5. Elliott Fr. Book 425. 1854. 6. Koch Deut. Obst. 572. 1876. 7. Le Bon Jard. 339. 1882. 8. Hogg Fruit Man. 690. 1884. 9. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 452. 1889. 10. Guide Prat. 157, 355. 1895.

Black Diapred 1. Blaue Diapree 9, 10. Blaue Herzformige Pflaume 9, 10. Buntfarbige Vio-lette Pflaume 9, 10. Cheston 1, 9, 10. Cheston 4, 5, 8. Cheston Matchless 5. Cheston's Plumb 2. Dennie 1. Diaprde noire 7. Die Violette Diapree 10. Diapree Violette 3, 10. Diapree Vio-lette 4, 8, 9. Diapre Violet 4. Friars 1. Friars 8. Friar's Plum 9. Matchless 4, 5, 9, 10. Purple Diaper 6. Violet Diaper 5, 9. Violette Diapre*e 9. Violette Violen Pflaume 9, 10. Veilchen Pflaume 9, 10.

Violet Diaper was cultivated at the beginning of the Seventeenth Century and has maintained itself in Europe until the present time although never attaining nor deserving the popularity of the Red Diaper. Matchless, cited as a synonym, is manifestly incorrect as the true Matchless is a yellow plum; but since it has been used so long and by so many writers as a synonym, it seems best to mention it as such. This plum is not grown in America. It is described as follows:

Fruit early; of medium size, oval; suture faint; cavity almost lacking; skin free; dark purple, covered with thick bloom; flesh yellow, firm, sweet; good; freestone.

VORONESH

Prunus domestica

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 76. 1883. 2. Ibid. 61. 1887. 3. Am. Gard. 11:625 fig. 1. 1890.

4. Waugli Plum Cult. 116. 1901. 5. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 327, 329. 1903.

Moldavka 1, 2, 3, 4. Voronesh Yellow 3, 5. Yellow Moldavka 5. Yellow Voronesh 2.

Voronesh is a Russian sort supposed to be ironclad as to cold. It is perfectly hardy at Geneva, the trees are also very productive and the fruits are attractive enough in size and color to meet market demands but the flavor is so insipid as to make the plum unfit for dessert and hardly fit for kitchen use. It is given the honor of a color-plate because it is a somewhat distinct type. In 1881 Professor J. L. Budd secured from J. E. Fisher, Voronesh, Russia, a variety which he introduced as Voronesh Yellow. At the same time he imported a variety from Fisher under the name Moldavka which proved to be identical with his Voronesh Yellow, though Budd held that while they were very similar, the Moldavka was more oval than Voronesh.

Tree of medium size, round-topped, productive; leaves drooping, folded backward, narrow-obovate, two and one-quarter inches wide, four and one-half inches long, thick; margin doubly serrate, with small, yellowish glands; petiole one-half inch long, tinged red, pubescent, sometimes with two globose, yellowish-red glands usually on the stalk near the base of the leaf; blooming season early, short; flowers appearing after the leaves, fully one and one-eighth inches across, dull white; borne on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period short; one and seven-eighths inches by one and one-half inches in size, ovate, necked, slightly enlarged on the suture side, dark lemon-yellow, with thin bloom; dots very numerous, of medium size, white, conspicuous; stem adhering strongly to the fruit; skin tough, sour; flesh dark amber-yellow, very tender, sweet, mild; poor; stone free, one and three-eighths inches by five-eighths inch in size, long-oval, flattened, somewhat necked, acute at the apex, the surfaces smooth or partially honeycombed; ventral suture prominent.

WALES

Prunus domestica

1. Gard. Chron. 5:837. 1845. 2+ Mag. Hort. 12:340. 1846. 3. Mclntosh Bk. Gard. 529. 1855. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 392. 1857. 5. Thompson Gard. AssH 515. 1859. 6. Ann. Pom. Beige 7, PI. 1859. 7- Mas Pom. Gen. 2:119, fig. 60. 1873. 8. Flor. & Pom. 253, PL 1875. 9.W.N.Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 21:20. 1876. 10. Hogg Fruit Man. 718. 1884. 11. Mathieu Nom. Pom,. 443. 1889. 12. Ont. Fr. Exp. Sta. Rpt. 96, 120. 1896. 13. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:190. 1897. 14. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 26. 1897. 15. Ohio Sta. Bul. 113:160. 1899. 16. Waugh Plum Cult. 125. 1901.

Chapman's Prince of Wales, 3, 5. Chapman's Prince of Wales 4, 10, 11. Chapman's Prince of Wales' Plum 1. Prince Albert? n. Prince De Galles 7. Prince De Galles 6, 11. Prince of Wales 2, 4, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15. Prince of Wales 7, 11, 14, 16. Prinz Von Wales 11. Prune Prince of Whales 6.

Wales, more commonly known as the Prince of Wales, seems to have much merit yet it has long been grown in America, probably three-quarters of a century, without attaining distinction with fruit-growers. In recent years it has been favorably commented upon in a number of publications and seems to be better known and more grown than formerly. Whether this tardily-given recognition is not too late is a question. So many good plums have been introduced both at home and abroad in the last few decades that a sort dating back nearly a century must be meritorious, indeed, to stand the competition. As Wales grows in New York, it is rather too poor in quality to recommend it for a home variety and the plums are too small, as they generally grow, for a good commercial fruit. The trees are enormously productive and are very satisfactory in other characters as well. In a bulletin from the Cornell Station (References, 13) this variety is said to have " much to commend it for general favor:"while in Ohio (References, 15) it is thought that Wales "ought to become popular."

Wales, a seedling of Orleans, was raised by a Mr. Chapman, Brentford, Middlesex, England, in 1830. It was exhibited before the London Horticultural Society in 1845 where it was awarded a prize. The following year, Hovey, the American pomologist, (References, 2) described the variety but the date of the first importation to this country is unknown. It was not until 1897 ^a"k the variety was sufficiently known to be placed on the fruit catalog list of the American Pomological Society.

Tree large, vigorous, slightly vasiform, open-topped, hardy, very productive; branches ash-gray, smooth except for the numerous, small, slightly raised lenticels, often marked by concentric rings; branchlets of medium thickness and length, with long internodes, green changing to brownish-red, dull, thinly pubescent, with numerous, inconspicuous, small lenticels; leaf-buds large, long, conical or pointed; leaf-scars prominent.

Leaves folded upward, roundish-ovate or oval, two and one-half inches wide, three and one-half inches long; upper surface dark green, somewhat rugose, covered with numerous hairs; lower surface pale green, thickly pubescent; apex and base abrupt, margin crenate, eglandular or with small dark glands; petiole one-half inch long, pubescent, tinged red, glandless or with from one to three small, globose, yellowish-brown glands usually at the base of the leaf.

Blooming season short; flowers one inch across, white, with a yellow tinge; usually borne in pairs; pedicels eleven-sixteenths inch long, thick, pubescent, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, lightly pubescent toward the base; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate and with marginal hairs, erect; petals broadly oval, crenate, tapering to short, blunt claws; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous except on the ovary, longer than the stamens; stigma large.

Fruit late, season short; one and five-eighths inches by one and one-half inches in size, roundish-oval, halves equal; cavity narrow, abrupt; suture a line; apex roundish; color reddish-purple, overspread with thick bloom; dots few, large, often tinged red, conspicuous; stem thick, one-half inch long, pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin tough, separating readily; flesh golden-yellow, juicy, tender, sweet, mild; good; stone semi-free or free, seven-eighths inch by five-eighths inch in size, oval, turgid, blunt at the base and apex, with slightly pitted surfaces; ventral suture narrow, often acute or with a slight wing; dorsal suture widely and deeply grooved.

WANGENHEIM

Prunus domestica

1. Cultivator 8:26 fig. 1860. 2. Mas Le Verger 6:157, fig. 79. 1866-73. 3+ Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. XXIV. 1871. 4. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 453. 1889. 5* Guide Prat. 159, 367. 1895. 6. Waugh Plum Cult. 125. 1901.

Die Wangenheim 4. De Wangenheim 5. Prune de Wangenheim 4. Prune Wangenheim Hdtive 4. Quetsche Precoce de Wangenheim 2, 4, 5. Von Wangenheim Pflaume 2, 4, 5. Wangenheims Fruhzwetsche 2,5. Wangenheims Fruh Zwetsche 4. Wangenheim Hdtive 4.

This variety, very well known and highly esteemed in Germany, has been growrn to some extent in America both on the Pacific and Atlantic Coasts and in neither region has it proved equal to standard plums. According to Dittrich, Wangenheim originated at Beinheim, a small place near Gotha, Saxe-Cobourg, Germany.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, productive; trunk rough; branches rough, stocky; branchlets nearly glabrous; leaves folded upward, slightly rugose; margin finely serrate, with small glands; petiole tinged red, pubescent, with from one to three small glands usually at the base of the leaf.

