PEARS OF NEW YORK

CHAPTER V

MINOR VARIETIES OF PEARS

A. J. Cook. 1. Cal. Com. Hort. Pear Grow. Cal. 7:No. 5, 247, figs. 25 to 31. 1918. 2, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 134. 1920.
Seedling of Bartlett which originated with J. E. Hassler, Placerville, Cal., and was introduced by Loma Rice Nursery in 1916. Tree similar to Bartlett but branches more slender and whip-like, vigorous. Fruit medium to very large, shaped like Bartlett but irregular, yellow; flesh rather coarse; flavor sweet, pleasant; Dec.

Aarer Pfundbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:184. 1856.
A German Pound pear originated in Nassau, Hesse, about 1826. Fruit large, pyriform, smooth, greenish-yellow turning to light yellow, often blushed and dotted densely with light brown and covered with patches of russet; fleshy pulpy, semi-melting, sweet and musky; Oct.

Abbé Fétel. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 166. 1889.  Calebasse Abbé Fétel. 2. Guide Prat. 61. 1895.
Fruit very large, very elongated, bright red on the side next the sun; flesh melting, very juicy, sugary; first; Nov.

Abbé Pérez. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:83, fig. 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 654. 1869.
The parent tree of this variety was found in a garden of the Abbé Péez, Lectoure, Department Gers, Fr. It was grafted and distributed in 1859. Fruit above medium, ovate, flattened at both ends, yellowish-green, dotted and streaked with russet; flesh whitish, fine, melting, juicy, sugary, acidulous, delicately perfumed; first; Nov. to Feb.

Abbott. 1. Mag. Hort. 20:472. 1854. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 654. 1869.
Raised from seed by Mrs. T. Abbott, Providence, R. I. First fruited in 1845 or 1846. Fruit medium, obovate, inclining to pyriform, smooth, deep green changing to yellow, strewed all over with gray and crimson dots, with blush of crimson on the side to the sun; flesh yellowish-white, buttery, melting, juicy, slightly coarse and gritty, with a rich, sweet and slightly perfumed flavor; second; Sept. and Oct.

Abdon Birne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:45. 1856.
Fruit small, short, obtuse, ventriculous; skin smooth and tender, lemon-yellow with a soft, rosy blush; flesh granular, semi-melting, sweet, with an aroma of cinnamon; first for dessert; July and Aug.

Abele de St Denis. 1. McIntosh Bk. Gard. 2:459. 1855.
Described in 1855 as a "comparatively new or recently introduced pear "in England. Fruit large; excellent for dessert.

Abercromby. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 654. 1869.
A wilding found in Tallapoosa County, Ala. Fruit medium, obtuse-pyriform, greatest breadth at center; skin rough, greenish-yellow, russeted, with a mottled, red cheek; flesh whitish, coarse, moderately juicy, sweet, slightly vinous; good; Aug.

Achalzig. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:180. 1856. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 467. 1884.
A Russian variety sent from the Crimea into Europe by a Mr. Hartwiss, superintendent of the royal garden at Nikita, where it originated in 1851. Fruit large, abruptly pyramidal, green changing at maturity to lemon-yellow, strewn with white and gray dots; flesh yellowish, rather gritty, melting, sweet, rich; good; Oct.

Achan. 1. Mag. Hort. 9:130. 1843. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 467. 1884.
This well-known Scotch dessert pear is probably of Norwegian origin. It is suitable only to a northern climate. Fruit below medium, turbinate but often obovate when grown to a large size, greenish-yellow on the shaded side, strewed with gray-russet patches and dots; on the exposed cheek it is of a dull, ferruginous red; flesh tender, buttery, sugary, juicy, with a rich, aromatic flavor; Nov. and Dec.

Acidaline. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:164. 1856. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 468. 1884.
A seedling of Van Mons. It was in 1833 sent to the Horticultural Society of Paris under the number 1253 and acquired the name Acidaline from its extreme acidity. Fruit above medium, obovate, shining bright green changing to yellow-green at maturity, mottled with red on the side next the sun and dotted all over with reddish-brown specks; flesh whitish-yellow, semi-buttery, semi-melting, gritty around the middle, sourish, very juicy; third for dessert, first for cooking; Oct.

Acme. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 68. 1895.
Raised by A. Block, Santa Clara, Cal. Fruit large, pyriform, yellow, russeted, red cheek; flesh breaking, melting, juicy and vinous.

Adams. 1. Mag. Hort. 20:464, fig. 21. 1854. 2. Hovey Fr. Am. 2:91, PL. 1851.
Raised from seed of Seckel planted in 1836 by Dr. H. Adams, Waltham, Mass. It first bore fruit in 1848. Fruit large, obovate-pyriform, yellow, shaded with crimson; flesh white, vinous; first; early Sept.

Adélaïde de Rèves. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 469. 1884.  Madame Adélaïde de Rêves. 2. Ann. Pom. Belge 3:97, fig. 1855.
A seedling, found about 1850 in the gardens of the Society Van Mons, Belgium. Fruit medium, turbinate; skin smooth, bright green changing to lemon-yellow, dotted with fawn and marked with brown-black patches, slightly colored with reddish-brown on the side next the sun; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, full of sugary juice, vinous, well perfumed; first; late Oct.

Adèle Lancelot. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:86, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:95, fig. 144. 1878.
Alexandre Bivort obtained this pear in 1851 at Jodoigne, Bel. Fruit variable in size but generally above medium, turbinate, swelled, obtuse, greenish-yellow, dotted all over and streaked with russet and often covered with black stains; flesh white, semi-fine, rather soft, melting, gritty at center; juice abundant, sugary, acidulous, with a delicate, buttery flavor; first.

Adèle de Saint-Denis. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:85, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 469. 1884.  Adele. 3. Le Bon Jard. 356. 1882.
Raised by M. Gu6raud, Saint-Denis, near Paris, about 1840. Fruit medium, obtuse-pyriform, greenish-yellow, strongly dotted and marked with fawn-colored russet; flesh yellowish, fine, melting, juicy, rather gritty around core, sugary, acidulous; first; Oct. and Nov.

Admirable. 1. Mag. Hort. 25:207, fig. 13. 1859. 2. DowningFr. Trees Am. 655. 1869.
Raised by Francis Dana, Boston, Mass., and first exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1853. Mr. Dana considered it one of his best seedlings. Fruit medium to large, globular-oval, largest diameter in middle, tapering to each end, rather swollen on one side, smooth, fine, yellow at maturity, with a circle of russet at the base of the stem and more or less traced and thickly dotted with russet; flesh yellowish-white, slightly coarse, melting, buttery, with a delicious perfume; good; Sept. and Oct.

Admiral Farragut. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 655. 1869.  Farragut. 2. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 44. 1866.
Raised by Dr. Shurtleff, Boston, Mass., and fruited first in 1862. Fruit large, pyriform, greenish-yellow, with many dots and mottled with fawn, blushed on the sunny side; flesh fine, melting, subacid, refreshing; good, handsome but rather lacking in quality; late Sept.

Admiral Foote. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 44. 1866.
Originated in Brookline, Mass. First fruited in 1862 or 1863. Fruit large, obovate, green; flesh melting, fine, with juice abundant, exceedingly rich, sweet, vinous; first; Sept.

Adolphe Cachet. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:88, fig. 1867.
Obtained from seed in the trial grounds of André Leroy, Angers, France, and first fruited in 1864. Fruit medium, turbinate-obtuse, irregular, very bright brilliant yellow, dotted with russet and stained similarly on the side next the sun and around the stem; flesh white, fine, melting, gritty at center, juicy, sugary, acid, fresh, with a delicious savor of musk; first; Aug. and Sept.

Adolphe Fouquet. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:67, fig. 226. 1879.
Raised by M. Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel. Fruit nearly medium, turbinate-conic, uniform in contour, water-green dotted with grayish-brown, often freely russeted, changing at maturity to dull citron-yellow; flesh white, with slight yellowish tint, rather fine, buttery, melting, with juice sufficient, sugary and vinous; good; Oct.

Adolphine Richard. 1. Mag. Hort. 26:218. 1860. 2, Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:89, fig. 1867.
Reported by M. Bivort in the garden of the Van Mons Society, Geest-Saint-Rémy, Bel. Fruit small or medium, pyriform-obtuse, golden yellow, spotted, striped and mottled with russet; flesh whitish, firm, without grit, semi-melting, wanting in quality, with sugary juice, acidulous, aromatic, without any after-flavor; second; Oct. and Nov.

Aehrenthal. 1. Lauche Deut. Pom. 11: No. 51, PL 51. 1883.
Dedicated by Dr. Diel of Stuttgart to the Baron von Aehrenthal of Prague sometime previous to 1833. Fruit medium, ventriculous-obovate-pyriform, bright green passing to yellow; flesh white, melting, juicy, buttery, aromatic; good; mid-Sept.

Agathe de Lescourt. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:90, fig. 1867.  Agathe de Lescours. 2. Mas. Pom. Gen. 5:39, fig. 308. 1880.
Origin obscure. Cultivated in France in the middle of the last century and believed to have been introduced there from Belgium. Fruit medium and frequently very large,obtuse-pyriform, greenish-yellow, dotted and streaked with russet; flesh white, sweet, rather insipid; second; mid-Sept.

Aglaë Adanson. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:91, fig. 1867.  Adanson Apothekerbirne. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:181. 1856.
Obtained from seed by Van Mons in 1816. Fruit small, pyriform but irregular, obtuse, greenish-yellow, finely dotted with russet, and washed with bright rose on the cheek next the sun; flesh white, coarse,, breaking, with sufficient juice, scarcely any sugar but full of perfume and flavor; third; Aug. and Sept.

Aglaë Grégoire. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 8:69, fig. 1860. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1192, fig. 1867.
Obtained from seed about 1852 by X. Gr6goire, Jodoigne, Bel., and placed on the market in 1855. Fruit below medium, obovate-obtuse-pyriform and often nearly round, dark green changing to yellow at maturity; flesh melting, sugary, semi-fine and melting; juice abundant, vinous, with an agreeable perfume; first; Feb. and Mar.

Agnès. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:183, fig. 575. 1881.
Raised by M. Pariset, Curciat-Dongalon, Fr. First report of it given in 1869. Fruit medium or nearly large, turbinate-pyriform, even in outline, bright lively green sprinkled with brown dots all over, changing at maturity to clear yellow on the shaded side and warm gold on the side next the sun; flesh white, fine, altogether melting; juice sufficient, sweet, sugary, pleasantly perfumed; first; Dec. and Jan.

Agricola. 1. Guide Prat. 84. 1895.
Attributed to Mortillet, 1873. Fruit medium, turbinate, intense green, changing to decided yellow; flesh very fine, melting, highly aromatic; Sept. Tree vigorous and prolific. Recommended lor wind-exposed situations.

Ah-Mon-Dieu. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:93, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 470. 1884.
This pear has had various names and is of ancient and obscure origin. Ah-Mon-Dieu is attributed to the exclamation of those words by King Louis XIV, who when visiting his gardens saw this pear tree heavily laden with fruit. Fruit small, obovate, lemon-yellow, dotted with russet, washed with lively rose on the side next the sun; flesh yellowish-white, coarse, breaking, not very juicy nor sugary, but full of perfume and flavor; good, but does not keep long after being gathered; Sept. Agua de Valence (See page 250).

Aigue. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:95, fig. 1867.
This variety is thought to have originated in the commune of Saint-Germain, Vendee, Fr., where the trees are to be found in abundance from 100 to 200 years old. Fruit small, ovate, generally a little pointed at the top, bronzed all over and rough to the touch, wrinkling freely at maturity; flesh yellowish, firm, breaking, somewhat gritty; juice sufficient, acidulous, deficient in sugar, almost insipid and sometimes having a delicate, musky flavor; third for dessert, second for kitchen use, but very variable; Nov. to Mar.

Aiken. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:69, fig. 35. 1872.
This is believed to be an American variety. Mas received it from Downing and thought it had been raised in the suburbs of Aiken, S. C. Fruit medium, obovate, entirely covered with a fine russet on which are some dots, but at maturity the russet changes to a rich gold and the cheek next the sun sometimes becomes blushed; flesh white, buttery, melting, free from granulations at the center, fairly sugary and vinous; not first class but good for preserving; Oct. and Nov.

Aime Ogereau. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:96, fig. 1867.
Raised in the nurseries of André Leroy, Angers, Fr. It fruited for the first time in 1862. Fruit medium or small, obovate-obtuse, lemon-yellow, sprinkled with brown dots, seldom colored on the sun-exposed side; flesh white, melting, remarkable especially for its extreme fineness; juice abundant, sugary, acidulous, flavored with a delicious savor of musk; first; mid-Sept.

Aimée Adam. 1. Guide Prat. 75. 1895.
Raised by Simon Bouvier, Jodoigne, Bel. Fruit rather large, obtuse-pyriform; skin fawn; flesh yellowish, semi-melting, sugary, sprightly; third; latter half of Oct. Tree vigorous and fertile.

Akatsupo. 1. Am. Gard. 12:10, fig. 6. 1891.
Japanese and common in neighborhood of Tokio. It is rather elongated in shape compared with other Japanese varieties, and heavily speckled with large dots; Aug.

Alamo. 1. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:232. 1903.
Originated by A. L. Bruce, Grayson County, Tex. Fruit medium to large, pale yellow, blushed with red; flesh buttery, melting; early.

Albertine. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:115. 1856. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:131, fig. 450. 1880.
This seedling, raised by Van Mons, was sent by him to Poiteau, author of the Pomologie Française, who, in 1833, named it after his wife. Fruit small, pyriform-obovate; skin rather thick, firm, water-green, sprinkled with numerous very small gray-brown specks, the basic green changing to bright lemon-yellow on the side next the sun; flesh yellow, very fine, dense, buttery, melting; juice abundant, vinous, perfumed; first; Oct.

Alexander. 1. Downing Ft. Trees Am. 449. 1857.
Originated at the village of Alexander, Genesee County, N. Y., from seed planted about 1820 by a Mrs. Churchill. It was shown at the Fruit Growers' Society Exhibition held at Buffalo, N. Y., on Sept. 13, 1855. Although very similar to     e, it is distinct. Fruit medium, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, yellowish-green, nearly overspread with cinnamon-russet except in the shade, and having occasionally a faint brownish blush in the sun; flesh white, rather coarse and somewhat gritty at the center, melting and very juicy, sugary; very good; Dec. to Feb.

Alexander Lucas. 1. W. N. Y. Hort. Sod. Rpt. 22. 1884. 2. Gard. Mon. 28:366. 1886.  Beurré Alexandre Lucas. 3. Bunyard Cat. 37. 1913-14.
This pear was found in a forest in the department of Loire-et-Cher, Fr., in 1871. It was imported to the United States by Ellwanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y., but never widely disseminated. Fruit large, golden yellow at maturity; flesh half-melting, juicy, vinous; quality good; Nov. to Jan.

Alexandre Bivort 1. Mas Le Verger 1:37, fig. 25. 1866-73. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:97, figs. 1867.
Obtained in 1848 by Louis Berckmans and named after Alexandre Bivort, founder of the Society of Van Mons, in Belgium. Fruit small to medium; the two types are spherical, or turbinate inclining to pyriform, respectively; skin smooth, shining green changing to yellow, dotted with russet; flesh white, fine-grained, tender, full of juice, sugary, with perfume of almond; variable in quality; Nov. to Jan.

Alexandre Chomer. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 167. 1889.
Raised by M. Liabaud; introduced in 1887. Fruit large; in form similar to Bartlett shortened, clear green passing into yellow at maturity; flesh very fine, melting, juicy; first; Dec. and Jan.

Alexandre de la Herche. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 167. 1889.
Raised by M. Sannier who named it after M. de la Herche, a merchant of Beauvais, Oise, Fr. Fruit medium, globular-obtuse-pyriform, sometimes slightly cylindrical; flesh fine, with a pleasant perfume; late Oct. Tree is fairly vigorous and very fruitful and resisted the phenomenal frost in France in the winter of 1879-80.

Alexandre Lambré. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 2:94, fig. 1854. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 472. 1884.
A seedling of Van Mons which did not fruit until 1844, two years after the death of the great pomologist. Fruit medium, oblate, obtuse-pyriform, bright yellowish-green, sprinkled with minute russety dots and slight markings of russet, brownish-red on the side next the sun; flesh white, a little soft, melting, juicy, sweet, acid, free from grit and possessing a delicate, musk flavor; Nov.

Alexandre de Russie. 1. Lindley Guide Orch. Card. 363. 1831.
Raised by M. Bouvier, Jodoigne, Bel., and named in honor of the Emperor Alexander of Russia. Fruit above medium, rather pyramidal, with an uneven surface, light green changing to yellowish-green, with a tinge of brownish-red on the side exposed to the sun where also it is somewhat stained with a fine, pale brown-russet, either in streaks or patches; flesh white, gritty, very juicy, buttery, with a rich, aromatic flavor. A good dessert pear; late Oct.

Alexandrina. 1. Mag. Hort. 25:41, 502, fig. 50. 1859. 2. Mas Le Verger 2:27, fig. 12. 1866-73.
Raised by M. Bivort, Haelen and Louvain, Bel. Published in 1847. Fruit medium, rather variable, globular-ovate, bright green changing to a fine yellow at maturity, tinged with crimson on the side next the sun, strewed irregularly with minute, russet dots; flesh yellowish-white, fine-grained, melting, juicy, sugary and perfumed; Sept.

Alexandrine Douillard. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 2:41, fig. 1854.
Raised by M. Douillard, Nantes, Fr., first harvested in 1849; placed in commerce in November, 1852. Fruit large, pyriform, turbinate or ovate; skin smooth and glossy, citron-yellow at maturity, nearly covered with russet-fawn, stained with dark brown and dotted with black and gray; flesh white, fine, melting; juice abundant, sugary and deli-ciously perfumed; excellent; Nov. and Dec.

Alexandrine Mas. 1. Mas Le Verger 1:89, fig. 51. 1866-73.
This pear came from a seed of the Passe Colmar sown by M. Mas in 1850. Fruit medium, pyriform, irregular, with protuberances, obtuse, bright green changing at maturity to pale yellow, covered with very numerous and regularly spaced small, dark brown spots; flesh whitish, transparent, melting; juice sufficient and rich in sugar, perfumed after the manner of Passe Colmar; first; Apr. and May.

Alfred de Madre. x. Guide Prat. 103. 1895.
A new variety sent out in 1895 by Daras de Naghin, Antwerp, Bel. Fruit medium, yellow, dotted with fawn, carmined on the side next the sun; flesh semi-melting, sweet, acidulous, with a very agreeable perfume; Oct.

Alice Payne. 1. Van Lindley Cat. 23. 1892.
Originated about 1843 near Salem, N. C. In 1892 the original tree was still growing when the variety was introduced by J. Van Lindley, Pomona, N. C. Fruit medium to large, yellow-white; good; winter.

Allerton. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 44. 1866.
A seedling raised by S. A. Shurtleff, Brookline, Mass., and submitted by him to the fruit committee of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1866, it having first fruited in 1862. Fruit large and handsome, long-pyriform, bright yellow; flesh fine-grained, high flavor, rather acid; always markets well; late Oct.

Alliance franco-russe. 1. Rev. Hort. 116. 1900.
Raised from seed by Florimond Robitaille, a horticulturist at Sdclin, Fr., and placed on the market, in 1897. Recommended for trial by amateurs in 1900 by the President of the Pomological Society of France. Fruit medium to large, obovate-pyriform, rather similar to the Duchesse d'Angoulême, pale yellow sprinkled with red dots, deeper yellow on the side next the sun, and mottled with fawn and numerous russet dots at the base; flesh white, fine, melting, very juicy, sugary, acidulous, agreeably perfumed: almost very good; Oct. to Dec.

Alouette. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:101, fig. 1867.
A chance seedling found, by André Leroy in 1850 in the commune of Saulgél'Hôpital, Maine-et-Loire, Fr. The parent tree appeared at that time to be about 80 years old. The fruit was introduced in 1855. Fruit small, nearly obtuse, globular-pyriform, greenish-yellow, sprinkled with ash-colored spots, and slightly washed with carmine on the side toward the sun; flesh coarse, white, breaking and rather gritty; second; mid-Sept.

Alpha. 1. Mag. Hort. 9:123. 1843.
Raised by Van Mons, Louvain, Bel., and named and described in the London Horticultural Society's catalog of fruits in 1842. Fruit medium, obovate, slightly oblong; skin smooth, yellowish-green on the shaded side, and pale brown speckled with minute reddish dots on the cheek next the sun; flesh white, fine-grained, buttery; second quality dessert; Oct. Tree well adapted for standard or half-standard.

Alphonse Allegatière. 1. Guide Prat. 103. 1895.
Described by Simon-Louis Brothers, Metz, Lorraine, in 1895, as a new variety. Fruit large, clear yellow passing to butter-yellow at maturity; flesh white, very fine, melting, sugary; first; Oct. and Nov.

Alphonse Karr. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:102, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:187, fig. 190. 1878.
Raised in the seed beds of Major Esperén. It was dated 1849 and in 1853 was included among trees of the Society Van Mons. Fruit above medium, pyriform-obtuse, depressed at the base, golden yellow, dotted and veined with fawn, stained with the same tint round the stem and calyx; flesh whitish, very fine, very melting, free from grittiness, juicy, fresh, sugary, acidulous, delicately perfumed; first; Nov. and Dec.

Amadotte. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:104, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:37, fig. 499.  1881.
The Amadotte is of ancient origin and more than one variety appears to have borne the name. The one here described is that discussed by Le Lectier, 1620. Fruit medium and sometimes larger, pyriform-ovate, variable, orange-yellow, marbled and dotted with fawn, especially around the calyx and the stalk, and generally washed with carmine on the side of the sun; flesh slightly yellow, fine, buttery, gritty around the core; juice abundant, sweet, with a slight flavor of musk; third for eating as dessert, second for cooking; Oct. to Jan.

Amande Double. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 353. 1845. Walker. 2. Ibid. 877. 1869.
The name Amande signifies almond and has reference to its flavor. Amande Double is a seedling of Van Mons which probably derives its qualifying name from the fact that it has double kernels. In 1834-5 Van Mons sent it to Robert Manning of Salem, Mass., under the number 135, and how it acquired the name of Walker in this country is not known. Fruit medium, pyriform, slightly obtuse, golden yellow, slightly dotted with fawn, washed with carmine on the side exposed to the sun; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, gritty at center, juice sufficient, sugary, slightly acid, with a delicious flavor of almond; first; late Sept. to Nov.

Amandine. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:109, fig. 1867.
Obtained about 1857 by M. Boisbunel, Rouen, Fr., from a seed-bed made in 1846. It was presented to the Horticultural Society of Rouen, September 19, 1858. Fruit medium to small, pyriform, obtuse, having one side more swelled than the other, greenish-yellow, speckled with fawn; flesh very white, semi-fine, melting, rarely gritty; juice abundant, sugary, full of flavor; first; Sept. and Oct.

Ambrette. 1. Langley Pomona 131, fig. IV. 1729. 2. Duhamel Trait Arb. Fr. 2:186, PI. XXXI. 1768.  Ambrette d'Hiver. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:112, fig. 1867.
A French dessert pear of ancient but uncertain origin. It was mentioned by M. Le Lectier of Orléans in 1628 in his catalog, and was shown by him to have been cultivated under the name of Trompe-Coquin. It has also been thought to be the pear Myrapia mentioned by Pliny, and to have been so named because of the myrrh-like perfume. The name Ambrette was given to the variety on account of its musk-like flavor, resembling the scent of the flower which in France is called Ambrette. Fruit below medium, globular-oval, tapering toward stalk, yellowish-olive; flesh yellowish or greenish-white; formerly held in high esteem but now ranking only as second-rate; Nov. to Jan.

Ambrette d'Été. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:111, fig. 1867.
This variety was first mentioned in 1628 by Le Lectier under the name Besi de Mouillères. Fruit small, spherical, narrowing a little at the summit, yellowish, often rough to the touch, speckled with gray dots and always washed with clear brownish-red on the side next the sun; flesh dull white, breaking, containing some grit around the core; juice sufficient, sugary, acidulous, rather delicately musky; second; Aug. and Sept.

Ambrosia. 1. Jour. Hort. N. S. 14:326, fig. 1868. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 177. 1884.
Switser, writing in England in 1724, said that this variety was introduced to that country from France "among that noble collection of fruit that was planted in the Royal Gardens in St. James's Park soon after the Restoration, but is now cut down."No French author, however, appears to mention it under this name. It was formerly to be found in many old English gardens but now seems to have dropped out of favor. Fruit medium, globular-obovate, greenish-yellow, slightly russeted and covered with small, gray specks; flesh buttery and in England possessing a high flavor, melting, rich, sugary, perfumed; first for dessert; Sept. but does not keep long.   [Not to be confused with the modern patented pear from the Purdue breeding program that is sold under the same name.  It was patented as `H2-169', USPP# 16,759.  Janick.  2006.  Hortscience 41(2):467.-A.S.C]

Amédée Leclerc. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:113, fig. 1867.
Raised by Leon Leclerc, Laval, Mayenne, Fr. It first bore fruit in 1849. Fruit medium, conic-cylindrical, often irregular in form and bossed, pale yellow, dotted, streaked and veined with russet; flesh white, fine, semi-melting; second; Feb.

Amelie Leclerc, 1. Mas Le Verger 3: Pt. 2, 1, fig. 97. 1866-73. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:114, fig. 1867.
This excellent pear was raised by Leon Leclerc, Laval, Mayenne, Fr. The original tree first bore fruit in 1850, and appeared then to be 12 years old. Introduced to this country about 1868. Fruit medium, globular-ovate, somewhat uneven in outline, obtuse, pale yellow, dotted and veined with russet and washed with rose-carmine on the cheek next the sun; flesh white, fine, melting, full of juice, sugary, acidulous, perfumed; first; Sept. and Oct.

America. 1. Mag. Hort 23:205, fig. 12. 1859. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 658. 1869.
It was said of Francis Dana, the indefatigable pomologist of Boston, that he saved the seed of all good pears that he ate, and that from these he produced sixteen new, good varieties of which America was one. It is a handsome pear and in 1859 was considered an important acquisition because it ripens in the early part of the winter when the number of choice varieties is limited. Fruit very large, globular-ovate, somewhat angular, with an uneven surface, dull greenish-yellow, much clouded with dull russet, and sprinkled heavily with large russet dots; flesh yellowish-white, rather coarse, semi-melting, sugary, buttery, pleasant, rich in flavor and having a refreshing aroma; good; keeps well; Dec.

Amie Verdier. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 40. 1871.
One of a collection of 42 new varieties of pears exhibited by Marshall P. Wilder at the annual exhibition of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1871, for which Mr. Wilder obtained the "first prize for new pears."Fruit medium, obovate, inclining to turbinate, yellow, with brownish-red cheek and some traces of russet; flesh white, very melting, juicy and rich. Promised to be fine.

Amiral. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:115, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 478. 1884.  Cardinale. 3. Prince Pom. Man. 1:90. 1831.
A fine old French pear of unknown origin but mentioned by Olivier de Serres in his Theatre d'agriculture in 1600. Fruit large, pyramidal, rather uneven in outline, dark greenish-yellow and washed with brilliant red on the side next the sun; flesh white, fine, tender, melting, free from grit, very juicy, rich and perfumed with anis; first rate dessert pear; seeds usually abortive; Sept. and Oct.

Amiral Cécile. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:117, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 478. 1884.  Admiral Cecile. 3. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 166. 1889.
Raised by M. Boisbunel, nurseryman at Rouen, from seed sown in 1846; fruited for the first time in 1858. Fruit medium, globular-obovate, yellowish-green changing to lemon-yellow, thickly dotted and mottled with gray-russet; flesh fine, whitish, melting, gritty at core, juicy, sweet and delicately perfumed; first rate dessert pear; Oct. to Dec.

Amiré Joannet, 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:125, 1768. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 478. 1884.
An ancient pear written of in 1660 by Claude Mollet. It bears the name of Joannet because in some parts of France it ripens about St. John's Day, the 24th of June. Fruit small, regularly pyriform, slightly obtuse, smooth, pale greenish-yellow changing to a deep waxen-yellow, washed with pale rose; flesh white, semi-fine, tender, juicy, sugary, impregnated with a perfume of musk, quite agreeable; second; June and July.

Amlisberger Mostbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 72, fig. 1913.
A perry pear found in Switzerland and first published in 1885. Fruit medium, globular, yellowish-green changing at maturity to light yellow, dotted with dark russet; excellent but not good for transportation; Sept. and Oct.

Amour. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:120, fig. 1867.  Trésor. 2. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:236. 1768.
M. Duhamel du Monceau styled this the largest of all pears and sufficiently sweet to be eaten raw by those whose taste is not too exacting, but very good for cooking and far superior to the Catillac and Pound pears. Origin obscure. Fruit very large; form like that of the quince, much swelled at the middle, extremely mammillate at each pole; skin rough to the touch, dull yellow, dotted, striped and mottled with fawn and showing some brownish spots; flesh white, semi-melting, free from grit, juicy, very saccharine and well perfumed; second for dessert, first for the kitchen; Nov. to Feb.

Amstettner Mostbirne, 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 30, fig. 1913.
Lower Austria; perry pear. Fruit rather large, long-pyriform, obtuse, somewhat irregular, smooth, bright green turning yellow at maturity; flesh whitish, rather granular and sometimes rather bitter; Oct.

Ananas. 1. Christ Handb. 532. 1817. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:122, fig. 1867.
Ananas was originally introduced to Holland from France where it had been cultivated for many years under the name De Bouehet, a name given to it during the reign of Louis XIV, 1643-1715, by La Quintinye, Director of the Royal Gardens. Fruit medium; form rather variable, generally globular, height and breadth being equal; color bright green changing to yellowish-green at maturity, with some tinge of red on the side next the sun, strewed with brown-russet dots; flesh white, melting, somewhat gritty, juicy, sugary; first for dessert; Sept.

Ananas de Courtrai. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 2:13, fig. 1854. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:124, fig. 1867.  Ananas de Courtray. 3. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:79, fig. 40. 1872.
The origin of this variety is unknown, but it is believed to have been a chance seedling raised at Courtrai, Flanders, as M. Six, who established himself in that town in the business of a gardener about the year 1784, found it already extensively grown there. Fruit large, pyramidal and often inclining to oval, bright yellow changing to lemon-yellow and much dotted and splashed with light-colored russet; flesh white, fine, juicy, well perfumed and with a flavor suggestive of cinnamon and musk; very good; Aug. and Sept.

Ananas d'Été. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 480. 1884.
This is not the Dutch variety of Knoop but rather the type known in the British Isles as Ananas d'Éte or King William Pear. Fruit above medium, obtuse-pyriform, yellowish-green with brownish tinge next the sun and covered with large, rough, brown-russet dots; flesh delicate, buttery, melting, with a pleasant, perfumed flavor; first; mid-Sept.

Andouille. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:126, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:111, fig. 440. 1880.
The origin of this variety is unknown beyond the fact that it was cultivated near Montfaucon, Maine-et-Loire, Fr., previous to 1850. At first it was known as the "Poly-forme "owing to its very variable shape but was subsequently given its present name which is that of a twist of tobacco. Fruit medium or rather large, conic-pyriform, but often irregular and variable, sometimes much swelled below the middle, mammillate around the calyx, yellow, washed with fawn; flesh white, rather fine and buttery, gritty, melting; juice sweet and perfumed; second; late Sept.

Andrew Murray. 1. Guide Prat. 80. 1895.
Fruit small, ovate, yellow; flesh fine, melting, juicy; good; end of winter and spring. Tree fertile and moderately vigorous.

Andrews. 1. Hovey Fr. Am. 1:97, Pl.1851. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 451, fig. 1857.
Samuel Downer introduced this pear soon after the Massachusetts Horticultural Society was organized in 1829. He stated "that it originated in Dorchester, and that the original tree was purchased about 60 years ago by John Andrews of Boston" Fruit rather large, pyriform, one-sided, pale yellowish-green, with a dull red cheek; flesh greenish-white, full of juice, melting, having a vinous flavor; first; early Sept.

Ange. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:138. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:131, fig. 1867. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 480. 1884.
This is one of the most ancient varieties in France. At a very early date it was dedicated to the "Angels "and later to the "Virgin Mary "and was known by the two names simultaneously from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. Fruit small to medium, variable but generally more globular-turbinate than oblong or ovate, deep green changing to yellow, dotted with gray, washed with red-brown on the side to the sun; flesh white, melting, very juicy, sugary, acidulous, having a strong perfume of anis; first for dessert and also for preserves; Aug. and Sept.

Angel. 1. Thomas Am. Fruit Cull. 693. 1897.
Originated at Ghent, N. Y. Fruit large, handsome; poor, early.

Angeline. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:134. 1856.
A seedling of Van Mons, 1852. Fruit medium, often rather ovate, light green changing to light yellow, somewhat blushed, finely dotted; flesh very fine, white, buttery, sweet, tartish, juicy; first for table and market; late Aug. The tree is best grown as a dwarf.

Angélique de Bordeaux. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:214, PL XLVII, fig. 5. 1768.  2. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 391. 1831. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:133, figs. 1867. St. Martial. 4. Prince Pom. Man. 1:79. 1831.
Henri Manger thought this pear identical with the pear Liceriana or Liciniana of which Pliny spoke and which bears the name of Licinius, the Roman tribune and consul. In 1690 Jean Merlet described a pear under the name Angelique which appears to be the same, and said it was much esteemed in Languedoc under the name Saint-Martial. It remains that its origin is ancient and uncertain, though it it seems quite likely, as M. Leroy thought, that it originated in Languedoc, Gironde, Fr. Switser considered it was introduced into England about 1708. For upwards of 100 years it was grown there under the name Saint Martial. It does not appear when it was first brought to this country. Fruit above medium to large, obtuse-pyriform, uneven in outline, glossy green changing as it ripens to pale yellow or greenish-yellow, the whole strewed with brown dots and a few patches of russet; flesh whitish, semi-fine, sweet and sugary, breaking, agreeable, not rich in perfume; second for dessert and cooking; Jan. to Apr.

Angélique Cuvier. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 169, 1889. 2. Guide Prat. 72. 1895.
Fruit medium, acute-pyriform, almost entirely covered with fawn on a yellow ground; flesh fine, melting, juicy; good; Sept. and Oct. Tree vigorous and fertile.

Angélique Leclerc. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 11:137, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:7, fig. 100. 1878.
This variety was raised from seed by Léon Leclerc, Laval, Mayenne, Fr., about 1848. Fruit medium and often large, regular, long-ovate, greenish-yellow, shaded with pale rose on the cheek next the sun and dotted with russet; flesh white, very closely grained, melting, rough or gritty round the core, juicy, sugary, acidulous, having a delicate aroma; first; Oct. to Dec.

Angélique de Rome. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:239. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:136, fig. 1867.
With the exception of M. Duhamel du Monceau, no pomologist of the sixteenth or seventeenth century mentioned this pear. Henri Manger writing in 1783, thought it identical with the "pira Tiberiana,"a variety which Pliny tells us was a favorite with the Emperor Tiberius. Fruit medium, globular, obtuse-pyriform, darkish yellow, dotted with fine gray spots, always washed with rose on the side next the sun; flesh whitish, a little coarse, gritty around the core, full of rich, sugary juice; second; Oct to Dec.

Angleterre d'Hiver. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:198. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:138, fig. 1867.
According to Leroy this variety was grown in France in the middle of the seventeenth century, its grafts having been brought from England. Fruit medium, oblong-obovate-pyriform, pale yellow, spotted with fawn and slightly washed with red; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, rather gritty around the core, juicy, sugary, with a sweet and agreeable flavor; a good kitchen pear; Dec. to Mar.

Angleterre Nain. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:140, fig. 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 661. 1869. This variety was raised from seed in 1832 at Paris by Edouard Sageret. It appeared first under the name Angleterre parfumee and was so published in 1835, but for some reason was renamed. Fruit rather above than below medium, turbinate, obtuse, swelled and always more enlarged on one side than on the other; skin rough to the touch, dull green, uniformly dotted with clear russet; flesh whitish, fine, breaking, gritty at the center; juice abundant, fresh, sweet, with a musky savor; first; Sept. and Oct.

Angobert. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:142, fig. 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 661. 1869.  Á Gobert. 3. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:191. 1768.
Toward the end of the eighteenth century, 1780-83, Henri Manger claimed that he had identified the Angobert with the Signina or Testacea of Columella and Pliny. Fruit very large, variable but generally obovate-pyriform, distorted, enlarged around the calyx end, dull yellow, dotted and streaked with fawn, washed with red on the side of the sun; flesh white, coarse, juicy, sweet, having a rather agreeable after-flavor of musk; third for the table but first for the kitchen.

Angoisse. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:145, fig. 1867.  Winter Bon Chretien. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 666. 1884.
This is one of the most ancient French pears having been described in the year 1094 in a chronological manuscript attributed to Geoffroy, the Prior of the Benedictine monastery of Vigeois in the Diocese of Limoges, in which it was stated to have derived its name from the village of Angoisse in the old Province of Limonsin, Fr. Fruit small to medium, turbinate, obtuse, swelled, golden-yellow, dotted, marbled with fawn and washed with brownish-red on the side to the sun; flesh whitish, slightly melting, coarse, always very gritty at the center; juice excessively abundant, acidulous, sugary; third for dessert, second for cooking, first for cider; Dec. to Apr.

Angora, 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:147, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:35, fig. 306. 1880.
This is a member of a group of pears rather loosely termed Pound Pears. By some authors Angora is given as a synonym for Belle Angevine or Uvedale's St. Germain. In an account of a voyage he undertook in 1700 on command of King Louis XIV of France, M. Tournefort, the;noted botanist, states that he saw at Beibasas, Asia Minor, the pears known in Constantinople as Angora. In 1832, L#on Leclerc imported it into France from Constantinople, having obtained it with difficulty through the French Amabassador at the Golden Horn. Fruit above medium to large, pyriform, obtuse, swelled around the center, rather irregular in form; skin thick, hard to cut, pale yellow, finely dotted with fawn and bearing some patches of fawn; flesh white, rather coarse, semi-melting, gritty at the center; juice plentiful and rich in sugar after the manner of sweet wine, little perfume; second; Oct. and Nov.

Angoucha. 1. Guide Prau 82. 1876. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:43, fig. 502. 1881.
Originated in the Department of the Aube, France. In the arrondisements of Troyes and Bar-sur-Seine it is also called Courte queue i.e. "Short Stem; "and by M. Baltet-Petit, it was described in the "Annales de Flore et Pomone,"under the name Belle Chaouce, the name of the canton where it was very generally cultivated. Fruit medium, obtuse-conic-ovate, regular in contour, dark green sprinkled with numerous regularly spaced, brown dots often comingled under a cloud of russet of same color, at maturity the green becomes an intense yellow, the russet golden, and on the side of the sun is a wash of light orange-red; flesh yellowish-white, semi-fine, dense, breaking; juice sufficient and rich in sugar; good for cooking, winter.

Anna Audusson. 1. Pom. France 3:No. no, Pl.no. 1865. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom, 1:149. 1867.  Anna Audisson. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am, 661. 1869.
In 1828 or 1830, M. Audusson, a nurseryman at Angers, Fr., obtained this variety from a bed of mixed seeds. Fruit medium or rather less, single or in pairs, rarely in clusters, turbinate-obtuse, always rather swelled, irregular, yellowish-green dotted with fawn and splashed with reddish markings on the side next the sun; flesh whitish, buttery, fine, melting, often mealy, gritty around the core, juicy, acidulous, only slightly saccharine. or perfumed; third; Nov. to Jan.

Anna Nelis. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom, 1:150. 1867.
M. Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel., raised this pear from a bed of mixed seeds made in 1835. It was first reported in 1849. Fruit second quality for dessert; maturity Apr. to May.

Anne de Bretagne, 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 169. 1889. 2. Guide Prat. 84. 220. 1895.  Anne of Brittany. 3. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 5:18. 1889.
On trial with Simon-Louis Brothers, Metz, Lorraine, 1895. Fruit medium to large, yellow, glossy, sometimes colored with vermilion where exposed to the sun; flesh fine, melting, slightly acidulous; first; Nov. to Jan.

Anthony Thacher. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 102. 1875. 2. Ind. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 42. 1875.
One of four varieties exhibited by Robert Manning at the Chicago meeting of the American Pomological Society in 1875 as the "Centennial Pears."The fruit grew upon a tree which was 235 years old that season. Fruit medium in size, ovate-pyriform, green, changing, to yellow at maturity; of tolerable quality; ripening early in Sept.

Antoine. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:180, fig. 572. 1881.
A seedling raised by M. Pariset in France in 1852 and first published in 1867. Fruit large, nearly cylindrical, truncated at both ends; bright green sown with numerous large, brown dots, a network of russet covering most of the surface, the basic green passing at maturity to lemon-yellow, the russet changing to gold, with the side next the sun often sprinkled with small specks of blood-red; flesh yellowish-white, fine, melting yet a little gritty near the core, full of saccharine juice richly perfumed; first; mid-winter.

Antoine Delfosse. 1. Guide Prat. 82. 1876. 2, Baltet Cult. Fr. 320, 331, 332. 1908.
Raised by M. Grégoire of Jodoigne, Bel., about 1870. Fruit medium, ovate, truncated, dull green passing into dull yellow, covered with fawn spots; flesh fine, melting, juicy, saccharine, exquisite; late Nov.

Antoinette. 1. U. S. D. A, Pat. Of. Rpt. 397. 1858. 2. Guide Prat. 82. 1876.
The parent tree was found in the commune of Camsegret, Fr., and is not to be confused with Beurré Antoinette, another and probably earlier variety. Fruit medium size, handsome; flesh perfumed; Oct. and Nov. In the report of the Department of Agriculture for 1858 it was said in Massachusetts to make "a handsome pyramidal tree, promising well."

Anversoise. 1. Guide Prat. 84. 1895.
Introduced by Daras de Naghin, Antwerp, Bel., prior to 1895. Fruit rather large and very similar to Marie-Louise; flesh fine, juicy, sugary, pleasantly perfumed; Oct. and Nov. The tree is moderately vigorous and very prolific.

Apfelblättrige Azerolbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:197. 1856.
An apple-leaved variety; German. Fruit small, globular, yellow, blushed with red; flesh white, rather gritty, sweet, melting; seedless; third for dessert, first for kitchen; Aug.

Apothekerbirne. 1. Oberdieck Obst-Sort. 238. 1881.
To be found in the Rhine country and especially at Nuremberg. Fruit medium; ovate, smooth and shining, green changing to yellow, often with some light russet, and numerous russet dots; flesh yellowish-white, breaking, very tender, sweet, with an aroma of cinnamon and sweet flavor; very good for household purposes; Oct.

Apple. 1. Griffing Bros. Cat. 12, fig. 1909.
Said to have originated near Palatka, Fla., from a Japanese sort and introduced about 1909. Fruit large, roundish, light green becoming lemon-yellow; flesh white, crisp, juicy; ripens with Le Conte.

Apple Pear. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 1:1831. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 662. 1869.  Poire-Pomme. 3. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:173, fig. 87. 1872.
This variety is of ancient but unknown origin. Several varieties have been described under this name, but the pear here described is the German variety spoken of by J. V. Sickler about 1800 and extensively grown in the environs of Sachsenburg and Kanneburg. Fruit below medium, globular-oblate, not regular, olive-yellow, much dotted and russeted, and moderately washed with brownish-red on the side exposed to the sun; flesh yellowish-white, watery, fine and melting, granular around the core, without much perfume; second; Nov. and Dec.

Appoline. 1. Guide Prat. 82. 1876. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:161, fig. 369. 1880.
Obtained from seed by President Parigot of Poitiers in 1845. It was propagated by M. Larclause but the date of its first introduction is unknown. Fruit rather small, nearly round or globular-ovate in form; color rather deep and dull green with a few small dots, and some traces of brown russet on both the summit and the base of the fruit; flesh white, tinted with green, fine, very melting, a little gritty about the core, full of sugary juice, slightly acid with an agreeable flavor.

Agua de Valence. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:25, fig. 397. 1880.
M. Mas received this pear from Adrien Sénéclauze, a nurseryman at Bourg-Argental, Loire, Fr. Fruit medium, irregular, globular, bright green passing to lemon-yellow, speckled with large and numerous deep green spots which are the more apparent on the side next the sun, well-exposed fruits washed with blood-red round the spots which become yellowish; flesh white, fine, tender, melting, juicy, sweet; good; Aug.

Aqueuse d'Esclavonie. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:63, fig. 128. 1878.
Count Bressler, Fernsee, Hung., sent this variety in 1842 to Liegel. Two years later Mas received it from Mr. Hartwill, Director of the gardens at Nikita in the Crimea, Rus., under the name Achalzig I. Fruit medium, obovate, acute-pyriform; color pale green, sown with numerous and distinct very small dots of a deeper shade; flesh whitish, rather coarse, melting, gritty around the core, abundant sweet juice, sugary, but without any appreciable perfume; Sept. and Oct.

Aqueuse de Meiningen. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:77, fig. 231. 1879.
This variety is cultivated in the neighborhood of Meiningen, central Germany, but its origin appears to be unknown. Fruit medium or nearly medium, globular, turbinate, very regular in contour; skin thick, very bright green sprinkled with numerous small dots of a darker shade, changing at maturity to pale yellow and more golden on the side exposed to the sun; flesh whitish, coarse, melting, fairly juicy, saccharine and only slightly perfumed; third; Sept.

Arabella. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:134. 1856.
A seedling from Van Mons, 1852. Fruit below medium, pale green, slightly rough, much dotted with greenish cinnamon-russet; flesh whitish, very fine, sweet, vinous; first for dessert; Sept. and Oct.

Arbre Courbe. 1. Gard. Chron. 68. 1848. 2. Pom. France 2:No. 59, PL 59. 1864.  Krummholzige Schmalzbirne. 3. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:67. 1856.
Bivort, successor of Van Mons in the Society's gardens at Louvain, stated that this, variety was gained by Van Mons about 1830. Fruit large, oblong-obtuse-pyriform; skin rough to the touch, being considerably covered with rough, scaly russet; color bright yellow or greenish-yellow, freely dotted with russet spots; flesh white, rather fine, melting, juicy, gritty around the core; a dessert pear, but hardly first-rate; Sept. and Oct.

Archduke of Austria. 1. Mag. Hort. 3:50. 1837.
Manning in the Pomological Notices in the Magazine of Horticulture said: "This tree bears well every year; the fruit is handsome, but very dry and of inferior quality. Ripe in September. It may prove to have been received under a wrong name."

Archiduc Charles. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:153, fig. 1867.
Raised by M. Duval, Hainaut, Bel. Fruit medium to large, short-pyramidal, bright yellow in France, brown-red next the sun, covered with large, dark-brown russet dots and patches; flesh fine, yellowish-white, juicy, with a very agreeable savor; first; Nov. and Dec.

Archiduc d'Été. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:155, fig. 1867.  Ognonet. 2. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:135, Pl.VIII. 1768.
An old French variety described under various names at different times and places, the earliest being by Merlet in 1675. It acquired the synonym of Ognonet in the eighteenth century from its swelled onion-like form. Fruit small, obovate-obtuse-pyriform; pale lively green changing to yellowish-green as it ripens and covered with dark red next the sun with numerous russety dots and some patches of russet;"flesh yellowish-white, semi-fine, juicy, gritty, sugary, acid, with a slight flavor of anis; second; July and Aug.

Archiduc Jean d'Autriche. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 159. 1832. 2. Mag. Hort. 21:146.  1855.
Originated by Van Mons about 1817 and characterized by him as "admirable"; otherwise undescribed.

Archiduchesse d'Autriche. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 483. 1884.
Raised by Van Mons. Fruit medium or below, globular-turbmate, green, yellowish-green when ripe, blushed with brownish-red, dots and stains of cinnamon-russet; flesh white, semi-melting, slightly gritty at core, juicy, sugary and rather rich flavor; second rate dessert; Sept.

Arendt Dechantsbirne. I. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:92. 1856.
Raised from seed by Van Mons at Louvain, Bel. Reported in 1833. Fruit small, globular, uniformly greenish-yellow, thickly dotted; flesh aromatic, vinous; first for dessert; late Nov.

Argent. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:156, fig. 1867.
Adrianus Junius, a Dutch botanist of the sixteenth century, identified the pear of silver or the money pear with the Nardina of the Romans, though his contemporary, Jacques Dalechamp of Normandy in his "Hisioire des plantes,"1585, connected it with the Liceriana mentioned by Pliny. Nardina or Nard was an ointment smelling strongly of musk and lavender, from which the ancient pear no doubt took its name, but the flesh of Argent does not give out any such aroma, Henry Manger writing in 1783 thought that the Poire d'Argent which we have today is the Liceriana of Pliny, agreeing with Dalechamp. Fruit small; form globular-obtuse-pyriform but usually mammillate at the summit, greenish-yellow, dotted with russet all over; flesh dead white, fine and melting, juicy, gritty at core; quality second; Aug. and Sept.

Argusbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:73. X8s6.
Raised from seed by Von Muckenheim in Barmen, Rhenish Prussia, in 1832. Fruit medium, light green to citron-yellow without any red blush but rust-colored on the cheek next the sun, densely spotted with fine brown dots, without perfume; flesh granular, melting, acidulous, sweet, with cinnamon savor; second for dessert, first for kitchen use; late Oct.

Arkansas. 1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:25. 1908.  Arkansas Mammoth, 2. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 37. 1896.
It has been suggested that this may be the Uvedale's St. Germain or Pound pear. Fruit large, long, obtuse-pyriform, tapering at both ends, green, tinged with yellow, very much marked with dots and patches of russet; stem medium long, stout, curved, inserted without cavity; calyx large, open; basin shallow; flesh white, moderately juicy, tough but crisp, astringent; quality poor; a late keeper.

Arlequin Musqué. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 1:105, fig. 1853. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:158, fig. 1867.
Raised from seed by Van Mons and noted in his catalog of 1825 under the number 1737. Fruit large, globular-obovate, even and regular in outline, dull or olive-green, which changes to lemon-yellow on maturity, dotted all over with brown spots, washed with fawn on the side next the sun; flesh white, buttery, melting, very sweet, add, rather gritty around the core, juicy and having a savory perfume, sometimes of musk; second; in France Sept. and Oct.

Arlingham Squash. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 484. 1884.
An English pear deriving its name from the village of Arlingham. It is in demand for the making of perry in the neighborhood of Hereford, Eng. Fruit globular, acute-pyriform, rather irregular in outline, dark green, with a brownish tinge on the side next the sun, a good deal russeted all over; flesh white, juicy, crisp, aromatic.

Armand Prévost. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 484. 1884.
Origin unknown. Fruit medium, oblong-obovate, narrowing from the bulge to the calyx, even and regular in contour; a fine golden-yellow, with an orange cheek minutely dotted with russet; flesh half-melting, juicy, without much flavor; poor; Oct.

Arménie. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:159, fig. 1867. 2. Guide Prat. 82, 231. 1876.
Believed to have originated in Asia. Merlet wrote of it in 1675 and in 1690 when it had probably only recently been introduced into France. Fruit medium, globular, slightly flattened at the base and nearly always mammillate at the summit, clear green, passing into greenish-yellow at maturity, dotted all over with brown-russet and streaked with, the same around the calyx; flesh yellowish, fine, tender, semi-breaking, gritty at the center, with juice sufficient, sugary, slightly musky, savory; second for dessert, first for cooking. Feb. to May.

Arnold. 1. Ind. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 103. 1892. 2. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 249. 1893. 3. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 142. 1898.
Raised from seed by Arnold & Frazier, Dansville, Ind. The name Arnold was conferred upon it at the meeting of the Indiana Horticultural Society, December, 1892, and in November, 1893, it received a first class certificate of merit from the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. In 1898, at the December meeting of the Illinois State Horticultural Society it was reported "a winter pear of good quality, apparently not ripe at this season; of local origin; a good keeper; an abundant bearer,"and was recommended for trial in the experiment station of the State. Fruit medium size, oblong-pyriform, yellow russeted; flesh buttery, juicy, melting; good; very late.

Arthur Bivort. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:85, fig. 427. 1880. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:160, fig. 1867.
Raised from seed by Van Mons who died in 1842. The variety did not fruit till 1850. Fruit above medium, pyramidal, very long, obtuse, even and regular in contour, yellowish-green, slightly dotted with fawn, washed with pale red on the side next the sun; flesh whitish, a little coarse, juicy, melting, sugary, acid, delicately perfumed; first; Oct.

Arthur Chevreau. 1. Rev. Hort. 39. 1916.
Arthur Chevreau of Montreuil, a distinguished French horticulturist, obtained this variety and exhibited it to the Horticultural Society of France in December, 1915. It was described in the Journal of the Society after official testing and approval. Fruit large to very large, long and regular in form, very slightly bossed; stem short and set obliquely, greenish-yellow passing to dark yellow, sprinkled with large, russet dots; flesh rather fine; firm, very juicy, slightly acidulous, with a very agreeable flavor; good or very good.

Arundell. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 593. 1629.
A very old English pear described by Parkinson as "most plentiful in Suffolke, and there commended to be a verie good peare."

Aspasie Aucourt. 1. Guide Prat. 84. 1895.
Origin unknown but thought to be European. Fruit medium, globular-obtuse, pale yellow; flesh fine, melting, very juicy, primrose in color, saccharine, slightly perfumed; one of the best of its season for the private garden; late July and Aug.

Aston Town, 1. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 352. 1831. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 485. 1884.
An old English variety raised at Aston in Cheshire, and largely cultivated there and in the neighboring counties, especially that of Hereford. Fruit medium sized, globular-turbinate, pyriform, pale green but changing on ripening to pale yellow, covered with numerous gray-russety specks; flesh yellowish-white, tender, buttery, and full of a most excellent saccharine, perfumed juice; it is a rich highly-flavored pear of the first rank; Oct. and Nov. A peculiarity of its growth is a tendency of the branches to twist.

Audibert. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:163, fig. 1867.  Belle Audibert. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 1:119. 1831.
An old French pear raised in the Department of Bouches-des-Rhone, Fr., previous to the year 1814. Fruit medium, oblong-obovate-pyriform, greenish-yellow, extensively dotted with fawn, washed with tender rose on the side next the sun and often bearing some small brownish stains on the shaded side; flesh very white, fine, juicy, melting, sugary, vinous, slightly acid, wanting in perfume; third as a fruit for dessert but first for the kitchen.

Augier. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 164, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:119, fig. 1880.
Raised in 1828 by M. Feraut, Cognac, Chareute, Fr. Fruit medium or nearly medium, ovate-pyriform, sometimes a little deformed, but more often regular in its contour, dark green, spotted with blackish-gray dots which are both numerous and prominent; flesh white, rather fine, breaking, with abundant sweet juice, often too astringent; medium; late winter.

Augustbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:56. 1856.
Meiningen, in central Germany, 1847; classed among the Zuekerbirne or sugar pears. Fruit small, obtuse-conic, greenish-yellow turning to yellow, often having a shining blush, gray and green dots; flesh semi-melting, gritty near the core, honey-sweet; second for dessert, first for kitchen and market; Aug.

Auguste de Boulogne. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:166, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:179, fig. 474. 1880.
Probably a seedling of Van Mons. Fruit small, globular-ovate, bossed and generally contorted, clear yellow dotted with fawn around the stem and calyx; flesh white, semi-fine, extremely melting, very gritty around the core, juicy, saccharine, acidulous, with an excellent buttery flavor; first; Oct. and Nov.

Auguste Droche. 1. Guide Prat. 84. 1895.
Fruit rather large, globular, acute-pyriform, somewhat obovate; flesh fine, melting; Jan. and Feb. Tree vigorous and fertile.

Auguste Jurie. 1. Pom. France 1:No. 4, Pl.4. 1863. 2. Mas Le Verger 2:61, fig. 29. 1866-73.
Raised from a seed of the Beurré Giffard sown at the School of Horticulture, 1851. Fruit small, growing in clusters, sometimes ovate, sometimes short-pyriform, pale green speckled with numerous gray dots, lemon-yellow at maturity, washed with deep blood red, shaded with violet on the side next the sun; flesh white, slightly veined with yellow, fine, buttery; juice sufficient, sugary, vinous, musky; first; Aug.

Auguste von Krause. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:127. 1856.
Raised from seed by Van Mons; fruited in 1852. Fruit large, obtuse-conic; skin rough, greenish turning to yellow; flesh very juicy; good; late Oct.

Auguste Miguard. 1. Guide Prat. 82. 1876. 2. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 25. 1896.
Introduced in France by M. Grégoire. Fruit rather large, oblong, somewhat resembling Louise Bonne de Jersey in shape and color, yellow, with dull red cheek on the sunny side; flesh melting, vinous, very juicy and of a pleasing flavor; first; Oct. to Dec.

Auguste Royer. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 3:11, fig. 1855. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:168, fig. 1867.
Raised by Van Mons and when brought under the notice of the Royal Commission of Pomology in 1853 it was given the name of the President of the Commission. Fruit medium, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, one side being habitually more swelled out than the other; color dull yellow, dotted with gray, and almost entirely covered with fawn; flesh whitish, fine, melting, juicy, gritty around the core, sugary, acid, with pleasant perfume; first; Nov. Tree very vigorous.

Augustine. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:110. 1856. 2. Mas Le Verger 2:189, fig. 93. 1866-73.
Originated by Van Mons, 1823. Fruit medium, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, light green changing to yellowish-green, blushed with rose on the side next the sun, dotted with gray-green specks; flesh nearly white, slightly veined with yellow, fine, melting, full of sweet juice, delicately perfumed and refreshing; good; early Aug.

Augustine Lelieur. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:169, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:43, fig. 310. 1880.
This variety is considered to be of Belgian origin. Leroy received it from the garden of the Society of Van Mons, Louvain, in 1854, and Mas received it at Bourg from a nurseryman at Wetteren, East Flanders, in 1859. Fruit above medium, oblong-obovate-pyriform, a little swelled, bossed, stalk bearing spines and implanted obliquely, greenish-yellow, russet and brown spots, stripes of fawn around the stalk; flesh white, fine, melting, gritty, sufficiently juicy, sugary, acid and delicate in flavor; first; Oct. and Nov.

Augustus Dana. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 663. 1869.
Originated by Francis Dana of Boston, Mass. Fruit medium to rather large, globular-obtuse and varying from acute-pyriform to obtuse-pyriform, yellow, russeted; flesh whitish, juicy, melting, sweet, slightly aromatic; first; Oct.

Aurate. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb.Fr. 2:122, Pl.III. 1768. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:26. 1856.
This ancient French pear appeared under the name Muscat de Nancy in Le Lectier's Catalogue de son verger et plant in 1628, and was sold in Nancy over 300 years ago. It is extensively grown in Germany in the valleys of the Rhine and in the plains of Coblenz and Mayence under the name of Petit-Muscat rouge, Muscat d'été, Goldbirne, etc. Fruit small, growing in clusters, turbinate, ventriculous, obtuse, regular in contour, dark green at first, dotted with fawn, streaked with brownish-red in the cavity and washed with rose where exposed to the sun; flesh yellowish-white, semi-fine and semi-melting, juicy, generally gritty, saccharine, vinous, delicately musky; first; late Aug.

Auray. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:171, fig. 1867.
This was a chance seedling which originated in Brittany. Leroy states that he cultivated it in Anjou and first entered it in his catalog in 1851. Fruit rather large, ovoid, often more swelled on one side than on the other, bronze, with some greenish dots and patches, the skin rough to the touch; flesh whitish, semi-fine, semi-melting, gritty around the core; juice very abundant, sugary, vinous, sometimes astringent and sometimes also delicate and perfumed; second only on account of its variability, for in the same season it may produce some exquisite fruit, some only good and some only medium in quality.

Autocrat 1. Jour. Hort. 3rd Ser. 3:260. 1881.
Described in the Journal of Horticulture, London, as a new and very large pear ripening at the end of October. It was a seedling from Beurré Capiaumont and is very hardy, robust and free, and quite distinct in growth and fruit.

Autumn Bergamot (English), 1. Pom. Mag. 3:120, Pl.1830. 2. Lindley Guide Orch. Card. 352. 1831.
The English Autumn Bergamot or Common Bergamot is a distinct variety and not synonymous with the Bergamotte d'Automne of France. Writing in the early part of the eighteenth century, Switzer stated, and his statement was endorsed by Lindley in 1831, that the Autumn Bergamot was introduced into England in the days of Julius Caesar, that it was possibly the Assyrian Pear of Virgil, and was in that case to have been found in the "once celebrated and famous gardens of Alcinous."This is a doubtful conjecture, though without doubt the variety is of very ancient origin. Fruit small, globular-obtuse, yellowish-green, dull brown where exposed to the sun and profusely speckled with gray russet; flesh greenish-white, tender, melting, somewhat gritty at the core, juicy, and of a rich flavor; a dessert pear of first quality; Oct. Tree vigorous, prolific, forms a handsome standard and succeeds on either quince or pear.

Autumn Colmar. 1. Lindley Guide Orch. Card. 363. 1831. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 487. 1884.  De Bavay. 3. Mas Le Verger 3: Pt. 1, 175, fig. 86. 1866-73. 4. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:184, fig. 1867.
This seedling of Van Mons was described in 1830 in the London Horticultural Society's Garden as a new Flemish pear. It was received there from Van Mons without a name and so became known in the collection as Autumn Colmar from a fancied resemblance of its flavor to that of the old Colmar. Fruit large, obtuse-pyriform, rounded at the base, lemon-yellow, strewed with dots and patches of russet; flesh coarse, sweet, juicy, astringent, rather gritty at the core; second; Sept. and Oct.

Autumn Joséphine. 1. Jour. Hort. N. S. 20:29, fig. 1871. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 488. 1884.
Obtained from seed of Joséphine de Malines by W. E. Essington, Ribbesford House, Bewdley, Eng. It first produced fruit in 1869. Fruit large, obovate-obtuse-pyriform; somewhat flattened at the crown, greenish-yellow when quite ripe, russeted in patches, flesh yellowish, with pale salmon tinge like that of Joséphine de Malines, tender, finegrained, very juicy, juice rich, sugary, aromatic; first, though a little uncertain; Oct.

Autumn Nelis. 1. Gard. Chron. 124. 1864. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 664. 1869. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 488. 1884.  Graham Autumn Nelis. 4. Jour. Hort. N. S. 5:331. 1863.
Raised from seed by F. J. Graham, Cranford, Eng., about 1852 and exhibited before the British Pomological Society in 1858 under the name Graham's Bergamot. It was granted a first class certificate from the Royal Horticultural Society. Prior to being placed on the market in 1863 it was renamed Autumn Nelis because of the similarity of the tree and fruit to Winter Nelis. Fruit rather above medium and equal to a large Winter Nelis, obovate-pyriform, greenish-yellow, almost entirely covered with brown-russet; flesh yellowish, very tender, melting and buttery, with abundance of rich, aromatic, sugary juice and having an exquisite flavor; a first class dessert fruit; Oct.

Avocat Allard. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:173. 1867. 2. Jour. Hort. N. S. 19:284, 328. 1870.
Raised from seed of Doyenné Gris in 1842 by M. Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel. Fruit small to medium, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, lemon-yellow, much marbled and spotted with russet; flesh yellowish-white and melting; juice very abundant, rich, spicy and very delicious; first rate for cooking; Oct. and Nov.

Avocat Nélis. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:173, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:47, fig. 312. 1880.
Originated from the seed beds of M. Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel., in 1846. Fruit medium, oblong-obovate-pyriform, compressed toward the summit, golden-yellow, dotted and veined with fawn or russet, slightly colored on the side of the sun; flesh whitish, semi-fine, semi-melting, juicy, apt to be gritty around the core, sweet and perfumed; second-rate; Jan. to Apr.

Avocat Tonnelier. 1. Rev. Hort. 19. 1893.
The parent tree of Avocat Tonnelier was raised at Nancy, Fr., about the year 1848. Fruit medium and above, globular-obtuse-pyriform, swelled at base, good yellow-orange at maturity, finely dotted with rose; flesh very dense, white, slightly tinted, melting or slightly breaking, juicy, very sugary, of sweet savor, rather recalling that of Bon Chretien d'Hiver; first for cooking; all winter.

Ayer. 1. U. S. D. A. Yearbook 428, PL 52. 1911.
Originated about 1880 from a chance seedling which sprang up in a vineyard owned by O. H. Ayer, Sibley, Kan. It came into bearing about 1888. Fruit medium, obovate, light greenish or pale lemon-yellow, frequently having a light scarlet blush on the exposed side, and numerous minute russet dots; flesh whitish or yellowish-white, fine, buttery, melting, juicy; very good; July and Aug.  [Distinct from 'Ayres' which originated in the University of Tennessee breeding program several decades later. http://trace.tennessee.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1167&context=utk_agbulletin -A.S.C]

Aylton Red. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 489. 1884.
A perry pear cultivated in Herefordshire, Eng., and described as "growing in popularity."Fruit small, globular, turbinate; skin covered with rough, russet dots.

Azerole. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:174, fig. 1867.
Azerole is an ancient pear though the date and the circumstances of its origin are unknown. Jean Bauhin mentioned it in his "Historia Plantarum "published in 1650. Fruit very small, oblong or turbinate, yellowish-orange, very finely dotted with fawn, and blushed on the cheek exposed to the sun; flesh yellowish, tender, fine, soft, perfumed, rather gritty around the core, juicy, sugary; third; Sept.


Baguet. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:15, fig. 200. 1879.
The origin of this pear is uncertain but a bulletin of the Society of Van Mons, 1866, placed the name of Baugniet in parenthesis, suggesting thereby that it was raised by M. Baugniet in Belgium. Fruit large to very large, oblong-obovate-pyriform, very bright green with grayish dots passing on ripening to bright lemon-yellow; flesh whitish, semi-fine, rather buttery, fair amount of sweet juice, acidulous, sprightly; of good quality when its acidity Is not too much developed; Nov. and Dec.

Bakholda. 1. Can. Hort. 17:291. 1894.
Described as a new Canadian variety in 1894. Fruit large; oblong, yellow; flesh subacid; middle season.

Baking. 1. Ragan Norn, Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:28. 1908.
Originated in Massachusetts; an old baking variety. Season late.

Baldschmiedler. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 74, fig. 1913.
A perry pear found in Switzerland and the Austrian Tyrol. Fruit small to medium, globular-conic, greenish changing at maturity to yellow, dotted and speckled with russet; flesh granular, white and aromatic; good for transportation; beginning of Oct.

Balduinsteiner Kinderbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:165. 1856.
Originated in Nassau, Ger. Published in 1806 by Diel. Fruit small; ovate, light straw-yellow changing to lemon-yellow at maturity, finely dotted, and russeted on the side next the sun; flesh firm, breaking, juicy, very musky; first for kitchen use and market; beginning of Oct. for two weeks.

Balosse. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:176, fig. 1867. 2. Le Bon Jard. 362. 1882.
For many centuries Balosse has been grown in France on the banks of the Marne, especially in the neighborhood of Châlons where there existed in 1862 a specimen which was considered to be more than 300 years of age. On account of its abundant crops yielded without cultivation, the tree has been a favorite with the farmers of France. Fruit moderate size, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, orange-yellow dotted with fawn, washed with dull red on the side to the sun; flesh whitish, coarse, breaking, gritty, juicy, saccharine; second for the table, first for the kitchen; Jan. to April.

Balsambirne, 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:15. 1856.
Raised from seed in the old German duchy of Franconia in 1801. Fruit medium, pyriform, yellow, blushed and russeted; flesh firm, juicy, mild and tender, musky; first for dessert and household; Aug.

Bankerbine. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 349. 1854.
Said to be of foreign origin. Fruit medium, obovate, greenish-yellow, with small, russet dots; flesh breaking, coarse; Oct.

Banks. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 45. 1866.
A seedling raised by Dr. S. A. Shurtleff, Brookline, Mass., which first fruited in 1863. Fruit 2¾ in. in diameter, turbinate, rich yellow, with sunny side bright red; flesh melting, juicy, very sweet, with much character; keeps remarkably for an early pear, valuable for its great beauty and fine qualities and time of ripening; Aug.

Baptiste Valette. 1. Guide Prat. 85. 1895.
Fruit medium; flesh white, buttery, very fine, melting, juicy; matures early in the season. Tree vigorous, fertile, and pyramidal in form.

Barbancinet. 1. Mag. Hort. 26:126. 1860. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:177, fig. 1867.
Found by Leroy in 1849 in the commune of Saulge-l'Hôpital, Maine-et-Loire, Fr., and was introduced by him in 1852. Fruit medium, long, slightly obtuse, irregular pyriform, contorted at the upper end, greenish, mottled and dotted with fawn, washed with rose on the side to the sun; flesh greenish, melting, fine, rather gritty around the core; juice sufficient, acidulous, saccharine, with a pleasant buttery flavor; first; Sept.

Barbe Nélis. 1. Mas Le Verger 2:63, fig. 30. 1866-73. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom, 1:178, fig. 1867.
M. Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel., obtained this variety in 1848. Fruit small to medium, globular-turbinate-obtuse, bright greenish-yellow dotted with gray and fawn, the basic green becoming lemon-yellow at maturity and washed with purple-red on the side exposed to the sun; flesh white, fine, very melting; juice saccharine, acidulous, and agreeably perfumed; first; Aug.

Barker. 1. Hooper W. Fr. Book 121. 1857.
An American variety introduced about 1856. Fruit medium, obovate, greenish-yellow; medium quality both for table and kitchen use; coarse; Sept. and Oct.

Barland. 1. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 414. 1831. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 489. 1884.
The parent tree of this variety grew in the parish of Bosbury, Hereford, Eng., and about 1830 was supposed to be 200 years old. It appears to have been extensively cultivated as early as 1674. Fruit small, obovate, dull green, much covered with gray russet; first class for perry; autumn.

Barnadiston. 1. Gard, Chron. 193. 1843. 2. Mag. Hort. 17:472. 1851.
The original tree grew in the grounds of Kedington Hall, Eng. The fruit was stated to be of good quality, and to keep till June, being about the size and form of a large Swan Egg. In September, 1851, Messrs. Hovey & Co. exhibited it at the twenty-third annual exhibition of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society.

Baron Deman de Lennick. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:179, fig. 1867. 2. Guide Prat. 108, 232. 1876.
The parent tree was raised in the grounds of the Society Van Mons at Geest-Saint-Rémy, Bel. In 1856 it was admitted by their pomological committee and was named after Baron Deman de Lennick. Fruit medium, globular, generally mammillate at summit, brilliant yellow, dotted and mottled with fawn; flesh whitish, a little coarse, melting, gritty around the core; juice excessively abundant, saccharine, vinous, acidulous, and delicately perfumed; second; Nov. and beginning of Dec.

Baron Leroy. 1. Garden 62:387. 1902. 2. Bunyard-Thomas Fr. Gard. 132. 1904.  Poire Baronne Leroy. 3. Rev. Hort. 61. 1889.
Raised from seed of Louise-Bonne de Printemps in 1859; first published in 1869 and placed in commerce in 1871. Fruit small to medium, globular-oval, dark green passing to bright yellow; flesh fine, white, juicy, very melting, sugary, with an agreeable flavor and perfume; first; Nov. and Dec.

Baron Trauttenberg. 1. Guide Prat. et2. 1876.
Fruit medium or rather large, globular, golden-yellow, spotted with russet; flesh rose-tinted, juicy, perfumed and of delicate flavor; first; Nov.

Baron Treyve. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 96. 1873.
Exhibited at the annual meeting of the Massachusetts--Horticultural Society, Aug., 3, by W. C. Strong, the President. Fruit medium, obtuse-pyriform, greenish-yellow, russeted with cinnamon; flesh juicy, melting, very sweet; good to very good; medium early season; shows a disposition to rot at the core.

Baronne de Mello. 1. Mas Le Verger 3:Pt. 2, 137, fig. 165. 1866-73. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:180, fig. 1867.
A variety said to have been raised by Van Mons about 1830. Fruit rather large, globular-turbinate, tapering on one side with a dipping curve toward the stalk, sometimes the surface is bossed but generally even; color yellow-green, dotted with gray and mottled with russet; flesh yellowish-white or greenish, semi-fine, semi-melting, gritty at the center; juice very abundant, sugary, rich, vinous, delicately acid; first; Oct.

Baronsbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:143. 1856. 2. Oberdieck Obst-Sort. 242. 1881.  Baron d'hiver. 3. Guide Prat. 82, 232. 1876.
Gröningen, Saxony, 1819. Fruit rather large; globular-conic, uneven, light yellow changing to golden-yellow, finely dotted; flesh breaking, fine, often semi-melting, sweet, highly aromatic; third for dessert, first for culinary use; Jan. to April.

Barry. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:181. 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 665. 1869.
This variety was found in his nurseries but was not originated by Leroy, Angers, Fr. It bore fruit first in 1851 and was then dedicated to P. Barry, Rochester, N. Y. Fruit medium to large, long, nearly cylindrical, narrowed toward the stalk, contorted, greenish-yellow, dotted, streaked and stained with fawn, washed with bright red on the side next the sun; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, rather gritty at the center, extremely juicy, saccharine, vinous and deliciously perfumed; first; Oct. and Nov.

Barseck. 1. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 175. 1890.  Bar Seckel. 2. Can. Hort. 16:184. ^93-  Columbia. 3. Chase Bros. Cat. 15. 1907.
Originated with Jacob Moore, Brighton, N. Y., as a cross between Bartlett and Seckel. Tree hardy, vigorous, productive; fruit above medium in size, oblong-pyriform; skin yellow shaded with bright red; flesh juicy, melting, with a pleasant vinous flavor; quality good; Aug. and Sept.

Barthélemy du Mortier. 1. Guide Prat. 85. 1895.
Sent out by M. Daras de Naghin in 1886. Fruit large and handsome; flesh buttery, juicy, sweet, with a fine aroma; first; Nov. Tree moderately vigorous, holding its fruit well.

Bartram. 1. Mag. Hort. 5:395. 1839. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 667. 1869.
A chance seedling which originated in the grounds of Miss Ann Bartram, Philadelphia. Fruit rather large, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, pale lemon-yellow, with numerous russet dots and occasional russet markings on the side; flesh white or greenish-yellow, fine grained, melting, rich, slightly vinous; very good; Sept.

Bartranne. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:18, fig. 1867.
Believed to have originated in the garden of the Horticultural Society of Angers, Fr., date unknown. Fruit small, globular, obtuse-pyriform, very irregular; bright yellow, sprinkled with russet dots, and often stained with large patches of fawn; flesh white, fine, juicy, melting, containing some grit around the core; juice excessive, not much sugar or flavor; third; Aug. arid Sept.

Baseler Sommer-Muskatellerbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:34. 1856.
Raised in Switzerland, 1809. Fruit medium, globular-ovate, tender skin, of a uniform yellow-green, dotted with green, often flecked with russet; fresh semi-melting, tender, aromatic; first for table, culinary uses and market; July.

Basiner. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:155, fig. 558. 1881. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 491. 1884.
Raised by M. J. de Jonghe, Brussels, in 1845 etnd first produced fruit in 1857. Hogg, the English pomologist, described it as "one of the best very late pears I have met with."Fruit medium, globular-turbinate, greenish-yellow much covered with pale cinnamon-brown russet, distributed in patches, particularly around the stalk and in dots which are interspersed with green dots over the surface; flesh yellowish-white, fine-grained, breaking, sweet, saccharine, wanting in perfume; good for kitchen use and recommended on account of its extraordinarily long season, spring into the summer.

Baudry. 1. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:234. 1903. 2. Ont. Dept Agr. Fr. Ont, 147. 1914.  Bon Chretien Fred Baudry. 3. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 44. 1893.
Listed as a promising winter pear in Ontario, Can. Fruit large, oblong-pyriform, yellowish with russet patches; flesh yellow, tender, granular at the center, juicy, sweet, with a pleasant flavor; quality good; Feb. and Mar.

Beacon. 1. Ellwanger & Barry Cat. 20. 1892. 2. Bunyard-Thomas Fr. Card. 132, 456. 1904.
Fruit medium, long-ovate, very regular, smooth and shining, pale green, some russet, turning yellow, with a brown cheek; flesh firm, sweet; not first, but passable for its season; late July.

Beadnell. 1. Gard. Chron. 692. 1852. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 357. 1854.
Raised by John Beadnell, West Green Road, Tottenham, Middlesex, Eng., and fruited for the first time about 1840. Fruit below medium, turbinate, even and regular in outline, bright green, with a dull red cheek where exposed to the sun; on ripening the basic green becomes yellow and the dull red crimson; where the two colors blend there are some stripes of crimson and on the colored side are numerous minute, gray dots; flesh melting, extremely juicy, sweet and richly flavored; a fine early pear; late Sept. but does not keep long.

Beau de la Cour. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:109, fig. 535. 1881.
Mentioned in the Bulletin of the Society Van Mons in 1855. Fruit small or nearly medium, globular-ovate, even in outline, light green covered with very numerous dark green spots changing at maturity to a brilliant pale yellow, though the spots remain green but less visible; the side next the sun is stained with vermilion; flesh coarse, dry, very saccharine, musky; good for cooking; Aug.

Beau Présent d'Artois. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:185, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:175, fig. 88. 1872.  Present Royal of Naples. 3. Mag. Hort. 4:395. 1838.
Prévost, who died at Rouen in 1849, wrote of this pear that he considered it identical with the Présent Royal de Naples which it is said obtained its name from the fact that the King of Naples about the end of the eighteenth century sent a number of these pears to Prince Charles of Württemberg to remind him to forward a promised white stag. Fruit large, by error classed by some as a Pound pear, oblong-obtuse-pyriform, greenish-yellow, covered with patches and dots of brown russet; flesh melting, juicy, sweet, and agreeably flavored and perfumed; first; Aug. and Sept.

Beaufort, 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 153. 1885. 2. Van Lindley Cat. 36. 1899.
Raised by Lucy Duke, Beaufort County, N. C, about 1884 probably from seed of Winter Nelis crossed with Bartlett. It is a twin of Lucy Duke, having been raised from seed of the same pear. Fruit medium to large, globular-obovate, dull green changing to yellow-green, russeted and dotted; flesh firm and sweet; first; late Oct.

Beauvalot. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:1, fig. 97. 1878.
This variety was obtained by M. Sageret from seed beds made from 1816 to 1820. Fruit medium, obovate-turbinate-pyriform; skin thick, rough to the touch, firm, intense green sown with spots of greenish-brown, at maturity turning more yellow and the side next the sun golden; flesh white, slightly tinged with yellow, fine, melting; juice sufficient, saccharine, but sometimes having little flavor; second; Nov.

Beier Meissner Eierbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:52. 1856.
Disseminated in Saxony and Bavaria in 1823. Fruit medium, ovate-acute, often ventriculous-conic, somewhat uneven, yellow-green changing to light yellow, no blush but often dotted with red; flesh coarse-grained, semi-melting, sweet, with a rose-water savor; third for dessert, first for household and market; early Sept.

Belle Angevine. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:188, 189, fig. 1867.
The Belle Angevine described by Leroy is a very beautiful pear, brilliant in color, of large size and handsome shape, but, unfortunately, not good for dessert and only second class for the kitchen. Properly Belle Angevine is a synonym of Pound or Uvedale's St. Germain, yet Leroy holds this Belle Angevine as distinct. [very susceptible to fireblight in North Carolina.  Also, fruit is largely green-skinned here, though it does make a lovely pink sauce or pie filling when cooked. -ASC]

Belle des Arbrés. 1. Guide Prat. 108. 1876. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 172. 1889.
Introduced by M. Houdin, Chetteaudun, Fr., about 1876. Fruit very large, of beautiful form, slightly washed with rose; flesh fine and smooth; first for cooking; Mar. to June.

Belle de Beaufort. 1. Guide Prat. 85. 1895.
Sent out by M. Louis Leroy of Angers and on trial with Messrs. Simon-Louis of Metz, Lorraine, in 1895. Tree fairly vigorous, a good grower. Fruit very large, of beautiful form and color; Oct. to Nov.

Belle Bessa. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 1:120. 1831. 2. Le Bon Jard. 363. 1882.
The editors of the "New Duhamel,"1825, said of this pear that it was of recent origin and as it had not been previously named they "dedicated it to M. Bessa as a testimony of satisfaction for the assiduity evinced by him in the completion of the designs of that work."In Le Bon Jardinier it is classed among pears "remarkable for their size."Fruit large, globular, the two extremities diminishing very perceptibly, especially that next the stem, very light green faintly approaching yellow at full maturity and interspersed by some small, russet specks; flesh somewhat firm, bland and agreeable, not highly flavored; Nov. to Dec.

Belle de Bolbec. 1. Guide Prat. 109. 1876.
A French pear on trial with Messrs. Simon-Louis of Metz, Lorraine, in 1876. Reported at that time to be rather large and of first quality, but in 1895 it was placed by the firm on their list of varieties of doubtful or small merit; Oct. to Nov.

Belle et Bonne de Hee. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 135. 1841. 2. Mag. Hort. 8:165. 1842.
Fruit medium; flesh melting and perfumed; of superior excellence; ripens at Paris in Sept.

Belle et Bonne de la Pierre. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:197, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:81, fig. 233. 1879.
This variety was obtained by M. A. de la Farge, Salers, Fr., at the foot of the mountains of the high Auvergne; it first bore fruit in 1861. Fruit medium, sometimes rather large, globular or ovate, with protuberances, always larger on one than on the other side, yellow-ochre dotted with gray and some stains of brown russet; flesh whitish, fine, melting, scented, without grit; juice sufficient, acidulous, extremely saccharine, full of delicate flavor; first; Nov. and Dec.

Belle de Brissac. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:192, fig. 1867.
Jean-Henri Benoist, Brissac near Angers, Fr., obtained this variety from seed in 1832 or 1833. Fruit medium to large, oblong, extremely obtuse and ventriculous, always having one side more enlarged than the other, with pale yellow skin, thick and rough to the touch, dotted with russet and much covered with brown patches; flesh white, semi-fine, breaking, rather gritty; juice sufficient, saccharine, acidulous, perfumed; second for dessert, first for cooking; Feb. to April.

Belle de Bruxelles sans Pepins. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:193, 194, fig. 1867.
Notwithstanding its name this variety is not certainly of Belgian origin. It was known in Normandy at the beginning of the nineteenth century under the name Fanfareau. In Germany it was cultivated before 1789 where it was called Grosse-Bergamotte dEHe. It appears most probably to have been of German origin. Fruit large and sometimes medium, spherical, depressed at both poles, generally more swelled on one side than on the other, yellow-green dotted and streaked with russet; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, interspersed with greenish specks, slightly gritty at the center, free from seeds or core; juice sufficient, saccharine, acidulous, slightly musky; second for the reason that it so easily becomes soft; Aug. and Sept.

