1 The Odyssey, Book VII. Translated by S. H. Butcher and A. Lang.1 The Odyssey, Book VII. Translated by S. H. Butcher and A. Lang.
2  Pliny Nat. Hist. XV: 15. From a translation made for the writer by Professor H. H. Yeames; Hobart College, Geneva, N. Y.
3  Goderonne: From godron, a sculptural ornament having the shape of an elongated egg.
4  Cordus, Valerius Hist. PL 3:176-182. 1561.   The writer is indebted to Professor H. H. Yeames, Hobart College, Geneva, N. YM for the translation of this chapter from the original text.
A Hist. of Gard. in Eng. 35-37. 1910.

1 Mass. Hist. Soc. Collections 1st Ser. 1:118.

2 Mass. Records 1: 24.

3 Mass. Hist. Collections 3d Ser. 23:337.

4 Hist. Mass. Hort. Soc. p. 16. 1829-1878.

1 Report of Me. Pom. Soc. 7:1873.

1 Prince, William Cat. 1771.

1 Hesler and Whetzel. Manual of Fruit Diseases 330-331. 1917.  [Fireblight control]




BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES, WITH ABBREVIATIONS USED

The list of books which follows contains all American pomological works in which the pear is discussed at any length. Only such European books are listed, however, as were found useful in writing The Pears of New York. Only periodicals are listed to which references are made in the text of the book. The reports and bulletins of experiment stations and horticultural societies are not included since the abbreviations used for such publications will be recognized by all. The date of copyright has been preferred to that of publication, though sometimes it has been necessary to use the latter, as when there were several editions from the same copyright.

Aepfel u. Birnen.........Aepfel und Birnen. Die wichtigsten deutschen Kernobstsorten. Herausgegeben im engen Anschlusse an die "Statistik der deutschen Kernobstsorten "von R. Goethe, H. Degenkolb und R. Mertens und unter der Leitung der Obstund Weinbau-Abteilung der Deutschen Landwirtschafts-Gesellschaft. (Illustrirt.) Berlin: 1894.

Am. Gard............... American Gardening. An Illustrated Journal of Horticulture and Gardener's Chronicle. New York: 1892-1904. Copyright, 1903. (Before its union with Popular Gardening in 1892, the publication was known as The American Garden. Both Popular Gardening and The American Garden resulted from the union or absorption of several other horticultural periodicals.)

Am. Gard. Mag.......... The American Gardener's Magazine, and Register of Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Horticulture and Rural Affairs. See Mag. Hort.

Am. Hort. An...........American Horticultural Annual. A Year-book of Horticultural Progress for the Professional and Amateur Gardener, Fruit-grower, and Florist. (Illustrated.) New York: 1867. Copyright, 1867. New edition. New York: 1870. Copyright, 1869.

Am. Jour. Hort..........The American Journal of Horticulture and Florist's Companion.  (Illustrated.) Volumes 1-5. Boston: 186 7-1869. Copyrights, 1867-1869. Continued as Tilton's Journal of Horticulture and Floral Magazine. (Illustrated.) Volumes 6-9. Boston: 1869-71. Copyrights, 1869-1871.

Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt....... Proceedings of the American Pomological Society. Issued usually biennially from 1850 to date. First published as the Proceedings of the National Convention of Fruit Growers in 1848.

Ann. Hort...............Annal of Horticulture and yearbook of information on practical gardening. 5 Volumes. London: 1846-1850.

Ann. Pom. Beige.........Annales de Pomologie Beige et Etrangere; publiees par la Commission royale de Pomologie Institute par S. M. le Roi des Beiges. (Illustre.) Huit Tomes. Bruxelles: 1853-1860.

Bailey, Ann. Hort........Annals of Horticulture in North America for the Years 1889-1893. A Witness of Passing Events and a Record of Pi ogress. By L. H. Bailey. New York: 1890-1894. Copyrights, 1889, 1891-1894.

Baltet, Cult. Fr.......... Traite de la Culture Fruitiere Commerciale et Bourgeoise.  Par Charles Baltet. (Illustre.) Quatridme fidition. Paris: 1908.

Barry, Fr. Garden........ The Fruit Garden. By P. Barry. (Illustrated.) New York: 1852. Copyright, 1851. Revised Edition, 1896. Copyright, 1883.