Fruit mid-season; one and one-quarter inches by one and one-eighth inches in size, ovate, purplish-red, covered with thin bloom, yellowish, rather dry, firm, sweet, mild; of good quality; stone very free, three-quarters inch by one-half inch in size, irregular-oval, flattened, with faintly pitted surfaces; ventral suture distinctly winged; dorsal suture with a narrow, shallow groove.

WASHINGTON

Prunus domestica

1. Prince Treat. Hort. 24. 1828. 2. Pom. Mag. 1:16, PI. 1828. 3. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat, 154. 1831. 4. Prince Pom. Man. 2:53. 1832. 5. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 298, ^S^y 418. 1846. 6. Cole Am. Fr. Book 210. 1849. 7. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 326 fig., 327. 1849. 8. Hovey Fr. Am. 1:87, Col. PI. 1851. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 54. 1852. 10. Elliott Fr. Book 415. 1854. 11. Ann. Pom. Beige 4:23, PI. 1856. 12. Thompson Gard. AssH 520. 1859. 13. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 951. 1869. 14. Pom. France 7:No. 24. 1871. 15. Mas Le Verger 6:59. 1866-73. 16. Hogg Fruit Man. 729. 1884. 17. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 453. 1889. 18. Mich. Sta. Bul. 103: 32, 33, fig. 1894. 19. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:193. 1897. 20. Va. Sta. Bul. 134:44. 1902. 21. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 43:36. 1903.

Anglesio 17. Bolmar 3, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17. Bolmar's Washington 3, 7, 8, 10, n, 12, 14,

16, 17. Bolmar's Washington 5. Bolmer 1, 4, 13, 17. Bolmer1 s Washington 1, 4, 13. Bolmore's Washington 4. Double Imperial Gage 1, 4. Franklin 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17. Imperial Gage (of Albany) 4. Irving's Bolmar 10, 13, 16, 17. Irving's Bolmer 14. Jackson 11, 13, 14, 17. Louis Philippe 14. Louis Philipp 17. New Washington 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 17. Parker's Mammoth 10, 13, 16, 17. Philippe 1, 11, 13, 14, 17. Prune Washington Jaune 11. Superior Gage 1, 4, 8. Superior Green Gage 4, 8. The Washington Plum 2, 8. Washington 5, 8. Washington Bolmar 8. Washington Gage 4. Washington Jaune 13, 14, 17. Washington Mammot 14,

17. Washington Yellow 17.

Washington holds high rank among the Reine Claude varieties, plums unsurpassed for dessert purposes. The fruits are large in size for one of this group; handsome in form and color (in the latter respect the color-plate does not do the variety justice); abundant in juice yet 'firm and meaty enough in flesh to keep and ship well; fine in flavor though not quite equalling some others of its group in this character. The trees are large, hardy, vigorous and healthy, remarkable for their broad, glossy, abundant leaves, bear bountiful crops annually and at a favorable period of maturity. Washington thus has a combination of characters which few of its group, with which only it must be compared, possess. The variety, however, is not without defects; the fruits are subject to brown-rot, so much so that its value as a commercial variety is greatly lessened; the quality varies greatly in different locations and even in different years,the latter very noticeable on the Station grounds; the trees are slow in coming in bearing and the crops are small for some years after fruiting begins. From the above considerations it may be seen that while this variety is almost always worth planting in a home collection, the location for it as a commercial fruit needs to be chosen with some care.

There are two accounts of the origin of this variety. William Prince gives its history as follows (References, i): " It has always been the custom at the establishment of the author, at Flushing, to plant annually the seeds of the finest fruits, for the purpose of originating new varieties; and, about the year 1790, his father planted the pits of twenty-five quarts of the Green Gage plum; these produced trees yielding fruit of every colour; and the White Gage, Red Gage, and Prince's Gage, now so well known, form part of the progeny of those plums; and there seems strong presumptive evidence to suppose that the Washington Plum was one of the same collection." Michael Floy gives a different history of the Washington (References^). He states that he received the variety in 1818 from a Mr. Bolmar of New York who in turn had purchased his trees from a market woman in 1814. The purchased trees were produced as suckers from the roots of a Reine Claude tree which had been killed below the graft by lightning on the Delancey farm, now the Bowery, in New York City. In 1819, a few of the trees, budded the previous year by Floy, were sent to England. The American Pomological Society added the Washington to its fruit catalog list in 1852. Taking in consideration the evidence of other writers and further facts offered in other accounts by the Princes, father and son, it seems almost certain that the first history is correct and that Bolmar's trees had their origin in the Prince nursery.

Tree large, vigorous, round and open-topped, hardy, very productive; branches dark ash-gray, rough becoming shaggy on the trunk, with small lenticels; branchlets below medium in thickness and length, with long internodes, green changing to brownish-red, thinly pubescent, with small lenticels of average number; leaf-buds of medium size and length, pointed, free.

Leaves flattened, oval, two and one-half inches wide, four and one-quarter inches long, leathery, somewhat velvety; upper surface dark green, lightly pubescent, with a shallow groove on the midrib; lower surface medium green, thickly pubescent; apex abruptly pointed or acute, base abrupt; margin serrate, eglandular; petiole five-eighths inch long, green, pubescent, glandless or with one or two smallish, globose, greenish-yellow glands at the base of the leaf.

Blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and five-sixteenths inches across, white, with yellow near the apex; borne on lateral buds and spurs; pedicels three-eighths inch long, thick, covered with fine pubescence, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, pubescent ; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate and with marginal hairs, erect; petals broad-ovate or oval, crenate, tapering into short, broad claws; anthers yellow; filaments three-eighths inch long; pistil glabrous, longer than the stamens.

Fruit intermediate in time and length of ripening season; one and three-quarters inches by one and five-eighths inches in size, roundish-oval, compressed, halves equal; cavity shallow, narrow, flaring; suture shallow; apex roundish; color greenish-yellow or light yellow, with green stripes and splashes, occasionally with a faint blush on the sunny side, covered with thin bloom; dots numerous, white, inconspicuous, clustered about the apex; stem one-half inch long, covered with thick pubescence, adhering strongly to the fruit; skin thin, slightly sour, separating readily; flesh greenish-yellow, juicy, firm but tender, sweet, mild, pleasant flavor; good to very good; stone free, not filling the cavity, one inch by three-quarters inch in size, oval, turgid, roughened, somewhat blunt at the base and apex; ventral suture wide, marked by deep furrows, with a distinct but short wing; dorsal suture widely and deeply grooved.

WAYLAND

Prunus hortulana

I. U.S.D. A. Rpt. 573, PI. 5 fig. 2. 1888. 2. Am. Gard. 10:175 fig., 243. 1889. 3. Cornell Sta. Bul. 38:51, 87. 1892. 4. Wis. Sta. Bul. 63:24, 62. 1897. 5. Vt. Sta. An. Rpt. 10:99, 103. 1897. 6. Ibid. 11:281, 286 fig. 1898. 7. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 228. 1904. 8. Ga. Sta. Bul. 67:283. 1904. 9. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:258. 1905.

Wayland is of little interest to plum-growers who grow the Domestica varieties without difficulty but in the South and Middle West it is an important representative of a valuable species. The trees withstand the hot, dry weather in the region south of central Iowa and Nebraska rather better than do those of varieties of other species and its fruits are borne in such quantities and so late that this and its kindred sorts become important plums. The fruits are quite too firm of flesh, too sour and too small to be of value for dessert purposes but they are most excellent for jellies, marmalades and preserves; any of the uses to which the Damsons are commonly put. They are, too, best adapted for long-keeping and shipping of any of the native plums. Except in size, the plums are hardly surpassed in the characters that make a fruit handsome among the native plums. The trees are large, robust and hardy in central New York, usually free from attacks of insects and fungi and, with their abundant, glossy foliage, are strikingly ornamental. Wayland is of value for New York, however, when all characters are considered, only in furnishing variety, in extending the season for native plums and as an ornamental.

Wayland was found in a plum thicket on the premises of Professor H. B. Wayland, Cadiz, Kentucky. It was sent by him about 1875 to J. S. Downer and Sons, Fairview, Todd County, Kentucky, who named and introduced it. There has been much discussion as to the botanical status of this variety, various writers having put it in at least three distinct species and Waugh and Bailey have used it as the type of the Wayland group of Prunus hortulana.

Tree very large and vigorous, spreading, somewhat drooping, flat-topped, open, hardy at Geneva, productive; trunk shaggy; branches rough, dark ash-gray, with inconspicuous lenticels, medium in number and size; branchlets slender, twiggy, long, with internodes of average length, green, changing to light chestnut-red, glossy, glabrous, with numerous, conspicuous, large, raised lenticels; leaf-buds very small, short, obtuse, plump, appressed.

Leaves folded upward, ovate or long-oval, peach-like, one and seven-eighths inches across, five inches long, thin; upper surface smooth and glossy, with a grooved midrib; lower surface sparingly pubescent; apex acuminate, base abrupt, margin unevenly serrate, glandular; petiole one inch long, slender, pubescent along one side, with a tinge of red, with from one to five very small, globose, brownish glands usually on the stalk.