Belle de Craonnais. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:195, 196, fig. 1867.
This variety originated in the neighborhood of Craon in Mayenne, Fr. It was listed in the collection of the Horticultural Society of Angers in 1848, and in the following year was propagated for commerce by A. Leroy. Fruit large but sometimes smaller, oblong-pyriform, irregular, obtuse, golden-yellow, sown with gray dots more numerous and larger on the side next the sun; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, juicy, rather gritty about the core; juice abundant, sweet and musky, without much savor; second for the table, first for cooking; Dec. to March.

Belle de la Croix Morel. 1. Guide Prat 83. 1876.
Mentioned in the Revue Horticole of 1868. Fruit large, pyriform-ventriculous, greenish-yellow; flesh semi-melting, juicy, of an agreeable flavor; first; Dec.

Belle de Décembre. 1. Guide Prat. 103. 1895.
A very large and superb fruit; good to eat raw but first class for cooking. Listed as a new variety in 1895.

Belle de Féron. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:198. 1867.
Probably originated in the town of Feron near Avesnes, Fr., and was considered to be a new fruit by the Horticultural Society of Angers in 1840. Fruit large to very large, globular-turbinate, bossed, one side always more swelled than the other, yellowish-green, dotted with gray, and stained with patches of brown-russet; flesh white, coarse, semi-melting; juice sufficient, fresh, sugary, vinous, and with a very agreeable tartness; second; Oct. and Nov.

Belle du Figuier. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:199, fig. 1867.
Raised from seed in 1860 by M. Robert, Angers, Fr., and submitted to the Horticultural Society of Maine-et-Loire in December, 1861, when it was declared excellent. Fruit above medium, ovate, regular in form, but with protuberances, often depressed at the base, greenish-russet, rough to the touch and covered with well-marked fawn dots; flesh fine, white, very melting and very juicy, saccharine, acidulous, aromatic; first; Dec. and Jan.

Belle-Fleurusienne. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:200, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 493. 1884.
Raised by M. Alexandre Bivort in 1849 at Saint-Rémy, Bel. Fruit medium, obtuse-pyramidal; skin smooth and somewhat shining, greenish-yellow, the whole surface being thickly strewed with large russet dots and specks, and washed with rose on the side next the sun; first; Dec. to Feb.

Belle Fondante. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 454. 1857.
Originated by Robert Manning, Salem, Mass. Fruit medium, pyramidal-turbinate; skin pale yellow, clouded with green, irregularly patched with russet especially around the eye; flesh juicy, buttery, very fine grained, rich, with some astringency; Oct.

Belle de Forêts. 1. Guide Prat. 83, 234. 1876.  Esperén Waldbirne. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 212. 1889.
Fruit medium, pyriform, bright green; Sept. and Oct.

Belle de Guasco. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:57, fig. 125. 1878. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:202, 203, fig. 1867.
Cultivated in the garden of the Society of Van Mons in Belgium but did not originate there. It was sent out from there to France for further distribution in 1853. Fruit medium, oblong-obtuse-pyriform, lemon-yellow, greenish on the shaded side and washed with vermilion on the side exposed to the sun; flesh white, fine, melting, juicy, vinous, acid; third; late Aug. and early Sept.

Belle Guérandaise. 1. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 143, fig. 1906. 2. Rev. Hort. 136, Pl.1907.
M. Dion, Guerande, Fr., sowed in 1869 a bed of mixed seeds from which he obtained the variety here described. It first fruited in 1893 and was placed on the accepted list by the Pomological Society of France in 1904. Fruit large, ovate, lemon-yellow, often covered with fawn; flesh fine, very saccharine, juicy, with a slight perfume of orange blossom; good; Oct. and Nov.

Belle Hugevine. 1. McIntosh Bk. Card. 2:459. 1855.
Fruit large and handsome; of excellent quality; Mar. and April.

Belle Isle d'Angers. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 494. 1884.
Fruit medium, globular-oval, almost entirely covered with a coat of greenish dark brown russet which is very fine and smooth to the touch and covered with large, gray dots; on the shaded side the greenish-yellow ground-color is exposed, covered with large, russet dots; flesh white, rather coarse, semi-buttery, very juicy, sweet and slightly perfumed; second or third; Dec.

Belle d'Ixelles. 1. Mag. Hort. 26:218. 1860. 2. Guide Prat. 83. 1876.
First reported by Millet. On trial with the Society Van Mons in 1860. Fruit large, golden-yellow skin; flesh very melting and perfumed; Oct.

Belle de Juillet. 1. Guide Prat. 109. 1876.
Gained by M. Lampe at Pecq, Bel., about 1870, and reported to be superior to all other early pears and in particular to Beurré Giffard; fruit handsome and delicious, ripening about mid-July.

Belle Julie. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 350. 1854. 2. heroy Dict. Pom. 1:204, 2O5; fig- 1867.  Alexandrine Helie. 3. Guide Prat. 81. 1876.
Raised by Van Mons and fruited first in 1842. Fruit medium, long-obovate-pyriform, greenish-yellow, much patched and netted with russet, dotted with bright fawn; flesh rather greenish-yellow, coarse, semi-melting, juicy, sugary, vinous, with a fine perfume; first; Oct. and Nov.

Belle de Kain, 1. Guide Prat. 83. 1876.
On trial with Messrs. Simon-Louis of Metz, Lorraine, in 1876. Fruit large, pyriform-truncate, brilliant lemon-yellow; flesh semi-melting; a good market variety.

Belle de Lorient. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:205, 206, fig. 1867.  Belle de VOrient. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 668. 1869.
This variety was growing in the old garden of the Horticultural Society of Angers about 1835, and probably originated in the environs of Lorient, Fr. Fruit large, oblong-ovate-pyriform, bossed at the summit, greenish-yellow, dotted all over with large and numerous specks of fawn; flesh wanting in fineness, half-breaking, white, gritty, fairly juicy, without perfume, sourish; second for the kitchen; Sept. and Oct.

Belle de Malines. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:207, fig. 1867.
Received by Leroy, Angers, Fr., from Belgium in 1863 as a new variety and without statement of its origin. Fruit medium, turbinate-obtuse, ventriculous, having one side larger than the other, bright yellow, dotted, streaked and stained with russet, washed with delicate rose on the side next the sun; fresh dull white, semi-fine, melting, gritty at center; juice sufficient, sweet, fresh, saccharine, musky; first; Aug. and Sept.

Belle de Martigny. 1. Mag. Hort. 8:431. 1842.
Exhibited by Mantel at the first annual meeting of the New York Horticultural and Floricultural Society, held in New York, September, 1842. One fruit of this variety was reported as weighing 9 oz.

Belle-Moulinoise. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:208, fig. 1867.
Raised from seed by Groler-Duriez, Lille, Fr.; it was placed on the market in 1864.

Fruit large, oblong-obtuse-pyriform, somewhat ventriculous and bossed, greenish, rough to the touch, spotted with russet, washed with dark rose on the side next the sun; flesh whitish, fine, firm, scented, breaking, juice extremely abundant, saccharine, musky, with a delicious flavor; first; Feb. and Mar.

Belle de Noisette, 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:17, fig. 393. 1880.
A French pear of unknown origin. Fruit large, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, short and thick, attaining its greatest breadth around its center; skin thick and rather rough, at first green sown with dots of grayish-brown, numerous and scattered regularly; at maturity the green passes into lemon-yellow and the side next the sun is clouded with red; flesh white, rather fine, breaking, with a small amount of sugary juice, acid and slightly perfumed; suited only for culinary purposes; keeps well through the winter; the tree is equally vigorous on quince or pear stock.

Belle Picarde. 1. Rev. Hort. 156, PI. 1888.
Originated in the village of Charmes, Aisne, Fr., in the middle of the last century. Fruit large to very large, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, orange-red and speckled especially on the sunny side; flesh white, melting, very sugary; juice rather abundant, sweet and of a pleasant flavor; good for dessert but specially recommended for cooking; being large and attractive in appearance is well adapted for the market; Dec. to June.

Belle Rouennaise. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:210, fig. 1867. 2. Jour. Hort. N. S. 19:328. 1870.
Raised from seed by M. Boisbunel, Rouen, Fr. It gave its first fruit in 1856. Fruit medium, long-pyriform, bossed around calyx, sides unequal; color greenish-yellow, dotted with russet, veined with fawn around the stem and often covered with russet markings; flesh semi-fine, white, juicy, melting, gritty at the core, refreshing, sweet, acid, possessing a delicious flavor; first; Aug. and Sept.

Belle de Stresa. 1. Guide Prat. 58. 1876. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:213. 1879.
A wild seedling found at Stresa, on Lake Maggiore, Italy. Fruit nearly medium, ovate, rather short and thick, or pyriform, olive-green, washed with dark brownish-red on the side next the sun; flesh buttery, melting, juicy, saccharine, and with a delicate and refreshing perfume; handsome and of first quality; late Aug.

Belle Sucré. 1. Guide Prat 83. 1876.  Schöne Zuckerbirne. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 280. 1889.
Published in Germany previous to 1876; origin unknown. Fruit large, variable in form; of a beautiful lemon-yellow, almost entirely washed with red; flesh semi-melting, very saccharine; Sept. and Oct.

Belle de Thouars. 1. Gard. Chron. 979. 1860. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:212, 213, fig. 1867.
Probably originated at Thouars, Fr. About 1839 the Horticultural Society of Angers received a pear called Coulon de Saint-Marc which was propagated under that name, but was proved to be identical with Belle de Thouars. It was subsequently propagated and sold by a nurseryman at Jersey, and acquired the name of Belle de Jersey. Fruit medium to large, long-obtuse-pyriform at both ends, somewhat bossed at summit; skin at first brownish-olive changing to a ferruginous brown as the fruit approaches maturity, somewhat rough, with russet dots; flesh white, firm, or half-breaking, with little juice and an acidulated, sugary flavor; good only for kitchen use; Nov. and Dec.

Belle Williams. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. no. 1862. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 669. 1869.
Of foreign origin, possibly English. Tree vigorous, very erect, hardy; young wood olive, slightly yellow, glossy. Fruit medium to large, oblong-pyriform, with a groove or sunken line from stem to calyx, yellowish, with marblings and tracings of russet; stem long, curved, set in a slight depression by a lip; calyx partially closed; flesh whitish, not juicy or rich; good for cooking; Dec. to Mar.
[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

Bellissime d'Automne. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:214. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 496.  1884.
First mentioned by Merlet under the name of Belle-et-Bonne in 1675. It lost its original name and became known by that of Bellissime d'Automne. Fruit variable in size but more medium than small; long-acute-pyriform, occasionally slightly obtuse; skin smooth and shining, greenish-yellow, dotted with fawn on the shaded side and extensively washed with red-brown or fine, deep crimson on the side exposed to the sun, with stripes of the same color around the stalk; flesh white, fine, semi-melting; juice plentiful, sweet, with an aromatic flavor; second as a dessert fruit, but useful for culinary purposes; Oct.

Bellissime d'Hiver. 1. Duhamel Trait Arb. Fr. 2:234. 1768. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 496. 1884.
An old French pear described by Duhamel du Monceau in 1768. By some, Merlet is believed to refer to it in 1690 when writing of the Bellissime d'Hiver de Bur, but this latter is regarded by Leroy as synonymous with Belle Angevine. Fruit very large, larger than the Catillac, globular, turbinate, mammillate; skin smooth, thick, green changing to dark yellow, washed on the side of the sun with a beautiful tint of bright carmine, strewed all over with large brown-russet dots; flesh white, fine grained, crisp, tender, juicy, sweet, musky; one of the very best culinary pears; all the winter till May.

Belmont. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:171, fig. 470. 1880. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 496. 1884.
An English cooking pear raised about the year 1840 by T. A. Knight, Downton Castle, Eng. Fruit medium, globular-oval, even and regularly shaped; skin rather rough to the touch, covered with a coating of somewhat rough russet except on the shaded side where it is greenish-yellow, and marked with patches and dots of dark-brown russet; on the side next the sun it shows a coppery-red glow; flesh yellowish, rather coarse, sugary, vinous, finely flavored like Swan Egg; almost first; Oct. and Nov.

Beman. 1. Can. Hort. 26:14. 1903- 2. Ibid. 28:219. 1905.
Originated at Newcastle, Ontario, Can., by E. C. Beman. Tree productive. Fruit large, juicy and delicious; Oct. and Nov.

Benadine. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:109. 1856.
Raised from seed at Oberlausitz, Ger. Published in 1821. Fruit medium, pyriform, medium ventriculous, yellow, sprinkled all over with spots of yellow-ochre; flesh white, buttery, melting, juicy, delicate and full of aroma; first for dessert; Sept.

Benoist Nouveau. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 367. 1859. 2. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:34. 1908.

Distributed by Ellwanger & Barry of Rochester, N. Y., about 1850 as a new foreign variety. Fruit medium, globular-obovate, greenish-yellow with brown cheek, dull russet marblings and indistinct brown specks; flesh breaking, juicy, rather astringent; requires careful ripening; Feb. to April.

Benoit Caroli. 1. Guide Prat. 103. 1895.
Introduced by Daras de Naghin, Antwerp, Bel., as a new variety in 1895. Fruit medium yellow, finely dotted, washed with reddish-brown on the cheek exposed to the sun; flesh white, greenish toward the upper part, buttery, almost melting, saccharine and pleasantly perfumed; Dec.

Bensell. 1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:34. 1908.
Originated by a Mr. Bensell, Philadelphia. Fruit large, globular, yellow; flesh buttery, sweet, juicy, acidulous; late.

Benvie. 1. Mag. Hort. 9:130. 1843. 2. Hogg. Fruit Man. 497. 1884.
A dessert pear adapted to the climate of Scotland where in some districts it produces immense crops of excellent fruit. Fruit small, obovate, yellow-green, sometimes tinged with dull, dingy red on the side next the sun, almost entirely covered with thin, delicate gray russet and thickly strewed with russety dots; flesh yellowish, buttery, juicy, perfumed; good; Aug. and Sept.

Béquesne. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:220. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 497. 1884.  The origin of this ancient pear is unknown, though Henri Heissen, a German author, describing it in 1690 called it the Béquesne of Anjou. Fruit medium to rather large and handsome, long-obtuse-pyriform; skin of a fine bright golden-yellow on the shaded side, encrimsoned on the side next the sun, strewed all over with russet dots which give it a rough feel; flesh white, dry, semi-breaking, sweet, slightly perfumed, gritty round the core; an excellent cooking pear; Oct. to Jan.

Bergamot de Chantilly. 1. Brookshaw Pomona 2:PL XLVIII. 1817. 2. Brookshaw Hort. Reposit. 1:63, Pl.31. 1823.
A variety known in Covent Garden Market, London, in 1823. The fruit was classed as superior and fetched 9 pence apiece. Size medium, roundish-obtuse-pyriform, yellow with some blush on the side next the sun; flesh buttery, of excellent flavor; Sept., not a keeping pear.

Bergamot Louvain. 1. Mag. Hort. 21:185. 1855.
Fruit medium, globular, yellow, with russet specks; on the sunny side the specks are red, some blotches of russet; flesh white, tender, rather dry, with a pleasant flavor; Oct.

Bergamot Seckel. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 671. 1869.
Raised by William Pitmaston, Eng. Fruit medium or below in size; roundish, regular; color reddish-brown, dotted with russet; flesh white, juicy. sugary, having all the spicy flavor of the Seckel.

Bergamot Winter. 1. Langley Pomona 131, Pl.67. 1729.
Included in Langley's list of the best kinds of pears in England in 1729. Fruit medium, globular-obtuse; Sept.

Bergamote Arsène Sannier. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 174. 1889. 2. Baltet Cult. Fr. 343. 1908.

Probably of French origin. Fruit medium or rather large, globular-oblate, or onion-shaped, water-green clearing on maturity to Indian-yellow, clouded with ochre; flesh fine, melting, juicy, saccharine, slightly acidulous, with a characteristic aroma; first; Jan. to Mar.

Bergamote d'Automne Panachée. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:225, fig. 1867.  Bergamotte Suisse. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 505. 1884.
A variegated form of the French Bergamotte d'Automne. Merlet, who described it in 1675 in his Abrégé des bons fruits, named it Bergamote Suisse, indicating thereby the country of its origin. Fruit medium, roundish and flattened, somewhat inclining to turbinate, regular, and having the summit always a little mammillate, color olive-yellow, occasionally slightly tinged with dull red, spotted all over with large, fawn dots, and beautifully striped longitudinally with large bands of brownish-green passing into bright green on the side shaded from the sun; flesh white, melting and buttery, sugary, acidulous; first; Oct. and Nov.

Bergamote Balicq. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 174. 1889.  Bergamotte Ballicq. 2. Guide Prat. 85, 223. 1895.
Belgian. Fruit medium; flesh white, fine, semi-melting, juicy, saccharine; first; Dec. and Jan.

Bergamote Boussière. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:227, fig. 1867.
Raised by Van Mons and fruited for the first time in 1844. Fruit above medium, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, regular, greenish-yellow, dotted and veined with fawn and clouded with reddish-brown around the stem; flesh whitish, half-fine, melting, very gritty around the core; juice abundant, vinous, sugary and slightly aromatic; second; Oct. to Dec.

Bergamote Hamdens. 1. Langley Pomona 131, Pl.65, fig. 3. 1729.
Fruit medium, oblate; Aug. and Sept.

Bergamote de Hollande Panachée. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:245. 1867.  Amoselle panachée. 2. he Bon Jard. 363. 1882.
Of interest on account of the curious variegation of its fruit and wood. The fruit differs from that of the Bergamotte d'Holland in the variegated green brown of its skin; flesh deficient in juice and wanting in delicacy and leaves an unpleasant taste behind; second for cooking; Dec. to April.

Bergamote Philippot. 1. Baltet Cult. Fr. 370. 1908.
Described by Baltet as, "A beautiful fruit, grey and bronzed; good for stewing."

Bergamote Rose. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:256, fig. 1867.
This curious variety was raised by A. Bivort from seed beds in the garden of the Society Van Mons and first bore fruit in 1848. It is endowed with so pronounced a scent of rose that the producer hoped from it and another variety called Parfum de Rose it might be possible to create a new class of pears. Fruit small, oblate, bronze, strewed with grayish-white dots, some brownish stains, scaly; flesh white stained with carmine, scented, rather coarse, breaking, seldom gritty; juice sufficient, saccharine, having an odor and flavor similar to that of roses; third; Jan. and Feb.

Bergamotte d'Anvers. 1. Guide Prat. 85. 1895.
Introduced by Daras de Naghin of Antwerp (Anvers), Bel. Fruit medium or rather large, true Bergamot shape, green changing to yellow at maturity; flesh white; fine, buttery, sweet and well perfumed; Dec.

Bergamotte d'Automne. 1. Duhamel. Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:165, PI. XXI. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:223, fig. 1867.  Rote Bergamotte. 3. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 271. 1889.
Authorities fail to agree on the origin of this pear, Benedictus Curtius, a Florentine author writing in 1536, thought it had birth at Bergamo in Lombardy. But in 1644, Jean Bodaeus, a Dutch physician, in his translation of the Historia Plantarum of Theophrastus, states that the Bergamote came from Asia, whence the Romans had imported it to Italy and that it was known to them as the Pirum Regium or pear of Kings. If it originated in Asia, the probability is that its birth-place was Pergamum, a village of Asia Minor between the Ægean and Marmora seas. This view was accepted in the eighteenth century by such authorities as Lacour, Henri Manger and Menage, and later by Leroy. Fruit medium; variable but usually globular-oblate, greenish-yellow, dotted and striped with russet, flesh whitish, fine, melting, generally gritty, sweet, savory; first; Oct. to Jan.

Bergamotte Bouvant. 1. Guide Prat. 103. 1895.
Listed as a new variety in 1895. Fruit medium; flesh fine, melting, juicy, well sweetened and pleasantly perfumed; Apr. and May.

Bergamotte Bufo. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:228, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 498. 1884.  Kroten Bergamotte. 3. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 244. 1889.
Le Lectier says this pear was cultivated at Orléans in 1628 under the name of Crapant or Toad on account of the rough character of its skin. It was also known in Germany in 1690 under this latter name and as Oignon rosat by reason of its shape and the perfume of its juice. In 1846 in France, because of the supposed inelegance of the word "crapant,"its name was changed to Bufo, the Latin name of a toad. Fruit above medium, globular-oblate, even and regular like a true Bergamot; skin rough, dark yellow, dotted and marbled with fawn and usually also bearing some large brown stains; flesh white, melting, fine; juice sufficient, vinous, acidulous, sugary, savory, recalling the scent of the rose; excellent dessert pear; late Oct.

Bergamotte Bugi. 1. Langley Pomona 131, PL 46. 1729. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:9, fig. 293. 1880.  Bergamote du Bugey. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:229, fig. 1867.
This is a pear of ancient and uncertain origin. It has a large number of synonyms. Claude Saint-Etienne, writing in 1660, and La Quintinye, in 1690, two of the best describers of this pear, each called it by the name Bugi. Its synonym, Pera Spina, attributed to Merlet, appears to indicate an Italian origin to it. Fruit medium and sometimes larger, globular-turbinate, generally very regular, clear olive-green, covered with large, fawn dots intermingled with brownish patches; flesh yellowish-white, semi-melting, semi-fine, seldom gritty; juice sufficient, sprightly, saccharine but occasionally acid, with some perfume; second for dessert, first for cooking; Feb. to Apr.

Bergamotte de Coloma. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 499. 1884.
Fruit below medium, globular-obovate; skin greenish-yellow, becoming bright yellow when it ripens, and with a pale tinge of red on the side next the sun, the whole surface covered with large, pale, brown-russet dots, with patches of russet around the calyx and stalk; flesh yellowish-white, fairly juicy, rather gritty, with a brisk but not rich flavor; quality inferior; late Oct.

Bergamotte de la Cour. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2 176. 1856.
Belgian, 1828. Fruit fairly large, globular-flattened, uneven in form, light green turning to light lemon-yellow, often rather blushed with brownish-red on the sunny side, without any scent; flesh melting, delicate, very juicy; very good for the table, second for kitchen.

Bergamotte de Darmstadt 1. Guide Prat. 76, 236. 1876. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:25, fig. 205. 1879.
Germany. Probably it obtained its name from having been raised in the suburbs of the city of Darmstadt. Fruit rather small or nearly medium, globular or globular-cylindrical, and equally obtuse at both ends, yellow-green all over; flesh buttery, juicy, with a Bergamot scent; first; Nov.

Bergamotte de Donauer, 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:119, fig. 252. 1879.
This pear was found in a garden in the suburbs of Coburg, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Ger. Fruit medium or large, globular-obtuse, sometimes a little conical, and often somewhat irregular in outline, very light green, dotted with fine points and with some brown-yellow spread around the summit and the calyx; flesh white, half-fine, buttery or half-buttery, juicy, sweet, a little vinous; quality only second; Sept.

Bergamotte Double. 1. Guide Prat. 83, 236. 1876.
Fruit medium, nearly round, greenish-yellow; flesh semi-melting, juicy; first; Sept. and Oct.

Bergamotte Dussart. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 6:39, fig. 1857. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 670. 1869.
Obtained at Jodoigne, Bel., by Dussart, a gardener; published in 1829. Fruit medium, obovate-pyriform, yellow-ochre, with gray dots and traces of russet; flesh white, melting, juicy, vinous, sugary, acidulous and aromatic; first; Dec. to mid-Jan.

Bergamotte Esperén. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 5:75, fig. 1857.  Bergamotte df Esperén. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 670. 1869.
Raised from seed about 1830 by Major Esperén, Mechlin, Bel. Of his many pears this was the most valuable. It is a most delicious late pear and a good successor to Winter Nelis. Fruit medium, frequently above, round, flat at base, mammillate at summit, and often bossed near stalk; skin rough to the touch, dull greenish-yellow, dotted with russet, streaked with russet around the stalk and often marked with blackish stains; flesh yellowish, fine-grained, quite melting, very juicy and sugary, with a pleasant aroma; mid-Feb. to April.

Bergamotte Esperén Souvenir de Plantieres. 1. Guide Prat. 83. 1895.
Produced by Simon-Louis Bros., nurserymen, Metz, Lorraine. The foliage of this variety is margined with yellow and does not scorch from the sun. The tree is not vigorous.

Bergamotte d'Été;. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:161. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:237. 1867.  Summer Franc Réal. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 344, fig. 141. 1845.
Bergamotte d'Été; is of ancient and unknown origin. Le Lectier wrote of it in 1628 as cultivated under the name of Milan de la Beuveriere. Fruit medium, globular-turbinate or globular, bossed, narrowed towards the top which is usually mammillate, pale green slightly yellowish on the shaded side and tinted with tender rose color on the cheek exposed to the sun, and dotted all over with fawn; flesh whitish, semi-fine, melting, rarely very gritty; juice abundant, rather tart, saccharine, with a very savory flavor; first; Aug. and Sept.

Bergamotte d'été de Lubeck. 1. Guide Prat. 83, 237. 1876. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:97, fig- 337- 1880.
This variety is very much grown in the environs of Lubeck, Ger. Fruit medium, nearly round, color at first of a water-green, nearly covered with a russet of gray-brown; when ripening the russet brightens and some dots of whitish-gray become visible; flesh yellowish-white, fine, compact, buttery, rather gritty near the core, sugary and juicy; first; Aug. and Sept.

Bergamotte Fertile. 1. Guide Prat. 83, 237. 1876.
A Van Mons seedling; Belgium, 1828. Fruit medium, globular-turbinate, symmetrical, uniform light lemon-yellow all over, russeted; skin scentless; flesh granular, melting, sweet, aromatic; second for dessert, first for kitchen and market; late Sept.

Bergamotte la Gantoise. 1. Guide Prat. 85. 1895.
Raised from seed of the Bergamotte Esperén, which it surpasses in size and quality, by Dervaes Bros., Wetteren, Bel. Fruit large, generally round; color green sprinkled with brown dots, passing into yellow on ripening; flesh white, very melting, juicy, slightly perfumed; first; Feb. and Mar.

Bergamotte Heimbourg. 1. Mag. Hort. 21:189. 1855. 2. Mas Le Verger 3:Pt. 2, 159, fig. 176. 1866-73.
A seedling of Van Mons. Reported for the first time in 1847. Fruit medium, globular-conic; skin rough to the touch, olive-yellow, dotted, veined and stained with russet and slightly washed with pale red on the cheek exposed to the sun; flesh whitish, fine, melting, rather gritty at center; juice sufficient, acidulous, sugary, delicately perfumed; first; Oct.

Bergamotte Hérault. 1. Guide Prat. 8$. 1895. 2. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 151, fig. 1906.
Obtained from seed in 1860 by M. A. Hérault, Angers, Fr. First fruited in 1870. Fruit large, altho sometimes only medium in size, irregular roundish-obconic and angular in outline; stem short to medium, thick and fleshy, usually obliquely inserted in cavity; calyx small, open or semi-closed; skin rather glossy, pale yellow, dotted with red; flesh whitish, slightly gritty at the center, fine-grained, melting, juicy, sweet, with delicate aroma; very good; Dec. and Jan.

Bergamotte Hertrich. 1. Guide Prat. 61, 237. 1876. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:7, fig. 292. 1880. 3. Jour. Hort. 3rd Ser. 2:43, fig. 9- 1881.
Raised from seed of Fortunée by Herr Hertrich, a merchant at Colmar, Ger. It fruited first in 1853 and was placed in commerce in 1858. Fruit below medium, Bergamot-shaped, inclining to roundish-turbinate or obovate, even in outline, furrowed at stalk, grass-green ground seen through much ash-gray russet, with some brownish tinge on the side next the sun; flesh yellowish, with a greenish tinge under the skin, fine, melting, rich flavor, juicy and aromatic; delicious and a good keeper.

Bergamotte-d'Hiver de Furstenzell. 1. Guide Prat. 84, 237. 1876.
Probably of German origin. Fruit large, conic-obtuse, yellow, lightly washed with red; flesh very juicy; Oct. to Dec.

Bergamotte d'Hollande. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:170. 1768. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 430. 1845.
Origin ancient and uncertain, but as the first name by which it was known was Bergamote d'Alençon, pomologists have deemed it to be French. Fruit medium and often larger, globular-flattened; olive-green turning as it ripens to clear yellow, dotted and streaked with russet, washed with brown on the side of the sun; flesh white, rather gritty, coarse-grained, semi-breaking, pleasantly flavored; second for the table but good for cooking; March to June.

Bergamotte Jars. 1. Mas Le Verger 3:93, fig. 45. 1866-73.
Raised by M. Nérard, near Lyons, Fr. Fruit small or nearly medium, oblate, shaped very much like an apple, much depressed at base and summit, pale yellow; flesh buttery, white, fine, melting, rich in sugar, and well perfumed and vinous; altogether first class; Nov.

Bergamotte de Jodoigne. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:246, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 502. 1884.
Raised from seed by M. Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel., in 1853. Fruit below medium or small, Bergamot-shaped, slightly mammillate at the summit, flat at base, yellow, sprinkled all over with russet dots, the yellow passing to orange on the side next the sun; flesh yellowish-white, fine, melting, rather gritty at center, juicy, sweet, and with an agreeable perfume; its greatest merit is its long keeping; Mar. to May.

Bergamotte Klinkhardt. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:149, fig. 459. 1880.
Raised by Van Mons and entered in his catalog for 1823. Fruit small or medium, globular-ovoid, sometimes ovoid-pyriform, usually a little irregular in outline; skin slightly thin and tender, dull green with some indistinct dots, traces of russet irregularly disposed, but more condensed about the base and summit; flesh white, rather fine, buttery, melting, with abundant sugary and perfumed juice; first class except that it ripens too quickly; early Oct.

Bergamotte Laffay. i, Mas Pom. Gen. 3:157, fig. 175. 1878.
Origin uncertain, though it is not unlikely that it was raised by M. Laffay, a nurseryman at Paris. Fruit small or nearly medium, globular-ovate-obtuse, green, sprinkled with very numerous small, dark-green spots; flesh white, tinged with green, fine, melting, a little gritty at the center, full of juice, saccharine, acidulous, wanting in perfume; second, but keeps well; all winter.

Bergamotte Lesèble. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:246, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:47, fig. 120. 1878.
A chance seedling found in a vineyard by Narcisse Lesèble, President of the Horticultural Society of Tours, Fr., in 1843. Fruit medium, globular-turbinate, swelled, obtuse, bossed at summit, golden-yellow, dotted with fawn, showing some russet markings and lightly washed with pale rose on the side turned to the sun; flesh whitish, rather coarse, melting, slightly gritty around the core; juice extremely abundant, sugary, agreeably perfumed leaving an after-flavor of anis; first; Oct.

Bergamotte Liabaud. 1. Guide Prat. 86. 1895.
Obtained by M. Liabaud. On trial with Simon-Louis Bros, of Metz, Lorraine, in 1895. Fruit above medium, globular-flattened, yellow-green, washed with gray-fawn on the side exposed to the sun; flesh white, fine, melting, saccharine, vinous; Nov. and Dec.

Bergamotte Mica. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 502. 1884.
Fruit above medium, globular, rather like a small Easter Beurré, greenish-yellow, covered with freckles and dots of cinnamon-colored russet; flesh coarse-grained, gritty, wanting in flavor; inferior; late Nov.

Bergamotte de Millepieds. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:249, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:107, fig. 150. 1878.
Raised by M. Goubault, near Angers, Fr. First reported in 1852. Fruit medium, globular-ovate or sometimes globular-pyriform, olive-green, sprinkled with brownish dots and streaked with fawn around the calyx and stem, changing to pale yellow, with a glow on the side next the sun; flesh white, tender, buttery, melting, richly flavored; first; Sept. in Fr.; Nov. in America.

Bergamotte Nicolle. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:149, fig. 555. 1881.
Raised from seeds of Flemish Beauty in 1849 by M. Nicolle, a member of the Society of Horticulture of Rouen. Fruit medium, globular, attaining its greatest circumference around the middle, depressed at each pole, bright green sprinkled with distinct red dots, some russet patches; flesh white, slightly yellowish, fine, very melting; juice abundant, saccharine, perfumed; first; Oct.

Bergamotte Œuf de Cygne. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:55, fig. 508. 1881.
Fruit medium or rather large, globular, more or less depressed at both base and summit, regular in outline, largest circumference around the middle, bright green, sprinkled with gray or greenish-gray dots; flesh white, tinted and veined with yellow, fine, melting, rather gritty about the core, with abundant, sweet juice, delicately perfumed; first; Oct. and Nov.

Bergamotte d'Oisan. 1. Horticulturist 13:189. 1857.
Published in England in 1857 in the London Illustrated News, and described as a large pear weighing between two and three pounds, found in Algeria, and exhibited in London.

Bergamotte de Parthenay. 1. Pom. France. 4:No. 146, Pl.146. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:5, fig. 483. 1881.
A chance seedling found in a wood on the outskirts of Parthenay, a town in the Department of Deuz-Setvres, Fr. Fruit large, globular-turbinate, obtuse, often irregular in outline, greatest circumference around the middle, dull green, sprinkled with large, fawn dots, regular and evenly spaced, changing to greenish-yellow and more golden on the side next the sun; flesh white, semi-fine, semi-melting; juice fairly abundant, saccharine and without perfume, often astringent; first for cooking.

Bergamotte Picquot 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 671. 1869. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:131, fig. 162. 1878.
A French pear of uncertain origin. Fruit medium, globular-conic, very clear green changing to yellow, sprinkled with numerous indistinct dots of grayish-brown; flesh white, fine, buttery, melting, juicy, sugary; good, first if its season were more prolonged; Oct.

Bergamotte Ploskui. 1. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 61. 1880.
A variety grown on the Northern plains of the steppes of Russia where the summer is fully as dry and hot as that of Iowa and the winter far more severe. On trial at the College Farm, Ames, Iowa, in 1880. It seems to unite well with the apple when root- or top-grafted.

Bergamotte Poiteau. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:21, fig. 107. 1878.  Poiteau (des Français) 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:538, fig. 1869.
This variety came from a seed bed made by M. Poiteau, Fr., and was first reported in 1851. Fruit medium, globular-obtuse, irregular in outline, golden yellow, sown with very numerous and extremely fine gray and brown dots, generally washed with dull red on the side next the sun; flesh very white, fine, melting, watery; juice very saccharine, slightly acid and musky, agreeable; first; Oct.

Bergamotte Pomme. 1. Guide Prat. 84. 1876.
Fruit rather large, globular-oblate, dull yellow; flesh very juicy, vinous; first; Oct. and Nov.

Bergamotte du Quercy. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:113, fig. 57. 1872.
Mas obtained grafts of this pear about 1847 from the Duke of Arenberg; he had seen a quotation from Van Mons catalog of 1823 in which it was described. Fruit medium or nearly medium, nearly globular, rather obtuse at the two ends, regular in outline, attaining its greatest thickness at the middle; skin slightly thickened, very pale green, sown with very small, brown dots scattered irregularly; flesh quite white, fine, firm yet melting, streaming with sweet juice, more or less perfumed according to the season; end of Sept.

Bergamotte Reinette. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:254, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:93, fig. 143. 1878.
Raised by M. Boisbunel, nurseryman at Rouen, Fr., who introduced it in 1857. Fruit small, Bergamot-shaped; skin at first bright green, marked with large, russet patches but changing to yellow as it ripens; flesh half-tender, with abundant sweet juice which has a brisk acidity, like the Reinette apple; quality hardly first-rate and variable, but to be recommended for its early and long season; late Aug.

Bergamotte de Rouen. 1. Guide Prat. 84. 1876.
Fruit large; recommended as being of good quality by the Society of Horticulture oi Rouen; April to June. The tree is vigorous and fertile.

Bergamotte Rouge. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:162, PI. XIX, fig. 6. 1768.  2. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 334. 1831.
This pear is of ancient and unknown origin. It was mentioned by Le Lectier in 1628, Merlet in 1675, and Duhamel in 1768, but without history. Fruit rather large, globular, acute-pyriform, irregular, mammillate at calyx, greenish-yellow, washed with brownish-red on the side next the sun, and marked with stripes of the same color, the whole covered with fine, delicate, cinnamon-colored russet, sprinkled with large, gray dots; flesh white, coarse, melting, gritty; juice sufficient, with a slight musky perfume, sugary; first for both table and kitchen; Sept.

Bergamotte Rouge de Mayer. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:189, fig. 287. 1879.
Sent out by M. Jahn of Meiningen; it has a strong resemblance to the Bergamotte Rouge of Duhamel. Fruit medium, sometimes pyriform-ovoid, and sometimes turbinate-ovoid, bright green, sprinkled with numerous very small dots of blackish-gray; on ripening the ground-green passes into dull yellow, sometimes colored with intense blood-red on the side next the sun; flesh whitish, coarse, half-melting, with not much juice, sugary, little perfume; of beautiful appearance, and recommended for household use; Aug.-Sept.

Bergamotte Sageret. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 671. 1869. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:129, fig. 353- 1880.
M. Sageret obtained this Bergamotte from seed; he first reported it in 1830. Fruit medium, nearly spherical, symmetrical in outline; skin rather fine and thin, water-green, sprinkled with very many and prominent, large dots becoming when ripe more yellow and the cheek next the sun golden; flesh white, fine, buttery, rather gritty near the core; juice sufficient, not very saccharine, deficient in perfume; a good second-rate dessert pear; Oct. to Jan.

Bergamotte Sanguine. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:65, fig. 225. 1879.
Entered in catalog of M. Jahn, 1864. Fruit medium or nearly medium, globular-turbinate, regular in contour, greatest circumference around middle, slightly pointed at base, obtuse at summit; color dull water-green, generally covered with a thick coating of a dark reddish-violet which on ripening assumes a more vivid tone on the side next the sun; flesh white, speckled with red, coarse, semi-melting, gritty at the core, not much juice; only second; interesting for amateurs on account of its remarkable color of violet red so dark as to be almost black; Sept.

Bergamotte Sannier. 1. Guide Prat. 53. 1895.
Produced by M. Arsetne Sannier, Rouen, Fr. It is said to have resisted the severe freeze in France in the winter of 1879-80. Fruit medium in size, globular-conic; color green; flesh semi-fine, melting, juicy and of delicious flavor; first; end of winter and spring.

Bergamotte Silvange. 1. Mas Le Verger 3:Pt. 1, 65, fig. 31. 1866-73.  Silvange. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:664, fig. 1869.
Bergamotte Silvange was found in the woods of the Metz district, Lorraine, about the middle of the eighteenth century. The fruit is very variable in form and quality so that writers have been led to speak of three sorts of pears called Silvange the yellow, the long, and the green. Fruit medium, globular-turbinate or obovate or of Bergamot shape; skin rough, bright green on the shaded side, darker where exposed to the sun, sprinkled with large, gray dots and stained with dark patches; flesh tinged with greenish-white near the center and yellowish-green near the skin, tender and melting, full of perfumed juice, saccharine, acidulous and possessed of an exquisite flavor; first; Oct. and Nov.

Bergamotte de Souchait. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:99, fig. 434. 1880.
Of uncertain origin, though Mas suggests that it may have been raised in Germany. Fruit medium, globular-ovate, pale green, strewn with large, brown dots and stained with some patches of russet; on ripening the basic green becomes lemon-yellow and warm gold, the side next the sun being washed with vermilion on which are some grayish dots; flesh yellowish, half-tender, half-breaking, dry, sugary and highly perfumed with musk; second or third; July and first of Aug.

Bergamotte de Soulers. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:168, PI. XLIV, fig. 1. 1768. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 504. 1884.  Bonne de Soulers. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:487, fig. 1867.
This pear is an old French dessert fruit the first mention of which was by Merlet in 1675 who described it as a species of winter Bergamotte of good flavor and long keeping. Fruit medium, long-obovate, almost oval; skin smooth, shining, pale greenish-yellow, covered with dots of fawn and faintly tinged with brick-red on the side next the sun; flesh white, tender, melting, free from granulations, juicy, saccharine, slightly acidulous, with a characteristic and pleasant flavor; in France, of first quality and considered superior to Easter Beurré; in England only second, being too tender for the climate; Jan. to Mar. or Apr.

Bergamotte de Stryker. 1. Mas Le Verger 3:Pt. 1, 69, fig. 33. 1866-73. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:261, fig. 1867.
This variety is generally attributed to M. Parmentier, Enghien, Bel. Fruit small, globular, slightly flattened at the base and mammillate at the summit, yellow-ochre, finely dotted with bright gray and stained with russet patches; flesh yellowish, tender, semi-melting and very full of juice which is watery, sweet and pleasantly aromatic; first in France, second in England; end of Sept. and Oct.

Bergamotte Suisse Rond. 1. Knoop Fructologie 1:86, 134, Pl.1771.
This pear resembles the ordinary Autumn Bergamot except in color which is green at first, becoming yellow as it attains maturity, streaked with yellow and red. Sept. and Oct.

Bergamotte Tardive Collette. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 176. 1889. 2, Guide Prat. 86. 1895.
Raised from a seed of Doyenné d'Alencon previous to 1870 and judged by the Horticultural Society of Rouen, Fr., to be of good quality; Apr. to end of June.

Bergamotte Thuerlinckx. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:149, fig. 171. 1878.
This pear was distributed by the Society Van Mons in whose bulletins it was published in the years 1857-58-60 and 1862, though without any statement as to its origin. Fruit medium or nearly medium, globular-turbinate, obtuse, of largest circumference at center, very pale green, sprinkled with numerous very small points of fawn; on ripening the basic green changes to very pale yellow, whitish and usually a little golden on the sunny side, without any trace of red; flesh quite white, half-fine, half-melting, without grit at the core, very juicy, sugary and perfumed; good; Oct.

Bergamotte de Tournai. 1. Guide Prat. 84, 238. 1876.  Buerre Vert de Tournai. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:438, fig. 1867.
Obtained by M. Dupont, at Tournai, Bel., from pips of Glou Morceau in 1830. Fruit large, globular-ovate, bossed at summit, olive-green passing into pale green on the shady side, covered with gray-russet dots; flesh greenish-white, semi-fine, melting, juicy, sugary, sweet, without any pronounced aroma; second quality; Oct. and beginning of Nov., often extending to Dec.

Bergamotte de Tournay. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:35, fig. 402. 1880.
Obtained from seed by M. du Mortier, president of the Horticultural Society of Tour-nay, Fr., and approved by the Society in 1857. Fruit rather small, ovoid, short and swelled, obtuse at the summit, bright green, and sprinkled with dots of a very rich green; flesh yellowish, tender, buttery, melting, rather granular near the core; juice abundant, richly sugared and perfumed; first; beginning of Sept.

Bergamotte Volltragende. 1. Oberdieck Obst-Sort. 242. 1881.
German. Fruit turbinate-obtuse, typical Bergamot, smooth skin, yellowish-green turning to golden-yellow, without russet; flesh whitish, soft and melting, often half-melting, agreeable and sweet and of Bergamot flavor; good for the table and very good for the kitchen; mid-Sept.

Bergbirne. 1. Losehnig Mostbirnen 60, fig. 1913.
A perry pear growing in the mountains of Switzerland and the Austrian Tyrol. Fruit small to medium, turbinate-obtuse, greenish-yellow, much sprinkled with russet speckles and dots; flesh yellowish-white, almost fine; first half of Oct.

Bergen. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 453. 1857. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:143, fig. 72- 1872.
A chance seedling found at New Utrecht (now part of Brooklyn), L. I. Fruit large, elongated-obtuse-pyriform, sides often not symmetrical, angular; skin smooth, waxen, lemon-yellow flushed with crimson and fawn where exposed to the sun and thickly sprinkled with brown and crimson dots; flesh whitish, veined with yellow, buttery, melting, juicy, with a sweet, aromatic flavor, delicately perfumed; good to very good; end of Sept.

Berlaimont. 1. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 132. 1825.
Belgium; a Van Mons seedling; 1825. Fruit large, ventriculous-conic, bossed, yellow-green, with dull blush, with numerous green-brown dots; flesh buttery, juicy, mild and tender; first for table and household use; mid-Sept.

Bernard. 1. Gmd. Chron. 511. 1863. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:262, fig. 1867.
A French pear, probably originated in the middle of the last century, for it was growing at Lyons in 1855. Fruit below to medium, globular, mammillate and deeply depressed at both base and crown, golden-yellow, dotted and veined with fawn, slightly tinged with pale rose where exposed to the sun; flesh white, fine, melting; juice abundant, sugary, tart, very delicate and savory; first; Nov. to Feb.

Berriays. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:263, fig. 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 692. 1869.
M. Boisbunel, Rouen, Fr., raised this variety from seed in 1861. Fruit medium, sometimes larger, oblong, ventriculous, obtuse, bossed; color pale lemon-yellow, thickly sprinkled with greenish-russet dots; flesh very white, melting, juicy, rather gritty around the core, refreshing, sweet, acidulous, with a delicate aroma; first; Aug. and Sept.

Bertrand Guinoisseau. 1. Guide Prat. 84. 1876.
Bertrand Guinoisseau was obtained by M. Flon, Angers, Fr., in 1868, and was first exhibited in the United States by Colonel M. P. Wilder. Fruit rather large, globular-oblate; skin smooth, yellow; flesh fine, very melting and excessively juicy; first; end of Nov.

Berzelius. 1. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 132. 1825. 2. Dochnahl Führ, Obstkunde 2:187. 1856.
Attributed to Van Mons. Fruit below medium, short-conic, bossed and uneven, lemon-yellow, densely spotted and partly covered with russet, thick skinned; flesh yellowish-white, firm, coarse grained, sweet, rather musky; third for the table, good for culinary and market purposes; early summer.

Besi de Caen. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:264, fig. 1867.
The word Besi or Bezy is of Breton origin and signifies a wild pear. Fruit medium, turbinate-obtuse, often distorted and generally more swelled on one side than the other, green, strewn with russet dots and touched with fawn around the stem; flesh white, semi-fine, perfumed, juicy, melting, rather gritty around the center; first; beginning of Mar. to end of Apr.

Besi de Caffoy. 1. Miller Gard. Dict. 3. 1807.
A wilding discovered in the forest of Caffoy, Britanny, Fr. Fruit small, oblong, yellowish, spotted with red; flesh melting; juice very rich; Dec. and Jan. The fruits are produced in large clusters at the extremity of the shoots.

Besi-Carême. 1. Guide Prat. 84, 238. 1876.
On trial with Simon-Louis Bros, of Metz, Lorraine, in 1876. Fruit large to very large; flesh melting; first; Mar. to May.

Besi Dubost, 1. Mas Le Verger 1:29, fig. 13. 1866-73. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:268, fig. 1867.
Obtained from a seed of Echasserie by M. Pariset, Curciat-Dongalon, Fr. It first bore fruit in 1845. Fruit medium, turbinate, very obtuse and swelled, generally a little bossed, golden-yellow, dotted and striped with russet; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, juicy, gritty around the core; second; Jan. to Mar.

Besi Esperén. 1. Mas Le Verger 3:91, fig. 44. 1866-73. 2, Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:271, fig. 1867.
Obtained by Major Esperén, Mechlin, Bel., about 1838. Fruit medium to large; form varies from long turbinate-obtuse-pyriform to obovate-pyriform, with contorted outline, greenish-yellow, dotted all over with bright russet and occasionally washed with a deep tinge of red; flesh white, buttery, melting, juicy, sugary, perfumed; first, but does not keep long; Nov. and Dec.

Besi Goubault. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:272, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 506. 1884.
Raised by M. Goubault near Angers, Fr., and submitted to the notice of the Horticultural Society of Maine-et-Loire in 1846. Fruit large or sometimes medium, globular, bossed, flattened at the base, mammillate at the summit, with sides unequal, greenish-yellow, dotted and streaked with russet; flesh very white, very fine, melting, containing some small grits around the center; juice extremely abundant, saccharine, perfumed and having a delicate and agreeable flavor; first; Sept. to Nov.

Besi de Grieser de Böhmenkirsch. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:93, fig. 335. 1880.
Said to have been obtained in the Swabian Alps, S. W. Ger. Fruit nearly medium, ovoid-pyriform, obtuse, bright green, sprinkled with very small and numerous gray dots; flesh white; fine, buttery; juice sufficient, sugary, and delicately perfumed; good; Aug.

Besi d'Héry. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:139. 1768. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 506. 1884.  Kummelbirne. 3. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:7. 1856.
A wilding discovered in the forest of Héry or Héric in Brittany in the sixteenth century. The Bretons presented a basket of this fruit to King Henry IV on his visit to Brittany in 1598. Fruit medium, globular; skin thin, very smooth, bright green at first, changing when it ripens to pale yellow, with blush of red on the side next the sun, strewed with very minute points; flesh white, fine, semi-melting, generally gritty; juice sufficient, sweet, with somewhat of a Muscat perfume; first-rate cooking pear; Oct. to Jan. A good bearer in rich soil.

Besi Liboutton. 1. Field Pear Cult. 278. 1858. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:277, fig. 1867.
Origin uncertain, but it was cultivated in the garden of the Horticultural Society of Angers, Fr., in 1844. Fruit medium, globular, regular in form, resembling an apple, deeply depressed at either pole, green turning slightly yellow at maturity, sprinkled with large dots and some fawn-colored stains; flesh white, fine, semi-melting, gritty; juice sufficient, sugary, vinous, rather pleasantly perfumed; second; mid-Aug. to mid-Sept.

Besi de Ma1. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:278, fig. 1867.
Raised by J. de Jonghe, Brussels, from a seed bed made in 1845. Fruit large, obovate, rather uneven and irregular in its outline, bossed, greenish, streaked and dotted with brown fawn; flesh fine, white, melting, rather gritty; juice sufficient, sugary, acid, richly flavored; first; Apr. and May.

Besi de Moncondroiceu. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:65, fig. 321. 1880.
According to Oberdieck, this variety was brought to him from the Chateau of Herrenhausen near Hanover. Fruit small, globular-ovoid, or irregularly round, often higher on one side than on the other, pale green, sown with points of gray-fawn; flesh whitish, semi-fine, melting, a little granular about the core, juicy, sugary, not much perfume; quality good but unstable, depending much on the season; Oct.

Besi de Montigny. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:207, Pl.XLIV, fig. 6. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:279, fig- 1867. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 701. 1869.
The origin of this pear is ancient and uncertain. The monks of the Chartreuse at Paris, however, propagated and described it in 1752 and Duhamel du Monceau again wrote of it in 1768. Fruit medium, obovate but variable, one type being pyriform, ventriculous; color greenish-yellow, smooth, shining, sprinkled with exceedingly fine dots of fawn and russeted around both stem and calyx; flesh white, tender, buttery, semi-melting, gritty around the core; juice abundant, saccharine, acidulous, having a pleasant, musky flavor; first; end of Sept. occasionally to Nov.

Besi de la Motte. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:206, Pl.XLIV, fig. 5. 1768. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 507. 1884.
First reported by La Quintinye, the creator of the fruit gardens of Louis XIV of France, as having been found by him at the end of October, 1685. Tree hardy, vigorous, a prolific bearer. Fruit above medium to large, globular, more swelled generally on one side than on the other, greenish-yellow or bright green, sprinkled with large russet dots; flesh whitish, fine, melting, buttery, slightly gritty; juice very abundant and full of sugar, savory and delicate; first; Sept. and Oct. and sometimes later.

Besi de Naghin. x. Guide Prat. et6. 1895.
On trial with Simon-Louis of Metz, Lorraine, in 1895. Fruit above medium, apple-shaped; in character it is an improvement on the Chaumontel but its flesh is less firm, finer and more piquant; its perfume is similar, and it has less bitterness than is often found in the older fruit; Jan.

Besi de la Pierre. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:283, fig. 1867.
A gain of A. de la Farge, Salers, Fr., from a bed of mixed seeds made in 1847. Fruit medium and often less, ovate, regular in form, slightly swelled and bossed, lemon-yellow, partly covered with dots, marblings, and stains of fawn especially around the eye and the stem; flesh whitish, semi-fine, melting; juice extremely abundant, saccharine, vinous, very delicate; first; all Oct. to mid-Nov.

Besi de Quessoy. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:285, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 508. 1884.  Bezy de Caissoy. 3. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:178, PL XXIX. 1768.
Merlet stated in 1675 that this variety was said to have been found originally in the forest of Quessoy near Saint-Brieuc. It was known locally as the Rousette or the Petit Boeuré d'Hiver and was propagated at the beginning of the seventeenth century. Fruit borne in clusters, small, globular or ovate; skin rough, yellowish-green, much russeted; flesh white, delicate, melting, gritty around the core, aromatic and savory; second; ripens in succession from Nov. or Dec. till Feb.

Besi de Saint-Waast. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:286, 287, fig. 1867.  Bezi Vaei. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 702. 1869.
Van Mons was of the opinion that the Besi de Saint-Waast originated at the Benedictine Abbey of Saint-Vaast, Fr. Fruit above medium, obovate, obtuse, narrowing toward the stalk but variable; skin thick, yellow, dotted with fawn, extensively washed with red-brown on the side exposed to the sun; flesh rather white, fine, semi-breaking, very juicy, rather gritty at the center, saccharine, acid, with a pleasant aroma suggestive of the Chaumontel; a first-class dessert pear in Europe but hardly more than a good second-rate fruit in this country; Nov. to Jan.

Besi SansPareil. 1. Guide Prat. 78, 240. 1876.  Besi Incomparable. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:275, fig. 1867.  Besi Sanspareil. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 702. 1869.
Bonnefonds mentioned this pear in 1651 under the names of San-Pair or Nonpareille, as also did Saint-Etienne in 1660 and Olivier de Serres in 1608. Introduced to this country about the year 1850. Fruit medium, spherical or globular-oval, generally rather symmetrical, lemon-yellow, slightly greenish, dotted and mottled with fawn, blushed with brownish-red on the side exposed to the sun; flesh white, semi-fine, rather melting, very juicy, vinous, saccharine, sourish, having an extremely agreeable aroma; first; Oct. to Feb.

Besi Tardif. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:288, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:57, fig. 509. 1881.
Raised in 1845 by M. Goubault, Angers, Fr., this variety was described in 1846, and in 1847 was declared by the Horticultural Society of Maine-et-Loire to be worthy of cultivation. Fruit medium or below, globular, bossed, greenish-yellow, dotted, and russeted; flesh white, fine, melting, slightly gritty around the core; juice abundant, sugary, astringent; third or sometimes second; Nov. to Feb.

Besi de Van Mons. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:53, fig. 315. 1880.
A Belgian variety, cataloged in 1864 by M. Jahn. Whether it was obtained by Van Mons or merely dedicated to him is unknown. Fruit small, globular-conic, more or less short, regular in outline, bright green, sown with numerous small, gray-green spots; flesh white, rather granular, buttery, a little gritty at the core, with abundant, sweet juice, acid, distinct perfume; good; Nov.

Besi des Vétérans. 1. Mas Le Verger 1:127, fig. 62. 1866-73. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:289, fig. 1867.  Veterans. 3. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 716. 1897.
Raised from seed by Van Mons about 1830. Fruit large, turbinate, clear yellow, very much dotted with grayish-brown specks of different sizes; flesh white, semi-melting, fine, buttery, with sufficient sweet juice, slightly acid; second for dessert, but first for stewing; ripens in Oct. and lasts occasionally even till Apr. The tree is a prolific bearer.

Besi de Vindré. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:291, fig. 1867.
Was cultivated in the garden of the Horticultural Society of Angers in 1838. Fruit small, globular, rather more swelled on one side than on the other, greenish-yellow, dotted with russet and streaked with russet about the calyx, and marked with brownish-fawn about the stem; flesh whitish, semi-fine, semi-melting and containing some grits around the core; juice sweet, not acid, rather savory; second; Oct.

Besi de Wutzum. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:119, fig. 540. 1881.
Of uncertain origin. Fruit rather small, globular, regular in contour, largest circumference around center, forming short point at stem, pale green, sown with many fawn dots; on ripening the green changes to pale yellow and the sun-exposed side becomes golden and washed with red; flesh white, tinted with yellow, semi-fine, melting, rather gritty about the center, juicy, sugary; second; Oct.

Bessemianka. 1. Mont. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 53, fig. 1881-2. 2. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 83. 1882. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 40. 1909.
A Russian variety recommended for cultivation by the American Pomological Society. It grows in Europe from the Gulf to the Volga as far north as Moscow and Kazan and is the most widely-known and most largely-grown pear in central Russia. J. L. Budd says, "This is beyond all doubt a true hybrid with a wild pear of Russia as the parent tree. The name means seedless, and it is rare, indeed, that more than the rudiment of a seed can be found."Tree upright; leaves large, dark, thick, very slightly crenate, almost entire, stands aridity well. Fruit large, round-obovate, greenish-yellow, with some russety-brown; flesh gritty at the core, juicy, with few or no seeds, mild, pleasant; early Oct.

Best Favorite. 1. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 178, 186. 1896. 2. J. V. Cotta Cat. 12, fig. 1898.
Prom Winnebago County, 111. Fruit medium, bronze-yellow, melting, juicy; good; ripening in Sept.

Bettina. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:124. 1856.
A seedling of Van Mons, first published in 1851. Fruit medium, conic or ventriculous-turbinate, acute, symmetrical in contour, green changing to lemon-yellow, dotted and flecked with russet, often covered with russet; flesh yellowish-white, very fine, excellent; first for dessert; Oct.

Betzelsbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:194. 1856.
A perry pear grown in Austria and Germany. Fruit rather large, globular, diminishing acutely to the stalk, grass-green, sprinkled with dark gray spots; flesh greenish-white, dense, juicy; very good for household use and perry; suitable for long-distance transport; Jan. to Apr.

Betzy. 1. Baltet Cult. Fr. 404. 1908.
A small, French fruit, good for market and household use, for cooking, preserving, or the making of wine.

Beurré Adam. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:292, fig. 1867.
A rather poor French dessert pear known for 250 years. Fruit below medium, oblong-obtuse-pyriform, dark greenish-yellow, fawn, dotted with russeted, and washed with carmine on the cheek next the sun; flesh yellowish, veined with pale green, melting, sweet, fairly juicy, acidulous and aromatic; second, apt to rot at the core when ripe; Aug. to Oct.

Beurré Ad. Papeleu. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 178. 1889. 2. Guide Prat. 86. 1895.
Raised from seed of Glou Morceau, and placed on the market by Dervaes Brothers, Wetteren, Bel., in 1888. Fruit long, bright green; flesh white, sugary, very melting; Mar.

Beurré d'Adenaw. 1. Guide Prat. 84. 1876.
Found in the garden of the Convent of Schwarzenbruck. Fruit large, rather uneven, yellow; flesh buttery and pleasantly perfumed; good; through the winter.

Beurré Alexandre Lucas. 1. Le Bon Jard. 358. 1882. 2. Jour. Hort. 18:216. 1889.
The parent tree was a wilding found in 1836 in a wood of the Department of Loir-et-Cher, Fr., and in foliage and growth much resembles Doyenné Boussock. Fruit large to very large, handsome, pyriform, clear green, dotted with maroon or chestnut-colored spots; flesh fine, melting, perfumed, juicy, in flavor superior perhaps to Doyenné Boussock; first; Nov. to Jan.

Beurré Allard. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:293, fig. 1867.
From the Horticultural Society of Maine-et-Loire whose Committee named it in 1852. Fruit below to medium, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, greenish-yellow, dotted and mottled with russet; flesh whitish, fine, soft, melting, not gritty, reddish under the skin, with very sugary juice, perfumed; first; Oct. and Nov.

Beurré Aman.de. 1. Lucas Tafelbirnen 117. 1894. 2. Guide Prat. 61, 228. 1895.
Raised by M. Sannier, Rouen, Fr. Fruit medium to large, variable in form, globular, narrowing toward the upper part and somewhat distorted near the stem, which is placed at right angles to the long axis of the fruit, bossed; skin fine, shining, greenish-yellow changing to a translucent canary-yellow; flesh white, very fine, altogether melting, and of a sweet, delicious and pronounced flavor of almond; Oct. and Nov.

Beurré d'Amanlis. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:294, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 509. 1884.
Pomologists differ as to the origin of this pear. Probably it takes its name from Amanlis, a village near Rennes, Fr. Fruit large, obtuse-pyriform, rather uneven in contour, bright green changing to yellowish-green, lightly washed with red-brown on the cheek exposed to the sun, dotted and marbled with fawn-russet; flesh greenish-white, fine, melting, tender, rich, very juicy, sugary, some acidity, agreeably perfumed; first; Sept. and Oct.

Beurré Ananas. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 510. 1884.
Fruit small, pyriform, regular in outline, yellow, with red blush on side next the sun, and streaks of crimson; flesh yellowish, semi-buttery, melting, very juicy and sweet, with a strong odor of musk; inferior; end of Oct.

Beurré d'Angleterre. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:197. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:297, fig. 1867. Angleterre. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 481. 1884.
The first description of this pear was given by Le Lectier, Orléans, in 1628. The probability is that it was imported to France by Le Lectier early in the seventeenth century from England. It is grown extensively around Paris for the supply of the markets where it it is in very general demand in September. Fruit medium, acute-pyriform, bright green-yellow, dotted very regularly with small, russet spots; flesh white, buttery, melting, very juicy, sugary and richly flavored; good dessert pear; Sept.

Beurré Antoine. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:180, fig. 572. 1881. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:299, fig. 1867.
Raised at Lyons, Fr., by M. Nérard, nurseryman, in 1822 from a bed of seeds of White Doyenné. Fruit about medium size, oblong-obovate-pyriform; color yellowish-green; flesh granulated, very melting, rich in sugar; early Sept.

Beurré Antoinette. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 7:61, fig. 1859. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:300, fig. 1867.
A gain of Alexandre Bivort at Geest-Saint-Rémy, Bel., in 1846. Fruit medium, sometimes larger, oblong-obtuse-pyriform; golden-yellow, dotted and mottled with brown, stained with fawn around the stem and often colored on the side next the sun; flesh greenish-white, semi-fine, semi-melting, gritty around the core; juice abundant, acid, sugary, aromatic; first; Oct.

Beurré Aqualine. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:116. 1856.
A seedling of Van Mons published in 1833. Fruit medium, long-obtuse-oval, light green turning to yellow-green, dotted with whitish-gray; flesh semi-fine, white, extremely juicy; first class for all purposes; end of Dec.

Beurré de l'Assomption. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:303, figs. 1867. 2. Pom. France 4: No. 166, PL 166. 1867.
M. Ruillie de Beauchamp, Goupillere, Nantes, Fr., obtained cions of a pear raised by an amateur. These grafts gave fruit in 1863. J. J. Thomas wrote briefly of it in the American Fruit Culturist in 1885. Fruit very large, pyramidal-obtuse, but rather variable, undulating and bossed, lemon-yellow, dotted and streaked with russet; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, juicy, slightly gritty around the core; juice abundant, saccharine, acidulous, vinous and delicately perfumed; first in France, rather disappointing in England; Aug.

Beurré Audusson. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:305, fig. 1867.
Raised from seed by Anne-Pierre Audusson, Angers, Fr., in 1833 or 1834. Fruit below medium, pyriform, slightly obtuse, even in contour, greenish, sprinkled with large dots of brown and blushed on the side next the sun; flesh semi-fine, whitish, rather melting, gritty at the center; juice sufficient, saccharine, having little flavor or perfume; third; end of Aug.

Beurré des Augustins. 1. Guide Prat. 87. 1895.
Originally described in the Pomone tournaisienne which is suggestive that the neighborhood of Tournai, Bel., was the place of its birth. Fruit medium, turbinate-obtuse; flesh buttery, very juicy; first; Nov. and Dec.

Beurré Aunénière. 1. Field Pear Cult. 277. 1859. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:308, fig. 1867.
Generally attributed to Van Mons. Fruit below medium and often small, conic-obtuse-pyriform, lemon-yellow, finely dotted with brown-russet, washed with bright rose on the side of the sun; flesh white, semi-fine, gritty at center; juice sufficient, sugary, agreeable; second; Oct. and Nov.

Beurré d'Automne de Donauer. 1. Mas Pom, Gen, 7:173, fig. 567. 1881.
Liegel said he had received this variety as having come from seed beds of Van Mons. Fruit medium, conic, regular in contour, bright green; flesh white, tinted with yellow, melting, abounding in rich, sugary water, vinous and pleasantly perfumed; first; Nov. and Dec.

Beurré d'Avoine. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:309, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:183, fig. 380. 1880.
M. Tuerlinckx, Mechlin, Bel., raised this variety. The date of its first fruiting is not known with certainty but it was probably about 1849. Fruit medium to rather large, oblong-cylindrical, irregular, flattened at base; color greenish-yellow, dotted with minute brown points; flesh white, coarse, generally gritty, very juicy, sugary; second as a dessert fruit but first for stewing.

Beurré d'Avril. 1. Rev. Hort. 66. 1911.
Raised from seed by Ernest Baltet and shown before the Pomological Society of France at Lyons in March, 1909; it received great praise. Fruit medium to large, globular-obtuse-pyriform, green changing to yellow on ripening; flesh color of fresh butter, fine and melting, sugary, perfumed, vinous; good; Mar. to May.

Beurré Bachelier. 1. Pom. France 2:No. 49, Pl.49. 1864. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 673. 1869.
This splendid pear was obtained by Louis-François Bachelier, commune of Cappelle-bourg, Canton of Bourbourg, Fr., in 1845. Fruit large, oblong-turbinate, very obtuse and swelled, mammillate at summit, greenish-yellow, with brown dots, russeted and streaked with fawn around the stalk; flesh white, fine, melting; juice very abundant, sweet, acid, vinous, delicate and aromatic; first; Oct. to Dec.

Beurré Backhouse. 1. Garden 52:309. 1898. 2. Ibid. 76:42, 54. 1912.
Raised by James Backhouse, York, Eng., about 1862. Fruit large, juicy and richly flavored; though larger it much resembles Beurré d'Amanlis; Sept. and Oct.

Beurré Bailly. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:311, fig. 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 673. 1869.
Raised from a seed bed of pips of a Doyenné made about 1836 by M. Bailly, a nurseryman near Lille, Fr. The parent tree first fruited in 1848. Fruit large, long, assuming generally that of the Calebasse, bossed, irregular; color golden-yellow, sown all over with greenish-gray dots and streaked with fawn around the calyx; flesh exceedingly white and fine, semi-melting, juicy, somewhat gritty around the core; juice abundant, sugary, lacking much perfume but delicate; first; Oct. and Nov.

Beurré Baltet Père. 1. Guide Prat. 109. 1876. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:47, fig. 504. 1881. 3. Garden 52:356, 397. 1897.  Baltet Senior. 4. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 171. 1889.
Obtained by Baltet Brothers, Troyes, Fr., about 1865. Fruit large, turbinate, yellowish-green; flesh very fine, melting, juicy and richly flavored; first, "there are few pears of better quality." (Gard. 52:356.) Oct. and Nov.

Beurré Baud. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:1, fig. 193. 1879. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 512. 1884.
Attributed to Van Mons. Fruit medium to small, obovate, lemon-yellow, thickly mottled with cinnamon-colored russet; flesh whitish, sometimes veined with yellow, fine, buttery, melting; juice abundant and sugary, agreeable but not a remarkable flavor; hardly first-rate; Oct.

Beurré Beauchamp. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 456. 1857. 2. Mas Le Verger 3:Pt. 1, 113, fig. 55- 1866-73.
Attributed by Van Mons in his catalog of 1823 to M. Beauchamp. Fruit medium to large; globular, bossed, pale yellow, dotted with fawn, strongly carmined on the side next the sun; flesh fine, white, excessively melting; juice sugary, perfumed, having a buttery flavor, delicate and agreeable; first; Nov.

Beurré Beaulieu. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 673. 1869.
Fruit globular-pyriform, greenish-yellow, very much russeted; flesh whitish, rather coarse, buttery, melting, vinous; good; Oct.

Beurré Beek. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:69, fig. 515. 1881.
Whether this variety originated in the outskirts of Beek, a town of the Rhine, or whether it came from the neighborhood of the town of Beek in the Pays-Bas is uncertain. Fruit medium, globular-ovate, obtuse, bright green, sown with numerous strongly marked gray-green dots, russeted at summit and base; flesh white, melting; juice abundant and sugary; third-rate for the table but quite useful for the kitchen; Sept.

Beurré des Béguines. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:314, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:133, fig. 163. 1878.
A posthumous gain of Van Mons at Louvain. Its first fruit was gathered in 1844. Fruit below medium size; oblate, more enlarged on one side than the other; skin entirely covered with a crust of cinnamon-brown russet; flesh greenish-white, rather coarse, very juicy and sweet, richly flavored, with perfume of the Seckel; quite a good pear; Oct.

Beurré Bennert. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 5:19, fig. 1857. 2.  Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:315, fig. 1867.
Obtained from the seed beds of Van Mons at Louvain subsequent to his death in 1842. It first bore fruit in 1846. Fruit medium, globular-obtuse-pyriform, sides uneven; color golden-yellow, striped, veined and stained with fawn, dotted with fawn around the stem and washed with reddish-brown on the side next the sun; flesh white, fine, melting containing gritty concretions around the core; juice abundant, acid, vinous, with delicate aroma; first, Dec. to Feb.

Beurré Benoist. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 360. 1859. 2. Mas Le Verger 3:Pt. 1, 35, fig. 16. 1866-73. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 674. 1869.
Found on a farm at Brissac, Fr., and propagated by Auguste Benoist about the middle of the last century. Fruit large, obovate-obtuse-pyriform; skin pale yellow-green strewed with dots and patches of pale brown-russet, the fundamental yellow-green passing, on ripening to bright yellow and the side well exposed to the sun often being tinted with orange-red; flesh white, fine-grained, melting, acidulous and very juicy, perfumed with a distinct Seckel aroma; first; Sept.

Beurré Berckmans. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:316, fig. 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 674. 1869.
Gained by Alexandre Bivort, Louvain, Bel. Fruit medium or above, long, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, yellow-ochre, generally covered with streaks and markings of fawn; flesh whitish, fine, very melting, seldom gritty; juice excessive, perfumed; refreshing and delicate; first; Nov. and Dec.

Beurré de Biseau. 1. Jour. Hort. N. S. 22:311, fig. 1872.
Raised by A. de Biseau d'Hauteville, Binche, Bel., and sent by him in 1871 to the Royal Horticultural Society of London where the Fruit Committee awarded it a first class certificate. Fruit above middle size, oblong, unshapely and undulating in its outline; skin entirely covered with a thick coat of smooth, dark cinnamon-brown russet; flesh yellowish, tender, buttery and sweet with a rich flavor and excellent bouquet; first; Apr. and May.

Beurré Blanc Doré. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:93, fig. 431. 1880.
The first description of this pear was given in 1839 by Dittrich; its origin is uncertain. Fruit medium, globular-conic, pale water-green, dotted with gray-brown, the green becoming at maturity a beautiful, warm, golden-yellow with the side next the sun washed with bright vermilion-red; flesh yellowish-white, semi-buttery, sugary and perfumed; good; Sept.

Beurré Blanc de Nantes. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:317, fig. 1867. 2- Mas Pom. Gen. 6:31, fig. 409. 1880.
According to Prévost, writing of this pear in 1845, it probably came from Brittany or Anjou. Fruit below medium, turbinate-ovate or turbinate-spherical, yellowish-green, dotted with gray, mottled with fawn, and occasionally slightly colored with tender rose on the side next the sun; flesh yellowish-white, coarse, gritty, semi-melting; juice rather deficient, saccharine, but wanting in flavor and generally acid; third; Aug. and Sept.

Beurré Boisbunel. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:318, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 514. 1884.
Raised at Rouen, Fr., from a bed of mixed seeds in 1835'by L. M. Boisbunel; first fruited in 1846. Fruit medium, turbinate-obtuse or obovate, greenish-yellow, some russet; flesh yellowish, tender, melting, and gritty; juice plentiful, sweet, little perfume, refreshing but generally rather harsh; second and often third; Sept.

Beurré Bollweiler. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:319, figs. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 514. 1884.
Raised by Baumann Brothers, Bollweiler, near Colmar, Alsace. Propagated in 1842. Fruit medium to large, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, golden-yellow, dotted with gray and brown and washed with tender rose on the side exposed to the sun; flesh very white, tender and melting; juice abundant, sugary, fresh, exceedingly savory; first; Mar. to end of May.

Beurré de Bordeaux. 1. McIntosh Bk. Card. 2:463. 1855.
Recommended in 1855 by Thomas Rivers, a well-known English authority, as a very productive standard; fruit of medium size and first quality; Oct.

Beurré Bourbon. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:322. 1867.
Raised by M. Parigot, a magistrate at Poitiers, Fr.; it came from a bed sown with various seeds in 1845. Fruit of first quality; Oct. and Nov.

Beurré de Brême. 1. Guide Prat. 86. 1895.
Published in Germany. Fruit small or medium, globular-turbinate, greenish-yellow; flesh fine, melting, juicy; first; Nov.

Beurré Bretonneau. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:322, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 515. 1884.
Raised by Major Esperén, Mechlin, Bel. Fruit large, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, greenish-yellow much covered with brownish-russet and washed with carmine on the side next the sun; flesh yellowish-white, semi-fine, semi-melting, juicy, acid, sweet, vinous, slightly perfumed; quality variable according to locality, but generally second rather than first; March to May.

Beurré de Brigné. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:93, fig. 47. 1872.  Poire des Nonnes. 2. Horticulturist 7:514. 1852. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:463, fig. 1869.
A wilding found in the commune of Brigné, Maine-et-Loire, Fr. It was introduced in 1832. Fruit below medium or medium, globular-oblate, bossed round the summit, pale yellow shaded with tender green, sprinkled with large, gray-russet dots and some brownish stains; flesh whitish, very fine, melting; juice exceedingly abundant, saccharine, acidulous, having a musky perfume, delicious; first; Sept.

Beurré Bronzé. 1. Mas Le Verger 3#.Pt. 1, 57, fig. 27. 1866-73. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:324, figs. 1867.
Raised by Van Mons at Louvain and published by him in 1823 under the number 328. It was received in Germany soon after and named Beurré Bronzé. Fruit medium to small, ovate, greenish-bronze, marbled with bright green on the shady side and entirely bronzed and dotted with russet on the side exposed to the sun; flesh firm, juicy, sugary and aromatic; first; end of Oct.

Beurré de Brou. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:1, fig. 481. 1881.
A seedling of Van Mons grown about 1825. Fruit small or medium, turbinate-obtuse, very pale green, strewn with numerous minute points of gray-green; on ripening, the side next the sun becomes golden and the rest of the skin yellow; flesh white, melting, with abundant juice, sugary, agreeable; a fruit of good quality and ships well; end of Sept.

Beurré Brougham. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:325, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 538. 1884.
Raised from seed in 1831 or 1832 at Downton Castle, Hereford, Eng., by Thomas Andrew Knight. Fruit medium, globular-obovate, inclining to oval, yellowish-green, covered with large, brown-russet specks; flesh yellowish-white, tender and juicy, gritty at center; juice sweet, vinous, perfumed; second and often first; Oct. and Nov.

Beurré Bruneau. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:326, fig. 1867. 2. Ann. Pom. Belge 5:11, fig. 1857.  Bergamoite Crassane d'Hiver. 3, Mas Le Verger. 1:19, fig. 8.. 1866-73.
Raised at la Bourdiniere, in the commune of Chateau Thibaut, Fr., first reported about 1830. Fruit above medium, globular-turbinate, very obtuse and swelled, deeply depressed at each end, yellow-orange, dotted with gray and red-brown; flesh yellowish-white, semi-melting, rather gritty; juice abundant, acidulous, sugary, vinous, slightly perfumed, often sour; second; Nov. to Feb.

Beurré de Bruxelles. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:327, fig. 1867.
Originated in Brabant, Bel., and first reported by Louis Noisette, Paris, Fr., in 1813. Fruit above medium, very long, bossed, rather obtuse and always swelled round the calyx; skin rough to the touch, greenish-yellow, dotted with bright brown and washed with rose on the side of the sun; flesh very white, fine, semi-melting, generally gritty around the core; juice abundant, sugary, acidulous, more or less perfumed, refreshing and very agreeable; first; beginning of Sept.

Beurré Burnicq. 1. Mas Le Verger. 3:Pt. 1, 101, fig. 49. 1866-73.
From a seed bed of Major Esperén, Mechlin, Bel., first published in 1846. Fruit above medium, obovate-obtuse-pyriform; skin rough from a thick covering of russet, strewed with gray specks but showing some of the yellow of the ground color, often of a rather somber red color on the sunny side; flesh slightly greenish, very fine, melting, sugary, juicy, perfumed; quality in France first; end of Sept.

Beurré du Bus. 1. Guide Prat. 86. 1876.
Fruit medium, turbinate, yellow, stained with fawn; flesh buttery, melting, aromatic; first; Dec. and Jan.

Beurré Bymont. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 363. 1859.
Of foreign origin; described by Elliott as "new"in 1859. Fruit above medium, obovate-truncate, russety; flesh juicy, sweet, perfumed; said to be very good to best; Oct. to Dec.

Beurré de Caen. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 515. 1884.
Fruit large, pyriform, narrow, long, yellow, heavily covered with brown-russet; flesh coarse; inferior; Feb.

Beurré Capiaumont. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:330, fig. 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 682. 1869.
A handsome Flemish pear raised from seed by M. Capiaumont, Mons, Bel., in 1787. Fruit medium, long-obtuse-pyriform, clear yellow, with cinnamon-red cheek and strewed with specks and markings of fawn; flesh white, with greenish filaments, fine-grained, buttery, melting; juice abundant, sweet, aromatic; first quality; good for dessert and also for the kitchen; Oct. 19

Beurré Caty. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:331, fig. 1867.
Obtained about 1858 by a Doctor Helin, Ronquieres, Bel. Fruit under medium, globular-obtuse-pyriform, mammillate at summit and one side generally more bulged than the other, dull yellow, dotted and veined with bright brown; flesh fine, melting, a little gritty at center; juice plentiful, sourish, sweet, savory; first; Jan. to Mar.

Beurré Caune. 1. Guide Prat. 86. 1895.
Fruit rather large, water-green, touched with dull carmine; flesh melting, juicy, sugary, acidulated, recalling the agreeable perfume and acidity of the Beurré Gris; first; Sept.

Beurré du Cercle Pratique de Rouen. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:332, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 516. 1884.
From a seed bed made by M. Boisbunel, Rouen, Fr., in 1845. Fruit rather below medium size, pyramidal but much longer on one side than on the other; skin rough to the touch, lemon-colored, much covered with bronze-russet and strewed with gray dots; flesh greenish, fine, juicy, melting, very gritty, sweetish acid and of a very delicate flavor; first; end of Sept.

Beurré du Champ Corbin. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:59, fig. 414. 1880.
Obtained by Jacques Jalais from a bed of mixed seeds made in 1846. Fruit medium, globular-ovoid, water-green, sown with large, round dots; flesh yellowish, semi-fine, buttery, semi-melting, with abundant juice, sugary and having a rather agreeable perfume.

Beurré Charron. 1. heroy Dict. Pom. 1:334, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 516. 1884.
Raised from seed at Angers, Fr.; fruited in 1838 by M. Charron. Fruit medium or below, globular, greenish-yellow, dotted with russet; flesh tender, juicy, watery, melting; juice very abundant, sweet, vinous, refreshing, deliciously perfumed; first; Oct.

Beurré Chatenay. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:334, fig. 1867.
A French pear raised in the commune of Doue-la-Fontaine, Maine-et-Loire, by Pierre Chatenay in 1846. Fruit small, ovate, bossed and contorted, yellowish-green, washed with bright red on the side exposed to the sun; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, juicy, sugary, highly perfumed; first; Nov.

Beurré Chaudy. 1. Guide Prat. 86. 1895.
Fruit very large, pyriform, bossed, bright green changing to pale yellow at maturity; flesh fine, melting, very juicy, perfumed; Oct. to Dec.

Beurré Christ. 1. Mas Pom. Gen.3:143, fig. 168. 1878.
Described in the Van Mons Catalog under the number 139; dedicated to the German pomologist Christ. Fruit medium, obovate, rather bossed in its outline, bright green, numerous small dots of gray-brown; quality good; flesh fine, buttery; Oct. and Nov.

Beurré Citron. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 6j6. 1869. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:133, fig. 67, 1872.
From a Van Mons' seed bed. Fruit small or medium, ovate, somewhat globular, lemon-yellow; flesh white, fine, breaking; juice sufficient, wanting in sugar, acidulous, without appreciable perfume; not of first quality but of some value on account of its prolonged period of maturity; Jan. to end of winter.

Beurré Clotaire. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:337, fig- 1867.
The wilding, parent-tree of this variety was found in 1854 by M. Clot, Angers, Fr.
Fruit medium, obovate-pyriform, obtuse, generally narrowed toward the summit, yellow-ochre color, much dotted with greenish-russet; flesh whitish, fine, watery, melting, gritty round center; second; Sept.

Beurré de Coit. 1. Mas Le Verger 2:243, fig. I20- 1866-73. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 722. 1869.
Originated with Colonel Coit, near Cleveland, Ohio. Fruit medium, obtuse-pyriform, dull green, sprinkled with numerous large brown points; flesh semi-fine, whitish, veined with yellow, buttery, melting, rich in sugary water, vinous and perfumed; good; Sept.

Beurré Colmar. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 1:67, fig. 1853. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 517. 1884.  Beurré d'Enghien. 3. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:23, fig. 492. 1881.
Raised in Belgium by Van Mons before 1823, Fruit large, ovate, bossed, irregular, obtuse at both ends, smooth, yellow, dotted with brown and fawn, with a tinge of orange-red on the side next the sun; flesh white, crisp, melting, juicy, some grit around the core; juice abundant, sugary, slightly perfumed; a dessert pear of first quality; mid-Oct. to Dec.

Beurré Coloma. 1. Levoy Dict. Pom. 1:339, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 517. 1884.
Obtained by Count Coloma, probably at Mechlin, Bel. Fruit large, oblong-obovate, obtuse, much reduced at both extremities; skin thin and tender, at first a lively green changing to golden-yellow on ripening, much russeted; flesh white, fine, dense; juicy, semi-melting, gritty at center, sugary and vinous flavor; second; end of Sept.