Black, Cult. Peach et Pear. The Cultivation of the Peach and the Pear, on the Delaware And Chesapeake Peninsula; with a Chapter on Quince Culture and the Culture of Some of the Nut-Bearing Trees. By John S. Black, M. D. (Illustrated.) Wilmington: 1886. Copyright, 1886.

Bradley, Gard........... New Improvements of Planting and Gardening, both Philosophical and Practical. In three parts. By Richard Bradley. (Illustrated.) Seventh Edition with Appendix. London: 1739.

Bridgeman, Gard. Ass't... The Young Gardener's Assistant, in three parts. By Thomas

Bridgeman. New Edition, with an Appendix. New York: 1857. Copyright, 1847.

Brookshaw, Hort. Reposit. The Horticultural Repository, containing Delineations of the best Varieties of the Different Species of English Fruits. By George Brookshaw. (Illustrated.) In Two Volumes. London: 1823.

Brookshaw, Pom. Brit___Pomona Britannica, or A Collection of the Most Esteemed Fruits at present Cultivated In Great Britain; selected principally from the Royal Gardens At Hampton Court, and the remainder from The Most Celebrated Gardens Round London; Accurately Drawn and Colored from Nature, with Full Descriptions of their Various Qualities, Seasons, etc. By George Brookshaw. Volumes I and II. London: 1817. Vol.IL The Pear.

Budd-Hansen, Am. Hort. Man.................. American Horticultural Manual. By J. L. Budd, assisted by N. E. Hansen. (Illustrated.) In Two Volumes. Volume 2, New York and London: 1903. Copyright, 1903.

Bunyard, Handb. Hardy Fr....................A Handbook of Hardy Fruits more commonly grown in Great Britain. Apples and Pears. By Edward A. Bunyard. London:1920.

Bunyard - Thomas, Fr . Gard................. The Fruit Garden. By George Bunyard and Owen Thomas.  (Illustrated.) London and New York: 1904.

Can. Hort............... The Canadian Horticulturist. (Illustrated.) Toronto and Peterboro: 1878 to date.

Cat. Cong. Pom. France.. Societe Pomologique de France Catalogue Descriptif des Fruits Adoptes par le Congres Pomologique. Lyon: 1887. Ibid.: 1906.

Cecil, Hist. Gard. Eng___A History Of Gardening In England. By the Hon. Mrs. Evelyn Cecil. Third and enlarged edition. (Illustrated.) New York: 1910.

Christ, Handb........... Handbuch iiber die Obstbaumzucht und Obstlehre. Von J. L. Christ. Vierte, sehr verbesserte und vermehrte Auflage. Frankfurt: 1817.

Cole, Am. Fr. Book......The American Fruit Book; containing directions for Raising, Propagating, and Managing Fruit Trees, Shrubs and Plants; with a description of the Best Varieties of Fruit, including New and Valuable Kinds. By S. W. Cole. (Illustrated.) Boston: 1849. Copyright, 1849.

Country Gent........... The Country Gentleman. Albany: 1853-1865. The Cultivator et Country Gentleman. Albany: 1866-1897. The Country Gentleman. Albany and Philadelphia: 1898 to date.

Coxe, Cult. Fr. Trees.....A View of the Cultivation of Fruit Trees, and the Management of Orchards and Cider; with accurate descriptions of the most estimable varieties of Native and Foreign Apples, Pears, Peaches, Plums and Cherries, cultivated in the middle . states of America. By William Coxe. (Illustrated.) Philadelphia: 1817. Copyright, 1817.

Cultivator...... ........The Cultivator. Albany: 1834-1865. In 1866 united with The Country Gentleman.

Cult. et Count. Gent.....The Cultivator et Country Gentleman. See Country Gent.

De Candolle, Or. Cult. Plants................ Origin of Cultivated Plants. By Alphonse de Candolle. Geneva [Switzerland]: 1882. New York: 1885.

Decaisne et Naudin, Man. Amat. Jard............

Deut. Obstsorten...... Manuel de L'Amateur Des Jardins Traite General D'Horticulture. Par Jh. Decaisne et CH. Naudin. (Illustre.) Quatre Tomes. Paris. Vol. 4. Pears.

..... Deutschland's Obstsorten bearbeitet von Muller-Diemitz, Grau-Korbelitz, Bissmann-Gotha unter Mitwirkung her-vorragender Fachmanner. Sechs Bande; Hefte 1-18. Stuttgart: 1905-10.