Blooming season late and long; flowers appearing after the leaves, thirteen-six* teenths inch across, white, with disagreeable odor; borne in clusters on lateral buds and spurs, in threes, fours or fives; pedicels fifteen-sixteenths inch long, very slender, glabrous, green; calyx-tube greenish, narrowly campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, acute, erect, lightly pubescent within, serrate and with dark-colored glands; petals ovate or oval, irregularly crenate, tapering into long, narrow claws with hairy margins; anthers yellowish; filaments three-eighths inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit very late, season long; one and one-eighth inches by one inch in size, roundish-ovate narrowing somewhat toward the stem, conical, slightly compressed, halves equal; cavity medium to deep, narrow, abrupt; suture usually very shallow and wide, often a distinct line; apex pointed; color dark currant-red, with inconspicuous, thin bloom; dots numerous, small to medium, conspicuous, densely clustered about the apex; stem very slender, five-eighths inch long, glabrous, not adhering to the fruit; skin thick, tough, clinging but slightly; flesh attractive light yellow; moderately juicy, coarse, fibrous, rather tender, mildly sweet next the skin but astringent towards the pit; fair to good; stone clinging, five-eighths inch by three-eighths inch in size, long-oval, somewhat elongated at the base and apex, turgid, with rough and pitted surfaces; ventral suture wide, blunt, faintly ridged; dorsal suture acute, with a narrow, indistinct groove.

WEAVER

Prunus americana

1. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 267. 1874. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 44. 1883. 3. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 268. 1885. 4. Minn. Sta. Bui 5:36, 37 fig. 1889. 5. Cornell Sta. Bui 38:45, 86. 1892. 6. Can. Hort. 16:409, PI. 1893. 7. Mich. Sta. Bui 123:21. 1895. 8. Wis. Sta. Bul. 63:24, 62. 1897. 9. Colo. Sta. Bui 50:46, 1898. 10. la, Sta. Bui 46:291. 1900. 11. Waugh Plum Cult. 166 fig. 1901. 12. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 302. 1903. 13. Can. Exp. Farm Bui 43:32. 1903. 14. Ga. Sta. Bui 67:283. 1904. 15. S. Dak. Sta. Bui 93:41. 1905.

Weaver is an old and well-known Americana, once one of the most popular of its species because of its hardiness and productiveness. It is still listed by many nurserymen and is widely distributed throughout the country but it is now rapidly passing out of cultivation, being superseded by sorts producing larger and better colored fruits.

This variety was found growing wild on the Cedar River, in Iowa, by a Mr. Weaver. In 1873, Ennis and Patten, Charles City, Iowa, began its sale to fruit-growers. The American Pomological Society placed the Weaver on its fruit catalog list in 1883, dropped it in 1891, and replaced it in 1897. The following description is partly compiled.

Tree large, vigorous, well formed, upright-spreading, unusually hardy, productive; branches long, slender; branchlets slender, long, with short internodes, reddish-brown, glabrous, with numerous, conspicuous lenticels of medium size; leaf-buds small, conical, of average length.

Leaves falling late, four and one-half inches long, two and one-half inches wide, obovate or oval, firm, thick, leathery; upper surface dark green, slightly roughened, glabrous, with narrow midrib; lower surface pale green, pubescent on the midrib and larger veins; apex acuminate, base somewhat acute, margin deeply and coarsely serrate; petiole five-eighths inch long, stout, reddish, slightly pubescent along one side, usually with two large, globose, reddish-brown glands on the stem.

Flowers large, prominently stalked; calyx-lobes conspicuously glandular, lightly pubescent within.

Fruit mid-season or later; one inch by three-quarters inch in size, large for a native, oval or roundish-oblong, compressed, halves unequal; cavity medium to shallow, narrow, rather abrupt; suture shallow, distinct; apex roundish or depressed; color not uniform, yellowish overlaid with purplish-red, mottled, covered with thin bloom; dots numerous, small, often purplish, inconspicuous; skin thick, very tough, astringent, adhering to the pulp; flesh deep yellow, juicy, firm and meaty, sweet, mild; fair to good; stone variable in adhesion, three-quarters inch by three-eighths inch in size, long and narrow, somewhat oval, flattened, obscurely pointed at the base and apex, smooth.

WHITE BULLACE

Prunus insititia

1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 576. 1629. 2. Abercrombie Gard. Ass't 13. 1786. 3. Forsyth Fr. Trees Am. 21. 1803. 4* Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 344. 1831. 5. Prince Pom. Man. 2:105. 1832. 6. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 300, 383. 1846. 7. Hogg Fruit Man. 385. 1866. 8. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 952. 1869. 9* Thompson Gard. Ass't 4:160, 161 fig. 960. 1901. 10. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 481. 1904.

Bullace 5. Bullace 7. White Bulleis 1.

The origin of this old sort is unknown. It was cultivated more than three hundred years ago for Parkinson described it as common in his time. He says of it " The White and the blacke Bulleis are common in most Countries, being small round, lesser than Damsons, sharper in taste, and later ripe." It is probably one of the first of the cultivated plums. White Bullace is illustrated and described in full in The Plums of New York chiefly as a means of comparison between the plums of three centuries ago and those of the present. It has little value now for any purpose, though the Europeans still grow it rather commonly and from seeds, cions or suckers as convenience may dictate.

Tree of medium size and vigor, upright-spreading, dense-topped, hardy, unproductive; branches ash-gray, nearly smooth, with numerous, small, inconspicuous lenticels; branchlets thick, above medium in length, with short internodes, greenish-red changing to dark brownish-red, dull, with thick pubescence throughout the season, with few, small lenticels; leaf-buds small, short, stubby, obtuse, strongly appressed.

Leaves flattened, obovate, one and five-eighths inches wide, two and three-eighths inches long, thick; upper surface dark green, rugose, with few hairs along the narrow* grooved midrib; lower surface silvery green, pubescent; apex abruptly pointed or acute, base acute, margin doubly serrate, eglandular; petiole one-half inch long, green, pubescent,, glandless or with one or two small, globose, greenish-yellow glands variable in position.

Blooming season medium to late, of average length; flowers appearing after the leaves, three-quarters inch across, white, scattered on lateral spurs; usually borne singly; pedicels one-quarter inch long, thick, densely covered with short hairs, green; calyx-tube reddish-green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes acute, lightly pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, reflexed; petals obovate, entire, with short, broad claws; anthers yellow with red tinge; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, nearly equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit late, ripening season of medium length; about one inch in diameter, roundish, compressed, truncate at the base; cavity rather deep and wide, abrupt; suture a line; apex flattened or depressed; color deep amber-yellow, sometimes with faint pink blush on the exposed cheek, overspread with moderately thick bloom; dots numerous, white, inconspicuous; stem one-half inch long, covered with scant pubescence, adhering strongly to the fruit; skin thin, astringent, slightly adhering; flesh deep golden-yellow, juicy, coarse, fibrous, firm, sour; poor in quality; stone clinging, five-eighths inch by one-half inch in size, ovate, turgid, blunt at the base, acute at the apex, slightly roughened; ventral suture broad, blunt, shallowly furrowed; dorsal suture with a wide, shallow groove.

WHITE DAMSON

Prunus insititia

z. Parkinson Par. Ter, 578. 1629. 2. Quintinye Com. Gard. 67, 69. 1699. 3+ M'Mahon Am. Gard. Cat 588. 1806. 4. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 238, fig. 15. 1817. 5. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 146. 1831. 6. Prince Pom. Man. 2:88. 1832. 7. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 287. 1845. 8. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 300. 1846. 9. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 334. 1849. IO* Elliott Fr. Book 430. 1854. 11. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 190, 214. 1856. 12. Hogg Fruit Man. 385. 1866. 13. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 952. 1869. *4+ Waugh Plum Cult. 131. 1901.

Frost Plum 6, 13. Late Cluster 6, 13. Late White Damson 6. Late Yellow Damson 7, 9, 10, 13. Shailer's White Damson 7, 10, 12, 13. Shailer's White Damson 5. Small Round Damson 5. White Damascene 4. White Damascene 6, 7, 10, 13. White Damask 2. White Damson 6. White Prune Damson 7, 8, 10, 13. White Winter Damson 6, 13. White Winter Damson 3. Winter Damson 6. Yellow Damson 9.

This old plum, known since the beginning of the Seventeenth Century, is chiefly of historic interest. Downing thought this a very desirable addition to our list of plums but nearly all other pomologists who have seen the fruit of the variety think it of small importance. Unfortunately it is not in the collection at this Station and can be neither recommended nor condemned from first hand knowledge. This plum was first noted in America by M'Mahon in 1806, and fifty years later it was added to the American Pomological Society list of promising varieties. For some reason, perhaps for its color, it has never become so well known as the purple Damsons. Perhaps from the division of Prunus insititia made in The Plums of New York, this variety should be known as a Mirabelle rather than as a Damson. The following description is a compilation:

Tree vigorous, very productive; branches long, slender. Fruit matures the last of September, season long; small, oval, pale yellow sprinkled with reddish-brown dots, covered with thin bloom; flesh yellowish, sprightly, pleasant flavored; good to very good; stone clinging.