Beurré du Comte Marcolini. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:115. 1856.
Upper Italy, 1839. Fruit medium, long, medium ventriculous, shining pale green changing to whitish-green; flesh acidulous, sweet, and aromatic; second; end of Oct.

Beurré de Conitz. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:103, fig. 52- 1872.
A German variety at one time grown a good deal in the neighborhood of Danzig, where it was known by the name Fondante de Conitz. Fruit medium to large, conic-pyriform, lemon-yellow, washed with lively red; flesh white, fine, very melting, very sugary, pleasantly scented; good; middle of Aug.

Beurré Copretz. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 517. 1884.
Fruit below medium, oval, regular in outline; skin smooth, greenish-yellow, having large patches and dots of russet; flesh greenish-white, coarse-grained, juicy and sugary, having but little flavor; inferior; Nov.

Beurré Dalbret. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:343, fig. 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 678. 1869.
This variety was obtained by Van Mons prior to 1832. Fruit medium or above, elongated-pyriform, rather indented and irregular, golden or greenish-yellow, dotted all over, mottled and spotted with bright red; flesh white, fine, juicy, melting, perfumed; first; Sept. and Oct.

Beurré Daras. 1. Guide Prat. 85. 1876.
Distributed by M. du Mortier, Tournai, Bel., who said that its fruit was very large, always of first quality; Dec. and Jan.

Beurré Daviss. 1. McIntosh Bk. Gard. 2:460. 1855.
Fruit medium, obovate; good; Jan. and Feb; somewhat resembling the Passe Colmar, but keeps better.

Beurré Defays. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:344, figs. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 518. 1884.
Raised by François Defays near Angers, Fr.; fruited first in 1839 or 1840. Fruit large, pyramidal-obtuse, pale golden yellow, with large, brown dots, and an orange tinge on side next the sun; flesh yellowish-white, delicate, melting, juicy, sugary, vinous; first; end of Nov. to Feb.

Beurré Degalait. 1. Guide Prat. 85. 1876.
Probably produced in the Tournai district, Bel., fruit medium, turbinate, greenish-yellow, very juicy; first; Oct. and Nov.

Beurré Delannoy. 1. Mas Le Verger 3:Pt. 1, 71, fig. 34. 1866-73. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:346, fig. 1867.
Obtained by Alexandre Delannoy, nurseryman, near Tournai, Bel. It was first made known in 1848. Fruit medium or large, turbinate-obtuse, bossed, one side generally more enlarged than the other, greenish-yellow, finely dotted with russet; flesh whitish, fine, juicy, melting, a little gritty around the core, sugary, acid, with a really exquisite savor; first; Oct. and Nov.

Beurré Delbecq. 1. Guide Prat. 58, 232. 1895.
Fruit medium, conic-pyriform, lemon-yellow; flesh very fine, melting, sweet; first; Oct.

Beurré Delicat. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:17, fig. 105. 1878.
Thought by Mas to have been raised by M. de Jonghe, Brussels. Fruit small, rather long-turbinate, even in contour, bright, clear green, covered with extremely small and numerous fawn dots; flesh white, fine, melting, with abundant, sweet juice, perfumed.

Beurré Derouineau. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:348, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 518. 1884.
Raised from seed in 1840 by a gardener named Derouineau near Angers, Fr. Fruit small, obovate; skin rough to the touch, bronze, but brightening somewhat on the shady side and turning to yellow; flesh white, delicate, melting, juicy, sweet and aromatic; hardly first-class; Nov.

Beurré Dilly. 1. Pom. France 4: No. 171, Pl.171. 1867. 2. Guide Prat. 159, 244. 1876.
Obtained about 1848 by M. V. Dilly near Tournai, Bel. Fruit rather large, pyriform-globular, obtuse; skin thick, rather rough and wrinkled, green changing to yellow, washed with dull red; flesh greenish, very fine, melting; juicy, sugary, perfumed; very good; Sept. and Oct.

Beurré Docteur Pariset. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:177, fig. 569. 1881.
Produced from a chance seedling in 1856 and cultivated by M. Pariset, Ain, Fr. Fruit large, conic-obtuse-globular or nearly globular, water-green, sprinkled with numerous very large, brown dots; flesh fine, buttery, melting; juice abundant and perfumed; somewhat like Beurré Diel which it surpasses in quality; Nov.

Beurré Doux. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:352, fig. 1867.
Cultivated in France in the middle of the last century; its origin is unknown. Fruit medium to large, globular-turbinate, bossed, rough, yellowish-green, dotted all over with gray specks, extensively tinged with vermilion on the side next the sun; flesh white, melting, gritty at center, juice sufficient and very sweet, vinous, sourish; third; Sept.

Beurré van Driessche. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:434, fig. 1867.
Obtained from seed in 1858 by M. van Driessche, a horticulturist at Ledeberg, near Ghent, Bel. Fruit rather large, oblong-obtuse, dull yellow; flesh semi-melting, sugary and of a delicate savor, vinous and acid juice; first; Feb. to May.

Beurré Driessen. 1. Mag. Hort. 21:146. 1855.  Driessen's Pomeranzenbirne. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:157. 1856.
A seedling of Van Mons, 1834. Fruit large, roundish, yellow, with a strong, reddish blush; flesh whitish-yellow, semi-melting, rather sour and sweet; good; Sept. and Oct.

Beurré Dubuisson. 1. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 20:789. 1896. 2. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 177, fig. 1906.
Obtained about 1832 by Isidore Dubuisson, a gardener near Tournai, Bel. Fruit rather large, oblong, obtuse at base, flat at summit, greenish-yellow on shaded side, often washed with red on the side exposed to the sun, marked all over with russet spots and veinings; flesh white, fine-grained, melting, buttery, juicy, sweet, acid, perfumed; very good; Dec. to Feb.

Beurré Duhaume. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 519. 1884.
Fruit turbinate, evenly shaped; skin yellow but almost entirely covered with brown-russet, some red and orange on side exposed to the sun; flesh firm, breaking, very juicy, sweet, rich, vinous; first; Dec. to Feb.

Beurré Dumont. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:353, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 519. 1884.
Obtained from a seed-bed by Joseph Dumont, Esquelmes, Bel. It first bore fruit in 1833. Fruit rather large, globular-oval, greenish-yellow, speckled with brownish-russet on the shaded side and entirely washed with reddish-brown on the side of the sun; flesh juicy, melting, and richly flavored and aromatic; first; Nov. and Dec,

Beurré Dumortier. 1. Pom. France 3:No. 100, PL 100. 1865. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:354, figs. 1867.
Attributed to Van Mons, about 1818. Fruit above medium, turbinate, more or less elongated, obtuse, bossed, yellowish-green, dotted and mottled with russet, and often tinged with pale rose on the side of the sun; flesh whitish, melting or semi-melting according to climate; juice very abundant, acidulous, sugary, with a delicious, perfumed flavor; first; Sept. to Dec.

Beurré Dupont. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 519. 1884.
Fruit small, pyriform-curved, sides unequal, rich golden-yellow, speckled with patches of cinnamon russet; flesh tender, melting, juicy and sweet, without perfume and only a sweet-water flavor; second; end of Oct.

Beurré Duquesne. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 520. 1884.
Fruit medium, obovate, yellowish-green changing to yellow, tinged with red next the sun, covered with heavy, brown dots; flesh white, tender, melting, sugary, rich; a good dessert pear; Oct.

Beurré Durand. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:355; fig- 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:93, fig. 239. 1879.
Came from a seed bed made by M. Goubault near Angers, Fr., and was reported in 1854. Fruit above medium, obtuse-pyriform, long, golden-yellow, dotted and mottled with fawn; flesh very white, fine, melting, full of sugary, vinous juice, and having a pleasant flavor; first; Sept. and Oct.

Beurré Duval. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:356, figs. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 520. 1884.
This variety was found among a collection of seedlings raised by M. Duval, Hainaut, Bel., some time before 1823. Fruit medium to large; short-pyramidal, bossed, greenish-yellow, covered with large, greenish-gray freckles and large, dark brown patches, often washed with red on the side exposed to the sun; flesh yellowish, melting and juicy, sugary and aromatic; first; Sept. to Nov.

Beurré d'Ellezelles. 1. Guide Prat. 109. 1876.
A Belgian pear sent out before 1876. Fruit flesh very fine, juicy, sweet, perfumed, musky; an exquisite pear; Oct.; tree never blighted.

Beurré Épine. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:359, fig. 1867.
M. Bivort was the first to describe this pear which he did in 1850; it was disseminated from Belgium. Fruit above medium, long-obtuse-pyriform, even in contour; skin rough, lemon-yellow, mottled with fawn, heavily washed with brown-russet on the side next the sun; flesh whitish, semi-fine, melting, gritty around the core; juice abundant, vinous and saccharine, with a delicate, acid flavor; second; Nov.

Beurré d'Esperén. 1. McIntosh Bk. Gard. 2:460. 1855.
Fruit large; good; tree hardy, healthy and succeeds well on quince stock; Jan.

Beurré d'Esquelmes. 1. Guide Prat. 77. 1895.
Raised by Joseph Dumont at Esquelmes near Tournai, Bel. Fruit rather large, globular-obovate or Doyenné-shaped, yellowish-green, washed with fawn; flesh fine, melting; good; Nov.

Beurré Eugène Furst. 1. Guide Prat. 86. 1876.
Fruit large; flesh melting; of first quality; Oct.

Beurré Fauve de Printemps. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:135, fig. 356. 1880.
Raised by Van Mons. Fruit medium or nearly medium, sometimes turbinate-conic, sometimes conic-ovate, water-green, speckled with numerous brown points, changes to bright lemon-yellow on ripening; flesh yellowish-white, buttery, sweet, generally musky; good; end of spring.

Beurré Favre. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:360, fig. 1867.
Raised by François Maisonneuve, Nantes, Fr.; it was first reported in 1845. Fruit below medium, long-pyriform, obtuse, often mishapen, one side always longer than the other, yellow-ochre; flesh whitish, semi-melting, sweet, acid, juicy; second, sometimes third; beginning of Oct.

Beurré Fenzl. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:169, fig. 181. 1878.
First recorded by Denis Henrard, a horticulturist at Liege, Bel. Fruit medium, turbinate-globular, or turbinate-pyriform, irregular in contour, pale and dull green, speckled with dots of gray-green or green, on ripening becomes lemon-yellow or gold and washed with vermilion on the side of the sun; flesh white, melting, sweet, refreshing; first-class; Nov.

Beurré de Fevrier. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 7:93, fig. 1859. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:361, fig. 1867.

A seedling raised by M. Boisbunel at Rouen, Fr., in 1845. Fruit medium to large, oval-pyriform, enlarged toward its summit, green passing into yellow-green on ripening, finely dotted with gray; flesh very fine, greenish-white, very melting, buttery; juice abundant, sugary-acid, a little musky, very agreeable; first; mid-Jan. to early Mar.

Beurré Fidéline. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:362, fig. 1867.
Raised from seed in 1861 by Robert and Moreau, horticulturists at Angers, Fr. Fruit below medium, ovate, green, much dotted with russet; flesh yellowish, melting; juice abundant, sugary and refreshing and delicately perfumed; first; Nov. and Dec.

Beurré Flon. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:363, fig. 1867. 2. Gard. Chron. N. S. 23:308, 446, fig. 57. 1885.
Obtained at Angers by M. Flon; fruited for the first time in 1852. Fruit rather large, turbinate, very obtuse, bossed, usually having one side larger than the other; skin harsh to the touch, thick, lemon-yellow, entirely covered with red-gray spots, largely marbled and spotted on the side exposed to the sun; flesh white, rather delicate, tender, slightly gritty; juice abundant, sweet, aromatic, endowed with an agreeable and delicate acid flavor; first; mid-Sept, to mid-Oct.

Beurré Fouqueray. 1. Gard. Chron. N. S. 24:622. 1885. 2. Guide Prat. 87. 1895.
Obtained by M. Fouqueray, and introduced before 1885. Fruit very large, oblong, obtuse-pyriform, olive-green, speckled with brown spots; flesh white, tender, melting, sweet and perfumed; first; Oct. and Nov.

Beurré Gambier. 1. Mas Le Verger 1:119, fig. 58. 1866-73.
Obtained by M. Gambier, Rhode Sainte-Genèse, Bel.; cataloged first in 1862. Fruit medium to rather large, obovate-pyriform, bright lemon-yellow, washed with red; flesh white, slightly veined with yellow, fine, buttery, melting; juice abundant, sweet, perfumed; below first; Jan. and Feb.

Beurré Gaujard. 1. Guide Prat. 72, 244. 1876.
Fruit medium, oblong-globular, yellow, covered with fawn russet; flesh fine, semi-melting, a distinctive and very pronounced perfume; Sept. and early Oct.

Beurré Van Geert. 1. Guide Prat. 75, 249. 1876.
Obtained by Jean Van Geert, Senior, horticulturist at Ghent, Bel. Fruit large, oblong-obovate, lively yellow, washed with vermilion; flesh very juicy, acidulous; a good fruit of brilliant coloring; Oct. and Nov.

Beurré Gendron. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:365, figs. 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 688. 1869.
Raised in the nurseries of M. Gendron at Châteaugontier, Fr.; gave its first fruit in 1849. Fruit large, variable, oblong-turbinate or nearly globular, but always irregular, bossed, obtuse and contorted, yellowish, speckled with brown, mottled with fawn around the calyx and stalk, lightly tinged with vermilion on the cheek exposed to the sun; flesh white, coarse, firm, breaking, granular round the pips; juice sufficient, acidulous, sugary; second; Jan. to Mar.

Beurré de Germiny. 1. Guide Prat. 86. 1895.
First mentioned in Pomone tournaisienne. Fruit medium, oblong, dull yellow; flesh fine, buttery, sugary, very juicy, vinous; first; Oct. and Nov.

Beurré de Ghelin. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:367, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 520. 1884.
Raised by M. Fontaine de Ghélin, Mons, Bel., in 1858. Fruit large, globular-ovate irregular in form and bossed, pale yellow, much covered with fawn-russet; especially on the sun-exposed side; flesh yellowish, melting; juice most abundant, with a rich and delicious perfume; first; Oct. to Dec.

Beurré Gilles. 1. Guide Prat. 86. 1876.
On trial at the Experiment Farm, Agassiz, B. C, in 1900. Fruit large, pyramidal, brilliant yellow; flesh very fine, very juicy, sugary, aromatic; good; Nov. and Dec.

Beurré Goubault. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:370, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 521. 1884.
Obtained from seed in 1842 by M. Goubault, a nurseryman near Angers, Fr. Fruit medium, globular, inclining to turbinate, green even when ripe, uniformly sprinkled with grayish dots; flesh white, semi-fine, melting; juice very abundant, sugary, aromatic; first-class; Sept.

Beurré Graue Herbst. 1. Oberdieck Obst-Sort. 256. 1881.
Fruit variable in form, long and globular, sometimes long and pyriform, light green turning to golden-green; flesh whitish, soft, melting, sugary with muscatel flavor; a very good dessert and good cooking pear; Oct.

Beurré Grétry. 1. Guide Prat. 87. 1895.
Distributed by M. Daras de Naghin, Antwerp, Bel. Fruit medium, brown-russet; of good quality; Oct. and Nov.

Beurré Gris. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:196, Pl.38. 1768. 2. Pom. France 2: No. 68, PL 68. 1864. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:371, fig. 1867  Brown Beurré. 4. Hogg Fruit Man. 538. 1884.
A very old French pear mentioned by Olivier de Serres, 1651; C. Mallet, 1652; Claude St. Étienne, 1670; and Merlet, 1690. It was mentioned by Rea in 1655 as being cultivated in England under the name of Boeure de Roy. Fruit large, oblong-obovate; color of skin varies very much, but usually yellowish-green, nearly covered with thin brown or olive-russet and tinged with reddish-brown on the side next the sun; flesh greenish-white under the skin, yellowish at center, melting, tender, buttery, with a rich, musky and subacid flavor.

Beurré-Gris d'Enghien. 1. Guide Prat. 109, 245. 1876.
A Belgian variety raised previous to 1870. A handsome and good fruit, the flesh having a delicious flavor; Mar.

Beurré de Grumkon. 1. Rev. Hort. 133. 1894.
Fruit large to very large, very irregular, obtuse-pyriform, bossed, tolerably convex; skin smooth, green, washed with light brown; flesh whitish, melting, juicy; first; Nov.

Beurré Grumkower. 1. Oberdieck Obst. Sort. 257. 1881.
Of Belgian origin; described early in the nineteenth century. Fruit medium, pyriform, light green turning to greenish-yellow; flesh whitish, granular, with a somewhat cinnamon flavor; very good; Nov.

Beurré Hamecher. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:376, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 521. 1884.
This was one of the last seedlings raised by Van Mons and ripened its first fruits in October, 1847. Fruit medium to large, globular-ovate, bossed at the stem and depressed at the summit, rather irregular, one side being much longer than the other, greenish-yellow, mottled with russet; flesh white, fine, melting, juicy, sugary, acid, slightly perfumed; second, at times, third; early Sept.

Beurré d'Hardenpont d'Automne. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:377, fig. J867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 683. 1869. 3. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:95, fig. 336. 1880.
This pear has often been confused with Glou Morceau but erroneously; both were raised by Van Mons, but they differ in form and other characteristics. This variety was obtained from seed by Van Mons about 1802. Fruit medium to large, long-pyriform-obtuse, pale yellow, covered with large, bronze dots and patches of russet; flesh yellowish, fine, melting, generally gritty; juice abundant, sugary, vinous, very aromatic; first; end of Sept.

Beurré Hennau. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:3, fig. 482. 1881.
Probably Belgian. Fruit medium, ovate-pyriform; bright green, speckled with light brown dots; flesh whitish, fine, melting, very juicy, sweet and rather vinous; good; Oct.

Beurré Henri Courcelle. 1. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 4:602. 1888. 2. Guide Prat. 52. 1895.
Raised by Arsène Sannier, Rouen, Fr., from seed of Bergamotte Esperén which it resembles in form. Fruit medium to small, oblong-pyriform, grayish-green; flesh very fine and of a distinctive and exquisite flavor; first; winter and spring; very fruitful.

Beurré Hillereau. 1. Guide Prat. 87. 1895.
Fruit large, pale yellow, ensanguined on the side exposed to the sun; flesh medium fine, very melting; first; Dec.

Beurré d'Hiver. 1. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:534. 1860.
Introduced to France by Louis Noisette from Brabant, Netherlands, in 1806. Fruit green, does not change on ripening; flesh melting, sugary, perfumed; good; Jan.

Beurré d'hiver de Dittrich. 1. Guide Prat. 87. 1895.
Fruit rather large, conic, yellowish-green; flesh buttery, perfumed; first; Dec. and Jan.

Beurré d'Hiver de Kestner. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 522. 1884.
Fruit medium, obovate, with a very long, straight stalk obliquely inserted, greenish, covered with pale russet; flesh yellowish, coarse, not juicy and rather disagreeable than otherwise; handsome but worthless; mid-Dec.

Beurré de Hochheim. 1. Guide Prat. 86. 1876.
Of German origin. Fruit medium, pyriform, clear green; flesh buttery, of a flavor recalling that of the Buerre Gris; first; Nov. and Dec.

Beurré Hudellet. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:95, fig. 240. 1879.
Origin uncertain, but probably it was raised from seed by Van Mons. Fruit medium, turbinate-conic, regular in form, water-green, speckled with very dark green spots; flesh whitish, rather fine, buttery, sufficiently juicy and sugary, vinous and agreeable; medium; Sept.

Beurré Jalais. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:380, fig. 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 692. 1869.
Raised from seed by Jacques Jalais, Nantes, Fr.; it was made known in 1848, and the Horticultural Society of Nantes awarded it a silver medal in 1861. Fruit large, globular-obovate-pyriform; skin oily, golden-yellow, finely dotted, striped and veined with brown-russet, reddened on the side of the sun; flesh whitish, fine, melting, generally gritty round the core, with vinous, sweet, savory, perfumed juice; first; Sept. to mid-Oct.

Beurré Jean Van Geert. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:381, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 522. 1884.
Raised from seed by Jean Van Geert, a nurseryman at Port de Bruxelles, Bel., and placed on sale in 1864. Fruit large, pyriform, curving toward the stalk, bright yellow, dotted and marbled and striped with fawn, washed with vermilion on the side of the sun; flesh whitish, semi-fine, melting, juicy, granular around the core; first, but of rather variable character; Nov.

Beurré Kennes. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:383, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 522. 1884.
From seed sown by Van Mons; yielded its first fruit in 1845. Fruit below medium, globular, obtuse-pyriform, yellow-ochre, dotted with gray specks, brick-red on the side next the sun; flesh yellow, coarse, semi-melting, juicy, sweet, and highly perfumed; first; Oct.

Beurré Kenrick. 1. Mag. Hort. 8:64. 1842. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 692. 1869.
A seedling from Van Mons, named in honor of William Kenrick, the American pomologist. Fruit large and handsome, sometimes smaller, turbinate, greenish-yellow, with indistinct russet spots; flesh buttery, juicy, sweet; good, but variable; Sept.

Beurré Knight. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:385, figs. 1867.
Obtained from seed by Van Mons and sent to the London Horticultural Society in 1817 bearing the name of "Knight "in honor of T. A. Knight, who was at that time President of the Society. Fruit medium or above; form varying from globular-ovate to globular-turbinate, always deeply depressed at the lower end and usually swelled near the stalk, yellow-green, dotted all over with fawn and extensively colored with dark carmine on the side of the sun; flesh whitish, rather coarse, melting; juice abundant, saccharine, refreshing, possessing a delicious perfume; first; Oct.

Beurré Knox. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:387, figs. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 523. 1884.
Raised by Van Mons before 1819. Fruit large; form varies from true turbinate to globular-turbinate, bossed and contorted, smooth, shining pale green in shade, tinged with red on the side next the sun; flesh whitish, semi-fine, melting, juicy, of agreeable flavor; second for eating, first for the kitchen.

Beurré de Koninck. 1. Mas he Verger 3:Pt. 2, 97, fig. 145. 1866-73. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:388, fig. 1867.
Obtained by Van Mons and dedicated to Laurent-Guillaume de Koninck. Fruit small to nearly medium, globular-turbinate, or turbinate-obtuse, somewhat bossed, olive-yellow, dotted and mottled with russet and on the side of the sun entirely covered with a clear brown wash; flesh greenish-white, semi-fine, melting, watery, generally gritty; juice abundant, saccharine, vinous, and only slightly perfumed; Oct.

Beurré Kossuth. 1. Mag. Hort. 18:295, fig. 21. 1852. 2. Leroy Dict Pom. 1:389, fig. 1867.
Received by André Leroy about 1849 among numerous varieties sent him by many persons for trial. Fruit large, variable in form but always turbinate, swelled at central circumference, surface very uneven, rough; skin thin, dull yellowish-green, traced and freckled with gray or bronze, dotted with specks of the same color; flesh whitish, very fine, melting, buttery, sugary; juice abundant, slightly acidulated; an excellent fruit of first quality; mid-Sept.

Beurré de Ladé. 1. Rev. Hort. 133. 1894.
Included about 1893 by M. Lucas, director of the Pomological Institute of Reutlingen, Ger., in his list of 100 best pears. Season Nov. and Dec.

Beurré Lagasse. 1. Guide Prat. 71. 1895.
A French variety which resisted the great frost of 1879-80. Fruit medium, oval-pyriform, yellowish-green: flesh fine, melting, juicy; good; late Sept.

Beurré Lamoyeau. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 523. 1884.
Fruit large, long-pyriform, golden-yellow, speckled with russet, crimsoned on the side next the sun; flesh yellowish, fine-grained, rather firm, sweet, with a watery juice; inferior; Oct.

Beurré Langelier. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 523. 1884.
Raised by Réné Langelier, Jersey, British Channel Islands, about 1840. Fruit medium, obtuse-pyriform, pale greenish-yellow, crimson blush on the side next the sun, covered with russet dots; flesh tender, buttery and melting, with rich and vinous flavor; excellent; Dec. and Jan.

Beurré de Lederbogen. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:51, fig. 218. 1879.
The parent tree of this variety was found about 1829 in the garden of M. Lederbogen near Magdeburg, Prussia. Fruit nearly medium, globular, conic, regular in form, clear bright green, speckled with numerous and regularly spaced, very fine, brown dots; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, with abundant, rich, sugary juice, delicately scented.

Beurré Lefèvre. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 799. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 524. 1884.
This variety was distributed by M. Lefevre of Mortefontaine near Paris in 1846. Fruit large, obovate and sometimes oval, greenish-yellow on the shaded side and much covered with russet, but brownish-orange on the side next the sun, with some streaks of red; flesh white, rather gritty at the core, melting, juicy, rich, aromatic and delicious, soon decays at the core; middle and end of Oct.

Beurré de Lenzen. 1. Guide Prat. 86, 247. 1876.
Fruit large, turbinate, meadow-green; flesh fine, melting, juicy; first; Oct.; tree vigorous.

Beurré Liebart. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:342, figs.+ 1869. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:107, fig. 246. 1879.
Beurré Liebart was raised from seed by Van Mons before 1817 and was dedicated to an amateur pomologist. Fruit large, globular-ovate but rather variable in form, clear yellow, dotted uniformly and streaked with brown-russet, extensively carmined on the side next the sun; flesh whitish, coarse, hard and breaking, rather gritty at the center; juice sufficient, with little sugar and generally acid and without perfume; second or third; end of Sept.

Beurré de Lindauer. 1. Guide Prat. 86. 1895.
Fruit large or very large, long-ovate, greenish passing into yellow; flesh melting, very fine, sugary, agreeable perfume; Nov. and Dee.

Beurré Loisel. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:391, fig. 1867.
Obtained by M. Loisel, Fauquemont, Province of Limburg, Holland, and was distributed in France in 1853. Fruit under medium, conic-obtuse, always bossed, dark olive-yellow, dotted with fawn around the stem, streaked with pale red around the calyx, and washed with rose on the sun-exposed side; flesh white, melting, the juice being abundant, acid, sweet, vinous and very delicate; first; beginning of Oct.

Beurré de Longree. 1. Guide Prat. 79. 1895.
A Belgian variety. Fruit small, globular, yellow-russeted; flesh melting, very sugary;, of good quality; Jan. and Feb.

Beurré de Luçon. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 7:71, fig. 1859.  Beurré Gris d'Hiver Nouveau. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:374, fig. 1867.
Pomologists are agreed that this pear originated about 1830 at Luçon, Vendée, Fr. Fruit above medium to rather large, globular, irregular, bossed, and always more extended on one side than on the other; skin thick and wrinkled, grayish-green, and reddened on the sunny side and stained with large patches of fawn; flesh yellowish, fine, melting, gritty especially around the core; juice extremely abundant, sugary, vinous, aromatic; first; Nov. to Jan.

Beurré Luizet. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 524. 1884.
Fruit large, pyriform, pale yellow, speckled with russet dots; flesh tender, buttery, melting, sweet, with watery juice; inferior; Oct.

Beurré de Mans. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 524. 1884.
Cultivated in England prior to 1863. Fruit small, roundish-ovate; green, changing to yellow, streaked and crimsoned on side next the sun; flesh yellow, crisp, very juicy, with a rich sweetness; excellent; end of August.

Beurré Mauxion. 1. Mag. Hort. 23:259. 1857. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 693. 1869.
A seedling found in a garden at Orbigny, Indre-et-Loire, Fr. Fruit medium, ovate, inclining to pyriform, clear yellowish-green, with reddish spots in the shade, clear yellow in the sun, marbled and spotted with red, washed at maturity on fruits well exposed with golden red-brown on the side of the sun; flesh white, melting; juice very abundant, with a savory perfume, and rich in sugar; first; Sept.

Beurré Menand. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:393, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 525. 1884.
Raised by Leroy, Angers, Fr., and fruited first in 1863. Fruit medium, globular-obovate, pale lemon-yellow, strewed with brown dots; flesh tender, white, melting; juice sufficient, buttery, sweet; first; Oct.

Beurré Millet. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:394, fig. 1867. 2; Hogg Fruit Man. 525. 1884.
Raised by Leroy, Angers, Fr., in 1847. Fruit below medium, obovate, dark grass-green, much covered with russet; flesh whitish, tender; juice plentiful but watery; first; Oct.

Beurré Moiré. 1. Mas Le Verger 3:Pt. 1, 83, fig. 40. 1866-73. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:395, figs. 1867.

A wilding found at Saint-Aubin-de-Luigné, near Angers, Fr., about 1836. Fruit medium or above, turbinate-pyriform, slightly obtuse, bossed and slightly contorted, greenish-yellow, covered in part with pale markings of russet and dots of brown-russet; flesh whitish, semi-fine, semi-melting, watery, granular at the center; juice excessive in amount, sweet, sugary, aromatic and having a very delicate savor; first; Nov.

Beurré Mondelle. 1. Mas Le Verger 3:Pt. 1, 143, fig. 70. 1866-73. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:396, fig. 1867.
M. Bavay, Vilvorde, Bel., propagated this variety about 1850; origin unknown. Fruit medium, turbinate-obtuse, ventriculous, regular in form, greenish-yellow, dotted with fawn and nearly covered with marblings of russet; flesh white, semi-fine, compact, melting, granular at the core; juice very abundant, very saccharine, savory, possessing a highly agreeable, musky perfume; first; all Sept.

Beurré de Mons. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 684. 1869.
Foreign; of small value as it rots at the core. Fruit small, globular-obovate, yellowish, with a shade of brownish-red in the sun, many green and gray dots; flesh whitish, coarse, juicy, astringent; poor; Aug.

Beurré de Montgeron. 1. Mas Le Verger 2:75, fig. 36. 1866-73. 2- Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:397, fig. 1867.
In 1830 M. Guyot found this pear in the commune of Saint-Leger, Department of Cher, Fr. Fruit medium and below, obovate-obtuse or globular-turbinate, smooth to touch, shining, golden-yellow, dotted with fawn, vermilioned extensively on the side next the sun; flesh fine, semi-melting, rather gritty around the core; juice sufficient, saccharine, vinous, with little perfume; second, but first rarely, when the juice is highly perfumed; end of Aug.

Beurré Morisot. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:7, fig. 4. 1872.
A hardy French pear of unknown origin, but published in M. de Bavay's Catalog, 1855-56. Fruit large, globular-conic, bright yellow all over; flesh white, semi-melting; juice abundant, sweet, slightly acid, of refreshing savor; good; toward end of winter and spring.

Beurré de Mortefontaine. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:399, fig. 1867.  Beurré Beaumont. 2. Hovey Fr. Am. 2:89. 1851.
Obtained from seed about 1804 by M. Lefèvre, a Frenchman. It is quite probable that this is identical with Beurré Lefèvre, although slight differences appear in the descriptions. Fruit large, often very large, globular-turbinate or spherical, generally irregular; skin rough, bronze, sprinkled with large, scaly dots of gray, and with brick-red stains on the cheek next the sun; flesh greenish-white, coarse, semi-breaking, doughy, very gritty around the core; juice deficient, acidulous, vinous; third for dessert, second for kitchen; end of Aug. and early Sept.

Beurré de Mortillet 1. Guide Prat. 45. 1895.
Of unknown origin but obtained shortly before 1895, probably in France. Fruit large or very large, turbinate-pyriform, tender green, dotted with russet, generally blushed on the side next the sun; flesh whit., very fine-grained, buttery, melting, juicy; first; Aug. and Sept.

Beurré Motte. 1. Leioy Dict. Pom. 1:401, fig. 1867.
Raised about 1853 at Roubaix in the Department of the Nord, Fr. Fruit medium, oblong-pyriform, having always one side longer than the other, bronze, dotted with russet, washed with grayish-green on the side not exposed to the sun; flesh white, semi-fine, semi-melting, juicy, sugary, with a very agreeable, buttery flavor; second; Nov.

Beurré des Mouchouses. 1. Mas Le Verger 2:9, fig. 3. 1866-73. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:402, fig. 1867.
This pear was procured from seed by M. Rongiéras near Périgueux, Dordogne, Fr. The tree ripened its fruit for the first time in 1841. Fruit above medium, globular-turbinate, very obtuse and much swelled, dark olive-yellow, stained with russet around the stem and dotted with the same color, tinted with brownish-red on the cheek next the sun; flesh whitish, a little coarse, melting, watery, rarely very gritty; juice abundant, saccharine, vinous and with a savory aroma; second; Aug.

Beurré de Naghin. 1. Rev. Hort. 142. 1889. 2. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 42:444, fig. 182. 1907.
Obtained about 1840 by M. Norbert Daras de Naghin, Tournai, Bel. Fruit above medium, globular-obtuse-pyriform, yellowish-green, more or less covered with minute, blackish spots; flesh white, melting, agreeable flavor, aromatic, juicy, free from grit.

Beurré de Nantes. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 2:17, fig. 1854. 2. Mas Le Verger 2:47, fig. 22. 1866-73. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:403, fig. 1867.
M. François Maisonneuve, Nantes, Fr., found this wilding and first published it in 1845. Fruit medium and often larger, oblong, very obtuse, generally bossed and a little contorted; very variable in both size and form; color tender green or yellowish-green, dotted and slightly mottled with fawn and sometimes colored with dull red on the side next the sun; flesh white, fine, melting, free from grit; juice sufficient, sugary, acidulous, without any pronounced perfume; second; early Sept.

Beurré de Nesselrode. 1. Guide Prat. 108, 247. 1876. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:191, fig. 192. 1878.
Originated in the Crimea. Fruit medium, globular-ovate, bright green dotted with bright brown specks; flesh white, fine-grained, buttery, melting, abundant, with sugary juice, a subtle perfume, and distinct flavor; good; Oct.

Beurré Obozinski. 1. Guide Prat. 87. 1876. 2. Ibid. 77. 1895.
Beurré Obozinski was listed by Messrs. Simon-Louis in 1876 as a "recent" gain of M. Grégoire of Jodoigne, Brabant, Bel. Fruit medium, truncate-turbinate; flesh greenish-white, semi-fine, deficient in juice and sugar, perfumed; fairly good; Nov.

Beurré Oudinot. 1. Mag. Hort. 19:516. 1853. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:406. 1867.
Published by Leroy in 1849. Fruit above medium, turbinate-obtuse, swelled, irregular and bossed, rough to the touch, dull grayish-yellow, dotted with clear brown, slightly blushed on the side exposed to the sun; flesh white, very fine and melting, free from grit; juice abundant, sugary, vinous, of an exquisite flavor; first; Sept.

Beurré de Paimpol. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:407, fig. 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 695. 1869. 
Beurré de Paimpol was a wilding found in the commune of Plowbazlance, Cotes-du-Nord, Fr., in 1825. Fruit medium, obtuse-pyriform, ventriculous, regular in contour; skin rough, thick, grass-green, sprinkled with numerous gray-russet dots especially around the stem; flesh white, semi-fine, breaking, granular around the center, juicy, saccharine, vinous, with an agreeable flavor; second; Sept.

Beurré de Palandt. 1. Guide Prat. 87. 1876.
A German variety. Fruit medium, pyriform, yellow, covered with cinnamon-russet; flesh fine, melting; first; Nov.

Beurré Pauline. 1. Guide Prat. 87. 1895.
The variety is supposed to have originated in the neighborhood of Tournai, Bel. Fruit medium, pyramidal, bright yellow; flesh fine, buttery, very juicy; Oct. and Nov.

Beurré Pauline Delzent. 1. Mas Pom, Gen. 5:51, fig. 314. 1880.
Raised by M. Lefevre-Boitelle at Amiens, Fr., about 1850. Fruit large, conic-ovate, sombre green and speckled with many large, gray-brown points; flesh whitish, slightly tinted with green under the skin, buttery, melting, rather granular at the core, sweet, juicy, vinous; good; Oct. and Nov.

Beurré Payen. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:408, fig. 1869.
Raised by Adrien Papeleu at Wetteren near Ghent, Bel., who disseminated it in 1846. Fruit medium, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, grayish-russet, covered with strongly marked, whitish specks; flesh yellowish-white, semi-fine, melting; juice sweet and musky.

Beurré Perran. 1. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 19:209, fig. 28. 1896. 2. Jour. Hort. N. S. 32:91, fig. 14. 1896.
This variety was imported into England by the Worcester Nurseries about 1866, but was not much heard of until 1896 when it was exhibited before the Royal Horticultural Society and was awarded a certificate of merit. Fruit large, globular-obtuse, irregular surface, pale yellow but nearly covered with russet spots and blotches; in season immediately after Christmas and keeps till end of Feb.; for such a season the flavor is rich and good, flesh very melting.

Beurré Philippe Delfosse. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:409, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 518. 1884.
From a bed of seeds made in 1832 by M. Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel. Fruit above medium, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, golden yellow, dotted, striped and marbled with fawn; flesh buttery, whitish, very melting, slightly gritty at core; juice very abundant, acidulous, sugary, delicately perfumed; first; Nov. to Jan.

Beurré Pointillé de Roux. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:410, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:107, fig. 534. 1881.
Alexandre Bivort described this pear in 1851 and said that it had been raised by Van Mons. Fruit medium, long-turbinate-obtuse, meadow-green, mottled and dotted with russet; flesh greenish-white, semi-fine, semi-melting, gritty around the core; juice sufficient, saccharine, having little perfume; second; Oct.

Beurré de Popuelles. 1. Guide Prat. 87. 1895.
A Belgian variety. Fruit medium, green, russeted; first; Nov. and Dec.

Beurré Preble. 1. Mag. Hort. 8:60. 1842. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 695. 1869.
A native variety raised from seed by'Elijah Cooke, Raymond, Me. Fruit large, oblong-obovate, greenish-yellow, mottled with russet and green spots; flesh white, buttery and melting, with a rich, high flavor; good; Oct. and Nov.

Beurré Précoce. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:413, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 526. 1884.
Raised by M. Goubault, a nurseryman at Mille-pieds, near Angers, Fr., in 1850. Fruit medium, obovate, obtuse at stalk, yellowish-green, specked with russet, slightly reddened on the side exposed to the sun; flesh white, delicate, melting; juice abundant, sugary, vinous, sometimes disagreeably astringent; moderate; Aug.

Beurré Pringalle. 1. Guide Prat, 60. 1895.
Obtained by M. Celestin Pringalle, nurseryman near Tournai, Bel. Fruit medium, oval-oblong, gray; flesh very fine, buttery, melting, sweet and aromatic; first; Oct. and Nov.

Beurré de Quenast. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 2:15, fig. 1854. 2. Leroy Did, Pom. 1:414, fig. 1867.
Appears to have originated at the village of Quenast, Brabant, Bel., but the date and circumstances of its origin are unknown. Fruit medium, turbinate, slightly obtuse, bossed, bright yellow-green, sprinkled with large dots of russet and some patches of darker russet; flesh whitish, semi-fine, semi-melting, juicy, gritty around the core, saccharine, acidulous, of good flavor; second; late Sept.

Beurré de Ramegnies. 1. Guide Prat. 87. 1876.  Fruit rather large, obovate-pyriform, yellowish-green, stained with fawn and washed with red; flesh buttery, very juicy; first; Oct.

Beurré de Ranee. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 3:45. 1855. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 526. 1884.  Bon-Chrétien de Ranee. 3. Pom. France 3:No. 107, Pl.107. 1865.
Obtained from seed by Abbé Hardenpont at Mons, Bel.; the first fruiting of the parent tree was in 1762. Fruit medium to large; oblong-ovate, rounded at the stalk, usually ventriculous and bossed; skin very rough, dark green, bronzed, dotted and mottled with gray; flesh greenish-white, semi-fine, sometimes coarse, semi-melting, very juicy, always a little astringent but aromatic and vinous; first; Feb. to May.

Beurré Reine. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:417. 1867.
A Belgian variety cultivated in the Royal fruit orchards of Vilvorde-lez-Bruxelles in 1850. Fruit very large, especially on espalier and pyramid; obovate, often approaching the form of the Beurré Diel; second; Oct. and Nov.

Beurre Richelieu. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 696. 1869.
Fruit large; obtuse-pyriform-truncate; skin greenish, inclining to yellow, sprinkled with dots; flesh buttery, juicy, melting, with a fine, sweet, aromatic flavor, sometimes astringent; good to very good; Dec.

Beurré Roland. 1. Card Chron. 3rd Ser. 1:385. 1887.
Raised by M. Roland and described as a new seedling in 1887. Fruit medium, pyriform, regular, olive, much russeted; flesh melting, sugary, fragrant; Mar.

Beurré Romain. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 364. 1845. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:420, figs. 1867.
Of uncertain origin; described by Diel in 1802. Fruit medium or below, variable in form from obovate-pyriform to oblong-obtuse-pyriform, greenish-yellow tinged with russet-red next the sun and covered with numerous dark gray spots; flesh whitish, semi-fine, melting, almost free from grit, juicy, acidulous, saccharine, with a slight and pleasant taste of anis; variable in quality; Sept. and Oct.

Beurré Rome Gaujard. 1. Guide Prat. 65. 1895.
Of Belgian origin. Fruit rather large, pyriform, green covered with brown-russet, changing to yellowish-green on ripening; flesh white, rather firm, melting, perfumed; Jan. and Feb.

Beurré Rose. 1. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:528. 1860.
Fruit medium, obovate, yellow washed with rose; flesh white, semi-melting, sweet; end of Oct.

Beurré Rouge d'Automne. 1, Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:421, fig. 1867.
Raised about 1780 by the Chartreuse monks at Paris. Fruit medium and often below, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, yellow-ochre, dotted and stained with fawn around the calyx and washed with brownish-red on the side next the sun; flesh white, semi-fine or coarse, melting, rarely very juicy, granular at center, sugary, vinous, little perfume; quality variable.

Beurré Royal de Turin. 1. Gard. Chron. N. S. 21:779. 1884.
Originated in Italy. Fruit large, globular, irregular, yellow, dotted with green; flesh melting, white, sugary, pleasantly acidulous.

Beurré de Saint-Amand. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 4:3, fig. 1856. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:423, fig. 1867.
Obtained from seed by M. Grégoire, near Fleurus, Bel., in 1853. Fruit medium, globular-ovoid, very obtuse, bright green passing to golden-yellow and stained with orange-red on the sunny side when ripe; flesh yellowish-white,fine,melting, juicy, some grit around the seeds; juice vinous, sweet, aromatic; first; Oct.

Beurré de Saint Arnaud. 1. Mag. Hort. 26:219. 1860. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 685. 1869.
A Belgian variety, originated 1853; probably identical with Beurré de Saint-Amand. Fruit small or medium; globular-acute-pyriform, golden-yellow, marked with orange-red at maturity, striped with brownish-red in the sun; flesh white, fine, buttery; juice abundant, sugary, perfumed; first; Nov.

Beurré Saint-Aubert. 1. Guide Prat. 87. 1895.
Probably Belgian. Fruit medium, oval, lemon-yellow, speckled with fawn; flesh very melting, sugary and perfumed; first; Oct. and Nov.

Beurré Saint-François. 1. Guide Prat. 87. 1895.
Fruit rather large, oval-oblong, sombre yellow; flesh very melting, sugary, delicious, Nov.

Beurré Saint-Marc. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:425, fig. 1867.
A French pear of uncertain origin. Fruit medium, roundish-ovate, greenish-yellow; washed with rose; flesh dense, very juicy, of exquisite flavor, sweet and acid; first; Dec. to Feb. Tree vigorous.

Beurré Samoyeau. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:428, fig. 1867. 2. Mas. Pom. Gen. 4:129, fig. 257. 1879.
A seedling of André Leroy, Angers, Fr.; fruited in 1863. Fruit below medium, turbinate, slightly obtuse, one side always more swelled than the other; skin greenish-yellow, sprinkled with large, russet spots and some stains of fawn, partly scaly; flesh white, fine, melting, rather granular above and below the core; juice fair in amount, saccharine, with a delicate perfume and highly agreeable, buttery flavor; first; Nov. and Dec.

Beurré Scheidweiller. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 528. 1884.
A seedling of Van Mons, named by him after M. Scheidweiller, Professor of Botany at Ghent, Bel. Fruit medium, obtuse-pyriform, bright pea-green, strewed with minute, russet dots; flesh yellowish-white, coarse, sweet, very juicy; an agreeable pear, of moderate merit; end of Oct. and early Nov.

Beurré Seutin. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:180. 1856. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 697. 1869.
Attributed to Van Mons and first published in 1847. Fruit medium, pyriform, inclining to oval, irregular or angular, light green turning yellowish at maturity, sprinkled with dots and speckles of russet, sometimes shaded with dull crimson; flesh coarse, not very juicy, semi-melting; third for dessert, first for cooking; Dec. and Jan.

Beurré de Silly. 1. Guide Prat. 87. 1895.
Fruit rather large; first; Sept. and Oct. Tree fertile.

Beurré Six. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:429, fig. 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 697. 1869.
Raised from seed about 1845 by a gardener named Six at Courtrai in Belgium. Fruit large, pyriform, smooth, pea-green changing to yellow; flesh greenish-white, fine, melting, firm, buttery, very juicy; first; Oct. to Dec.

Beurré Soulange. 1. Horticulturist N. S. 4:81, fig. 1854.
Imported from Brussels to this country before the middle of the last century. Fruit medium to large, acute-pyriform, pale, clear yellow at maturity with some traces of russet; flesh melting and very juicy, with a rich and sugary flavor and a particularly pleasant aroma; very good; Oct. and Nov.

Beurré Spence. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 697. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 529. 1884.
This name has been given to several varieties. The true Beurré Spence was raised by Van Mons who described it as follows: "Fruit shape and size of Brown Beurré. Skin green, handsomely streaked and marked with reddish-brown and reddish-purple. Flesh tender, juicy, sugary, and perfumed; Sept.

Beurré Stappaerts. 1. Mas Le Verger 1:125, fig. 61. 1866-73.
A seedling of Van Mons. Fruit small to medium, nearly spherical or conic-spherical; skin thick and firm, pale green sprinkled with large, brownish dots regularly spaced, turning to dull, pale yellow and rather golden where exposed to the sun; flesh yellowish-white, semi-breaking; juice moderate in amount, very saccharine, highly perfumed, agreeable; second; Jan. and Feb.

Beurré Steins. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:175, fig. 376. 1880.
Cataloged by M. Jahn in 1864. Fruit medium, turbinate, regular in form, green, usually entirely or nearly covered with a fine coating of russet of a yellowish-brown, sown with very small and numerous gray dots; flesh whitish, fine, semi-buttery; juice sufficient, sweet and agreeable; Oct.

Beurré Sterckmans. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 4:51, fig. 1856. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 529. 1884.  Doyenné Sterckmans. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:89, fig. 1869.

Obtained by M. Sterckmans at Louvain, Bel., before 1820. Fruit medium, oblong-obovate-pyriform, delicate greenish-yellow, largely washed with crimson on side next the sun, some traces of russet; flesh white, with a greenish tinge, semi-melting, buttery, rich, sugary, vinous, fine aroma; first; Jan. and Feb.

Beurré de Stuttgardt. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:430, fig. 1867.
Obtained from seed at Stuttgart, Württemberg, Ger., in 1863. Fruit medium, long-ovoid, obtuse, yellow-ochre, sown with points of gray-russet and some brownish patches, generally colored with pale rose on the side exposed to the sun; flesh yellowish-white, fine, melting, juicy, sugary, vinous, possessing an extremely delicate flavor; first; Sept.

Beurré Sucré. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:109, fig. 247. 1879.
Considered to be a seedling of Van Mons. Fruit small, ovate-pyriform, pale green, speckled with brown dots, large and prominent; flesh greenish-yellow, melting, rather gritty at the core; juice rich in sugar, having the consistency of a syrup, from which the fruit received its name; good; Oct.

Beurré Thoury. 1. Hooper W. Fr. Book 132. 1857.
Said to have been exhibited before the Cincinnati Horticultural Society, 1855, by F. R. Elliott, of Cleveland. Tree handsome, vigorous. Fruit medium to above, round, obtusely turbinate, buttery, juicy; good; Aug. and Sept.

Beurré Triguer. 1. Mag. Hort. 18:150. 1852.
"A small, roundish formed pear, of a yellow color, dotted with red spots, that has a short stem, and is sweet and juicy, of a half-breaking texture."

Beurré de Ulm. 1. Lucas Tafelbirnen 103. 1894.
A German pear published in the middle of the nineteenth century. Fruit medium, roundish, sometimes rather oval, yellowish-green, on ripening bright yellow; flesh yellowish-white, soft, melting, very agreeable; end of Oct.

Beurré Vanille. 1. Guide Prat. 62. 1895.
Disseminated by M. Proche, a pomologist at Slonpno, Bohemia. Fruit medium, pyriform, russet, with yellow and red on the sunny side; flesh fine, melting, very sugary and juicy; first; autumn.

Beurré Varenne de Fenille. 1. Mas Le Verger 1:53, fig. 33. 1866-73.
Obtained by M. Pariset, Curciat-Dongalon, Fr. Fruit rather large, globular but irregular, pale green; flesh fine, very melting, buttery, abundant, with sweet juice and well perfumed, first; Dec. and Jan.

Beurré Vauban. 1. Cat. Con. Pom. France 195, fig. 1906.
Obtained by M. A. Varet in 1867. Fruit rather large to large, pyriform-obtuse, very irregular, mammillate at crown, bossed at base, bright green, russeted; flesh whitish, fine, melting, very juicy, sugary, with an agreeable perfume; very good; Jan. and Feb.

Beurré Vert d'Été. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:435, figs. 1817
A Prussian variety the exact place of origin of which is obscure. Fruit medium and often below medium, obovate-pyriform, contorted near the stem which is set obliquely to the axis of the fruit; skin rough, bright green in the shade, yellow-green in the sun, entirely covered with large, gray, round dots and some patches of russet; flesh whitish, coarse, semi-melting, with little juice, which is very sweet and musky; third class; end of Aug.

Beurré Vert Tardif. 1. Mas he Verger 1:93, fig. 53. 1866-73. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:437, fig. 1867.
A variety well known in Belgium and Germany in the seventeenth century. Fruit medium, pyriform, very regular, generally obtuse, pale green, dotted and striped with fawn; flesh white, buttery, semi-melting; juice sufficient, vinous, little perfume; second; Dec. and Jan.

Beurré Wamberchies. 1. Gard. Chron. 19:706. 1883. 2. Guide Prat. 88. 1895.
Fruit rather large, roundish-obovate, dotted, deep green passing into yellow on ripening; flesh melting, with abundant, sugary juice, completely devoid of pips and grit; excellent; May and June.

Beurré de Wetteren. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:439, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 530. 1884.
Originated in Louis Berckman's garden at Heyst-op-den-Berg, Bel., and is supposed to have been one of the seedlings raised by Major Esperén, some of whose trees Berckmans obtained after the former's death. It was disseminated about 1848. Fruit rather large, globular-pyriform, lemon-yellow and shining, covered with large, russet spots, washed with dull red next the sun; flesh yellowish, coarse-grained, buttery, well sweetened and flavored, juicy; very good; Dec. and Jan.

Beurré Winter. 1. McIntosh Bk. Card. 2:460. 1855.
Raised by Rivers of Sawbridgeworth, Eng., from seed of the Easter Buerré; must not be mistaken for either the Black Achan or Chaumontel for each of which the name Beurré Winter is synonymous. Fruit large; flesh very rich flavor and vinous; excellent; Feb. and Mar.

Beurré Witzhumb. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 190. 1832. 2. Ibid. 158. 1841.
Possibly one of Van Mons' seedlings. Fruit oval, knobby, three and a half inches in diameter; skin rough, green, brownish-red or dark brown next the sun; flesh greenish-white, semi-transparent, melting, perfumed; Dec.

Beurré Woronson. 1. Mag. Hort. 20:234. 1854. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 158. 1860.
This pear, which has been known as Beurré Woronson, Beurré Woronzow, Beurré Woronzon, and Woronson, is credited to M. De Hartwiss of either France or Belgium. Tree very productive. Fruit medium, obovate, attractive, juicy; good; Oct. and Nov.

Beurré Zotman. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:69, fig. 323. 1880.
Cataloged by this name by the Society of Van Mons, though M. Jahn cataloged it in 1864 under the name Franz-Madame von Duves. Fruit small or rather small, like Calebasse in form, bright green, sprinkled with dots of greenish-gray, the green passing at maturity to bright lemon-yellow and washed on the side next the sun with a beautiful tender rose; flesh white, rather delicate, juicy, sweet; second, but its very fine appearance should merit it a place; July.

Beyer Martinsbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:28. 1856.
Raised in Saxony in 1816. Fruit medium, light green changing to lemon-yellow, with reddish blush, scaly; flesh very juicy; good; beginning of Aug.

Beymont. 1. Gard. Chron. 895. 1860. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 474, fig. 1857.
May be identical with Beurré Bymont Fruit about medium, oblate, even, and handsomely shaped; golden-yellow next the sun, greenish-yellow in the shade, russeted around the stalk; flesh tender, not very juicy; an inferior fruit; Nov.

Bezi Blanc. 1. Cole Am. Fr. Book 154. 1849. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 391. 1854.
Of foreign origin. Fruit large, oblong-pyriform, yellowish; quality very similar to Bartlett, though hardly so good, but it is two weeks earlier; Aug.

Bezi de Naples. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 355. 1854.
Origin unknown, presumably European and Italian. Fruit medium, ovate-obovate, light yellowish-green, with blotches and stripes of darker hue, some russet patches and dots; flesh fine, buttery, juicy, sweet; first; end of Sept.

Bied-Charreton. 1. Guide Prat. 88. 1895.
A French variety distributed from Nantes before 1895. Fruit medium to large, coppery-colored; flesh semi-fine, melting, juicy, and has a delicate aroma; Oct.

Bierbaumer Mostbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 76. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit medium, obtuse-turbinate; skin fine, greenish-yellow, covered with small dots and specklings, slightly blushed; flesh yellow-white, firm, juicy; early half of Oct.

Big Productive. 1. Burbank Cat. 2. 1921.
Said to be a large fall pear, a cross between Bartlett and Le Conte.

Bijou. 1. Guide Prat. 69. 1895.
A French variety obtained by M. de Mortillet. Fruit small or medium, long, pale yellow, tinged with red; flesh melting, juicy, very refreshing; first half of Sept.

Bill Campbell. 1. Van Lindley Cat. 22. 1892.
Said to have been originated in Alabama by a colored man of the same name from seed of Duchesse d'Angoulême. Claimed to resemble its parent very much but to be larger and better in quality.

Binsce. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 593. 1629.
Described by Parkinson, 1629, as a good winter pear, of russet color, and a small fruit but a good keeper.

Birne von Turschud. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:157. 1856.
A Levantine variety introduced into Germany in 1833. Fruit medium, smooth, yellow, without any redness or russet; flesh savorless, granular, breaking; Oct.

Bishop Thumb. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 592. 1629. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 237. 1854.  3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:441, figs. 1867. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 702. 1869. A long, oddly-shaped English pear of variable color and quality, rated as an excellent dessert pear by some; placed on the list of rejected fruits by the American Pomological Society. Tree hardy, very abundant bearer. Fruit rather large, oblong, narrow, pyriform, undulating; color dark yellowish-green, covered with numerous large, russety dots and having a russet-red cheek; calyx small, open; stalk attached with no depression; flesh greenish-yellow, melting, juicy, vinous; good to very good; Oct.

Bivort Zuckerbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:55. 1856.
A Belgian seedling, 1851. Fruit large, obovate, smooth, green changing to yellow, with bright red cheek; flesh melting, vinous, sweet and agreeable; good; beginning of Sept.

Black Hawk. 1. Mag. Hort. 1:437. 1845.
Exhibited before and reported on at various times by the Massachusetts and New-Haven Horticultural Societies as a baking variety. Probably a seedling of Governor Edwards.

Black Huffcap. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 531. 1884.
A well-known perry pear cultivated in Herefordshire and Worcestershire, Eng. Fruit quite small, pyriform or oblong-ovate, olive-green on the shaded side and covered with dull rusty red on the sun-exposed side; flesh yellowish-green, firm and very gritty.

Black Sorrel. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 593. 1629.
Described by Parkinson in 1629 as "a reasonable great long peare, of a darke red colour on the outside."

Black Worcester. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 429. 1845. 2. Ibid. 702. 1869. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 531. 1884. 4. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fruits 160. 1920.  Worster. 5. Parkinson Par. Ter. 592. 1629.  Black Pear of Worcester. 6. Langley Pomona 133, PL LXXI, fig. 2. 1729.  Livre. 7. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:235. 1768. 8. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:346. 1869.  Iron Pear. 9. Cole Am. Fr. Book 174. 1849.
The Romans cultivated a Pound Pear during the first century of the Christian era. In 1652 Claude Mollet describes a Pound Pear. Several subsequent writers describe the same pear as Lime, De Livre, or Poire de Livre. In Worcester, Eng., in the sixteenth century a pear known as Black Worcester, Black Pear of Worcester, or Parkinson's Warden came under general cultivation asa "Warden "or baking pear of which it forms the type. These two pears appear to be identical. Mas makes Black Worcester a synonym of De Livre, Hogg states that they very much resemble each other, the authors of Guide Pratique de l'Amateur de Fruits list them as synonymous, and Bunyard says that he believes that they are almost certainly identical. Black Worcester is retained as the name of the variety because it is now most commonly used. Tree vigorous, hardy, bears well as a standard; young shoots dark yellow-olive, diverging; branches inclining downward with the weight of the fruit. Fruit large, obovate; skin thick, green, rough, nearly covered with dark russet, occasionally with a dull tinge next the sun; calyx small, nearly closed, set in a wide and rather deep basin; stem about an inch long, very stout, woody, inserted without depression; flesh pale yellow, hard, crisp, coarse, flavorless, rather gritty; a good cooking pear; Nov. to Feb.

Blackeney Red. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 531. 1884.
A second-rate perry pear much used in Herefordshire, Eng. Fruit medium, obovate, greenish-yellow, more or less deep red on the side next the sun; flesh firm, crisp, juicy and mildly acid.

Blanquet Anastere. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:443, fig- 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 703. 1869.
Raised by M. Goubault, a nurseryman at Angers, Fr., in 1840. Fruit small, pyriform but rather variable, form oblong to turbinate-ovoid, but always rather more swelled on one side than on the other; color pale green in the shade, dotted with gray but passing to greenish-yellow on the sun-exposed side which is also generally colored with vermilion; flesh white, half-fine, granular and breaking, juicy, sugary, with a delicate and characteristic aroma; second; July.

Blanquet Long. 1. Mas Le Verger 2:217, fig. 107. 1866-73.
Obtained in the garden of the Horticultural Society of Angers, Maine-et-Loire, Fr, Fruit small, long-ovate, bright green passing at maturity to pale yellow, washed with blood-red on the side next the sun; flesh white, fine, almost buttery, with abundant, sweet juice, refreshing and perfumed; good; early July.

Blanquet à Longue Queue. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:131. 1768. 2. Mas Le Verger 2:233, fig. 15. 1866-73.
Of very ancient and unknown origin, mentioned by various French authors of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Fruit small, ovate-pyriform, bossed and corrugated at summit, smooth, pale yellow, slightly streaked with tender rose on the sun-touched cheek; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, seldom gritty, juicy, acidulous, sweet, with a slightly musky and delicate perfume; second; end of July and Aug.

Blanquet Précoce. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:446, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:19, fig. 490. 1881.
This is an ancient and probably German variety. Fruit small, long-pyriform, very pale green changing to canary-yellow; flesh white, semi-melting, granular; juice moderate in amount, sweet, acid, musky; second; early July.

Blanquet de Saintonge. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:447, fig. 1867.
Its name indicates that it was raised in the Basse Saintonge, Fr. Fruit small, oblong-obovate; bright lemon-yellow, dotted with grayish-white; flesh white, semi-fine, rather melting; juice sufficient, sweet, generally vinous, with some aroma; second; end of Aug.

Blanquette de Toulouse. 1. Mas Le Verger 2:229, fig. 113. 1866-73.
Origin unknown, through its name suggests Toulouse, Fr. Fruit small, short-pyriform, bright green passing on ripening to pale yellow, carmined on the side next the sun, with numerous gray dots; flesh white, granular, semi-melting, with abundant sweet juice; a fruit of good quality for the season; middle of July.

Bleeker Meadow. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 355, fig. 149. 1845. 2. Mag. Hart. 14: 339, fig. 33. 1848.
Found in a meadow by Aaron Feaster, Bucks County, Pa., about 1783. Fruit small or medium, globular, very regular; skin smooth, bright clear yellow, sprinkled with crimson dots on the side next the sun; flesh very white, firm, with a musky and spicy taste, but mostly remains crisp and hard; good; Oct. and Nov.

Blessed. 1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:59. 1908.
Described by Dr. Mease in Domestic Encyclopedia, 1804. Fruit small; very good; medium early.

Blickling. 1. Bunyard Cat. 39. 1913.
Named from Blickling Hall, Norfolk, Eng., and supposed to have been introduced by monks from Belgium. Fruit greenish and russety; flesh melting, of rich flavor; excellent; Dec. and Jan.

Block. 1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:59. 1908.
Originated by A. Block, Santa Clara, Calif., before 1908. Fruit medium, globular-ovate; green-yellow, russeted; flesh melting; season medium.

Blodget. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:216. 1832.
Raised from seed by David Blodget, Camden, Me., about 1800. Fruit medium, pyriform; flesh melting, juicy, with a pleasant, vinous flavor; Sept.

Blumenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:154. 1856.
A seedling of Van Mons, Bel., 1825. Fruit small, roundish-turbinate-obtuse, lemon-yellow, washed with red on the sunny side; flesh half-melting; good; end of Aug.

Blutbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:193. 1856. 2. Löschnig Mostbirnen 218, fig. 1913.
Published in Germany in 1795 and regarded as a perry pear in Austria. It is known as the Flesh-pear in Upper and Lower Austria and also as the Sanguinol in the former. Fruit small, globular-pyriform, obtuse, greenish-yellow, strongly blushed on the sun-exposed side; flesh yellowish-white, flushed with red especially on the side next the sun, rather coarse, subacid, little aroma; third; Oct.

Bocksbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:34. 1856.
Originated in Saxony 1833. Fruit small, turbinate, light yellow and blushed slightly on the side of the sun; flesh aromatic; good; Aug.

Bödiker Dechantsbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:95. 1856.
A seedling of Van Mons, Belgium, 1852. Fruit medium, turbinate, green turning to greenish-yellow, speckled uniformly with russet spots; flesh yellowish-white, very soft and delicate; very good; Oct. and Nov.

Bogenäkerin. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2: iq$. 1856.
Originated in Württemberg, 1823. Fruit medium, oblique, sides unequal, grass-green changing to light yellow, russeted; good; Oct. and Nov.

Böhmische frühe Jakobsbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:47. 1856.
Originated in Bohemia, 1852. Fruit small, yellowish-green, streaked with russet; flesh yellowish, vinous; good; end of July for two weeks.

Boieldien. 1. Guide Prat. 103. 1895.
A cross between Crassane and Louise-bonne Sannier. Fruit medium to large; flesh very fine and perfumed; Oct. and Nov.

Bolarmud. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:116. 1856.
An oriental variety introduced in 1833. Fruit fairly large, ventriculous-turbinate, of a uniform light green, blushed with red; tolerably sweet; Dec.

Bollweiler Butterbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:70. 1856.
A seedling raised by Bollweiler in Alsace, 1851. Fruit medium, short-turbinate, green changing to greenish-yellow, somewhat blushed, thick-scaled; flesh melting, sweet; Apr.

Bologna. 1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:59. 1908.
Originated by Van Mons. Fruit medium, yellow; good; late.

Bon-Chrétien d'Auch (Calvel). 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 533. 1884.
Although bearing the same name this pear is quite distinct from the Bon-Chrétien d'Auch which is regarded as synonymous with the Bon-Chrétien d'Hiver, since the pear here discussed ripens in July and August. Fruit large to very large, like Calebasse in form, one side sometimes more swollen than the other, green becoming yellow on approach-ing maturity, bright vermilion on side exposed to the sun; flesh breaking; juice rich and sugary; good; July.

Bon-Chrétien d'Automne. 1. Langley Pomona 131. 1729. 2. Knoop Fructologie 1:82, Tab. II, fig. 1771.
Listed by Langley as ready to be gathered Aug. 20. Knoop stated in 1771 that it had the same qualities as the Bon Chretien d'été but that it ripens a little later. Fruit large; flesh soft and friable, but juicy, pleasant and aromatic.

Bon-Chrétien Bonnamour. 1. Rev. Hort. 76. 1898, 2. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 196, fig. 1906.
Raised in 1895 by M. Guillot, Rhône, Fr., and placed on the market in 1898. Fruit large to very large, of typical Bartlett form, rather contracted at the lower end and obliquely hollowed around the stalk, smooth, shining, and covered with fawn-russet and often tinted on the side next the sun; flesh fine, melting, juicy, sweet, perfumed; first class.

Bon-Chrétien d'Espagne. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:216, Pl.46. 1768. 2. Mas Le Verger 1:131, fig. 64. 1866-73.  Spanish Warden. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 648. 1884.
The origin of Bon-Chrétien d'Espagne or Spanish Warden is ancient and uncertain. Merlet described it in 1675, and so did La Quintinye, in 1692. It was well known; for Messrs. Simon-Louis of Metz, Lorraine, gave it some forty synonyms in their 1895 catalog. Fruit large, pyriform, very ventriculous in its lower half where it is more or less bossed, the upper part narrows to an obtuse end; skin thick, greenish-yellow changing to yellow, dotted and marked with fawn-russet, and highly colored with vivid red on the side exposed to the sun; flesh white, coarse, breaking, juicy, with a pleasant, brisk flavor and musky aroma; third for the table, first for the kitchen; Nov., Jan. and even Mar.

Bon-Chrétien d'été. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:217, PI. XLVII, fig. 4. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:457, fig. 1867.
Origin ancient and unknown but was cultivated in French gardens about the end of the sixteenth century, being mentioned by Olivier de Serres in 1600, and by Le Lectier of Orléans in 1628. It has been cultivated all over Europe for over three centuries and has consequently acquired a number of synonyms. Fruit large, pyriform, irregular in form, yellow, with orange blush on side next the sun, and strewed with green specks; flesh yellowish, crisp, coarse-grained, very juicy and of a rich, sweet and pleasant flavor; second; early Sept.

Bon-Chrétien Fondant. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 704. 1869. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:113, fig. 537. 1881.  Bon-Chrétien de Bruxelles. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:453, fig. 1867.
An ancient Flemish pear which must not be confounded with Épine d'Été; although Bugiarda has been used as a synonym for both. Fruit large, oblong-pyriform, green, sprinkled with small dots of deep green, the fundamental green changing to lemon-yellow on maturity; flesh whitish, very melting and juicy, sweet, delicately perfumed; good; Oct. and Nov.

Bon-Chrétien Frédéric Baudry. 1. Guide Prat. 88. 1895.
Fruit medium or large; flesh fine, sweet, perfumed; first; Feb. and Mar.

Bon-Chrétien d'Hiver. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:212, PI. XLV. 1768. 2. Mas Le Verger 1:23 bis, fig. 18. 1866-73.  Bon-Chrétien d'Auch. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 533. 1884.
A volume might be filled with a record of the endeavors to determine the origin of this pear. As to its great antiquity all are agreed. It is established that it was imported into Prance from Italy in 1495 by Charles VIII on his conquest of the kingdom of Naples, but whether it was the Crustuminum of the Romans or whether it received its name at the beginning of Christianity remains uncertain. One explanation of the name was that François de Paul, the founder of a monkish order, being called to the court of Louis XI for the recovery of his health, was styled by that monarch "le bon Chrétien," and that he brought with him from Calabria some of this fruit which henceforth acquired the name it bears. That suggestion, however, is evidently erroneous as Saint François de Paul's visit to the King at Tours took place in 1483 whereas this pear was introduced to France in 1495. It is thought not improbable that the name is derived from the Greek pan-chresta, meaning "all good," of which the Latin Crustuminum of the Romans may also be a derivation. Fruit large and sometimes very large, variable in form, irregularly pyriform or obovate-turbinate, rather rough to the touch, dull greenish-yellow, some brown next the sun, and strewed with small, russet dots; flesh whitish, crisp, juicy, sweet, aromatic and vinous; a dessert pear of merit, first class for cooking; Dec. to Mar.

Bon-Chrétien d'Hiver Panaché. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:467, fig. 1867.  Striped Bon Chrétien. 2. Kenrick Am. Orch. 184. 1833.
A variegated form of Bon Chrétien d'Hiver propagated by Louis Noisette at Brunoy, Seine-et-Oise, Fr,, in 1802. It differs only from its type in the coloring of its skin which is bright green, finely dotted and stained with brownish-red and covered with large, yellow streaks extending from the stalk to the calyx, and in its flesh being more melting.

Bon-Chrétien Mathieu Joseph Lamarche. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 3:99, fig. 1855.
Said to have been raised about the middle of the eighteenth century in a Belgian monastic garden. Fruit large, irregular-pyriform, rough to the touch, bright green, striped with russet and sprinkled with black dots, becoming rich golden-yellow on maturity; flesh white, buttery, melting; juice very abundant, with a delicate savor of the peach and the aroma of the raspberry; first; end of Oct.

Bon-Chrétien Prevost. 1. Guide Prat. 88. 1895.
Fruit large; flesh semi-melting, juicy and has a very pleasant perfume; first; Dec. to Feb.

Bon-Chrétien du Rhin d'Automne. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:139, fig. 166. 1878.
Diel stated that he received this variety from the neighborhood of Dietz in the Duchy of Nassau without any account of its origin. Fruit large, ovate-pyriform, bossed and irregular, sides unequal, bright green, dotted with gray points, passing to bright lemon-yellow on ripening, with some red coloring on the fruits more exposed; flesh white, rather fine, semi-buttery, firm, with sufficient sweet juice which is vinous, acidulous and perfumed.

Bon-Chrétien Ricchiero. 1. Mas Le Verger 3:Pt. 2, 139, fig. 166. 1866-73.
Obtained by M. de Mortillet, Meylan, Fr.; first published in 1865. Fruit medium to large, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, pale green, sown with brown spots; flesh greenish-white, fine, melting, a little gritty at the core; juice abundant, sugary, vinous, highly scented; first; Oct.

Bon-Chrétien Vermont. 1. Guide Prat. 88. 1895.
A cross between Rousselet de Reims and la Belle Angevine obtained by M. Sannier. Fruit large; form that of Belle Angevine; flesh fine, juicy, scented and sweet; Oct.

Bon-Chrétien de Vernois. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:469, fig. 1867.
Obtained by M. Henrard, nurseryman at Liege, Fr., about 1840. Fruit large, varying in form between ovate and turbinate-obtuse, bossed, greenish-yellow, touched with olive-russet and dotted with bright brown specks; flesh whitish, semi-fine, semi-melting, rather gritty at center; juice abundant, sweet, astringent and slightly aromatic; second; Nov. to Jan.

Bon Gustave. 1. Gard. Chron. 69. 1848. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:471, fig. 1867.
From a seed bed of Major Espéren, Mechlin, Bel., but it did not bear fruit till 1847. Fruit rather large, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, mammillate, bright green, marbled with russet; flesh greenish-yellow, buttery, sweet, perfumed; first; beginning of winter.

Bon Parent. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:472, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:117, fig. 155. 1878.
Raised by Simon Bouvier of Jodoigne, Bel., in 1820. Fruit medium, regular pyriform, bossed at summit, smooth, lemon-yellow, dotted with gray-russet, washed with reddish-brown on the side next the sun; flesh white, fine, semi-melting, juicy, vinous, aromatic; hardly first; Oct.

Bon-Roi-René. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:473, fig. 1867.
Raised from seed by Leroy and bore fruit first in 1864. Fruit medium to large, ovate, irregular, bossed, lively green, sprinkled all over with dark gray dots and vermilioned on the side exposed to the sun; flesh yellowish-white, fine and dense, watery, excessively melting, and a little gritty; juice abundant, sweet, vinous, with a delicious perfumed taste; first; Oct.

Bon Vicaire. 1. Guide Prat. 88. 1895.
The fruit of this variety resembles that of the Vicar of Winkfield and the tree, of moderate vigor, is similar to that of the Duchesse d'Angoulême. Fruit large or very large, long and like Calebasse in form, yellow, vermilioned on the sunny side; flesh very fine, melting; Sept.

Bonne d'Anjou. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:474, fig- 1867.
Raised from seed by Leroy in 1864 at Angers, Fr. Fruit medium and sometimes large, ovate, irregular and much bossed, bright yellow, speckled all over with dark gray spots and washed with vermilion on the side next the sun; flesh yellowish-white, fine and dense, exceedingly melting, a little gritty; juice abundant, sugary, vinous, refreshing, deliciously perfumed; first; Oct.

Bonne-Antonine. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:475, fig. 1867.
There is a great similarity between this variety and Buerre Flon. The origin is obscure. The Society of Van Mons distributed it before 1876 without description. Fruit large and often enormous, long-conic, obtuse, slightly bossed and generally somewhat contorted at the summit, dull golden-yellow, mottled and dotted with russet; flesh yellowish-white, fine, dense, very melting, almost free from granulations; juice abundant, refreshing, sugary, with an exceedingly pleasant after flavor of anis; first; mid-Oct.

Bonne de Beugny. 1. Rev. Hort. 280. 1911.
A chance seedling, found at Sainte-Catherine-de-Fier-Bois, Fr., by M. Chivert in 1875. Fruit large to very large, globular-obtuse-pyriform, yellow, washed with russet especially round the stalk; flesh melting, juicy, sweet, and agreeably perfumed; first; Oct. to Jan,

Bonne Carmelite. 1. Guide Prat. 88. 1876.
Distributed from Tournai, Bel. Fruit semi-melting; like Calebasse in form; Mar. and Apr.

Bonne de la Chapelle. 1. Mas Le Verger 2:231, fig. 114. 1866-73.
A wilding found by Jacques Jalais, Nantes, Fr., in 1845. It was described in this country by Downing in 1869. Fruit medium, turbinate, short and swelled, rather irregular in contour, green, sprinkled with dots of a deeper shade of green, some russet blush on the exposed side; flesh a little greenish, fine, buttery, melting, with abundant sweet juice, first; end of Aug.

Bonne Charlotte. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:477, fig. 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 705. 1869.
Obtained from seed in the garden of the Society of Van Mons at Geest-Saint-Rémy, Jodoigne, Bel., in 1849. Fruit medium, variable in form, but usually simply pyriform, bossed, pale yellow, with green dots, lightly washed with purple on the side exposed to the sun; flesh white, rather fine, more buttery than melting, sugary; juice sufficient and slightly musky; good; Aug. and Sept.

Bonne d'Ezée. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 5:73, fig. 1857. 2. Pom. France i:No. 34. PL 34. 1863.  Brockworth Park. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 535. 1884.
A wilding found at Ezée in the Touraine, Fr., by Dupuy about 1788. Fruit large, often medium, long-ovate-obtuse; skin rather thick, oily, lemon-yellow or golden, dotted and stained with bright russet; flesh white, very fine and melting; juice excessively abundant, sugary, acidulous, having an exquisite aroma; first; all Sept.

Bonne de Jalais. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:480, fig. 1867.
Obtained from seed in 1857 at Nantes, Fr., by Jacques Jalais, Fruit small, globular-ovate, bossed, one side always more enlarged than the other; skin rough, pale yellow, dotted with clear brown and stained with russet markings; flesh whitish, semi-fine, melting, sometimes a little dry, slightly gritty at center; juice sufficient, very sugary and having an agreeable flavor; second; latter half of Sept.

Bonne-Jeanne. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:481, fig. 1867.
Origin unknown, but in the middle of the nineteenth century it was extensively cultivated in the environs of Paris. Fruit medium to small, pyriform-obtuse, depressed at crown and stem, yellow-ochre, dotted and mottled with fawn and washed on the exposed side with brick-red or brilliant-violet-red; flesh greenish-white, semi-fine, and semi-melting, rather dry, very sweet and with a not unpleasant taste of fennel; third, middle of Aug.

Bonne Sophia. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 706, fig. 1869.
Fruit medium, obovate-acute-pyriform, pale greenish-yellow, with a red cheek, a few patches and nettings of russet and numerous small, brown dots; flesh white, fine, melting, sweet and slightly perfumed; very good; Oct.

Bonne Thérèse. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:488, fig. 295. 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 797. 1869.
Probably originated by Nélis, Mechlin, Bel., previous to the year 1834. Fruit medium, regular, roundish-oval, greeenish-yellow, marbled with dull red at the stalk; stalk short, straight; calyx small, open; flesh white, juicy, highly aromatic, sweet, melting; first; Oct.

Bonne des Zoes. 1. McIntosh Bk. Gard. 2:463. 1855.
Described as a recent introduction in England in 1855. Fruit medium; first; Sept.; tree productive, making a good standard.

Bonners. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 51. 1869. 2. Ibid. 119. 1873.
Originated in Hancock County, Ga., and was known in 1869 in Washington County, of that state, as the Pope pear. Fruit has a peculiar almond flavor; very good; Sept.

Bonneserre de Saint-Denis. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:490, figs. 1867.
An exquisite pear raised from seed by Leroy, Angers, Fr., in 1863. Fruit medium or above, globular-obtuse-pyriform, regular in outline; a second type of the variety is rather contorted and bossed; color greenish-yellow, dotted, striped and stained with russet; flesh white, fine, melting, granular about the core; juice plentiful, sweet, acid, and endowed with a delicious perfume; first; Dec. and Jan.

Bonnet Zuckerbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:55. 1856.
A Belgian variety attributed to Van Mons. Fruit medium to small, long and convex, beautiful yellow, flushed with red on the side of the sun; flesh melting and sweet; first; Sept.

Boutoc. 1. Guide Prat. 69. 1895.
A very ancient variety cultivated in the Gironde, Fr., and often called Poire d'Ange. Fruit medium, obtuse, short, lemon-yellow, stained with gray and red; flesh fine, melting; good; end of Aug.

Bordine Musk. 1. Langley Pomona 131. 1729.
Considered one of the best pears in England in the early part of the eighteenth century. Fruit small, globular, musky; end of June for very short season.

Bouchamp. 1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:64. 1908.
A chance seedling in the garden of M. Penneton. Fruit medium, globular-obtuse-pyriform, green, yellow-russeted; flesh delicate, juicy, buttery, melting, sweet, vinous, perfumed; season medium.

Boucquia. 1. Mag. Hort. 9:134, fig. 3. 1843. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 355. 1845.
A Flemish variety originated by Van Mons who sent cions of it to Manning in 1836. It bore fruit for the first time in the Pomological Garden, Salem, Mass., in 1841. Fruit large, oval, largest in the middle, tapering towards each end, pale yellow, tinged with pale red on the side next the sun, covered with blackish specks and some patches of russet; flesh yellowish-white, tender, melting, sweet, rich, somewhat astringent at times, perfumed; Oct. and Nov.

Bourdon de Roi. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 536. 1884.
Fruit small, globular, yellowish-green, changing to clear yellow, with some dark red blush next the sun; flesh white, very tender, semi-melting, of a refreshing, sweet, vinous and musky flavor; first; Nov.

Bouvier d'Automne. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:491, fig. 1867.
A seedling of Van Mons, said to have been tasted by Bivort for the first time in 1845. Fruit below medium, ovate-obtuse-pyriform, golden-yellow, speckled with large dots of bright brown, mottled with fawn and generally bronzed on the side next the sun; flesh yellowish-white, semi-fine and semi-melting; juice abundant, sugary, acidulous, and having a delicate aroma; second; Oct.

Bouvier Bourgmestre. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:492, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 537. 1884.
Raised from a seed bed made in 1824 by Bouvier, Jodoigne, Bel. Fruit large, obtuse-pyriform, bright yellow, covered with small, gray dots, washed with fawn at each end; flesh very white and fine, melting, juicy, gritty around the core, vinous and sugary; second; Oct. and Nov.

Bouviers Herbstbirne, 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:65. 1856.
Originated by Van Mons, 1847. Fruit medium, oval, obtuse, green turning to yellow, marbled with dark brown and speckled; flesh, semi-buttery, aromatic, sweet; first; latter half of Oct.

Bowdoin. 1. Mag. Hort. 3:48. 1837.
Raised from seed in the neighborhood of Boston, Mass., early in the nineteenth century. Fruit large; skin thick; second; Sept.

Bowne Winter Russet. 1. Field Pear Cult. 272. 1858.
Originated at Flushing, Long Island, N. Y. Fruit large, greenish-yellow; good; Jan.

Boyken June. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 108. 1873.
Believed to have originated on the lower James River, Va. On trial and well regarded in 1873. Fruit medium, beautifully colored; good, may be shipped in early July, keeping qualities good, but rather deficient in flavor.

Braconot. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:494, fig. 1867.
From a seed bed made in 1840 or 1841 by Leclerc in his garden at Épinal, Fr. Fruit large, oblong-obtuse, much swelled, bossed; skin greasy, golden-yellow, speckled all over with grayish-brown, washed with red on the side next the sun; flesh yellowish, fine, semi-melting, gritty around the core; juice moderate in amount, sweet, acid and deliciously perfumed; first; Oct. and Nov.

Brandes. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:495, fig. 1867.
Raised by Van Mons, Louvain, Bel.; first reported in 1818. Fruit below medium, long-ovate-obtuse, greenish-yellow, dotted and marbled with russet and extensively washed with russet around the stem; flesh white, fine, excessively melting, gritty at center; juice sufficient, sweet, musky; first; mid-Nov. to mid-Dec.

Braunrote Speckbirne. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 189. 1889.  Poire de Lard Brune. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:145, fig. 553. 1881.
A German variety cultivated in Hanover where it is also known under the names Poire Pendante and Poire Bourree de Hambourg. Fruit medium or nearly large, obovate-pyriform, bright green, with very numerous dots of darker green but usually no trace of russet. On ripening, the fundamental green becomes bright yellow, brightened with reddish-brown on the side next the sun; early Sept.

Braunrothe Frühlingsbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:4. 1856.
Of Belgian origin. 1832. Fruit medium, entirely covered with brown-russet; good; winter to March first.

Braunrothe Sommerrusselet. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:42. 1856.  Rousselet d'été Brun Rouge. 2. Mas Le Verger 2:53, fig. 25- 1866-73.
Probably of ancient German origin. Published at Nassau, 1804. Fruit small, obtuse-conic, regular in outline, summit flat, smooth, pale green changing to bright greenish-yellow and extensively washed on the. side next the sun with dull brownish-red on which are yellow-gray dots so prominent as to be rough to the touch; flesh yellow-white, rather breaking, melting, gritty around the core, sweet, refreshing, having the perfume characteristic of the Rousselet; first; Aug.