Dochnahl, Fiihr. Obstkunde................ Der sichere Fiihrer in der Obstkunde auf botanisch-pomologischen Wege oder Systematische Breschreibung aller Obstsorten. Von F. J. Dochnahl. Vier Bande. Niirn-berg: 1855-60. Vol. 2, 1856. Pears.

Downing, Fr. Trees Am... The Fruits and Fruit Trees of America: or the culture, propagation, and management, in the garden and orchard, of fruit trees generally; with Descriptions Of All The Finest Varieties Of Fruit, Native and Foreign, Cultivated In This Country. By A. J. Downing. (Illustrated.) New York et London: 1845. Copyright, 1845. Second edition, same text, with colored plates, 1847. First revision, by Charles Downing. New York: 1857. Copyright, 1857. Second revision by Charles Downing. New York: 1869. First appendix, 1872. Second appendix, 1876. Third appendix, 1881.

Downing, Selected Fr .... Selected Fruits: from Downing's Fruits And Fruit-Trees of America. With Some New Varieties: including Their Culture, Propagation, and Management in the Garden and Orchard. By Charles Downing. (Illustrated.) New York: 1872. Copyright, 1871.

Duhamel, Trait. Arb. Fr.. Traite Des Arbes Fruitiers; Contenant Leur Figure, Leur Description, Leur Culture, etc. Par M. Duhamel Du Mon-ceau. (Illustre.) Tomes I et II. Paris: 1768. Edition publie en 1872, en trois tomes. Nouvelle Edition en six tomes, 180 7-183 5.

Elliott, Fr. Book.........Elliott's Fruit Book; or, the American Fruit-Grower's Guide in Orchard and Garden. By F. R. Elliott. (Illustrated.) New York: 1858. Copyright, 1854. Revised edition, 1859.

Field, Pear Cult......... Pear Culture. A Manual for the Propagation, Planting, Cultivation, and Management of The Pear Tree. By Thos. W. Field. (Illustrated.) New York: 1859. Copyright, 1858.

Flor. et Pom............ The Florist And Pomologist: A Pictorial Monthly Magazine of Flowers, Fruits, and General Horticulture. Conducted at first by Robert Hogg and John Spencer, later by Thomas Moore and William Paul. (Illustrated.) London: 1862-1884.

Forsyth, Treat. Fr. Trees. A Treatise on the Culture and Management of Fruit Trees. By William Forsyth. London: 1802. Same with an Introduction and Notes, by William Corbett. Albany: 1803. Seventh edition [English] London: 1824.

Gard. Chron............. The Gardener's Chronicle. (Illustrated.) London: 1841 to date.

Gard. et For............. Garden And Forest. A Journal of Horticulture, Landscape Art and Forestry. Conducted by Charles S. Sargent. (Illustrated.) Volumes I-X. New York: 1888-1897. Copyrights, 1888-1897.

Gard. Mon.............. The Gardener's Monthly and Horticultural Advertiser. Edited by Thomas Meehan. (Illustrated.) Philadelphia: 1859-1887.

Garden................. The Garden. (Illustrated.) London: 1872 to date.

Gaucher, Pom. Prak. Obst. Pomologie des Praktischen Obstbaumzuchters. Von N. Gaucher. (Illustrirt.) Stuttgart: 1894.

Gen. Farmer..........., The Genesee Farmer. Edited by Luther Tucker, Rochester: 1831 -183 9. Then consolidated with the Cultivator. Another periodical of the same name was published in Rochester from 1845 to 1865. Also New Genesee Farmer and Monthly Genesee Farmer.

Gerarde, Herball......... The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes. By John Gerarde. Enlarged and amended by Thomas Johnson. London: 1633. Reprinted without alteration, 1636.

Guide Prat.............. Guide Pratique de L'Amateur De Fruits. Description Et Culture Des Varietes De Fruits classees par series de merite Composant Les Collections Pomologiques De L'Etablisse-ment Horticole des Freres Simon-Louis. A Plantieres-Les-Metz (Lorraine Annexee) Suivi D'Une Table Generate Alphabetique de Tous Les Synonymes Connus, Frangais et Etrangers, appartenent a chaque variete. Par O. Thomas. Nancy: 1876. Deuxieme Edition. Paris et Nancy: 1895.

Hoffy, N. Am. Pom...... Hoffy's North American Pomologist, containing numerous Finely Colored Drawings, accompanied by letter press descriptions, etc, of Fruits of American Origin. Edited by William D. Brinekle. Book No. 1. Philadelphia: i860. Copyright, i860.