WHITE IMPERATRICE

Prunus domestica

1. Kraft Pom. Aust. 2:33, Tab. 181 fig. 2; 2:44, Tab. 197 fig. 2. 1796. 2. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:106. 1768. 3. Pom. Mag. 1:38, PL 1828. 4. Prince Pom. Man. 2:61. 1832. 5. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 285. 1845. 6. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 300, 383. 1846. 7. Poi-teau Pom. Franc, z. 1846. 8. Thomas Am. Fruit CuU. 329. 1849. 9. Hogg Fruit Man. 730. 1884. 10. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 454. 1889.

Die Weisse Kaiserpflaume 3, 4, 6, 10 incor. Die Weisse Kaiserpflaume 1. Die Weisse Kaiserinn-pflaume 1. Imperatrice Blanche 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10. The White Imperatrice Plum 3. Prune Imperatrice Blanche 7. White Imperatrice 3, 10. White Empress 5, 8, 10. Weisse Kaiserpflaume 10.

Kraft in his Pomona Austriaca, 1796, described a Weisse Kaiserpflaume and a Weisse Kaiserinnpflaume and gave Imperatrice Blanche as a synonym to both of them. The latter he gave as a variety of the Weisse Kaiserpflaume but it is probable that they are the same since no other author noted the distinction, and, in fact, the differences mentioned are wholly insignificant. According to Downing this variety was little known in this country in 1845 and it is doubtful if it is now known at all. It is described as follows:

Compared with the Saint Catherine, which it resembles, it is found to differ in that its stone is free and its flavor less high; branches smooth; leaves smaller and less shining; fruit matures in September; of medium size, obovate; suture indistinct; cavity narrow; skin yellow, spotted with a little red; bloom thin; flesh yellow, crisp, juicy, sweet.

WHITE PERDRIGON

Prunus domestica

1. Rea Flora 208. 1676. 2. Langley Pomona 92, 93, PI. XXIII figs. V & VI. 1729. 3. Miller Gard. Diet. 3. 1754. 4. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:84, PI VIII. 1768. 5. Kraft Pom. Aust. 2:41, Tab. 193 fig. 1. 1796. 6. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 151. 1831. 7. Prince Pom. Man. 2:52, 64. 1832. 8. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 287. 1845. 9. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 298, 301, 383. 1846. 10. Hogg Fruit Man. 386. 1866. 11. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 454. 1889.

Brignolle 11. Brignole 6, 8, 10, 11. Die weisse Duranzen pflaume 5. Diapree Blanche 11. Maitre Claude 2, 3, 7, 9. Perdrigon blanc 4. Perdrigon blanc 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. Maitre Claude 8, 10, 11. Weisser Perdrigon 11. Weisse Diapree 11. Weisses Rebhuhnerei n. Prune-Piche (of some) 11. White Perdrigon 11.

White Perdrigon is an old French variety grown extensively in the vicinity of Brignoles, France where it is used in the manufacture of the famous Brignoles Prunes. Because of its use for this purpose, it has been badly confused with a similar variety, the Brignole, which derived its name from the town of Brignoles, where it was first grown. The variety is probably not known in America and might be worth introducing. It is described as follows:

The White Perdrigon is a mid-season, medium-sized, oval plum, tapering slightly towards the base; suture shallow; cavity small; stem slender; skin rather tough, pale yellow, with thin bloom; dots numerous, small, whitish; flesh greenish-yellow, melting, juicy, sweet, aromatic; good; stone small, long-oval, free.

WICKSON

Prunus triflora X Prunus simonii

1. U.S.D.A. Rpt. 263. 1892. 2. Burbank Cat. 21 fig. 1893. 3. Gard. [et For. 7:420. 1894. 4. Cornell Sta. Bul. 106:63. 1896. 5. Cal. State Bd. Hort. 53. 1897-8. 6. Cornell Sta. Bul. 139: 46 fig. 120. 1897. 7. Can. Hort. 21:30 fig. 1272. 1898. 8. Vt. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:229. 1899. 9. Cornell Sta. Bul. 175:148, 149 fig. 38. 1899. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 41. 1899. 11. Kan. Sta, Bul. 101:125. 1901. 12. Mick. Sta. Bui 187:77, 80. 1901. 13. Waugh Plum Cult. 227. 1901. 14. U.S.D.A. Rpt. 387. 1901. 15. Ga. Sta. Bui 68:13, PL IV, 37. 1905. 16. Md. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 85. 1905. 17. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. on Plums etc. 65. 1905.

Eureka 5. Perfection 1, 2. Perfection 4, 14.

It is difficult to estimate the value of Wickson in American pomology. Probably no plum of recent introduction has been on the one hand so highly lauded and on the other so condemned as this one. Its remarkable size, the largest of the Oriental plums if not the largest of all plums; its handsome color and distinct form; the firm flesh and peculiar flavor, generally considered pleasant; the narrow upright tree with its long lanceolate leaves, mark the variety as a new and for some parts of the country a valuable addition to pomology. The contradictory evidence as to its desirability arises from the fact that it can be well grown in comparatively few plum-growing regions, most of these being on the Pacific Coast and in the South. In New York, the Wickson has small value other than in private collections. The variety is a little tender in tree and bud, hardy only in favored parts of this State and not at all where the peach cannot be grown; it blooms too early to be safe from frost; it is susceptible to brown-rot; the trees are late in coming in bearing and are not reliable in fruiting; the fruits ripen unevenly; and the trees are not of good form for heavy crops. In California, however, the Wickson is one of the leading Japanese sorts, possibly the leading one, and is seemingly growing in favor. Starnes, one of the pomological authorities of the South, in his bulletin on Japan and Hybrid Plums, speaks of Wickson asa u grand plum " and as one of the best for Georgia. It is to be hoped that from the same cross which produced Wickson or from breeding this variety with some other, a plum of this type well suited to New York may sometime be offered the plum-growers of this State.

Wickson is one of the best known of Burbank's many plums. The variety was first described in the report of the Secretary of Agriculture in 1892 under the name Perfection and as a seedling of Kelsey crossed by Burbank. In 1893 and 1894 Burbank offered for sale the control and the stock of this variety but found no buyers and in 1895 introduced it himself. The parentage of the variety is in doubt. Burbank considered it a Kelsey-Burbank cross; the Pacific Rural Press described it as offspring of Kelsey and Satsuma; Bailey, Waugh and the workers at this Station believe it to have Prunus simonii characters. The foliage, flowers, the tree, the fruiting habit, the texture of the flesh, all indicate Simon as one of its parents. According to the report of the Secretary of the California State Board of Horticulture shipments of this plum were made to New York in the season of 1897 under the name of Eureka. In 1899 it was placed on the fruit catalog list of the American Pomological Society.

Tree medium to large, vigorous, with narrow, upright head, dense-topped, tender to cold, an uncertain bearer; branches medium in smoothness, the fruit-spurs numerous, dark ash-gray with tinge of brown, with lenticels of medium size; branchlets thick and long, with short internodes, greenish-red changing to light chocolate-brown, glossy, glabrous; lenticels numerous, raised, variable in size; leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, free.

Leaves folded upward, lanceolate or oblanceolate, one inch wide, three inches long, thin; upper surface dark green, glossy, glabrous, with a slightly grooved midrib; lower surface pale green, glabrous, except along the midrib; apex taper-pointed, base cuneate, margin finely serrate, with reddish glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, lightly pubescent along one side, faintly tinged red, glandless or with from one to nine small, reniform, greenish or yellow glands variable in position.

Blooming season early and of medium length; flowers appearing after the leaves, intermediate in size, white; borne in clusters on lateral spurs, in pairs or in threes; pedicels of medium length and thickness, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes acute, erect, glandular-ciliate; petals oval, entire, short-clawed; anthers yellowish; filaments below medium in length; pistil glabrous, longer than the stamens.

Fruit early mid-season, period of ripening long; variable in size, the larger fruits about two and one-eighth inches in diameter, obliquely cordate, halves unequal; cavity deep, abrupt, with yellowish concentric rings; suture often prominent and deep, with a prolonged tip at the apex; color dark red over a yellow ground, indistinctly splashed with darker red, mottled with thin bloom; dots numerous, small, yellow, inconspicuous, densely clustered about the apex; stem thick, eleven-sixteenths inch long, glabrous; skin thin, tender, separating easily; flesh amber-yellow, juicy, coarse, somewhat fibrous, firm, sweet, pleasant but not high in flavor; good; stone clinging, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, oval or ovate, pointed, with pitted surfaces; ventral suture winged; dorsal suture grooved.