Brederode. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:37. 1856.
Seedling of Van Mons, 1817. Fruit medium, long-turbinate, light greenish-yellow changing to light lemon-yellow, slightly russeted; flesh granular, softish, very sweet; end of Sept. and early Oct.

Bremer Butterbirne. 1. Oberdieck Obst-Sort. 247. 1881.
Raised from seed by Herr Neuburg in Bremen, Ger. Fruit large, turbinate, green, turning to yellow-green and yellow on ripening; flesh yellowish-white, fine, melting, finely granular, musky; Dec.

Brewer. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 708. 1869. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:1, fig. 289. 1880.
Origin uncertain, but probably American. Fruit medium, obovate-pyriform; skin thin, tender, bright green dotted with very small, brown specks; flesh white, translucent, melting; juice sweet, very abundant, delicately and agreeably perfumed; good; Oct.

Brewster. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 46. 1866.
A seedling fruited by Dr. S. A. Shurtleff of Brookline, Mass., in 1865. Fruit medium, yellow, melting and juicy; Nov.

Brialmont. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:498, fig. 1867.
Origin uncertain, but it was described in the catalog of the Society of Van Mons. Fruit medium, globular-ovate, mammillate at summit, yellowish-green, covered with dots and patches of gray russet; flesh very white, dense, fine, semi-melting, some grit about the core; juice abundant, sweet and perfumed; second; Oct.

Brielsche Pomeranzenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:22. 1856.  Orange de Briel. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:47, fig. 408- 1880.
Attributed to Holland about 1812 by Dochnahl. Fruit small or nearly small, globular-turbinate, sides uneven (Dochnahl), even contour (Mas), green passing at maturity to bright lemon-yellow, washed on the side next the sun with a beautiful vermilion, covered with numerous minute dots of fawn which change to yellow on the sunny side; flesh whitish, rather fine, semi-buttery, gritty, not very juicy, saccharine; first.

Briffaut. 1. Gard. Chron. 367. 1863.
Fruit medium, pyriform, smooth, shaded side green, other red; flesh greenish-white, fine, melting, sweet, perfumed; it is one of the most beautiful fruits of the summer, brilliant in coloring, but it decays rapidly; Aug.

Brindamour. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:501, fig. 1867.
Originated in the Department of the Vienne, Fr., at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Fruit medium, obtuse-turbinate, rough to the touch, bronzed, dotted with fawn, some bright green around the stem, and marbled with the same color on the cheek exposed to the sun; flesh whitish, fine, soft, melting; juice extremely abundant, sweet, acidulous and very pleasantly perfumed; first; Nov. to the end of Jan.

Bringewood. 1. Mag. Hort. 9:124. 1843. 2.16^.13:153. 1847.
A foreign variety, probably English. Fruit medium, pyriform, yellowish-brown, almost covered with russet; flesh yellowish-white, somewhat gritty around the core, otherwise buttery, rich; first; end of Oct. to beginning of Dec.

British Queen. 1. Jour. Hort. N. S. 3:546. 1862. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 537. 1884.
Raised by Thomas Ingram from seed of Marie Louise at Frogmore, Eng., and first distributed in 1863. Fruit large, obovate-pyriform, bossed, golden, much covered with cinnamon-colored russet, encrimsoned on side next the sun; flesh yellowish-white, finegrained, buttery, melting, rich, sugary, having the flavor of the Marie Louise; first; Oct.

Broncirte Winterbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:70. 1856.
Raised by Van Mons at Louvain, 1853. Fruit medium to small, obtuse-ventriculous, entirely covered with russet but somewhat blushed on the side next the sun; flesh very sweet; first; Jan. and Feb.

Bronx. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 710. 1869.
Raised by James R. Swain, Bronxville, N. Y., about 1850. Fruit medium, obovate-pyriform, greenish-yellow, netted and stained with russet; flesh whitish, juicy, melting, sweet, slightly perfumed flavor; very good; first half of Sept.

Bronzée Boisselot. 1. Guide Prat. 88. 1895.
Fruit medium; flesh very melting, and of excellent flavor, sugary; first; Oct.

Bronzée d'Enghien. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:171, fig. 374, 1880.
Disseminated by the Society of Van Mons. Fruit medium, long-pyriform, well swelled around the center, golden-yellow, dotted and stained with light bronze; flesh fine, semi-melting, juicy, acidulous; Nov. to Jan.

Brookline. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 45. 1866.
A seedling pear fruited by S. A. Shurtleff, Brookline, Mass., in 1862. Fruit above medium, turbinate, brown-russet; flesh sweet, juicy and buttery, with high flavor; very fine; Oct.

Broom Park. 1. Gard. Chron. 209, fig. 1845. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 538. 1884.
Raised by Thomas Andrew Knight at Downton Castle, Herefordshire, Eng.; it first bore fruit in 1831. Fruit small, globular-obovate; skin green and rough, largely covered with brown-russet; on the side next the sun it is tinged with dull red; flesh yellowish, melting, juicy, rich, with something of a melon flavor combined with pineapple. This singular commixture of flavors is its principal characteristic; an excellent dessert pear; Jan.

Brough Bergamot. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 538. 1884.
A variety which succeeds well in the North of England. Fruit small, globular-turbinate tapering into the stalk; skin rough, yellowish-green, very much covered with brown-russet; flesh yellowish-white, rather coarse-grained, saccharine, very juicy, with a rich and highly perfumed flavor; first; Dec.

Brugmans. 1. Mag. Hort. 41395. 1838. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:100. 1856.
A seedling of Van Mons, 1821. In September, 1838, it was exhibited among "ninety varieties "by Manning, before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. Fruit medium, conic, light green changing to light yellow at maturity, sometimes rather blushed; flesh aromatic and sweet; mid-Nov. for three weeks.

Brumbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:9. 1856.
Originated in Odenwald, Ger., 1847. Fruit medium, turbinate, light yellow turning to lemon-yellow, striped with bright red; good; Sept. and beginning of Oct.

Brune Minême. 1. Guide Prat. 88. 1876.
Fruit rather large; first quality for cooking; Nov. and Dec; of doubtful merit. Tree vigorous and fertile, well suited for exposed situations.

Brunet. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:9, fig. 485. 1881.
Found growing wild at Houga, Department of Gers, Fr., about 1826. Fruit medium, globular, very bright green, dotted with numerous small, gray specks; at maturity the basic green passes to pale yellow, a little warmer on the side next the sun; flesh white, fine, melting; juice plentiful, sweet and agreeably musky; fair; end of Aug.

Brüsseler Herbstbergamotte. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:76. 1856.
Raised by Van Mons in 1825. Fruit medium, obovate-turbinate, yellowish-green changing on maturity to lemon-yellow all over; flesh granular, soft, vinous and strongly musky; good; Nov.

Brute Bonne. 1. Miller Card Kal. 206. 1734.  Franzosische Zapfenbirne. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:139. 1856.
Fruit medium, thin-skinned, grass-green all over, flushed red on the side next the sun; flesh somewhat musky, sweet, acidulous; good; end of Oct.

Bryan Edwards. 1. Trans. Lond. Hort. Soc. 16:395. 1826.
A seedling found growing early in the nineteenth century in the neighborhood of Southampton, Eng., by Bryan Edwards. Fruit globular-turbinate, pale green changing at maturity to pale yellow; flesh melting, rich, sweet, pleasantly perfumed; of considerable excellence; beginning of Nov.

Buchanan. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 114. 1869.
Submitted for examination to the Fruit Committee of the American Pomological Society in January, 1869, by Isaac Buchanan of New York. Fruit medium, obovate-acute-pyriform, dull yellow, with considerable russet; flesh a little coarse-grained, melting, juicy, gritty next the core, moderately sweet, and of good flavor.

Buffalo. 1. Hooper W. Fr. Book 151. 1857.
Of foreign origin; "an early and abundant bearer; flesh a little coarse, but buttery, juicy, sugary and sprightly."

Bunte Mannabirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:106. 1856.
A variegated form of the French Colmar d'Hiver or Colmar. Fruit greenish-yellow, with reddish-brown stripes; in other respects similar to its type.

Buntebirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:69. 1856.
Originated in Hanover, Ger., 1852. Fruit medium to small, greenish-yellow turning to bright, light yellow; flesh fine, flushed, sweet; good; mid-Sept, and Oct. 21.

Burchardt Butterbirne. 1. DochnaM Führ. Obstkunde 2:114. 1856.
Considered by Dochnahl to be a seedling raised in 1833. Fruit medium, rather variable, globular-ovate, uniformly bright lemon-yellow, sprinkled with fine russet; flesh rather yellowish, semi-melting, aromatic, sweet; first; all Oct.

Buree Winter. 1. Langley Pomona 131. 1729.
Fruit medium, globular-obtuse-pyriform, somewhat depressed at both stalk and calyx, speckled all over; may be gathered early in September and in season Feb. to Apr.; first class.

Burgoyne. 1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bu1. 126:68. 1908.
Fruit large, oblong-pyriform, greenish-yellow, blushed with russet; flesh melting, juicy, sweet; good; season medium.

Burkett. 1. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 144. 1880. 2. Am. Pom, Soc. Rpt. 236. 1911.
Reported to the Illinois Horticultural Society in 1880 by C. S. Capps of Mt. Pulaski who described it as a "miserable apology" for a pear, though exempt from blight. It was mentioned in a communication to the American Pomological Society in 1911 by Charles G. Patten, Charles City, Iowa, as a variety which originating in Illinois had resisted blight for a period of forty-five years in South Iowa. It has been suggested that this and Sudduth may be the same.

Burlingame. 1. Mag. Hort. 15:344. 1849. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 711. 1869.
Raised from seeds of pears planted in 1790. In 1830 Dr. S. P. Hildreth, Marietta, Ohio, sent a description of the pear to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society which named it after Mrs. Burlingame of Marietta who had originally saved the seeds. Fruit below medium, globular-oblate, pale yellow, blushed with red on the sun-exposed side and covered with small, russet specks; flesh white, coarse, melting and juicy, rich, sugary, perfumed; Aug. and Sept.

Burnett. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 139. 1841. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 712. 1869.
Raised by Joel Burnett, Southborough, Mass., in the early half of the nineteenth century. Fruit large, obtuse-pyriform, pale yellow, with much iron-russet and flushed on side next the sun; flesh greenish-white, rather coarse-grained but rich, musky, juicy, sweet; excellent; Oct. and Nov.

Butt Pear. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 539. 1884.
A pear grown in England especially around Ledbury, Herefordshire, for the production of perry. Fruit small, globular-obovate, lemon-color, strewed with minute, russety dots; flesh yellowish, coarse-grained, granular, acidulous.

Butterartige Bergamotte. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:79. 1856.
No. 33 in the Van Mons collection, 1834. Fruit small, long-globular, dark yellow, much covered with red-russet; flesh yellowish-white, semi-melting, sweet, firm, aromatic, suitable for espalier; beginning of Nov.

Büttner Sachsische Ritterbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:23. 1856. Poire de Chevalier de Buttner. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:145, fig. 265. 1879.
According to Diel this variety originated in the environs of Halle, Prussia. Fruit medium or nearly medium, globular-turbinate or globular-ovate, often irregular in contour, a lively green sprinkled with dots of gray-green changing to brilliant lemon-yellow at maturity, well-exposed fruits being extensively washed with brownish-red; flesh white, tinted yellow under the skin, a little coarse, semi-breaking, fairly juicy, more or less perfumed according to the season; quality inconstant; Aug.


Cabot. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:214. 1832. 2. Mag. Hort. 10:298, 299, fig. 1844. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 712. 1869.
Raised from seed of Beurré Gris planted in 1821 or 1822 by J. S. Cabot, Salem, Mass. Fruit medium, globular-ovate, slightly irregular; skin rough, bronze-yellow, almost covered with cinnamon-russet, some marbling of red on the side next the sun; flesh greenish-white, breaking, juicy, with a rich, subacid flavor; first; Sept. and Oct.

Cadeau. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:507, fig. 1867.
Mainly cultivated in the neighborhood of Angers, Fr., where it probably originated. Fruit small, globular-ovate, one side always more swelled than the other; skin thick, greenish-yellow or pale yellow, dotted and striped with gray-brown; flesh yellowish, coarse, semi-melting, very granular, wanting in juice, sugary, not much flavor; third; end of July.

Cadet de Vaux. 1. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 132. 1825. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 712. 1869. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:508, fig. 1869.
It is claimed that Van Mons originated this variety. Tree very productive, an early and heavy bearer. Fruit large, obtuse-pyriform, ochre-yellow, dotted with brown and shaded with fawn and pale red in the sun; stem short, large, curved; calyx large; flesh yellowish-white, fine, breaking, sweet, juicy, perfumed; good; Dec. to Mar.

Caen de France. 1. Mag. Hort. 19:102. 1853. 2. Ibid. 21:188. 1855. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 52. 1869.
Synonymous with No. 51 of Van Mons. It was introduced into this country in 1834 by R. Manning, Salem, Mass. Fruit large, pyriform; skin thick, yellow, overspread with russet; flesh yellowish-white, semi-melting, juicy, sweet, vinous, with a little astringency, slightly aromatic; "one of the very best of the late varieties, keeps without trouble, and may be put in barrels to ripen, and can be depended on from Jan. to Mar."

Caesar. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 1:98. 1832.
Extensively cultivated in the French Department of Lorraine in the early part of the nineteenth century. Fruit large, obovate-pyriform, smooth, pale yellow in the shade, deeper next the sun and sometimes slightly tinged with red, sprinkled with minute specks; flesh very white, breaking, of a rich and rather musky flavor; on maturing becomes soft rapidly; Dec.

Caillot Rosat (English). 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 540. 1884. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 191. 1889.
This is not the Caillot Rosat of the French which in England is known as the Summer Rose. Fruit above medium, pyriform, smooth, greenish-yellow, with a brownish-red cheek and streaks of brighter red on the side next the sun; flesh tender, very juicy, sweet, perfumed; good; Aug.

Caillot Rosat (French). 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:509, fig. 1867. 2. Guide Prat. 72, 254. 1876.  Summer Rose. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 652. 1884.
An ancient French pear of unknown origin. Writing of it in 1586 Jacques Daléchamp thought it identical with the pear Nard, of the Greeks. This, however, has not been substantiated; but the pear was in early times spread generally through France under a variety of local names. One Jehan de Meung, a poet born near Orléans in 1280, wrote of it, as also did Gilles Ménage in 1694 who said it was "a kind of pears so called because of their hardness, their whiteness and their taste of rose."It is probable that it takes its name Cailleau, Calliot, Caillou, Caillorosar, Caillot, from the caillou, a pebble, because of the grit with which it is filled. Fruit medium, globular-oblate, yellowish, with stains of fawn-russet, washed with tender rose on the side of the sun and streaked with the same color around the stem; flesh white, scented, a little coarse, semi-melting, always gritty around the core; juice sufficient, sugary, acid, musky; second; Sept.

Calbasbirn. 1. Christ Handb. 497. 1817.  Graue Flaschenbirne. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:140. 1856.
Originated in Holland in 1758. Fruit large, gourd-shaped, irregular, bossed, yellow, with grayish-russet, becoming golden and washed with red; flesh yellowish-white, soft, granular, somewhat woody, musky, sweet; good; Nov. and Dec.

Calebasse. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:512, fig. 1867. 2. Downing. Fr. Trees Am. 712. 1869.
Termed by Downing "a very grotesque looking Belgian fruit." Leroy considered it to have been raised in Brabant, Holland, early in the eighteenth century by Herman Knoop, a Dutch horticulturist. Fruit medium, long gourd-shaped, crooked and undulating in outline; skin rough, dull yellow, with thin, gray russet on the shaded side becoming cinnamon- and orange-russet next the sun; flesh yellowish-white, semi-fine, semi-melting, crisp, juicy and sweet; second; Sept. and Oct.

Calebasse d'Anvers. 1. Guide Prat. 103. 1895.
Sent out by M. Daras de Naghin of Antwerp, Bel., and recommended in 1895 by Simon-Louis Brothers, Metz, Lorraine, as combining all the qualities requisite to render it a fruit suitable for commerce. Fruit large, long, more or less contracted at its center, canary-yellow, dotted with brown specks and stained with fawn at the summit; flesh rather fine, free from granulations, juicy, sugary and savory; good; Oct. and Nov.

Calebasse de Bavay. 1. Mas Le Verger 1:35, fig. 24. 1866-73. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:514, fig. 1867.
Raised from seed at Mechlin, Bel., and distributed in 1849 by M. Tuerlinckx. Fruit rather large, long-pyriform, contracted at summit, concave on one side, the lower end being bent; color yellowish-green; flesh white, very fine; juice abundant, sweet, acid, having a delicate perfume; first; Nov. and Dec.

Calebasse Boisbunel, 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 41. 1871. 2. Guide Prat. 65. 1895.
Obtained by M. Boisbunel of Rouen, France. Fruit large, like Calebasse in form, greenish-yellow, washed with red; flesh fine, yellowish-white, melting, very sweet; first quality; Feb. and Mar.

Calebasse Bosc. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:515, fig. 1867. 2, Hogg Fruit Man. 540. 1884. 3, Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 162. 1920.
A chance seedling found in 1819 by Van Mons in the garden of M. Swates at Linkebeeke near Brussels, Bel. Fruit medium to large, long-conical; skin rough to the touch and entirely covered with brown-russet, sprinkled with darker russet dots; flesh yellowish, semi-fine, melting, juicy, sweet and agreeably flavored; second; Oct.

Calebasse Delvigne. 1. Mas. Le Verger 3:Pt. 1, 141, fig. 69. 1866-73. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:517, fig. 1867.
Mas thinks Calebasse Delvigne was raised in Belgium and Leroy considers it to have originated in France. Fruit medium, pyriform, yellow, strewed with cinnamon-colored russet and richly colored with red on the sun-exposed side; flesh yellowish-white, rather coarse-grained, melting, juicy, sweet and fine flavor, strong musky aroma; second to first; Oct.

Calebasse d'Été. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:518, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 540. 1884.
A seedling obtained by Major Espéren of Mechlin, Bel. Fruit above medium and sometimes larger, long-pyramidal, obtuse, a little contorted at base, greenish-yellow, covered with brown-russet and with numerous russet spots; flesh white, semi-melting, rather gritty at center, sugary, slightly acid and having a delicate perfume; a good early pear; Sept.

Calebasse Fondante. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 140. 1841.
Described by Kenrick in 1841 as a new variety by Van Mons. Fruit very much lengthened, bossed, uniformly red; flesh melting, sugary, agreeable; Oct.

Calebasse d'Hiver. 1. Gard. Chron. 69. 1848. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:161, fig. 465. 1880.
Obtained by Major Espéren, Mechlin, Bel., and described in 1848 as a new fruit. Fruit large, turbinate or ovate-pyriform and long, dark green, sprinkled with brown dots, the dark green becoming at maturity pale yellow and golden on the side of the sun; flesh semi-melting, white; juice abundant, sweet, and without any appreciable perfume; good for the purposes of the kitchen.

Calebasse Kickx. 1. Guide Prat. 89, 254. 1876. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 541. 1884.
This is No. 590 in the Van Mons catalog and was a seedling first described in 1823. Fruit below medium, obovate, rather uneven in outline, light greenish-yellow turning to lemon-yellow, with some patches of very thin, pale, cinnamon-colored russet; flesh whitish, coarse-grained, semi-melting, sweet, with an agreeable perfume; inferior, becoming pasty in the middle of October; early Oct.

Calebasse Leroy. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:519, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:175, fig. 280. 1879.
Raised by Van Mons about 1830 and published for the first time in the Catalogue Systematique of Diel in 1833. Fruit medium, conic-pyriform, somewhat contracted around the middle, bright green, stained with russet patches and sown with some gray dots and generally blushed with pale red on the side of the sun; first; Sept.

Calebasse Oberdieck. 1. Oberdieck Obst-Sort. 285. 1881. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:520, fig. 1867.
A seedling raised by Leroy at Angers, France; it first fruited in 1863. Fruit large, very long, like Calebasse in form, more or less obtuse, bossed; color orange-yellow, very finely dotted with brown, marked with some fawn and blackish patches; flesh white, extremely fine, semi-melting, juicy, fresh, sugary, aromatic; first; Oct.

Calebasse d'Octobre. I. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 41. 1871. 2. Horticulturist 27:102. 1872.
Received by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society from M. Alexandre Bivort of Belgium and tested November, 1871. Fruit medium, acute-pyriform, long; skin smooth, pale yellow, traced with russet, with a fine ruddy tint on one side; flesh yellowish-white, melting, juicy and buttery, fine-grained; flavor vinous, rich, aromatic, sprightly, with a slight astringency.

Calebasse Rose. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:123, fig. 542. 1881.
Of uncertain origin. Fruit medium or rather large; obovate-pyriform, usually rather irregular or bossed in its outline, bright green, sown with dots of darker green; on ripening the fundamental green changes to a pale lemon-yellow, sometimes washed with rose; flesh whitish, buttery, melting, sufficient sweet juice, acidulous; good; Oct.

Calebasse Tougard. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 3:95, fig. 1855. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:521, fig. 1867.  Tougard. 3. Card. Chron. 415. 1863.
A posthumous seedling of Van Mons, first fruited in 1847. Fruit medium, pyriform, yellowish, covered with spots and patches of rough brown-russet; flesh has a pink tinge, half-melting, juicy, sugary and has a pleasant flavor; Oct. and Nov.

Calebasse Verte. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:522, fig. 1867.
Attributed to Van Mons, date unknown, as also whether from Brussels or Louvain. Fruit medium to large, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, bossed, bright green, sprinkled with russet dots, veined with grayish-brown around the calyx and stem; flesh greenish-white, fine, melting; juice sweet, abundant, acid, agreeable; first; Oct.

Calhoun. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 5. 1843. 2. Mag. Hort. 11:252. 1845.
Raised by Governor Edwards, New Haven, Conn., and submitted by him to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1843. Fruit medium, globular, obliquely oblate, yellowish, shaded with dull crimson, russetted; flesh white, coarse, granular, buttery, melting, pleasant; good; Oct.

Caliorosa. 1. Mag. Hort. 18:151. 1852.
Described among new varieties of fruits. Fruit large, pyriform, greenish-yellow, with brown specks; not juicy, indifferent.

Calixte Mignot. 1. Guide Prat. 88. 1895.
Fruit large, pyriform, greenish, dotted with russet, passing to yellow at maturity; flesh very fine, melting, buttery, juicy; first; Oct. and Nov.

Calvillebirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:72. 1856.
Originated by Van Mons, 1825. Fruit medium, obovate-conic, light green changing to lemon-yellow, washed with red on the sun-exposed side; flesh fine, granular, sweet, juicy, melting, vinous and musky; good; Feb. and Mar.

Calvin. 1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:71. 1908.
Originated by Calvin Throop in Washington, U. S. A. Fruit medium, ovate-pyriform yellow, blushed and striped; flesh buttery, juicy, melting; good; medium.

Camak. 1. Gard. Mon. 2:320. 1860. 2. Guide Prat. 70. 1895.
Originated with J. Camak, Athens, Ga., and first reported in 1860. Fruit medium, obtuse-pyriform, yellowish-green, slightly washed with carmine; flesh fine, juicy, sugary; good; Sept.

Cambacérès. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:523, fig. 1867.
Distributed by Charles Baltet, Troyes, Fr., about 1861, without any specification of origin. Fruit medium, obtuse-pyriform, one side generally more swelled than the other, golden yellow, dotted and marbled with russet; flesh whitish, semi-fine, melting; juice very abundant and very sweet, refreshingly acidulous, with a delicate aroma; first; Oct.

Camerling. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:524, fig. 1867. 2. Guide Prat. 108. 1876.
A seedling of Van Mons which first bore fruit in 1842. Fruit medium, oblong-obtuse-pyriform, bossed and somewhat swelled; skin thick, wrinkled, yellow-ochre, dotted with russet, much washed with gray-bronze and clouded with brown-red on the side next the sun; flesh whitish, often doughy; juice sweet, agreeable; more frequently third than second class; Oct.

Camille de Rohan. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 542. 1884.
Fruit medium, pyriform, green changing to yellow-green on ripening, with numerous russety dots; flesh white, with a pinkish tinge, fine-grained, melting, vinous and of good flavor; Dec. and Jan.

Canandaigua. 1. Mag. Hort. 16:36, 153. 1850. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 714. 1869.
Judge Atwater of Canandaigua, New York, brought cions of this pear from Connecticut in 1806. It was exhibited at the Pomological Congress in New York in 1849 under the name Catherine but there being already one or more pears known by that name it was deemed well to change its name to avoid confusion. Fruit medium, irregular, elongated-acute-pyriform, lemon-yellow, sometimes red on the sunny side; flesh white, fine, melting and buttery, sugary, high flavor; handsome and excellent; Sept.
[Seed parent of 'Ontario' -ASC]

Canning. 1. McIntosh Bk. Card. 460. 1855.
Fruit large, resembling Easter Beurré but the habit of the tree is more robust and hardy; Jan. and Feb.

Canourgues. 1. Mas. Le Verger 2:77, fig. 37. 1866-73. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:526, fig. 1867.
A wilding found about the beginning of the nineteenth century by M. Lauzeral, Monestier, Fr. Fruit small, long-ovate, often more curved on one side than on the other, smooth and shining, bright yellow, sown with small dots of grayish-brown, colored with pale rose on the side of the sun; flesh white, fine, melting; juice very abundant, vinous, sugary, refreshing and aromatic; first; July.

Cantelope. 1. Mag. Hort. 4:231, 466. 1838. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 714. 1869.
Raised by Governor Edwards of New Haven and presented to the Horticultural Society of New Haven in September, 1838,when it was reported to be worthy of cultivation. Fruit below medium, globular, pale yellow, sometimes blushed in the sun; flesh whitish, coarse, breaking, wanting in juice; good for cooking; Oct.

Canton. 1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:72. 1908.
Originated in 1883 in Madison County, Miss. Fruit medium, ovate, green to yellow, blushed; flesh breaking, juicy, sprightly; very good; season medium.

Capsheaf. 1. Mag. Hort. 3-152. 1837. 2. Ann. Pom. Belge 7:77, fig. 1859.
Introduced by S, H. Smith, an amateur horticulturist of Rhode Island where it was already much cultivated in 1837. Fruit medium, oblong-obovate-pyriform, deep yellow, with patches and traces of cinnamon- russet; flesh white, juicy, melting, not highly flavored but very sweet and agreeable; good; Sept. and Oct.

Capucine Van Mons. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:528, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:145, fig. 361. 1880.
Obtained by Simon Bouvier, Jodoigne, Bel., a friend of Van Mons, to whom he dedicated the variety in 1828. Fruit above medium, oval-pyriform, bright green, dotted all over with fawn and slightly bronzed on the side next the sun; flesh yellowish or greenish, fine, semi-melting, crisp, rich, sugary; juice very abundant, vinous, having a delicate aroma; good to very good; Oct. to Dec.

Carasi. 1. Guide Prat. 80. 1876. 2. Baltet Cult. Fr. 373. 1908.
This is a perry pear, widely distributed in Europe under variations of the same name. On the farms of Brie, France, it is known as the Carisi, the fruit being medium size or rather large, the juice perfumed, without color, rich in tannin. In the neighborhood of Metz, Lorraine, it is called Carasi and in the district of Auge, France, Carisy. Bunyard and Thomas in their joint work, "The Fruit Garden,"mention Carisie-Gros and Carisie-Petit as varieties for perry making, and they are probably two variations of the same pear, as too are the Carisi rouge and Carisi blanc of France. The Carasi, or Rote Carisi, of Austria is a beautiful fruit, large to very large, irregular in outline, pyriform, swelled at middle, somewhat truncated; skin tough, green, turning to lemon-yellow, richly blushed on the sunny side, dotted with red; flesh whitish, rather coarse, very juicy, subacid, aromatic; Oct.

Cardinal Georges d'Ambroise. 1. Guide Prat. 103. 1895.
Raised from Beurré Clairgeau crossed with Beurré Henri Courcelle. Fruit medium, curved, pyriform, the form of Beurré Clairgeau; flesh very fine, juicy, sugary; delicious; Nov. and Dec.

Carleton. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 46. 1866.
This is one of the forty-five seedlings fruited by S. A. Shurtleff, Brookline, Mass., between the years 1862 and 1866. Fruit large, obovate, light green; flesh melting, juicy, slightly acid; good bearer, markets well; Oct.

Carmel. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 134. 1920.
Originated with N. W. Crawford, East Carmel, 0., and introduced by him about 1850. Tree hardy, productive; fruit russet; flesh juicy, excellent; ripens early.

Carminbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:50. 1856.
Locality of origin Nassau, western Germany, 1812, Fruit medium, obovate, sides unequal; pronounced lemon-yellow, carmined on the side of the sun; good; Aug.

Caroline Hogg. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 543. 1884. 2. Nicholson Dict. Card. 3:51. 1900.
A seedling from John Mannington, Uckfield, Sussex, Eng., which first fruited in 1870. Fruit below medium, Bergamot-shaped, even and regular; skin covered with a thick, rather deep brown-russet, reddish on side exposed to the sun; flesh very tender, melting, rich, vinous, with plenty of finely perfumed juice; first quality, reminiscent in shape and flavor of Winter Nelis; Dec.

Carrière. 1. Gard. Chron. 1046. 1866. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:529, fig. 1867.
In 1866 the original tree was still existing at Poncet, Fr., being then about 200 years old. Fruit small, pyriform, golden-yellow, dotted with brown-gray on the shaded side and bright yellow on the side of the sun, washed with brilliant red; flesh yellowish-white, breaking, rather dry, sweet, acidulous, agreeable, without perfume; second; July and Aug.

Cartheurserbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:9. 1856.  French, 1845. Fruit very large, ovate-pyriform, bossed, green, changing to yellow, lightly blushed in the sun; flesh soft; winter.

Casimir. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:185, fig. 577. 1881.
A seedling from Beurré de Luçon, raised in 1859 by M. Pariset, Curciat-Dongalon, Fr. Fruit medium, ovate-pyriform; skin thin, tender, bright green, sprinkled with numerous round, brown dots; on ripening the green becomes lemon-yellow, lightly washed with red-brown on the exposed side; flesh a little yellow, fine, melting, gritty around the core, juice sugary, abundant, vinous, acidulous and perfumed; good; Nov.

Cassante du Comice. 1. Jour. Hort. 20:30, fig. 1871.
Raised from seed by the Horticultural Society of Angers, Fr., and distributed by Leroy of that city about 1870. Fruit medium, globular-oblate or Bergamot-shaped, dull yellow, much covered with rough, brown-russet which leaves large patches of the ground color apparent; flesh yellowish, coarse-grained, crisp, very juicy, with a rich, sweet, sugary flavor; first; Sept.

Cassante de Mars. 1. Mas Le Verger 1:75, fig. 44. 1866-73. 2.  Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:530, fig. 1867.
A little-known seedling raised by Major Esperén, Mechlin, Bel., about 1840. Fruit medium, globular-turbinate, orange-yellow, dotted, stained and marbled with fawn, bronzed on the side exposed to the sun; flesh whitish, semi-fine, breaking, gritty about the core; juice abundant, vinous, sugary, rather aromatic, richly flavored; second; winter and spring.

Cassel. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 134. 1920.
Probably a cross between Duchesse d'Angoulême and Kieffer. Introduced by Cassel Nursery, Cleveland, O., about 1914. Tree strong, upright, productive. Fruit large, resembling Duchesse d'Angoulême in shape, rich lemon-yellow; flesh yellowish, white, fine-grained, rich, juicy, sweet; Oct. to Dec.

Cassolette. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:160, Pl.XVIII. 1768. 2. Miller Card. Dict. 3: 1807. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:531. 1867.
An ancient pear deriving its name from an imagined resemblance to a perfuming-pot. Numerous synonyms have been locally given to it. Fruit small, globular, pyriform, whitish-green, sprinkled evenly all over with small dots; flesh white, semi-fine, breaking, very tender; juice sufficient, sugary, slightly musky; second; Aug. and Sept.

Cassolette (Knoop). 1. Knoop Fructologie 1:104, I35] PI- 5. 1771.
This is not the same variety as the Cassolette described by Leroy. Fruit medium, long-obtuse-pyriform; skin rather rough, brown or grayish on the fundamental green, on ripening becomes a little yellow; flesh soft, melting, with a very pleasant flavor; Aug. and Sept.

Castelline. 1. Pom. France4:151, PL 151. 1867. 2; Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:532, fig. 1867. 3. Guide Prat. 49. 1895.
A Belgian variety obtained in 1835 by Florimond Castelain near Tournai, Bel. Fruit medium, turbinate-pyriform, yellowish-green, much covered with russet and speckled with fawn-russet, colored with dull red on the side of the sun; flesh yellowish, semi-fine, melting; juice sugary, acidulous and agreeably perfumed; first; Nov.

Catherine Gardette. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 715. 1869. 2. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 697. 1897.
From W. D. Brincklé, Philadelphia, in 1857. Fruit medium, globular-obovate, yellow, freely dotted with red spots on the sun-exposed side; flesh yellowish, coarse, buttery, sweet; good; Sept.

Catherine Lambré. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:534, fig. 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 716. 1869.
One of the last seedlings raised by Van Mons in his nursery at Louvain. Fruit large, oblong-obtuse-pyriform, greenish-yellow, covered with russet dots on the shaded side and blushed with tender rose on the sunny side; flesh whitish, semi-fine, juicy, melting, sweet, seldom gritty, having an exquisite savor recalling the perfume of the rose; very good; Oct. and Nov.

Catherine Royal. 1. Langley Pomona 131, PI. LXII, fig. 5. 1729.  King Catherine. 2. Parkinson Par. Ter. 592. 1629.
Catherine Royal is mentioned by Langley as one of "the best kinds of Pears in England," and is without doubt the King Catherine Pear described earlier by Parkinson. Fruit medium in size, obovate-obtuse-pyriform; July and Aug.

Catillac. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:233, Pl.LVIII, fig. 4. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:535, fig. 1867. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 716. 1869. 4. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 162. 1920.  Grand Monarque. 5. Knoop Fructologie 1:125, 136, fig. 1771.
This old French baking pear with over sixty synonyms is supposed to have been found near Cadillac in the Gironde. Bonnefond in 1665 in the Jardinier François first described it under this name. The great size of the Catillac has often caused it to be confused with the Pound pear, and the latter's name has been applied as a synonym for the Catillac, but the two are distinct. Tree stout, vigorous, spreading, productive; leaf large, round, downy, serrate. Fruit very large, broadly turbinate, dull green to yellow, with brownish-red blush; stem stout, an inch long, in a small cavity; calyx open, in a moderately deep, ribbed basin; flesh hard, rough; one of the best of stewing pears, cooking a deep red; Nov. to Mar.

Catinka. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:537, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 545. 1884.
Raised by Major Esperén from seed at Mechlin, Bel., about 1845. Fruit medium, obovate, lemon-yellow, thickly covered with large cinnamon-colored freckles and tracings of russet; flesh yellowish-white, juicy, sugary, with a rich, full flavor perfumed with rose; good; late autumn.

Cavaignac. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:96. 1856.
Raised by Van Mons, 1852. Fruit medium; skin rough, green changing to yellowish-green, blushed with red on the sun-exposed side; devoid of scent and flavor; Sept.

Cavelier de la Salle. 1. Guide Prat. 103. 1895.
Raised from seed of Olivier de Serres fertilized with Vice-President Delbée; described in 1895 as a new variety. Fruit medium, having the appearance of Olivier de Serres; flesh extra fine, juicy, sugary, delicious, agreeably perfumed; Dec. Tree rather vigorous and very fertile, forming beautiful pyramids.

Cedarmere. 1. Horticulturist 18:279, fig. 1863. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 716. 1869.
Raised from seed by William C. Bryant, the poet, at his country seat at Roslyn, N. Y., about 1860. Fruit small, globular-obovate, sides unequal, pale greenish-yellow, with small russet dots and nettings; flesh white, juicy, melting, sweet, fine-grained, aromatic; very good; Aug.

Cels Butterbirne, 1. Dochnahl Fwfer. Obstkunde 2:113. 1856.
A Van Mons seedling, 1804. Fruit medium, long, obtuse, golden-yellow, washed with reddish-brown; Sept.

Century. 1. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 77. 1883.
Dr. J. Stayman, Leavenworth, Kan., before the Missouri Horticultural Society in 1883 stated that the Century pear had stood over a hundred years at its home in Pennsylvania, had borne well and at that time showed no blight or disease. He also said it appeared to be blight-proof at Carthage, Mo.

Cerise Brune. 1. Guide Prat. 89. 1895.
Fruit medium, regular in form, greenish, passing into yellow at maturity, speckled with brown dots; flesh white, rather astringent, with a savor at once sour and sweet; July and Aug.

Cerise Double. 1. Guide Prat. 89. 1895.
Fruit medium, pyriform, slightly swollen about the middle, pale green changing to yellow on ripening, lightly dotted with brown; flesh white, breaking, with a slightly astringent flavor; Aug.

Cerruttis Durstlosche. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 194. 1889. 2, Guide Prat. 81. 1895.
Fruit medium, turbinate-obtuse; yellow; flesh breaking, very juicy, scented; good for cooking; Sept.

Certeau. 1. Baltet Cult. Fr. 404. 1908.
Baltet remarks of this pear that with it, in common with Catillac and certain other varieties, the flesh becomes red when cooked. Baltet also points out that pears with a gray skin are generally good for kitchen use.

Certeau d'Automne. 1. Pom. France 3:No. in, Pl.in. 1865. 2. Guide Prat. 66. 1895.
Described in 1661 by Bonnefond, in 1690 by Merlet and by La Quintinye in 1730, but its place and time of origin are unknown. Fruit small to medium, growing in clusters, long-pyriform, yellow, washed with brilliant orange-red and dotted with gray; flesh white, not fine, breaking, juicy, sugary, having a perfume of the Rousselet; good for kitchen use; Oct. to Dec.

Certeau D'Été. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:539, fig. 1867.
In the sixteenth century this variety was also called the pear of Champagne, coming as it did, according to Charles Estienne, from that district in 1540. Its name may be referred to the Latin word certo signifying constant or certain. Fruit above medium, long, variable, sometimes rather like Calebasse in form but more usually obtuse-conic, bright yellow though a little greenish, dotted all over with gray-brown and widely carmined on the side opposed to the sun; flesh whitish, semi-fine and melting; juice sufficient; saccharine, seldom much perfumed but with a delicate flavor; second; Aug.

Certeau d'Hiver. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:540, fig. 1867. 2. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:248. 1768.
Certeau d'Hiver, like Certeau d'Été, originated, Charles Estienne, writing in 1540, tells us, in the environs of Vitry-le-Français, in the French champagne country. Fruit medium and sometimes less, long-turbinate, swelled and contracted at summit, sometimes gourd-like in form, bright yellowish-green, dotted with fawn, washed with brown-red on side touched by the sun; flesh yellowish-white, semi-fine, semi-breaking, gritty and somewhat astringent; juice abundant, sugary, perfumed; third; Dec. to Apr. or May.

Cesile. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 140. 1841.
Tree hardy, productive; fruit large, globular, flattened at the apex, red-russeted; flesh buttery; very good; Oct.

Chaigneau. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:542, fig. 1867. 2. Guide Prat. 57. 1895.
From a seed bed made in 1848 by Jacques Jalais, a nurseryman at Nantes, Fr., first published in 1858. Fruit medium, turbinate-obtuse, yellowish-green, dotted with brownish-gray; flesh white, melting; juice acidulous, sugary, refreshing, aromatic; first; Oct.

Chair-a-Dame. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb.Fr. 2:156, PL XVI. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:543, fig. 1867.
Le Lectier possessed in his garden at Orléans at the beginning of the seventeenth century two strains of the Chair-a-Dame. One he called Chere-a-Dame tres-hastine, and the other Chere-a-Dame. The first is very early in its ripening and the second much later. Fruit medium or less, oblong-pyriform, bossed, fairly regular; skin thin, bright yellow-green, very finely dotted with gray-russet and extensively carmined on the side next the sun; flesh white, semi-fine, breaking or semi-melting, watery, gritty at center; juice abundant, saccharine, vinous, rarely very aromatic, sometimes slightly acid; second; Aug. and Sept.

Chamness, 1. Clingman Cat. 8. 1921.
Originated with a Mr. Chamness of Timpson, Tex., possibly as a cross between Kieffer and Bartlett, and was introduced in 1913. Fruit medium, smooth, yellow; flesh melting, juicy, tender, sweet; ripens last of August.

Champ Riche d'Italie. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:232. 1768. 2. Kenrick Am. Orch. 124. 1841. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:544, fig. 1867. 4. Hogg Fruit Man. 545. 1884.
Probably of Italian origin. Diel of Stuttgart devoted many pages of his Kern-obstsorten to it in 1805 at which time he had received it from the neighborhood of Paris, though it had already been known for a long while at Berlin. Fruit above medium and often large, pyriform, always rather swelled below the central circumference, contracted at the summit which is often nearly acute, greenish on the shady side, yellow-ochre on the face exposed to the sun, dotted all over with brown specks; flesh whitish, semi-melting or breaking, rather fine, free from grit, juicy, sweet and perfumed; first rate for cooking and compotes but third for dessert.

Champagner Bratbirne, 1. Guide Prat. 89, 256. 1876. 2. Löschnig Mostbirnen 8, fig.
Much valued in Germany for making champagne and perry. It was grown in Baden, Württemberg, and Hesse in 1797. Fruit small, globular-turbinate, even in outline, light green turning yellow without any blush, speckled with brown-russet and finely dotted; flesh white, coarse, nearly breaking; first for perry; autumn.

Chancelier de Hollande. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:31, fig. 496. 1881.
A seedling of Van Mons. Fruit medium to large, obovate-pyriform; skin rather thick and firm, becoming a little greasy, bright green speckled with green-gray dots; on ripening the original green becomes yellow and washed with red on the exposed side; flesh whitish, a little green under the skin, rather coarse, gritty at the center, semi-melting; juice plentiful, rich in sugar, acidulous, slightly perfumed, agreeable; third; Nov.

Chancellor. 1. Mag. Hort. 19:65. 1853. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 717. 1869.
Said to have originated in Germantown, Pa., on the grounds of a Mr. Chancellor. At the Second Session of the American Pomological Congress in 1853 it was placed on the list of pears that promised well. Fruit rather large, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, greenish-yellow, sometimes blushed on the exposed side, dotted; flesh white, juicy, buttery, melting, sugary, perfumed; good; Oct. and Nov.

Chantry. 1. Mag. Hort. 9:125. 1843.
Published in the London Horticultural Society's Catalogue of Fruits, 1842. Fruit medium size, globular, brown and russet; buttery; second; Dec. and Jan.

Chaploux. 1. Mas Le Verger 1:169, fig. 83. 1866-73. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:547. 1867.
Distributed from nurseries at Vilvorde-lez-Bruxelles, Bel., in 1859. Fruit small, globular-turbinate, acute, the stem being perpendicular to and continuous with the fruit; color dark green, touched with brown russet; flesh yellowish-white, veined with green, fine, buttery, very sugary; first quality for cider and for drying; Dec. and Jan.

Chapman. 1. Mag. Hort. 14:84. 1848. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 717. 1890.
Originated in Philadelphia or its vicinity. Shown at the exhibition of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society held at Philadelphia, September, 1847. Fruit medium, obovate-pyriform, yellow, with brown and green dots; flesh white, semi-melting, astringent; Sept.

Chaptal. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:547. 1867.
Raised in Paris by Michel-Christophe Hervy, about 1800. Fruit very large, oblong, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, yellow-ochre, dotted with greenish-brown, marbled with fawn, washed with dark red on the side facing the sun; flesh white, semi-fine and semi-melting, gritty at the center; juice sufficient, sugary, acidulous; second.

Charles Bivort. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:549, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:151, fig. 460. 1880.
A seedling of Van Mons fruited prior to 1842. Fruit medium, globular-ovate-obtuse; bright green changing to orange-yellow at maturity, marbled and dotted with bright brown, and clouded with olive-russet on the side of the sun; flesh whitish, coarse, semi-breaking, gritty at core; juice rather wanting, sugary, vinous; second; Oct.

Charles Cognée. 1. Bunyard-Thomas Fr. Gard. 367. 1904. 2. Baltet Cult. Fr. 345, fig. 247. 1908.
Raised at Troyes, Fr. Fruit large or rather large, obtuse-pyriform; skin pinkish-yellow, lightly dotted with brown; flesh slightly granulous, sweet, perfumed, juicy, with a very agreeable flavor; first; Feb. and longer.

Charles Ernest. 1. Rev. Hort. 292. 1889. 2. Baltet Cult. Fr. 328, fig. 224. 1908. 3. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 163. 1920.
Obtained by Charles and Ernest Baltet, nurserymen of Troyes, Fr., and placed in commerce in 1879. Fruit large, shortened pyriform, obtuse, golden-yellow, encrimsoned on the side next the sun, dotted with gray on the bright side and with green on the shaded; flesh white, fine, melting, very juicy, sugary, rich, perfumed; first; Nov. and Dec.

Charles Frederickx, 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 2:1, fig. 1854. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:550, fig. 1. 1867.
In 1840 or 1841 this pear was raised in the Van Mons nursery at Louvain, Bel. Fruit medium, globular-ovate-pyriform, slightly obtuse and bossed, golden-yellow, dotted and veined with fawn, shaded and mottled with red in the sun; flesh white, buttery, sweet, melting, juice sufficient, sugary, very savory and musky; first; Sept. and Oct.

Charles de Guelin. 1. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 35:79. 1904.
Described in the Bulletins d'Arboriculture, January, 1904. Fruit large, turbinate, smoky-brown; flesh yellowish-white, melting, perfumed and juicy; good; Jan. and Feb.

Charles Smet. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 480. 1857. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:551, fig. 1867.
A seedling of Van Mons. Fruit large, globular, greenish-yellow, fine, dark green spots, stained with blackish-brown around the stalk; flesh white, coarse, breaking, gritty around the core; juice abundant, saccharine, with not much flavor; second; Jan. to Mar.

Charles van Hooghten. 1. Mag. Hort. 17:472. 1851. 2. Horticulturist 8:30, fig. 1853.
Fruit large, even, roundish-oval, yellow, netted and patched with russet and with many russet dots; stem slender, fleshy at insertion; calyx open; basin shallow; flesh white, coarsegrained, gritty, not very juicy, sweet, rich, with a musky perfume; good; Oct.

Charles Van Mons. 1. Mag. Hort. 16:295. 1850. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 238. 1854. 3. HoggFr. Man. 546. 1884.
Belgian, about 1847. At the second session of the Congress of Fruit Growers in 1850 this pear was placed on the rejected list, as also it was again by the American Pomo-logical Society in 1854. Fruit large, oblong-obovate-obtuse, smooth, bright green, strewed with some minute dots; flesh yellowish, rather coarse-grained, with a cold acidity and not much flavor; of small merit; Oct. and Nov.

Charli Basiner. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 546. 1884. 2. Guide Prat. 89. 1895.
A production of J. de Jonghe of Brussels, Bel., about 1857. Fruit medium, obovate, pale green, dotted and clouded with brown-russet changing as it ripens to yellowish-green; flesh white, juicy and sugary; first; Sept. and Oct.

Charlotte de Brouwer. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 3:33. 1855. 2. Mas Le Verger 3:Pt. 1, 107, fig. 52. 1866-73.
One of Major Espéren's seedlings raised at Mechlin, Bel., and reported on in 1835.

Fruit medium and above, globular-ovate, yellow ground of skin almost entirely covered with a coating of light brown-russet except on the shaded side; flesh yellowish-white, semi-fine, semi-melting; juice sufficient, sugary, vinous, acid and very astringent; second; Oct. and Nov.

Charlotte de Roucourt. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 194. 1889. 2. Guide Prat. 89. 1895.
Distributed by Daras de Naghin of Antwerp, Bel., about 1880. Fruit medium, obovate or obtuse-pyriform; flesh melting, very juicy, sugary, perfumed; Mar. and Apr.

Charnock. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 547. 1884. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 194. 1889.
A Scotch dessert pear. Fruit small, pyriform, greenish-yellow in the shade and dark, dull red on the side next the sun; flesh yellowish, semi-buttery, juicy, sweet, aromatic; Sept.

Chat Brulé. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:247. 1768. 2. Miller Card. Dict. 3: 1807. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:555, fig. 1867.
Duhamel du Monceau writing in 1768 mentions two varieties bearing the name Chat Brulé or Burnt Cat. Of these the second is the Chat Brulé described under that name by Leroy, ripening in November and the first is the Dutch variety Kamper Venus, ripening late in the winter. Each of these has been known also as Kamper Venus. Fruit medium, globular-pyriform, smooth, shining, pale yellow where shaded, and washed with red where exposed to the sun; flesh very white, rather coarse, breaking; juice rather wanting, rarely very sweet, generally without perfume; good only for cooking; Nov. and Dec.

Chattanooga. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 43. 1866.
Originated at Brookline, Mass., by S. A. Shurtleff; fruited first in 1863. Fruit medium to large, truncate, dark green; flesh fine, melting, juicy, sweet, perfumed; good; Oct.

Chaudfontaine. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:59, fig. 510. 1881. 2. Guide Prat. 81. 1895.
Disseminated by M. Galopin, a nurseryman at Liege, Bel., in 1865. Fruit large or rather large, pyriform, a little swelled, water-green almost entirely covered with cinnamon-colored russet, changing to pale yellow on maturity and the russet to golden on the side to the sun; flesh whitish, semi-fine, semi-breaking, full of juice, sweet and musky; good for household use; Oct.

Chaumontel. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 718. 1869. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 163. 1920.  Besi de Chaumontel. 3. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:199, PI- XL. 1768. 4. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:266, fig. 1867.
Merlet writing in his L'Abrégé des bon fruits of 1675 said that the Chaumontel pear originated from a wilding growing at Chaumontel, Fr. In 1765 Duhamel du Monceau saw the parent tree, at that time more than a century old, bearing a fine crop. Fruit large; form variable, but always long, obtuse, bossed, pyriform, yellow or yellowish-green in the shade, dotted with numerous brownish-red spots and brownish-red or deep rich red on the side exposed to the sun; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, buttery, rich and sugary; juice abundant, vinous, highly perfumed; a high class dessert pear.

Chaumontel Gras. 1. Rev. Hort. 468, fig. 1888.
In 1845 seed of the Chaumontel was sown from which was obtained in 1859 fruit whose seed was in turn sown. A seedling grown from this latter seed bore fruit, which was reported about 1875 as follows: Fruit large or very large, obtuse-pyriform, swelled, bossed, bright yellow, very much covered with fine dots and gray marblings and on the sun-touched side often tinted with carmine or brick-red more or less intense; flesh white or yellowish, semi-fine, crisp, very melting, juicy, rich, sugary, perfumed; spring.

Chaumontel Swan Egg. 1. Mag. Hort. 5:304. 1839.
Raised by John Williams, Pitmaston, Eng., from seed of Chaumontel impregnated with the pollen of Swan Egg. Fruit medium, obovate, russet; flesh rich and sugary; Oct.

Chaumontelle d'Été. 1. Gard. Chron. 1207. 1873. 2. Guide Prat. 90. 1876.
Presumably a French pear, having been received in England from Orléans in the autumn of 1871. Fruit large or very large; flesh semi-melting or juicy, sugary and of a distinct perfumed flavor.

Chelmsford. 1. Mag. Hort. 6:18. 1840. 2. Ibid. 7:169. 1841. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 719. 1869.
Originated on the farm of Zaccheus Wright, Chelmsford, Mass., early in the nineteenth century. It has been known also under the names Tyngsboro and Mogul Summer. Fruit of the largest size, globular-obtuse-pyriform, yellow, red cheek; flesh coarse, sweet; good for cooking; Sept.

Cher à Dames (Knoop). 1. Knoop Fructologie 1:105, 135, PL V. 1771.
This pear although illustrated by Knoop under the name Chair à Dame is not identical with the variety described under that name in this work or by Leroy. Fruit medium, somewhat oblong, diminishing toward the stalk and becoming acute, globular in lower half, flattened around the calyx which is not deeply sunken; when ripe the skin is uniformly yellow and blushed on the side of the sun with a beautiful red; flesh soft, rather gritty, succu[l]ent and of a very agreeable flavor; Aug. and Sept.

Cherroise. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:557, fig- 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:169, fig.469. 1880.
This wilding was found in a wood in the Commune of Cherre, Maine-et-Loire, Fr., and was first propagated about 1848. Fruit medium, ovate-obtuse, mammillate; skin rough to the touch, yellow-ochre, with patches of fawn-colored russet, washed when ripe with a blush of vermilion red on the side of the sun; flesh yellowish-white, semi-fine, breaking; juice sufficient, sugary, rather savory; second; Jan. and Feb.

Chesill. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 592. 1629.
Mentioned by John Parkinson in 1629 as a "delicate mellow pear, even melting as it were in the mouth of the eater, although greenish on the outside."

Chilton. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 45. 1866.
A seedling raised and fruited by S. A. Shurtleff, Brookline, Mass., and exhibited to the Fruit Committee of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1866. Fruit medium, turbinate, brown-russet; flesh sweet, juicy and buttery, with high flavor; described by the promoter as very fine; Oct.

China. 1. Gard. Chron. 1095. 1867.
Of Chinese origin. Reported in 1867 to be full of promise in Queenstown, Australia, and to have been growing in the neighboring British Colony of New South Wales for many years. Fruit large, many weighing 16 or 17 ounces; shape variable, breadth being sometimes as great as the length, warm yellow ground dotted all over with russet; flesh crisp, juicy, sweet, the skin having something of a musky pineapple flavor; a handsome, fragrant fruit; first for cooking; a good keeper; summer.

Chio. 1. Miller Card. Dict. 3: 1807.
Commonly called, according to Miller, the Little Bastard Musk Pear to distinguish it from the Little Musk Pear. Fruit small, roundish, yellow when ripe, with a few streaks of red on the side next the sun; juice musky; good; July.

Choak-pear. 1. Miller Gard. Dict. 3: 1807.
The fruit of this pear is so acrid that it produces a choking sensation. Its flesh is red and it is rarely cultivated.

Choisnard. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:559, fig. 1867. 2. Guide Prat. 80. 1895.
Found growing wild in the environs of Ormes-Sur-Vienne, Fr., about 1810. Fruit above to medium, pyramidal-obtuse, rather wrinkled, dark yellow, dotted with fawn, large gray marblings which pass to dark brown on the exposed side; flesh yellowish, semi-melting, semi-fine, gritty at core; juice sufficient, sugary, tartish, savory, with a delicate, musky flavor; first; Jan. to Mar.

Cholwell. 1. Mag. Hort. 13:451. 1847.
An English variety first described by the London Horticultural Society in 1847. Fruit medium, curved pyramidal; skin smooth, thin, yellowish-green in the shade and partly tinged and obscurely streaked with dull red next the sun where it is also speckled with pale dots; flesh yellowish-white, melting, buttery, very sugary and rich, musky; Oct.

Christmas. 1. Elliott Fr. Book. 371. 1859.
Originated in Cincinnati, OH., and described as "new" in 1859. Fruit medium, ovate-rounded, rough, bronzed, russety; flesh a little gritty, juicy, sweet; very good; Dec. and Jan.

Christinas Beurré. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 158. 1874.
A seedling of the White Doyenné shown in the MMassachusetts Horticultural Society's rooms in 1874. Fruit full medium size, ovate-pyriform, dull green, with thin russet towards the stem and sometimes sprinkled with red next the sun; flesh rather gritty at core, juicy and rich; very good to best; Dec.

Church. 1. Mag. Hort. 23:112, fig. 5. 1857. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 19. 1869.  Vanilla. 3. Watson Am. Home Gard. 376, fig. 235. 1860.
Reported by Downing to have originated on land belonging to Trinity Church at New Rochelle, N. Y., hence its name; but Dr. Brincklé, in the second reference, says that it was believed to be a seedling raised by an old Huguenot settler, and that the original tree still existed on the premises of L. P. Miller, and was presumed to be nearly 100 years old. In 1859 Dr. Brincklé and Prince and Ferris expressed the opinion that it was identical with Platt's Bergamot and Mr. Colt thought the Clark pear of Hartford was also the same. Fruit medium, globular-oblate, irregular, green becoming yellow at maturity, with minute dots; flesh fine, very buttery, melting, with a very rich, sweet and highly perfumed flavor; first; Sept.

Chypre. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:561, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 571. 1884.
Duhamel in 1768, Poiteau in 1848 and Dr. Hogg in 1884 make this pear synonymous with Early Rousselet. Leroy regards it as a separate variety. It is an ancient pear of uncertain origin. It was described by Merlet in 1675 and was cultivated even earlier by Le Lectier in his garden at Orléans. Probably it originated at the beginning of the seventeenth century, but whether it took its name from the Island of Cyprus or the cypress tree seems uncertain. Fruit small, globular-turbinate, bright grayish-green, stained with brownish-red on the side of the sun; flesh dense, rather coarse, semi-breaking; juice abundant, vinous, sugary, with a perfume recalling cinnamon; first as an early pear; July and Aug.

Cincincis. 1. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 12. 1874-5. 2. Cornell Sta. Bul. 332:451, 479, figs. 149, 154. 1913.
This oriental pear, possibly of French origin, was received from New York by S. F. Smith, Marietta, O., in 1854. It is the parent of numerous seedlings fruited by Mr. Smith. Fruit medium to small, oval, fairly regular, light greenish-russet, with numerous brown dots; skin slightly rough; flesh yellowish-white, juicy, breaking, crisp; devoid of flavor, poor; Oct.

Cincincis Seedling. 1. Cornell Sta. Bul. 332:479. 1913.
Introduced by William Parry and very closely resembles, if it is not identical with, Cincincis. Fruit medium to large, oblong, largest at stem end, tapering to blossom end, smooth, creamy-yellow; flesh tender, crisp, juicy, lacking quality.

Cincinnatus. 1. Cornell Sta. Bul. 332:479. 1913.
An oriental seedling produced by S. F. Smith from seed of Cincincis. Folette Smith, son of the originator, says, "The tree is vigorous, hardy, productive; fruit resembles Cincincis in color and shape but is quite distinct in quality; juicy, subacid, rich; flesh gritty."

Cinquantième Anniversaire, 1. Guide Prat. 89. 1895.
Raised by M. Grégoire of Jodoigne, Bel., who considered it one of his best gains. Fruit small to large; Nov.

Cire. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom, 1:563, fig. 1867. 2. Guide Prat. 108. 1876.  Wachsbirne. 3. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:187. 1856.
One of Major Esperén's gains at Mechlin, Bel., about 1840. Fruit large, long-conic, obtuse, much swelled around the calyx; skin waxy yellow, bright, rather thick, slightly tinged with rose on the side of the sun and some small stains of dark maroon; flesh whitish, semi-fine and semi-melting, extremely granular about the center; juice sufficient but wanting in perfume and in sweetness; third; Feb.

Cité Gomand. 1. Guide Prat. 74. 1895.
A gain of M. Grégoire, Jodoigne, Brabant. Fruit medium, turbinate-ovate, yellow with dots; flesh melting, juicy; good; Oct.

Citrina. I. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 45. 1866. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 720. 1869.
One of S. A. Shurtleff's seedlings. First fruited in 1862. Fruit medium, short-pyriform, bright yellow, lumpy and nodular; flesh nearly white, coarse, gritty at core, of a pleasant, peculiar flavor; Sept.

Citron. 1. Mag. Hort. 4:231. 1838. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 720. 1869.
A seedling of the late Governor Edwards. Fruit small, globular-turbinate, greenish, shaded with dull crimson; flesh greenish, rather coarse, juicy, melting, sugary, vinous, musky; good; Aug. and Sept.

Citron d'Hyver. 1. Miller Gard. Dict. 3: 1807.
Fruit medium to large, "in shape and color very like an orange or citron; "flesh hard and dry, gritty; good baking pear; Dec. to Mar.

Citron de Saint Paul. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:566. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:29, fig. 207. 1879.
From a seed bed of M. de la Farge in the Commune of Salers, Cantal, Fr. It was first published in 1856. Fruit below medium, ovate, obtuse and bossed, golden-yellow, dotted all over with bright green; flesh whitish, fine, melting, juicy, rather gritty; juice very abundant, sugary, sweet and deliriously perfumed; first; Sept.

Citron de Sierentz. 1. Knoop Fruciologie 1:103, 135, PL V. 1771. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:101, fig. 435. 1880.
The Horticultural Society of Angers received some grafts of this variety in 1836 with the information that it originated in the small village of Sierentz, near Mulhausen, Alsace. Knoop, however, describing it in 1771 under the name of Citron de Sirene gives it various Flemish synonyms. Fruit small to medium, turbinate or globular-ovate and slightly pyriform, bright yellow or greenish-yellow, dotted with russet and some brownish-fawn markings passing often to olive-brown and slightly vermilion on the side of the sun; flesh white, coarse, breaking, juicy, sugary, acid, savory; second; July and Aug.

Citronnée. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:568, fig. 1867. 2. Guide Prat. 71, 245. 1895.
This is practically identical with the pear found by Diel and described by him in 1806 under the name Rothbackige Citronatbirne. Fruit below medium, globular, bossed at summit, lemon-yellow, dotted with russet and washed on the sun-exposed side with delicate rose; flesh white, fine, dense, very melting, gritty about the core; juice very abundant, sugary, slightly acid, aromatic, savory, leaving a slight flavor of musk; first; Sept.

Clap. I. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 720. 1869.
Originated by Captain William Clap of Massachusetts. Fruit below medium, acute-pyriform, yellowish-green, with brownish blush in the sun; flesh whitish, buttery, juicy, aromatic; Aug.

Clara. 1. Mag. Hort. 8:58. 1842. 2. Ibid. 16:295. 1850- 3- Downing Fr. Trees Am. 720. 1869.
A Van Mons seedling placed on the list of "">Rejected Fruits" at the second session of the Congress of Fruit Growers at New York in 1850. Fruit medium, long, light green, with some russet spots and patches; flesh white, juicy, good, rather too acid; Oct.

Clara Durieux. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:149, fig. 75. 1872. 2. Guide Prat. 108. 1876.
A seedling of Von Mons. Fruit medium, globular, bright green, with dots of darker green, becoming golden-yellow on maturity, washed with red on the sun-kissed side; flesh whitish, rather fine, melting, juicy, sweet, vinous, perfumed; Oct.

Claretenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Für. Obstkunde 2:195. 1856.
Northern Germany, first reported in 1773. Fruit large, roundish-turbinate, often unequal sides, bossed, yellow, somewhat blushed; flesh granular, sweet and astringent; good; Sept.

Clark. 1. Mag. Hort. 19:518. 1853. 2. Ibid. 24:126. 1858.
Origin uncertain; cultivated in Hartford, Conn. The pear "bears a good deal of resemblance in form, texture, flavor and seed to the Autumn Bergamot of Col. Carr." Fruit above medium, short-pyriform or turbinate, as broad as it is high; flesh rather coarse, very tender, melting, juicy, with a refreshing and agreeable flavor; desirable; Oct.

Clarksville. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 134. 1920.
Original tree about 90 years old. Introduced by Sunny Slope Nursery, Hannibal, Mo.

Claude Blanchet. 1. Guide Prat. 54. 1895. 2. Baltet Cult. Fr. 405. 1908.
A gain of Claude Blanchet, Vienne, Fr., and listed in the Journal de la Societe Naitonale et Cenirale d'Horticulture de France in 1883. Fruit small or medium; ovate-obtuse and rather swelled, green washed with yellow; flesh whitish, semi-fine, juicy, sugary and acidulous; good; Aug.

Claude Mollet. 1. Guide Prat. 90. 1876.
Fruit large, oval-shortened; first; Aug. and Sept.

Clay. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 5. 1843. 2. Mag. Hort. 11:437. 1845. 3. Downing. Fr, Trees Am. 721. 1869.
One of Governor Edwards' seedlings, exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural Societyin 1843. Fruit medium, roundish-oblate, sometimes pyriform, waxen-yellow, blushed with crimson and sprinkled with brown or crimson dots; flesh whitish, rather coarse, granular, juicy, sweet; good; Oct.

Clémence de Lavours. 1. Mas Le Verger 1:71, fig. 42. 1866-73.
A wilding found in the Commune of Lavours, Department Ain, Fr. Fruit medium, pyriform, lemon-yellow; flesh melting, perfumed; first; winter.

Clémence van Rumbeck. 1. Guide Prat. 62. 1895.
Presumably Dutch. Fruit medium or large, nearly round, maroon-russet on yellow; flesh yellowish, fine, melting; first; Nov. and Dec.

Clément Bivort. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:569, fig. 1867.
Obtained by Alexandre Bivort, director of the nurseries of the Society Van Mons at Geest-Saint-Rémy, in the gardens of the Company, and first placed on the market in 1858. Fruit medium, globular-oblate, orange-yellow, sprinkled with some gray dots, clouded with fawn especially on the side of the sun; flesh whitish, melting, juicy, sugary, acidulous and sourish, with a strong, agreeable perfume of anis; first; Nov. and Dec.

Clementine. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:136. 1856. 2. Gard. Chron. 1038, fig. 1859.
Seedling of Van Mons, 1833. Fruit large, obtuse-pyriform, golden-yellow, with dots of reddish-brown, slightly reddened on side next the sun; flesh white, moderately finegrained, melting; juice abundant and perfumed; good; Sept.

Clinton. 1. Mag. Hort. 8:60. 1842. 2. Ibid. 17:263. 1851.
Seedling of Van Mons. Fruit large, light yellow; flesh soft, buttery and good but not high flavored; Nov.

Cloche de Wittenberg. 1. Guide Prat. 90. 1876.
Fruit large, turbinate-obovate, dark lemon-yellow, lightly washed with red; flesh breaking; for kitchen use; Oct. and Nov.

Coit Beurré. 1. Horticulturist 19:110, figs. 1, 2. 1864. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 722, fig. 1869.

Raised by Colonel Coit, near Cleveland, Ohio. Fruit medium, obovate inclining to pyriform, yellow, deeply covered with russet, covered with dots which become crimson on exposed side, cheek often crimson; flesh buttery, juicy, spicy, melting, rich, vinous; very good; Sept. and Oct.

Cole. 1. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:239. 1903.
Originated at Detroit, Kan., and variously known as Cole's Seedless, Cole's Pear, Cole's Coreless and Cole's Seedless and Coreless. Fruit medium, globular approaching acute-pyriform; color lemon-yellow, thickly sprinkled with minute russet dots; stem medium long, stout, inserted in a very small cavity; calyx small, open, in a small, shallow basin; flesh white, a little granular, moderately juicy, sweet, pleasant aroma; good. Often sold as "seedless" but frequently shows seeds.

Cole Winter. 1. U.S. D. A. Pom. Rpt. 37. 1895.
Received from Horticultural Gardens, Victoria, Australia, by T. J. Garden, Gardenia, Va. Fruit medium, short, pyriform, having a well-defined suture-like groove running from stem to calyx; color yellow, russeted; stem medium, in a small cavity; calyx large, open; flesh white, tender, melting, juicy, sprightly; very good; autumn.

Collins. 1. Mag. Hort. 17:255, fig. 261. 1851. 2. Ibid. 18:149. 1852.
Raised from seed of the White Doyenné on the farm of a Mr. Collins in Watertown, Mass., and introduced in 1848. Fruit large, obovate, rather flattened, when ripe greenish-yellow, with a fine blush in the sun and speckled with russet dots; flesh white, fine, brisk, melting, juicy, vinous, sweet; good; Sept. and Oct.

Colmar. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:222, Pl.L. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:572, fig. 1867.
A highly esteemed pear of ancient and probably Belgian origin. Merlet mentions it in 1690 and La Quintinye in 1730. Fruit above medium, obtuse-pyriform, smooth, pale green changing to yellow-ochre on ripening and sometimes washed with pale red on the side exposed to the sun; flesh yellowish-white, fine, semi-melting, watery, tender, with a rich, sugary flavor; juice very abundant, acidulous, and deliriously perfumed; first; Nov. to Mar.

Colmar d'Alost. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:574, fig. 1867.
Raised from a seed bed made in 1840 by M. Hellinckx, a nurseryman at Alost, Bel. Fruit large, oblong, very obtuse, enlarged on one side, bright green in the shade, yellowish-green on the side exposed to the sun, dotted with brown specks and covered with patches of fawn; flesh white, fine, semi-melting, juicy, gritty at the center, sweet, vinous, acidulous, savory: first; Oct. and Nov.

Colmar d'Arenberg. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 3:3, fig. 1855. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:575, fig. 1867.
Attributed to Van Mons and thought to have originated in 1821. Fruit very large; form rather variable, obovate, uneven and bossed in outline, yellow-ochre on the shaded side and russeted on the exposed face; flesh yellowish-white, semi-melting, juicy, sweet, slightly aromatic; a handsome but coarse pear; Oct.

Colmar Artoisenet. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:577, fig- 1867.
Found by Simon Bouvier in the garden of M. Artoisenet at Jodoigne, Bel. Fruit medium to above, turbinate-obtuse, greenish-yellow, dotted and marbled with gray-russet on the shady side and entirely stained with fawn on the cheek exposed to the sun; flesh whitish, fine, semi-melting; juice rather wanting, little sugar, delicate; second; Nov.

Colmar d'Automne Nouveau. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:578, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:45, fig. 503. 1881.
Originated in the garden of the Horticultural Society of Angers; first reported in 1851. Fruit above medium, conic-obtuse but sometimes almost cylindrical, russet-gray, lightly and uniformly clouded with orange-yellow; flesh white, fine, melting; juice abundant, sugary and strongly aromatic, occasionally a little acid; first; Sept. and Oct.

Colmar Bretagne. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 549. 1884.
Growing in the gardens of the Caledonian Horticultural Society in Edinburgh, Scot., before 1884. Fruit medium pyramidal, swollen on one side; skin smooth, deep, clear yellow, tinged with green on the shaded side and bright vermilion on the side of the sun, covered all over with small, russety dots; flesh sweet, crisp, juicy and agreeably flavored; dessert fruit; Oct.

Colmar Charni. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 8:43, fig. 1857. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:579, fig. 1867. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 549. 1884.
In 1854 this ancient pear was introduced into the gardens of the Society of Van Mons at Geest-Saint-Rémy, Bel. Fruit medium, oval, dull yellow, dotted, veined and stained with fawn, with a vermilion blush on the side of the sun; flesh white, very fine, semi-melting, juicy, sweet, vinous, having a delicious aroma; first; Jan. to Mar.

Colmar Daras. 1. Guide Prat. 90. 1876. 2. Ibid. 50. 1895.
Obtained by Daras de Naghin of Antwerp, Bel. Fruit large, long and pyramidal, brilliant lemon-yellow, mottled with fawn; flesh very melting and juicy, very sugary; first; winter.

Colmar Delahaut. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 5:21, fig. 1857. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:581, fig. 1867.
Raised from seed by M. Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel. Fruit medium, curved-pyriform, rather variable, greenish-yellow in the shade, brownish-yellow on the side of the sun, dots and patches of pale brown-russet; flesh whitish, semi-fine and semi-melting, wanting in juice, sugary, vinous, aromatic; second; Jan.

Colmar Demeester. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:582, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 550. 1884. A seedling raised by Van Mons. Fruit medium, obtuse-pyriform, somewhat obovate, even and regular in outline, greenish-yellow, rather heavily dotted and with some small patches of brown-russet; flesh yellowish, coarse, semi-melting; juice abundant, sugary, acidulous, with an agreeable if often a rather cloying flavor; a second class dessert pear; Sept. and Oct.

Colmar Dewez. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 192. 1832. 2. Mag. Hort. 5:395. 1839.
Originated near Brussels, Bel., about 1825, and in 1839 was shown by R. Manning at the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. Flesh white, tender and very melting; juice abundant, mild, with an agreeable aroma.

Colmar Épine. 1. Mas Le Verger 3 :Pt. 2, 99, fig. 146. 1866-73. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 725. 1869. Beurré Spine. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:359, fig. 1867.
Origin uncertain, possibly one of Van Mons' seedlings, distributed by M. Bouvier, Jodoigne, Bel. Fruit above medium, long-obtuse-pyriform, ventriculated in its lower part, symmetrical, pale green changing at maturity to lemon-yellow, mottled with fawn-russet and strongly washed with brownish-russet on the side opposed to the sun; flesh whitish, semi-fine, melting, gritty around the core; juice abundant, vinous and saccharine, with an acidulous flavor; second; Nov.

Colmar d'Été. 1. Gard. Chron. 875, 913. 1860. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:583, fig. 1867. Attributed to Van Mons about 1825. Fruit small, obovate or globular-obovate, smooth, shining, greenish-yellow becoming quite yellow when ripe, sprinkled with brown dots, having in some seasons and places a cheek red and almost transparent; flesh yellowish, very melting; juice excessively abundant, of honey sweetness, rich flavor, acidulous, pleasantly aromatic; first; Aug. and Sept.

Colmar Flotow. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:65, fig. 417. 1880. 2. Guide Prat. 79, 246. 1895. Named by Oberdieck, who received it unnamed from Van Mons. Fruit medium, globular-conic, green, with numerous very small, brown dots changing to dull lemon-yellow on maturity; flesh whitish, semi-fine, buttery; juice plentiful, sweet and delicately perfumed; good; winter.

Cohnar-Hirondelles. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:151, fig. 76. 1872.
A product of the Van Mons seed beds, catalogued in 1823. Fruit medium, pyriform and somewhat swelled around the middle, green, speckled with brown dots, changing to bright lemon-yellow on ripening, the exposed side being blushed with a beautiful red; flesh yellow, semi-fine, semi-melting; juice abundant, sugary, vinous and slightly perfumed; second.

Colmar de Jonghe. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 724. 1869. 2. Guide Prat. 72. 1895.
J. de Jonghe of Belgium originated this variety and said of it, "Tree hardy, robust, vigorous and productive, rather upright; young wood nut brown, with a few gray specks."Fruit medium, pyriform, bright yellowish-green, washed with brown; flesh yellowish, very fine, semi-melting, juicy, perfumed; first; Sept. and Oct.

Colmar de Mars.  1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:586, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:139, fig. 262. 1879.
Grown from seed by M. Nerad, Jr., nurseryman at Lyons, Fr., in 1853. Fruit medium, globular-ovate, golden-yellow, dotted, veined and slightly rayed with russet; flesh yellowish, fine, firm though melting, scented; juice abundant, refreshing, sugary, savory and having a slight taste of musk; first; May.

Colmar du Mortier. 1. Guide Prat. 89. 1895.
Fruit medium, ovate, bright lemon-yellow; flesh salmon, very fine, very melting, very sugary; first; Feb.

Colmar Navez. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:586, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 551. 1884. Raised from seed by M. Bouvier, Jodoigne, Bel. The first fruits were yielded in 1837. Fruit large, globular-obovate, yellowish-green, slightly dotted with gray, clouded with brown-russet, and often washed with brick-red on the side exposed to the sun; flesh white, rather fine, semi-melting; juice sufficient, sugary, acidulous, savory, having an aroma suggestive of musk and anis; first; Oct.

Colmar Neill. I. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 821. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 551. 1884.
From a seed bed made by Van Mons in 1815. Fruit very large, obovate, smooth, glossy, pale yellow, sprinkled all over with russety dots and stained with some markings of cinnamon-colored russet; flesh white, buttery, sweet, juicy, vinous and of a musky flavor; good to very good; Oct.

Colmar Sirand. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:178, fig. 570. 1881. 2. Guide Prat. 63. 1895.
From a seed bed of Winter Nelis made in 1856 by M. Pariset, Curciat-Dongalon, Department Ain, Fr. Fruit medium, globular-pyriform; skin thin and tender, pale green, with brown dots, yellow when ripe; flesh slightly yellow, fine, melting, having a decided scent of musk and rose; first; Dec.

Colmar Van Mons. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 192. 1832. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 551. 1884.  Colmar des Invalides. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:584, fig. 1867. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 725. 1890.
Raised at Enghien, Bel., in 1808 by M. Duquesne, a friend of Van Mons. Fruit medium, globular-turbinate, irregular; skin thick, dark green changing to yellow-green and washed with red on the side of the sun; flesh yellowish, buttery and melting, gritty about the core; juice watery; a cooking pear; Nov. to Jan.

Colmart. 1. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 200. 1817. 2. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:83. 1908.
An old variety resembling Bon-Chrétien d' Hiver. Fruit large, obovate-obtuse-pyriform; stalk planted in a deep hollow, bossed; skin smooth, green, dotted with brown spots, inclines to yellow on maturity; flesh yellowish, very fine, buttery and melting; juice very sweet and sprightly; Jan. to Apr.

Coloma Carmeliterbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:12. 1856. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 197. 1889.
One of Count Coloma's Belgian seedlings, 1828. Fruit medium, conic, covered all over with dark brown-russet, with a dark blush when ripe; good for transportation; Dec.

Colorado Seedless. 1. Stark Bros. Cat. 30. 1913.
Originated near Paonia, Col. Tree vigorous, healthy, hardy, productive; fruit large, obovate-obtuse-pyrif orm; skin smooth, dull greenish-yellow, with green and russet dots and a distinct reddish blush; core small; seeds few, usually abortive; flesh yellowish-white, rather fine-grained, tender, melting, juicy, aromatic; good; Oct.

Colorée de Juillet. 1. Mas Le Verger 2:43, fig. 2O- 1866-73. 2- Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:589, fig. 1867.
Obtained by M. Boisbunel, Rouen, Fr., about 1857. Fruit medium, ovate, regular; skin oily, bright yellow, dotted with gray and dark red, vermilion on the side next the sun; flesh whitish, semi-fine and semi-breaking; juice never abundant, sweetish, wanting in sugar and perfume; second; July.

Columbia. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 725. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 552. 1884.
The original tree grew on the farm of a Mr. Casser, Westchester County, N. Y. Fruit large, oblong-obovate, smooth, fine, pale green or golden-yellow when ripe, with sometimes a soft orange tinge on its cheek and dotted with small, gray dots; flesh white, buttery, melting, sweet, perfumed; hardly good; Nov. to Jan.  [Not to be confused with another pear named 'Columbia' -A.S.C.]

Commandant Belaieff. 1. Rev. Hort. 463. 1906.
Placed on the market as a new pear by M. Bruant, Poitiers, Fr., in 1906. Fruit large, wrinkled and reddened all over; flesh rather fine, juicy, very sugary, strongly scented; first; end of Dec.

Commissaire Delmotte. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 5:15, fig. 1857. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:591, fig. 1867.
Gained by Xavier Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel.; ripened first in 1852 or '53. Fruit medium and above, globular-turbinate-obtuse, slightly bossed; skin wrinkled, lemon-yellow, dotted and veined with fawn, shaded with gray-russet and with numerous very small, blackish-gray stains; flesh yellowish, coarse, semi-melting, gritty at core; juice abundant, sugary, acid, with a delicate scent; second; Nov. to Jan.

Commodore. 1. Mag. Hort. 8:60. 1842. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 570. 1857.
Van Mons seedling No. 1218. Fruit medium, very regular, obovate, round and full at the crown, yellow, with patches of red and russet; flesh buttery, melting, rich, sweet and good; Oct. and Nov.

Compotbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:164. 1856. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 198. 1889.
Of French origin, attributed to 1675. Fruit medium, pyriform, pale yellow, entirely covered with fine, cinnamon-colored russet, becoming a dark golden green on ripening; good; Feb.

Compote d'Été. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:107, fig. 342. 1880.
Mas states he received this variety in France from T. Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, Eng. Fruit large, ovate, bright green, speckled with brown dots, turning to pale yellow on ripening; flesh white, rather fine, semi-buttery; juice scarcely sufficient but sugary, a little acid, slightly perfumed.

Comprette. 1. Horticulturist 2:174. 1847. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 726. 1869. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 552. 1884.
A Flemish seedling. It was exhibited by M. P. Wilder, President of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society at the Society's meeting in 1844. Fruit small, obtuse-pyriform, smooth, greenish-yellow, becoming lemon-yellow, strewed with patches and dots of russet; flesh white, buttery, melting, juicy, sweet; not of high merit; Nov.

Comstock. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 393. 1859. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 727. 1869.
An American variety which originated in Dutchess County, N. Y. Fruit medium, obovate, smooth and glossy, bright yellow, with crimson cheek; flesh white, crisp and when well ripened has a sweet and sprightly flavor; a coarse, cooking pear; Nov. to Jan.

Comte Canal de Malabaila. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:139, fig. 358. 1880.
Origin uncertain, but probably German. Fruit rather large, globular-ovate or nearly conic, bright green, with brown dots, changing to lemon-yellow and rather golden on the side of the sun; flesh white, fine, buttery, sufficient sweet juice, agreeable; first; through the winter.

Comte de Chambord. 1. Guide Prat. no. 1876. 2. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 215, fig. 1906.
Found at Nantes, Fr., towards the end of the nineteenth century. Fruit medium, turbinate-obtuse, enlarged at the summit, narrowed at base, yellow; flesh white, very fine, very melting and juicy, sugary and perfumed; very good; Sept. and Oct.

Comte d'Egmont. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 552. 1884.
Fruit small, obovate or turbinate, lemon-yellow, entirely covered with dots of a fine reddish-brown russet, which in some parts are so dense as to form an irregular patch particularly around the calyx; flesh yellow, melting, rather gritty, very rich, sugary, delicious; first; Nov.

Comte de Flandres. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:592, fig. 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 727. 1869. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 552. 1884.
A seedling of Van Mons though it did not bear fruit till 1843. Fruit very large, obtuse-pyriform, mammillate at each end, rough to the touch, yellowish-green, heavily covered with cinnamon-colored russet; flesh yellowish-white, fine, extremely melting, juicy, perfumed, sugary, quite devoid of seeds; of the highest merit; Oct. to Dec.

Comte de Lambertye. 1. Rev. Hort. 542. 1894. 2. Guide Prat. 89. 1895.
From seed of the Beurré Superfin sown by M. Tourasse; exhibited at Paris and Lyons in 1894, and obtained from the Pomological Congress of Lyons a first class certificate. Fruit globular-turbinate, blonde or light colored, dusted over with golden russet; flesh fine, melting, juicy, sprightly; Sept. and Oct.

Comte Lelieur. 1. Guide Prat. 47. 1895. 2. Baltet Cult. Fr. 305, fig. 189. 1908.
Gained by Ernest Baltet, nurseryman at Troyes, Fr., in 1865. Fruit rather large, globular-oval, yellow, dotted with fawn and washed with carmine; flesh fine, very juicy, sugary, with a delicious aroma; first; Sept. and Oct.