Hoffy, Orch. Com........ The Orchardist's Companion. Alfred Hoffy, Editor and Publisher. A quarterly journal. Vol. I, 1841-2; Vol. II, 1842-3. Philadelphia.

Hogg, Fruit Man........ The Fruit Manual: A Guide to the Fruits and Fruit Trees of Great Britain. By Robert Hogg. First edition, London: i860. Second edition, 1861. Third edition, 1866. Fourth edition, 1873. Fifth edition, 1884. 38

Hort. Reg. (Am.)........Horticultural Register and Gardener's Magazine. Edited by T. G. Fessenden and J. E. Teschemacher. Volume I. Boston: 1835.

Hort. Reg. (Eng.)........ The Horticultural Register and General Magazine. By Joseph Paxton and Joseph Harrison. Vol. I. London: 183 3.

Horticulturist............The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.

Founded and first edited by A. J. Downing. (Illustrated.) Volumes 1 to 30. Albany, Philadelphia and New York: 1846-1875.

Hovey, Fr. Am.......... The Fruits of America, containing Richly Colored Figures, and full Descriptions of all the choicest Varieties cultivated in the United States. By CM. Hovey. Volume I. Boston and New York: 1852. Volume II. Boston: 1856. Copyright, 1851.

Jour. Hort..............The Journal of Horticulture: Began as The Cottage Gardener; or Amateur's and Cottager's Guide to out-door gardening and spade cultivation. 25 Volumes. London: 1849-1861. Continued as The Journal of Horticulture, Cottage Gardener, and Country Gentleman. A Journal of Horticulture, Rural and Domestic Economy, Botany and Natural History. New Series. 38 Volumes. London: 1861-1880. Continued as The Journal of Horticulture, Cottage Gardener, and Home Farmer. A Chronicle of Country Pursuits and Country Life, including Poultry, Pigeon, and Bee-keeping. Third Series. 59 Volumes. London: 1880-1909.

Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc.___The Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society. London: 1846 to date. Vols. 1-9, 1846-55, bear the title of The Journal of the Horticultural Society of London.

Kenrick, Am. Orch....... The New American Orchardist. By William Kenrick. Boston: 1833. Copyright, 1832. Second edition. Boston: 1835. Copyright, 1835. Seventh edition, enlarged and improved, with a supplement. Boston: 1845. Copyright, 1841.

Knoop, Fructologie....... Part I. Pomologie, ou Description des meilleures sortes de Pommes et de Poires. Part II. Fructologie, ou Description des Arbres Fruitiers. Par Jean Herman Knoop. (Illustri.) Amsterdam: 1771.

Koch, Deut. Obst........ Die Deutschen Obstgeholze. Vorlesungen gehalten zu Berlin im Winterhalbjahr 1875-76. Von Karl Koch. Stuttgart: 1876.

Kraft, Pom. Aust........ Pomona austriaca, Abhandlung von den obstbaumen worinn ihre gestalt, erziehung und pflege angezeigt und beschrieben wird. Von Johann Kraft. Zwei Theile. Vienna: 1792.

Langley, Pomona........ Pomona, or the Fruit Garden Illustrated. By Batty Langley. London: 1729.

Lauche, Deut. Pom....... Deutsche Pomologie. Chromolithographische Abbildung, Beschreibung und Kulturanweisung der empfehlenswerthes-ten Sorten Aepfel, Birnen, Kirschen, Pflaumen, Aprikosen, Pfirsche und Weintrauben. Nach den Ermittelungen des Deutschen Pomologen-Vereins herausgegeben von W. Lauche. (Illustrirt.) Bande I-VIL Berlin: 1882-3. Vol. II. Pears.

Le Bon Jard............. Le Bon Jardinier. 1260 Edition Almanach Horticole, 1882 et 1290 Edition, 1884. Paris.

Leroy, Diet. Pom........ Dictionnaire de Pomologie. Par Andre Leroy. (Illustre.) Six Tomes. Paris: 1867-1879. Vols. 1 et 2. Pears.

Liegel, Syst. Anleit....... Systematische Anleitung zur Kenntniss der vorzuglichsten Sorten des Kern-, Stein-, Schalen- und Beerenobster. Von Georg Liegel. Passau: 1825.

Lindley, Guide Orch. Gard. A Guide to the Orchard And Kitchen Garden; or, an account of the most valuable fruit and vegetables cultivated In Great Britain: with Kalendars of the Work Required in the Orchard and Kitchen Garden during every month in the year. By George Lindley. Edited by John Lindley. London: 1831.