WILD GOOSE

Prunus munsoniana

I. Gard. Mon. 9:105. 1867. 2. Am. Jour. Hort. 5:147. 1869. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 60. 1869. 4* Am. Hort. An. 78. 1870, 5. Country Gent. 35:166. 1870. 6, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 116. 1871. 7. Ibid. 44. 1875. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1875. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 152, 153, 154. 1883. 10. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 454. 1889. 11. Cornell Sta. Bul. 38:51, fig. 3, 86. 1892. 12. Tex. Sta. Bul. 32:482, fig. 4. 1894. 13. Vt. Sta. An. Rpt. 10:99, 104. 1897. 14. Wis. Sta. Bul. 63:24, 6$ fig. 31. 1897. 15. Ala. Col. Sta. Bul. 112:178. 1900. 16. Waugh Plum Cult. 189, 190. 1901. 17. Ga. Sta. Bul. 67:284. 1904. 18. 5. Dak. Sta. BuL 93:42. 1905. 19. Ohio Sta. Bul. 162:258. 1905.

Nolen Plum 10. Suwanee 9. Suwanee ?i6.

Wild Goose is the first of the native plums to be generally grown as a distinct variety though Miner was first known and named. Wild Goose, too, is probably a parent of more sorts than any other variety of the several cultivated native species, most of its offspring so strongly resembling it that its name has been given to a group of its closely related sorts. In spite of the great number of native plums that have been introduced in recent years, Wild Goose is still a favorite, probably more trees of it are now cultivated than of any other native plum. Its good qualities are: bright attractive color; tender and melting flesh with a sprightly and refreshing flavor; a tough skin which fits the variety well for shipment and long-keeping; comparative freedom from brown-rot and curculio and a large, hardy, healthy and, when cross-pollinated, a very productive tree. Wild Goose has been more extensively planted in New York than any other plum of its kind and in a few cases has proved a fairly profitable commercial sort. It is doubtful if it is now the best of its species for this State but it can at least be recommended for home plantings and in some localities as a market plum. Wherever planted there should be some other native sort blooming at the same time for cross-pollination.

The following account of the origin of this variety, more romantic than credible, is told with several variations. About 1820, M. E. McCance, who lived near Nashville, Tennessee, shot a wild goose on his farm; his wife, in dressing the goose, found a plum seed in the craw, which, planted in the garden, produced the Wild Goose tree. The merits of the new fruit seem to have been discovered by J. S. Downer, Fairview, Kentuckv, and James Harvey of Columbia, Tennessee. The former propagated, named and began the dissemination of Wild Goose to fruit-growers. Many varieties have been sent out for this plum and much confusion has arisen as to what the true variety is. Since the characters of Wild, Goose, even when cross-pollinated, are transmitted to its offspring to a remarkable degree, the name now applies to a class of plums rather than to a variety. The

American Pomological Society placed this variety on the fruit catalog list of the Society in 1875, dropped it in 1891, and replaced it in 1897.

Tree very large and vigorous, wide-spreading, flat-topped, hardy in New York, productive; branches rough and shaggy, dark ash-gray, with numerous, large, elongated lenticels; branchlets slender, long, with internodes of medium length, greenish-red changing to dull reddish-brown, glossy, glabrous, with many, conspicuous, large, raised lenticels; leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, free.

Leaves folded upward, lanceolate, peach-like, four and one-quarter inches long, one and one-half inches wide, thin; upper surface light or dark green changing to reddish late in the season, smooth, glabrous, with a grooved midrib; lower surface pale green, glabrous except along the midrib and larger veins; apex taper-pointed, base abrupt, margin finely serrate, with small, reddish-black glands; petiole five-eighths inch long, slender, pubescent along one side, tinged red, glandless or with from one to six globose, yellow or reddish-brown glands on the stalk and base of the leaf.

Blooming season late and long; flowers appearing after the leaves, three-quarters inch across, white, with disagreeable odor; borne in clusters on lateral buds and spurs, in threes or fours; pedicels five-eighths inch long, slender, glabrous, green; calyx-tube greenish, narrowly campanulate; calyx-lobes narrow, glabrous on the outer surface, lightly pubescent within, entire, heavily pubescent and with reddish glands on the margin, erect; petals ovate, entire, long and narrowly clawed; anthers yellow, with a tinge of red; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit very early, season of medium length; one and three-eighths inches by one and three-sixteenths inches in size, oval, halves equal; cavity small, narrow, shallow, rather abrupt; suture an indistinct line; apex roundish or pointed; color bright red, with thin bloom; dots few in number, light russet, somewhat conspicuous, clustered about the apex; the stem attached to a stem-like growth from the fruit-spurs gives the appearance on the tree of a jointed stem, very slender, three-quarters inch long, glabrous, not adhering well to the fruit; skin tough, slightly astringent, separating readily; flesh yellowish, very juicy and fibrous, tender and melting, sweet next the skin but sour at the center, sprightly; fair to good; stone adhering, seven-eighths inch by three-eighths inch in size, long and narrow-oval, flattened, slightly necked at the base, acute at the apex, roughened; ventral suture wide, blunt, ridged; dorsal suture acute or with a shallow, indistinct groove.

WILLARD

Prunus triflora

1. Ohio Hort. Soc, Rpt. 81. 1893. 2. Cornell Sta. Bul. 62:31. 1894. 3. Ibid. 106:64. 1896. 4. Ibid. 131:194. 1897. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 26. 1897. 6. Mich. Sta. Bul. 177:42, 43. 1899. 7. Cornell Sta. Bul. 175:134 fig. 27. 1899. 8. Rural N. Y. 57:515, 530, 595. 1898. 9. Waugh Plum Cult. 140. 1901. 10. Ga. Sta. Bul. 68:33. 1905. 11. III. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 420. 1905.

Botan No. 26 2, 3, 9. Botan 1. Botan No. 26 1. Willard Plum 1. Willard Japan 8.


Willard is about the earliest of the Triflora plums that can be shipped to the markets. When this is said all is said; as the variety has little else to recommend it, being very inferior in quality and having a reputation of being subject to shot-hole fungus. S. D. Willard, Geneva, New York, procured cions of this variety from California about 1888 from an importation made by Burbank from Japan. According to Willard, the plum was received under the name Botan and he labelled it No. 26 to avoid confusion; in 1893, it was named Willard by W. F. Heikes of the Huntsville Nurseries, Huntsville, Alabama. The American Pomological Society placed the variety on its fruit catalog list in 1897.

Tree medium to large, vigorous, vasiform, productive; leaves falling early, folded upward, oblanceolate, one and three-eighths inches wide, three and three-quarters inches long, thin, glabrous; margin finely and doubly serrate, with very small glands; petiole three-quarters inch long, with from one to five reniform glands usually on the stalk.

Fruit early, of medium size, roundish or somewhat oblong, blunt at the apex, dark red when well grown, covered with thick bloom; stem short, thick, adhering poorly to the fruit; skin sour; flesh greenish-yellow, rather firm, sweet, low in flavor; poor in quality; stone variable in adhesion, of medium size.

WOLF

Prunus americana mollis

1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 367. 1883. 2. Rural N. Y. 44:645. 1885. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 40. 1889. 4. Cornell Sta. Bul. 38:45 fig. 2, 87. 1892. 5. Mich. Sta. BuL 118:54. 1895. 6. Wis. Sta. Bid. 63:24, 64. 1897. 7. Colo. Sta. Bul. 50:47. 1898. 8. Waugh Plum Cult. 167. 1901. 9. Ga. Sta. Bul. 6*7:284 fig. 1904. 10. S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 93:42. 1905. n. la. Sta. Bul. 114:148 fig. 1910.

Wolf Free 4, 6. Wolf Freestone 11.

Wolf has long maintained a high place among the standard Americana plums, with which it is usually classed though put in a sub-species, and from which it differs chiefly in having much more pubescence on foliage, floral organs and branchlets. It is noted for its great hardiness, reliability in bearing, attractive and well-flavored fruits and in being one of the few freestones of its kind. This plum is remarkably well adapted for the northern part of the Mississippi Valley and there alone it is worth planting extensively. In New York it might prove valuable in the coldest parts of the State where the Domesticas and Insititias cannot be grown.

This variety was raised from a pit of a wild plum planted on the farm of D. B. Wolf, Wapello County, Iowa, about 1852. Professor J. L. Budd of the Iowa Agricultural College stated in 1885 that for over a quarter of a century the original tree had not failed to produce a partial or large crop annually on the grounds of the originator. A spurious clingstone type of the Wolf has been propagated in some nurseries but this false plum is readily distinguished from the true freestone type. The variety was added to the American Pomological Society fruit catalog list in 1889, dropped in 1891, and replaced in 1897.

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, low, and open-topped, hardy, productive, healthy; branches rough and shaggy, thorny, dark ash-gray, with numerous, small lenticels; branchlets somewhat slender, short, twiggy, with internodes below medium in length, green changing to dull brownish-drab, overspread with thick pubescence, with numerous, small lenticels; leaf-buds very small, short, conical, strongly appressed.

Leaves falling early, oval, one and seven-eighths inches wide, three and seven-eighths inches long, thin; upper surface medium green, lightly pubescent, with a narrow groove on the midrib; lower surface silvery-green, pubescent; apex taper-pointed, margin coarsely and doubly serrate, eglandular; petiole one-half inch long, velvety, tinged red, glandless or with one or two small, globose, yellowish glands on the stalk or base of the leaf.