Comte de Meladore. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 40. 1871.
One of a collection of forty-two new varieties of pears exhibited by Marshall P. Wilder at the Exhibition of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1871. Fruit medium, pyriform, yellow, with reddened cheek; flesh white, fine-grained, tolerably juicy.

Comte de Morny. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 40. 1871.
Exhibited by Marshall P. Wilder among a collection of 42 new varieties of pears at the Exhibition of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1871. Fruit medium, short-acute-pyriform, yellowish, with a red cheek a little obscured with russet; flesh yellowish-white, juicy, sweet and high flavored.

Comte de Paris. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 727. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 553. 1884.
A Van Mons seedling. Fruit medium, oblong-obovate-obtuse, yellowish-green thickly dotted all over with large, gray-russet dots and patches, with an orange blush next the sun; flesh yellowish, juicy, brisk, sweet, aromatic; good; Oct. to Dec.

Comtesse d'Alost. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:594, fig- 1867.
Origin uncertain, but it was being cultivated in France in 1840 and in Germany in 1854. Fruit medium, long-conic, rough to the touch, russeted, finely dotted with gray and partially covered with large, longitudinal stains; flesh yellowish-white, close-grained, very melting; juice very abundant, sugary, acidulous and having a very aromatic savor; first; Nov.

Comtesse de Chambord. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 7:13, fig. 1857. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:596, fig. 1867.

From seeds of Winter Nelis sown in 1847 by President Parigot, Poitiers, Depart. Vienne, Fr., and fruited for the first time in 1855. Fruit medium and above, obovate-obtuse-pyriform; skin rough, wrinkled, very bright green, sprinkled with dots of greenish-gray, brilliant yellow on the side touched by the sun, and sometimes washed with bright red; flesh yellowish-white, semi-fine, very melting, buttery, gritty at core; juice most abundant, sugary, refreshing, vinous and delicately aromatic; first; Nov. and Dec.

Comtesse Clara Frijs. 1. Guide Prat. 91. 1876. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 198. 1889.
Danish. Fruit medium to large, pale yellow, dotted; flesh white, melting, juicy, sugary, perfumed; good; Aug.

Comtesse de Grailly. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:165, fig. 83. 1872.
Introduced by Eugène des Nouhes, near Pouzanges, Vendee, Fr., in 1867. Fruit medium, globular-conic, flattened at the two poles, very bright green changing to a beautiful lemon-yellow on ripening, golden on the side of the sun, sprinkled with numerous fawn dots; flesh white, fine, melting, rather granular at the core, with abundant sweet juice and a delicate perfume; Oct. and Nov.

Comtesse de Paris. 1. Rev. Hort. 242, fig. 89. 1898. 2. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 218, fig. 1906.
Obtained by W. Fourcine, Dreux, Fr., about 1893. Fruit medium, long-pyriform, bent toward stem, greenish-yellow, tinted with fawn around the stem and calyx and dots of russet over the rest of the skin; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, extremely juicy, very sugary, mild flavor; good; Dec.

Condorcet. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:597, fig. 1867.
Of unknown origin; named after the Marquis of Condorcet. Fruit below medium or small, turbinate, acute and undulating at base, but sometimes somewhat obtuse and mammillate, always mammillate at crown, bright yellow, dotted, streaked and patched with russet; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, slightly gritty at core; juice enough, sugary, aromatic, rather savory; second; Sept.

Conference. 1. Nicholson Dict. Gard. 3:51. 1900. 2. Garden 62:367, fig. 1902 3. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 166. 1920.
Named after the National (British) Pear Conference of 1885. Originated by Rivers, the English pomologist, and introduced in 1894. It is now grown in enormous quantities in England for market purposes and is said to be one of the most regular cropping varieties. Tree a moderate grower, very productive. Fruit medium to above, slightly long-gourd-shaped, even, smooth, shining green, dotted with russet; stem long, woody; calyx open in a, shallow basin; flesh pale yellow, slight pinkish tinge, melting, very juicy, sweet, good; Oct. and Nov. ['Conference' is now (2017) one of the world's major commercial pears. Of course, every cultivar's market share pales in comparison to the ubiquitous 'Bartlett' -ASC]

Congres de Gand. 1. Guide Prat. 73. 1895.
A Belgian variety distributed by Daras de Naghin of Antwerp. Fruit medium, pyriform, fawn color; flesh white, melting; good; Oct.

Congres Pomologique. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:598, fig. 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees. Am. 728. 1869.
Raised by Boisbunel, Rouen, 1854. Fruit above medium, turbinate, globular and bossed; skin rough, olive-yellow, slightly dotted with brown, more or less clouded with pale red on the cheek next the sun; flesh yellowish-white, fine, melting, juicy, sugary, acidulous, having a pleasant flavor of musk; first; Nov. and Dec.

Conkleton. 1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:85. 1908.
Raised in Texas from seed of Le Conte. Cataloged as "new "in 1902.

Conklin. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 728. 1869.
Originated in Westchester County, N. Y. Fruit medium large, oblate-obtuse-pyriform, greenish-yellow sprinkled with green and brown dots, russeted; flesh yellowish, coarse, half melting, sweet, juicy; good; Sept.

Connecticut. 1. Field Pear Cult. 272. 1858.
Raised in Connecticut. Fruit medium, oblate, yellowish-green; quality poor.

Conseiller de Hollande. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 554. 1884.
Fruit large, pyramidal, golden-yellow, much covered with rather rough, cinnamon-colored russet, with a warm orange glow on the sun-exposed side, with some streaks of crimson, and some green specks and large dots on the shaded side; flesh firm and crisp, yellowish, not melting, deficient in juice, sweet and with a musky aroma; handsome but third rate; Oct.

Conseiller Ranwez. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:599, fig. 1867. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 554. 1884.
Raised by Van Mons; it fruited in 1841. Fruit large, pyramidal, bright green, covered with fawn dots, becoming yellow within a day or two of its ripening; flesh fine-grained, half-buttery, tender; juice plentiful, sugary, vinous and delicately perfumed; good but variable; Oct. and Nov.

Constant Claes. 1. Guide Prat. 108, 260. 1876. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:91, fig. 526. 1881.
A Belgian variety distributed in 1863 by de Jonghe. Fruit medium or rather large, conic-pyriform; skin thin and slender, pale green, washed on ripening with light orange-red; flesh white, fine, melting; juice abundant, sweet, vinous and pleasantly scented; first; Sept.

Cooke. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 484. 1857. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 372. 1859.
Place of origin, King George County, Va. Introduced by H. R. Roby, Fredericksburg, Va. Fruit rather large, irregularly pyramidal, pale-yellow; flesh juicy, buttery, melting, sweet, rich, vinous; mid-season.

Copia. i, McIntosh Bk. Gard. 2:455. 1855. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 571. 1857. 3. Ibid. 729. 1869.
Originated about the middle of last century at Philadelphia. Fruit large, yellow, with specks of russet, broad-turbinate; flesh sugary, rather coarse, somewhat resembling the Beurré Diel in flavor; good; Sept. and Oct.

Cornélie Daras. 1. Guide Prat. 89. 1895.
Distributed by Daras de Naghin of Antwerp, Bel. Fruit medium, globular, lemon-yellow; flesh fine, melting, juicy, sugary and well perfumed; Nov. and Dec.

Cornemuse. 1. Gard. Chron. 335. 1862. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:602, fig. 1867.
This is one of the most ancient French pears and was cultivated in 1628 at Orléans, Le Lectier tells, under the name Chair de Fille but a little later under that of Cornemuse, it being described by Claude Saint-Etienne in 1670. Fruit below medium, long, somewhat gourd-shaped, narrow and undulating towards the stem, golden-yellow, shining, speckled with gray dots on the shaded side and with dull yellow on side exposed, and also extensively washed with carmine on the same side; flesh yellowish-white, fine, semi-melting; juice abundant, acidulous, sugary and aromatic; first; July.

Cornewell. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 59. 1858. 2. Mag. Hort. 26:64. 1860.
A variety of unknown origin which about 1830-5 was disseminated by the "Vermont grafters "who travelled the country setting grafts for those who desired. Fruit medium, globular, greenish-yellow, much russeted, and with many dark and purple specks; flesh yellowish-white, tender, melting, juicy, vinous, spicy and rather astringent; good; Sept.

Coter. 1. Mag. Hort. 12:149. 1846. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 729. 1869.
One of Van Mons' seedlings. Fruit medium, varying from obtuse to acute-pyriform, light green or yellowish with russet dots and patches; flesh whitish, tender, juicy, vinous; good; Oct. to Dec.

Coule-Soif de Cerutti. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:15, fig. 296. 1880.
Origin unknown but was named after a druggist named Cerutti of Camburg, Saxe-Meiningen, Ger., who propagated it in the environs of that village. Fruit medium, turbi-nate, very bright green, speckled with dots of bright brown, changing to yellow on ripening; flesh whitish, a little transparent, coarse, semi-melting; juice very plentiful, sugary, refreshing; good; Sept.

Courte-queue d'Automne. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:603, fig. 1867. 2. Guide Prat. 91. 1876.
Raised by Leroy in his nurseries at Angers, it bore its first fruit in 1863. Fruit medium, globular, irregular, one side usually less swelled than the other, bright green, dotted with brown, much stained with russet and blushed with tender rose on the exposed side; flesh white, very fine, semi-melting; juice abundant, sugary, having a delicate scent and a most agreeable tartish flavor; first; Oct.

Courte-queue d'Hiver. 1. Guide Prat, no, 260. 1876. 2. Ibid. 66. 1895.
Obtained by Boisbunel, Rouen, Fr. Fruit large, gray; flesh fine, very melting, sugary and perfumed, slightly musky; Mar. to May.

Cousin Blanc. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:133, fig. 355. 1880.
Of Flemish origin. Cataloged by M. Jahn, 1864. Fruit medium, globular-conic, very pale green, sprinkled with very fine points of fawn; flesh white, slightly tinted with yellow, semi-fine and melting, fairly full of richly saccharine juice having a fresh and pleasant flavor of almond.

Couteau. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 593. 1629.
Mentioned by John Parkinson in 1629 in a list of pears grown in England at that time as a pear that is "neither good one way nor other"

Craig. 1. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 177, fig. 1885-86.  Early Butter of Indiana. 2. Hooper W. Fr. Book 154. 1857.
One of several seedling pear trees brought from Vincennes, Ind., by John Wright and planted at Vevay, Ind., in 1804. Fruit very small, globular-acute-pyriform, pale lemon-yellow, with faint indication of blush and many minute, russet dots; flesh white, juicy, rather firm, pleasant; fair, becomes mealy when fully ripe; June.

Craig Favourite, 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 554. 1884. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 199. 1889.
A valuable autumn dessert pear in Scotland; raised in the neighborhood of Perth, for which climate it is admirably adapted. Fruit medium, obovate-turbinate, yellowish-green in the shade, almost entirely covered with thin russet which is again covered with dots and patches of coarser russet and next the sun dull red, streaked with livelier red, mottled with orange and thickly strewed with large, gray-russety dots; flesh white, semi-buttery, juicy, sugary, perfumed; dessert; Sept.

Crassane. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:166, PL XXII. 1768. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 728. 1869.  Bergamotte Crassane. 3. Ann. Pom. Belge 2:61, fig. 1854. 4. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:231, fig. 1867.
An ancient pear of obscure origin. In the middle of the seventeenth century it was introduced for cultivation in France by La Quintinye, gardener to King Louis XIV. It appears to have derived its name from the Latin word crassus which signifies thick. Some authorities have suggested it was named after the celebrated Roman Consul Marcus Lucinius Crassus who, with Julius Caesar and Pompey, formed the first triumvirate, and who died 53 B. C. The balance of authority is in favor of its having had a French origin. By Belgian and some French and German writers it is known as the Bergamotte Crassane. Fruit medium and above, globular, bossed, flattened at extremities, bright greenish-yellow, veined and dotted with fawn; flesh buttery, melting, tender, of a rich sugary flavor and perfume; a dessert pear of formerly high reputation but rather superseded; Oct. to Dec.

Crassane Libotton. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:13, fig. 7. 1872.
According to the catalog of Van Mons this is a gain of a M. Libotton and is probably Belgian. Fruit small, almost a globe, depressed at both poles; skin thick, intense green, dotted with black spots, sometimes blushed on ripening; flesh white, semi-fine and melting, sweet, vinous, agreeably perfumed; suitable for large orchards; Sept. and Oct.

Crassane du Mortier. 1. Guide Prat. 77. 1895.
Obtained by B. C. Mortier in France. Fruit rather large, turbinate, yellow marked with green; flesh very melting and juicy; first; Nov.

Crawford. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 335. 1845. 2. Ibid. 729. 1869. 3. Bunyard-Thomas Fr. Gard. 139. 1908. Chalk. 4. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 163. 1920.
This tree, probably of Scotch origin, grows to a large size in the orchards of Kent, Eng., and is often planted on the windy sides of plantations as a protection to other trees. Tree stout, remarkably productive. Fruit below medium, obovate, pale green, with faintest red blush; stem stout, medium short, fleshy; calyx open, in a shallow basin; flesh nearly white, mealy, sweet, juicy; flavor nil; Aug.

Crede Kegelformige Zuckerbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:48. 1856.
A German variety cultivated in Hesse and Franconia in 1828. Fruit medium, conic, covered with cinnamon-russet, somewhat blushed; flesh granular, sweet, with an agreeable cinnamon flavor; good; Sept.

Crede Sommerrusselet. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:47. 1856.
Reported from Upper Hesse, Ger., in 1833. Fruit small, pyriform, light yellow, blushed with light red; flesh soft, aromatic; very fruitful, excellent; Sept.

Crisco. 1. U.S.D.A. Rpt. 288. 1893.
A seedling of Seckel raised in North Carolina by Robert Crisco. Fruit roundish, below medium in size, greenish-yellow, nearly covered with russet; dots numerous; calyx small, closed, in a moderately deep basin; stem medium, stout, fleshy at base; cavity small; flesh greenish-white, fine, juicy, mild subacid, almost sweet; good to very good.

Črnivka. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 10, fig. 1913.
A Russian wild pear. Fruit small, globular, rather acute toward stalk, yellowish-green, with some brown-russet; flesh white, agreeable; a good wild pear; Sept.

Crocker. 1. U.S.D.A. Yearbook, 497, Pl.LX. 1905.
Originated in an orchard planted by gold miners near Loomis, Cal., about 1850 and known locally as Crocker Bartlett. Fruit medium, oblong-obovate-pyriform, somewhat angular, golden-yellow, netted and russeted; stem medium to long, slender, obliquely inserted; calyx small, closed, in a deep, abrupt basin; flesh yellowish, buttery, juicy, mild subacid to sweet; very good; Jan. to Mar.

Croft Castle. 1. Mag. Hort. 8:60. 1842. 2. Ibid. 13:154. 1847. 3. Mas Le Verger 3:Pt. 2, 121, fig. 157. 1866-73.
Raised by T. A. Knight, former President of the London Horticultural Society. Fruit medium, globular at the stalk end, greenish-yellow, covered with large, brown dots and russet markings; flesh whitish, a little gritty but melting, juicy, rich, sugary, and perfumed; an excellent dessert pear; Oct.

Cross. 1. Mag. Hort. 7:132, fig. 8. 1841. 2. Ibid. 20:138. 1854.
Originated with a Mr. Cross, Newburyport, Mass. Fruit medium, globular-ovate, smooth, deep yellow, red on the sunny side, covered with russet dots, patches of russet around the eye; flesh yellowish-white, tender, juicy, of a rich, spicy flavor; a handsome and excellent fruit; Dec.

Crouch. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 730. 1869.
Originated at Colchester, Conn. Fruit below medium, globular, inclining to oblate, pale yellow, netted and patched with russet, many russet dots; flesh whitish, juicy, melting, sweet, pleasant; good; Sept.

Crow. 1. John S. Kerr Cal. 11. 1898.
Described by John S. Kerr, Sherman, Tex., as new in his catalog of 1898. Fruit said to be like Bartlett in shape and color; finest flavor; Sept.

Cullem. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:165, fig. 275. 1879.
From Van Mons. Fruit medium, pyriform-ovate, tender, green, dotted with fine specks of brown-fawn passing to pale whitish-yellow on ripening, with the cheek exposed to the sun blushed with red and golden hues; flesh yellowish-white, rather transparent, firm and yet melting; abundant juice with flavor recalling that of the old White Doyenné; good in quality, but a poor bearer; Oct. and Nov.

Cumberland. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 168. 1832. 2. Mag. Hort. 26:508. 1860. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:608, figs. 1867. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 730. 1869.
Alexandre Bivort and M. de Jonghe declared that this variety was one of Van Mons' seedlings while Downing, Kenrick and Manning affirmed it to be a native of Cumberland, R. I. The conflicting opinion is explained by the fact that the Cumberland of the first parties is really Henkel. Fruit large, obovate-pyriform, pale yellow on the shaded side and greenish-yellow on the side of the sun, dotted with gray-russet and having some russet patches; flesh white, semi-fine, dense, melting, very juicy, sugary, acidulous, rather pleasantly flavored, slightly perfumed; second; Sept.

Curé d'Oleghem. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:613, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:171, fig. 278. 1879.
Probably of Belgian origin, having been described by Bivort in 1852 and placed in the General List of fruits cultivated in the garden of the Society of Van Mons in 1857. Fruit small, globular, bossed, larger on one side than on the other, greenish-yellow, dotted all over with russet and extensively washed with the same around the stem; flesh white, fine, melting, gritty at center; juice scanty, little sugar, no perfume, very acid; third; Oct.

Cushing. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 1:144. 1832. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 730. 1869.
A native pear which originated on the farm of Col. Washington Cushing, Hingham, Mass. It was introduced to notice at the first annual show of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1829. Fruit medium, somewhat variable according to cultivation and soil, obovate-obtuse, light greenish-yellow, sometimes blushed with dull red on the sunny side and sprinkled all over with russety dots; flesh fine, white, melting, juicy, agreeably sprightly, rich; very good, among the best autumn pears; Sept.

Czernowes. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:17, fig. 489. 1881.
Of unknown origin. Fruit medium, turbinate-obovate or pyriform-obovate, often bossed; when ripe is a brilliant lemon-yellow, with some dots except on the side of the sun which is tinged with light orange-red; flesh white, fine, buttery, melting, with abundant sugary juice, slightly musky, agreeable; first; Sept.


D'Amboise. 1. Decaisne et Naudin Man. Amat. Jard. 4:464.
Fruit medium, oblate or turbinate, greenish-yellow, washed with very bright red, marked with brown around the stem; flesh very white, sweet, without scent.

D'Arad. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:187, fig. 382. 1880.
A Hungarian variety; probably originated in the County of Arad in the west of Transylvania. Fruit medium, an almost perfect ellipsoid; skin rather thick, water-green, often nearly covered with brown-russet; flesh yellowish, semi-fine, buttery, melting, full of richly saccharine juice, vinous and perfumed; good; Sept.

D'Auch. 1. Lindley Guide Orch. Card. 397. 1831. 2. Decaisne et Naudin Man. Amai. Jard. 4:473.
This pear greatly resembles Colmar in almost every respect and has often been confused with it. It is, however, more full next the stalk and arrives at maturity somewhat later and its flesh has a higher flavor. D'Auch was introduced into England before 1817 by the Duke of Northumberland. Fruit very large, long, bossed, irregular, obtuse; skin a lively yellow washed with orange-red; flesh breaking, sweet; not high in quality.

D'Œuf. 1. Duhamel Trait Arb. Fr. 2:157. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:470, fig. 1869. 3. Guide Prat. 55, 256. 1895.
A Swiss pear largely grown in the neighborhood of Basle. The botanist Valerius Cordus described it in 1561. Fruit small, oval, greenish-yellow, strewed with gray-russet dots, more or less tinged with red on the side of the sun; flesh white and semi-fine, semi-breaking or melting, rich, sugary, musky; juice abundant; second; Aug.

Daimyo. 1. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 129. 1888. 2. Guide Prat 105. 1895.
A Japanese variety. Fruit medium, roundish-pyriform, clear yellow with minute pale or brownish dots; stem long, curved, slender, set in a slight depression; calyx open, in a shallow basin; flesh white, coarse, crisp; poor; Oct. and Nov.

Dallas. 1. Mag. Hort. 11:252. 1845. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 730. 1869.
In 1843 this, one of Governor Edwards' seedlings raised at New Haven, Conn., was exhibited to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. Fruit medium, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, dull yellow, thickly interlaced with cinnamon-russet sprinkled with crimson and russet dots; flesh yellowish-white, fine, melting, buttery, juicy, aromatic; good; Oct. to Dec.

Dame. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:1, fig. 1869. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 200. 1869.
For two and a half centuries this variety has been known in the Department of Maine-et-Loire under the name of Dame, though in one district it bore the name of des Buhards. Fruit medium, globular-ovate, mammillate around calyx; skin rough, grass-green, dotted with fawn at each end and sprinkled with gray specks; flesh whitish, semi-fine, tender, semi-melting, gritty; juice sufficient, sweet, acidulous, rather well flavored; third; Sept.

Dame-verte. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:3, fig. 1869. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:139, fig. 70. 1872.
Attributed to Van Mons about the beginning of the nineteenth century. Fruit above medium, obtuse-conic, skin thick, yellowish-olive, sprinkled with green dots changing to bright yellow and on the side of the sun occasionally touched with crimson; flesh yellowish-white, rather coarse, semi-melting, rather gritty at the center, with plenty of sweet juice, acid but rather savory; second; Aug.

Darimont. 1. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 369. 1831. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 2:200. 1832.
A Flemish pear new in the early part of the nineteenth century. Fruit medium, oblong, tapering somewhat toward the stalk, yellowish-gray-russet, sprinkled with numerous scabrous specks; flesh white, gritty, melting, with a saccharine, slightly musky and somewhat astringent juice; Sept. and Oct.

Darlington. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 731. 1869.
An American variety; origin unknown. Fruit large, oblate-obtuse-pyriform, pale yellow, some crimson at times on the side of the sun, nettings and patches of russet and russet dots; flesh whitish, coarse, sweet; moderate quality; rots at core; Sept.

Dathis. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:4, fig. 1869.
Origin not clear, but it was cultivated in France before the middle of the last century. Fruit large, turbinate and very swelled, one side being often more so than the other, bright yellow passing to grayish-yellow on the cheek touched by the sun, dotted with green; flesh whitish, semi-fine, half-breaking, gritty at center; juice deficient, sugary; second; Oct.

David. 1. Guide Prat 91. 1876.
Fruit rather coarse, of handsome pyramidal form, yellowish-green washed with purple; flesh breaking; first quality for cooking purposes; Apr. and May.

David d'Angers. 1. Guide Prat. 91. 1876. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:6, fig. 1869. 23

Raised from seed by André Leroy in 1865. Fruit medium to large, turbinate-obtuse, rather pentagonal, mammillate at calyx, bright yellow, finely dotted with fawn; flesh white, fine, melting, juicy, sugary, acidulous, savory, pleasantly perfumed; first; Feb. to Apr.

Davis. 1. Mag. Hort. 23:107. 1857. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 731. 1869.
A seedless native pear found about 1837 by a Mr. Davis, six miles from Philadelphia, on the Westchester Road. Fruit small; variable in form, sometimes globular, usually obtuse-pyriform, yellowish, much russeted; flesh buttery, aromatic, melting, sweet, rather coarse, somewhat vinous; good; Oct.

De Cerciaux. 1. Baltet Cult. Fr, 373. 1908.
A variety good for perry and for drying. The juice is amber-colored, perfumed and of an agreeable flavor; Oct. and Nov.

De Chasseur. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:89, fig. 141. 1878.
A seedling of Van Mons which produced fruit in 1842. Fruit medium, pyriform-ovate, slightly obtuse; skin rather thick and tough, pale green, sprinkled with gray-brown dots, becoming at maturity bright yellow, a good deal shaded with brown-russet; flesh white, slightly tinged with green, semi-fine, melting; juice plentiful, sweet, pleasantly perfumed; good; Sept. and Oct.

De Croixmare. 1. Baltet Cult. Fr. 372. 1908.
A good perry pear cultivated in France. Fruit small, very good, especially for the manufacture of alcohol; has little tannin. The juice is colorless; Sept. and Oct.

De Duvergnies. 1. Gard. Chron. 463. 1863. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:119, fig. 1869.  Köstliche Van Mons. 3. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:124. 1856.
Originated by Van Mons; fruited in 1821. Downing describes this pear under the name Délices Van Mons and gives as a synonym Délices de Mons, but since these names are also synonyms of Viconte de Spoelberg, a very different variety, the name originally given by Van Mons is to be preferred. Fruit medium and often larger, obtuse, long-ovate, regular and bold in contour; surface uneven, slightly constricted near the top, and slightly mammillate; skin thin, rough to the touch, lemon-yellow, dotted all over with greenish-gray, generally vermilioned on the cheek exposed to the sun; flesh yellowish-white, fine or semi-fine, melting, granular around the core; juice abundant, saccharine, vinous, sourish, with a peculiar and delicious aroma; first; Oct.

De Fer. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:152, fig. 1869.
According to Leroy this pear is at least four centuries old and originated in Germany, where Cordus described it about 1544 under the name of Pear of Os. Fruit above medium and often large; form variable, at times prolonged like Calebasse, more generally turbinate-ovate or turbinate-globular; stem obliquely planted; skin slightly wrinkled, bright yellowish-green, more or less vermilioned on the side next the sun, covered with large, gray dots and some streaks of brown-russet; flesh very white, semi-fine, hard and breaking, lacking in juice, sweetish, deficient in perfume; third; Jan. to Mar. or Apr.

De Fosse. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:191, fig. 1869.
A very ancient French variety mentioned by Le Lectier in his catalog of 1628. Fruit below medium and often small, globular-turbinate, clear yellow dotted and netted with russet; flesh white, semi-fine, firm, semi-breaking, scented; juice abundant, sugary, acidulous; very musky; second or third; Aug. and Sept.

De Lamartine. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:325, fig. 1869.  Lamartine. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 797. 1869.
Raised by Bivort, director of the nurseries of the Society of Van Mons and first reported in 1850. Fruit small, globular or turbinate, flattened, often irregular and bossed, olive-green, dotted and very much covered with russet; flesh white, coarse, melting, generally gritty around the core; juice sufficient, sweet, musky and delicate; second, or third when the flesh is excessively gritty; Nov.

De Louvain. I, Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:363, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 734. 1869.
Raised by Von Mons in 1827 and published in 1834. Fruit above medium, obtuse-turbinate, clear grass-green or dull yellow, much covered with fine dots of gray-russet and stains of russet; flesh whitish, semi-fine and semi-melting; juice abundant, saccharine, vinous, with a delicate flavor and perfume of musk; second; Sept.

De Prêtre. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:190. 1768. 2. Mag. Hort. 9:131. 1843. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:550, fig. 1869.
A very old French pear just mentioned by the pomologist Le Lectier of Orléans and for a long while known under the names of Caillout, Caillolet and Caillot d'Hiver. Le Lectier cultivated it in 1600 and cataloged it in 1628. In 1858 Decaisne coupled with it the ancient name of Carmelite. Fruit below medium, spherical but sometimes a little elongated and narrowed toward the upper part; skin rather thick, clear brown-russet dotted all over on the side exposed to the sun with whitish points, but with ash-gray points on the other side; flesh white, semi-fine, breaking, gritty at center; juice moderate in amount, saccharine, acidulous, more or less musky; second or third for dessert, first for compotes; Jan. to Mar.

De Rachinquin. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 170. 1832.
Produced by M. Noisette. Fruit round, compressed, rough, brown; flesh melting buttery, sugary, highly flavored; Nov. and Dec.

Delcange. 1. Guide Prat. 91. 1876.
Fruit large; flesh melting; first quality; Sept.

Délices de la Cacaudière, 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:9, fig. 1869.
Gained by Count Eugène des Nouhes in 1846 near Pouzauges, Vendee, Fr. Fruit above medium, long-conic, slightly obtuse, mammillate at crown and irregular in contour, bright yellow, dotted with gray and greenish specks, colored with carmine on the cheek next the sun; flesh very white and fine, melting; juice abundant, acidulous, sugary, aromatic, rather savory; second; July and Aug.

Délices de Charles. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:10, fig. 1869. 2. Guide Prat. 74, 262. 1876.  Wredow. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. et86. 1869.
Raised in 1826 by Simon Bouvier, Jodoigne, Bel. Fruit medium, turbinate-pyriform but inconstant in contour, dark lemon-yellow, dotted with russet; flesh white, fine, very melting, buttery, sweet, juicy, vinous and with a delicious tartness; good to very good; Oct. to Dec.

Délices de Chaumont. 1. Guide Prat. 72. 1876. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:133, fig. 547. 1881.
Fruit rather large, conic-ovate, olive spotted with gray; flesh white, buttery, melting, wanting in juice, very sweet; second, cooking.

Délices Everard. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 558. 1884.
Raised by Gabriel Everard, Tournay, Fr., in 1840. It was sent to England in 1865 and received a first-class certificate from the Royal Horticultural Society in 1875. Fruit small, globular-turbinate, smooth, shining, bright yellow, much speckled and marked with russet; flesh salmon tint, tender, buttery, melting, very juicy, sweet, delicious flavor and fine perfume; Oct. to Feb.

Délices de Froyennes. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 558. 1884.
Raised by Isidore Degaud, Froyennes, Tournay, Fr. Fruit medium, oval, yellow covered with fawn-colored russet; flesh tender, melting, very juicy, sugary and perfumed, vinous; Oct. and Nov.

Délices d'Hardenpont. 1. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 99. 1825. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 558. 1884.
Raised by AbbéHardenpont, Mons, Bel., in 1759. There has been much confusion between this and Délices d'Hardenpont d'Angers and the Archiduc Charles and Charles of Austria. Fruit large, oblong-obovate-obtuse; skin smooth, bright green changing to yellow, with pale brown-russet dots; flesh white, tender, buttery, melting, rich, sweet, perfumed; good; Nov.

Délices d'Hiver. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:61, fig. 415. 1880. 2. Gard. Chron. N. S. 26:210. 1886.
Distributed by M. Dauvesse, Orléans, Fr., early in the latter half of the nineteenth century. Fruit large; form variable from elongate-pyriform to globular-pyriform with short stalk set obliquely; skin thick, green, heavily dotted; flesh moderately fine, full of sugary juice, acid and delicately perfumed; Dec. to Jan.

Délices de Huy. 1. Guide Prat. 56, 251. 1895.
Fruit large, conic-pyriform, yellowish-green; flesh greenish-yellow, juicy, pleasantly perfumed; first; Sept.

Délices de Jodoigne. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:15, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 559. 1884.
Obtained by Simon Bouvier, Jodoigne, Bel., in 1826. Fruit medium, pyriform, irregular, slightly obtuse and larger on one side of the axis than the other, grass-green on the shaded side and reddish-gray on the exposed face, covered with numerous very fine dots of fawn; flesh white, firm, breaking, sweet, juicy, refreshing and aromatic; first; Oct.

Délices de Ligaudières. 1. Guide Prat. 60. 1895.
Fruit medium, of the style of White Doyenné, but the stem thicker and shorter; flesh fine, melting; first; Oct.

Délices de Lovenjoul. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 6:65, fig. 1858. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 734. 1869.  Jules Bivort. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:15, fig. 1869.
A seedling of Van Mons in whose catalog of 1828 it is No. 521. Fruit medium, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, greenish-yellow washed with orange-red, speckled all over with russet dots; color variable; flesh yellowish-white, fine, melting, semi-buttery; juice abundant, sugary, with an acid flavor and delicious perfume, rich; first; Oct. and Nov.

Délices de la Meuse. 1. Field Pear Cult. 279. 1858. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:16, fig. 1869.
Laurent de Bavay, Director of the Royal Nurseries of Vilvorde, near Brussels, sent this pear out in 1850. Fruit medium and above, ovate, irregular, bossed, more enlarged on one side than the other, greenish-yellow, very finely speckled with green and brown dots; flesh dirty white, coarse, breaking, gritty at center; juice variable in amount, moderately sweet, acid, musky; second; Feb.

Délices de Naghin. 1. Guide Prat. 90. 1895.
Fruit rather large, turbinate, yellow, washed with fawn; flesh very juicy, very sweet; an exquisite pear; Nov.

Délices de Saint-Medard. 1. Guide Prat. 70. 1895.
Sent out from Belgium. Fruit medium or rather large, shining yellow touched with russet; flesh fine, melting, sweet: good quality; Sept.

Délices de Tirlemont. 1. Guide Prat. 90. 1895.
First placed in commerce by H. Millet, nurseryman at Tirlemont, Bel. Fruit medium or large; flesh melting; first; Jan. to Mar.

Délicieuse de Grammont. 1. Guide Prat. 92. 1876.
Raised by M. de la Croix d'Ogimont, Tournai, Bel. Fruit medium, long-pyriform, delicate yellowish-green; flesh white, very juicy; first; end of Aug.

Délicieuse de Swijan. 1. Guide Prat. 90. 1895.
Distributed by Baron de Trauttenberg, Prague, Bohemia. Tree very fertile and suitable for cold and mountainous climates. Fruit medium, globular, yellowish-green, dotted; flesh yellowish-white, fine, melting, sugary; very good; Nov. and Dec.

Délisse. 1. Guide Prat. 72. 1895.
Fruit medium, oblong, of even contour, much covered with fawn-russet; flesh fine, melting, very juicy; good; Sept. and Oct.

Delpierre. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:17, fig. 1869. 2. Guide Prat. 70, 252. 1895.
A wilding found in the Canton of Jodoigne, Brabant, Bel. Fruit large, ovate-obtuse-pyriform, wrinkled, thick, olive-green clouded with dark yellow; flesh greenish-white, coarse, semi-melting; juice acid, rather sweet, vinous, abundant; second; Sept.

Delporte Bourgmestre. 1. Guide Prat. 90. 1895.
Fruit rather large, yellowish; first; Mar. and Apr.

Democrat. 1. Mag. Hort. 25:69. 1859. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 734. 1869.
A seedling originated in Pennsylvania and introduced as new in 1859. Fruit medium or below, globular-obovate, greenish-yellow with nettings and patches of russet and dotted with russet and brown spots; flesh semi-melting, juicy, sweet, pleasant good; Sept. [Alternative fact-based description: This pear was planted by Hillary Clinton and George Soros as a part of a vast conspiracy to throw rotten fruit at the wonderful and totally non-partisan Judge Kavanaugh. -ASC]

Demorest. 1. Wash. Nurs. Cat. 5. 1921.
Reported as "luscious, larger, later and a better keeper than Bartlett."

Dempsey. 1. Ont. Dept. Agr. Fr. Ont. 155. 1914.
A Canadian pear produced from a seed of Bartlett fertilized with Duchesse d'Angoulême. Fruit large, oblong-obovate-pyriform, smooth, yellowish-green with brownish-red cheek in sun; flesh white, fine-grained, tender, almost melting, with sweet, delicious flavor; Oct. and Nov.

Denis Dauvesse. 1. Guide Prat. no. 1876.
Fruit medium to large, long-pyriform; flesh fine, melting, pleasantly perfumed; Sept.

Des Chartreux. 1. Mas Le Verger 2:171, fig. 84. 1866-73.
Origin uncertain. Fruit small or nearly medium, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, light green, speckled with dots of a very deep green, washed with light red on the sunny side; flesh slightly yellow, fine, more firm than breaking; juice sugary, acidulous, slightly perfumed; second; Aug.

Des Deux Sœurs. 1. Gard. Chron. 463. 1863.
The original tree was found in the garden of the Misses Knopp of Mechlin, Bel. Fruit medium, oblong, lemon-yellow; flesh melting, juicy, sugary, slightly astringent but wanting in perfume and flavor; grown both in Belgium and France; not first class.

Désiré Cornélis. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:18, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 560. 1884.
The parent tree was from seed sown by Van Mons; first bore fruit in 1847. Fruit large, oblong-oval, obtuse; skin very fine, pale yellow and often orange-yellow, dotted and netted with greenish-gray; flesh very tender, buttery, melting; juice plentiful, sugary, deliciously perfumed; first; Sept.

Dessauer Weissbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:35. 1856.
North German, 1804. Fruit medium, smooth, pale greenish-yellow changing to citron yellow, sometimes rather lightly blushed; flesh fine, somewhat soft, sweet, aromatic; good; Aug.

Deutsche Augustbirne. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 202. 1889.  UAout Allemande. 2, Mas Pom. Gen. 7:65, fig. 513. 1881.
A German variety much cultivated in Saxony. Fruit small, ovate; skin rather thick, dull green, sprinkled with small and numerous gray dots, becomes yellow on ripening and somewhat blushed in the sun; flesh green and veined with green, semi-fine, buttery; juice sufficient, sugary, vinous, acid, pleasant; good; Aug.

Deutsche Glasbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:69. 1856.
German, 1811. Fruit medium, globular-turbinate, bent toward stalk, uniformly light yellow, blushed with russety-red on the side of the sun; flesh sweet;'good; Sept.

Deutsche Kümmelbime. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:157. 1856.
German, 1802. Fruit small, globular, dirty yellow, washed with russet; flesh very tender, sweet, strongly aromatic and perfumed; good; Sept.

Deutsche Muskateller. 1. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 106. 1825. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 202. 1889.  Muscat Allemand d'Hiver. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:439, fig. 1869.  German Muscat. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 772. 1869.
An old pear of uncertain origin. La Quintinye mentioned it without description in 1690, but in 1768 Duhamel du Monceau gave a careful description to distinguish between it and Royale d'Hiver which it somewhat resembles. Fruit medium or above, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, pale yellow, speckled with numerous large, gray dots; flesh yellowish, semi-fine, semi-melting, juicy, granular, sweet, slightly astringent; second; Mar. to May.

Deux Têtes. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:244. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:23, fig.  1869. Zwibotzenbirne. 3. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 162. 1825. 4. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 303.  1889.
One of the most ancient pears cultivated in France. Charles Estienne described it in 1530 in his Seminarium, under the name Pyra Bicipitia or Poirè a Deux-Tesies. It takes its name from its large and oval calyx being placed on two prominences. Fruit small to medium, globular, somewhat turbinate, pale yellowish-green in the shade, blushed on the side next the sun; flesh white, coarse, breaking, juicy, slightly perfumed, but often having an unpleasant acidity; an indifferent dessert fruit; Aug.

Devergnies. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 6:57, fig. 1858. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:24, fig. 1869.
Obtained from seed in 1817 in Hainaut by M. Devergnies of Mons. Fruit medium, turbinate-obtuse, much corrugated at summit, olive-green, nearly covered with gray-russet and slightly clouded with orange-red on the side next the sun; flesh yellowish-white, fine, melting, buttery; juice abundant, acidulous, sugary, aromatic; second; Nov. and Dec.

Dewey. 1. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 55. 1898. 2. Cornell Sta. Bul. 332:480, fig. 160. 1913. An oriental pear, in form resembling Kieffer. Fruit medium, conical to globular-oval, rusty green with faint blush; skin rough; flesh white, juicy, coarse, gritty, fibrous; quality poor; Oct.

Dhommée. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:25, fig. 1869.
A seedling raised by the Horticultural Society of Angers, Fr.; it first bore fruit in 1858. Fruit medium and often larger, long-ovate, bossed, one side always larger than the other, bright green, finely dotted and much mottled with russet; flesh white, firm, fine, melting, slightly gritty; juice abundant, sugary, acidulous, devoid of perfume; second; Oct. to Dec.

Dickerman. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 376. 1859. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 736. 1869. Dikeman. 3. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 700. 1897.
Obtained by S. D. Pardee, New Haven, Conn. Fruit medium, globular-oblate, often irregular in outline, yellowish, bright cinnamon on the sunny side, covered with minute dots; flesh white, fine, melting, sugary, perfumed; first; Sept.

Diego. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 592. 1629.
Described by John Parkinson in 1629 as a small pear growing in clusters, excellent and musky in flavor.

Dienstbotenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:200. 1856.  Dutch. 1807.
Fruit medium, pyriform, light greenish-yellow turning to bright yellow, with only an indistinct red blush, if any; flesh granular, aromatic and sweet; good; Oct.

Dieudonné Anthoine. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 5:85, fig. 1857. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:26, fig. 1869.
Obtained by Dieudonne' Anthoine at Ecaussines-d'Enghien, Bel., and bore fruit at Brussels in 1850. Fruit medium and above, globular, slightly turbinate, bossed, flattened at both ends, greenish-yellow, dotted with brown, mottled with russet, becoming at maturity a brilliant yellow, washed with vermilion on the side of the sun; flesh very white and very fine, breaking; juice sufficient, sweet, often astringent and only slightly perfumed; second; Oct.

Diller. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 36. 1852. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 736. 1869.
This pear was approved at the American Pomological Congress in 1852, where it was reported to have been imported from Germany by the Diller family many years previously, but considered by others to be a native of Pennsylvania. Fruit below medium, globular-ovate, cinnamon-russet; flesh somewhat granular, whitish, buttery, melting; juicy with a fine aromatic flavor; good to very good; Aug. and Sept.

Diman. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 43. 1866.
S. A. Shurtleff, Brookline, Mass., submitted this among other seedlings to the Fruit Committee of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1866. Fruit 2½ in. in diameter, russet, with red cheek; flesh breaking, melting, very sweet and juicy; ripens soundly; all Oct. This pear has improved, year by year, in size and character; first-rate.

Directeur Alphand. 1. Gard. Chron. N. S. 17:538. 1882. 2. Guide Prat. 54. 1895.
Sent out in 1880 by Messrs. Croux and Son, Chatenay, Seine, Fr. Fruit very large, oblong-pyriform, yellowish-green passing into golden-green, dotted and splashed with red; flesh white, semi-fine, generally gritty toward the center, sugary; very good for ornament and stewing; Feb. and Mar.

Directeur Hardy. 1. Rev. Hort. 542. 1894. 2, Ibid. 500, fig. 153. 1894.
From the seed beds of M. Tourasse and promoted by M. Baltet of Troyes, Fr. It was submitted to the Tasting Committee of the Pomological Society of France in 1894 and declared to be very good. Fruit large or medium, turbinate, elongated, obtuse, slightly bent, golden-yellow, washed with red on the exposed side; flesh white, fine, melting, very juicy, sugary, vinous, slightly perfumed; Sept.

Directeur Tisserand. 1. Rev. Hort. 7. 1900.
Obtained by M. A. Sannier, Rouen, from Beurré d'Hardenpont fertilized with Doyenné du Comice; introduced in 1900. Fruit medium or rather large, ovate-turbinate; skin fine, shining, colored in the sun; flesh white, melting, juicy, sugary, having a peculiar flavor; good; Dec. and Jan.

Directeur Varenne. 1. Rev. Hort. 6. 1897.
A cross between Easter Beurré and Bergamote Esperén, introduced by M. Arsetne Sannier, Rouen, Fr. Fruit large to very large, approaching Easter Beurré in form and color; stem short; flesh very fine, juicy, with a slight aroma.

Dirkjes Peer. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:25, fig. 13. 1872. 2. Guide Prat. 92. 1876.
Dutch. Fruit medium, globular-conic, lemon-yellow streaked with brownish-red; flesh whitish, semi-breaking, agreeably acid and sugary; second; good for household use; Aug.

Dix. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 1:142. 1831. 2, Downing Fr. Trees Am. 737, fig. 1869.
Originated in the garden of Madame Dix, Boston, Mass.; it bore first in 1826. Fruit large, oblong or long-pyriform; skin rough, green, the exposed fruit becoming deep yellow when ripe, marked with distinct russet dots and sprinkled with russet around the stalk; flesh melting, rich, juicy, of a fine flavor and by some thought to be superior to the St. Germain; very good to best; Oct. and Nov.

Dixie. 1. Griffing Bros. Cat. 19, fig. 1915.
Originated in southern Georgia as a chance seedling, possibly a cross between Le Conte and the Sand Pear; and was introduced in 1914 by Griffing Brothers of Florida. Fruit medium to above, roundish, slightly oblong, light green, sweet, sprightly; Aug.

Doat. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:29, fig. 1869. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:19, fig. 202. 1879.
The parent tree was noticed by M. Doat in his garden near Fleurance, Gers, Fr. Fruit large, like Calebasse in form; skin rough to the touch, bright yellow dotted with fawn; flesh yellowish-white or greenish, semi-melting, gritty around the core; juice abundant, vinous, sugary, rather aromatic; second; Sept.

Docteur Andry. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:31, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 561. 1884.
Raised in the nurseries of M. Boisbunel, Jr., at Rouen, Fr., in 1849. Fruit medium, globular, Bergamot-shaped, bright yellow all over, with dots of russet around the stalk, and sprinkled with small brown specks; flesh very white, fine, melting, somewhat gritty at center, juicy, sugary, with a delicate taste of musk; first; Nov.

Docteur Bénit. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:31, fig. 1869.
Raised from seed by Van Mons in 1840. Fruit below medium, globular, larger on one side than the other, wrinkled, bronzed all over, dotted with bright grayish-green; flesh whitish, dense, semi-melting, veined with greenish-yellow; juice sufficient, rather sugary, vinous, slightly aromatic; third; Dec. and Jan.

Docteur Bourgeois. 1. Guide Prat. 62. 1895.
Obtained by M. Sannier, Rouen, Fr. Fruit medium, apple-shaped, lemon-yellow; flesh fine, somewhat granular at center, juicy, with agreeable perfume.

Docteur Bouvier. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:33, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 738. 1869.
An excellent French pear suitable for a mild climate. Fruit medium, globular-obovate-pyriform, greenish, more yellow at maturity, sprinkled, shaded and dotted with russet, sometimes with slight crimson and fawn on exposed cheek; flesh rather coarse, melting, juicy, vinous, having but little perfume; good to very good; Dec. to Mar.

Docteur Capron. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:34, fig. 1869. 2. Guide Prat. 62, 255. 1895.
Obtained by Van Mons in 1842. Fruit medium or rather large, ovate, lemon-yellow; flesh melting, yellow, buttery, sugary, juicy, of good flavor and scented with almond; first; Nov.

Docteur Chaineau. 1. Guide Prat. 91. 1895.
Fruit rather large; flesh melting; first; Oct.

Docteur Delatosse. 1. Guide Prat. 91. 1895.
Fruit exquisite; Oct. and Nov. Resisted the severe frost of 1879-80.

Docteur Gromier. 1. Guide Prat. no. 1876.
First published in 1873. Fruit medium; flesh very fine, buttery, melting, juicy, with an aroma of mingled rose and musk; first; Oct.

Docteur Joubert 1. Rev. Hort. 561. 1893.
Baltet Brothers, Troyes, Fr., introduced this pear in 1893. Fruit rather large, pyriform, clear green passing to pale yellow, dotted with fawn, rosy on the side of the sun; flesh melting; juice abundant, with a sugary taste and having a pleasant perfume; autumn.

Docteur Koch. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:36, fig. 1869. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:7, fig. 196. 1879.
Raised from seed by André Leroy in 1864. Fruit above medium, ovate, bossed, irregular, lemon-yellow, finely dotted and reticulated with russet, lightly washed with reddish-brown on the side exposed to the sun; flesh whitish, fine, firm, melting, rather gritty about the core, full of sugary juice, acid and pleasantly perfumed; first; Sept.

Docteur Lentier. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:37, fig. 1869. 2, Guide Prat. 74, 256. 1895.
From seed sown in 1847 by M. Grégoire, Jodoigne, Brabant. Fruit medium, ovate, somewhat elongated, smooth, greenish or lemon-yellow, splashed and dotted with cinnamon-russet; flesh whitish, fine-grained, tender, buttery, melting, juicy, exceedingly rich, sweet and perfumed; first, of the highest merit; Oct.

Docteur Lindley. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 40. 1871. 2. Guide Prat. 108. 1876.
Shown at the annual exhibition of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1871. Fruit above medium, broadly turbinate, yellow, tinged with red and slightly traced with russet; flesh white, buttery, sweet, highly flavored; very good; Nov.

Docteur Meniere. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:38, fig. 1869.
Raised from seed by André Leroy, Angers, Fr.; fruited first in 1864. Fruit large, cylindrical, slightly ovate; skin wrinkled, bright yellow, dotted with greenish-gray and partly covered with russet markings; flesh whitish, fine, melting, very juicy, sugary, slighly acid, agreeably-perfumed flavor; Sept.

Docteur Nélis. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 4:87, fig. 1856. 2. Mas Le Verger 3:Pt. 2, 129, fig. 161. 1866-73.
Obtained by M. Xavier Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel.; first published in 1847. Fruit above medium or small, turbinate-obtuse, generally much more curved on one side than the other, clear dark lemon-yellow, thinly dotted with russet; flesh yellowish, fine-grained, very tender, melting, juicy and sweet, rather aromatic; second; Sept.

Docteur P. Bruzon. 1. Rev. Hort. 463. 1906.
Placed on the market as a new variety in 1906 by M. Bruant, Poitiers, Fr. Fruit very large, greenish-yellow, dotted and mottled with russet; flesh white, semi-fine but very juicy, very melting, sugary, pleasantly perfumed; good; Sept.

Docteur Pariset. 1. Guide Prat. no. 1876.
Fruit large, nearly cylindrical, golden lemon-yellow; flesh buttery, melting, juicy, sugary and perfumed; first; Nov.

Docteur Pigeaux. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:40, fig. 1869. 2. Guide Prat. 92. 1876.
From a seed bed of Major Esperén of Mechlin, Bel., placed on the market in 1864. Fruit above medium and often rather large, globular-ovate, yellow tinged with rose; flesh fine, melting; good; Oct. to Dec.

Docteur Trousseau. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 5:89, fig. 1857. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 738. 1869.
One of the last of the seedlings of Van Mons; fruited in 1848. Fruit large, pyriform-obtuse, yellowish-green, dotted with bright fawn and stained with brown-russet around the stem; flesh white, buttery, melting, very juicy and aromatic; first; Nov.

Doctor Bachmann. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 190. 1867.
Produced at the Pomaria nurseries, South Carolina, from seed and reported to the American Pomological Society in 1867. Fruit medium, globular, green with dull red cheek; flesh juicy, vinous and refreshing.

Doctor Engelbrecht. 1. Lauche Deut. Pom. n:No. 70, Pl.70. 1882.
German. Fruit rather large, pyriform-elongated, nearly smooth, shining, green, clouded with greenish-yellow; flesh yellowish-white, fine, softish, melting, sweet, vinous, with an agreeable cinnamon flavor.

Doctor Hogg Bergamot. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 562. 1884.
Raised by T. Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, Eng., from seed of Gansel Late Bergamot; received a first-class certificate from the Royal Horticultural Society in 1878. Fruit produced in great clusters, small, size of Seckel, obovate, even in outline, grass-green, with a dull brownish cheek, changing to deep yellow and bright red cheek with an orange glow; flesh melting, remarkably sweet like honey, with a brisk acidulous flavor and perfume of lemon; one of the richest flavored pears; Sept.

Doctor Hoskins. 1. Rural N. Y. 44:201, 203, figs. 120, 121. 1885.
According to correspondence with J. T. Macomber of Adams, Vt., this variety is a seedling of Flemish Beauty. It is said to be medium to above in size, roundish-obtuse, pyriform, pale yellow, red on the sunny side and "very good "in quality. [not to be confused with 'Hoskins', a late-ripening, blight-resistant cultivar developed by the University of Tennessee- ASC]

Doctor Howe. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 2nd App. 146. 1876.
Originated in garden of Dr. John T. Howe, Birmingham, Conn., about 1890. Fruit medium, globular, inclining to pyriform, somewhat obtuse, greenish changing to light yellow, netted and patched with russet dots; flesh whitish, semi-fine, juicy, melting, sweet, rich, slightly-vinous flavor; promising in 1890; Oct.

Doctor Turner. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 210. 1862. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 740. 1869.
A pear of Connecticut origin. Tree of good growth, moderately spreading, rather an -early and regular although not an over-abundant bearer; young wood a dark olive-brown. Fruit large, oblong-pyriform, with blunt neck; skin pale yellow, sometimes with a slight blush and thickly sprinkled with green and brown dots, a few traces of russet; stalk long, curved, set in a slight depression by a ring or lip; calyx closed; basin rather small; flesh white, juicy, half melting, slightly vinous, somewhat astringent; good; Aug.

Dodge. 1. Cornell Sta. Bul. 332:480, fig. 161. 1913.
A hybrid-oriental variety. Fruit medium, ovate-pyriform, narrowing rapidly to the stem, greenish-yellow, profusely dotted; skin thin but tough, russeted near stem; flesh white, juicy, melting, tender, free from grit; fair; Oct.

Doktorsbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ Obstkunde 2:61. 1856.
German, from the Rhine country, 1833. Fruit large, pyriform, smooth, light-yellow without russet, slightly blushed on side next the sun; flesh agreeable, sweet; good; Oct.

Donatienne Bureau. 1. Guide Prat. 91. 1895.
On trial in 1895 at Simon Louis's grounds at Metz, Lorraine. Fruit large, ovate-long, bright yellow stained with brown; flesh fine; first.

Dones. 1. Guide Prat. 92. 1876.
Fruit small; flesh melting, juicy; first; Sept. and Oct.

Donville. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:42, fig. 1869. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 204. 1889.
An old French pear mentioned first by Merlet in 1675. Fruit medium to large, pyriform-obtuse, bright yellow when ripe, washed with dark red on the side of the sun; flesh, yellowish, semi-fine or coarse, breaking; juice deficient, sweet, no perfume; first for kitchen, use; Jan. to Apr.

Doppelttragende gelbe Muskatellerbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:11. 1856.
Originated in Thuringia, Ger., 1803. Fruit medium, conic, symmetrical, light greenish-yellow; flesh breaking, soft, mild, tender, aromatic; good; Aug.

Dorell Herbst Muskateller. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:96. 1856. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:1, fig. 385. 1880.
Fruit nearly medium, ovate-pyriform, pale yellow sprinkled with very small, very numerous and regularly-spaced fawn dots usually free from any trace of russet; at maturity the yellow passes into clear lemon-yellow and on well-exposed fruits is washed with vermilion; flesh white, rather fine, breaking, dense, not juicy but sugary and perfumed; good for culinary purposes; winter.

Dorothée Nouvelle. 1. Guide Prat. 92. 1876.
Belgian; highly recommended. Fruit of first quality; Oct. Tree very fertile.

Dorothée Royale Nouvelle. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:39, fig. 500. 1881.
Fruit small, pyriform, green changing to pale yellow, some russet markings and speckled with grayish dots; flesh whitish, melting, juicy, sugary, delicious; good; Oct. and Nov.

Dorr. 1. Cole Am. Fr. Book 154. 1849. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 421. 1859.
Originated in New Hampshire. Fruit large, obtuse-pyriform, pale yellow, blushed with red; flesh rather coarse, deficient in juice, sweet, pleasant; cooking or eating; Aug.

Dorschbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 148, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit small, obtuse-turbinate, somewhat globular, green changing to yellow when ripe, dotted with yellow-brown and marked with cinnamon-russet, blushed on the sun-exposed side; flesh tough, light yellow, very astringent, subacid and very juicy; Oct.

Dosoris. 1. Horticulturist 22:88. 1867. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 100. 1869.
Found in a field at Glen Cove, L. I., about 1866. Fruit full medium, obtuse-pyriform,, when ripe a beautiful yellow with two-thirds bright scarlet; flesh sweet, juicy, agreeable,, though deficient in flavor; beginning of Aug.; good but not first quality.

Double d'Automne. 1. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 49. 1831. 2. Mag. Hort. 9:131. 1843.
Fruit medium, Bergamot-shaped, entirely cinnamon-russet, through which a little; green appears, with numerous small, gray specks; flesh white, breaking, rather gritty but, mellow; juice saccharine. New in 1831 and considered promising but in 1843 was discarded by the London Horticultural Society.

Double-Fleur. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:177. 1768. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:123, fig.. 254. 1879.  Double Blossom. 3. Langley Pomona 132. 1729. 4. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 412,. 1831.
Of ancient and unknown origin. Mentioned by Nicholas de Bonnefonds in 1651 in his first edition of the Jardinier Français, by Merlet in 1675 and Claude Saint-Etienne in 1660. Worth growing for ornament, its large, double flowers, with from twelve to fifteen petals, being very handsome. Fruit above medium, globular or globular-tur-binate, generally enlarged on one side more than on the other, green but yellow when ripe, dark red or pale purple on the side of the sun; flesh greenish, semi-fine, quite crisp, juicy, sweet, rather sugary; excellent culinary pear; Feb. to May.

Double de Guerre. 1. Garden 56:426. 1899. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 167. 1920.
Introduced into England from Mechlin, Bel., about 1835. Tree hardy, productive. Fruit medium to above, pyriform, tapering to the stem, yellow-brown speckled with russet; stem short, stout, generally obliquely inserted; calyx open in a shallow basin; flesh yellow, firm, slightly acid; Dec. to Feb.

Double-Plouvier. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:47, fig. 1869.
Origin and age uncertain. Fruit above medium, long-ovate, more or less bossed, greenish, dotted all over with gray-russet; flesh whitish, semi-fine, semi-melting, scented; juice moderate but sugary; first for the kitchen; Jan. to Mar.

Double Rousselet. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 6:21, fig. 1858. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:48, fig. 1869.
Raised by Major Espéren, Mechlin, Bel., about 1845. Fruit medium, globular-turbinate, regular in contour; skin fine, tender, green but almost entirely covered with cinnamon-colored russet; when ripe the russet becomes more golden and warmer in tint on the side next the sun; flesh white, very fine, melting, with abundant sugary juice, vinous, very agreeable; first; Oct.

Dow. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 92. 1858. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 377. 1859. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 741. 1869.
Raised by Dr. Eli Ives, New Haven, Conn., in the middle of the nineteenth century. Fruit above medium, obovate, acutely pryiform, sometimes turbinate; skin rough, yellowish-green, with russet patches and dots; flesh white, buttery, juicy, melting, vinous flavored sometimes slightly astringent; good; Sept. and Oct.

Dowler. 1. Mag. Hort. 4:193. 1838.
Exhibited before the London Horticultural Society in 1838, under the name of Dowler's seedling. A small winter pear, described as one of the best and a good keeper.

Downton. 1. McIntoshJ3et. Gard. 2:455. 1855. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:50, fig. 1869.
Raised by T. A. Knight, Downton Castle, Eng., about 1840. Fruit medium or above, oval, somewhat irregular, greenish-yellow changing to lemon-yellow, a good deal russeted particularly on the side next the sun where it is completely covered and assumes a reddish-brown tinge; flesh whitish, not quite melting but tender, fine, free from grit, agreeably acidulous, sweet and juicy, with some taste of orange; first; Nov. and Dec.

Doyen Dillen. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 4:27, fig. 1853. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:51, fig. 1869.
From seed sown by Van Mons at Louvain in 1827. Fruit medium to large, pyriform-conic, yellow, much covered with dots and patches of russet; flesh white, buttery, melting, free from grit; juice rather abundant, sweet, rich and pleasantly perfumed; first; Nov.

Doyenné Bizet. 1. Guide Prat. 91. 1895.
Tree moderately vigorous, very fertile. Fruit large; good; Mar. to June.

Doyenné Blanc Long. 1. Mas Le Verger 3:Pt. 1, 27, fig. 12. 1866-73. 2. Guide Prat. 74. 1895.
Origin unknown. Fruit medium, growing often in bunches, pyriform; skin thin, fine, bright green changing to brilliant yellow, golden on the side next the sun, with some bright red shading; flesh white, fine, melting, musky; first; Oct.

Doyenné Boisnard. 1. Guide Prat. 91. 1895.
Fruit rather large; first; Dec.

Doyenné Boisselot. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 205. 1889. 2. Garden 50:405. 1896.
A little-known pear, large in size, some of the fruit weighing a pound, Bergamot in form, maturing about Christmas.

Doyenné de Bordeaux. 1. Pom.Fr. 4:No. 150, Pl.150. 1865. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:57, fig. 1869.
Origin unknown but cultivated in the environs of Bordeaux about 1820. Fruit large, globular, flattened at each end; skin thick, wrinkled and oily, golden-yellow sown with large dots of greenish-russet and marbled with the same, some orange-red on side next the sun; flesh very white, coarse, breaking, gritty at center; juice sufficient, sweet; third for dessert, first for compotes; Oct. to Dec.

Doyenné Bouyron. 1. Guide Prat. 91. 1895.
Distributed from Bordeaux, Fr. Fruit of the size, form and color of the Doyenné Gris; flesh fine, juicy, somewhat acid; Aug.

Doyenné du Cercle. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 742. 1869. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:59, fig. 1869.
A seedling obtained by M. Boisbunel, a nurseryman at Rouen, Fr.; first published in 1857. Fruit medium, turbinate-globular, varying to irregular-ovate, pale yellow covered with very fine gray dots and stained with fawn, often encrimsoned on the side next the sun; flesh whitish, very melting, scented; juice abundant, sweet, highly vinous, with a delicate, tartish flavor; first; Nov.

Doyenné a Cinq Pans. 1. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 25:132. 1899.
A cross effected in 1879 between Duchesse de Bordeaux and Easter Beurré by M. Herault. Fruit medium, rather globular, smooth, yellow, spotted and flecked with fawn; flesh fine, melting, juicy, sweet, with an aroma of Pelargoniums; Oct. and Nov.

Doyenné Defays. 1. Mas Le Verger 3:Pt. 1, 73, fig. 35. 1866-73. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:62. 1869.  Doyenné d'Ejjay. 3. McIntosh Bk. Card. 2:461. 1855.
Obtained by M. François-André Defays in the field of Saint Martin, near Angers, Fr. Fruit about medium, globular-obovate or Doyenné-shaped, bossed at the stalk end and generally larger and longer on one side, yellow, much covered with cinnamon-russet on the side next the sun; flesh tender, buttery, melting, very juicy, rich, sugary, vinous, with musky aroma; one of the best; Dec.

Doyenné Downing. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:63, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 566.. 1884.
A wilding found in a garden near Angers, Fr., by François Desportes, the noted nurseryman, in 1851; it was named after A. J. Downing. Fruit medium, globular or ovate, mammillate, one side always larger than the other, pale yellow, dotted and marbled with russet; flesh very white, tender, semi-melting; juice sufficient, sweet, acidulous, with a pleasant flavor of anis; Sept.

Doyenné Flon Ainé. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:65, fig. 1869. 2. Rev. Hort. 133, 1894.
Obtained from seed by M. Flon, senior, of Angers, Fr., in 1859. Fruit large, globular, generally mammillate at summit, greenish-yellow and yellowish-brown on the side of the sun, marbled and dotted with brown; flesh white, fine, very melting, juicy, sugary, slightly tartish, with a pronounced flavor of roses; first; Nov. to Feb.

Doyenné Fradin. 1. Guide Prat. 93. 1876. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:33, fig. 401. 1880.
Regarded as a gain of M. Parigot of Poitiers. Fruit medium, globular, depressed at both extremities, water-green, dotted with brown, becoming citron-yellow on ripening; flesh whitish, fine, melting, gritty at core, full of sweet juice, vinous and richly perfumed.

Doyenné Georges Boucher. 1. Rev. Hort. 496, fig. 1906. 2. Ibid. 197. 1907.
Came from a seed bed of Doyenné du Comice made in 1884. Fruit large and very large, globular-turbinate, bossed at the extremities; skin rather thick, dark yellow, sprinkled with small dots and marbled with fawn, russeted and reddened on the sunny side; flesh yellowish-white, juicy, sugary; very good; Feb. to Apr.

Doyenné Goubault. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:66, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 566. 1884.
Raised by M. Goubault, Angers, Fr. Fruit above medium, obovate, inclining to pyri-form, pale yellow with russet markings and dots; flesh melting, sugary, vinous and highly perfumed; rich and excellent; Jan.

Doyenné de la Grifferaye. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:68, fig. 1869. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:11, fig. 198. 1879.
Obtained by M. le Gris, Angers, Fr.; gave its first fruit in 1853. Fruit medium, tur-binate-oblate, very obtuse and irregular, greenish-yellow, finely dotted with russet and brown, stained with fawn; flesh white, fine, buttery, melting, full of sweet and perfumed juice; first; Sept. and Oct.

Doyenné Gris. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:208, Pl.XLVII, fig. 1. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:69, fig. 1869.  Doyenné Gray. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 745. 1869.  Red Doyenné. 4. Hogg Fruit Man. 635. 1884.
An ancient pear attributed to the garden of the Chartreux Monastery at Paris about the middle of the eighteenth century. Fruit medium and above, globular, flattened at each extremity; skin rather thin and wrinkled, yellow-ochre, nearly covered with cinnamon-colored russet, so that little of the true color is visible, brownish-red toward the sun; flesh white, tender, melting, very buttery, rich and delicious; one of the best dessert pears; Oct.

Doyenné Guillard. 1. Guide Prat. 103. 1895.
Described as a new variety by Simon-Louis Bros., Metz, Lorraine, in 1895. Fruit rather glossy, brown, slightly dotted with green; flesh almost fine, white, very juicy, vinous; Nov. and Dec.

Doyenné des Haies. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:71, fig. 1869.
A wilding found on the property of M. Bardi, Bwalt, Canton of Montastruc, Haute-Garonne, Fr., and first reported in 1855. Fruit medium, globular or globular-turbinate, flat at base, mammillate at summit, pale yellow, dotted and stained with fawn, blushed with tender rose on the side toward the sun; flesh white, fine, melting, juicy, rather gritty around the core; juice abundant, sweet, very sugary, tasting of musk; second; Oct.

Doyenné Hudellet. 1. Mas Le Verger 3:Pt. 2, 101, fig. 147. 1866-73.
Obtained by M. Jules Hudellet at Ceyzeriat near Bourg, Ain, Fr.; it was first published in 1867. Fruit medium, globular-cylindrical, regular outline, bright green sprinkled with dots of gray-brown, passing to pale yellow, with some red on the side of the sun; flesh white, fine, melting, full of sweet juice, slightly musky; first; Nov.

Doyenné Jamin. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:75, fig. 1869. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:131, fig. 354. 1880.
Gained by Jamin et Durand, nurserymen at Bourg-la-Reine, near Paris, in 1859 from seed. Fruit medium, turbinate-conic or turbinate-ovate, irregular, greenish-yellow changing to yellow and washed with rose on the sunny side, dotted with russet; flesh whitish, semi-fine, buttery, full of sweet juice, vinous, astringent, without much perfume; second; Jan. and Feb.

Doyenné de Lorraine. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:17, 201. 1879.
Received by Diel, the eminent German pomologist, from a nurseryman at Metz under the name of Doyenné d'Austrasie by which it is mostly known to German authors. Fruit medium, globular, depressed at each pole, water-green, with gray-brown dots, bright citron-yellow when ripe and golden on the side next the sun or sometimes washed with red; flesh white, semi-fine, semi-buttery; juice plentiful, sweet and slightly perfumed; good; Sept. and Oct.

Doyenné Louis. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:79, fig. 1869.
Seedling of Van Mons, previous to 1820. Fruit small, turbinate-obtuse, regular in form, dark yellow, strewn with numerous gray-brown dots and carmined on the side next the sun; flesh yellowish, coarse, semi-melting, gritty at center; juice abundant, sugary, lacking in flavor; third; Sept. and Oct.

Doyenné de Montjean. 1. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 243, fig. 1906.
Obtained in 1848 by M. Trottier, Montjean, Department of Maine-et-Loire, Fr., and first published in 1858. Fruit large to very large, ovate, nearly equally rounded at its two poles; skin thin and rough, yellow, much russeted; flesh white, very fine, melting, very juicy, with a slightly vinous and sweet flavor, perfumed; very good; Jan. to Mar.

Doyenné Nérard. 1. Mas Le Verger 2:237, fig. 117. 1866-73. 2. Guide Prat. 68. 1895.
Obtained in 1850 by M. Bonnefoy, a nurseryman at Saint-Gem's-Laval, near Lyons, Fr. Fruit small, globular-conic, yellowish-white, marbled with bright red; flesh semi-breaking, very sugary; good; Aug.

Doyenné Nouveau. 1. McIntosh Bk. Gard. 2:461. 1855.
Fruit medium, obovate; flesh tender and juicy; excellent; Apr.

Doyenné Perrault. 1. Guide Prat. no. 1876.
Fruit medium, rather oblate, resembling Easter Bergamot with a long stalk; flesh fine, firm, melting; first; winter.

Doyenné Picard. 1. Guide Prat. 93. 1876.
Fruit medium; flesh melting; first; Aug.

Doyenné Rahard. 1. Guide Prat. 91. 1895.
Fruit large or very large; flesh fine, melting, very sweet; Dec. to Jan.

Doyenné de Ramegnies. 1. Gard. Chron. N. S. 20:85. 1883.
Raised by M. Norbert Bouzin of Ramegnies-Chin near Tournai, Bel. Fruit large, turbinate and very symmetrically shaped; olive-brown, russeted; flesh fine, buttery, vinous; Oct. and Nov.

Doyenné Robin. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:81, fig. 1869.
Raised in 1840 at Angers, Fr., by a gardener named Robin. Fruit large, globular-ovate, yellowish, dotted and stained with bright russet; flesh melting, juicy, sweet, vinous, aromatic; first; Oct.

Doyenné Rose. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:82, fig. 1869. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:21, fig. 299. 1880.
From a seed bed made in 1820 by Edouard Sageret, author of Pomologie physiologique; it bore fruit first in 1830. Fruit above medium, globular, irregular, yellow-ochre on the shaded side and beautiful rose on the side of the sun; flesh very white, semi-melting, granular; juice scarcely sufficient, little perfume or flavor; second; Oct.

Doyenné Saint-Roch. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:83, fig. 1869.
Largely grown in the Gironde, Fr., in the middle of the nineteenth century. Fruit above medium and sometimes larger, globular but variable, pale yellow dotted with russet passing to bright yellow on the side next the sun, where it is lightly washed with carmine; flesh white, semi-fine, melting or slightly breaking, juicy, sugary, acidulous, of delicate flavor; second; Aug. and Sept.

Doyenné de Saumur. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:84, fig. 1869.
A French pear of uncertain origin but known in the districts of Saumur and Lyons early in the nineteenth century. Fruit medium and below, very variable in form, from ovate-elongated to turbinate-obtuse, bossed and swelled, pale greenish-yellow, dotted with gray-russet especially on the side next the sun; flesh white, very fine, melting, juicy, perfumed, having an after-taste of musk; first; Sept.

Doyenné Sentelet. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:86, fig. 1869. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:137, fig. 165. 1878.
A gain of Van Mons, 1823. Fruit about medium or below, turbinate-ovate-obtuse, often irregular, deep rich yellow, much mottled and speckled with cinnamon-colored russet; flesh yellowish-white, melting, juicy, sugary, vinous; good; Oct.

Doyenné Sieulle. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:87, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 567. 1884.
From a seed bed of Jean Sieulle, Vaux-Praslin, Fr.; it was placed on the market in 1815. Fruit above medium to medium, often globular and often Doyenné-shaped, deep rich yellow ground, mottled and speckled with cinnamon-colored russet; flesh very white, fine, semi-melting; juice sufficient, acidulous, sweet, with an agreeable almond flavor; variable, from second to first; Nov.

Drapiez. 1. Mag. Hort. 9:125. 1843. 2. McIntosh Bk. Gard. 2:461. 1855.
Of Belgian origin. Fruit medium, obovate, pale green, very much marbled with gray; flesh tender, sweet, acidulous, strongly perfumed; a very excellent autumn fruit; Oct. and Nov. 24

Drone. 1. Miller Card. Dict, 3. 1807. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 1:25. 1831.
Fruit middle sized, globular, light green dotted with darker shade of same color; flesh white, breaking, full of sweet, musky juice; Aug.

Du Breuil Père. 1. Mas Le Verger 2:161, fig. 79. 1866-73.
Alphonse Du Breuil obtained this variety from seeds of Louise Bonne de Jersey sown in 1840. Fruit medium, nearly a true sphere, slightly depressed at the two poles, lemon-yellow, much russeted and at maturity mottled with blood-red on the side next the sun; flesh white, fine, melting, juicy; first; Sept.

Du Mirror. 1. Baltet Trait. Cult. Fr. 372. 1908.
A first-class French perry pear, grown in the Haute-Savoie, yielding from 800 to 1000 litres of perry per tree; the beverage is clear, very sweet, rather sparkling, and becomes stronger with age.

Du Roeulx. 1. Guide Prat 92. 1895.
Tree hardy. Fruit medium, pyriform, short, yellow, mottled with fawn; flesh yellowish, very melting, juicy and sugary, with an exquisite aroma; first; Sept.

Dubrulle. 1. Guide Prat. 93, 267. 1876.
Fruit rather large, globular, yellowish-green and gray mottled with fawn; flesh melting, very juicy, sugary, highly perfumed and of a luscious flavor; first; Sept. and Oct.

Duc Alfred de Croy. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:163, fig. 370. 1880. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 567. 1884.
Propagated and disseminated by M. de Jonghe, Brussels. Fruit large, obtuse-pyri-form, regular and handsome, smooth, yellowish-green, washed with pale brown on side next the sun; flesh white, tinted with green, not very juicy, but buttery, rich and with a fine spicy flavor and perfume; excellent; Nov.

Duc d'Aumale. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:91, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 568. 1884.
A product of the Van Mons nursery at Louvain where it first fruited in 1847. Fruit small, turbinate-obtuse-pyriform; skin rough, greenish-yellow mottled all over with cinnamon-colored russet; flesh whitish, melting and juicy, sugary, acidulous, perfumed; first; Sept. and Oct.

Duc de Brabant. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:92, fig. 1869. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:27, fig. 494. 1881.
Sent by Van Mons as No. 45 to Simon Bouvier in Jodoigne, Bel., in 1827. Fruit medium, pyriform-obtuse, greenish-yellow, dotted with russet, marbled with fawn, sometimes washed with red on the side next the sun; flesh white, semi-fine, semi-breaking; juice sufficient, sugary, acidulous; good; sometimes second; Oct.

Duc de Morny. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:95, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 568. 1884.
Raised by M. Boisbunel, Rouen, and first published in 1862. Fruit large, long-obtuse-pyriform, bossed, green, mottled and dotted with russet; flesh whitish, tender, melting, very juicy, too acid, little sugar or perfume; second; Nov. to Jan.

Duc de Nemours. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:96, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. ,568. 1884.
Raised by Van Mons at Louvain in 1825. Fruit large and handsome, obovate, narrowing abruptly, bright greenish or lemon-yellow, even-dotted with russet and gray specks, sometimes reddened on cheek next the sun; flesh white, melting, rich, sweet, sprightly, juicy, perfumed; first; Oct. and Nov.

Duchesse d'Angoulême Bronzée. 1. Guide Prat, no. 1876.  Duchess Bronze. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 135. 1920.
A sub-variety of Duchesse d'Angoulême found in a garden of M. Weber, Dijon, Fr., and introduced in 1873. Fruit large to very large, differs from type by its skin being red-brown or bronze, this feature being perfectly constant; flesh fine, melting, juicy, sugary; first; Oct. to Dec.

Duchesse d'Angoulême Panachée. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:102. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 569. 1884.
A variegated form of Duchesse d'Angoulême, the wood, leaves and fruit being mottled with yellow and green. In 1848 it was attributed to M. Audusson, who originated Duchesse d'Augoulême, but Leroy claims that it proceeded from his nursery in 1840.

Duchesse Anne. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:102, fig. 1869.
Raised in 1861 by Jacques Jalais, Nantes, Fr. Fruit above medium, like Calebasse in form, meadow-green, slightly yellowish, dotted with gray; flesh greenish-white, fine, melting; juice sufficient, sweet, acidulous, perfumed; first; Nov.

Duchesse d'Arenberg. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:103, fig. 1869- 2- Mas Pom. Gen. 7:35, fig. 498. 1881.
Although distributed from the Royal Nurseries at Vilvorde-lez-Bruxelles without mention of origin its name suggests Belgium. Fruit medium and often larger, turbinate-obtuse-oblate, greenish-yellow passing to bright green on the side of the sun, dotted with gray-russet; flesh yellowish, coarse, melting, juicy, gritty around the core; sugary, perfumed, rather sour; second; Aug.

Duchesse de Berry d'Été. 1. Leroy Die. Pom. 2:104. fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man.  569. 1884.
Raised in a seed bed in the Commune of Saint-Herblain, Department of Loire-Inferieure, Fr., in 1827. Fruit medium, globular-turbinate, yellow, dotted with dark gray; flesh very white, semi-fine, melting; juice abundant, sugary, aromatic; first; Aug. and Sept.

Duchesse de Bordeaux. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:105, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man.  570. 1884. 3. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 171. 1920. Beurré Perrault. 4. Mas Le Verger 1:133, fig. 65. 1866-73. Bordeaux. 5. Cal. Com. Hort. Pear Grow. Cat. 7:No. 5, 242. 1918.
M. Secher, in the Commune of Montjean, Department of Maine-et-Loire, Fr., bought in 1850 from M. Perrault, Montrevault, some pear trees. Ten years passed away and then one of the trees produced the excellent fruit here described. M. Secher invited many persons to taste it, in particular MM. Perrault and Baptiste Desportes. Later the variety fruited with M. Perrault and was named by him Beurré Perrault. Secher affirmed he had properly given the variety the name of Duchesse de Bordeaux. Tree large, vigorous, upright. Fruit large, roundish-pyriform; skin thick, very tough, rough, greenish-yellow, with mottlings and patches of russet; stem rather long, thick, set in a moderately deep, acute cavity; calyx large, open, placed in a moderately deep basin; flesh yellowish-white, firm, granular, juicy, mild; good; Nov. and Dec.

Duchesse de Brabant, 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:107, fig- 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 570. 1884.
A posthumous seedling of Van Mons, which gave its first fruit in 1853. Fruit medium, short-pyriform-obtuse; skin thin, smooth, shining, greenish-yellow: flesh yellowish-white, buttery, melting; juice abundant, sweet, savory; good; Oct.

Duchesse de Brabant (De Capeinick). 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:17, fig. 297. 1880.
This variety, obtained by M. Capeinick, received medals at Brussels and at Tournai in 1853. Fruit medium, regular pyriform, bright green and speckled with dots of gray-green, becoming lemon-yellow at maturity, washed with blood-red on the side of the sun; flesh white, rather fine, melting; juice abundant, sugary, refreshing; first; Sept.

Duchesse de Brissac. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:108, fig. 1869.
Came from a seed bed of Auguste Benoist, Brissac, Maine-et-Loire, Fr., and ripened for the first time in 1861. Fruit above medium, ovate, rather irregular, bright greenish-yellow, spotted with russet; flesh yellowish, melting, juicy, sugary, vinous, aromatic; first; Aug. and Sept.

Duchesse Grousset. 1. Guide Prat. 91. 1895.
Fruit large, elongated, very obtuse at base; bright yellow, speckled with brown dots; flesh fine, very melting, rather granular at center; Dec.

Duchesse Helene d'Orléans. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:109, fig. 1869.
From a seed bed made at Louvain, Bel., in 1839 by Van Mons; it first fruited in 1847. Fruit medium, ovate, always somewhat distorted, one side being longer than the other, yellowish-green, dotted and mottled with gray and russet, carmined on the cheek next the sun; flesh white, melting, very juicy, acidulous, sugary, good flavor; first; Sept.

Duchesse d'Hiver. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 749. 1869.  Tardive de Toulouse. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:693, fig- 1869.
M. Barthere, Sr., a nurseryman of Toulouse, Fr., found this pear in 1845 near Calmont on one of his travels through southern France. Tree moderately vigorous, characteristically small and pyramidal. Fruit large, roundish-pyriform, light yellow; flesh white, juicy; matures in winter and late spring. Although not a pear of highest quality it is worthy of notice because of its large size and long keeping.

Duchesse Hybrid. 1. Cornell Sta. BuL 332:481. 1913.
Form resembles Kieffer, lemon-yellow; flesh coarse; poor; Oct.

Duchesse de Mars. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:110, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 570. 1884.
Origin uncertain; generally attributed to Belgium. Fruit medium, obovate but variable, yellowish-green, russeted; flesh buttery, white, melting, juicy, sweet, perfumed, well flavored; first class dessert pear; Nov.

Duchesse de Mouchy. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:112, fig. 1869.
From a wilding noted in 1862 by the cure of Breteuil, Oise, Fr. Fruit large, turbinate-obtuse, bright olive-yellow, dotted with gray-russet; flesh yellowish-white, a little coarse, semi-breaking, juicy, sugary, vinous, slightly perfumed; second; Apr. and May.

Duchesse Précoce. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:113, fig. 1869.
Came from a seed bed of Duchesse d'Angoulême made in 1850 by André Leroy. Fruit large and often very large, ovate, golden-yellow, sprinkled with large greenish dots, slightly carmined on the cheek exposed to the sun; flesh very white, breaking or semi-melting, with seeds usually absent, juicy, sweet; flavor agreeable; second; Aug.

Duchovaya. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 22. 1887.  Scented. 2. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 232. 1885.
A Central-Russian pear. Fruit medium to above, obtuse-pyriform, yellow, russeted; flesh coarse, sweet, juicy; poor; mid-season.

Dudley. 1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:107. 1908.
Originated with Mr. Dudley, Boston Highlands, Mass. Fruit medium long; very good; mid-season.

Dumon-Dumortier. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:115, fig. 1869.
From the Van Mons seed beds. Fruit medium, turbinate, yellowish-green, dotted with russet; flesh whitish, very fine, melting, juicy, sugary, acidulous, deliciously perfumed; first; Nov.

Dundas. 1. Mag. Hort. 8:60. 1842. 2. Ibid. 9:132, fig. 1843. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 750. 1869.
Disseminated by Van Mons in 1834 in which year it was sent to America to both R. Manning and W. Kenrick. This pear is known in Europe mostly under the names of Rousselet Jamin, Henri Nicaise and Héliote Dundas or Héloise Dundas. Fruit medium, turbinate-obtuse, greenish-yellow or yellow-ochre, dotted with brown and gray and washed with beautiful carmine on the side of the sun; flesh white, with green veins, between breaking and melting; juice insufficient; very handsome but wanting in quality; Sept. and Oct.

Dunmore. 1. Mag. Hort. 13:154. 1847. 2. Ibid. 18:159, fig. 1852.
One of the best seedling pears raised by Thomas Andrew Knight, Downton Castle, Wiltshire, Eng. It first fruited in 1822 being then reported in this country by C. M. Hovey. Fruit large, oblong-obovate; skin slightly rough, yellowish-green, with russet patches, brownish-red tinge next the sun; flesh yellowish, buttery, melting, rich, subacid, juicy, sprightly, vinous, perfumed and aromatic; excellent; Sept. and Oct.