Lindley, Pom. Brit....... Pomologia Britannica; or, Figures and Descriptions of the most important Varieties of Fruit cultivated in Great Britain. By John Lindley. Three Volumes. London: 1841. Vol. 2. Pears.

Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat.....A Catalogue of the Fruits Cultivated in the Garden of the Horticultural Society of London. London: 1826. Second edition, 1831. Third edition, 1842. A supplement was published in 1853.

Loudon, Enc. Gard.. .... An Encyclopedia Of Gardening. By J. C. Loudon. (Illustrated.) New edition. London: 1834.

Lucas, Handb. Obst......Vollstandiges Handbuch der Obstkultur. Von Ed. Lucas. (Illustrirt.) Stuttgart: First edition, 1880; second edition, 1886; third edition, 1893. Third edition edited by Fr. Lucas, 1894.

Mclntosh, Bk. Gard...... The Book of the Garden. By Charles Mclntosh. (Illustrated,) Two Volumes. London: 1853-5.

McMahon, Am. Gard. Cal. The American Gardener's Calendar. By Bernard McMahon. Philadelphia: 1806.

Mag. Hort.............. The Magazine of Horticulture. Boston: 1837-1868. First published as The American Gardener's Magazine, 1835-6. Edited by C. M. Hovey with P. B. Hovey, Jr., associate editor during 1835-6.

Manning, Book of Fruits.. Book of Fruits. By Robert Manning. (Illustrated.) Salem: 1838. Copyright, 1838.

Mas, Le Verger.......... Le Verger ou Histoire, Culture Et Description avec planches coloriees Des Varietes De Fruits Les Plus G6neralement Connues. Par M. Mas. Huit Tomes. Paris: 1866-73. Vols. 1-3. Pears.

Mas, Pom. Gen.......... Pomologie Generate. Par M. Mas. (Illustre.) Douze Tomes. Paris: 1872-83. Vols. 1 et 3-7. Pears.

Mathieu, Nom. Pom......Nomenclator Pomologicus. Von Carl Mathieu. Berlin: 1889. Mawe-Abercrombie, Com.

Gard................. The Complete Gardener. By Thomas Mawe and John Abercrombie. London: 1829.

Miller, Gard. Diet........ The Gardener's Dictionary. By Philip Miller. Sixth edition. London: 1752. Revised edition. By Thomas Martyn. London: 1807.

Nat. Nur...............The National Nurseryman. Published by The National Nurseryman Publishing Co. * (Illustrated.) Rochester: 1893 to date.

Noisette, Man. Comp.

Jard................... Manuel Complet du Jardinier; Maraicher, Pepinieriste, Botaniste, Fleuriste et Paysagiste. Par M. Louis Noisette. Quatre Tomes. Paris: 1860. Vol. 2. Pears.

Oberdieck, Obst-Sort.....Deutschlands beste Obst-Sorten. Von F. G. C. Oberdieck. Leipzig: 1881.

Parkinson, Par. Ter...... Paradisi in Sole. Paradisus Terrestris. By John Parkinson. (Illustrated.) London: 1629.

Phillips, Com. Orch......The Companion for the Orchard. An Historical And Botanical Account of Fruits Known In Great Britain. By Henry Phillips. New Edition. London: 1831.

Pom. France............ Pomologie De La France ou Histoire Et Description de tous Les Fruits Cultives En France Et Admis Par Le Congrets Pomologique. (Illustre.) Tomes I-VIII. Lyon: 1863-1873. Vols. 1-4. Pears.

Pom. Mag..............The Pomological Magazine; or, Figures And Descriptions of the Most Important Varieties Of Fruit cultivated in Great Britain. Three Volumes. London: 1828-30, This work has also been published under the title Pomona Brittanica.

Popular Gard............ Popular Gardening. An Illustrated periodical devoted to Horticulture in all its branches. Volume I. Buffalo: 1886. Continued as Popular Gardening and Fruit Growing. Volumes II-IV. Buffalo: 1887-1891. Consolidated with The American Garden and continued as American Gardening. New York: 1892-1904.

Prince, Cat. Fr. Trees.... Catalogue of Fruit And Ornamental Trees et Plants, Bulbous Flower Roots, Green-House Plants, etc. etc. Cultivated at the Linnaean Botanic Garden, William Prince, Prop. Twenty-second edition. New York: 1823.