Blooming season of average length, late; flowers opening after the leaves, one inch across, the buds tinged yellow changing to white as the flowers expand; borne on lateral buds and spurs; pedicels nine-sixteenths inch long, thickly pubescent, green; calyx-tube greenish-red, campanulate, covered with short, fine pubescence; calyx-lobes narrow, acute, heavily pubescent on both surfaces, with few marginal glands, reflexed; petals inclined to curl, long-oval, fringed, long and narrowly clawed; anthers yellowish; filaments three-eighths inch long; pistil sparingly hairy on the ovary, equal to or shorter than the stamens, frequently defective.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period short; less than one inch in diameter, roundish-oval or somewhat obovate, compressed, halves equal; cavity frequently yellowish, shallow, narrow, abrupt; suture an indistinct line; apex roundish or flattened; color dull crimson, thickly mottled, overspread with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, russet, inconspicuous; stem slender, glabrous, adhering poorly to the fruit; skin thick, tough, slightly roughened, astringent, adhering; flesh golden-yellow, very juicy, fibrous, tender and melting, sweet next the skin, but astringent toward the center; fair to good; stone semi-free to free, five-eighths inch by three-eighths inch in size, roundish-obovate, tapering at the base, blunt at the apex, with smooth surfaces; ventral suture winged; dorsal suture acute, or with a faint, narrow groove.

WOOD

Prunus americana

1. Minn. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 60. 1894. 2. Wis. Sta. Bul. 63:64. 1897. 3. Minn. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 433. 1898. 4. Waugh Plum Cult. 168. 1901.

Wood is one of the comparatively new Americanas and seems to have considerable merit, especially for cold climates. It is attractive in color; above the average size; good in quality, though not the best of its species; and the trees in habit of growth and in productiveness are better than most Americanas. It is sufficiently early to fit into the short seasons of northern latitudes very well. Wood is one of the sorts that can be recommended for the coldest parts of this State.

This variety, according to a letter from the originator and introducer, Joseph Wood of Windom, Minnesota, is a seedling from a choice plum found growing on the bank of the Des Moines River, Cottonwood County, Minnesota. It was not mentioned in pomological literature previous to 1894 and is of too recent origin to be widely distributed or well known.

Tree of medium size, spreading, hardy, dense-topped, an annual and abundant bearer; trunk shaggy; branches roughish, thorny, zigzag, brownish ash-gray, with numerous, small lenticels; branchlets slender to medium, above the average length, twiggy, with short internodes, greenish-red changing to dark brown, lightly pubescent when young becoming glabrous in the fall, with numerous, conspicuous, large, much raised lenticels; leaf-buds of medium size and length, conical, appressed.

Leaves falling early, ovate, two inches wide, four inches long, thin; upper surface light green, rugose, glabrous, with a narrow groove on the midrib; lower surface silvery-green, pubescent; apex taper-pointed, base abrupt, margin coarsely serrate, with long, taper-pointed teeth, eglandular; petiole five-eighths inch long, slender, tinged red, lightly pubescent, glandless or with one or two small, globose, greenish-red glands on the stalk.

Blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, eleven-sixteenths inch across, white; borne in clusters on lateral buds and spurs, in threes or fours; pedicels three-eighths inch long, slender, glabrous, green; calyx-tube greenish, narrowly campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, acute, lightly pubescent, occasionally tipped with red, serrate, with many marginal hairs, reflexed; petals oval, notched, tapering at the base to narrow claws of medium length; anthers light yellow; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, longer than the stamens, often defective.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period short; one and one-quarter inches in diameter, oblate, compressed, oblique, halves equal; cavity of average depth and width, flaring; suture a line; apex flattened or depressed; color dark red over a yellow ground, mottled, with thin bloom; dots numerous, minute, light russet, inconspicuous; stem one-half inch long, glabrous, detaches from the fruit when ripe; skin thick, tough, sour, adhering; flesh orange-yellow, juicy, coarse, fibrous, tender and melting, sweet, lacking in flavor; fair in quality; stone free, three-quarters inch by five-eighths inch in size, roundish, flattened, slightly oblique, blunt and flattened at the base, roundish at the apex, smooth; ventral suture acute, not ridged; dorsal suture acute, sometimes indistinctly grooved.


WORLD BEATER

Prunus hortulana

1. Cornell Sta. Bui 38:52. 1892. 2. Wis. Sta. Bui 63:65. 1897. 3. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpi. 41:54. 1896. 4. Waugh Plum Cult. 182. 1901.

World Beater is very similar to Wayland, differing chiefly in being a week earlier and, as the color-plate shows, the plums are a little smaller and more oval. In tree-characters, as the two grow at this Station, World Beater is perhaps the better plum. This variety has the same place in pomology as Wayland, a place which it fills possibly a little better. It may be recommended for culinary purposes and as a late plum for regions where the peach is hardy. Plums of this species have small value in New York except for the sake of variety.

World Beater was grown from a seed of a plum found near Nashville, Tennessee, in 1838, by J. H. Tinsley and planted in Lincoln County, Kentucky. About ten years later trees of the variety were taken to Clay County, Missouri, and were further propagated but the variety remained practically unknown until the fall of 1890 when it was introduced by Stark Brothers of Missouri.

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, open and flat-topped, hardy where the peach can be grown, productive; branches rough and shaggy, somewhat thorny, dark ash-gray, with numerous, large lenticels; branchlets medium to above in thickness and length, twiggy, with internodes of average length, green changing to dark chestnut-red, glossy, glabrous, with few, conspicuous, large, raised lenticels; leaf-buds very small and short, obtuse, plump, appressed.

Leaves folded upward, broadly lanceolate, peach-like, one and three-quarters inches wide, four and one-half inches long, thin; upper surface smooth, glossy, with a shallow groove on the midrib; lower surface pubescent on the midrib and larger veins; apex acuminate, base abrupt, margin serrate, glandular; petiole one inch long, slender, tinged red, pubescent on one side, with from two to six small, globose, brownish glands scattered on the stalk or base of the leaf.

Blooming season late and long; flowers appearing after the leaves, three-quarters inch across, white, with a disagreeable odor; borne in clusters from lateral buds, in twos, threes or fours; pedicels three-quarters inch long, very slender, glabrous, green; calyx-tube greenish, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, acuminate, slightly pubescent towards the base of the inner surface, serrate and with reddish glands, erect; petals ovate, crenate, fringed, with pubescent claws of medium width; anthers yellowish; filaments five-sixteenths inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit very late, season short; one inch by seven-eighths inch in size, roundish-ovate or oval, not compressed, halves equal; cavity narrow, shallow, rather abrupt; suture a line; apex pointed; color carmine, bloomless; dots medium in number, small, whitish or sometimes reddish, somewhat conspicuous; stem slender, medium to above in length, glabrous, not adhering to the fruit; skin thick, tough, astringent, adhering slightly; flesh light yellow, juicy, coarse, melting near the skin but firmer and fibrous next the pit, sweet except near the center, strongly aromatic; fair to good; stone often tinged red, adhering, three-quarters inch by three-eighths inch in size, oval, turgid, angular, pointed at the base and apex, roughish; ventral suture wide, blunt, ridged; dorsal suture acute or with an indistinct, shallow groove.

WYANT

Prunus americana

1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 327. 1885. 2. Ibid. 85. 1890. 3. Cornell Sta. Bul. 38:46. 1892. 4. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 448. 1893. 5. la. Sta. Bul. 31:345. 1895. 6. Kan. Sta. Bul. 73:192. 1897. 7, Wis. Sta. Bul. 63:24, 65 fig. 32, 66. 1897. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 24. 1897. 9. Colo. Sta. Bul. 50:47. 1898. 10. la. Sta. Bul. 46:292. 1900. 11. Waugh Plum Cult. 167 fig., 168. 1901. 12. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 43:32. 1903. 13. Ga. Sta. Bul. 67:284, 285 fig. 1904. 14. S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 93H4, 49 etg] I90S*

Wyant is one of the standard Americana plums, ranking well with the best of them in both fruit and tree-characters. While it is almost beyond question a true Americana (from its history it could hardly be otherwise,) it has a number of characters that mark it as a departure from the usual type of Prunus americana. The calyx-tube is bright red, a character found only in a few other varieties of this species; the stamens are much longer than is usual in the species and much more numerous; the pistils are often defective; the flowers are borne in greater profusion; the plums do not have the distinctive Americana taste; the flesh is less juicy than usual; the skin is free and the stones are nearly free and have pitted surfaces. Some of these characters are so valuable in a native plum that Wyant may well be used to breed from. The trees from which the description here given was made came from C. L. Watrous, Des Moines, Iowa, and to the best of our belief are true to name.