Dupuy Charles. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:118, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 750. 1869.
Louis Berckmans, Augusta, Ga., raised this pear in 1847 from seed sent from Ghent, Bel. Fruit medium to above, like Calebasse in form, rough to the touch, bright green, dotted with russet; flesh greenish-white, very fine, melting; juice abundant, sugary, acidulous; flavor delicate and slightly musky; first; Oct. and Nov.

Durandeau. 1. Mag. Hort. 26:129. 1860. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. 111. 1862.  De Tongres. 3. Ann. Pom. Belge 3:15, fig. 1855. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am.  489. 1857.
Originated from seed with Charles Louis Durandeau, Tongres-Notre-Dame, a village in Hainaut, Bel., probably about 1825. Tree fairly vigorous, pyramidal, an early and abundant bearer. Fruit medium large, obovate-pyriform, generally irregular; skin thin, covered with fine golden russet, blushed with carmine on the exposed cheek; flesh yellowish-white, buttery, very juicy, vinous, sprightly, with an exquisite aroma and of first quality; Oct. and Nov.

Durée. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 751. 1884.
A wilding found by Isaac Hicks, Westbury, N. Y., and introduced by him before 1869. Fruit medium, oblong-acute-pyriform, pale yellow, dotted and patched with russet; flesh whitish, semi-melting, juicy, sweet, slightly musky; good to very good; Oct.

Durst-Lösche. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:155. 1856.
Thuringia, 1809. Fruit medium, globular-turbinate, greenish-yellow turning to yellow; flesh breaking, soft, honey-sweet and aromatic; good; Sept.


Early Ely. 1. Tex. Nursery Cat, 10. 1913.
Originated on the grounds of Silas Ely of Sherman, Tex., and was introduced by the Texas Nursery Company about 1906. Said to be small, yellow and good for both table and market.

Early Green Sugar. 1. J. Van Lindley Cat. 51. 1921.
Fruit large, yellow, blushed; June.

Easter Bergamot. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 751. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 57 2. 1884.  Bergamote de Pdques. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:250, fig. 1867.
An old French pear of which Merlet wrote in 1675, calling it Bergamote de Pasques or the La Grilliere. This variety was early known in England according to Switzer who saw trees of it at Hampton Court growing against a wall said to have been erected by Queen Elizabeth and which had every appearance of having stood there since that time. Fruit medium, globular-turbinate, narrowing toward the stalk, grayish-green, dull, changing to pale yellow, thickly dotted with brown; flesh white, semi-fine, gritty, breaking; juice sweet, acid, with not much perfume or flavor; second only, on account of its extreme lateness; Mar. to May.

Eastern Belle. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 32. 1870. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 1st App., 126, fig. 1872.
This pear originated with Henry McLaughlin, Bangor, Me. Tree hardy, vigorous, productive; fruit of medium size, obovate-pyriform; skin pale yellow, with nettings and patches of russet and many russet dots, occasionally blushed with bright red; flesh whitish-yellow, coarse at center, juicy, half-melting, sweet, rich, with a peculiar piquant aroma; good; Sept.

Echasserie. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:187, Pl.XXXII. 1768. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 753. 1869.  Walnut. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 90. 1856.  Best de l'Echasserie. 4. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:269, fig. 1867.
The wilding from which this variety was derived was probably noticed about 1660 and La Quintinye before 1690 spoke of it as having been in French gardens for twenty years. It appears to have been a native of Anjou, where there are three places bearing the name given to it. Probably it had been locally cultivated under other names for a long time previous to its official recognition. Fruit medium to small, globular-oval but variable, always obtuse and bossed; skin rough to the touch, lemon-yellow dotted with fawn and with some patches of grayish-brown russet; flesh white, fine, melting, with very small grits around the core; juice extremely abundant, acidulous, saccharine, with an aftertaste of musk, very agreeable; first; Nov. through Jan.

Edle Sommerbirne. I. Oberdieck Obst-Sort. 327. 1881.
Germany and Holland. Fruit small, pyriform and somewhat long-gourd-shaped, smooth yellowish-green changing to yellow at maturity, with reddish-brown on the side next the sun, dotted and speckled with gray; flesh fine, semi-melting, with a sweet, agreeable, aromatic flavor of rose; good for dessert and first for kitchen use; Aug.

Edward Seedling St. Germain. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 754. 1869. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:155, fig. 462. 1880.
Raised by Dr. W. D. Brincklé, Philadelphia, Pa. Fruit medium or rather large, globular-pyriform-obtuse, a little irregular in form, with its greatest diameter at the center; skin somewhat thick and tender, intense green at first, sprinkled with grayish-black dots changing at maturity to bright citron-yellow, some russet nettings and patches; flesh whitish, semi-fine, slightly granular yet melting, full of saccharine juice, acidulous and delicately perfumed; good; Oct. to Dec.

Effie Holt. 1. J. Van Lindley Cat. 54. 1913.
Said to have originated on the farm of L. W. Holt near Burlington, N. C.; introduced by J. Van Lindley Nursery Company about 1907. Tree healthy, thrifty. Fruit large, greenish-yellow; flesh light yellow, rich, juicy; season about the same as Duchesse d'Angoulême.

Eliot Early. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 52. 1871. 2. Rural N. Y. 51:602, figs. 242, 243. 1892.
Said to have been raised by Judge Charles Eliot of Windsor, Ontario, Canada, from a cross between Madeleine and Doyenné d'Été. Tree strong, vigorous, hardy, an early and productive bearer. Fruit small, pyriform, pale greenish-yellow, brownish-red next the sun; stem long, slender, curved; cavity small, russeted; calyx closed or partially open; base' small; flesh whitish, half-fine, juicy, melting, sweet, slightly perfumed; good to very good; July.

Élisa d'Heyst. 1. Mas Le Verger 1:99, fig. 56. 1866-73. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:125, fig. 1869.
Obtained by Major Espéren of Mechlin, Bel. Fruit small but sometimes medium, ovate, with an irregular outline, grass-green, dotted and stained with clear fawn; flesh greenish, coarse, semi-melting, very gritty around the core; juice sweet, abundant, sugary, slightly perfumed, little flavor; second; Mar.

Elizabeth (Edwards). 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 5. 1843. 2. Mag. Hort. 12:441, fig. 34. 1846.
This pear was raised at New Haven, Conn., by Governor Edwards and was first exhibited in 1845. Fruit of medium size, roundish-obtuse-pyriform, slightly angular; skin smooth, pale lemon-yellow, profusely sprinkled with very small, pale russet dots and a few grayish-russet patches; flesh white, somewhat coarse, melting, very juicy, slightly subacid, with a vinous flavor; Oct.

Elizabeth Maury, 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 2nd App., 147. 1876.
A chance seedling on the ground of Reuben Maury, Charlottesville, Va. Fruit small, oblate, slightly elevated, pale greenish-yellow, sometimes with a shade of brown in the sun, with many greenish dots; flesh whitish, semi-fine, tender, juicy, melting, sweet, slightly vinous; Aug.

Ellis. 1. Mag. Hort. 30:370, fig. 13. 1864. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 755, fig. 1869.
Raised from seed of Seckel in 1843 by Annie E. Ellis, New Bedford, Mass. Tree vigorous, hardy, prolific. Fruit large, oblong-obovate-pyriform, truncate, slightly uneven, greenish-yellow, patched and mottled with russet, sprinkled with many russet dots; stem rather long, rather stout, set in a small cavity; calyx large, open; basin uneven, slight; flesh whitish, juicy, melting, sweet, slightly vinous, aromatic; very good; Sept. and Oct.

Ellis (New York), 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 756. 1869.
Downing says that there is another pear under the name of "Ellis "grown in western New York, entirely distinct from Ellis. The fruit is described as medium, acute-pyriform, greenish-yellow, shaded with crimson-red in sun, with very small brown dots; flesh white, juicy, melting, vinous, often astringent, disposed to rot at the core; good; Aug. and Sept.

Emerald. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 756. 1869.
Belgian. Fruit medium, obtuse-pyriform, pale green, with pale brownish-red next the sun and covered with russety dots; flesh white, melting, buttery, richly flavored, subacid, vinous; good; Nov. and Dec.

Émile d'Heyst. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:131, fig. 1869. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 173. 1920.
A seedling raised by Major Esperén, Mechlin, Bel., which fruited in 1847. Fruit medium and often larger, ovate, rather long, irregular, generally with sides unequal, bossed, bronzed, dotted with fine specks; flesh greenish, fine and dense, melting, scented, free from grit; juice very abundant, refreshing, sugary, slightly acid but very agreeably perfumed; first; Oct.

Enfant Nantais. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 210. 1889. 2. Guide Prat. 92. 1895.
Originated by M. Grousset of Nantes, Fr. Tree vigorous and productive. Fruit large, conic, gray; flesh fine, buttery, juicy, aromatic but very slightly tart; Oct.

Enfant Prodigue. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 385. 1845. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:133, fig. 1869. Rousselet Enfant Prodigue. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 846. 1869.  Verschwenderin. 4. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 293. 1889.
A Van Mons seedling of about 1830. Fruit medium to large, ovate but variable, greenish-yellow, largely obscured with cinnamon-colored russet, more or less carmined on the side of the sun; flesh greenish-white, dense, melting, juicy, sugary, aromatic, acidulous, astringent; second; Sept.

Épine d'Été;. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:138, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 758. 1869.
An old pear grown in the gardens of the Monastery of Chartreux, Paris, and stated in the catalog of that institution, of 1736, to be identical with the pear Bugiarda of Italy. This Leroy has shown to be an error, the Bugiarda being the pear known in France as Trompeur. Le Lectier appears to have grown it in 1628 in his famous gardens at Orléans, though under the name of Poire d'Espine. Fruit above medium, pyriform, more or less obtuse, bright green, finely dotted with gray-russet and lightly colored with tender rose on the side of the sun; flesh yellowish, fine, melting, juicy, sugary and musky; a moderately good autumn pear; Sept.

Épine d'Été; Rouge. 1. Guide Prat. 94, 270. 1876.  Rother Sommerdorn. 2. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 108. 1825. 
French, 1805. Fruit medium, ovate, slightly bossed, light grass-green turning to yellow-green, dark blush, dotted; flesh finely-grained; juice somewhat deficient, aromatic; good for the table, kitchen and market; Sept.

Épine d'Hiver. 1. Langley Pomona 132. 1729. 2. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:184, PL XLIV, fig. 3. 1768.
Winter Thorn. 3. Bradley Gard. 199. 1739. 4. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 410. 1831.
A very old French pear, reported as early as 1675. Tree healthy, although not a strong grower, and bears well. Fruit medium to above, roundish-obovate, smooth, green becoming yellowish and irregularly covered with grayish-brown dots; stem rather long, fleshy at base, inserted without depression; calyx small, open, set in a rather shallow basin; flesh whitish, melting, tender, buttery, with a sweet and agreeable musky flavor; a dessert pear; Nov. to Jan.

Épine de Jernages. 1. Guide Prat. 94. 1876.
Fruit medium; first; Mar.

Épine du Mas. 1. Pom. France i:No. 31, Pl.31. 1863. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:412, fig. 1869.  Belle Épine Dumas. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 668. 1869.  Dumas. 4. Rural N. Y. 45:480, figs. 292, 293. 1886.
A wilding found about 1760 by a M. Chemison in the forest of Rochechouart near Mas, Department of Haute-Vienne, Fr. Fruit medium, obtuse-pyriform, lively yellow or lemon-yellow, finely dotted with brown and washed with carmine on the sun-exposed cheek; flesh white, fine, tender, melting, sweet, gritty at center, juicy, acid, musky; good; Nov. and Dec.

Épine Royale. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 758. 1869.
Of French origin. Fruit medium, pyriform, yellowish, blushed with bright red on the side next the sun; flesh fine, melting, juicy, sweet, vinous; Oct.

Épine-Royale de Courtray. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:127, fig. 256. 1879.
Origin not clear though mentioned in the Bulletin of the Society of Van Mons in 1858. Fruit medium or large, pyriform-obtuse, green sprinkled with numerous brown dots, changing to pale yellow at maturity, with some red on the side next the sun; flesh white, semi-fine, buttery, juicy, sugary, pleasant; handsome and good for transportation; Aug.

Ermsinde. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:69. 1856. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:143, fig. 1869.
A chance seedling found in the garden of M. Bouvier, Jodoigne, Bel., and reported in 1851. Fruit above medium, in form variable from pyramidal to turbinate, lemon-yellow, dotted and marked with brown-russet, and blushed with dark red on the exposed cheek; second; early Oct.

Ernestine Auzolle. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 758. 1869.
Of French origin. Fruit small, globular-pyriform, sometimes acute-pyriform, greenish-yellow, with a shade of brown in the sun, often netted and patched with russet; flesh rather coarse, yellowish, moderately juicy, semi-melting, sweet; good; Sept. and Oct.

Eseme. 1. Ia. Soc. Hort. Rpt. 61. 1880.
Cultivated on the northern steppes of Russia and introduced to this country by J. L. Budd of Iowa in 1880.

Esperine. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 4:73, fig. 1856. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 759. 1869.
By Van Mons from an undated seed bed; it was first reported in 1826 and dedicated to Major Esperén, the enthusiastic and distinguished pomologist of Mechlin. Fruit large, obtuse-ovate, yellow with greenish tinge, much dotted with greenish-gray-russet, clouded with tender rose on the side of the sun; flesh white, semi-melting, full of juice, sugary, vinous, refreshing, perfumed; first; Oct. and Nov.

Esperione. 1. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 561. 1885.
Fruit medium, obovate, slightly pyriform, yellow, juicy, melting, perfumed; Sept.

Essex. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 759. 1869.
Originated in the garden of W. Flack, Essex, N. Y., before 1869. Fruit below medium, oblong-obtuse-pyriform, greenish-yellow, with many brown and green dots, marbled with carmine in the sun; flesh whitish, juicy, melting, granular, sweet; good; Sept.

Esther Comte. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:39, fig. 404. 1880.
Cataloged by Dauvesse of Orléans in 1857. Fruit medium, ovate-pyriform, bright green changing to yellow, dotted with russet; flesh whitish, rather fine, semi-melting, juicy, sugary, delicately perfumed; good; winter.

Estranguillon. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:146, fig. 1869.
According to Charles Estienne, 1530, this pear was at that time well known to French gardeners. First rate for making perry. Fruit small, ovate, yellowish, dotted with gray and slightly tinted with rose on the cheek exposed to the sun; flesh whitish, rather coarse, breaking or semi-melting, very juicy, without perfume; Sept.

Esturion. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 759. 1869. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:41, fig. 405. 1880.
Origin unknown. Fruit rather small, conic, pale green changing to yellow, tinged with light red on the side of the sun; flesh yellowish, fine, melting; juice abundant, sweet and perfumed.

Eugène Appert. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:148, fig. 1869. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 130. 1881.
Raised from seed by André Leroy, Angers, Fr., and first gave fruit in 1862. It was introduced to this country about 1881, in which year it was described as of "very superior quality "and one of the "best of the kinds recently introduced."Fruit medium, globular, bossed, unequal, grass-green, with grayish stains and large dots; flesh yellowish-white, very fine and melting, very full of sugary, acidulous juice, having an exquisite aroma; first; Aug. and Sept.

Eugène Furst 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:167, fig. 468. 1880.
A gain of Van Mons. Fruit medium, globular-conic, very obtuse, green changing to lemon-yellow, dotted with brown and more or less washed with red-brown on the side of the sun; flesh white, fine, buttery, melting, juicy, sugary, acidulous, with a characteristic perfume; first; Nov. and Dec.

Eugène Maisin. 1. Guide Prat. 94. 1876.
Under trial in the nurseries of Simon-Louis Bros, of Metz, Lorraine, in 1876. Fruit medium; skin rough and grayish; flesh melting; first; Dec. and Jan.

Eugène des Nouhes. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:148, fig. 1869. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:65, fig. 129. 1878.
M. Parigot, President of the Imperial Court of Poitiers, Fr., obtained this variety which he dedicated in 1856. Fruit above medium, obtuse-turbinate, dark yellow, dotted and stained with gray-russet, slightly vermilioned on the side of the sun; flesh whitish, melting, juicy, vinous, sweet, delicately perfumed; first; Sept.

Eugène Thirriot. 1. Guide Prat. 94. 1876.
Produced and placed on the market in 1868 by Thirriot Bros. Fruit large, pyriform, pale greenish-yellow; flesh melting, buttery, very juicy, sugary, perfumed; first; Oct. and Nov.

Euratsfelder Mostbirne, 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 78, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit medium to large, globular; skin smooth, light yellow when ripe, sprinkled with rather fine dots, and russet speckles; flesh rather white, not very coarse, agreeably subacid, very juicy; Oct. and Nov.

Eureka. 1. A. M. Augustine Cat. 45. 1916.
According to correspondence with A. M. Augustine, Normal, IL., the introducer of this pear, it was fruited in 1900 by a Mr. Dickinson of Eureka, IL.; a chance cross between Seckel and Kieffer and shows characteristics of both parents. Tree reported similar to Kieffer in leaf, habit of growth and resistance to and recovery from blight. Fruit medium, shaped like Seckel; skin delicate, waxy, bright yellow, slightly russeted, with a bright red cheek; flesh flavor of Seckel, more solid, longer keeper.

Eva Baltet. 1. Rev. Hort. 312, fig. 1898.
From a seed bed of Bartlett fertilized with Flemish Beauty. It was exhibited at the International Exhibition of St. Petersburg in 1893. Fruit very large, pyriform-truncated; skin fine, light cream passing into yellow, dotted with brown, extensively blushed with bright carmine; flesh white, fine, juicy, sugary and aromatic; first; Nov. but variable.

Excellente de Moine. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:59, fig. 318. 1880.
Distributed by Burgomaster Rossy of Schonburg, in Moravia, Austria, in 1835. Fruit medium or rather large, globular-ovate, grass-green, dotted with gray-green specks; flesh white, rather greenish especially just under skin, buttery, juicy, delicately perfumed; good; latter half of August.

Excelsior. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 158. 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 759. 1869.
A seedling of Francis Dana, Boston, Mass., raised about 1860. Fruit medium, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, greenish-yellow, with some russet and many brown dots; flesh juicy] melting, sweet, pleasant; good to very good; Sept.

Eyewood. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:149, fig- 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 759. 1869.
Raised from seed by T. A. Knight about 1822 at Downton, Wiltshire, Eng. Fruit medium, globular; skin very thick, greenish-yellow, tinged with brown next the sun, much covered with pale brown-russet and large dots; flesh yellowish, very tender and melting, juicy, sweet, with a sprightly, vinous flavor and fine aroma; first, but sometimes has too little perfume; Oct.


Fall. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 102. 1875.
A natural tree planted at least as early as 1650 by Gov. Prince at Eastham, on Cape Cod. Fruit about the size of a hen's egg, tapering towards both ends, green, nearly covered with thin russet, of inferior quality. In 1836 it was a flourishing, lofty tree, producing an average of fifteen bushels of fruit.

Fall Beurré d'Arenburg. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 119. 1875. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 3rd App. 175. 1881.
Exhibited by Asahel Foote, Williamstown, Mass., at the Boston meeting of the American Pomological Society in 1875 as one of his seedlings. Fruit medium, globular-oblate, inclining to obtuse-pyriform, pale greenish-yellow, tinged with orange where well exposed, sometimes blushed on the cheek next the sun, slightly patched and netted and much dotted with russet; flesh whitish, rather coarse, juicy, melting, sweet, vinous, musky; very good; Oct.

Famenga. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 59. 1844. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 759. 1869.
A foreign variety exhibited in 1843 by R. Manning, Salem, Mass. Fruit medium, obovate, greenish-yellow; Sept.

Faurite. 1. Gard. Chron. 69. 1848.
Fruit medium, oblong-obovate, yellow, shining, tinged with red next the sun, and having numerous reddish dots; flesh yellowish-white, semi-melting, slightly perfumed; keeps nearly a year.

Fauvanelle. 1. Rev. Hort. 146. 1911.
Considered by M. Chasset, Secretary-general of the Pomological Society of France, to be the finest of all cooking pears. Fruit long-pyriform, bright green, largely covered with fawn, and rayed or washed with red on the sun-exposed cheek; flesh yellowish-white, very sugary, giving a good red wine tone to the cooked fruit, with an agreeable aroma; very good for kitchen use.

Favorite Joanon. 1. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 259, fig. 1906.
Obtained in 1833 by M. Joanon, at Saint-Cyr-an-Mont-d'Or, Rhône. Fruit medium to large, turbinate; skin smooth, bright yellow, dotted with gray, flushed with rose at maturity; flesh white, very fine, melting, very juicy, sweet, acidulous, perfumed; very good; Aug. and Sept.

Favorite Morel. 1. Guide Prat. no. 1876.
Obtained from a seed of Bartlett by M. Morel, a nurseryman at Lyons, Fr., in 1874. Fruit rather large, obtuse-pyriform, suggesting in form a long Bartlett, somewhat bossed in outline; skin a little rough, passing from greenish-yellow to golden-yellow, mottled with fawn; flesh white, fine, melting, compact, juicy, fresh, vinous, acidulous; first; Oct.

Feast. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 759. 1869.
Originated with Samuel Feast, Baltimore, Md., from seed of Seckel. Fruit medium, obovate-pyriform, greenish-yellow, with brown dots; flesh whitish, juicy, sweet; good; Sept .

Félix de Liem. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:151, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 759. 1869.
A posthumous variety from the seedlings of Van Mons at Geest-Saint-Rémy, 1853. Fruit below medium, turbinate, generally obtuse, greenish-yellow, very much mottled with dirty or dusky brown, much speckled bronze-russet on side next the sun and some traces of crimson streaks; flesh yellowish, fine, melting, juicy, sugary, slightly perfumed; second; early Nov.

Félix Sahut. 1. Rev. Hort. 151. 1902. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 135. 1920.
From Passe Colmar crossed with Bartlett by Arsène Sannier; new in 1902. Fruit similar in appearance to Passe Colmar; flesh fine, juicy, melting, sugary, with a very agreeable perfume; very good; Nov. to Jan.

Ferdinand Gaillard. 1. Guide Prat. 103. 1895.
Fruit large or very large; skin smooth, brilliant yellow all over; flesh yellowish-white, fine, tender, very melting, juicy, very sugary; good or very good; Nov. to Jan.

Ferdinand de Lesseps. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:154, fig. 1869.
Raised by André Leroy in 1864. Fruit medium, ovate, not very regular, bright yellow, extensively washed and marbled with brown-russet; flesh white, very fine, melting; juice very abundant, acidulous, very sugary, with an exquisite flavor; first; early Oct.

Fertility. 1. Jour. Hort. N. S. 1:555, fig. 100. 1880. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 174. 1920.
Raised by T. Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, Eng., in 1875, from Beurré Goubault. Fruit medium, obovate, even and regular, entirely covered with a bright cinnamon coat of russet, tinged with orange on the side next the sun; flesh semi-melting or crackling, very juicy, sweet, with a rich, highly-perfumed flavor; good; Oct.

Figue. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:183. 1768. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 576. 1884.
The pear described under this name by Duhamel in 1768 is quite different from the pear Figue d'Alençon with which it has been confused, the Green fig of Biedenfeld or Longue Verte of Leroy. Origin uncertain. Fruit medium, long-pyriform, green and next the sun of a dull dark red, entirely covered with numerous dots and patches of brown-russet; flesh white, tender, buttery, melting; juice sweet, sugary, perfumed; excellent early dessert pear; Sept.

Figue d'Alençon. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:156, fig. 1869. 2. Rural N. Y. 45:233, figs. 150, 151. 1886.
Obtained about 1829 near Alençon, Department Orne, Fr. Fruit above medium, sometimes large, long, very similar to the fig in form and color; flesh greenish-white, semi-fine and melting, sugary, acidulous and perfumed; first but requiring a favorable soil and climate; Oct. and Nov.

Figue de Naples. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 577. 1884.
This has been confused with Figue d'Alengon but is a distinct variety. Fruit above medium, oblong, greenish-yellow, entirely covered with thin, delicate russet, dark reddish-brown on the side next the sun; flesh greenish-white, buttery, melting, with a rich, sugary flavor; excellent; Nov.

Figueira. 1. Rev. Hort. 463. 1906.
A variety introduced as new in 1906 by M. Bruant, Poitiers, Fr. Fruit of good size, having rather the form of a large fig, brilliant yellow, colored with purple on the side of the sun, of magnificent appearance; flesh very white, fine, melting, juicy, very sugary, with an agreeable perfume; first, one of the best of the season; July and Aug.

Fin Juillet. 1. Rev. Hort. 477, fig. 169. 1898.
Obtained by M. Hérault, Angers, Fr., from Beurré Giffard crossed with Joyau de Septembre in 1879. Fruit medium, turbinate, ovate, enlarged at center, russeted all over; flesh fine, very melting, rather subject to mellowness, excessively juicy, very sugary, slightly acidulous and with a delicate, musky savor; good; Aug.

Fin-Or d'Orléans. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:160, fig. 1869.  Fine Gold of Summer. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 760. 1869.
An old pear mentioned by the earliest French writers. Fruit small, turbinate, swelled, obtuse, golden-yellow, dotted with carmine on the shaded side and bright red on the other cheek; flesh greenish, semi-fine and melting, juicy, sugary, sourish, rather delicate; second; Aug.

Fin-Or de Septembre. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:156. 1768. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 577. 1884.
Under the names of Finor and Finoin Claude Saint-Etienne wrote of this pear in 1670. Fruit medium, pyriform-obtuse, yellowish-green speckled with brown-fawn dots, orange-yellow and brick-red on the side of the sun; flesh white, tender, semi-breaking; juice moderate, sugary, slightly acid, without pronounced perfume; third; Oct.

Fitzwater. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 73. 1895.
Originated in New York. It resembles Lawrence. Fruit small, obtusely pyriform yellow partly covered with russet; flesh very fine-grained and melting; fair; winter.

Flemish Bon Chrétien, 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 761. 1869.  Bon-Chrétien de Vernois. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:469, figs. 1867.
Of Flemish origin. It was widely propagated in England in 1840. Fruit medium,, obovate, green changing to yellow; flesh yellowish-white, crisp, sweet, perfumed; an excellent stewing pear; Nov. to Mar.

Fleur de Neige. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:163, fig. 1869.  Henri Van Mons. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 782. 1869.

Obtained by Van Mons between 1830 and 1835. Fruit rather large, pyriform, narrowed toward the stalk, greenish-yellow, stained with russet and washed with dark brick-red on the cheek next the sun and dotted with carmine and maroon; stem long, slender; calyx open in a small basin; flesh white, melting, abounding in sugary juice, with a pleasant perfume; good to very good; Sept. and Oct.

Florent Schouman. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 762. 1869. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:153, fig. 77- 1872.
A posthumous gain of Van Mons propagated by the Society Van Mons. Fruit nearly large, globular-turbinate, clear green, speckled with large, round, gray-brown spots; flesh white, fine, melting, sugary; juice abundant, vinous, acidulous; good; Oct.

Florida Bartlett. 1. Mich. Sta. Sp. Bul. 30:28. 1905.
Received for trial in Michigan in 1900 from Stark Bros., Louisiana, Mo. Fruit large, roundish-oval, tapering at both ends, yellow, with dark brown dots; flesh greenish, firm, juicy, half-breaking, granular, mild, almost sweet, perfumed; fair; Dec. and Jan. [is this the same as 'Southern Bartlett'? -ASC]

Fluke. 1. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 174. 1909. 2. Ibid. 289. 1910.
Disseminated by N. K. Fluke. Reported as hardy, blight-resistant and better than Kieffer.

Fondante Agréabele. 1. Horticuliarist 4:83. 1854. 2. Guide Prat. 94. 1876.
Belgian; described as new in 1854 by M. P. Wilder. Fruit medium, globular-ovate, dull yellowish-green slightly russeted; flesh tender, juicy and melting, pleasant, refreshing, with a delicate aroma; very good; Aug.

Fondante Albert. 1. Mas Le Verger y.Vt. 2, 81, fig. 137. 1866-73. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 762. '1869.
Obtained by Albert Boucqueau, Belgium. It was propagated in France in 1853. Fruit medium, globular-conic, depressed at the poles, green turning to yellow, with large dots and markings of fawn, flesh white; semi-fine, breaking, granular about the center; juice deficient, but delicate, vinous and aromatic; second; Sept.

Fondante d'Angers. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:79, fig. 520. 1881.
Origin unknown, probably French. Fruit medium or rather large, turbinate; skin fine yet a little firm, clear green, dotted with greenish-gray, passing to yellow at maturity; flesh white, fine, entirely melting; juice abundant and sugary, vinous, acidulous; first; Oct.

Fondante de Bihorel. 1. Rev. Hort. 547. 1888.
Fruited in France about 1866 from seed of a common French country pear. Tree hardy. Fruit small or medium, pyriform, deep green passing to bright yellow, speckled with gray dots, touched with carmine on the side of the sun; flesh delicate, melting, buttery, without grit; juice sufficient, sugary, acid, well perfumed; quality good; July.

Fondante de Brest. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:169, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 579. 1884.
Mentioned by Claude Saint-Etienne in 1670 under the name of Inconnue du Chesneau. Fruit medium or nearly medium, ovate-pyriform, more or less swelled, smooth, shining, bright green changing to yellowish-green on the shaded side as it ripens, and red, mottled dark blood-red next the sun, covered with small gray dots; flesh white, rather coarse, breaking, gritty, juicy, sugary, perfumed, rose-water flavor; second; Oct.

Fondante de Charleville. 1. Guide Prat. 92. 1895.
Fruit large, pyriform, regular in outline, of a beautiful color; flesh melting, buttery, of an agreeable flavor; Nov. and Dec.

Fondante de Charneau. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:170, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 579. 1884.
A wilding found by M. Légipont growing on his property at Charneau, in the Province of Liege, Bel., at the beginning of the last century. Fruit large, sometimes very large, pyriform but uneven in outline, pale greenish-yellow, thickly dotted with large gray specks and sometimes vermilioned on the side next the sun; flesh white, fine, very melting, juicy, scented, sugary and rich; excellent; Sept. to Nov.

Fondante de Cuerne. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 2:5, fig. 1854. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 175. 1920.
This variety was found by Reynaert Beernaert in the environs of Courtrai, Bel., but the time of its first production is unknown. Fruit large, conic-pyriform, rather irregular in outline, lemon-yellow, with numerous ash-gray dots; flesh yellowish-white, semi-fine and melting, rather gritty about the core, very juicy, sugary, vinous, slightly aromatic; second; Sept.

Fondante des Emmureés. 1. Guide Prat. no. 1876.
Obtained from a seed of Doyenné Boussock by M. Sannier, Rouen, Fr., and placed on the market in 1873. Fruit medium, turbinate, clear yellow, dotted with gray; flesh yellowish, sugary, perfumed; good; Sept.

Fondante d'Ingendal. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 763. 1869.
Belgian. Raised by M. Gambier and first published in 1856. Fruit medium, pyriform, greenish-yellow, touched with gray and with red; flesh fine, melting; good to very good; Sept. to Nov.

Fondante de Ledeberg. 1. Guide Prat. 103. 1895.
Belgian. Raised about 1890. Fruit pale green, dotted with brown; flesh very melting, white and slightly perfumed; first; Mar. and Apr.

Fondante de la Maitre-Êcole. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:175, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 764. 1869.
Produced in the gardens of Robert et Moreau, growers at Angers, Fr.; first tested in 1861. Fruit medium, oblong, golden or orange-yellow, dotted and mottled with fawn; flesh fine, yellowish, breaking, juicy, vinous, sugary and perfumed; second; Dec. and Jan.

Fondante de Malines. 1. Mag. Hort. 14:209. 1848. 2. Ann. Pom. Belge 6:9, fig. 1858.
Raised by Major Esperén at Mechlin (Malines), Bel., in 1842. Fruit large, globular-turbinate, smooth, of a deep golden-yellow with a crimson cheek in the sun, spotted with crimson dots; flesh white, a little coarse, buttery, juicy, sugary, tart, good but somewhat variable; Oct. and Nov.

Fondante de Mars. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:177, fig. 1869.
Origin uncertain. Fruit above medium, globular, irregular, more or less bossed; skin rough, greenish, mottled and dotted with brown; flesh whitish, semi-fine, breaking, granular, wanting in juice and sugar; third; Dec. and Jan.

Fondante de Moulins-Lille. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:178, fig. 1869.
Obtained in 1858 by M. Grolez-Duriez, Rouchin-lez-Lille, Pr., from a seed of the pear Napoleon. Fruit above medium, obtuse-pyriform, pale greenish-yellow; flesh white, coarse, melting, juicy, sugary, acidulous, with a delicious flavor; first; Nov.

Fondante de Nees. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 580. 1884.
Fruit large, long-obovate, fine deep yellow, mottled and dotted all over with pale brown-russet; flesh yellowish, buttery, lacking sufficient juice, with a sprightly flavor; second; Oct.

Fondante du Panisel. 1. Pom. France 3:No. 92, PL 92. 1865.
Délices d'Hardenpont d'Angers. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:13, fig. 1869.
Délices d'Angers. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 558. 1884.
Raised about 1762 by the Abbé Hardenpont, Mons, Bel. Fruit medium to large, globular or conic-ovate; skin rough, thick, tender, green, almost entirely covered with marblings of olive-gray and dark green, the basic green changing to golden-yellow, and the stains to a russet-fawn on the side of the sun; flesh citrine, fine or semi-fine, melting, very juicy, with a sugary flavor and a very agreeable perfume; very good; Nov. and Dec.

Fondante des Prés. 1. Horticulturist 9:80, fig. 1854. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:179, 180, fig. 1869.  Belgiscke Pomeranzenbirne. 3. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:159. 1856.
A seedling of Van Mons, Belgium, 1850. Fruit turbinate, inclining to pyriform, broad across the middle, yellowish-green changing to clear lemon-yellow, sometimes tinged with red next the sun; flesh white, melting, sweet, juicy, aromatic; very good; Oct.

Fondante de la Roche. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:180, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 580. 1884.
Found on the property of M. Chesneau of la Haugrenière, in the Commune of Sainte-Gemmes-sur-Loire and named by the Horticultural Society of Maine-et-Loire. Fruit above medium, ovate, irregular, clear russet, washed with tender rose on the exposed cheek; flesh white, fine, melting, juicy, sugary, acidulous, aromatic, with an agreeable musky taste; first; Oct. and Nov.

Fondante de Rome ou Sucré Romain. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:45, fig. 402. 1880.
Origin uncertain. Fruit under medium, conic-pyriform, bright green changing to a beautiful golden-yellow, washed on the side of the sun with crimson-red; flesh yellowish, somewhat coarse, breaking, sweet and juicy; second; Aug.

Fondante de Saint-Amand. 1. Guide Prat. 94. 1876.
Belgian. Fruit medium, nearly spherical, orange-yellow slightly touched with russet; flesh fine, sugary, perfumed; first; Oct.

Fondante-de-Septembre. 1. Horticulturist 15:68. 1860. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:133, fig. 259. 1879.
Gained by Van Mons about 1824 or somewhat later. Fruit medium, globular-pyriform, dull green, speckled with very fine brown dots, changing to yellow and crimson at maturity; flesh green, transparent, very fine and melting, semi-buttery, full of sugary juice, pleasant and perfumed; first; Sept. 25

Fondante Sickler. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. i: 17, fig. 9. 1872. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 581. 1884.
Raised by Van Mons. Fruit small, ovate, sometimes a little pyriform; skin rather thick and firm, clear green, speckled with dots of a darker shade, passing when ripe to lemon-yellow and golden on the side of the sun, without any tinge of red; flesh yellowish-white, semi-fine, semi-buttery, gritty about the core; juice sufficient, sugary and musky; second; Sept. to Nov.

Fondante de Thines. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:185, fig. 381. 1880.
Distributed by the Society of Van Mons. Fruit medium, long-pyriform, very bright green changing to pale yellow, with a rosy blush; flesh white, with a tinge of yellow, very melting, plenty of sugary juice, with a delicate and agreeable flavor of musk; good; Oct.

Fondante Thirriot. 1. Guide Prat. 47, 266. 1895. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 175. 1920.
Obtained in 1858 by M. Thirriott, Charleville, Ardenne, Fr. Fruit rather large, pyriform, pale greenish-yellow, dotted with gray-brown; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, juicy, with an excellent flavor; first; Dec.

Fondante Van Mons. 1. Mag. Hort. 12:289, fig. 15. 1846. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 581. 1884.
Raised by Van Mons and introduced to this country by R. Manning, Salem, Mass. Fruit medium, globular, somewhat depressed; skin thin, delicate, smooth, removable like that of an orange when the pear is fully ripe and having a peculiar perfume and flavor, very agreeable to some persons; pale yellow, mottled with thin cinnamon-colored russet; flesh yellowish-white, buttery, sweet, melting, juicy, with a musky perfume; good; Oct. and Nov.

Fondante de Wollmet. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 581. 1884.
Origin unknown. Fruit has some resemblance both in shape and color to Beurré de Ranee, has the same coarseness of flesh, which has a greenish tinge under the skin, very juicy, rather crisp, with a fine brisk, vinous flavor; excellent; Nov.

Fontarabie. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:182, fig. 1869.
A French pear mentioned by Le Lectier of Orléans in 1628, and Merlet in 1675. Fruit above medium, turbinate, obtuse, enlarged around the center, bright yellow, dotted with fine points of russet and extensively carmined on the side next the sun; flesh white, rather coarse, breaking, gritty at core, juicy, sugary, with an after-taste of musk; second, cooking only; Feb. to Apr.

Foote Seckel. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 99. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 765. 1869.
Raised from seed of Seckel by Asahel Foote, Williamstown, Mass. Fruit small, oblate, obtuse-pyriform, yellow tinged with brownish-crimson on the side of the sun; flesh whitish, fine, juicy, melting, sugary, slightly vinous; very good; Sept.

Ford. 1. Ford Seed Co. Cat 52, fig. 1914.
Originated with M. P. Ellison, Naples, N. Y., and was introduced by the Ford Seed Company about 1914. The tree is reported as healthy, a rapid grower, and an early and productive bearer; the fruit is similar in appearance to Bartlett and as large, practically free from seeds, with no core to speak of, rich, sweet, juicy, ripening three weeks later than Bartlett.

Forme de Bergamotte Crassane. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:186, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 766. 1869.
A seedling of Van Mons which gave its first, fruits in 1844. Fruit above medium, turbinate, slightly obtuse, yellowish-green, speckled with large gray-russet dots; flesh yellowish, rather fine, melting, juicy, sugary, vinous, aromatic; good; early Nov.

Forme de Curtet 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:9, fig. 101. 1878.
A gain of Van Mons. Fruit small, exactly turbinate; skin fine, thin, bright green, sprinkled with very small grayish-green dots, changes on ripening to lemon-yellow, lightly tinged with red; flesh white, semi-fine and breaking; juice sufficient, sweet, slightly perfumed; second; Sept. and Oct.

Forme de Délices. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 388. 1845. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 582. 1884.
A Flemish pear. Fruit medium, obovate, yellow, almost entirely covered with rather rough brown-russet; flesh tender, buttery, melting, with a rich, sweet flavor; an excellent dessert pear; Oct. and Nov.

Fortune. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 143. 1866.
One of Dr. Shurtleffs seedlings raised at Brookline, Mass.; first fruited in 1866. Fruit small, turbinate, golden-yellow, with russet spots; flesh white, melting, juicy and very sweet; first; Oct.

Fortunée. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 436. 1845.
Bergamotte Fortunée. 2. Ann. Pom. Belge 8:29, fig. 1857.  Fortunée de Printemps. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:188, fig. 1869.
A Belgian wilding found near Enghien in Hainaut; disseminated about 1830. Fruit small, globular or globular-turbinate; skin rough to the touch, deep yellow, covered with flakes and lines of brown-russet; flesh semi-melting, juicy, sweet; a cooking pear; May and June.

Fortunée Boisselot. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:187, fig. 1869.
Raised from a bed of seeds of Fortunée by Auguste Boisselot, Nantes, Fr.; it gave its first fruit in 1861. Fruit large or above medium, turbinate, very obtuse and enlarged around center; skin thick and rough, greenish-yellow or yellow-ochre; flesh white, fine, melting, gritty around the core, juicy, sugary, delicate, somewhat aromatic; first; Jan. and Feb.

Fortunée Superieure. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:190. 1869.
This was obtained by M. Flon, Angers, Fr., about 1850 from a bed of seeds of Fortunée. In 1854 M. Flon submitted it to the Horticultural Society of Maine-et-Loire which found its flesh "very fine, very melting, agreeably perfumed and more free from acidity than the old pear Fortunée,"and therefore gave it the name Fortunée superieure; Jan. to Apr.

Fourcroy. 1. Leroy Dict.. Pom. 2:192, fig. 1869.
Raised by Van Mons about 1810. Fruit medium, ovate-pyriform; skin thick, rather rough to the touch, yellow or yellowish-green, covered with gray-russet dots; flesh white, very sugary, agreeably perfumed; good and sometimes first; winter.

Fouron. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:135, fig. 548. 1881.
French. Fruit medium, globular-ovate, dark olive-green, dotted with grayish-white spots, large and numerous; flesh yellowish, fine, melting, with abundant sugary juice, vinous, sprightly and musky; good; Oct.

Franc-Réal. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:180. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:194, fig. 1869.
Franc Réal d'Hiver. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 766. 1869.
Mentioned by Charles Estienne in 1540, and other French authorities of the seventeenth century. Fruit above medium and often larger, globular-turbinate and bossed, golden-yellow, strewed with large russet dots, and some brownish-red patches; flesh very white, breaking, juicy, hardly sweet, rather acid, without perfume; first for cooking; Nov. to Feb.

Frances. 1. Mag. Hort. 11:252. 1845.
A seedling raised by the Hon. H. W. Edwards of New Haven, Conn., and first published in 1845. Similar to Virgouleuse, rather large, and not so sweet.

Franchimont. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 766. 1869.
Supposed French origin. Fruit below medium, globular-oblate, yellow shaded with red in the sun, netted and patched with russet, many russet dots; flesh yellowish, juicy, semi-melting, sweet, slightly aromatic; good or very good; Sept. and Oct.

Franchipanne. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:210, PL XLVII, fig. 2. 1768. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 582. 1884.  Frangipane. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:196, fig. 1869.
This is the Franchipanne of Duhamel but not of Merlet, 1690, as Hogg and Leroy prove. Its origin is uncertain. Fruit medium or above, obtuse-pyriform, yellowish-green or lemon-yellow, dotted and veined with russet, dark deep red next the sun; flesh greenish-white, semi-fine and semi-melting, juicy, tender, buttery, perfume supposed to resemble Frangipani, a scent invented by the Marquis of that name; a dessert pear; Oct. and Nov.

Francis. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 43. 1866.
A seedling raised by Dr. Shurtlefr, Brookline, Mass., which fruited in 1862. Fruit medium, turbinate; skin tough and rather liable to crack, dark green; flesh fine-grained, white and delicate, with a flavor inclining to that of White Doyenné; first; Nov.

Francis Dana. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 80. 1877.
One of several seedling plants given by Francis Dana to Eliphalet Stone who in 1877 showed its fruit. Fruit medium, globular-acute-pyriform, clear lemon-yellow, with tracings of thin russet; flesh buttery, juicy, good quality but not up to best; Sept.

François Hutin. 1. Guide Prat. 92. 1895.
Fruit very large, long-turbinate, dark yellow; flesh fine, white, melting, juicy, sugary, acid; Oct.

Frangipane d'Hiver. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:105, fig. 533. 1881.
Origin unknown. Is not to be confused with Franchipanne, a smaller ball pear. Fruit large, turbinate, much swelled at center; skin thin, intense green, sprinkled with numerous dots of a darker shade, changing to lemon-yellow at maturity, with some blush of brown-red or orange-red; flesh white, breaking, not very sweet, somewhat acidulous, with an aromatic flavor; suitable for kitchen use; all through the winter.

Frankenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:173. 1856.
Würtemberg, Germany, 1830. Fruit medium, oval-obtuse, variable, bossed, grass-green changing to golden-yellow, blushed with reddish-brown; flesh whitish, breaking, fairly soft, very aromatic, acidulous, sweet; good; Sept.

Frankfurter Birne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:145. 1856.
Baden, Germany, 1847. Fruit large, variable in form, often oblique, dirty yellow, brilliant red on the sun-touched side; flesh breaking, coarse-grained, very sweet and juicy; good; Sept.

Frau Louise Goethe. 1. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 25:132. 1899.
Raised from a seed of Bergamotte Esperén, in the Horticultural School of Geisenheim in 1882. Fruit medium, Bergamot-shaped; skin thick, coarse, dark green, covered with fine warts, becoming a clouded yellow when ripe, with russety patches; flesh clouded yellow, sometimes salmon colored, juicy, sweet, aromatic, with an aroma reminiscent of the orange; winter.

Frederic Leclerc. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:198, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 583. 1884.
Raised in 1846 at Ghent, Bel., by Louis Berckmans. Fruit below medium, short-pyriform-obtuse, one side always less curved than the other, greenish-yellow, dotted, striped, veined and stained with fawn; flesh whitish, fine, semi-melting, slightly gritty; juice sugary, rich; second and sometimes first when its juice is abundant; Dec. and Jan.

Frédéric de Wurtemberg. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 173. 1832. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:199, fig. 1869.
Médaille d'Or. 3. Ann. Pom. Belge 1:91, fig. 1853.
Herbstsylvester. 4. Lauche Deut. Pom. 2:No. 82, No. 82. 1883.
Van Mons raised this variety from seed of the fourth generation about 1812 and named it Sylvester d'Hiver after a secretary by the name of Sylvester. Upon the request of Frederick I, King of Württemburg, the pear was dedicated to that monarch and named Frédéric de Würtemberg. Still further confusion arose in America when Knight of England sent to the Hon. John Lowell of Massachusetts this fruit, by mistake, under the name of Capiaumont. It was cultivated in the vicinity of Boston by that name for some time. Tree vigorous, upright, an early and excellent bearer; leaves roundish, broad, flat, entire. Fruit large, one-sided, obtuse-pyriform, deep yellow, marbled and dotted with red on the. shaded side and of a most beautiful, bright crimson next the sun; stem medium, sometimes appearing a continuation of the fruit; calyx medium, partially open, placed even with the surface; flesh white, fine, juicy, melting, sweet and when in perfection buttery and good; Sept.

Frederica Bremer. 1. Mag. Hort. 16:24, fig. 1. 1850. 2. Ann. Pom. Belge 7:81, fig. 1859.
Introduced by J. C. Hastings of Oneida Co., N. Y., in 1848 at the exhibition of the Pomological Convention of New York. Fruit above medium, globular-turbinate; skin very smooth, shining, dull green reminding one of many poor pears but on ripening becomes a fine citron, dotted with brown-russet and slightly colored with red on the side of the sun; flesh white, fine, buttery, sweet and vinous, slightly perfumed; one of the best; Oct.

Fremion. 1. Dochnahl Führ Obstkunde 2:73. 1856.
French, 1807. Bergamot type. Fruit small, globular, symmetrical, light green changing to light lemon-yellow, faintly blushed; flesh agreeable, buttery, gritty near the center, aromatic, sweet, acidulous; good; Oct.

Frensdorff rothe Flaschenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:140. 1856.
Nassau, Bel., 1833. Fruit medium, smooth and shining, light yellow, blushed; flesh very juicy, sweet, with flavor of cinnamon; good; Sept.

Florimond Parent. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:164, fig- 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 762. 1869.
A seedling of Van Mons raised about 1846. Fruit large, long, more or less obtuse, always contracted near the summit and much swelled in its lower part, dark yellow clouded with pale green, dotted and mottled with fawn and slightly washed with dark violet-red on the side exposed to the sun, sometimes also covered with small, black and scaly stains; flesh whitish, coarse, rather melting, gritty at center; juice abundant, sweet, sugary, wanting in perfume; third; Sept.

Frühe Backhausbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 21161. 1856.
Nassau, Bel, 1806. Fruit medium, globular-ovate, yellowish, light green changing to pale yellow, often blushed; flesh granular, rather astringent, sourish, musky, good for any situation; Aug. and Sept.

Frühe Schweizer Bergamotte. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:76. 1856. 2. Ober-dieck Obst-Sort. 241. 1881.
Holland, 1804. Fruit fairly large, variable in form, often ovate, ventriculous-turbinate, and often pyriform, yellowish-light green changing to lemon-yellow, sprinkled with green and yellow-gray dots, marked with russet and often with fine yellow-gray russet on the side exposed to the sun; flesh snow-white, buttery, melting, very juicy, acidulous and aromatic; first; Aug.

Fuller. 1. Gard. Mon. 302. 1885. 2. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 213. 1897.
Originated in Madison, O., about 1885. Fruit similar in size, form and season to Beurré Giffard but not quite so good. It is, however, claimed that it is a better grower and less liable to crack; greenish-yellow; Aug.

Fullero. 1. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt. 82. 1886.
Fruit rather large, greenish, with some dull red on the sunny side; first; early summer.

Fulton. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:214. 1832. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 768, fig. 1869.
Originated on the farm of a Mr. Fulton in Brunswick, Me. Exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1829. Fruit medium, globular-turbinate, dark yellow, russeted; flesh, if picked and matured in the house, buttery, melting, full of rich juice. If allowed to remain on the tree it becomes breaking, dry and without flavor. A peculiarity of this pear first discovered by Manning in 1840 is that the fruits after they have attained half their size, are in good eating condition after lying a day or two; second; Oct.

Fusée d'Automne. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:203, figs. 1869.
Origin ancient and obscure, but probably the neighborhood of Eisleben, Saxony. Fruit often above medium and often much less, very long, conic, bossed, golden-yellow or clear yellow, rather greenish, dotted with russet; flesh whitish, semi-fine and semi-melting, exempt from grit; juice rather lacking, sweet; third; Sept.

Fusée d'Hiver. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:205, fig. 1869.
First described by Merlet in 1690. Fruit above medium and sometimes less, long and bossed, somewhat obtuse, wrinkled, clear green, freely dotted, mottled with gray-russet; flesh white, semi-melting; juice abundant, rather sugary, slightly acid, without pronounced scent; third; Feb. and Mar.


Gabourell Seedling. 1. Field Pear Cult. 280. 1858. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:208, fig. 1869.
Originated in early half of last century. Fruit below medium, globular, bossed, mammillate, yellowish-green, speckled with gray dots; flesh yellowish, coarse, breaking, gritty; juice rather lacking, sweet, vinous, slightly perfumed; third; Nov. to Jan.

Gakovsky. 1. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:246. 1903.
Introduced from Russia in 1879. Tree extremely hardy. Fruit medium, pyriform, greenish-yellow, stem long; flesh dingy white, fine-grained, buttery, juicy, mild, vinous, but not rich; good.

Galston Muirfowl Egg. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 583. 1884.
Scotch. Fruit below medium, short-obovate, flattened at calyx, greenish-yellow, covered with thin, pale-brown russet, mottled with red on the side of the sun; flesh yellowish, tender, sweet and juicy, with a peculiar aroma; excellent; Sept.

Gans. 1. U.S.D.A. Rpt. 390, PL VII. 1891.
Found by Joseph Gans in a wood near Cheviot, O., in 1871. Fruit large, pyriform, yellow, with faint brownish cheek on sunny side; stem slender, rather long, in a slight depression; calyx open, in a shallow basin; flesh tender, melting, juicy; Aug.

Gänsekopf. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:148. 1856.
North German, 1773. Fruit medium, conic, smooth and shining, green, changing to yellow, with brownish-red blush; flesh breaking, juicy, sweet, aromatic; first; Oct. and Nov.

Gansel Bergamot. 1. Brookshaw Pomona 2: Pl.L. 1817. 2. Pom. Mag. 1:35, PL 1828.  Diamant-peer. 3. Knoop Fructologie 1:92, 135. 1771. Bergamote Gansel. 4. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:239, fig. 1867.
Raised from seed of Autumn Bergamot by Lieutenant-General Gansel near Colchester, Eng., in 1768. Fruit medium, globular-oblate, greenish-yellow on the shaded side, reddish-brown on the side of the sun, dotted and marbled with russet, sometimes washed with red; flesh white, buttery, melting, a little gritty around the core; juice abundant, sugary, vinous, slightly musky and acid; first; Oct. and Nov.

Gansel Late Bergamot. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 369. 1854. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 294. 1866.
Bergamotte Tardive de Gansel. 3. Mas Le Verger 3:Pt. 1, 125, fig. 61. 1866-73.
Gansel Late Bergamot was raised from seed by a Mr. Williams, Pitmaston, Eng. Fruit similar in shape and size to Gansel Bergamot, green, thickly covered with russet dots and freckles which sometimes form patches, yellow-green when ripe, flesh white, rather coarse and gritty, not very juicy nor melting in England; in France and America, however, it seems to become more juicy, melting and rich, vinous and highly perfumed; good to very good; Nov. and Dec.

Garnier. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:209, fig. 1869.  Best Garnier. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 506. 1884.
From a seed bed made by M. Gamier, Bouvardière, near Nantes, Fr.; first published in 1851. Fruit large, pyriform-obtuse, skin rough, thick, green, orange-yellow when ripe, washed with brick-red on the side of the sun; dotted and mottled with brown-russet; flesh white, semi-fine, breaking, rather granular, juicy, sugary; second.

Garnons. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 161. 1841.
Fruit large, oblong, greenish-yellow, flesh buttery and excellent; second; Jan.

Gassenbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 150, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit medium, obtuse-pyriform, symmetrical in contour, green changing to yellow at maturity, covered with gray-brown russet, dotted with brown-russet; flesh yellowish-white, rather coarse texture, very juicy and subacid; Oct. to Dec.

Gaston du Puys. 1. Guide Prat. 93. 1895.
Distributed by M. Daras de Naghin, Antwerp, Bel. Fruit medium; flesh white, very fine, melting, sufficiently sweet and perfumed; good; Nov.

Gaudry. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 585. 1884.
Fruit small, globular-ovate, even in outline, straw-colored, covered with russet dots and patches; flesh white, melting, juicy, brisk, vinous and sweet, with a pleasant rose-water flavor; good; Oct. and Nov.

Géant. 1. Field Pear Cult. 280. 1858. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:210, fig. 1869.
Probably of French origin. Cataloged in this country by T. W. Field in 1858. Fruit medium, globular-turbinate; skin wrinkled, thick, dark green speckled with gray-russet and almost entirely stained with brown; flesh whitish, coarse, breaking, watery, very gritty around the core; juice sugary, vinous, slightly perfumed; third.

Gefleckte Pomeranzenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:1 $6. 1856.
Hesse, Germany, 1833. Fruit small, globular, flattened at poles; skin rough, yellow, often green, marbled with russet, blushed, dotted with russet; semi-melting, granular, very aromatic; Sept.

Gefleckte Sommerrusselet. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:42. 1856.
Nassau, Bel., 1807. Fruit small, globular, shortened, blunt, symmetrical; skin rough, often entirely covered with russet and blushed; flesh very juicy, coarse-grained, sweet and acid, melting and aromatic; first; Sept.

Gefundene. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:91. 1856.
Belgian, Van Mons, 1833. Fruit small, light yellow, often entirely covered with russet, free from dots; flesh fine, strongly aromatic, with scent of cinnamon, sweet; Sept.

Geigenschnabel. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:195. 1856.
Württemberg, Ger., 1830. Fruit medium, pyriform, uneven in outline, entirely covered with yellowish-gray russet; good; Oct.

Geishirtle. 1. Christ Handb. 548. 1817.
Fruit large, shaped like Winter Rousselet, green with brownish-red blush on the sun-touched side; flesh soft, breaking, sweet, juicy, with perfume of the Rousselets; Aug.

Gelbe frühe Sommerapothekerbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:177. 1856.
Of French origin, 1807. Fruit medium and above; skin glazed and smooth, greenish-yellow changing to lemon-yellow, with red blush on the side of the sun; flesh yellowish-white, gritty, soft; good; Aug.

Gelbe Fürsten-Tafelbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:54. 1856.
Widely diffused in Germany. Probably originated in that country about 1766. Fruit medium, rather shortened-pyriform, whitish-yellow changing to golden-yellow, with pale blush, green dots; flesh yellowish-white, mild, breaking, full of juice and sugar; first; Sept.

Gelbe Heckenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:161. 1856.
Grown along the Rhine, Germany. Fruit small, turbinate, broad, light green changing to yellowish-green, often lightly blushed, russeted; flesh greenish-white, rather granular, acid, vinous, breaking; first; Sept.

Gelbe Holzbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 80, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit medium, globular-conic; skin firm, shining yellow when ripe, speckled with numerous green markings and finely dotted with russet; flesh yellowish-white, granular, very juicy, astringent, subacid; good for transportation; Oct.

Gelbe Landlbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 152, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit small to medium, long-pyriform, rather obtuse; skin firm, green turning yellow, dotted with russet; flesh whitish, coarse, very jtu'cy, astringent and subacid; good for transportation; Oct. and Nov.

Gelbe langstielige Alantbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:140. 1856.
German Rheinland. Fruit medium and above, somewhat gourd-shaped; skin smooth and thin, uniformly lemon-yellow, somewhat marked with russet; flesh yellowish-white, wanting in juice, sweet, aromatic; third for table, good for market; Sept.

Gelbe Laurentiusbirne. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 218. 1889.  Saint-Laurent Jaune. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:39, 212. 1879.
This pear was known in Saxony early in the nineteenth century. Fruit medium, conic, uniform in contour, its largest diameter being below the center; skin rather thick, green at first sprinkled with dots of gray-green changing at maturity to bright citron-yellow, golden on the side of the sun of fruits well exposed, washed with a blush of dull red; flesh white, coarse, semi-breaking, gritty near the core, juicy, sweet, saccharine, but little flavor; second; Aug.

Gelbe Leutsbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 106, fig. 1913.
A Lower-Austrian perry pear. Fruit small, long-pyriform, diminishing to the stalk, sides unequal; light green turning yellow when ripe, russet dots; flesh juicy and subacid; first for keeping and transportation; Oct.

Gelbe Scheibelbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 82, fig. 1913.
An Austrian pear producing a good and clear perry. Fruit medium to large, globular, flattened at both poles, green changing to yellow at maturity, dotted with grayish-white; flesh yellow-white, coarse-grained, with a sweet and acid flavor; good; Oct. and Nov.

Gelbe Wasserbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 12, fig. 1913.
A perry pear grown in Lower Austria. Fruit small to medium, globular-obtuse but diminishing toward stalk in upper part, yellow-green, slightly blushed on the sun-touched side, and speckled on the shaded side with dark green dots; flesh whitish, juicy, very sweet and slightly acidulous; good for transportion; Sept.

Gelbmostler. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 108, fig. 1913.
A perry or wine pear grown in Austria and northern Switzerland. Fruit medium to fairly large, globular and diminishing rather acutely to the stalk, greenish-yellow changing to light yellow, often slightly blushed, speckled with russet dots; flesh yellowish-white, coarse-grained, juicy, very astringent, quickly becomes over-ripe; Sept.

Gemeine Kochbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 154, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit small, globular-conic, green changing to greenish-yellow at maturity, occasionally with a dark red blush on the sun-exposed side; flesh yellowish-white, very juicy, saccharine, astringent and acidulous; Oct. and Nov.

Gemeine Pfundbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:187. 1856.
Upper-Austria, 1851. Fruit above medium, globular-turbinate, medium convex, bossed, green turning to light yellow; flesh breaking, wanting in juice, sweet; third for dessert, best for culinary use; Oct. to Dec.

Général de Bonchamp. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:211, fig. 1869. 2. Horticulturist 30:2.  1875.
A seedling found on the estate of M. Panneton, Coteau, Maine-et-Loire, Fr. Fruit medium, variable in form, oblong-pyriform or globular-turbinate, dull greenish-yellow, dotted with russet; flesh white, melting, buttery, fine-grained, juicy, sweet, rich, aromatic; good to first; Aug.

Général Bosquet. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:213, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 770. 1869.
Obtained by M. Flon-Grolleau, Angers, Fr. The seed bed from which the tree sprang was made in 1845. Fruit large, conic, very long, rather swelled at the base and narrowed at the upper end; skin thick, grass-green, dotted and mottled with fawn and often bearing some small brownish stains; flesh whitish, fine, semi-melting or melting, rather granular at center; juice abundant, sweet, vinous, delicate; second; Sept. and Oct.

Général Canrobert. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:214, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am, 770. 1869.
From a bed of the seeds of Saint-Germain made about 1843 by M. Robert, Angers, Fr. Fruit medium, long-conic and irregular, golden-yellow, dotted, marbled and stained with russet, washed with brown around the calyx and stem; flesh white, fine, melting and juicy, the juice being abundant, sweet, acid, rich and aromatic; first, though very exceptionally second when it has no flavor; Jan. and Feb.

Général Delage. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:155, fig. 270. 1879.
A gain of Van Mons about 1823. Fruit medium, conic-pyriform, clear green, speckled with gray, changing to pale yellow at maturity, tinged with dark red on the side of the sun; flesh white, fine, buttery, melting, full of slightly sugary juice, refreshing and somewhat musky.

Général Dutilleul. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:215, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 585. 1884.
A seedling of Van Mons. Fruit medium to large, pyramidal, uneven in outline, deep golden yellow, extensively washed with bright crimson where it is exposed to the sun; flesh firm, not very juicy, sweet, of good flavor; good; Sept.


Général Duvivier. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:217, fig. 1869.  Beurré Duvivier. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 688. 1869.
Raised from seed by M. Boisbunel, Rouen, Fr., in 1845. Fruit medium, long-conic, slightly obtuse, greenish-yellow, finely dotted and reticulated with russet, washed sometimes with dark red on the side facing the sun; flesh whitish, fine, semi-melting, watery, not gritty; juice plentiful, sugary, acidulous, aromatic, delicate; first; Mar.

General Kearney. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 43. 1866.
A seedling raised by S. A. Shurtleff, Brookline, Mass., which fruited in 1862. Fruit large, pyriform, greenish-yellow; flesh fine-grained, juicy, of rather high flavor; a good market pear; Sept.

General Lamoricière. 1. Mag. Hort. 18:296, fig. 22. 1852.
According to Leroy this name is synonymous with Beurré Citron. Mas, however, thought that Beurré Citron was quite different. Fruit medium, obtuse-pyramidal, greenish-yellow, much reticulated and spotted and patched with russet; flesh greenish-white, fine, melting, tender, buttery; juice abundant, sugary, vinous and perfumed; first; Sept. to Nov.

General Sherman. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 43. 1866.
A seedling of Dr. Shurtleff's submitted to the committee on fruits of the Horticultural Society of Massachusetts in 1866. "Fruited in 1856. Diam. 2¾ in.; flesh white, melting, breaking and juicy; November to December, turbinate."

General Taylor. 1. Mag. Hort. 20:75, 269. 1854.
Introduced by L. N. Rogers, Baltimore, Md., the original tree having been found by him at Franklin, Md., in 1854. Fruit medium or under, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, yellow but practically all cinnamon-russet; flesh yellowish-white, granular, buttery, melting, sweet, highly flavored; good to very good; Oct. and Nov.

Général Thouvenin. 1. Guide Prat. 93. 1895.
Origin unknown. Fruit medium, greenish; flesh rather yellow, fine, melting, juicy, very sugary and pleasantly perfumed; Dec.

Général Totleben. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 8:57, fig. 1860. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 177. 1920.
M. Fontaine de Ghelin, Mons, Bel., raised this variety from a seed bed made in 1839. Fruit large or very large, pyriform, slightly contorted, one side often rather longer than the other, yellow, covered with dots and patches of russet; flesh tinted with salmon-rose, melting, juicy, with a rich, sugary and perfumed juice; excellent; Nov. to Jan.

General Wauchope, 1. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 30:474, fig. 144. 1901.
Raised about 1888 by Charles Ross, gardener to Captain Carstairs, Welford Park, Newbury, Eng., from a cross of Nee Plus Meuris and Duchesse d'Angoulême. Fruit moderate size, obtuse-pyriform, very regular, yellowish-green, with fine spotting; flesh soft, free from grit, rich, sweet, somewhat of the flavor Nee Plus Meuris; Dec.

Gensbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 32, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry and wine pear. Fruit medium, long-pyriform, diminishing toward the stalk from the center; skin tolerably fine and shining yellow when ripe, densely and finely dotted with russet; flesh white, coarse-grained, juicy, subacid, astringent; Sept.

George Augustus, 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 91. 1872.
A seedling exhibited to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1872 by Francis Dana. Fruit similar to Winter Nelis, but larger and more oblong, and not quite so rich.

Georges Delebecque. 1. Guide Prat. 104. 1895.
Raised from seed of Joséphine de Malines and distributed by Daras de Naghin, Antwerp, Bel. Fruit medium, having some resemblance to Urbaniste, yellow, dotted with fawn and bronzed around the stem; flesh sometimes very salmon-colored, melting, with a slight perfume of rose; a good pear for the amateur; tree of moderate vigor and very fertile; Dec. and Jan.

Gerando. 1. Mag. Hart. 23:161, fig. 9. 1857.
Received by C. M. Hovey in 1845 from M. Jamin of Paris. Fruit large, globular-obovate; skin rather rough, dull greenish-russet, with a mottled yellow and light russet tinge when mature, thickly covered with conspicuous dark russet specks; flesh yellowish-white, coarse, melting and juicy, rich, sugary and slightly perfumed; good; Sept. and Oct.

Gérardine. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:119, fig. 156. 1878.
Obtained by M. Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel., early in the nineteenth century. Fruit medium, turbinate, more or less short and swelled, reducing to a point at the top; skin thick, firm, intense green dotted with large brown specks, changing to dark yellow at maturity, with golden-russet on the side of the sun and some red blush; flesh white, rather fine, buttery, melting, gritty about the center, Ml of rich sugary juice, vinous and highly scented; Nov.

Gerdessen. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:61, fig. 223. 1879.
According to Diel, this variety was obtained by the Pastor Gerdessen of Weigsdorf, in the Oberlausitz, Ger. Fruit rather small or nearly medium, almost spherical, even in contour, the greatest diameter being at the center, intense and somber green, without any russet; flesh yellow, rather fine, buttery; juice sufficient in quantity and richly saccharine, vinous and highly perfumed; first; Sept.

Gerippte Pomeranzenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:156. 1856.
Nassau, Bel., 1833. Fruit small, orange-form, ribbed, a good yellow, lightly blushed with red; flesh juicy, semi-melting, cinnamon-flavored, sweet; second for dessert, good for the market; Sept.

Gernröder Pomeranzenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:160. 1856.
Central Germany, 1773. Fruit small, flattened, green changing to yellowish, faintly blushed, speckled with gray; flesh greenish-white, tender; good; Oct. and Nov.

Gestreiffe Winter-Apothekerbirne. 1. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 132. 1825.
Fruit large; form that of Bon-Chrétien d'Été;, light yellow, streaked, aromatic, sugary; good; Feb. to Apr.

Ghellinck de Walle. 1. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 11:24. 1892.
Raised in the garden of M. Ghellinck de Walle near Ghent, Bel., described as new. Fruit medium, oblong-obovate, yellowish, speckled with russet; flesh creamy-white, melting, juicy, sugary, slightly acid and delicately perfumed. Said by M. Pynaert to be one of the best autumn pears; Nov.

Gibb. 1. Cornell Sta. Bul. 332:482. 1913.
Raised from seed sent by Charles Gibb from Mongolia to Prof. Budd at Ames, Ia.

Said to be very hardy and productive, coming into bearing when young. Fruit about the size of Bartlett, pyriform, nearly equal to Bartlett in quality, according to Prof. Budd. Seems to be of a better quality than most oriental pears.

Gilain. 1. Guide Prat. 71. 1876. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:33, fig. 113. 1878.
A gain of M. Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel. Fruit medium, pyriform, pale green changing to yellow, a warm gold and sometimes red on the side next the sun; flesh white, fine, buttery, melting, rather gritty near the core; juice sufficient, sugary and perfumed; good; Sept.

Gilles ô Gilles. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:222, fig. 1869. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 219. 1889.  Girogile. 3. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 177. 1920.
A French pear of very ancient and uncertain origin. Jean Bauhin in his Historia Plantarum, 1580, wrote of a pear which appears to be identical with this and said that in Burgundy it was styled a Poire de Livre or Pound Pear. Le Lectier in his catalog of 1628 and Merlet as well as Claude Saint-Etienne and La Quintinye also mention it though spelling it variously. Fruit large to very large, nearly spherical; calyx large, open, set in deep basin; skin thick, pale dull green, washed with brown-red on the face exposed to the sun, much covered with thin brown-russet; flesh greenish-white, semi-fine and semi-breaking, rarely gritty, very juicy, saccharine and sweet, without much perfume, occasionally spoiled by too much acerbity; third; cooking; Nov. to Feb.

Giram. 1. Mas Le Verger 2:151, fig. 74. 1866-73.
A wilding found on the estate of Giram at Uryosse, Fr., and propagated by Dr. Doat. Fruit nearly medium, pyriform, sometimes rather turbinate; skin thick and firm, green, sprinkled with large dots of greenish-brown, becomes yellowish-green at maturity and blushed with red on the sun-exposed side; flesh very fine, tender, melting, very juicy, sugary and agreeably perfumed;-first; Aug.

Girardon. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:225, fig. 1869.
According to Diel this pear was raised in Paris by a M. Girandoux whose name Leroy identifies with Girardon. It seems to have dated from about the beginning of the nineteenth century. Fruit below medium, globular, flattened and deeply depressed at both poles, one side rather less swelled than the other; skin wrinkled, yellowish-green, dotted with clear brown and almost entirely mottled and reticulated with dark russet; flesh white, semi-fine and semi-melting, rather granular; juice very abundant, saccharine, acidulous, very musky; second; late Sept.

Glace d'Hiver. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:67, fig. 322. 188c.  Winter Eisbirne. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 300. 1889.
Belgian. Fruit medium, globular-conic; skin rather thick, a lively green sprinkled with brown dots, changing to lemon-yellow, often golden on the side of the sun; flesh whitish, fine, breaking; juice sufficient, sugary, without appreciable perfume; good; end of winter.

Glastonbury. 1. Jour. Hort. N. S. 22:73, 99] I26- 1872. 2. Bunyard-Thomas Fr. Card. 140. 1904.
The Benedictine of the English or Glastonbury pear, apparently originated as a wilding with W. G. L. Lovell, Glastonbury, Eng., but Bunyard believes it to be an old sort introduced by the monks. Grafts were first taken from the tree in 1862. Fruit large, oblong-obovate, russeted; flesh yellowish, melting, juicy, aromatic; Oct.

Gleck. 1. Guide Prat, 93. 1895.
Distributed by M. Niemetz, Winnitsa, Russia, and on trial with Simon-Louis Bros. at Metz in 1895. Fruit medium or large, green changing to yellow at maturity; flesh rather tart in flavor, juicy, good for drying as it diminishes little in volume; it makes good cider; Sept. and Oct.

Gliva. 1. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 61. 1880.
A Russian pear imported by J. L. Budd, from the northern steppes where the summers are "fully as dry and hot as ours and the winter far more severe."It shows marked traces of the Chinese forms of the pear in shape, serration, thickness and size of leaf and in the peculiar enlarged character of the scaly, terminal buds.

Gloire de Cambron. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:226, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 772. 1869.
Probably derives its name from the famous Abbey of Cambron near Mons in Hainaut, Bel. It was in France early in the nineteenth century. Fruit below medium, acute-pyri-form, generally rather contorted in the lower part, yellow-ochre in color, dotted with very fine gray-russet points; flesh white, semi-fine, breaking, dry and gritty, sweet and rather delicate in flavor; third; Nov.

Gloward. 1. Field Pear Cult. 280. 1858. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:228, fig. 1869.
Possibly of English origin. It was cultivated in the garden of the Horticultural Society of Angers, Fr., in 1838. Fruit medium and above; form rather variable but always ovate, more or less long, irregular, bossed, clear green sprinkled with grayish dots and a little stained with russet; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, watery, some grit around the core; juice sugary, very refreshing, rather savory; second; Oct.

Gnoico. 1. Leroy Dict.. Pom. 2:229, fig. 1869.
Italian, with the place of its origin in the old principality of Parma. Fruit below medium, long, obtuse-pyriform, whitish-gray on the shaded side, very clear dull green on the other face, dotted with russet, washed occasionally with fawn around the stalk and partially covered with a light bluish efflorescence; flesh greenish-white, fine, dense, breaking or semi-breaking, watery, almost exempt from grit; juice abundant and sugary, with a flavor of anis; Aug.

Goat-herd. 1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:131. 1908.
On trial in the experimental orchard at Agassiz, B. C, in 1900. Fruit small, acute-pyriform, green, russeted, flesh red, buttery, juicy, subacid; mid-season.

Gogal. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 135. 1920.
Originated by N. E. Hansen, Brookings, S. D., from Parrot crossed by Pyrus ovoidea, and introduced by him in 1919.

Gold Dust. 1. Cornell Sta. Bul. 332:482. 1913.
Fruit of Bergamot shape, with slender stem; skin very rough; Oct.

Gold Nugget. 1. Stark Bros. Cat. 28, fig. 1916.
This pear originated with F. H. Davis, Esmeralda, Cal., in the early seventies. A few years ago Stark Bros., Louisiana, Mo., secured control of the variety and introduced it to the trade in 1916. Tree vigorous, healthy, productive; fruit large, roundish-obovate-pyriform; skin thick; flesh fine-grained, juicy, with a honey-sweet flavor; ripens late.

Goldbirne. 1. Christ Handb. 544. 1817. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:48. 1856.
Austrian, 1851. Fruit small, conic, beautiful light yellow; skin thin, light red blush; flesh semi-breaking, sweet, with muscatel flavor; best; beginning of Oct.

Goldbordirte Holzbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ, Obstkunde 2:196. 1856.
Classed by Dochnahl among varieties of special character. The tree has its leaves bordered with gold. Fruit small; flesh firm, insipid.

Golden Bell. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 43. 1866.
A seedling fruited by S. A. Shurtleff, Brookline, Mass., in 1862. Tree prolific. Fruit medium, pyriform, golden-yellow; flesh fine, with good flavor; Sept.

Golden Beurré of Bilboa. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 177. 1832. 2. Hovey Fr. Am. 1:99, PL 1851.  Beurré Doré de Bilboa. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:351, fig. 1867.
Imported to this country from Bilboa, Spain, in 1821 by J. Hooper, Marblehead, Mass. Fruit medium to large; obovate-pyriform, golden-yellow, speckled evenly with small, brown dots, and slightly marked with russet; flesh yellowish-white, fine, melting, very buttery, vinous and excellent flavor; first; Sept.

Golden June. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 135. 1920.
Originated with Joe Houghlin, near Bloomfield, Ky., and introduced by Sunny Slope Nursery, Hannibal, Mo. Tree reported about 75 years old. Fruit said to have a small core, to be delicious and to ripen about June 20th.

Golden Knap. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 587. 1884.
Grown extensively in the orchards of the border countries of Scotland. The name is a corruption of Golden Knob, the shape being that of a small knob. Fruit very small, globular-turbinate, russety, of no particular merit.

Golden Queen. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 587. 1884.
Raised at the Royal Gardens, Frogmore, near Windsor, Eng., and was first exhibited in 1872. Fruit small, obovate, straw-colored, strewed with a few minute dots; flesh very tender and extremely juicy, sweet and highly perfumed; a delicious pear but when ripe speedily rots at the core; Sept.

Golden Russet. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 587. 1884.
A seedling raised at the Royal Gardens, Frogmore, near Windsor, Eng., and first exhibited in 1863; entirely distinct from Japan Golden Russet, which bears the same name as a synonym. Fruit small, obtuse-obovate, bright cinnamon-russet; flesh yellow, fine-grained, buttery and melting, juicy, sweet and with a flavor resembling that of Marie Louise; an excellent little pear; Oct.

Goldwörther Lederbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 156, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit small to medium, turbinate, diminishing rather acutely to the stalk, green covered with dark brown-russet; flesh yellow-green, coarse, saccharine, with an unpleasant acidity; very good for transport; Oct. and Nov.

Gönnersche Birne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:28. 1856.
Hesse, Ger., 1806. Fruit almost medium, turbinate, light green changing to greenish-yellow, often with a rather pale blush; flesh granular and rather coarse; second; Sept.

Goodale. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 773, fig. 1869. 2. Ont. Dept. Agr. Fr. Out. 163, figs. 1914.
Raised by E. Goodale, Saco, Me., from seed of the McLaughlin. Fruit large, oblong-obovate-pyriform, green, yellowing at maturity, shaded with crimson and fawn in the sun, slightly netted and patched with russet and sprinkled with small russet dots; flesh white, fine, rather gritty at core, juicy, sweet, pleasant, perfumed, slightly vinous; fair for dessert; first for market; Oct.

Got. 1. Field Pear Cult. 280. 1858. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:231, fig. 1869.
Origin unknown. According to Leroy this variety has been cultivated in Belgium ever since 1855. Fruit above medium; form rather variable, passing from long-conic and slightly obtuse to ovate, a little swelled; skin rough, fine, dark green; flesh white, semi-fine, breaking or semi-melting, granular around the core; juice sufficient, sugary, aromatic, rather delicate; second; Sept. and Oct.

Governor Carver. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 45. 1866.
Fruited in 1863 by S. A. Shurtleff from seed. Fruit "Diam. 3 in.; flesh firm and very rich in flavor; keeps perfectly until June or July of following year, and ripens well; fine flavor, and a valuable pear. Turbinate."

Grabenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:159. 1856. 2. Löschnig Mostbirnen 64, fig. 1913.
A German and Austrian pear, common in middle Franconia. Fruit small to medium, turbinate or conic; skin smooth, shining, yellow-green turning yellow, with green marblings, sometimes slightly blushed, dotted; flesh whitish, coarse-grained, breaking, juicy, saccharine, without any perceptible acid; mid-Oct.

Graf Moltke. 1. Guide Pfat. 95. 1876. 2. Lauche Dent, Pom. II:No. 80, Pl.80. 1882.
Named after A. Von Moltke, a Prime Minister of Denmark, 1850. Fruit rather large, irregular in form although handsome; skin rough, yellowish-green covered with russet; flesh yellowish-white, fine, melting, very juicy, aromatic; quality variable; a table fruit; Oct.

Grand Bretagne. 1. Knoop Fructologie 1:83, Tab. II. 1771. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 774. 1869.
Origin French or Belgian. Fruit large, obtuse-obovate, greenish-yellow, dotted with brown; flesh fine, juicy, buttery and melting; moderately good; Dec. to Feb.

Grand Isle. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 3rd App., 176, fig. 1881. 2. Rural N. Y. 44:242, figs. 135, 136. 1885.
Raised by Benjamin Macomber, Grand Isle, Vt. Tree vigorous, upright, somewhat alternate in bearing. Fruit medium, roundish-oblong, straw color, covered with many small russet dots; stem medium long, rather slender; calyx small, open, in a small basin; flesh whitish, half-fine, juicy, melting, sweet, slightly vinous; very good; Sept. and Oct.

Grand-Soliel. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:233, fig. 1869- 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 588. 1884.
Introduced by Major Esperén, Mechlin, Bel., in the early half of the nineteenth century. Fruit medium, globular-turbinate, more or less bossed; skin rough to the touch, yellow, almost covered with gray-russet, blushed with red on the side next the sun; flesh whitish, semi-fine, rather stringy, melting, vinous, sugary, with a particularly delicate aroma; first; Dec. and Jan.

Grant. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 45. 1866.
A seedling fruited by S. A. Shurtleff, Brookline, Mass, in 1862. Fruit large, obtuse-pyriform; greenish-yellow; flesh sweet, fine, rich; first; Oct.

Graslin. 1. Pom. France 3:No. 106, Pl.106. 1865. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 775. 1869.
A wilding found in the Commune of Fl#e, Sarthe, Fr.; introduced about 1840. Fruit large, oblate, somewhat irregular, larger on one side than the other, yellow-ochre, dotted and marbled with gray-russet, and stained with large markings of fawn; flesh fine, white, veined with greenish-yellow, very melting, juicy, sugary, acidulous, perfumed, delicate; first; Oct. and Nov.

Grasshoff Leckerbissen. 1. Oberdieck Obst-Sort. 305. 1881. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 222. 1889.
German. Fruit medium, pyriform, often rather ovate, inclined or bent at the head; skin smooth, grass-green changing to yellow-green, thickly dotted, not much russet; flesh yellowish-white, rather gritty around the core, melting, fine, juicy, good flavor; very good for dessert and good for household use; early Oct.

Gratiola. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 592. 1629.
"The Gratiola peare is a kinde of Bon Cretien, called the Cucumber peare or Spinola's peare."

Graue Herbstrusselet. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:42. 1856.
German, Upper Hesse, 1802. Fruit medium, ventriculous, uneven, rough, entirely covered with russet, changing at maturity to dull red on the side next the sun; flesh very-juicy, coarsely granular and woody, sugary and musky; first for household purposes; Sept.

Graue Holzbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 110, fig. 1913.
A perry pear grown throughout Austria under various names. Fruit medium, globular, diminishing toward the stalk; skin firm, rough, grayish-green turning at maturity to a dirty greenish-yellow, dotted with grayish-brown-russet; flesh yellowish-white, coarse-grained, very juicy, astringent and subacid; mid-Oct.

Graue Honigbirn. 1. Lauche Deut. Pom. 2: No. 84, Pl. 84. 1883.
German. Published by Oberdieck in 1865. Fruit medium, turbinate; skin thin, rough, yellowish-green or yellow, blushed, and dotted and marked with cinnamon-russet; flesh yellowish-white, fine grained, breaking, tender, semi-melting, sweet, with an aromatic flavor of cinnamon.

Graue Pelzbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 158, fig. 1913.
An excellent Austrian perry pear. Fruit medium, turbinate, inclining to pyriform; skin firm, rough, yellow ground when ripe, with cinnamon-brown-russet marking and grayish-brown dots, blushed on the sun-exposed side; flesh whitish, coarse grained, very juicy, subacid, with very little aroma; Oct.

Graue Speckbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:188. 1856.
Reported from Germany, 1801. Fruit large, long, broad, conic, yellow, strongly and thickly dotted with gray; calyx small; stem fleshy; flesh granular, somewhat aromatic, sweet; third; Sept.