Prince, Pom. Man........The Pomological Manual: or, A Treatise on Fruits. By William Robert Prince, aided by William Prince. Second Edition. Part I. New York: 1832. Copyright, 1831. Part II. New York: 1832. Copyright, 1832.

Prince, Treat. Hort....... A Short Treatise on Horticulture. By William Prince. New York: 1828. Copyright, 1828.

Prince, Treat. Trees et Plants................ A Treatise on Fruit and Ornamental Trees And Plants, cultivated at the Linnsean Botanic Garden, Flushing, Long-Island, near New-York. By William Prince. New York: 1820.

Ragan, Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bui................... Nomenclature of the Pear; A Catalogue-Index of the Known Varieties Referred to in American Publications from 1804 to 1907. Complied by W. H. Ragan. Issued as U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. PI. Ind. Bui. 126: 1908.

Rea, Flora.............. Flora: Seu, De Florum Cultura; or A Complete Florilege. By John Rea. 3 Books. London: 1676. Book 3. Pears.

Rev. Hort.............Revue Horticole. Journal D'Horticulture Pratique. {Illustre.) Paris: 1829 to date.

Rural N. Y.............. The Rural New-Yorker. A Journal for the Suburban and Country Home. {Illustrated.) Rochester and New York: 1850 to date.

Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom.................. Societe Nationale D'Horticulture De France. Section Pomologique. Les Meilleurs Fruits au debut du XXe siecle. {Illustre.) Paris: 1904.

Thacher, Am. Orch....... The American Orchardist. By James Thacher. Boston: 1822. Copyright, 1822.

Thomas, Am. Fruit Cult.. The American Fruit Culturist. By John J. Thomas. {Illustrated.) First Edition. Geneva and Auburn, N. Y.: 1846. Copyright, 1846. Revised Edition. Auburn, N. Y.: 1851. Copyright, 1849. Revised Edition. New York: 1869. Copyright, 1867. Revised Edition. New York: 1885. Copyright, 1875-1885. Twentieth Edition, Revised and Enlarged. New York: 1897. Copyright, 1897. Twenty-first Edition, Revised and Enlarged. New York: 1911. Copyright, 1903.

Thompson, Gard. Ass't... The Gardener's Assistant; Practical and Scientific. By-Robert Thompson. (Illustrated.) Two Volumes. London: 1859. Same, revised by William Watson. Six Volumes. London: 1901.

Tilton, Jour. Hort........Tilton's Journal of Horticulture and Floral Magazine. See Am. Jour. Hort.

Trans. Lond. Hort. Soc.. . Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London. Volume I. London: 1815. Volume II. London: 1817. Volume III. London: 1820. Volume IV. London: 1822. Volume V. London: 1824. Volume VI. London: 1826.

U.S.D.A. Rpt..........Reports of the United States Department of Agriculture: 1862-1894.

U.S.D.A. Yearbook.....Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture: 1894 to date.

U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt....... Reports of the Agricultural section of the United States Patent Office: 1837 to 1861.

Wickson, Cal. Fruits...... The California Fruits and How To Grow Them. By Edward

J. Wickson. (Illustrated.) Second Edition. San Francisco: 1891. Copyright, 1889. Fourth Edition. Los Angeles: 1909. Copyright, 1908. Seventh Edition. San Francisco: 1914. Copyright, 1914.

Willich, Dom. Enc......Domestic Encyclopedia or a Dictionary of Facts. By A. F. M. Willich. First American edition with additions by James Mease. In five volumes. Volume 4. Philadelphia: 1803.

Wilson, Nat. W. China... A Naturalist In Western China with Vasculum, Camera, and Gun. Being some account of Eleven Years* Travel, Exploration, and Observation in the More Remote Parts of the Flowery Kingdom. By Ernest Henry Wilson. Two Volumes. New York: 1913. Galloway, B. T. Jour, Her. 11:29. 1920.
Rehder, Alfred Proc. Amer. Acad, Arts et Sci. 50:228. 1915.

Reimer, F. C. Reprint from 1916 annual report of Pacific Coast Association of Nurserymen, 7. 1916.
Wilson, E. H. Jour. Inter. Gar. Club 598. 1918.

Rehder, Alfred Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts et Sci. 50:237. 1915.
Reimer, F. C. Bull. Com. HorL Calif. 5:167-172. 1916.
Galloway, B. T. Jour. Her. 11:32. 1920.