This variety, according to a letter from J. E. Wyant, Shellsburg, Iowa, was found by J. B. Wyant of Janesville, Iowa, while hunting for wild plums in 1866 on the Cedar River near his home. The following year he transplanted the tree to his yard.  About 1874, J. E. Wyant told R. Royce of Shellsburg, Iowa, proprietor of the Benton County Nursery, of this tree. Royce secured cuttings from the original tree and began propagating the plum. Fruits were sent to Professor J. L. Budd, Ames, Iowa, who named it Wyant. The variety was introduced by Mr. Royce and was disseminated by him and by Professor Budd. In 1897 it was added to the fruit catalog list of the American Pomological Society.

Tree small, spreading and straggling, flat-topped, very hardy, productive, healthy; branches rough and shaggy, zigzag, thorny, dark ash-gray, with numerous, large lenticels; branchlets willowy, slender, long, with long internodes, greenish-red changing to reddish-brown, glossy, glabrous, with conspicuous, raised lenticels of average size and number; leaf-buds small, pointed, strongly appressed.

Leaves falling early, folded upward, oval, one and five-eighths inches wide, three and one-quarter inches long, thin; upper surface green, smooth, glabrous, grooved on the midrib and larger veins; lower surface silvery-green, lightly pubescent; apex acuminate, base abrupt, margin coarsely and doubly serrate, the serrations sharp-pointed, not glandular; petiole one-half inch long, tinged red, pubescent, glandless or with from one to five globose, yellowish-green glands on the stalk.

Blooming season medium to late, of average length; flowers appearing with the leaves, showy on account of the many blossoms and peculiar appearance caused by the numerous long stamens, whitish, with disagreeable odor; borne in dense clusters on lateral buds and spurs, one to four flowers in each cluster; pedicels one-half inch long, slender, glabrous, green, faintly tinged with red; calyx-tube red, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, acute, lightly pubescent on the inner surface, serrate and with numerous marginal hairs, erect; petals small, narrow-ovate, crenate, with narrow, long claws; stamens very numerous; anthers yellowish; filaments three-eighths inch long; pistil slender, glabrous, shorter than the stamens, often defective.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period short; one and one-quarter inches in diameter, not symmetrical in shape, oblong-obovate to nearly ovate, oblique, somewhat truncate, halves equal; cavity shallow, narrow, flaring; suture a line; apex slightly flattened; color dark carmine over a yellow ground which largely disappears as maturity advances, with thin bloom; dots numerous, very small, light russet, inconspicuous; stem slender, one-half inch long, glabrous, dehiscent; skin thin, tender, separating readily; flesh dark golden-yellow, juicy, tender and melting, sweet, with the Americana flavor less marked than in other varieties; of fair quality; stone nearly free, seven-eighths inch by five-eighths inch in size, broadly oval, flattened, blunt at the base, somewhat pointed at the apex, with pitted, dark colored surfaces; ventral suture blunt or slightly winged, shallowly ridged; dorsal suture acute, with shallow, narrow, distinct groove.

YELLOW EGG

Prunus domestica

1. Rea Flora 209. 1676. 2. Ray Hist. Plant. 2:1528, 1529. 1688. 3. Langley Pomona 95, PI. XXV fig. VI. 1729. 4. Miller Gard. Diet. 3. 1754. 5- Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:107, PI. XX fig. 10. 1768. 6. Knoop Fructologie 2:59. I77I+ 7- Kraft Pom. Aust. 2:29, Tab. 175 fig. 1; 38, Tab. 188 fig. 1. 1796. 8. Forsyth Treat. Fr. Trees 20, 21. 1803. 9. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 233, fig. 8. 1817. 10. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 149. 1831, 11. Prince Pom. Man. 2:57, 58. 1832. 12. Kenrick Am. Orch. 258, 269. 1832. 13. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 299, 301. 1846. 14. Poiteau Pom. Franc. 1: fig. 1846. 15. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 333. 1849. 16. Elliott Fr. Book 424. 1854. 17. Thompson Gard. Ass't 520. 1859. 18. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 88. 1862. 19. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 954 fig. 1869. 20. Pom. France 7:No. 18. 1871. 21. Koch Deut. Obst. 560. 1876. 22. Hogg Fruit Man. 730. 1884. 23. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 431. 1889. 24. Fell Cat. 49. 1S93. 25. Guide Prat. 163, 354. 1895. 26. Cornell Sta. Bul. 131:193. 1897.

Aechte Gelbe Eierpflaume 25. Albert's Damascene 23, 25. Albertus Damen Pflaume 20, 23, 2.5 Askew's Golden 20. Askew's Golden Egg 16, 19, 22, 23, 25. Aubertiana 21. Bonum Magnum u, 20, 22, 23, 25. Bonum Magnum i, 2. C[?#. YVwwg's Seedling 16. Dame Aubert 10, 11, 13, 17, 19,

22, 23, 25. Dame Ambert 16. Dame Aubert 5, 12. Damas Aubert 7, 23, 25. Dame Aubert Blanche io, 17, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25. Dame Ambert Blanche 16. Dame Aubert Grosse Luisante 11. Dame Ambert Jaune 16. Dame Aubert Jaune 10, 11, 17, 19, 20, 23. Darwin Peach 24. Die Albertus Damenpflaume 7. De Besangon 25. De Monsieur 25 incor. Die Grosse Weisse Glanzende 7. Die Kaiserliche Weisse Pflaume I7. D'OEuf 25. D'OEuf Blanche 25. Dutch Plum 1, 11. D^d Plumb 3. Echte Gelbe Eier Pflaume 23. iidte 6V#?[? #g#r Pflaume 20. Zidte [S^Z6# isier Pflaume

23, 25. Egg ?km 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16, 17, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25. i^Vr Pflaume 23, 25. [7eZ6e #ger Pflaume 20, 23, 25. ^Z6^ Egg 20, 23, 25. G^Zfo Malonke 23, 25. GVZ60 Ungarische Eier Pflaume 23, 25. (j^Zfo Marunke 23, 25. Gelbe Eierpflaume 23. Gelbe Eierpflaume 20, 25. Grosse Weiss* Glanzende 20, 23, 25. Great Mogul ?2. Grosse Datte ?$. Grosse-Luisante 5, 7, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25. Gros Luisante 12. Gelbe Ungarische Eyerpflaume 20. Grosse Prune Blanche

20, 23, 25. Grosse Maronke 25. Grosse Marouk 20, 23, 25. Grosse Glanzende Alberts Pflaume 23, 25. Grosse Glanzende 20, 25. Grosse Glanzende Pflaume 23. Grosse Gelbe Eier Pflaume 23, 25. Grosse Marunke 23. Grunliche Dattel Pflaume von Besangon 23, 25. Hick's large Egg} 11. Impe'riale Blanche ?5- Imperiale Blanche ?7, 10, n, 12, 13, 17, 19, 20, 22, ?23, 25. Imperial Blanc 11. Large? Yellow Egg 11. Magnum Bonum 19. Monsieur's Plum ?4, ?8. Monsieur's Plum ?4. Mogul 9. Monsieur 11. Mogul 4, 8, 11, 23. Mogul Plum 25. Mogule Plumb 3. Mogule 11. Mogol Plum 20,23,25. Mogols Pflaume 20, 23,25. Mogul's Pflaume 23, 25. Prune de Monsieur? 4, 6. Prune de Monsieur 23 incor. Prune OEuf 20. Prune Dame Aubert 14, 20. Prune d'Oeuf 20, 23. Prune d'Oeuf blanche 6, 23. Prune d'Inde Blanc 19. Prune De Besangon 20, 23. Prune Dame d'Aubert

21. Prune d'Inde Blanche 23. Supreme ?i4. Wentworth 13. Wentworth ?8, 10, 11, 12, 16, 17, *9] 23; 25- Wentworth Plumb ?3. White Imperial 9, 11, 15, 16, 19, 23. White Imperial 11. White Imperial Bonum Magnum 4, 8. White Holland 3, 4, 8, 10, 11, 12, 16, 17, 19, 23, 25. White Magnum Bonum 9, 11, 13, 15, 16, 19, 20, 23, 25. Weisse Kaiser Pflaume 23, 25. Weisse Holland-ische Pflaume 23, 25. White Bonum Magnum 3, 11, 20, 23, 25. White Egg Plum n. White Magnum Bonum 10, 12, 17, 18, 22, 23. White Mogul 10, 12, 13, 16, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25. White Egg 15. White Egg 16, 19, 23, 25. Weisser Kaiser 23, 25. Weisse Magnum Bonum 20, 23, 25. Weisse Kaiserin 23 incor. Yellow Magnum Bonum 10, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 22, 23, 25. Yellow Bonum Mag" num 20, 23, 25. Young's Superior Egg ?n. Yellow Egg 18, 23, 25.

The characters of Yellow Egg were given in the discussion of the group which bears its name and but little more needs to be said of the variety. As the largest and handsomest of the yellow plums it is worth consideration by either the amateur or the commercial fruit-grower in New York. At best, however, it is fit only for cooking and is none too good for culinary purposes. The trees are very satisfactory on all but very light soils. As has been suggested before, this plum ought to be crossed with varieties of better quality with the hope of getting as handsome a fruit but one which could be used for dessert purposes.