Graue Zuckerbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:40. 1856.
Dutch, 1758. Fruit small, rather oviform, smooth, greenish-yellow, dotted with green; flesh yellowish, semi-breaking, melting, very sweet, vinous, juicy; second for dessert, good for the market; Aug.

Grazbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 184, fig. 1913.
Grazbirne is a variety of wild pear well distributed in Lower Austria. Fruit medium, globular, regular in form, green, dotted and heavily marked with russet; flesh subacid, vinous, astringent, wanting in juice; inferior; early Oct.

Great Cassolette, 1. Prince Pom. Man. 1: 32. 1831.
There appear to be several varieties of Cassolette three or four of which bear the synonym of Lechfrion. The Cassolette is so named from its resemblance to a small vessel made of copper and silver in which pastilles were burnt. Fruit small, globular-turbinate, 2⅙ inches in height and 2 ⅓ inches in breadth, entirely light green even at maturity, dotted all over with numerous green specks; flesh melting, of a very peculiar acid flavor which however, is not disagreeable when the fruit is ripe; Aug.

Great Citron of Bohemia. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 775. 1869.
Fruit small, oblong, yellow; flesh sugary, juicy, a little coarse-grained, having little flavor; Sept.

Great Mammoth. 1. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 239, 240. 1869.
Grown in pioneer days in Indiana, Illinois, and neighboring states.

Green Chisel. 1. Langley Pomona 132. 1729. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 588. 1884.  Guenette. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:261, fig. 1869.
The origin of this ancient early summer variety is unknown, but it was described by Mawe and Abercrombie in 1778, and was also mentioned by Philip Miller in 1734 as being still "in prime"in July in England, Under the name of Guenette it was described by Merlet in articles written in 1675, and 1690 and appears to have been well known in English and French gardens. Hogg deems Chisel to be a corruption of the French name Choiseul. Fruit small or very small, growing in clusters, globular-turbinate, green or rarely yellowish-green, with sometimes a brownish tinge next the sun, sprinkled with small russet dots; flesh white, slightly green, fine, semi-breaking, sweet, slightly gritty around centre; juice ample in amount, sugary, acid, slightly aromatic; second; Aug.

Green Mountain Boy. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 386. 1859.
A native variety. Fruit medium, globular-obovate, or obovate-pyriform, golden yellow, with russety-brown specks; flesh yellowish, melting, juicy, sweet; very good; Oct.

Green Pear of Yair. 1. Trans. Lond. Hort. Soc. 4:214. 1822. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 776. 1869.  Green Yair. 3. Hogg Fruit. Man. 589. 1884.
An old Scotch pear raised at Yair on the Tweed, Peeblesshire. Fruit below medium, obovate, smooth, dark green changing to yellow, patched and dotted with russet; flesh tender, juicy, sugary; good; Sept.

Grégoire Bordillon. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:237, fig. 1869. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 178. 1920.
Raised by Leroy in 1855 from seed of Graslin, and fruited for the first time in 1866. Fruit large, ovate, rather larger on one side than the other, pale yellow on shaded side and dark yellow on the exposed cheek, mottled, striped, and dotted with brown; flesh yellowish, fine, very melting, very juicy and sugary; first; Aug.

Grey Good-Wife. 1. Mawe-Abercrombie Univ. Gard. Bot. 1778.
Fruit medium, globular, brown-red, moderately tender and of good flavor; Oct. to Dec.

Grise-Bonne. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:245. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:238, fig. 1869.
Französische Gute Graue Sommerbirne. 3. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:16. 1856.
The Dutch pomologist Pierre Van den Hoven writing in the middle of the eighteenth century affirmed that the Grise-Bonne was the Sucrée Grise de Hollandaise and the Pirum Falernum of the Romans. It may be noted that in 1586 Jacques Dalechamp thought he had found the Falernum in the French Autumn Bergamote; and, again, in 1783 Henri Manger declared it to be still cultivated under the name Bourdon, the Orange Musquee; similarly Sickler wrote in 1802 that the Bergamote d'Été; appeared to him to be the Falernum. Fruit medium; form variable, sometimes irregular-turbinate, long and ventriculous, at other times regular-turbinate, clear green, russeted with gray, clouded with pale yellow on the shaded side and covered with large dots of golden or orange-yellow; flesh white, fine, dense, semi-breaking, watery, free from grit; juice very abundant, sugary, acidulous, musky; second; Aug.

Groom Prince Royal. 1. Gard. Ghron. 54, 161. 1841. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 589. 1884.  Bergamotte Eliza Matkews. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:235, fig. 1867.  Princesse-Royale. 4. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:561. 1869.
A Mr. Groom, a nurseryman at Clapham near London, introduced this pear in 1841. Fruit medium, globular or Bergamot-shaped, greenish-brown, with a tinge of yellow and slight traces of gray-russet; flesh melting, buttery, sometimes rather gritty, sweet, vinous, perfumed; a good second-rate pear; Jan. to Mar.

Gros Blanquet Long. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:241, fig. 1869.  Large Blanquet. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 602. 1884.  Kreiselformige Blankeüe. 3. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 244. 1889.
This is one of a group of pears which in the seventeenth century were designated by various pomologists with names such as Blanquet a longue queue, Blanquet d'hiver, etc. Their origin is ancient, possibly Roman. The variety here described is the largest of the Blanquettes and was said by Olivier de Serres in 1600 to be also named de Florence from which it might be adduced that it came originally from Tuscany. Fruit below medium and often small, obtuse-pyriform, smooth, of a beautiful yellow color, dotted with bright green and sometimes carmined on the cheek next the sun; flesh white, semi-fine, breaking, sweet, full of sugary juice possessing a musky-anis flavor; a dessert pear, second; July and Aug.

Gros Blanquet Rond, 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:242, fig. 1869.
An ancient dessert pear mentioned by Claude Saint-Etienne in the seventeenth century and by Mawe and Abercrombie in their Universal Gardener and Botanist in 1778. Fruit below medium, globular-ovate, pale yellow covered with very fine russet dots, more or less washed with rose on the side of the sun; flesh yellow-white, breaking, rather coarse, almost exempt from grit; juice abundant, sugary, sourish, musky; third for dessert; Sept.

Gros-Hativeau. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:245, fig- 1869.
This pear has been supposed to belong to a class identified with the Pira Hordearia of Columella and of Pliny, and was mentioned by various French and German writers from the sixteenth century onward; if its origin is not clear it is at any rate one of the three varieties of the pear bearing the name of Hativeau in the seventeenth century, H. blanc, or Bergamotte d'Été;, and the Petit-H. being the other two. Fruit below medium, turbinate-obtuse; skin fine, yellowish-green, delicately dotted with olive-gray, washed with bright vermilion on the side next the sun; flesh whitish, coarse, breaking, gritty; juice rarely abundant, sugary, astringent and slightly aromatic; third; end of July.

Gros Loijart. 1. Mag, Hort. 9:126. 1843.
Fruit large, irregular-obovate, green and yellow; flesh breaking, tough but neither gritty nor austere; for cooking purposes; Apr. and May.

Gros Lucas, 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:246, fig. 1869.
The fruit garden of the Horticultural Society of Angers, Fr. was formed in 1832 and the Gros Lucas soon afterwards appeared in its catalog. Fruit large, obtuse-ovate-globular, irregular and much bossed; skin rather thick, yellow, sprinkled with very small dots of green color, stained with patches of russet; flesh white, semi-fine, semi-breaking, spongy, gritty at the center; juice rather deficient, without perfume or much sugar; second, but good for kitchen use; Jan. and Feb.

Gros Muscat Rond. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:248, fig. 1869.
Although the origin of this variety is doubtful it is almost certainly French. Diel received it from Holland but German pomologists appear to have regarded it as French. Claude Saint-Etienne described it in 1670. Fruit medium, globular-ovate, mammillate at summit, one side always more convex than the other, grayish-green on the shaded side and pale yellow on that exposed to the sun, dotted and slightly stained with gray-russet; flesh whitish, semi-fine and semi-breaking, watery, rarely very gritty; juice plentiful, very saccharine, acidulous and aromatic; second; Aug.

Gros Rousselet. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:250, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 590. 1884.  Roi d'Été;. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 843. 1869.
Mentioned by Rea as being cultivated in England in 1665 under the name of Great Russet of Remes, under which name it was also known in France, there being known these two varieties, the Gros Rousselet de Rheims and the Petit-Rousselet. Father Rapin, a French Jesuit, who wrote in 1666 the poem Hortorum, mentioned the pears of Rousselet in the Valley of Amiterne at the foot of the Apennines. In 1783 the German pomologist Henri Manger wrote that he believed the French Rousselet was none other than the Roman Favonianum mentioned by Pliny. Fruit medium, obtuse-pyriform, yellowish or bright green changing to bright lemon-yellow, covered with numerous small brown spots, red on the side next the sun; flesh yellowish, semi-melting, semi-breaking, rich in sugary and perfumed juice; variable in quality, requires a warm, sheltered position; Aug. and Sept.

Gros Rousselet d'Aout. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 8:53, fig. 1860. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 776. 1869.  Rousselet d'Aout. 3. Pom. France 2:No. 83, Pl.83. 1863.
This was one of the first seedlings raised by Van Mons and is 201 in his catalog of 1823. Fruit medium, pyriform, yellow washed with rose-red; flesh fine, melting, juicy, sugary, acidulous, with an agreeable perfume; a very good early fruit, ripening in August in Belgium.

Gros Trouvé. 1. Guide Prat. 95. 1876.
This seedling was found by Gabriel Everard in a garden at Tournai, Bel. Fruit very large, fusiform, washed with red on the side next the sun; flesh breaking; first for kitchen purposes; keeps until the autumn of the year following.

Grosse Eisbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:188. 1856.
Reported in 1802. Fruit medium, onion-shaped; skin very smooth, shining and greasy, yellowish-green changing to light citron-yellow, often somewhat blushed; flesh coarse, solid and dry; third for the table, first for culinary use; Oct.

Grosse Figue. 1. Guide Prat. 95, 278. 1876.
Fruit large, obtuse-pyriform, yellow stained with brown; flesh semi-melting, juicy, well perfumed; first; Nov.

Grosse gelbe Weinbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:49. 1856.
Nassau, 1805. Fruit below medium, globular, obtuse-conic, often turbinate, light lemon-yellow, dotted with fine brown spots, somewhat russeted; flesh extremely juicy, vinous, mingled sweet and sour; third for dessert, very good for the kitchen.

Grosse-Herbst-Bergamotte. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:169. 1856.
Reported in middle Germany, 1806. Fruit medium, long-pyriform, round, yellowish-green, russeted, speckled with gray dots; flesh breaking, firm, white, juicy, sweet; third for dessert, good for household use; Oct.

Grosse Landlbirne. 1. Ldschnig Mostbiren 66, fig. 1913.
A perry pear grown throughout Austria. Fruit medium, turbinate, otherwise short-pyriform; skin smooth, shining, yellow when ripe, blushed on the side opposed to the sun, sprinkled with numerous dots of cinnamon-brown; flesh coarse-grained, yellow-white, very juicy, sweet, astringent and without aroma; excellent; Oct. to Dec.

Grosse Leutsbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 112, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit medium, long-pyriform, green covered all over with gray-russet; flesh very juicy, astringent, saccharine, with a sourish after-taste; good for transportation; Oct.

Grosse-Louise. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:253, fig. 1869.
A chance seedling found in a garden of the town of Tourcoing, Fr. Fruit large, conic-turbinate-obtuse, bossed and generally mammillate at summit, yellow, slightly greenish, dotted all over with russet and having some small brown stains; flesh white, very fine, dense, free from grit; juice very abundant, sugary, sweet, delicately perfumed; first; Sept.

Grosse Mostputzer. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 114, fig. 1913.
A perry pear grown throughout Austria. Fruit medium but variable in size, globular, turbinate, otherwise pyriform; skin firm, leaf-green turning bright yellow at maturity, with large russet dots; flesh yellow-white, coarse-grained, very juicy, subacid and strongly astringent; very good for transportation on account of its prolonged season of maturity; Oct. to Dec.

Grosse Petersbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obsikund/e 2:168. 1856.
Reported in Thuringia, 1804. Fruit medium, obtuse-conic, yellow, blushed, some russet, dotted with green, thin-skinned; flesh sweet, deficient in juice; third for dessert, good for household use, good for the market.

Grosse Poire d'Amande. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 4:97, fig. 1856.  Grosse Angleierre de Noisette. 2. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:524. 1860.
Belgian. Fruit large, long-conic or obtuse-pyramidal, grayish-green becoming yellow at maturity, slightly bronzed on the side next the sun, speckled all over with numerous brown dots; flesh yellowish-white, fine, melting, buttery; juice very plentiful, sugary; flesh sweet and tasting strongly of almond; first; Sept. and Oct.

Grosse Poire de Vitrier. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 1:107. 1831.
Fruit large, turbinate, yellow, with red blush, perfumed; Nov. and Dec.

Grosse Queue. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:257, fig. 1869.
This variety probably originated about 1653 when Nicolas de Bonnefond named it in his Jardinier francais. In 1675, however, Merlet gave a rather complete description of it and a few years later it was admitted by La Quintinye into the orchard of Louis XIV at Versailles. Fruit medium, rather variable, always globular in the lower part, bossed and more or less conic near the summit, a little wrinkled especially on the side next the sun, olive-yellow, finely rayed and dotted with clear green, and washed with carmine on the exposed face; flesh very white, semi-fine, breaking or semi-melting, juice deficient, sweet mingled with sourness, musky; third: Sept. and Oct.

Grosse Rommelter. 1. Guide Prat. 96. 1876.
A French pear valued for perry making. Fruit medium, globular, green; first for perry; Oct. Tree very vigorous, extraordinarily fertile and succeeding everywhere.

Grosse schöne Jungfernbirne. 1. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 124. 1825.
German. Reported 1805. Fruit below medium, ventriculous-pyriform, sides rather unequal; skin extremely smooth, light yellowish-green turning to greenish-yellow, often washed with a slight brownish blush; second for dessert, first for the kitchen; end of Aug. for two weeks.

Grosse September Birne. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 226. 1889.  Belle de Septembre. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:211, fig. 1867.
An old variety originated in Prussia and cultivated chiefly in the north of Germany and especially in Pomerania. Fruit above medium and sometimes large, oblong or globular-turbinate, generally having unequal sides, pale yellow, stained with fawn, finely dotted with gray and sometimes washed with brown-red on the cheek exposed to the sun; flesh greenish, fine, semi-melting, rarely gritty; juice abundant, saccharine, perfumed, delicate but rather astringent; second; end of Sept.

Grosse Sommer-Zitronenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:24. 1856.
Reported in Saxony in 1803. Fruit medium, long-turbinate, sides uneven; skin extremely shining, light green changing to lemon-yellow, spotted with gray, rather rust-colored on the side next the sun; flesh coarse, melting, rather yellow in the interior, very aromatic, tender and juicy; first for dessert, household and market; end of Aug. for 14 days.

Grosse Sommersirene. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:49. 1856.
Holland, 1804. Fruit small, ventriculous-pyriform, smooth, shining lemon-yellow, without any russet, watery, with a tart sweetness; third for dessert; best for market.

Grosse spate Weinbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:196. 1856.
Switzerland. Reported first in 1848. Fruit above medium, ventriculous-turbinate, green-yellow, blushed with a brownish tint, spotted with white, and marked with russet; flesh coarse-grained, very juicy, astringent, vinous and sourish; very good for perry; Oct.

Grosser Roland. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:4. 1856.
First reported from Treves, Prussia, in 1801. One of the group of Volema or Pound Pears. Fruit large, bent and uneven in form, light green changing to yellowish, blushed; flesh breaking, aromatic, juicy; first for household use; Sept.

Groveland. 1. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:248. 1903.
A native variety grown in Alabama and southeastern States. Fruit large, obovate, obtuse-pyriform, greenish-yellow, with brownish cheek, washed, netted and speckled nearly all over with russet; flesh creamy-white, tender, buttery, juicy, vinous; good; autumn.

Grubbirne. i, Löschnig Mostbirnen 116, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit rather large, irregular in form, diminishing toward the stem almost acutely, yellow-green slightly blushed, dotted and speckled with russet; flesh coarse-grained, juicy, astringent, saccharine and with an agreeable flavor; good for keeping and transporting; Oct.

Grumkow. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:260, fig. 1869.
Discovered by M. Koberstein at Rügenwald, Basse-Pomerania, Prussia. Diel, first to describe it, placed its origin at about 1806. Fruit medium, very irregular, long, pyramidal, always obtuse, contorted and much warted, pale green, sprinkled with a few gray specks, more or less colored with brown-red on the sunny side; flesh whitish, fine, breaking, or semi-breaking; juice abundant, saccharine, acidulous, with a musky flavor; second; Oct. to Dec.

Grünebirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:10. 1856.
A German pound pear. Originated in Württemberg and reported in 1830. Fruit medium, long, sides unequal, dark green, with dark red blush on ripening; flesh greenish-white, breaking, granular, glutinous, juicy, aromatic; first for kitchen; Aug.

Grüne Confesselsbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:193. 1856.
Thuringia, 1797. Fruit small, obtuse-conic, grass-green changing to yellowish-green, green dots; flesh yellow, firm, insipid; second for table, good for household; May to Aug.

Grüne frühe Gewurzbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:32. 1856.
Nassau, 1816. Fruit small, turbinate, yellowish grass-green often rather blushed, very fine spotting, thick-skinned; flesh granular, semi-melting, aromatic, musky; second for dessert, good for domestic and market use; early Sept. for 8 days.

Grüne fürstliche Tafelbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:135. 1856.
Wetterau, 1797. Fruit small, globular, thin-skinned, light green changing to yellow-ish-green, seldom blushed; flesh white, buttery, melting, juicy, full of flavor; first for table and market; Aug.

Grüne gesegnete Winterbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:174. 1856.
Holland, 1802. Fruit medium, globular, light green changing to yellowish-green, dotted with small brown specks; flesh coarse-grained near centre, breaking, juicy, very sweet; good for culinary use; Jan. to Mar.

Grüne langstielige Winterhirtenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:83. 1856.
Said to be a Belgian variety, published by Diel in 1802. Fruit medium, globular-oblate, bossed, dark green changing to light green, a rather brownish blush, fine gray dots; flesh greenish-white, buttery, melting; first for table and household; Feb.

Grüne Pfundbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ, Obstkunde 2:6. 1856.  Poire Livre Verte. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:11, fig. 102. 1878.
A German Rhineland Pound pear, 1826. Fruit very large, regular in form, five inches long by three and a half broad, uniform green turning to yellow-green, covered with dense star-like brown spots; flesh breaking, juicy, aromatic; first for kitchen; Oct.

Grüne Pichelbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 118, fig. 1913.
A perry pear extensively grown under a variety of names throughout Austria. Fruit medium, globular-ovate, shining dark green, yellowish when ripe, white dots; flesh coarsegrained, yellow-white turning more yellow on ripening, juicy and astringent; Oct. and Nov.

Grüne Sommer-Bergamote. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:9. 1856.
Saxony, 1803. A Volema or Pound pear. Fruit medium, globular, dark green changing to yellowish-green, blushed with streaks of brown; flesh glutinous, juicy, aromatic; first for household; Sept.

Grüne Sommer-Citronenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:156. 1856.
Thuringia, 1841. Fruit small, ventriculous, rather variable, shining light green becoming a uniform light greenish-yellow, russeted with gray, specked with gray dots; flesh granular near the centre, melting, acid, sweet, strongly scented with musk; first for table and household.

Grüne Wiedenbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 120, fig. 1913.
A perry pear grown throughout Austria. Fruit medium, turbinate, otherwise short-pyriform, irregular; skin smooth, shining green turning greenish-yellow when ripe, with numerous very fine green dots; flesh whitish, coarse, juicy, not particularly firm when ripe, astringent, sourish and saccharine; mid-Oct. for fourteen days.

Grüne Winawitz. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 122, fig. 1913.
A perry pear grown under a variety of names in Upper and Lower Austria. Fruit medium, long-ovate, greatest diameter at its center, light green turning yellowish at maturity, covered with russet and green dots; flesh yellowish, coarse and juicy, saccharine, astringent; good for transport; Oct. and Nov.

Grünmostler. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 84, fig. 1913.
A perry pear widely distributed in Switzerland and Austria. Fruit fairly large, globular-oblate, ventriculous, one side larger than the other; flesh greenish-white, coarse, juicy, saccharine and acidulous; mid-Oct., for about two weeks.

Gulabi. 1. Guide Prat. 93. 1895.
Sent out and recommended as one of the best sorts in the Caucasus by M. Niemetz of Winnitza in the former Government of Polish-Russia. The varieties of the Caucasus are for the most part highly saccharine, rather coarse, and the vegetation very vigorous.

Guntershauser Holzbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:196. 1856.
Württemberg, Ger., 1848. Fruit medium, turbinate, uniform whitish-green, russet dots; flesh fine-grained, very juicy, vinous, astringent, sweet; good; Oct.

Gustave Bivort. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 776. 1869.
French. Fruit medium, globular, pale yellow, with stains and nettings of russet, blushed on side next the sun; flesh white, juicy, semi-melting, sweet, slightly perfumed; good or very good; Aug.

Gustave Bourgogne. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:262, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 776. 1869.
Gained by Van Mons at Louvain about 1840. Fruit large or medium, turbinate-ovate, flattened at both poles, whitish-green, speckled with fine fawn dots, some bronze-green on the side next the sun; flesh white, semi-fine, almost melting; juice very abundant and sugary, delicately perfumed, refreshing, and agreeable; second for both eating and cooking; Sept.

Gustin Summer. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 575. 1857. 2. Ibid 776. 1869.
Originated in New Jersey. Fruit small, globular, yellow, sweet without much flavor; Sept.

Gute Grüne. 1. Christ Handb. 524. 1817.
German. Fruit medium, globular, green changing to yellowish, blushed; flesh tender, melting; beginning of Sept. for several weeks.


Habichtsbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:146. 1856.
Rhineland. Described by Diel in 1804. Fruit very large, 5 in. x 3 in., hook-nosed or like the beak of a bird, crooked, uniformly light green, densely speckled with light brown dots and marked with russet; flesh coarse-grained, semi-melting, breaking; third for table and good for cooking; Nov. and Dec.

Hacon Incomparable. 1. Card. Ckron. 20. 1841. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 591. 1884.
About the year 1792 a Mrs. Rayner sowed the seeds of a Rayner's Norfolk Seedling at Norfolk, Eng. Subsequently, about 1814, one of the resultant trees was propagated from grafts by a Mr. Hacon of the same place. The hardy and productive tree renders it particularly valuable for climates similar to that of England. The blossoms bear the sharpest frosts without injury but the tree cannot be made to bear until it is eight to ten years old. Fruit medium, globular-oblate, flattened and depressed at both poles, pale yellowish-green, covered with numerous russety spots and markings; flesh yellowish-white, melting, buttery with a rich, vinous, sweet, musky flavor; Nov. to Jan.

Haddington. 1. Mag. Hort. 13:274. 1847.
In 1828 J. B. Smith, a farmer near Haddington, Philadelphia, raised this pear from seed of a Pound pear. Fruit above medium, obovate-pyriform, greenish-yellow, with a brownish cheek and minute russet dots and patches; flesh yellowish, juicy, aromatic; texture varies, some being quite melting, others inclined to break; good; Jan. to Apr.

Haffner Butterbirne, 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 230. 1889.  Beurré Haffner. 2. Mas Le Verger 3:Pt. 1, 77, fig. 37. 1866-73.
A variety found as a chance seedling near Nuremberg, Bavaria, by the Brothers Haffner; first published in 1854 by Biedenfeld. Fruit medium, ovate-pyriform, pale yellow, speckled and stained with russet; flesh white, sometimes a little yellow, rather granular but fine, slightly gritty at center, full of sugary, vinous juice, and has a perfume similar to that of the Beurré Gris; good; Oct.

Hagar. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 777. 1869.
French, according to Downing. Fruit medium, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, pale yellow, shade of red in sun, some russet; flesh coarse, dry, sweet; poor; Oct.

Haight. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 777. 1869.
An American variety. Fruit medium, globular-pyriform, yellow, shaded and mottled with red in the sun, with small brown dots and traces of russet; flesh white, pink at center, a little coarse, breaking, juicy, sweet and pleasant; good; Oct.

Hallische gelbe Honigbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:149. 1856.
Saxony. Fruit small, oblate, flattened, sides unequal, yellowish-green changing to light yellow; flesh breaking, coarse-grained, very juicy and sweet; second for dessert, good for kitchen; Sept.

Hamburg. 1. Can. Hort. 14:12, fig. 2. 1891.
Russian. Fruit medium, yellow-green; flesh juicy, perfumed; Sept.

Hamburger Birne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:5. 1856.
A North German Pound pear; published in 1816. Fruit medium, turbinate or conic-obtuse, light green changing to light yellow, with dark russet markings; flesh breaking, juicy, aromatic; first for the kitchen; Oct.

Hamilton. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 777. 1869.
Originated in South Carolina, where it is said to be of good quality. Fruit medium, oblate; skin rough, yellowish, some stains and numerous dots of russet; flesh yellowish, coarse, wanting in juice; Nov.

Hammelsbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:170. 1856.
Thuringia, 1794. Fruit below medium, ovate, yellow-green changing to citron-yellow, numerous small dots, thick-skinned; flesh granular, sweet; third for dessert, not of much value for culinary use.

Hamon. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom' 2:264, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 777. 1869.
Raised by M. Nérard, a nurseryman at Vaise near Lyons, Fr., from seed sown by him in 1834. Fruit medium, irregular-ovate, often a little bossed, pale green, covered with large fawn dots; flesh slightly greenish, coarse, melting, juicy, sugary, acerb, with an agreeable flavor; second; Aug.

Hampden Bergamot. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 591. 1884.
An old variety of uncertain origin and possessing many synonyms. Fruit large, globular, narrowing abruptly to the stalk, even and regular in outline, pale greenish-yellow, with traces of thin russet and greenish dots, sometimes a tinge of brownish-red next the sun; flesh white, rather coarse-grained, buttery, sweet, agreeable; handsome, but hardly more than second class; Sept.

Hampton Bergamot. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 778. 1869.
Originated with W. C. Hampton, Mount Victory, Ohio. Fruit small, globular-oblate, yellow, netted and sprinkled with russet and green dots; flesh whitish, coarse, juicy, semi-melting, vinous; good; Sept.

Hampton Cluster. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 778. 1869.
Raised by W. C. Hampton, Mount Victory, Ohio. Fruit borne in clusters, very small, globular, greenish-yellow, shaded with dull red on the sun-exposed side, netted with russet; flesh juicy, melting, sweet; very good; Sept.

Hampton Virgalieu. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 388, fig. 1859. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 778.  1869.
Originated with W. C. Hampton, Mount Victory, Ohio, from a seed of the White Doyenné. Tree vigorous, hardy and productive. Fruit medium, globular, or slightly obtuse-pyriform, yellowish-green at maturity, with many russet dots and marblings of russet, the latter becoming reddish-brown in the sun; flesh white, buttery, juicy, rich, vinous, brisk; core small; very good; Oct. and Nov.

Hancock. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 44. 1866.
A seedling fruited by S. A. Shurtleff, Brookline, Mass., in 1861. Fruit 4½ in. long, 3 in. wide, obovate, light green; flesh breaking and juicy, a great bearer, and an excellent cooking pear, always sells readily; Sept.

Hangelbirne. 1. DochnahlFühr. Obstkunde 2:145. 1856.
Holstein, published 1788. Fruit large, long-gourd-shaped, yellow-green, yellow on the sunny side; flesh breaking, coarse-grained, fairly juicy, sweet; third for dessert, good for kitchen; Nov. to Apr.

Hannover'sche Jakobsbirne. i, Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:172. 1856. 2. Lauche Deut. Pom. II:No. 27, Pl.27. 1882.
Hanover, Prussia, 1851. Fruit medium, obtuse-pyriform, dull grass-green changing to yellow, with a brownish blush, dotted with green on the yellow and with bright yellow on the flush; flesh whitish, fine, sweet, becoming mealy when over ripe; third for dessert, good for culinary use and market; July.

Hannover'sche Margarethenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:40. 1856.
Hanover, Prussia, 1851. Fruit medium, turbinate, light green turning to light yellow; flesh yellowish-white, breaking, soon becoming mealy when ripe; second for table, good for kitchen use; end of July for 2 weeks.

Hanover. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 779. 1869.
From Hanover Furnace, N. J. Fruit below medium, globular-obovate, green, with dull green-russet markings, and a brown cheek; flesh greenish-yellow, exceedingly melting and juicy; flavor pleasant, good; Oct.

Hardenpont frühe Colmar. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:100. 1856. 2. Guide Prat. 96, 280. 1876.
This is not the Passe Colmar of Hardenpont, although regarded as such by Dochnahl. It ripens in August and September whereas Passe Colmar is in season during November and December. Fruit medium, globular-turbinate, a beautiful uniform yellow; flesh fine-grained, musky; Aug. and Sept.

Harigelsbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ, Obstkunde 2:172. 1856.
Württemberg, 1830. Fruit medium, obtuse-conic, light green changing to golden yellow, with a dark blush; flesh rather astringent, sweet, breaking, aromatic; third for table, not of much account for cooking; Oct.

Harnard. 1. N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 11. 1877.
Shown before the New Jersey State Horticultural Society in 1877. Said to be "a seedling from the farm of John Harnard, Springfield" N.J., and to have originated about 30 years previously. A cooking pear, valued for its regular and abundant bearing and keeping qualities.

Harris (Georgia). 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 779. 1869.
Disseminated from Georgia. Fruit medium, obovate-obtuse to obovate-acute-pyriform, pale yellow, deep red in the sun, many green and brown dots; flesh whitish, buttery, not juicy, sweet; good; Sept.

Harris (Massachusetts). 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 153. 1874. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 2nd App., 149, fig. 1872.
Raised by Lemuel Clapp, Dorchester, Mass., from Urbaniste crossed with Beurré Bosc. Fruit above medium, ovate-pyriform, resembling Beurré Hardy; stem medium long; flesh yellowish-white, fine grained, very tender, melting, juicy, rich, vinous, spirited, aromatic; very good to best; Oct.

Harrison Large Fall. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 575. 1857.  Rushmore. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:608, fig. 1869.
A fine old baking pear of American origin. Fruit large, irregular, inclined, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, pale yellow with a red cheek; Aug. to Oct.

Hartberger Mostbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 14, fig. 1913.
A perry pear grown in Hungary and Austria. Fruit medium, globular and irregular, somewhat acute toward the stalk, dark green turning to yellow-green, finely dotted and much covered with russet; flesh greenish-white, abnormally large core and seeds, firm and juicy; Oct.

Harte Neapolitanerin. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:192. 1856.
Although cultivated mainly at Naples, Italy, in the middle of the last century and called the pear of Naples, it appears to have been first published in France in 1802. Fruit medium, turbinate, medium ventriculous, light green changing to lemon-yellow, blushed; flesh firm, sweetish, aromatic; very good for culinary uses; Jan. to summer.

Harvard. 1. McIntosh Bk. Gard. 2:457. 1855. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. yjg. 1869.  Belle de Flushing. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:201, fig. 1867.
Originated at Cambridge, Mass. In 1851 it was taken from America to France without a label by Parsons, a nurseryman at Flushing, N. Y., and was named Belle de Flushing by Leroy. Fruit rather large, oblong-pyriform, russety olive-yellow, with a brownish-red cheek; in France it seems to develop a vivid red on the side exposed to the sun, finely dotted with fawn; flesh white, semi-fine, tender, melting, slightly gritty; juice abundant, saccharine, acidulous and agreeably musky; second; a fine commercial variety; Aug. and Sept.

Harvest. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 779. 1869.
An American variety. Fruit below medium, globular, pale yellow, tinged with brown-red on exposed side, brown and green dots; flesh whitish, not very juicy or melting, but sweet, pleasant; good; July.

Hassler. 1. Cal. Com. Hort. Pear Grow. Cal. 7:No. 5, 260, figs. 52, 53. 1918.
Originated as a chance seedling with J. E. Hassler, Placerville, Cal. Fruit large, obtuse-pyriform, greenish-yellow, with russet dots; calyx open; basin large, deep, irregular; stem heavy, medium long, inclined in a deep cavity; flesh, fine, juicy, buttery, pleasant; very good; Feb. and Mar.

Hausemerbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:194. 1856.
German, published 1847. Fruit medium, turbinate-obtuse, light green changing to whitish-yellow, blushed, with brown spots; flesh firm, somewhat aromatic; good for kitchen use; Dec. to Mar.

Hautmonté. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:266, fig. 1869.
Origin unknown but was propagated in the Garden of the Horticultural Society of Angers in 1840. Fruit medium, long-turbinate, yellowish-green spotted with russet and washed with rose-carmine on the side next the sun; flesh whitish, coarse, breaking, juicy, gritty at center; second for dessert, first for stewing; Feb. to Apr.

Hawaii. 1. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 84. 1880. 2. Cornell Sta. Bul. 332:482. 1913.
A Japanese pear; date of introduction unknown. Fruit medium, apple-shaped, light lemon-yellow, with rough, russet dots; flesh hard, gritty, wanting in flavor, subacid; Oct.

Hawes Winter. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 506. 1857. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 389. 1859.
Originated on the farm of the Hawes family in King and Queen County, Virginia. Fruit large, globular, slightly flattened, dull yellow at maturity, with russet spots; flesh a little coarse, very juicy, rich, sweet, vinous; Nov. to Jan.

Hawkesbill. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 593. 1629.
"The Hawkes bill peare is of a middle size, somewhat like unto the Rowling pears."

Hays. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 61. 1844. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 238. 1854.
Exhibited, from the Pomological Garden, Salem, Mass., at the sixteenth annual meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, September, 1844. Placed on the rejected list of the American Pomological Society in 1854.

Heathcot. 1. Mag. Hort. 12:438, fig. 33. 1846.
Raised in 1812 on the estate of Governor Gore in Waltham, Mass. Fruit medium, obovate, greensh-yellow becoming lemon-yellow, very few dots and a few russet streaks, slightly browned on the sunny side; flesh yellowish-white, fine, very melting, buttery and juicy; in flavor it is rich, sprightly, juicy and excellent, with little perfume; Oct.

Hebe. 1. Horticulturist 21:198, fig. 84. 1866.
Raised by William Sumner of Pomaria, S.C. Fruit large; specimens have often weighed 28 ounces, 6 of fair size of this pear generally weigh 8 lbs., globular, obovate, with irregular protuberances, lemon-yellow inclined to greenish, dotted with russet specks and blotches; flesh melting, sprightly, buttery, slightly vinous, has no matured seeds, and seldom forms seeds at all; Dec. in South Carolina.

Hedwig von der Osten. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 231. 1889.  Hedwige d'Osten. 2. Mas. Pom. Gen. 3:173, fig. 183. 1878.
Herr Schmidt, Blumberg, received this variety from Van Mons under Number 51 and dedicated it to the daughter of a zealous pomologist of his country. Fruit rather large, long-pyriform, rather deformed in contour, water-green changing to dull pale yellow, usually rather golden on the face next the sun; flesh whitish, fine, buttery, very melting, very juicy and delicately perfumed; good for amateurs; Sept. and Oct.

Hegeman. 1. Downing Ft. Trees Am. 780. 1869.  Hagerman. 2. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 275. 1867.
Originated on the farm of Andrew Hegeman, North Hempstead, Long Island. Fruit medium, globular-ovate, rather variable in form and color, greenish-yellow, netted and dotted with russet; flesh yellowish, juicy, melting, sweet; good to very good; Sept.

Heilige Angelika-Birne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:108. 1856.
Coblenz, 1792; published by Diel, 1806. Fruit rather large, obtuse-conic, with unequal sides, pale green changing to light yellowish-green, dotted with rusty gray, and rather russeted on the side touched by the sun; flesh whitish, with light green veinings, fine-grained, buttery; first for dessert and household use; Nov. and Dec.

Hélène Grégoire. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 4:79, fig. 1856. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:270, fig. 1869.
Xavier Grégoire, a tanner at Jodoigne, Bel., obtained this pear in 1840 from a bed of the seeds of the pear Pastorale. Fruit large or very large, ovate, inclined to be contorted at times, smooth, shining, dotted and veined with russet, stained with the same around the stem and calyx; flesh white, fine, melting, semi-buttery, green under the skin, free from grit, full of sweet juice, delicate and possessed of an exquisite buttery flavor; first; early Oct.

Hellmann Melonenbirn. 1. Koch Deut. Obst. 481. 1876. 2. Lauche Deut. Pom. II: No. 39, Pl.39. 1882.
German; first published in 1860. Fruit large, globular-obtuse, very variable; skin thick, dark green becoming citron-yellow at maturity, large russet dots, slightly washed with red on the sunny side; flesh yellowish-white, melting, agreeably sweet and vinous, very juicy and having a muscatel flavor; Nov. and Dec.

Hemminway. 1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:143. 1908.  Madame Hemminway. 2. Ellwanger & Barry Cat. 18. 1900.
Introduced by Ellwanger and Barry. American. Fruit large, obovate-blunt-pyriform, green turning yellow, russeted; stem long, thick, in a small, narrow cavity; flesh yellowish, melting, sweet, juicy; good; Oct.

Henkel. 1. Mag. Hort. 13:61, fig, 5. 1847. 2, Downing Fr. Trees Am. 781, fig. 1869.  Henkel d'Automne. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:272, fig. 1869.
Van Mons raised this pear before 1834 and in 1835 or 1836 it was introduced at Boston by Kenrick and Manning. This is the Cumberland of the Belgians. Fruit rather large, broad-obtuse-pyriform, greenish-yellow, netted and patched with russet, sprinkled with green and brown dots; stem rather stout, inclined, inserted by a ring or lip; calyx partially open; flesh whitish, juicy, melting, rich, slightly vinous; very good to best; Sept.

Henri Bivort. 1. Mag. Hort. 20:462. 1854. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:273, fig. 1869.  Poire Henri. 3. Mas Le Verger 2:137, fig. 67. 1866-73.
Issued from the last seed beds made at Louvain by Van Mons and bought in 1844 by Bivort who transplanted the seedlings to Geest-Saint-Rémy near Jodoigne, Bel. Fruit large or above medium, obtuse-pyramidal, smooth, olive-yellow, dotted with brown, striped and mottled with greenish russet; flesh yellowish-white, fine, semi-buttery, rather melting, rarely very gritty, juice plentiful, sweet, acid, aromatic and delicate; first; end of Aug.

Henri Bouet. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:274, fig. 1869.
Obtained in 1861 by Henri Bouet, a nurseryman at Fougereuse, Deux-Sevres, Fr., from Duchesse d'Angoulême fertilized by Jargonelle (French). Fruit large, turbinate-ovate, bossed, mammillate at crown and generally somewhat contorted, pale yellow, dotted and striated with fawn, spotted with greenish-russet around stalk; flesh very white and fine, melting, gritty around the core, extremely juicy, sugary, perfumed, acidulous and possessing a delicious flavor; first; Oct. and Nov.

Henri de Bourbon. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 232. 1889. 2. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:64. 1908.
Published in Germany in 1881. In Experimental Orchard at Agassiz, B.C, 1900. Fruit medium, pyriform, green changing to yellow, some brown; flesh juicy, melting, sweet; good to very good; mid-season.

Henri Capron. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:275, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 592. 1884.
Stated by Baron Biedenfeld in 1854 to have issued from a seed bed of Van Mons. it was propagated by the Horticultural Society of Angers in 1848. Fruit medium, long-ovate-acute passing at the top into the stem; skin rough to the touch, gray-green, clouded with dark yellow and dotted with russet; flesh white, semi-fine, melting or semi-melting, inclined to decay before falling, very juicy, sugary, aromatic, often rather astringent; variable in quality; Sept.

Henri Decaisne. 1. Guide Prat. 96. 1876. 2. Le Bon Jard. 362. 1882.
On trial with Simon-Louis, Metz, Lorraine, in 1876. Fruit large, pyriform, greenish-yellow, handsomely washed with vermilion at maturity; flesh melting, and of agreeable flavor; first; Sept. and Oct.

Henri Desportes. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:276, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 782. 1869.
Raised by Leroy, Angers, Fr., it fruited first in 1862. Fruit large or below, turbinate-obtuse, ventriculous, strongly bossed, generally irregular and much less curved on one side than the other; skin thick, orange-yellow dotted with gray-russet, slightly vermilioned on the side next the sun; flesh white, fine, very melting; juice abundant, vinous, sugary; first; Aug.

Henri Grégoire. 1. Guide Prat 96. 1876. 2. Ibid 93. 1895.
On trial with Simon-Louis at Metz, Lorraine, in 1876, and in 1895 and was "very much recommended"by the firm in both of those years. Fruit medium; first; Nov. and Dec.

Henri Ledocte. 1. Guide Prat. 96. 1876.
One of M. Grégoire's seedlings. Fruit medium size; flesh melting; first; Dec. and Jan.

Henri Quatre. 1. Mag. Hort. 12:173, fig. 6. 1846. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:277, fig. 1869. Henry the Fourth. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 782. 1869.
On the authority of Diel it appears that this pear was originated by M. de Witzthumb before 1815, and was afterward described by the Vicomte Vilain XIV, mayor of Ghent under Napoleon I. Fruit below medium, obtuse-pyriform, rather variable, often contorted and always has one side larger than the other, greenish-white, becoming deep lemon-yellow as it reaches maturity, much covered with fine cinnamon-russet on which are small greenish dots; flesh yellowish, coarse or semi-fine, breaking, gritty at center, very rich, sweet, juicy and with an aromatic flavor; good; Oct.

Henrietta. 1. Mag. Hort. 4:231. 1838. 2. Ibid 487, fig. 42. 1847.
A seedling of Governor Edwards, New Haven, Conn. Fruit a medium-sized and pretty pear, obovate, inclining to oval, tapering towards each end and rather obtuse at the stem; skin fair, smooth, dull yellow, tinged with red in the sun; flesh white, rather coarse, melting, juicy; good; Sept.

Henriette. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 6:37, fig. 1858. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 593. 1884.
Raised from seed by Simon Bouvier, Jodoigne, Bel., and produced its first fruit in 1825. Fruit small or medium, globular-turbinate; skin rough, almost entirely washed with russet, colored and stained with red-brown, carmined on the side next the sun; flesh white, rather fine, melting, full of sugary juice, of an agreeable perfume.

Henriette Van Cauwenberghe. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:171, fig. 86. 1872.
From Lievin Van Cauwenburghe, a business man at Audenarde, Bel., where it bore fruit for the first time about 1827. Fruit medium or nearly large, pyriform-ovate, globular, a little bossed; skin rather thick and firm, pale water-green and whitish, dotted with gray-brown specks; at maturity it becomes dull or orange-yellow and golden on the side of the sun; flesh white, fine, melting, abounding in sweet juice, vinous and pleasantly perfumed; good; Oct.

Henry (Connecticut). 1. Cultivator N. S. 2:175, fig- 7- 1845.
A seedling raised by the Hon. H. W. Edwards, Governor of Connecticut and described by him to the Pomological Society of New Haven in 1845. Fruit small, turbinate, green turning to yellow, with a coppery blush; flesh juicy, melting and exceedingly rich and sweet, not surpassed by any in richness; Sept.

Henry (Illinois). 1. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 302. 1895. 2. Phoenix Nurs. Cat. 13. 1906.
Originated from French pear seed planted in 1871 by Henry C. Henry, Effingham County, 111. Said to be a hardy and long-keeping pear of good quality. Fruit large, resembling Bartlett in shape and flavor.

Herbelin. 1. Guide Prat. 96. 1876.
Fruit medium, having the appearance of Bartlett; flesh fine, a little dense, very sugary; Sept.

Herbin. 1. Guide Prat. 96. 1876. 2. Baltet Trait. Cult. Fr. 360. 1908.
A French winter pear cultivated particularly at Saint-Erme, Department Aisne. Fruit medium, long, red; first; Feb. and Mar.

Herborner Schmalzbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:189. 1856.
Nassau, Bel. Published by Diel in 1806. Fruit medium, nearly pyriform; skin smooth, with fine scales, light yellow turning to citron-yellow, without russet; flesh granular, gritty, sweet and acid; good for kitchen use; Sept.

Herbst-Citronenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:156. 1856.
Thuringia, published in 1810. Fruit small, globular, yellow-green changing to citron-yellow, dotted with green, lightly blushed; flesh yellowish-white, breaking, acidulous, sweet; second for dessert, first for culinary use; Sept. and Oct.

Herbst-Kloppelbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:159. 1856.
A seedling of Van Mons, 1852. Fruit small, turbinate-ventriculous, sides unequal, green turning to yellowish, blushed on the sunny side with brown; flesh yellowish-white, fine, semi-melting; second for the table, first for the kitchen; Sept. and Oct.

Herbsteierbirne, 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:190. 1856.
Thuringia and Saxony; earliest report 1801. Fruit small, somewhat swelled, green-yellow, dotted with dark green, often strongly blushed with brown, with yellow dots; flesh greenish-white, sweet; third for the table, very good for kitchen use; Sept.

Herbstlanger. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 36, fig. 1913.
A perry pear growing in the Voralberg and in Switzerland. Fruit large, long-pyriform, almost like Calebasse in form, greenish-yellow changing to lemon-yellow, finely dotted; flesh yellow-white, juicy, saccharine, with a slightly aromatic flavor; Sept.

Héricart. 1. Mag. Hort. 8:87. 1842. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 783. 1869.
Cions of this variety were received in 1834 and 1835 by Manning and Kenrick from Van Mons of Belgium. It was placed on the list of rejected fruits by the American Pomological Society in 1854. Tree vigorous and productive. Fruit medium, obovate, often rather oblong, yellow, russety; stem medium long, rather slender, set in a small cavity; basin shallow; flesh white, fine-grained, buttery, not rich, peculiarly aromatic, gritty, slightly astringent; good; Sept.

Héricart de Thury, 1. Mag. Hort. 19:102. 1853. 2, Downing Fr. Trees Am. 783. 1869. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:281, fig. 1869.  Thury Schmalzbirne. 4. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:66. 1856.
Raised from seed by Van Mons and dedicated to M. Héricart de Thury, president of the Society of Horticulture of France. Tree a good grower, rather pyramidal, neither an early nor a profuse bearer. Fruit medium or above, obtuse-ovate-pyriform, yellow, thinly shaded with red in the sun, slightly netted, thickly sprinkled with russet dots; stem long, rather slender, curved, set in a small cavity; calyx closed, set in a small, uneven, basin; flesh white, not very juicy, slightly astringent; good; Nov. and Dec.

Herkimer. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 783. 1869.
Originated on the farm of S. Earl, Herkimer, New York, previous to 1869. Fruit medium to large, globular-oblate, pale greenish-yellow, clouded with dull red in the sun; flesh white, rather coarse-grained at center, juicy, sweet, melting and agreeable; good; Sept. and Oct.

Herr Late Winter. 1. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 117. 1880.
Described as a new fruit in 1879 by Barry. It was raised by A. G. Herr of Louisville, Ky. Fruit medium to large, good in quality and a long keeper, sometimes until May and June of the following year.

Hert. 1. Mas Le Verger 1:145, fig. 71. 1866-73.
From Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, near London, Eng. Fruit medium or nearly medium, ovate-pyriform; skin thick, firm, very pale green, sprinkled with gray-brown dots, citron-yellow when ripe and often golden on the side of the sun; flesh white, fine, semi-melting, sufficient juice which is sugary, refreshing, agreeable; good, for the season; end of winter and spring.

Hessenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:146. 1856.
German; Hesse, 1815. Fruit medium and above, curved, thin-skinned, greenish-yellow changing to yellow, with a vivid blush, often mottled with yellowish-brown; flesh sweet, juicy, becoming mealy; second for dessert, first for kitchen; Sept. and Oct.

Hessle. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 593. 1884. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 180. 1920.
Hessle is an old English pear, and takes its name from the village of Hessle in Yorkshire where it was first discovered. Fruit rather small, turbinate, greenish-yellow, much covered with large russety dots, giving it a freckled appearance; flesh nearly white, tender, with an agreeable, aromatic juice; a good market-garden pear; Oct.

Hewes. 1. Mag. Hort. 20:269. 1854. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 93. 1852.
Raised at Brandywine, Del., from seed of the White Doyenné which it much resembles though smaller. In 1852 it was in possession of Aaron Hewes and was said then to have been in bearing about 28 years. Fruit medium, globular-obovate, yellow; Sept.

Heyer Zuckerbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:55. 1856.  Sucrée d'Heyer. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:85, fig. 235. 1879.
A Van Mons seedling sent in 1838 to his friend Herr Heyer, a grafter at Luneburg, Hanover, Ger. Fruit medium, long-turbinate, sides unequal, slightly bossed, light green turning to yellow, often flushed with vermilion, speckled with russet; second for the table, first for kitchen; Sept.

Hilda. 1. Guide Prat. 104. 1895.
Distributed by Daras de Naghin of Antwerp, Bel. Fruit resembles Josephine de Malines; flesh yellowish-white tinted with green near the stalk, melting, very juicy, having the flavor of the Beurré Gris; Nov. and Dec.

Hildegard. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:172, 1856.
A seedling of Van Mons; published in 1852. Fruit medium, turbinate-ventriculous, light green turning yellow, washed with brown, sometimes rusty red on the side of the sun; flesh fine, free from grit, very sweet; very good for general household use; all winter to April,

Hildesheimer Bergaxnotte. 1. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 132. 1825. 2. Mas Le Verger 3:Pt. 1, 13, fig. 5. 1866-73.  Bergamote d'Hildesheint. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:242, fig. 1867.
Central Germany, 1825. , Fruit medium, oblate, medium-ventriculous, sides unequal, light green turning to citron-yellow, without any red blush but a good deal russeted: flesh melting, very juicy; a good dessert pear; end of Sept. for 2 weeks.

Hildesheimer Späte Sommerbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:189. 1856.
A seedling of Cludius, Hildesheim, Ger., 1821. Fruit medium, pyriform-ventriculous, sides unequal, yellowish-green, washed with rusty russet on the side of the sun; flesh rosaceous, spongy, sweet, wanting in flavor; third for table, first for culinary use; Sept.

Hildesheimer Winterbirn. 1. Christ Handb. 496. 1817.
German. Fruit medium, Bergamot-shaped, of excellent flavor; Nov. to Mar.

Hingham. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 783. 1860.
Originated in Hingham, Mass. Fruit medium, obovate-acute-pyriform, pale yellow, tinged with red on the side next the sun, freely dotted with brown specks; flesh whitish, melting, juicy, vinous; good; Oct.

Hirschbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 16, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear, raised from a wilding in Styria. Fruit one of the larger perry or wine pears, globular and Bergamot in form, greenish-yellow, brownish-red flush on the side opposed to the sun, brown dots; flesh yellow-white, fairly firm, juicy; good; Oct.

Hirsenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:36. 1856.
Middle Rhineland, Germany, 1802. Fruit small, pyriform, rounded at the top, sides unequal, light green turning yellowish, often rather brown-blushed, some russet markings: flesh fine-grained, very juicy; second for the table, first for the kitchen; Aug.

Hitzendorfer Mostbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 86, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit large, globular, somewhat like Bergamot in form, light green, blushed with a beautiful brown-red on the cheek next the sun, tender, dotted; flesh greenish-white, firm and very juicy; end of Sept. for two weeks.

Hoe Langer Hoe Liever. 1. Knoop Fructologie 1:93, Tab. III. 1771.
Dutch. Fruit medium, long-pyriform, somewhat ventriculated toward the lower end, often rather deformed, pale green or yellowish-white; flesh fine, gritty, juicy, agreeable, savory, when eaten exactly at the right time, otherwise it is insipid; Sept. and Oct.

Hofsta. 1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P.I. Bul. 126:145. 1908.
Sweden. C. Gibb called it a fine culinary variety. Fruit medium, pyriform; good; mid-season.

Holland Green. 1. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 190, fig. 26. 1817. 2. Kenrick Am. Orch. 137. 1832.
An old variety described by William Coxe in 1817, and stated by him to have been imported from Holland by William Clifton of Philadelphia. It was sometimes called the Holland Table pear. Fruit rather large, irregular or turbinate in form, green, with numerous indistinct spots and small cloudings of russet; flesh melting, sprightly, greenish-white and juicy; thought much of at the beginning of the nineteenth century, but considered by Manning to be worthless in this country. Was discarded by the London Horticultural Society before 1837; Sept. and Oct.

Holländische Butterbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:136. 1856.
North Germany, 1804, at Bremen. Fruit medium or below, sides unequal, light yellow changing to golden-yellow at maturity, blushed with cinnamon on the sunny side and speckled with brown dots; flesh white, melting, buttery, juicy and full of flavor; first for dessert; Sept. and Oct.

Holländische Gewürzbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:14. 1856.
Holland, 1849. Fruit medium, ventriculous-turbinate, covered with rough russet; flesh semi-melting, very juicy and aromatic; second for the table, very good for cooking; end of Sept.

Holländische Zuckerbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:33. 1856.
Possibly of Dutch origin but reported in Thuringia, 1799. Fruit small, globular but variable, light yellow, blushed and dotted with yellowish specks becoming greenish at maturity, thin-skinned; flesh breaking, musky, aromatic; third for dessert, first for kitchen; Aug.

Holmer. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 594. 1884.
A well-known perry pear in Herefordshire, Eng. Fruit very small, globular-turbinate, even and regular in outline, dull greenish-yellow when ripe, and thickly covered with russet dots, so as to form a kind of crust on the surface; flesh yellowish, firm, crisp, and very astringent.

Homestead. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 2nd App., 150. 1876.
Raised by Asahel Foote, Williamstown, Mass., from seed of White Doyenné. Fruit medium or above, oblong-obtuse-pyriform, greenish-yellow, often pale yellow when fully matured, sometimes a shade of brownish-red where exposed, slightly netted and patched with russet and many russet dot; flesh whitish, rather coarse around the core, semi-fine, melting, sweet, juicy, slightly vinous and aromatic; Nov. and Dec.

Honey. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:216. 1832. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 784. 1869.  DeuxFois UAn. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:20, fig. 1869.
Although known in this country as Honey, its original European name is Deux Fois VAn, or Two Times a Year, on account of its flowering twice in the season, the second crop ripening in September or October. It is of ancient and uncertain origin, but Le Lectier at Orléans possessed it in his immense orchard in 1598, and Merlet described it in 1675, Fruit medium or below, globular-pyriform, rarely very obtuse, generally much swelled in the lower part, diminishing abruptly toward the stem, rather bright greenish-yellowy stained and dotted with gray chiefly on the side exposed to the sun where it is also rayed and washed with carmine; flesh yellowish, coarse, semi-breaking, granular around the core; juice sufficient, sugary and possessing a pleasant, musky flavor; Aug.

Honey (Russia). 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 21. 1887. 2. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:146. 1908.
Introduced from Russia in 1879 under the Russian name Gliva Medovaya. Fruit small, globular-pyriform, yellow, blushed red; flesh coarse, juicy, sweet; mid-season.

Honey Dew. 1. Stark Bros. Cat. 55. 1921.
Originated by Mr. Raabe of Illinois and introduced by Stark Bros, in 1921. Fruit large, roundish, golden-yellow, almost covered with rich russet; flesh tender, crisp, very juicy, sweet; early fall.

Honigbergamotte. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:78. 1856.
Nassau, 1833. Fruit medium, globular, symmetrical; skin smooth, uniformly greenish-yellow, brownish-red on the side next the sun; flesh semi-melting, aromatic; second for dessert; first for general culinary uses; Sept.

Honnelbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 38, fig. 1913.
A perry pear grown in Lower Austria. Fruit fairly large, long-pyriform; skin rather smooth and shining, greenish-yellow changing to yellow; flesh whitish, coarse-grained, very juicy, saccharine, rather astringent and feebly aromatic; Oct.

Hoosic. 1. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 116. 1880. 2. Ont. Dept. Ag. Fr. Out. 166. 1914.
Raised by A. Foote, Williamstown, Mass., from seed of Hacon Incomparable, and distributed by him about 1870. Fruit large to very large, obtuse-pyriform, somewhat one-sided, yellow, with russet dots and light red blush in the sun; flesh fine, white, tender, moderately juicy, with a rich almond flavor; quality ranking as "best"for all purposes; first class for near market; Oct.

Hopfenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:190. 1856.
Hesse, Germany, 1801. Fruit small, obtuse-conic; skin smooth, pale yellow, blushed with a dark glow; flesh rosy, fine, acid, juicy; third for the table, first for kitchen; end of Aug.

Hosenschenk. 1. Horticulturist 8:458. 1853. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 784. 1869.
Raised from seed about the year 1803 by John Schenk, Weaver Township, Pa. Fruit medium, roundish-oblate, light yellowish-green, rarely blushed; flesh rather coarse, tender, juicy, melting, slightly vinous, with a mild and pleasant flavor; first; end of Aug.

Housatonic. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am, 2nd App., 151. 1876.
Originated in the garden of John J. Howe, Birmingham, Conn. Fruit rather large, globular-pyriform; surface uneven, greenish-yellow, with many green and brown dots; flesh white, semi-fine, juicy, melting, rich, vinous; Nov.

Houser. 1. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 38. 1896.
A native pear reported to the Missouri State Horticultural Society in 1896.

Hovey. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:284, figs- 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 784. 1869.
Propagated by André Leroy in 1853 and dedicated by him to the American pomologist Hovey. Fruit medium or above, conic-pyriform or turbinate-obtuse-pyriform, variable but always very long; skin fine and very smooth, bright yellow, finely dotted with gray and stained with patches of russet; flesh yellowish-white, semi-fine, melting, watery and slightly granular; juice abundant, sugary, acidulous, and possessing a musky perfume; first; Nov.

Howard. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 785. 1869.
Disseminated by D. W. Coit, Norwich, Conn. Fruit medium, globular-obovate, pale yellow, with patches of russet and thickly sprinkled with russet dots; flesh white, melting, juicy, sweet, rich, slightly perfumed, pleasant; very good; Sept.

Howe Winter. 1. Field Pear Cult. 273. 1858.
Said to have originated in Virginia. Fruit large, globular, yellow-russeted; good; late.

Hubert Grégoire. 1. Guide Prat. 97. 1876.
In the trial orchards of Simon-Louis Bros, at Metz, Lorraine, in 1876. Fruit rather large; first; Jan.

Huffcap. 1. Lindley Guide Orch. Card. 415. 1831. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 2:209. 1832.
Of several varieties of the Huffcap perry pears such as the Brown, Red, and Yellow, growing in Herefordshire, Eng., this is the best. Fruit middle sized, ovate, pale green marked with gray russet.

Hüffel Bratbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:3. 1856.
Upper Hesse, Prussia, 1819. A variety of the Volema class. Fruit large, broad-turbinate, with unequal sides, light green turning to yellowish, often faintly blushed, numerous russet spots; flesh aromatic, breaking, juicy; first for household use; Dec. to Apr.

Huggard. 1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:147. 1908.
Originated at Whitby, Ontario, Can., from Beurré Clairgeau crossed with Beurré d'Anjou. Fruit large, obtuse-pyriform, yellow with red blush; flesh sweet, juicy, good; medium late.

Huguenot, 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 394. 1845.
Originated by a Mr. Johonnot of Salem, Mass. Rejected by the American Pomological Society, October, 1850. Fruit medium, globular, smooth, pale yellow, sprinkled with large spots of bright red; flesh white, fine-grained, semi-breaking, sweet but wanting in flavor and juice; poor; Oct.

Huhle de Printemps. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:159, fig. 368. 1880.
This pear was received in France by M. Papeleu from M. Hartwiss, director of the Imperial Gardens at Nikita, Southern Russia, about 1860. Fruit medium, cylindrical-ovate, rather in form like a small cask or keg, even in contour; skin thick, firm, more or less intense green, dotted with brownish-gray specks, very small and numerous and mingled with small strokes of russet over nearly all the surface; flesh yellowish-white, coarse, semi-breaking, rather gritty near the core, sufficiently juicy, with a refreshing and agreeable flavor; cooking; end of winter.

Hull. 1. Mag. Hort. 9:432. 1843. 2. Ibid. 10:211. 1844.
The original tree was found in Swansey, Mass., about 1815. Fruit medium, obovate, yellowish-green, russeted, some dull red on the sunny side; flesh yellowish-white, coarse, melting, juicy, gritty at core, pleasantly perfumed; good to very good; Oct.

Hungerford Oswego. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 786. 1869.
From Oswego, N. Y. Fruit medium, globular, yellow, with brown dots; flesh white, buttery, melting, juicy, gritty, sweet; good; Oct.

Hunt Connecticut. 1. Mag. Hort. 12:305. 1846. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 575. 1857.
An American cooking pear. Rejected by the American Pomological Society in 1854. Fruit medium, oblate, yellowish-green, coarse, dry, and sweet.

Huntington. 1. Mag. Hort. 23:111, fig. 4. 1857. 2. Mas Le Verger 2:155, fig. 76. 1866-73.
A wilding found by James Huntington, New Rochelle, N. Y. In 1857 it was considered to be 20 or 30 years old. Fruit under medium, globular-obovate, yellow, with numerous russet dots and sometimes a red cheek; flesh fine texture, buttery, slightly vinous, with a delicate aroma; very good; Sept.

Hurbain d'Hiver. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 594. 1884.
Fruit small, Bergamot-shaped, even and handsome in outline, fine golden yellow in the shade, strewed and mottled with patches of thin cinnamon-colored russet, with a patch of russet around the stalk, washed with bright red on the side next the sun; flesh yellowish, melting, rather coarse, juicy, sweet, without much perfume; second; Nov.

Hussein Armudi. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 594. 1884.
An oriental pear, published in 1832. Fruit below medium, obovate, smooth, bright green at first changing to greenish-yellow, strewed with russety dots of brown and some traces of russet; flesh whitish, gritty at core, tender, melting, very juicy, with a rich, vinous, sweet flavor; first for table; Sept.

Hutcherson. 1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bui 126:148. 1908.
Reported in the experimental orchard at Agassiz, B. C, in 1900. Fruit medium, obtuse-pyriform, greenish-yellow; flesh melting, juicy, sweet; mid-season.

Huyshe Prince Consort. 1. Jour. Hort. 12:89, fig- 1867. 2- Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 180. 1920.
Fruited in 1864 by the Rev. John Huyshe of Cullompton, Devon, Eng., from Beurré d'Arenberg fertilized by Passe Colmar. Fruit very large, oblong, uneven and bossed in outline, grass-green becoming sometimes yellowish-green, thickly covered with large russet dots; flesh yellow, with a greenish tinge, melting, rather crisp, very juicy, sweet, vinous, with a very powerful and peculiar flavor unlike any other pear; a first quality, delicious fruit; Nov.

Huyshe Prince of Wales. 1. Gard. Chron. 51. 1864. 2. Jour. Hort. 1:392, fig. 72. 1880.  Huyshe Bergamot. 3. Gard. Chron. 4:836, fig. 1. 1857. 4. Mag. Hort. 24:276. 1858.
Of the same origin as Huyshe Victoria. First fruited in 1856 and named Huyshe Bergamot but later changed to Huyshe Prince of Wales. Fruit large, globular-oval, even in outline, lemon-yellow covered with a finely reticulated cinnamon-colored russet; flesh yellowish-white, tender, melting, juicy and richly flavored; first; end of Nov. to Jan.

Huyshe Princess of Wales. 1. Gard. Chron. 8. 1863. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 180. 1920.
This pear, first fruited in 1863, is of the same origin as Huyshe Victoria. Fruit medium, oblong, even in outline, abrupt at the stalk, lemon-yellow sprinkled with patches, veins and dots of pale cinnamon-russet; flesh of a deep yellow, fine, very melting, abundantly juicy, richly flavored and highly aromatic; very excellent; Nov.

Huyshe Victoria. 1. Jour. Hort. 4:76. 1863. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 181. 1920. Victoria. 3. Gard. Chron. 836, fig. 2. 1857.  Victoria d'Huyse. 4. Pom. Gen. 7:33, fig. 497. 1881.
Rev. John Huyshe, a clergyman at Clysthydon Rectory, near Cullompton, Devon, Eng., raised, about 1833, three plants from pips of one fruit from Marie Louise, hybridized with Gansel Bergamot. Of these three plants one produced fruit in 1854 or 1855 and was named Huyshe Victoria. The other two fruited in subsequent years and were named Huyshe Prince of Wales and Huyshe Princess of Wales, respectively; these three together with a fourth, Huyshe Prince Consort, being known as the Royal Pears. Tree vigorous, spreading, very productive. Fruit medium in size, ovate-pyriform or ovate-acute-pyriform, yellow, freckled and veined with thin, smooth cinnamon-russet; stem medium in length, stout, generally inclined and inserted without depression; calyx open; flesh yellowish, juicy, melting, vinous; good to very good; Nov.

Hyacinthe du Puis. 1. Guide Prat. 93. 1895.
In trial orchards of Simon-Louis, Metz, Lorraine, in 1895. Fruit medium; flesh rather fine, salmon tinted, savory, juicy; Nov. and Dec.


Ickworth. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 194. 1832.
Originated by T. A. Knight, President of the London Horticultural Society, who in 1832 sent cions to Mr. Lowell and the Massachusetts Agricultural Society. Fruit melting, rich, rose-flavored; Mar. and Apr.

Ida. 1. Guide Prat. 97. 1876.
On trial with Messrs Simon-Louis, Metz, Lorraine, in 1876. Fruit large, Doyenné-shaped, yellowish-green washed with red-brown; flesh buttery; first; Oct.

Ilinka. 1. Guide Prat, 94. 1895. 2. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 36:368. 1904.
This variety was published by Messrs Simon-Louis, of Metz, Lorraine, in 1895 as having been received by them from M. Niemetz, Winnitza, European Western Russia. Fruit medium to large, yellow, blushed with red on the side of the sun; medium quality; end of July.

Impériale á Feuilles de Chêne. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:228, PL LIV. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:287, fig. 1869.  Oak-Leaved Imperial. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 822. 1869.  Impériale. 4. Hogg Fruit Man. 596, 1884.
The origin of this pear is unknown but it was propagated by the Chartreux Monks of Paris in 1752. The tree is very vigorous and hardy and the leaves are singular in that, due to their peculiar indenting and puckering, they have the appearance of being sinuated like those of the oak. Fruit large, ovate, irregular, mammillate at the summit and always having one side larger than the other, dull yellow, covered with large reddish dots; flesh whitish, coarse, semi-breaking, juicy, gritty at center, sugary, almost without perfume; first for cooking, third for dessert; Feb. to May.

Incommunicable. 1. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 376. 1831. 2. Mag. Hort. 9:131. 1843.
Flemish. In a list of pears grown in France and the Netherlands sent by Joseph Parmentier to the London Horticultural Society in 1824. Fruit above medium, pyramidal and compressed toward the stalk, pale grass-green, thickly sprinkled with small gray-russety specks; stem short, stout, inclined; flesh yellowish-white, tinged near the core with a light shade of orange, a little gritty, melting, juicy, saccharine, with a slight musky perfume; latter half of Oct.

Incomparable de Beuraing. 1. Guide Prat. 97. 1876.
A French pear, presumably, published first by Grégoire and on trial in the trial-orchard of Messrs. Simon-Louis in 1876. Fruit very large; flesh fine, melting, juicy; of rather good quality; Nov.

Indian Queen. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 32. 1870. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 66. 1875.
Exhibited by Henry McLaughlin, Bangor, Me., before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1870. Fruit rather large, long-pyriform, greenish-yellow with a brown cheek; flesh coarse, semi-melting, sweet, not rich, insipid; good for market only; Sept.

Infortunée. 1. Mas. Pom. Gen. 3:69, fig. 131. 1878.
Said to have been shown at the Exhibition of Gotha, Ger., in 1857. Fruit medium, turbinate-ovoid, ordinarily regular in contour; skin rather thick, clear green spotted with gray specks, round, small, numerous; at maturity the basic green becomes a dull pale yellow and golden on the side next the sun; flesh yellowish, semi-fine and melting, gritty round the core; juice sufficient and sweet; second; Aug.

Ingénieur Wolters. 1. Guide Prat. 94. 1895.
Sent out by M. Daras de Naghin, Antwerp, Bel. Fruit medium; flesh fine, very sugary, perfumed; first; Oct.

Innominée. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:213. 1832. 2. Kenrick Am. Orch. 155. 1832.
Raised by Van Mons who in 1831 sent cions of it to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. Fruit over 4 inches in length and nearly 3 J in breadth, rather pyramidal, swollen at the middle; skin light green, mottled with pale fawn color, partially yellow at maturity; flesh delicate, melting, sweet, and full of a pleasant odor; good; between summer and autumn.

International. 1. Guide Prat. 94. 1895.
Reported in the trial orchards of Messrs. Simon-Louis at Metz, Lorraine, in 1895. Fruit medium; first; Dec. to Feb.

Iris Grégoire. 1. Mag. Hort. 23:155. 1857. 2. Levoy Dict. Pom. 2:290, fig. 1869.
A seedling raised by Xavier Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel., it fruited for the first time in 1853. Fruit variable in size, sometimes below medium, long-conic, swelled at base, bossed, and corrugated at apex, a clear golden-yellow, finely dotted and streaked with gray, washed with fawn at either pole; flesh white, semi-fine and melting, rather dry and gritty; juice insufficient, sweet, having a pleasant aroma; second or even third when especially deficient in juice; Nov. and Dec.

Isabella. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 46. 1866.
A seedling raised by S. A. Shurtleff, Brookline, Mass.; it fruited first in 1866. Fruit medium, pyriform, light green blushed with red on the side next the sun; flesh white, juicy, sprightly, agreeable; Oct.

Isabelle de Malèves. 1. Guide Prat. 97. 1876. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:81, fig. 329. 1880.
This pear is No. 43 in Les fruits du Jardin Van Mons by M. Bivort but is stated by Mas to have been obtained by Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel. Fruit small or nearly medium, fig-like in form, i.e., ovate-conic, regular in contour, a lively green speckled with gray dots, some russet around each pole; at maturity the green becomes yellowish; flesh whitish, melting, juicy, vinous, refreshing; first; end of July and early Aug.

Island. 1. Field Pear Cult. 273. 1858. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 788. 1869.
Originated with Cornelius Bergen on Bergen Island adjoining Long Island about 1848. Fruit medium, short-pyriform inclining to turbinate, often turbinate or Bergamot-shaped, pale yellow, netted, sprinkled, and patched with russet, covered thickly with small brown spots and slightly shaded with crimson where exposed to the sun; flesh white, a little granular, juicy, melting, with a sprightly, perfumed, somewhat aromatic flavor; very good; Sept. and Oct.

Italienische Winterbergamotte. 1. Dochnahl Fw/w. Obstkunde 2:74. 1856.
Italy, 1819. Fruit medium, turbinate, slightly bossed, light green changing to yellowish-green, often blushed with brown, speckled with numerous fine, brown dots; flesh yellowish, coarse-grained, juicy, melting and sweet; third for the table, first for kitchen; Apr. and May.

Ives. 1. Field Pear Cult. 273. 1858. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 788. 1869.
Raised by Dr. Eli Ives, New Haven, Conn. Fruit small to medium, rather globular, greenish, brownish-red cheek; flesh melting, sugary, juicy; good; Sept.

Ives August. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 788. 1869.
Raised by Dr. Eli Ives. Fruit medium, oblong-obtuse-pyriform, green, with a brownish-red cheek; flesh greenish-white, semi-melting, juicy, rather astringent; good; Aug.

Ives Bergamotte. 1. Field Pear Cult, 273. 1858. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 788. 1869.
Originated by Dr. Eli Ives. Fruit medium or small, globular, greenish-yellow with some traces of russet; flesh rather coarse, buttery, melting, juicy, vinous; good; Sept.

Ives Seedling. 1. Field Pear Cult. 273. 1858. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 392. 1859.
Raised by Dr. Eli Ives. Fruit nearly medium, rather globular, greenish-yellow, shaded with crimson; flesh whitish, coarse and granular, melting, juicy, with a refreshing sugary flavor, perfumed; good; Sept.

Ives Virgalieu. 1. Field Pear Cult. 273. 1858. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 392. 1859.
Raised by Dr. Eli Ives. Fruit below medium, pyriform, greenish blushed with dull crimson; flesh whitish, granular, juicy, sweet, vinous, buttery and melting; good to very good; Oct.

Ives Winter, 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 575. 1857. 2. Ibid. 789. 1869.
Raised by Dr. Eli Ives. Fruit medium, depressed-pyriform, yellowish, sprinkled with russet spots; flesh white, coarse, granular; cooking; Dec.

Ives Yale. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 789. 1869.
Raised by Dr. Eli Ives. Fruit medium, globular, mammillate at base of stem, dull greenish-yellow, blushed with brownish-crimson in the sun; flesh greenish-white, moderately juicy; good; early Aug.


Jablousky. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:28. 1856.
Originated at Wittenberg, Ger., in 1799. Fruit small, nearly round, symmetrical; skin smooth and polished, greenish-yellow turning to light waxy yellow, often slightly blushed; flesh semi-melting and rather coarse, having a musky aroma; second for the table, first for culinary uses, first for market; Sept.

Jackson. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 512. 1857. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 392. 1859,
Origin, New Hampshire. Fruit medium, obovate, short-pyriform, pale yellow, somewhat russeted; flesh white and juicy, brisk, vinous; good to very good; Sept.

Jackson Elizabeth. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 789. 1869.
Originated with S. S. Jackson, Cincinnati, Ohio. Fruit medium, globular-obovate-pyriform, greenish-yellow, tinged with crimson on the sunny side and thickly dotted with russet; flesh whitish, juicy, melting, sweet, pleasant and slightly aromatic; good to very good; Sept.

Jacqmain. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:292, fig. 1869.
From Simon Bouvier, Jodoigne, Bel., about 1835. Fruit above medium, long-turbinate, obtuse, swelled at middle circumference, smaller on one side than the other; skin rugose, thick, greenish, dotted with clear gray and sometimes vermilioned on the side exposed to the sun; flesh greenish-white, coarse, semi-breaking, gritty; juice sufficient, sugary without any pronounced perfume; third; Oct.

Jacques Chamaret. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:293, fig. 1869.
From the last seed beds made at Laval, France, in 1837 or 1838 by Léon Leclerc. Fruit above medium, turbinate, slightly obtuse, mammillate at base, bossed at summit, clear yellow, dotted and stained with russet; flesh white, fine, semi-melting, watery, rather granular at center; juice abundant, sweet, very sugary and perfumed; first; Nov.

Jacques Mollet 1. Guide Prat. 97. 1876.
Published by Boisbunel in 1866. Fruit medium or large, oblong; first; Nov. to Feb.

Jakobsbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:15. 1856.
Reported from Wetterau. Fruit medium, long, green, changing to yellow, some brown-russet and very fine dots; flesh very sugary, balsamic, mild and tender; first for dessert, domestic and market uses; Sept.

Jalousie. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:211, PL XLVII, fig. 3. 1768. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 596. 1884.
This is one of the oldest French pears, having been mentioned by the naturalist Daléchamp before 1586 and thought by him to have come from the Romans. Merlet mentioned it in 1667. Fruit rather large, obovate and sometimes obtuse-pyriform; skin rough to the touch, yellowish-green, very much covered with cinnamon-colored russet, ruddy on the sun-exposed side, and singularly marked with conspicuous, lighter-colored specks, which are slightly raised; flesh white, melting, juicy, sugary, sourish, having a pleasant flavor; hardly first class; Oct.

Jalousie de la Réole. 1. Guide Prat. 97. 1876.
Fruit medium; flesh fine, very melting, very sugary; delicious; Nov. to Jan.

Jalousie Tardive. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:297, fig. 1869.
Origin unknown, but it was among the first trees planted in the garden of the Horticultural Society of Maine-et-Loire, Fr., on its creation in 1833. Fruit large, variable, long-turbinate, more or less obtuse, or very long-ovate, bossed and contorted, depressed at both poles, clear russet extensively washed with red-brown; flesh breaking; first for cooking; Feb. and Mar.

Jalvy. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:299, fig. 1869.
Fruit above medium, long, slightly obtuse, swelled at the middle, contracted at both ends especially at the summit; skin rough to the touch, yellowish-green, dotted and reticulated with gray, washed with clear brown-russet on the side next the sun and bearing some black stains; flesh whitish, fine, semi-melting, free from grit, but apt to rot quickly; juice abundant, refreshing, sugary; second, Jan.

Jaminette. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 195. 1832. 2. Pom.France 3: No. 116, Pl.116. 1865.
From a seedling in the garden of M. Pyrolle early in the nineteenth century. Fruit medium, turbinate-obtuse, pale yellowish-green, dotted and reticulated all over with gray-russet; flesh yellowish, semi-fine and semi-melting, very juicy, sugary, vinous and aromatic on light soils, but insipid and without perfume on clayey and humid land; first; Nov. to Jan.

Jansemine. 1. Gard. Chron. 271. 1865. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:302, fig. 1869.
The origin of Jansemine is unknown but it has been cultivated in the neighborhood of Bordeaux for some 300 years. Fruit below medium or rather small, short-turbinate or globular-conic, grass-green, dotted with gray-russet and clouded with clear maroon on the side of the sun; flesh greenish-white, semi-fine, granular at the center, slightly breaking, juicy, sugary and pleasantly perfumed; rather good, but not first; July.

Japan.  1. Horticulturist 23:71, fig. 34. 1868.
Raised by Gideon Ross, Westfield, N. J., from seeds found in the trunk of his nephew who died on his way from Japan. Fruit medium, oblate; skin rough, reddish-russet-yellow with large light-colored specks; flesh coarse, gritty, firm, with a consistence and flavor much like that of a delicate quince; of no value for dessert; Oct. to Feb.

Japan Golden Russet. 1. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 770. 1903.  Golden Russet. 2. Cornell Sta. Bul. 332:482, fig. 162. 1914. Canners Japan. 3. Huntsville Nurs. Cat. 5. 1915.
Said to closely resemble Gold Dust and Japan Wonder. Tree very hardy and a young bearer, often blossoming the first year and setting the fruit the second. Fruit large to medium, apple-shaped, rather flat, regular, light lemon-yellow, with many fine dots, russeted, especially about the stem; flesh juicy, aromatic, slightly sweetish; poor; texture coarse; Oct.

Japan Wonder. 1. Cornell Sta. Bul. 332:483. 1913.
Japanese, introduced to this country by Doctor Whitaker, who says of it: "the fruit is rather flat, large, apple-like; color light yellow, with many white dots covering the entire surface; flesh white, brittle, juicy, poor in quality. Tree an open grower.''

Japanese Sand. 1. Cornell Sta. Bul. 332:483. 1913.
Fruit medium, apple-shaped, lemon-yellow, with russet dots; flesh hard, flavor much like Daimyo; poor; late Oct.

Jargonelle d'Automne. 1. Guide Prat. 97. 1876.
On trial with Messrs. Simon-Louis at Metz, Lorraine, in 1876. Fruit medium, fusiform, long, yellow, sometimes washed with red; flesh very fine, very melting and juicy; excellent; Oct. and Nov.

Jaune Hâtive. 1. Guide Prat. 282, 1876. 2. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:244. 1768.  Gelbe Frühbirne. 3. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:41. 1856.
French. Fruit small, pyriform, flattened at the lower end, obtuse at the apex, yellow-green; flesh white, coarse, sprightly, slightly perfumed; juice deficient; of value only on account of its early season; July.

Jaune de Merveillon. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:189, fig. 581. 1881.
An old French variety. Fruit very small, turbinate, pale green, free from dots or marks, changing at maturity to pale yellow, golden on the side next the sun; flesh white, tinted with yellow beneath the skin, fine, semi-breaking, possessing sufficient juice, sugary, and refreshing, with an agreeable perfume of musk; good; beginning of July.

Jean Baptist. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:61. 1856. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:305, fig, 1869.
A seedling raised at Ath, Hainaut, Bel.; first described in 1833. Fruit large, obtuse-conic; skin rough, grass-green, spotted with clear brown and stained with gray-russet; flesh yellowish, semi-melting and semi-fine, juicy, sugary, scented and delicate; second for the table, first for culinary purposes; Oct. and Nov. (Leroy); Jan. and Feb. (Dochnahl).

Jean-Baptiste Bivort. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 6:45, fig. 1858. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 780. 1869.
Originated at Geest-Saint-Rémy in 1847. Fruit rather large, regular turbinate, bright green becoming partially yellow at maturity, marked and dotted with gray-russet; flesh white, melting, buttery, juicy, sugary and highly aromatic; Nov.

Jean-Baptiste Dediest. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:23, fig. 396. 1880.
Obtained by M. Xavier Grégoire, Jodoigne, Brabant; first reported in 1839. Fruit medium, globular; flesh fine, juicy, sugary; good; spring until July.

Jean Cottineau. 1. Guide Prat. 97. 1876. 2. Ibid. 68. 1895.
On trial in the orchards of Messrs. Simon-Louis, Metz, Lorraine, in 1876 and rated by them in 1895 as a third-class summer pear. Fruit medium, globular, yellowish-green, spotted with red on the sun-exposed side; flesh white, sugary; good; mid-Aug.

Jean Laurent. 1. Guide Prat. 97. 1876. 2. Ibid. 94. 1895.
On trial with Messrs. Simon-Louis at Metz in 1895. Tree of remarkable fertility; suitable for large orchards. Fruit small or medium; flesh breaking; first for culinary purposes; Dec. to June.

Jean Sano. 1. Guide Prat. 94. 1895.
Sent out by M. Daras de Naghin, Antwerp, Bel., and on trial in the orchards of Messrs. Simon-Louis, Metz, Lorraine, in 1895. Fruit medium or rather large; flesh semi-fine, very sugary and aromatic; Nov. and Dec.

Jean de Witte. 1. Mag. Hort. 7:286. 1841. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:307, fig. 1869.  Passe Colmar François. 3. Ann. Pom. Belge 8:7, fig. 1860.
Raised at Brussels early in the nineteenth century by M. Witzthumb, director of the Botanical Garden. Fruit below but sometimes up to medium, globular or turbinate, irregular, surface bossed and undulated, greenish, dotted and marbled with a more or less gray-russet; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, extremely juicy, sugary, perfumed, with a buttery flavor, quite delicious; first; Dec.

Jeanne. 1. Guide Prat. 94. 1895.
On trial with Messrs. Simon-Louis, Metz, Lorraine, in 1895, having been received by them from M. Daras de Naghin, Antwerp, Bel. Fruit large or very large, obtong-obovate; flesh semi-melting, nearly breaking, juicy, sugary and aromatic; Nov.