The references and synonyms show that Yellow Egg is a plum with an interesting history, but unfortunately the accounts of its origin and subsequent history have been but poorly preserved. Rea, in 1676, described the Yellow Egg as the Bonum Magnum or Dutch Plum; we may infer from this that the English obtained the variety from Holland. Knoop of Holland, in 1771, described the variety under the name Prune d'Oeuf Blanche, indicating a French origin. Knoop describes the Prune De Monsieur as similar and this plum has ever since been held as doubtfully identical. Duhamel, in Traite des Arbres Fruitiers, 1768, described Yellow Egg as the Dame Aubert. Kraft in Pomona Ausiriaca, 1796, gave it as the Die Grosse Weisse Glanzende, oder Die Albertus Damen-pflaume. These references show that Yellow Egg was well known at an early date. Because of its close resemblance to many varieties, probably due to the propagation of seedlings from it, much confusion exists in the nomenclature of Yellow Egg. White Imperial was separated by Duhamel and Prince; but Miller, Thompson and most of the subsequent writers give it as the same. Duhamel believed the Imperial Blanche (White Imperial) to be the Grosse Datte. So, too, the Wentworth was at first separated but, later, was recorded as identical. Koch calls Yellow Egg one of the Datterpflaumen (Date Plums) though he states that there is another Date Plum known by Tragus more than three hundred years ago as Prunidactyla. De Candolle seems to hold to the names Dame d'Aubert and Aubertina for this plum. Professor Budd in exploring southwest Russia and Poland found a Dame Aubert differing from our Yellow Egg only in minor characters which he was told came from central Asia.

The exact date of the importation of Yellow Egg to this country is unknown. Coxe, in 1817, described it as the Mogul and later Prince gave it the name Yellow Egg. Owing to this change in name, we find America now and then given as its place of origin by both American and English writers. In 1862, the American Pomological Society added it to its fruit catalog list under the name White Magnum Bonum but in 1871, the name was changed to Yellow Egg. The Darwin Peach, sent out by Fell, a nurseryman in England, has proved to be identical at this Station and its distributor, in a recent letter, states that this plum, which has been growing on his place thirty years, " is apparently identical to the White Magnum Bonum " which is of course Yellow Egg.

Tree, large, vigorous, round-topped, open, hardy, very productive; trunk roughish; branches numerous, ash-gray, nearly smooth, with rather large lenticels; branchlets slender, short, with long internodes, greenish-red changing to dull brownish-red, dull, lightly pubescent throughout the season, covered with thin bloom, with few, inconspicuous, small lenticels; leaf-buds above medium in size, long, pointed, free.

Leaves flattened or somewhat folded backward, oval, two and one-half inches wide, four and one-quarter inches long, leathery; upper surface dark green, pubescent, slightly rugose, with grooved midrib; lower surface medium green, thickly pubescent; apex abruptly pointed or acute, base acute, margin doubly serrate, with few dark glands; petiole five-eighths inch long, thick, reddish-purple, pubescent, glandless or with one or two globose, yellowish-green glands variable in position.

Blooming season short; flowers appearing after the leaves, one inch across, white, with a yellowish tinge at the tip of the petals; borne on lateral buds and spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels one-half inch long, covered with thick pubescence, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, pubescent; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, pubescent, glandular-serrate, reflexed; petals roundish-oval, crenate or sometimes slightly notched, tapering to short, broad claws; anthers yellow; filaments three-eighths inch long; pistil pubescent, longer than the stamens; stigma oblique.

Fruit late, season short; two inches by one and five-eighths inches in size, long-oval, compressed, halves nearly equal; cavity of medium depth, narrow, abrupt; suture shallow, often a line; apex roundish; color golden-yellow, covered with thick bloom; dots numerous, small, white, inconspicuous; stem slender, one and one-quarter inches long, pubescent, adhering well to the fruit, surrounded at the cavity by a fleshy collar; skin thin, slightly astringent, separating readily; flesh golden-yellow, rather juicy, moderately coarse, firm, of average sweetness, mild; good; stone semi-free or free, one .and one-quarter inches by three-quarters inch in size, oval, rather flat, acute at the base and apex, with roughened and pitted surfaces; ventral suture wide, heavily ridged, often distinctly winged; dorsal suture widely and deeply grooved.

YELLOW GAGE

Prunus domestica

1. Prince Treat. Hort. 25. 1828. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 2:108. 1832. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 287, 288 fig. 115. 1845. 4. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 329. 1849. 5. Cole Am. Fr. Book 208 fig. 1849. 6. HorticuUurisl 7:403. 1852. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 36, 55. 1852. 8. Elliott Fr. Book 414. 1854. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 210. 1856. 10. Bridgeman Gard. Ass't 3:126. 1857. 11. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 190, PI. XIII. 1865. 12. Mas Pom. Gen. 2:163, fig. 82. 1873. 13. Barry Fr. Garden 417. 1883. 14. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 443. 1889. 15. Waugh Plum Cult. 126. 1901.

American Wheat 10. American Yellow Gage of some 3, 4, 8, 11, 14. American Yellow Gage 10. Auserlesene Gelbe Reine-Claude 14. Harvest Gage 6, 8, 11, 14. Prince's Gage 1. Prince's Gelbe Reine-Claude 14. Prince's Yellow Gage 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11. Prince's Yellow Gage 5, 12, 13, 14, 15. Reine-Claude Jaune De Prince 12. White Gage of some 3, 8, n, 14.

Yellow Gage belongs to the Reine Claude, or as it is so often called, the Green Gage group of plums. There are now a great number of these plums under cultivation in America, most of which have originated in this country and nearly all of which, as we have said before, are better than similar kinds from Europe. It is difficult to select from the numerous first-rate plums of this group the best varieties to retain in home or commercial orchards. Among these, however, Yellow Gage should be kept for the home orchard at least. It is a rather large fruit, with a beautiful color golden-yellow often with a faint blush, with a firm and juicy yet tender flesh and a most refreshing admixture of sweet and sour together with the richness which characterizes the Reine Claude plums. The fruits come, too, at a time when the market is not overstocked with these fine plums and the season is particularly long. A review of the tree-characters in the description which follows shows that in the main they are good though some complain that the variety is not productive. This precariousness in bearing, together with the tender skin which keeps Yellow Gage from standing shipment well, probably precludes the variety from a high place in a commercial list but does not prevent its being a most desirable plum for home planting.

This excellent old variety was probably one of the first plums to originate in America. It came from a Reine Claude pit planted, with many others, by William Prince in 1783 in the celebrated Prince nurseries at Flushing, Long Island. Despite its early origin and fine qualities it has never had much recognition from pomologists. Downing described it in 1845 but neither Manning nor Kenrick in their excellent books on fruits mention this plum. The American Pomological Society in 1852 listed it with the varieties of plums promising well and in 1856 placed it on the list of those worthy of general cultivation.

Tree very large and vigorous, spreading, dense-topped, hardy, productive; trunk roughish; branches dark ash-gray, smooth except for the numerous, raised lenticels of various sizes; branchlets medium to below in thickness, short, with internodes of average length, greenish-red changing to brownish-red, dull, lightly pubescent, with inconspicuous, small lenticels; leaf-buds large, long, conical, free; leaf-scars prominent.

Leaves long-oval or obovate, two inches wide, four and one-quarter inches long, thick, somewhat leathery; upper surface dark green, covered with fine hairs, the midrib grooved; lower surface silvery-green, sparingly pubescent; apex and base acute, margin serrate, with few small, dark glands; petiole five-eighths inch long, pubescent, tinged red, with from one to three smallish, globose, greenish-yellow glands variable in position.

Blooming season intermediate in time and length; flowers appearing after the leaves, one and one-eighth inches wide, white, fragrant; borne on lateral spurs, singly or in pairs; pedicels seven-eighths inch long, with short, thin pubescence, greenish; calyx-tube green, enlarged at the base, campanulate, lightly pubescent; calyx-lobes narrow, obtuse, lightly pubescent on both surfaces, glandular-serrate, reflexed; petals oval, entire, tapering to short, broad claws; anthers yellow; filaments one-quarter inch long; pistil glabrous, longer than the stamens.

Fruit mid-season, ripening period of medium length; one and one-half inches by one and three-eighths inches in size, oval, slightly compressed, halves nearly equal; cavity shallow, narrow, abrupt; suture shallow; apex roundish or depressed; dull yellow, faintly splashed and streaked with green, sometimes tinged on the sunny side with light red, overspread with thin bloom; dots numerous, small, white, inconspicuous, clustered about the base; stem three-quarters inch long, thinly pubescent, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, rather sour, separating readily; flesh golden-yellow, juicy, firm but tender, sweet, mild, of pleasant flavor; very good; stone free, the cavity larger than the pit, one inch by five-eighths inch in size, oval, turgid, roundish, abruptly contracted at the base, blunt at the apex; ventral suture broad, blunt, faintly ridged; dorsal suture widely and deeply grooved.


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