Jeanne d'Arc. 1. Rev. Hort. 518, fig. 1904.
Obtained by A. Sannier, Rouen, Fr., from a seedling of Beurré Diel fertilized with the Doyenné du Comice. Placed in commerce in 1893, and recommended by the Pomological Society of France ten years later. Fruit large, obtuse, rather of the aspect of the Duchesse d'Angoulême; skin slightly rough, pale lemon-yellow, tinted with rose on the side exposed to the sun, speckled with rose, some marks of fawn color; flesh white, granular about the core, fine, melting, very juicy, saccharine, acidulous, agreeable, only slightly perfumed; good; Oct. and Nov.

Jefferson. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 791. 1869. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 119. 1873.
In a Report from Georgia to the American Pomological Society in 1873, P. Barry wrote of a Jefferson pear as a native of Alabama and an early summer fruit. Downing gives the following description of a pear of the same name originating in Mississippi. Fruit large, roundish-obtuse-pyriform, straw-color, shaded with red in the sun, and dotted with small green dots; flesh white, not juicy, sweet, coarse, decays quickly at core, not highly flavored; Aug.

Jersey Gratioli. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 598. 1884. 2, Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 182. 1920.
In the Island of Jersey this is known as the Gratioli and was at the beginning of the nineteenth century grown in England under that name. But as Gratioli is the Italian name of Bon Chrétien d'été, the name was changed in England to "Jersey Gratioli."Fruit above medium, globular-obovate, greenish-yellow, covered with large, rough, russet spots, tinged with pale brown next the sun; flesh yellowish-white, very melting, rich, sugary, vinous, sprightly; a dessert pear of the highest excellence.

Jerusalem. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 593. 1629.
"The peare of Jerusalem, or the stript pear, whose barke while it is young, is as plainly seene to be stript with greene, red, and yellow, as the fruit it selfe is also, and is of a very good taste: being baked also, it is as red as the best Warden, whereof Master William Ward of Essex hath assured mee, who is the chiefe keeper of the King's Granary at Whitehall."

Jeschil Armudi. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 133. 1841.
A Turkish variety, probably of small value. Fruit medium, pyriform, greenish-yellow; flesh sweet, perfumed; mid-season.

Jewel. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 135. 1920.
Originated with Captain Bankhead near Edgewood, Mo., about 1860. Said to be productive and not to have blighted.

Jewess. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:311, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 598. 1884.
From a seedling raised by Major Esperén, Mechlin, Bel., and so named because the tree grew on a wall fronting the Rue des Juifs (street of the Jews). It first fruited in 1843. Fruit medium, ovate, always a little bossed and more swelled on one side than on the other, uniformly pale yellow, dotted, veined, and mottled with gray-russet and often slightly roseate on the side next the sun; flesh yellowish, buttery, melting, very juicy, sugary and rich; first; Nov. to Feb.

John Cotton. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 32. 1862. a. Ibid. 45. 1866.
A seedling raised by S. A. Shurtleff, Brookline, Mass., and fruited in 1862. Fruit below medium, turbinate, green; flesh fine-grained, slightly acid; good market pear, ripens well and bears abundantly; Sept.

John Griffith. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 791. 1869.
Originated in Westchester Co., N. Y. Fruit medium, globular-obovate-obtuse-pyriform, greenish-yellow, with numerous brown dots, nettings and patches of russet; flesh whitish, coarse, wanting in juice, melting, sweet, pleasant; good; Sept.

John Monteith. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 598. 1884.
A good quality pear esteemed highly in Perthshire, Scotland. Fruit medium, angular toward the calyx where it becomes rather foursided; skin bright green changing to yellowish-green at maturity; flesh greenish-yellow, melting, buttery, sweet and pleasantly flavored; good.

John Williams. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. in. 1873. 2. Ibid. 37, 136. 1875.
An old American variety but not propagated until about 1870. In 1875 it was reported to be the best winter pear for Tennessee. Fruit large, pyriform, clear yellow washed with red; flesh white, very juicy, sugary, vinous and perfumed; good; Nov. and Dec.

Johonnot. I. Kenrick Am. Orch. 177. 1832. 2. Mag. Hort. 13:484, fig. 40. 1847.
Raised by George S. Johonnot, Salem, Mass., and first came unto bearing about 1823. Fruit medium, globular-obovate, irregular, swollen on one side, hardly tapering to the stem; skin slightly rough, very thin, pale greenish-yellow, partially covered with dull russet, and a little browned on the sunny side; flesh white, coarse, melting and very juicy, rich, brisk, with a delicious, musky aroma; core large and slightly gritty; good; Sept.

Joie du Semeur. 1. Guide Prat. 94. 1895.
Issued from a seed bed of Joséphine de Malines, which fruit it resembles in size and form, and was disseminated by M. Daras de Naghin, Antwerp, Bel. Flesh fine, melting, saccharine and aromatic; Nov.

Jolie Lille de Gust. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 792. 1869.
Belgian. Fruit small, globular, acute-pyriform, pale yellow shaded with crimson; flesh white, coarse, dry; of no value except for its beauty; Sept.

Joly de Bonneau. 1. Guide Prat. 97. 1876. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 599. 1884.
First published by de Jonghe. Fruit medium or above, curved obovate, pale green, strewed with spots and veins of brown-russet; flesh reddened, or white with a pink tinge, fine, melting, juicy, sugary, vinous; first; Dec.

Jonah. 1. Mag. Hort. 15:70. 1849.
Known early in the last century in the city of New Haven, Conn., and said to be one of the parents of Howell. Fruit, "a very hard and tough winter pear, producing enormous crops every year that seldom becomes mellow and fit for dessert fruit, but when it does, it is very good, being full of rich, subacid, slightly astringent juice."

Jones.  1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 515. 1857. 2. Ibid. 79, fig. 1869. 
Originated at Kingsessing, near Philadelphia. Fruit medium or below, pyriform, broad at calyx, tapering to the stem which meets it by a fleshy junction; yellow shaded with russet, bright cinnamon on the sunny side; flesh coarse, granular, buttery, sugary, brisk and vinous; very good; were it a little larger would be one of the most valuable; Oct.

Joseph Lebeau. 1. Guide Prat. 97. 1876.
Originated by Dr. Nelis. Fruit large; flesh melting; first; Mar. and Apr.

Joseph Staquet. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:309, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 793. 1869.
Obtained by Bivort from a seed bed made at Fleurus, Bel., in 1844. Fruit medium, often smaller, pyriform, somewhat obtuse; skin fine, tender, dull green passing to dark yellow, dotted, veined and stained with fawn; flesh whitish, fine, melting; juice sufficient, sugary, with a rather delicate aroma; second; end of Aug. and early Sept.

Joséphine de Binche. 1. Guide Prat. no. 1876.
Described in 1869. Fruit medium, globular-turbinate, bright yellow ground washed with brown; flesh semi-melting, very juicy, sugary, with an exquisite flavor; first; Nov. and Dec.

Joséphine de Maubrai. 1. Gard. Chron. N. S. 18:183. 1882.
Fruit medium, globular-turbinate; flesh fine, melting, juicy, sugary; first; Nov to Jan.

Josephsbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:166. 1856.
Austrian. Published in 1819. Fruit medium, obtuse-conic, light green turning to yellowish, often somewhat blushed; flesh granular, semi-melting, sweet; third for table, first for kitchen; Sept.

Joyau de Septembre. 1. Rev. Hort. 501, fig. 152. 1897.
Obtained by A. Hérault, Angers, Fr., and first published in 1870. Fruit medium, turbinate, obtuse, curved, golden yellow at maturity, slight greenish near the summit, dotted with gray and often marbled with bronze-russet; flesh white, fine, free from grit, melting, very juicy, sugary, pleasantly acid and perfumed; first; Sept. and Oct.

Judge Andrews. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 794. 1869.
Originated in Pennsylvania. Fruit medium, oblong-obovate-pyriform, yellowish, traced and mottled with red in the sun; flesh coarse, breaking, dry; of no value; Sept.

Jules d'Airoles (Grégoire). 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:105, fig. 53. 1872.
Raised by M. Xavier Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel., and first published in 1857. Fruit medium or rather large, spherical but somewhat irregular, often a little bossed or deformed in contour; skin rather firm and rough to the touch, bright green speckled with very numerous, irregular, blackish dots; at maturity the basic green becomes whitish-yellow; flesh white, semi-fine, buttery, melting, gritty at center; juice abundant, sugary, slightly acid and perfumed; good; Oct.

Jules d'Airolles (Leclerc). 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:312, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 599. 1884.
Obtained in 1836 by Léon Leclerc, Laval, Mayence, Fr. Fruit rather large, long-conic, greenish-yellow washed with carmine; flesh semi-melting, very sugary, juicy and perfumed: first; beginning of winter.

Jules Blaise. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:315. 1869. 2. Guide Prat. 73. 1876.
Stated to have been a gain of M. Millet, Nancy, Fr., and to have been known also as the Bonne-Gris de Nancy. Fruit small or medium, pyriform, mottled and dotted all over with fawn; flesh yellowish, buttery, melting, juicy, sugary, perfumed, refreshing; first; Oct.

Jules Delloy. 1. HoggFr^ Man. 600. 1884.
Fruit rather small, globular-obovate, yellow covered with speckles and network of cinnamon-russet; flesh melting, pasty, flavorless; inferior; Dec.

Julie Duquet. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:316, fig. 1869.
Originated at Chalons-sur-Marne, Fr., about the year 1860. Fruit medium, globular-oblate, dark yellow stained and dotted with fawn; flesh whitish, breaking, granular; juice sufficient, insipid; third for dessert, second for the cuisine; end of Apr. to end of June.

Julienne. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 340. 1845. 2. Ibid. 794. 1869.
A beautiful and productive fruit and profitable for the market. Fruit medium but varying on different soils, obovate, regularly formed, very smooth, skin fair, clear bright yellow all over; flesh white, rather firm at first, semi-buttery, sweet, moderately juicy, rich, sprightly; should be gathered a few days before ripe and kept in the house; Aug.

Juvardeil. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:317, fig. 1869.
Originated at Juvardeil, Maine-et-Loire, Fr.; its age is unknown. Fruit below medium though occasionally rather larger, turbinate, regular in form, slightly obtuse, swelled at the base, pale yellow, evenly dotted with russet and slightly tinged with rose on the side next the sun; flesh white, semi-fine and breaking, gritty about the core; juice plentiful, sugary, acidulous and scented; second; Nov. and Dec.


Kaestner. 1. Guide Prat. 97. 1876.
Belgian. Raised by Van Mons. Fruit medium to small, oval, lemon-yellow, without russet, small light brown spots; skin scentless; flesh fine-grained, melting, very juicy, acid, sweet and aromatic; good; Sept.

Kalchbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 40, fig. 1913.
A perry pear grown throughout Austria and the Northern Tyrol though under various names. Fruit fairly large to very large, long-pyriform, crooked toward the stalk; skin smooth and shining, green turning lemon-yellow at maturity, with a rather shining red blush, fine green dots; flesh whitish, coarse, very juicy, saccharine, aromatic, rather astringent, slightly acid; among the richest of the wine pears; Sept.

Kalmerbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:53. 1856.
Dutch, published 1758. Fruit large, conic, slightly obtuse, yellow flecked with brown; flesh rather tender and succulent, sweet and agreeable; second for table, first for culinary use; Aug.

Kamper-Venus. 1. Oberdieck Obst-Sort. 300. 1881. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:49, fig. 505. 1881.  Camperveen. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:556, fig. 1867.
Of ancient and unknown origin. The Kamper-Venus has been cultivated in Holland for some centuries and a Dutch writer, De Lacour, writing in 1752, said, as M. Leroy thinks, that "the Romans possessed it and called it the Pear of Venus.11 Fruit large, pyriform, obovate, smooth, shining, very pale green, sprinkled with dark brown spots; at maturity the green changes to a beautiful bright lemon-yellow, marbled on the side of the sun with red; flesh white, rather fine, firm, melting; juice abundant, vinous, acidulous, perfumed; first class for kitchen use; winter.

Kathelenbirne. 1. Oberdieck Obst-Sort. 301. 1881.
German. Fruit small, in form of an orange and Bergamot; surface polished, grass-green becoming rather golden, russeted, without any red blush; flesh yellowish-white, juicy, aromatic; best for household use; Oct. and Nov., 6 weeks.

Katy. 1. Pearfield Nursery Cat. 5. 1910.
Said to have originated at New Ulm, Tex., and to be a seedling of Le Conte. It is reported that the tree is a rapid, upright grower, and an early and abundant bearer; and that the fruit resembles Howell in size, shape, and color, and is very juicy, buttery and refreshing, with a pleasant vinous flavor.

Keiser. 1. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 377. 1831.
Fruit medium, turbinate, gradually tapering from the middle to the stalk, pale green becoming yellowish-green, thickly sprinkled with small, gray-russety specks, and russet around the stalk; flesh greenish-white, a little gritty, melting, juicy, saccharine, without any particular flavor; keeps some weeks from mid-Oct.; hardy, and bears plentifully upon an open standard.

Kelsey. 1. Horticulturist 23:363, fig. 106. 1868. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 794. 1869.
About 1853 a pear seedling came up in the garden of William Kelsey, Columbus, Ohio, and was named Kelsey. Fruit above medium to large, globular-obovate, surface uneven, dull green becoming yellow at maturity, traces of russet all over the fruit, many small dark green spots; flesh greenish-yellow, melting, sweet, buttery, juicy, vinous, slightly aromatic; good; Oct. to Feb., ripening gradually.

Kennedy. 1. CaL Bd. Hort. Rpt. 74. 1891. 2. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126: 156. 1908,
Originated by General Bidwell, Rancho Chico, Cal. Fruit globular-oblate, small, russet; flesh tough, gritty; mid-season.

Kentucky. 1. Mich. Sia. Sp. Bul. 27:22. 1904.
Fruit small, turbinate, obovate, yellow, russeted; flesh white, melting, granular, mild; very poor; Sept.

Kenyon. 1. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 523. 1904.
Originated at McGregor, Iowa, about 1894. Fruit 2 to 2½ inches in diameter, globular, begins to drop in September or October and then apparently of no account, but if picked then and properly cared for until the middle of November or later, changes in color from a dark green to a golden yellow or straw color and is tender, juicy, and sweet, with a very fine flavor.

Kermes. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:141. 1856.
Raised by Van Mons, 1827. Fruit medium; gourd-shaped, green becoming yellowish-green, speckled with russet; flesh yellowish-white, semi-melting, full of juice; second for dessert, first for domestic use; Sept.

Kilwinning. 1. Mag. Hort. 9:131. 1843. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 600. 1884.
Fruit medium, oblong, dark green, strewed all over with gray dots, with some patches of russet, brownish-red next the sun, changing at maturity to yellowish-green and a livelier red; flesh yellowish-white, tender, pleasant, with a strong perfume; second; Oct.

King. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 794. 1869.
Originated at Oswego, N. Y. Fruit medium or below, globular-oblate-pyriform, greenish-brown in the sun, with many green and brown dots; flesh whitish, coarse, semi-melting, sweet; good; Sept. and Oct.

King Edward. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:319, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 601. 1884. 3. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 182. 1920.
An English variety cataloged by the Horticultural Society of London in 1842. Fruit enormous, sometimes 5½ in. long and 3½ wide, pyriform, gradually tapering to the stalk; skin smooth and shining, of a beautiful grass-green changing to yellow, speckled with dark green dots on the shaded side, red on the exposed cheek; flesh yellowish, buttery, melting, very juicy, sweet and acidulous, with a slight rose-water perfume; good for cooking; Sept. to Nov.

King Seedling. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 795. 1869. 2. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 770. 1903.
Origin uncertain but probably American. Fruit medium, oblate, uneven, yellowish-green, rough; flesh granular, whitish-green, juicy, sugary, aromatic, perfumed; good; Sept. and Oct.

King Sobieski. 1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bui 126:156, 232. 1908.
Fruit medium, obtuse-pyriform, yellow, with red blush; flesh juicy, sweet, perfumed; good; mid-season.

Kirtland. 1. Mag.Hort. 16:112. 1850. 2. Horticulturist 4:476, fig. 409. 1850.
In 1819 Professor Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio, raised several trees on his farm in Poland, Ohio, of which this is one. Fruit medium, globular-ovate, rich crimson-russet, varying to a dull green; flesh white, fine, melting, juicy, rich, sweet, aromatic; first; Sept.

Klein Landlbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 68, fig. 1913.
A perry pear known as Landlbirne in Lower Austria, Green Landlbirne in Upper and Lower Austria, and by other names in Upper Austria and Istria. Fruit small to medium, globular or turbinate and very even in contour, leaf-green changing to greenish-yellow when ripe, densely sprinkled with very fine russet spots; flesh whitish, fine-grained, juicy, astringent, saccharine, acidulous; good for transportation; end of Oct. to Dec.

Kleine Fuchselbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 160, fig. 1913.
A pear used for perry in Lower Austria. Fruit small, turbinate to ovate, very regular in contour, yellow when ripe, covered with cinnamon-russet and finely dotted with green specks, some red on the sunny side; flesh white, tolerably fine, juicy, highly saccharine, only slightly astringent, very aromatic; Sept.

Kleine gelbe Bratbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:41. 1856.
Rhineland. Reported in Diel in 1812. Fruit small, ovate, pale yellow-green turning to waxy yellow, dotted with fine, green specks; flesh granular, very juicy, sweet; second for table, first for kitchen; Aug.

Kleine gelbe Hessenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ, Obstkunde 2:37. 1856.
Hesse, Ger. Reported in 1804 by Diel. Fruit small, pyriform, symmetrical, yellowish light-green changing to lemon-yellow, very fine dots; flesh breaking, white, granular, wanting in juice; first for culinary use; Sept.

Kleine gelbe Maukelbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:31. 1856. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 241. 1889.
Hesse, Ger. Published by Diel in 1804. Fruit small, round-ovate, symmetrical, smooth, light green changing to yellowish green, often lightly blushed; flesh snow white, buttery, semi-melting, musky, aromatic; first for the table, household and market purposes; Sept.

Kleine gelbe Sommer-Zuckerbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:39. 1856.
German. Published by Sickler, 1801. Fruit medium, variable in form, obtuse-conic, greenish-yellow turning to yellow, with very minute green and gray specks; flesh semi-breaking, very white, very sweet; second for table, first for cuisine, good for market; Aug.

Kleine gelbe Sommennuskatellerbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:29. 1856. Petite Bergamotte Jaune d'Été. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:185, fig. 285. 1879. Nassau. Published by Diel, 1805. Fruit very small, turbinate, shining skin, lemon-yellow, seldom blushed, very finely dotted with light green; flesh yellowish-white, coarse, semi-melting, musky, aromatic; first for household, good for market; mid-July.

Kleine grüe Backbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:189. 1856.
German. Published by Diel, 1802. Fruit small, ovate, symmetrical, light green turning to yellow-green, very finely dotted, rather russeted; flesh glutinous, very sugary, aromatic; first for household use; end of Sept. for two weeks.

Kleine Lange Sommer-Muskatellerbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:39. 1856. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 241. 1889.  Petite Muscat Long d'Été;. 3. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:151, fig. 268. 1879.
Thuringia, Ger., 1798. Fruit small, sometimes ovate-turbinate, sometimes conic ovate, regular in contour; skin thick and firm, clear green at first, sprinkled with dots of a darker shade changing to lemon-yellow with the dots little visible, orange-red on the side of the sun; flesh white, tinted with yellow, rather fine, semi-buttery, very sugary and musky; moderately good; early Aug.

Kleine Leutsbirne. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 241. 1889. 2. Löschnig Mostbirnen 162, fig. 1913.
A perry pear grown in Upper Austria under the name of Holzbirne and by that of Kleine Leutsbirne and other names in Lower Austria. Fruit below medium, variable in form, mostly long-obtuse-pyriform, gray-green with dark green streaks downward from the stalk, changing to yellow-green when ripe, densely covered with minute dots; flesh whitish, moderately fine, juicy, acidulous, saccharine, unusually astringent; Nov. and Dec.

Kleine Pfalzgrafin. 1. Christ Handb. 563. 1817. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:46. 1856.  Petite Comtesse Palatine. 3. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:5, fig. 195. 1878.
Appears to be an ancient and perhaps Roman variety. Reported in Germany in 1794. Fruit small, conic-ovate or ovate-pyriform, water-green dotted with small brown points; flesh yellowish, semi-fine, breaking, gritty near the center; juice sufficient and rich in sugar and perfume; good for the table, and first class for all the purposes of the cook; Sept. and Oct.

Kleine Pfundbirne. 1. Christ Handb. 559. 1817. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:186. 1856.
Wetterau, Ger., 1789. Fruit large, globular-turbinate, grass-green changing to yellowish-green, rough, dotted with gray; flesh tender, pleasant, good for household; Oct. to Dec.

Kleine runde Haferbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:162. 1856.
Thuringia, Ger., 1804. Fruit small, globular, light green changing to pale lemon-yellow, strongly blushed with dark red, dotted; flesh yellowish-white, coarse-grained, rather astringent, sourish; good for cooking, early Sept.

Kleine schlesische Zimmbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:46. 1856.
German. Published 1801. Fruit small, pyriform, yellow-green with vivid red blush, finely dotted with gray and yellow-green; flesh breaking, very aromatic and sweet; second for table, first for cooking; Aug.

Kleine Sommer-Zuckerratenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:31. 1856.
Rhineland, 1805, Dr. Diel. Fruit medium, turbinate, often rather conic, yellow-green turning to lemon-yellow, with dark red blush; flesh gritty, sugary, aromatic; second for dessert, first for kitchen; Sept.

Kleine Zwiebelbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:171. 1856.
Reported in Thuringia, 1819. Fruit small, bulbous or globular-turbinate, lemon-yellow, blushed, dotted with gray, splashed with gray-russet; flesh whitish, sweet, firm, breaking, juicy; good for culinary use; autumn.

Kloppelbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:8. 1856. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 242. 1889.
Hesse, Ger. Reported by Diel, 1805. One of the Volemas. Fruit medium, almost round, yellowish-white, changing to lemon-yellow with pale blush; flesh breaking, aromatic, juicy, perfumed; second for table, first for cooking; Dec.

Knabenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:32. 1856.
German. Published by Diel, 1805. Fruit medium, turbinate, swelled, sides unequal; skin polished, light green changing to greenish yellow, often has a dark blush, green dots; flesh granular, very juicy, sweet and acid; second for dessert, first for household; end of Aug.

Knausbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:172. 1856. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 242. 1889. 3. Löschnig Mostbirnen 42, fig. 1913.
A perry pear grown under a variety of names in Austria and Germany. Fruit large, obtuse-pyriform, sides unequal, greenish light-yellow, washed and streaked with reddish-brown; flesh yellow-white, breaking, astringent, saccharine, with little flavor or aroma; third for the table, but good for cooking use, perry or drying; end of Sept.

Knechtchensbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ Obstkunde 2:2. 1856.
Thuringia, Ger., 1797. Fruit small, round pear-shaped, yellow, russet dots, blushed; flesh firm, insipid; good for cooking; Aug. and Sept.

Knight. 1. Mag. Hort. 13:449. 1847. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. jq6. 1869.
Raised by William Knight of Cranston, R. I., and first exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1835. Fruit medium, oblate-pyriform, yellowish pale-green with grayish specks; flesh melting, juicy, sweet, rich,, aromatic; Sept. and Oct.

Knollbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 186, fig. 1913.
A perry pear of Swiss origin introduced into Austria about 1885. Fruit medium to rather large, long-ovate; skin leaf-green turning to yellow-green at maturity, half the fruit on the sun-exposed side often being a dark brown-red; flesh yellowish-white, coarse, very juicy, saccharine and astringent; good for transporting; Oct. and Nov.

Knoops Simmtbirne. 1. Guide Prat. 98, 283. 1876. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 242. 1889.  Poire Canelle. 3. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:143, fig. 552. 1881.
Origin uncertain, possibly Dutch. Dr. Diel received it from Harlem under the name of Franse Canneel-Peer. Knoop described under the name Fondante de Brest, a variety to which he gave the synonym Franse Canneel-Peer, but it is not the Fondante de Brest of Duhamel and other French authors. Fruit medium, nearly short-conic, and sometimes conic and somewhat pyriform; skin fine and thin, clear green sown with numerous small, brown dots changing to dull yellow; flesh white, slightly tinted with yellow, buttery or semi-buttery, gritty around the core, juice sufficient, sweet and perfumed; good for eating raw and very good for cooking; Sept.

Kolmasbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 164, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit small, globular or longish-pyriform, smooth, shining, dirty greenish-yellow, golden on the sun-exposed side, dotted with red; flesh yellowish-white, coarse, very juicy, saccharine, astringent; late Sept.

Kolstuck. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:113, fig. 441. 1880.  Koohtock. 2. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:158. 1908.
Origin unknown. Reported on trial at the Experiment Station, Agassiz, B. C, in 1900. Fruit medium or nearly medium, obtuse-conic-pyriform, rather like Calebasse in form, often a little irregular in contour, clear green on which, in parts, are visible very small specks of gray-black; at maturity the basic green changes to pale yellow and the cheek exposed to the sun is extensively washed or flamed with bright vermilion; medium early.

König Karl von Württemberg. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 242. 1889. 2. Lucas Tafel-birnen 239, fig. 98. 1894.  Roi Charles de Wurtemberg. 3, Guide Prat. 61. 1895.
Obtained about 1886 by Herr Muller, gardener to the King of Württemberg. Fruit large to very large, oval, bossed, obtuse, pale yellow, speckled with russet and brown dots; flesh fine, nearly melting, agreeably perfumed, juicy, good for dessert and is decorative for the table; Oct. and Nov.   [pollen parent of the USDA-developed early fireblight resistant cultivar, 'Moonglow' and in the background of several other pear modern pear cultivars.  -A.S.C.]

Königliche Weissbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:35. 1856.
Holland, 1804. Fruit medium, obtuse-conic, rounded at the apex, regular; skin shining, smooth, light green turning to greenish-yellow, green dots; flesh breaking, white, sweet, aromatic, fairly melting; second for dessert, first for cuisine; early Sept.

Königsbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:142. 1856.
North German, 1773. Fruit large, sides unequal, smooth, light green turning to yellow, dotted with fine gray; flesh breaking, tender, sweet; second for table, first for household; Aug. and Sept.

Konstanzer Langler. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 44, fig. 1913.
A perry pear grown in the Voralberg, Austria, and in Bavaria, Baden and other parts of Germany. Fruit medium to large, long-pyriform, greenish, speckled with brownish-red dots and patches of russet; flesh greenish-white, juicy, of a saccharine and acidulous flavor; end of Sept.

Kraft Sommer Bergamotte. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 244. 1889.  Bergamotte d'été de Kraft. 2. Guide Prat. 102. 1895.
Fruit small, spherical-oblate, fine, bright yellow; flesh breaking, sugary; end of Aug. and beginning of Sept.

Krauelbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:162. 1856.
Reported in Holstein, Ger., 1788. Fruit small, globular, wrinkled and uneven; flesh granular, sweet, wanting in juice; third for dessert, good for culinary use; Nov. to Whitsuntide.

Kreiselförmige Flegelbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:5. 1856.
Upper Hesse, Ger., 1806. Reported by Diel. Fruit large, turbinate, entirely covered with russet, with very dark dots, breaking, fragrantly scented; first for household; Jan.

Kriegebirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:2. 1856.
Switzerland, Schwaben, published 1804. Fruit small, globular, yellow-green, shining, dark blush with gray specks; first for household and market; Oct.

Krivonogof. 1. Can. Hort. 27:291. 1894.
Originated in the Province of Toula, Russia. Tree very hardy. Fruit of good quality.

Krockhals. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:101. 1856.
Nassau, 1806. Published by Diel. Fruit medium, pyriform, bent or acutely sloping, lemon-yellow, cinnamon-russeted, often having a dark blush, heavily dotted; flesh rather white, granular, buttery, melting, juicy and extremely aromatic; first for table and cooking; Nov. and Dec.

Krull. 1. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 36, 112. 1890. 2. Budd-Hansen Am. Pom. Man. 2:252. 1903.
Krull Winter. 3. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 330. 1888.
Originated on the farm of Mr. Krull, St. Charles, Mo., about 1808, and brought to notice by C. T. Mallinckrodt in 1888. Fruit type of Lawrence, medium, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, green with a tinge of yellow; stem short, thick, in a shallow cavity; calyx open, in a shallow basin; flesh yellowish, firm, granular, tough, rather dry, sweet, flat; poor to above; keeps into winter.

Krummgestielte Feigenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:191. 1856.
Saxony, 1807. Fruit medium, pyriform, thick-skinned, yellow-green with brown blush and rather rust-colored on the side next the sun, speckled with very fine dots; flesh yellowish-white, glutinous, very sweet, wanting in flavor; third for dessert, first for domestic use; Oct.

Kuhfuss. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 245. 1889.  Pied-de-Vache. 2. Mas. Pom. Gen. 4:35, fig. 210. 1879.
The origin of this pear, probably German, is not definitely known, but according to Oberdieck it was cultivated in almost all the large gardens of Hanover, and bore the name of Pfundbirn or Pound Pear at Hildesheim, Gottingen and Cassel. Fruit large, globular-turbinate; skin rather thick, of an intense green, speckled with dots of a darker shade, the green turning to yellow at maturity; flesh white, tinted with green, coarse, semi-melting; juice abundant, saccharine, acidulous and refreshing; good; Aug.

Kurskaya. 1. Neb. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 30. 1890.
Introduced from Russia in 1879. Fruit oblong-obtuse-pyriform, brownish-green changing partially to deep yellow when fully ripe; stem set in a narrow, shallow depression; calyx open in a rather wide, smooth basin; flesh nearly white, tender, not very juicy, nearly sweet; fair; Oct.


L'Inconnue Van Mons. 1. Mag. Hort. 27:67. 1851. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 596. 1884.  Unbekannte Von Mons. 3. Oberdieck Obst-Sort. 334. 1881.
Fruit large, pyriform, rough to the touch, greenish-yellow, covered with large gray dots and patches of cinnamon-russet^ flesh yellowish, firm, very juicy, rich and sugary, with an agreeable aroma; first; Feb.

L'Inconstante. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:63, fig. 530. 1880.  Inconstant 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 788. 1869.
A seedling raised either by Van Mons or by his successor, Bivort. Fruit medium, conic or conic-pyriform, a little variable in form; skin thin, tender, pale green, sprinkled with very small and inconspicuous dots of gray fawn; on ripening the basic green changes to clear yellow, often preserving a green tint on the side next the sun, sometimes tinted with light red; flesh whitish, semi-fine, very melting, rather granular near the core; juice abundant, saccharine and more or less perfumed; good; Oct.

La Béarnaise. 1. Guide Prat. 94. 1895.
Obtained by P. Tourasse, Pau, Basses Pyrénées, Fr. Fruit above medium or large, well colored; flesh melting, juicy; first; Nov.

La Cité Gomand. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:105, fig. 149, 1878.
Attributed by Van Mons to M. Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel. Fruit small, short-obtuse-turbinate, usually regular in outline, very clear green, whitish, speckled with very small dots not clearly visible; at maturity the basic color changes to pale yellow, slightly golden or washed with a suggestion of red on the side next the sun; flesh white, rather fine, semi-buttery; juice slightly deficient, sugary, faintly perfumed; second; end of Sept.

La France. 1. Gard. Chron. 3d Ser. 27:350. 1900. 2. Cat. Cong. Pom. Fr. 282, fig. 1906.
Obtained by Claude Blanchet, Vienne, Isere, Fr., about 1864. Fruit medium or rather large, globular-conic, irregular, strongly bossed, greenish, sometimes pale yellow, freely dotted with gray; flesh white, fine or nearly fine, very melting; juice very saccharine, perfumed; very good; Oct. and Nov.

La Moulinoise. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 797. 1869.
A foreign variety, probably French. Fruit large, oblong-pyriform, greenish-yellow, partially netted and patched with russet and thickly sprinkled with brown-russet dots; flesh yellowish, juicy, melting, sweet, slightly vinous; first; Sept.

La Quintinye. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:570, fig. 1869.
Raised from a bed made in 1846 by M. Boisbunel, a nurseryman at Rouen, Fr.; first published in 1860. Fruit above medium or sometimes less, globular, irregular, bossed, sides unequal, pale yellow, thickly dotted and shaded with gray-russet, and sometimes reddened on the side next the sun; flesh white, fine, semi-melting; juice abundant, saccharine, slightly aromatic but agreeably tart; second and sometimes first when the flesh is well perfumed; Mar. to May.

La Savoureuse. 1. Mas Le Verger 1:25, fig. 19. 1866-73. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 797. 1869.
Probably of German origin. Fruit nearly medium, globular-oblate, intense green with greenish-brown dots; flesh greenish-white, buttery, sweet, fine, agreeably refreshing, perfumed like the Bergamots, a little gritty around the center, third; all winter.

La Solsticiale. 1. Guide Prat. 95. 1895.
Reported on trial in the orchards of Messrs. Simon-Louis at Metz, Lorraine, in 1895. Fruit rather large, elongated, obtuse, yellowish tinted with russet; flesh saffron in hue, semi-breaking, very sugary and strongly perfumed; May to July.

La Vanstalle. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 178. 1832.
"Fruit perfectly pyramidal; highly colored with red; of medium size; flesh granulous, becoming insipid, and finally soft; it keeps till the middle of October. I did not find this fruit excellent; it is however, better than the Doyenné, (St. Michael)."

Lacroix. 1. Gard. Chron. 3d Ser. 1:442. 1887.
Published in Revue Horticole in 1887. Fruit medium, regular pyriform, yellow blushed and spotted with red on the exposed side; flesh white, flavor said to be like that of Easter Beurré; Dec. and Jan.

Lady Clapp. 1. III. Hort, Soc. Rpt. 178. 1896. 2. Ellwanger et Barry Cat 17. 1900.
Fruit large, yellow; flesh juicy, melting, vinous; first; Sept., following Bartlett.

Lafayette. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 796. 1869. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:13, fig. 199. 1879.
Originated in Connecticut. Fruit small, globular-pyriform, pale yellow, stained with russet, passing at maturity to lemon-yellow and the russet becoming golden, numerous dots of gray-brown; flesh yellowish, rather fine, melting, slightly gritty at the core, buttery, very juicy, sweet but lacking flavor; medium; Oct.

Lahérard. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:324, fig. 1869.
Origin uncertain, but attributed to Van Mons. Fruit above medium, ovate, mammillate at summit, sometimes rather elongated but generally more swelled at the middle, thin-skinned, yellow-ochre or greenish-yellow, vermilioned on the face exposed to the sun, dotted with fine specks and stains of gray especially around the calyx; flesh white, fine, melting, juicy, rather granular around the core; juice abundant, very sugary, acid, and having an exquisite savor; first; Oct.

Lammas. 1. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 418. 1831. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 601. 1884.
Originated possibly in the Highlands of Scotland, being recommended for that district by Lindley. Grown also in England. Fruit below medium, pyramidal, regular pale yellow, streaked with red next the sun; flesh melting, tender, juicy, agreeable; good; Aug.

Lämmerbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:54. 1856.
German. Franken, Bavaria, 1809. Fruit below medium, ovate-conic, whitish-green; flesh hard, juicy, somewhat aromatic, and sweet and acid; third for table, first for cooking and market; July.

Lancaster. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 119. 1875.
A seedling grown by T. S. Lancaster, Gloucester, Mass., and exhibited in 1875. Fruit medium, oblong-pyriform, yellow, with brown-russet; flesh coarse, juicy, buttery; hardly good; late autumn.

Landsberger Malvasier. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:126. 1856.
Raised by Burchardt at Landsberg, Ger., 1851. Fruit medium, often large, conic, even sides, dark yellow, speckled with russet dots; flesh rather white, buttery, melting; very valuable, first for dessert and market; Nov. and Dec.

Langbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:2. 1856. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 245. 1889.  D'Ane. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:129, fig. 1867.
Switzerland and Germany, 1804; particularly popular in the former country where it is very generally cultivated, and often known as the Étrangle. Fruit medium or above, very long, like Calebasse in form, greenish-yellow turning to lemon-yellow, somewhat blushed, and speckled with dots of greenish-gray; first for culinary use; end of Aug.

Lange gelbe Bischofsbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:140. 1856.
Holland, 1804. Fruit medium, oblong; sides unequal; skin smooth, yellowish-green turning to light yellow, sometimes slightly blushed, dotted with yellow; flesh spongy, lacking juice, glutinous, sweet and scented with rose; third for table, first for kitchen and market; end of Aug.

Lange Gelbe MuscateUerbirne. 1. Guide Prat. 98. 1876. 2. Ibid. 68. 1895.
German. Tree vigorous, fertile, resisted the phenomenal frost in Europe 1879-1880. Fruit small, yellow, dotted with carmine; of moderate quality; second half of Aug.

Lange Grüne Winterbirne. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 245. 1889.  Longue Verte d'Hiver. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:137, fig. 549. 1881.
A German variety cultivated especially in Saxony and Thuringia. Fruit medium or nearly so, conic-pyriform, often rather deformed, one side being longer than the other at either end; skin firm, water-green, sprinkled with numerous indistinct dots regularly spaced, the basic green changing to greenish or yellowish-white; flesh white, rather fine, semi-melting; juice plentiful, sweet, sugary, agreeable but wanting in perfume; good; autumn and early winter.

Lange Mundnetzbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:112, fig. 1856. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 246. 1889.
Thuringia, 1794. Fruit medium, ventriculous, grass-green turning to greenish-yellow, often faintly blushed, dotted with green; very good for dessert, good for household and market; Aug.

Lange Sommer-Bergamotte. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:39. 1856.
Thuringia, 1794. Fruit below medium, long-turbinate, yellow-green turning to whitish-yellow, rough, heavily dotted with brown, slightly russeted, thick-skinned; flesh yellowish-white, breaking, granular becoming glutinous; first for table; Aug.

Lange Wasserbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 46, fig. 1913.
This perry pear is found spread throughout Upper and Lower Austria. Fruit medium, long-pyriform, very regular in contour; skin fine, smooth, shining, yellow-green when ripe, very densely dotted with fine spots, some cinnamon-brown russet around the stem and calyx; flesh whitish, coarse-grained, juicy, sweet but insipid and without aroma; Sept.

Langstieler. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:171. 1856. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 246.  1889.
Switzerland, Baden and Württemberg, published 1830. Fruit small, pyriform, grass-green, russeted on the side next the sun, gray dots; flesh yellowish-white, fine-grained, tartish; third for the table, first for cider and culinary use; Oct. Suitable for every situation.

Langstielige Pfaffenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:43. 1856.
Germany. Published by Diel in 1825. Fruit medium, pyriform, otherwise conic; skin rough and entirely covered with cinnamon-colored russet, often faintly blushed; second for table; third for household; Sept.

Langstielige Zuckerbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:141. 1856.
German. Published by Diel, 1833. Fruit medium, long-pyriform or even gourd-shaped, light green changing to light yellow, without russet or red blush, semi-melting, fine, juicy, sweet, with cinnamon flavor; second for dessert, first for culinary use; Nov.

Lansac. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:241, Pl.LVII. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:326, 327, fig. 1869. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 602. 1884.  Herbstbirne ohne Schale. 4. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:86. 1856.
Originated at Hazé near Tours, Pr. Merlet described it in 1667. In the catalog of the Chartreuse Fathers, Paris, there occurs in 1736 the following passage. "The Pear de Lansac, or Dauphin, which many authors name Satin......was presented for the first time to Louis XIV.... by Madame de Lansac......"As King Louis ascended the throne in 1638 the pear would seem to have been originated between that year and 1857, the year in which Madame de Lansac died. Fruit medium, sometimes less, globular-turbinate, dull yellow, sprinkled with numerous minute, russet dots; flesh fine, yellowish-white, melting, juicy, sweet, rich, aromatic, with an after-flavor of anis; second, but first when the flesh is well perfumed; Oct. to Dec.

Large Duchess. 1. Ala. Sta. Bul. 30:12. 1891.
A variety of Oriental type planted at the Agricultural Experiment Station at Auburn, Ala., in 1885. It was reported in 1891 as free from blight, and still on trial.

Larissa. 1. Mag. Hort. 19:517. 1853.
Submitted to the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society in 1853 as a seedling by a Mr. Ladd of Philadelphia. Fruit small, obovate-pyriform, greenish-yellow, a good deal russeted, with a mottled red cheek; flesh rather dry, saccharine and pleasant; scarcely good.

Laure Gilbert. 1. Guide Prat. 95. 1895.
Distributed by M. Gilbert, Antwerp, Bel., in 1886. The fruit bears much resemblance to that of the Chaumontel, but its flesh is much more melting and its flavor more sprightly; Oct.

Laure de Glymes. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:328, fig. 1869.
The parent tree was raised from a seed bed made by Van Mons in 1827 at Louvain. Fruit ovate, or more or less globular and swelled, nearly always mammillate at summit; skin thick, bronzed, having on the side next the sun some orange-yellow; flesh white, semi-melting, watery, gritty about the core; juice sufficient, sweet, vinous, perfumed; second; Sept.

Laxton Bergamot. 1. Gard. Chron. 26:497. 1886. 2. Jour. Hort. 13:339. 1887.
A new seedling pear shown by a Mr. Laxton, Bedford, Eng., at the Royal Horticultural Society's meeting at South Kensington in October, 1886. Tree fertile and the fruits are not easily blown off by the wind. Fruit small, exceedingly juicy and rich; a delicious pear.

Le Breton. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 798. 1869.
Origin unknown. Fruit medium, obovate, obtuse-pyriform, irregular, yellow, netted and patched with russet, with numerous russet dots; flesh yellowish, rather coarse at core, melting, juicy, sweet, aromatic; good; Nov. to Jan.

Le Brun. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:503, fig. 1867. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 183. 1920.
M. Gueniot, nurseryman at Troyes, Fr., sowed seeds the plants from which fruited in 1862. One of these he named Le Brun. Fruit above medium to large, oblong-conic, slightly obtuse and generally bossed and rather contorted about the summit, bright yellow, sprinkled with bright brown spots, and largely stained with fawn about calyx and stem and often also on the side next the sun; flesh yellowish-white, semi-fine, and dense, melting, seldom gritty and rarely has seeds; juice abundant, sugary, acidulous, savory but often with an excessive taste of musk, spoiling its delicacy; first; end of Sept.

Le Congo. 1. Guide Prat. 95. 1895.
Distributed by M. Daras de Naghin, Antwerp, Bel., and in the trial orchards of Messrs. Simon-Louis, Metz, Lorraine, in 1895. Tree vigorous and fairly prolific. Fruit medium; flesh semi-fine, very saccharine and highly scented; Nov. and Dec.

Le Lecher. 1. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 4:334. 1888.
This seedling, raised by A. Lesuer, Ypres, Bel., resulted from Bartlett fertilized with Fortunee. Fruit large, pyriform, yellow, spotted with drab spots; flesh white, juicy, sugary, brisk and perfumed, free from grit; Jan. to Mar.

Leclerc-Thouin. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:330, fig. 1869.
Raised by M. André Leroy at Angers, Fr., and fruited first in 1867. Fruit above medium, conic, very obtuse and generally more curved on one side than on the other; skin uneven, clear yellow, clouded with green and partially covered with russet on which appear small specks of gray; flesh whitish, semi-fine, watery, very melting, granular around the core; juice sugary, vinous and slightly acid, perfumed flavor; first; Sept.

Lederbirne. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 89. 1845. 2, Löschnig Mostbirnen 202, fig.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit medium, traneated-pyriform, somewhat bossed and irregular in outline, leaf-green turning greenish-yellow, gray russet dots, blushed on the sunny side; flesh yellow-white, coarse-grained, very juicy, subacid; Oct. to Dec.

Lee. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 375. 1854.
Originated at Salem, Mass. Fruit small to medium, globular-oval, greenish-russet, brown in the sun; flesh white, coarse, juicy, good; Sept.

Lee Seckel. 1. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 565. 1885.
Fruit medium to large, obovate, rich russet; flesh buttery, rich, perfumed; very good; Sept.

Léger. 1. Guide Prat. 95. 1895.
Obtained from a seed bed of Winter Nelis by M. Sannier. Tree of moderate vigor, fertile and suitable for all forms of culture. Fruit medium, globular-ovate; flesh fine, acidulous; Oct.

Lehoferbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 126, fig. 1913.
A perry pear widely distributed in Upper and Lower Austria under various names. Fruit medium to large, globular-pyriform, leaf-green turning yellow at maturity, dotted and marked with russet, well-exposed fruit blushed; flesh yellow-white, coarse-grained, very juicy, astringent, saccharine, acidulous; mid-Oct. and keeps in storage till end of Nov.

Leipziger Rettigbirn. 1. Lauche Deui. Pom. II:No. 92, Pl.92. 1883.  Radis de Leipsick. 2. Mas Le Verger 2:125, fig. 61. 1866-73.  Leipsic Radish. 3. Can. Exp. Farms. Rpt. 379. 1902.
Originated at Duben near Leipsic, Saxony. It was published by Diel in 1807. Fruit small, nearly spherical or spherical-ovate, a little more constricted at the stem end then toward the calyx, light green turning to yellow-green and slightly golden on the cheek next the sun, brown around the summit, and,with numerous light brown dots; flesh yellowish-white, buttery, juicy, very pleasantly perfumed, having a slight Bergamot flavor; good for dessert, first for cuisine; Aug. to Oct.

Lemon (Massachusetts). 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 43. 1866.
A seedling of S. A. Shurtleff, Brookline, Mass.; first fruited in 1862. Fruit large, turbinate, yellow.

Lemon (Russia). 1. Ind. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 82. 1886. 2. la, Hort. Soc. Rpt. 170. 1894.
Imported from Russia in 1879. It was reported in 1894 to have fruited in Iowa, and collectively with some other varieties was described as "generally ' off ' in color, coarse, some of them leathery and corky, and all without melting qualities or flavor."

Lenawee. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 106. 1856. 2. Field Pear Cult. 273. 1858.
Origin unknown. Distributed in Lenawee County, Mich., in 1856; it was named by the Adrian Horticultural Society. At that .time it was supposed to have been introduced from western New York some twenty-five years previously. Fruit medium to large, oblate-pyriform, one side generally being larger than the other; surface frequently irregular, lemon-yellow, with small russet specks, washed with bright vermilion on the side next the sun; flesh yellowish-white, tender, buttery, with a high and peculiar, aromatic flavor; very good; early to mid-Aug.

Leochine de Printemps. 1. Mag. Hort. 20:236. 1854. 2. Guide Prat. 98. 1876.
On trial with Messrs. Simon-Louis, Metz, Lorraine, in 1876. Fruit medium, obovate-pyriform, yellow, netted and patched with russet, sprinkled with russet dots; flesh melting, white, firm, not very juicy; a beautiful and good fruit; Feb. and Mar.

Léon Dejardin. 1. Guide Prat. 98. 1876.
Obtained at Rpussoir, Maubeuge, Nord, Fr. Fruit medium, pyriform, ventriculous, resembles the Beurré Bollweiller, semi-melting, juicy, sugary, refreshing; good for its season; May and June.

Léon Grégoire. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 4:63, fig. 1856. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:618, fig. 1869.
This variety was gained by Xavier Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel., and was fruited first in 1852. Fruit large, sometimes medium, oblong-obtuse-pyriform, sometimes more or less globular, dull yellow, dotted and marbled with fawn on its shaded side and entirely stained with grayish-russet on the exposed face, becoming pale yellow and golden at maturity; flesh yellowish-white, coarse, semi-melting, sweet, watery, acidulous, vinous, agreeable; second, inconstant in quality, sometimes good; Dec. and Jan.

Léon Leclerc Épineux. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:333, fig- 1869.
In the bulletin of the Society Van Mons, 1857, this variety is stated to have been obtained by Van Mons, though some doubt has been raised as to its origin. Fruit large, ovate-pyriform, often rather contorted; skin rough, thick, grayish-yellow, finely dotted with russet and stained with the same around the calyx and stalk and sometimes clouded and streaked with red on the face exposed to the sun; flesh yellowish-white, coarse, breaking, granular at the center; juice sufficient, vinous and sugary; third for dessert, first for cooking; Nov.

Léon Leclerc de Laval. 1. Pom. France 3:No. 99, Pl.99. 1865. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 603. 1884.
This, which is different from Leon Leclerc (Van Mons), was obtained at Louvain in 1825 by Van Mons. Fruit large, turbinate-obtuse-pyriform, yellow-ochre, finely dotted with gray-russet and marked with some tracing of russet, occasionally washed with a little red; flesh very white, semi-melting or semi-breaking, watery, gritty, juicy, sweet, slightly perfumed; third for dessert, first for stewing; Jan. to May.

Léon Recq. 1. Guide Prat. 95. 1895.
On trial with Messrs. Simon-Louis, Metz, Lorraine, in 1895, who received it from M. Daras de Naghin, Antwerp, Bel. Fruit large or nearly large, pyriform, lemon-yellow when ripe; flesh fine, slightly acid, sugary, perfumed; Nov. and Dec.

Léon Rey. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:336, fig. 1869.
In 1856, M. Rey, Toulouse, Fr., sowed seeds of the best French pears, and in the following year selected the most promising seedlings, one of which received the name Leon, Rey. Fruit medium and sometimes rather larger, turbinate, very round in its lower part, and conic-obtuse at the top, golden-yellow, finely dotted and stained with fawn and nearly always washed with tender rose on the face exposed to the sun; flesh very white and fine, melting, free from grit; juice very abundant, sugary, acidulous, having a delicious, flavor; first; Oct.

Léonce de Vaubernier. 1. Guide Prat. 72. 1876.
Tree vigorous on quince, very fertile. Fruit rather large, ovate, very pale green, touched with russet and washed with dark carmine; flesh yellowish, fine, dense, of a highly agreeable flavor; third: second half of Sept.

Léonie. 1. Guide Prat. 95. 1895.
Sent out by M. Daras de Naghin, Antwerp, Bel. Fruit medium, of Doyenné form,, globular-obovate; flesh melting, sugary; good.

Léonie Bouvier. 1. Guide Prat. 56. 1895.
Obtained by M. Simon Bouvier, Jodoigne, Bel. Tree vigorous on quince, fertile. Fruit medium, pyriform, whitish-yellow blushed with orange-red; flesh fine, very melting and juicy, sugary, vinous, perfumed; a very beautiful and excellent fruit; Sept.

Léonie Pinchart. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 800. 1869.
Described in 1869 as a new Belgian variety. Fruit medium, globular-obovate, greenish-yellow, much covered, netted, and patched with yellow-russet and minute russet dots; flesh whitish, juicy, sweet, melting; very good; Sept. and Oct.

Léontine Van Exem. 1. Guide Prat. 108. 1876. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:181, fig. 187. 1878.
Obtained by Henri Grégoire, Beurechin, Bel. Fruit small, turbinate or conic-turbinate, very clear green changing to pale yellow at maturity, dotted with specks of darker green; some clear russet covers the calyx and the summit, and the side next the sun becomes golden; flesh white, fine, melting, full of juice rich in sugar and perfume of the almond; Oct.

Leopold I. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 518. 1857. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:338, fig. 1869.
A posthumous gain of Van Mons which gave its first fruit in 1848. Fruit above medium, ovate, regular, swelled in the lower part, obtuse, grass-green, often yellowish, dotted, streaked, and stained with russet; flesh white, with some yellow tinge, fine, very melting, juicy, sweet, vinous, aromatic and delicate; good to very good; Nov.

Leopold Riche. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 801. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 603. 1884.
One of M. de Jonghe's seedlings. Fruit rather large, obovate, yellow, thickly sprinkled with large cinnamon-russet dots; flesh rather coarse-grained, crisp, buttery, melting; juice abundant, rich, thick and sugary, with a fine almond flavor; a very richly flavored pear; Nov.

Lepine. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 801. 1869.
Tree of moderate growth but very productive. Fruit small, oblate, yellowish, shaded with crimson, slightly russeted; flesh coarse, granular, melting, juicy, brisk, vinous, good; Nov. and Dec.

Lesbre. 1. Gard. Chron. 415. 1863. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:339, fig. 1869.
Raised from seed at Boulogne-sur-Mer, before 1838, by M. Bonnet. Fruit medium or above, turbinate, very obtuse and swelled, nearly always mammillate at the top; skin rough, olive-yellow, sprinkled with many large russet dots and small brownish stains; flesh white, fine and melting, juicy, rather granular at the core; juice abundant, sugary, vinegary, with a delicate scent of anis; first; end of Aug.

Levard. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:340, fig. 1869.
Grown on the seed beds of M. Leroy, Antwerp, Bel., and fruited in 1863. Fruit below medium, globular-turbinate, irregular, bossed and always less swollen on one side than on the other; color yellowish-green, dotted with brown and fawn, and entirely covered with bronze-russet on the cheek exposed to the sun: flesh greenish-white, fine, melting and juicy, gritty around the core, sugary, acidulous, musky and very rich in flavor; first; Nov.

Levester Zuckerbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:172. 1856.
Hanover, 1852. Fruit small, obtuse-turbinate, sides unequal, light green changing to greenish-yellow, often streaked with red and finely dotted with greenish-russet; flesh fine, deficient in juice, granular near the center, highly aromatic; first for household and market purposes; Sept. and Oct.

Lewes. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 592. 1629.
Described by John Parkinson in 1629, in England,as "brownish greene pears, ripe about the end of September, a reasonable well rellished fruit, and very moist."

Lewis. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 1:140. 1831. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 801. 1869.
Originated on the farm of John Lewis, Roxbury, Mass., about 1811. Fruit below medium, globular, obovate, obtuse, dark green in autumn, pale green at maturity, with numerous russet specks; flesh yellowish-white, rather coarse, melting, juicy and rich in flavor, with a slight spicy perfume; Nov. to Feb.

Lexington. 1. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 187. 1896. 2. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:253. 1903.
Originated in Kentucky and is said to resemble Bartlett, but to ripen two weeks earlier. Hardy and free from blight, but described as "too poor" in quality.

Liberate.  I. Mag. Hort. 21:519. 1855. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 801. 1869. Belgian. Introduced to this country as a new variety about 1850. Fruit large, obtuse-pyramidal or truncate-pyriform; skin fair, smooth, yellowish-green, very thickly dotted with large, conspicuous, russety specks, and patched with russet; flesh yellowish-white, a little coarse, melting, juicy, sweet, rich, with a peculiar almond, aromatic perfume; a very handsome and fine fruit; Oct.

Liegel Honigbirne. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 248. 1889.  Poire de Miel de Liegel. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 1147, fig. 24. 1872.
Origin uncertain, probably German. Fruit medium, ovate-pyriform; skin fine and smooth, at first pale green turning to pale yellow, more golden on the side next the sun and very rarely touched with rose; flesh yellow, fine, melting, full of sugary juice, vinous, and with a distinct savor of musk; first; Oct.

Lieutenant Poidevin. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:344, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 604. 1884.
Flon-Grolleau, a Frenchman, obtained this variety in 1853. Fruit large, obovate and undulating; skin fine, yellow-ochre dotted with gray; flesh yellowish-white, semi-fine, breaking, gritty around the center, sugary, vinous; second for dessert, first for cooking; Mar. and Apr.

Limon. 1. Mag. Hort. 8:57. 1842. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 802. 1869.
A Van Mons seedling. Fruit rather small, obovate, yellow, with a faint red cheek; flesh white, buttery, melting and juicy, with a sprightly flavor; very good; mid-Aug.

Linzer Mostbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 188, fig. 1913.
A perry pear taking its name from the town of Linz near Hauptstadt in Upper Austria. Fruit medium, globular to pyriform, yellow, strongly carmined on the sun-exposed side and dotted with red; flesh yellow-white, coarse-grained, with a saccharine, astringent flavor; Oct.

Livingston Virgalieu. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 803. 1869.
An old variety, grown to some extent along the Hudson River. Fruit globular-obovate, greenish-yellow, patched and dotted with russet; flesh whitish, juicy, nearly melting, sweet, pleasant; good; Sept.

Locke. 1. Mag. Hort. 3:52. 1837. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 442. 1845.
Raised from seed in the garden of James Locke, West Cambridge, Mass., in 1830. Fruit medium, globular-obovate, full at the crown, ending obtusely at the stem; skin fair, slightly rough, yellowish-green changing to lemon-yellow when ripe, spots of darker hue mingled with russet, tinged with red on the sunny side; flesh yellowish-white, coarse, melting and juicy, rich, sweet and perfumed; good; Dec.

Lodge. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 178, 179. 1832. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 803. 1869.
A native of Pennsylvania and understood to have originated near Philadelphia. Fruit medium, pyriform, tapering to the stem and larger on one side than on the other, greenish-brown, the green becoming a little paler at maturity and much covered with patches of dull russet; flesh whitish, a little gritty at the core, juicy, melting, with a rather rich flavor, relieved by a pleasant acid; Sept. and Oct.

Loire-de-Mons. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:109, fig. 151. 1878.
A gain of M. Loire, at Mons, Bel. Fruit medium, turbinate, or globular-turbinate, usually regular in contour; skin rather fine and tender, clear and bright green, sprinkled with gray-green dots; at maturity the green becomes clear lemon and golden on the side of the sun; flesh white, fine, very melting, full of juice, acidulous, delicately perfumed; first; end of Sept.

London Sugar. 1. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 343. 1831. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 605. 1884.
English. Much cultivated in Norfolk for the Norwich market. Fruit below medium, turbinate, pale green approaching lemon-yellow at maturity, with a slight brownish tinge; flesh tender, melting; juice saccharine and of a rich, musky flavor; an excellent early fruit; end of July.

Long Green. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 803. 1869.  Belgiscke Zapfenbirne. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:139. 1856.  Longue-Verte. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:349, fig. 1869.  Grune Lange Herbstbirne. 4. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 228. 1889.
This French pear is distinct from the Verte Longue which is synonymous with Verte Longue d'Automne, though these two pears have been confused and have various names in common. It has been cultivated in France for the last 100 years. Longue Verte has ten French synonyms. Fruit above medium, very long, fig-like in form, narrowed from middle to stalk, acute, grass-green passing to brownish-green on the face exposed to the sun, uniformly sprinkled with dots of gray-russet; flesh greenish-white, fine or semi-fine, melting, rather granular around the seeds; juice abundant, saccharine, sweet, with a characteristic perfume, often very slight; second; Sept.

Long Green of Autumn. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 804. 1869.  Verte-Longue d'Automne. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:729, fig. 1869.  Lange grune Herbstbirne. 3. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 112. 1825.
The Long Green of Autumn, better known abroad as the Verte-Longue d'Automne or Verte-Longue, must be distinguished from the Long Green or Longue-Verte. It is of very ancient origin and mentioned in the catalog, published by Le Lectier, King's Attorney, in 1628, of the immense nursery he created in 1598. The German author Henri Manger, 1783, considered the Verte-Longue identical with the Viridium of Pliny. Fruit medium to large, turbinate, slightly obtuse, often larger on one side than on the other, green clouded with pale yellow, speckled with large gray spots and very rarely blushed on the exposed side; flesh white, fine, melting, very full of a saccharine, well-flavored, musky juice; first when its juice is well perfumed, but rather variable; Oct.

Long Green of Esperin. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 804. 1869.
Belgian. Fruit medium, oblong-ovate-pyriform, greenish-yellow, blushed with crimson on the cheek next the sun, patched and netted with russet, with numerous brown dots; flesh yellowish-white, juicy, semi-melting, vinous; good; Sept.

Longland. 1. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 415. 1831. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 605. 1884.
A very old English perry pear chiefly grown in Herefordshire. Fruit small, turbinate, even, rather handsomely shaped, bright gold, tinged and mottled all over with a lively russety orange, the side next the sun having a pale red cheek; flesh yellow, very astringent.

Longue du Bosquet. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:348, fig. 1869.
A seedling raised by Leroy. It was reported in 1863. Fruit medium, conic, elongated, regular, obtuse and round at the top, greenish-yellow, dotted with gray, washed with brown at the extremities; flesh greenish, semi-fine, melting, rather gritty at the center; juice abundant, very saccharine, acidulous and deliciously perfumed; first; Sept.

Longue-garde. 1. Guide Prat. 98. 1876.
On trial in the orchards of Messrs. Simon-Louis at Metz, Lorraine, in 1876. Fruit large, highly perfumed; in season until May."

Longue-Sucrée. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:49, fig. 217. 1879.
Either German or Austrian. Cataloged by Jahn in 1864. Fruit nearly medium, conic-pyriform, dark green, dotted with gray-brown, changing to pale yellow, clouded with red on the side of the sun, speckled with whitish-gray; flesh whitish, fine, breaking, deficient in juice and sugar, acidulous, with an unpleasant perfume; third; end of Aug.

Longueville. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 605. 1884.
Much grown in the South of Scotland. It has been conjectured that the tree was brought to Scotland from France by Douglas when Lord of Longueville in the fifteenth century. Fruit large, obovate, regular in outline and handsome, greenish-yellow, with a tinge of pale red next the sun, covered with numerous gray-russet specks, so numerous sometimes as to appear like network; flesh yellowish, breaking, tender, very juicy, sweet and richly flavored; good.

Longworth. 1. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 172. 1892. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 41. 1909.
Originated at Dubuque, Iowa. Its great hardiness and freedom from blight make it valuable in breeding for the North though its fruit is not of such quality as to recommend it where choice varieties can be grown. Fruit medium to large, obtuse-ovate, green turning to yellow; good; mid-season.

Lorenzbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:47. 1856.
Saxony, 1803. Fruit medium, obtuse-conic, light green, blushed with dark brown on the sunny side changing to light yellow, washed with vivid red, green dots and some cinnamon-russet; flesh yellowish-white, melting, rather gritty around the center; first for kitchen and market, second for dessert; Sept.

Loriol de Barny. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:351, fig. 1869.
A gain of Leroy from his seed beds at Angers, Fr.; it fruited for the first time in 1862. Fruit medium or above, very long ovate-pyriform, often bossed in its contour; skin thin, yellow-ochre, speckled with minute gray dots and showing some stains of russet; flesh white, fine, melting, almost free from grit; juice very abundant and sugary having a delicate aroma; first; end of Aug. and beginning of Sept.

Lothrop. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 46. 1866.
A seedling raised by S. A. Shurtleff, Brooldine, Mass.; it first fruited in 1866. Fruit diameter 2½ in., yellow with russet; flesh white, with good flavor; mid-Sept.

Loubiat. 1. Guide Prat. 98, 285. 1876.
This variety bears the name of the owner of the parent tree living in the Dordogne. Fruit large, of handsome appearance; flesh yellow; third, yet of good quality for its season; spring until July.

Louis Cappe. 1. Guide Prat. 98. 1876.
A seedling of Easter Beurré and of similar quality. On trial in the orchards of Messrs. Simon-Louis, Metz, Lorraine, in 1876. Tree very fertile and vigorous. Fruit medium to large, Bergamot in form; Nov. and Dec. .

Louis Grégoire. 1. Mas Le Verger 2:147, fig. 72. 1866-73. 2- Hogg Fruit Man. 606. 1884.
M. Xavier Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel., obtained this pear from a seed bed made in 1832. Fruit below medium, obtuse-turbinate, irregular in form, much larger on one side than on the other, rather rough to the touch, greenish-yellow, dotted and mottled with russet and generally stained with fawn on the side of the sun; flesh whitish, semi-fine and semi-melting, juicy, sugary, highly acid, often rather astringent, slightly musky, and sometimes rather delicate; second and sometimes third when the astringency of its juice is too pronounced; Oct.

Louis Noisette. 1. Guide Prat. 98. 1876.
Published by Boisbunel in 1867. Tree very vigorous and fertile. Fruit rather large, globular-turbinate; flesh fine, very melting and very juicy, sugary and sprightly; first; Nov. and Dec. 

Louis Pasteur. 1. Rev. Hort. 223. 1909.
Obtained by Arsène Sannier, Rouen, Fr. Fruit smooth and fine, clear yellow, strongly washed with fawn on one face and covered with patches of the same color on the other side; flesh yellowish-white, the yellow being more noticeable near the skin, very fine, melting, and sugary, sprightly and perfumed; very good: Dec.

Louis-Philippe. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 169. 1841. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:354, fig. 1869.
Origin uncertain, though it was described by Prevost, Rouen, Fr., in 1848. Fruit large, turbinate, very obtuse and very irregular in form, swelled, especially on one side on its lower half; skin rough and bronzed all over on a basis of gray-green, sprinkled with numerous large, prominent, brownish dots; flesh white, semi-fine and semi-breaking; juice not abundant, more or less acid, wanting in sugar, slightly perfumed; second; early Oct.

Louis Van Houte. 1. Guide Prat. 108. 1876.
Classed by Messrs. Simon-Louis, Metz, Lorraine, with varieties of doubtful or little merit.

Louis Vilmorin. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:355, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 1st App., 128. 1872.
Originated from seed of Beurré Clairgeau about 1863 by André Leroy, Angers, Fr. Tree vigorous, rather spreading, very productive. Fruit medium to large, pyriform, variable, yellow, netted and dotted with russet, sometimes shaded with red; stem short, curved; calyx large, open; basin medium, uneven, russeted; flesh white, half fine, juicy, melting, sweet, slightly perfumed; good to very good; Dec.

Louise-Bonne. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:357, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 606. 1884.
Merlet the French pomologist was the first to write of this pear in 1675. Fruit above medium, variable in form, ovate-obtuse and swelled in lower half, or long-pyriform, narrowed toward the stalk; skin thick, smooth, bright green changing as it ripens to yellowish-green, strewed with small dots and some markings of russet; flesh greenish-white, coarse, semi-melting, gritty at center, juicy, only slightly saccharine, generally sweetish and deficient in perfume; variable for dessert, but first for compotes; Dec.

Louise Bonne d'Avanches Panachée. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 607. 1884.
A variegated form of Louise Bonne de Jersey, the wood and fruit being marked with golden stripes. It originated as a bud sport.

Louise-Bonne de Printemps. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:359, fig- 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 804. 1869.
Obtained by M. Boisbunel, Rouen, Fr., and first published in 1857. Fruit above medium, long obtuse-pyriform, regular in contour, mammillate at summit and slightly bossed at base, yellow-ochre, dotted with greenish-gray; flesh semi-fine and semi-melting, white, gritty around the center, very juicy, rarely sugary, slightly sweet and slightly aromatic; grafted on pear and trained on espalier in a good situation it is a pear of high merit; Feb. to Apr.

Louise Bonne Sannier. 1. Guide Prat. no. 1876. 2. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 291, fig. 1906.
M. Sannier, Rouen, Fr., obtained this pear; it was first reported in 1868. Fruit rather small or medium, oval, obliquely obtuse near the stem, dark yellow, touched with bright red; flesh yellow, juicy, melting, remarkably saccharine, sprightly and perfumed; good to very good; Oct. to Dec.

Louise de Boulogne. 1, Barry Fr. Garden 317. 1851. 2. LeroyDict.. Pom. 2:361. 1869.
Described by Barry in 1851 among "new and rare pears, recently introduced, that give promise of excellence."Leroy wrote of it as a seedling of Van Mons. Fruit large, breaking, keeps through the winter.

Louise Dupont. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 2:59, fig. 1854. 2. Mag. Hort. 23:301. 1857.
Louise Dupont was the product of one of the last seedlings raised by Van Mons and was harvested for the first time in 1853. Fruit rather large, sometimes of Doyenné form but usually longer and more turbinate; skin thin, dull green passing to golden yellow at maturity, colored with russet-fawn on the sunny side, dotted and marked with fawn all over; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, full of juice, saccharine and well perfumed; first; Oct. and Nov.

Louise d'Orléans. 1. Horticulturist 1:140. 1846. 2. Ann. Pom. Belge 2:35, fig. 1853.
From seed sown by Van Mons in 1827 at Louvain and first bore fruit in 1843. Fruit medium, oblong-obtuse; skin is of a fine bronzed-green, covered with gray speckles; flesh very white, fine grained and very melting; juice exceedingly rich, sugary and delicious; early Nov.

Louise de Prusse. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:362, fig. 1869.
Obtained by Van Mons and published by him in September, 1832, but it had already been reported in 1826. Fruit large, turbinate-obtuse, more or less long, considerably swelled toward its lower end; skin thick and rough, yellow-ochre clouded with green, speckled with fine gray dots and stained with light brown around the calyx and stem; flesh white, semi-fine, breaking or semi-breaking, granular at center; juice abundant, very saccharine, acidulous, pleasantly perfumed; second; Sept.

Louison. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 1:86. 1831.
French. Fruit large, oblong and almost conical, terminated obtusely; skin delicate and smooth, sometimes washed on the sunny side, and in other cases pretty deeply tinged with red, speckled with brownish-red dots, the other side being of a beautiful yellow, scattered with specks of russet; flesh very white, melting, full of very pleasant juice, slightly perfumed but not of high flavor; early Oct.

Lovaux. 1. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 48. 1871.
Reported by the Committee on Foreign Fruits of the Ohio State Horticultural Society as a new variety which they recommended. Fruit large to medium, juicy, sweet, melting; good; Sept.

Lübecker Prinzessin Birne. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 249. 1889.  Princesse de Lubeck. 2. Guide Prat. 103. 1876.
German; extensively cultivated about Lubeck, Ger. Fruit medium, long-pyriform, beautiful yellow, extensively covered with brilliant crimson; flesh breaking, juicy; good; beginning of Aug.

Lubin. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:187, fig. 579. 1881.
A seedling found by M. Pariset of Curciat-Dongalon, Ain, Fr.; first reported in 1869. Fruit medium, conic-pyriform, regular in its contour, obtuse, having its largest circumference well below its middle; skin fine, delicate, at first a clear and bright green, sprinkled with very numerous round, small, brown dots only very slightly visible on the side of the sun; at maturity the basic green passes to lemon-yellow, with a golden hue on the exposed side; flesh whitish, very fine, melting, juicy, saccharine, slightly vinous, acidulous; good; winter.

Lucie Audusson. 1. Pom. France 4:No. 172, PL 172. 1865.
Obtained by Alexis Audusson, Angers, Fr.; first published in 1861. Fruit large, long, nearly cylindrical, obtuse and slightly narrowed toward the stem, grass-green, finely dotted and speckled with fawn-colored russet; flesh yellowish-white, fine or semi-fine, melting; juice abundant, sugary, vinous, delicately perfumed; first; mid-Nov. to end of Dec.

Lucien Chauré. 1. Guide Prat. 95. 1895.
Obtained by Arsène Sannier, Rouen, Fr. Tree healthy, vigorous and adaptable for all forms of growth. Fruit medium, grayish-yellow; flesh melting, juicy, fine and sugary; Oct. and Nov.

Lucien Leclercq. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:366, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 806. 1869.
From a seed bed made by Van Mons in 1829, but it did not bear fruit till after his death in 1844. Fruit below medium and sometimes rather larger, globular-ovate, regular, rarely bossed, pale yellow on the shaded side and darker yellow where exposed, dotted all over with fine gray and green spots; flesh white, coarse, semi-melting and juicy, sugary, acidulous, and aromatic, very gritty around the core; second; latter half of Aug.

Lucné Hative. 1. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:525, 1860.
Tree vigorous and productive. Fruit medium, elongated, pale green; flesh semi-melting, sugary, moderately perfumed; good; Sept.

Lucy Grieve. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 607. 1884.
English; bore fruit first in 1873. Named in honor of the little girl who planted and tended the seed, but died before the tree fruited. Fruit large, oval, rather uneven in outline, bossed around the waist and about the calyx, lemon-yellow, with occasionally a brownish-red blush on the side next the sun, sprinkled with cinnamon-colored dots; flesh white, tender, melting, very juicy and richly flavored; first; Oct.

Luola. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 135. 1920.
Said to be a cross between Seckel and Dana Hovey originated by W. C. Eckard, Water-vliet, Mich., about 1907. Fruit very small, globular, greenish-yellow, with faint blush, very rich; excellent; Oct.

Lutovka. 1. Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 62, 63. 1899.
Russian. Introduced in 1882. Fruit large; good; mid-season.

Lutzbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2: igo. 1856.
German, published in 1801. Fruit medium, obtuse-conic, dull greenish-yellow, slightly blushed, strongly dotted, marked with russet, and covered with rusty russet on the sun-exposed side; flesh granular, gritty near center, semi-melting, aromatic; first for culinary uses; Sept.

Luxemburger Mostbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 128, fig. 1913.
A perry pear widely distributed in France, Luxemburg, Germany and Austria. Fruit large, globular-oblate, like Bergamot in form, gray-green turning yellow-green when ripe sprinkled with large russet dots and specklings; flesh whitish, coarse-grained, unusually juicy, astringent and sweet flavor; end of Sept.

Lycurgus. 1. Horticulturist 12:365. 1857. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 806, fig. 1869.
Originated with George Hood, Cleveland, Ohio, from seed of Winter Nelis. The tree is productive, and of rather spreading growth. Fruit small, oblong-pyriform, greenish-yellow, much covered with thin brownish-russet, many large grayish dots; flesh yellowish, juicy, melting, sweet, rich, rather aromatic, having some perfume; first, one of the best in quality of late winter pears- Dec. to Feb.
[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

Lydie Thiérard. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 806. 1869. 2. Guide Prat. 99. 1876.
Originated from a seed of Crassane by Jules Thiérard, Bethel, Fr. Fruit rather large, Bergamot-shaped, clear green, dotted; flesh fine, very melting, sugary, perfumed; first; Jan. to Mar.

Lyerle. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 44. 1897.
Raised by a Mr. Lyerle, Union County, 111., in 1881 from seed of Bartlett. Fruit medium, pyriform, yellowish-green, with numerous patches of russet; flesh sugary; good; early July, four weeks ahead of Bartlett.

Lyon. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. Soy. 1869.
Orignated at Newport, R. I. Fruit medium, oblong-obovate or Doyenné-shaped, yellow, thick and smooth skin, finely dotted, blushed; flesh coarse, a little gritty at core, vinous; very good; Oct.


Mace. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 50. 1860.
Francis Dana showed this among other seedlings of his to the Fruit Committee of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1860. Fruit medium, oval, russet; flesh has something of the honeyed sweetness as well as some external resemblance to Dana Hovey.

Machländer Mostbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 48, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit large, pyriform, green turning to yellowish-green, russeted; flesh granular, green under the skin, subacid; Sept. and Oct.

Mackleroy. 1. South, Nurs. Cat. 4. 1921.
This variety, introduced by the Southern Nursery Company, Winchester, Tenn., in 1921, is said to have been brought to Tennessee by Davis Mackleroy from South Carolina over 100 years ago.

McLaughlin. 1. Mag. Hort. 8:62. 1842. 2. Ibid. 13:251. 1847. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 807, fig. 1869.
In October, 1831, General Wingate of Portland, Me., stated "That a person in Oxford County, many years since raised a number of pear trees from seeds, all of which produced inferior fruit, with the exception of one tree; and from that tree, the scions were taken and engrafted by a Mr. McLaughin, of Scarborough."Fruit large, obtuse-pyriform; skin slightly rough, bright cinnamon-russet, tinged with brownish-red on the sunny side, with some traces of a bright yellow ground on the shaded side; flesh yellowish, rather coarse, melting, juicy, rich, sugary; Nov. to Jan.

Macomber. 1. Rural N. Y. 44:263, figs. 145, 146. 1885.
Raised by J. T. Macomber, Grand Isle, Vt. Fruit medium, pyriform, green changing to yellow, blushed; flesh buttery, melting, juicy, sweet; very good; Oct. and Nov.

McVean. 1. Horticulturist 9:340. 1854. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 807. 1869.
Originated in Monroe County, N. Y., about 1850 or earlier. Fruit large, obovate-acute-pyriform, yellow, with nettings and patches of russet, and numerous green and brown dots; flesh coarse, not juicy, or melting, sweet; good; Sept.

Madame Alfred Conin. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:371, fig. 1869.
Raised by André Leroy, Angers, Fr., in 1867. Fruit medium, turbinate, obtuse, much swelled around central circumference, fairly regular, clear yellow often covered all over with a layer of bronze on which are scattered, uniformly, numerous grayish-brown dots, scarcely visible; flesh whitish, fine, melting, watery, rarely gritty around the center; juice abundant, sugary, with an extremely delicious perfume; first; late Sept.

Madame André Leroy. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:372, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 60S. 1884.
Obtained from his seed beds by M. André Leroy at Angers, Fr.; first published in 1862. Fruit medium to large, long-conic, slightly obtuse, irregular, more or less misshapen, yellowish-green, entirely dotted, especially at its extremities, with small points and slight patches of gray; flesh greenish-white, fine or semi-fine, very melting, slightly granular at center, juicy, sugary, vinous, with a very delicate flavor; first; end of Sept.

Madame Antoine Lormier. 1. Guide Prat. 57. 1895.
Obtained by M. Sannier, Rouen, Fr. Tree vigorous and fertile. Fruit medium or large, regular pyriform, yellow, dotted; flesh fine, melting, very sugary; first; Sept. and Oct.

Madame Appert. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:373,fig.. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 608. 1884.
Raised by M. André Leroy at Angers, Pr., in 1861. Fruit medium, long pyriform, slightly obtuse, largest circumference around its middle, much reduced at the extremities, especially at the summit, yellow, with gray-russet, and numerous fawn-colored dots on the side of the sun and around the stem; flesh whitish, fine, very melting, rarely gritty, juicy, sugary, with a delicate flavor of almond, acidulous; first; early Oct.

Madame Arsène Sannier. 1. Guide Prat. 95. 1895.
Obtained by M. Sannier, Rouen, Fr. Fruit medium to large; flesh sugary, slightly perfumed and of a pleasant flavor; Oct.

Madame Ballet. 1. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 292, fig. 1906.
Obtained by M. Ballet, nurseryman at Parenty, Fr., and was placed on the market in 1894. Fruit large, ovate, yellow, dotted with gray, and brightened with a rose blush on the side next the sun; very good; Jan. to Mar.

Madame Baptiste Desportes. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:374, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 608. 1884.
A seedling from the nurseries of André Leroy at Angers, Fr., which ripened for the first time in 1863. Fruit above medium, globular-ovate, rather regular, often a little bossed about the base; skin rather fine, yellow-ochre, mottled, stained, and dotted with gray-russet; flesh fine or semi-fine, melting, excessively juicy, saccharine, vinous, with a very agreeable flavor; first; early Oct.

Madame Blanchet. 1. Guide Prat 76. 1895.
Fruit medium, greenish-yellow covered with fawn; flesh fine, buttery, of a delicate flavor; good; Oct. and Nov.

Madame Bonnefond. 1. Mas Le Verger 3:Pt. 2, 135, fig. 164, 1866-73.
Obtained in 1848 by M. Bonnefond, Rhône, Fr., and placed on the market for the first time in 1867. Fruit large, like Calebasse in form, often irregular in contour; skin fine, delicate, clear yellow-green, sprinkled with very small points of darker green; flesh white, slightly greenish under the skin, fine, very melting and juicy, delicately perfumed; very good; end of autumn.

Madame Charles Gilbert. 1. Guide Prat. 95. 1895.
On trial with Messrs. Simon-Louis at Metz, Lorraine, in 1895. Fruit medium sized, having much in common with Winter Nelis; Jan. to Apr.

Madame Chaudy. 1. Gard. Chron. N. S. 18:211. 1882. 2. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 296, fig. 1906.
Obtained by M. Chaudy at Chaponost, Rhone, Fr., from a seed bed made in 1861. Fruit large, sometimes of the form of the Bartlett, generally turbinate, swelled and bossed in its circumference; skin slightly rough,pale yellow,dotted with gray, reddened on the side next the sun, marbled and washed with clear fawn around the two ends; flesh rather white, granular at center, rather fine, melting, very juicy, saccharine, and agreeably acid and perfumed; very good; Nov.

Madame Cuissard. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:375, fig. 1869.
Cuissard and Barret, nurserymen at Ecully-les-Lyon, Fr., obtained this variety in 1865 and placed it on the market in 1867. Fruit above medium, oblong and obtuse, swelled at its lower part and generally more enlarged on one side than on the other; skin fine, golden-yellow, sprinkled with large gray dots and some russet markings, and more or less stained with clear brown around the stem; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, gritty at the center; juice deficient; rather savory, but slightly acerb; second; mid-Aug.

Madame Delmotte, 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 139. 1871. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:73, fig. 133. 1878.
Obtained by M. Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel. Fruit medium, obtuse-pyriform, dull green dotted with greenish-gray; flesh white, or slightly tinted with yellow, very fine, buttery, melting, full of sweet juice, delicately perfumed.

Madame Ducar. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:376, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 808. 1869.
This was a posthumous gain of Major Espéren, Mechlin, Bel., dating from 1846. Fruit medium, globular-ovate, regular in form, slightly undulating around the summit; skin fine, rather dull yellow, finely dotted and streaked with fawn; fiesh white, coarse, semi-melting, very gritty; juice sufficient, sugary, sweet, almost without perfume but having a certain delicacy of taste; second; end of Aug.

Madame Duparc. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:149, fig. 267. 1879.
Gained by M. Bessard-Duparc, near Savenay, Fr., and fruited first about 1845. Fruit medium, ovate-obtuse-pyriform, regular in contour; skin rather thick, lively green, speckled with indistinct darker green spots, the green becoming brighter at maturity, a rather dense russet sometimes covering the calyx and the summit; flesh white, coarse, semi-buttery, gritty around the core; juice rather deficient, sugary and only slightly scented; indifferent; Oct. and Nov.

Madame Durieux. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:377, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 609. 1884.
A variety which came from the seed beds of Van Mons but did not fruit till 1845. Fruit medium, globular, rather Bergamot-shaped, grayish or greenish-yellow, covered with patches of thin cinnamon-colored russet, yellowish, semi-fine, very melting, buttery, juicy, sugary, vinous, aromatic; first; Oct.

Madame &Eaute;lisa. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 4:31, fig. 1856. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 808, fig. 1869.
Raised in the seed beds of Van Mons and first bore fruit in 1848. Fruit large, obtuse-pyriform, often rather irregular in its upper half, greenish-yellow passing to lemon-yellow at maturity, with numerous small blackish-gray dots; flesh white, a little yellow next the skin, fine, melting, free from grit, full of rich saccharine juice, vinous; first; Sept. to Nov.

Madame Élisa Dumas. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:19, fig. 298. 1880.
A seedling raised by M. Bonnefoy, near Lyons, Fr. He disseminated it in 1857. Fruit medium, conic-ovate, regular in contour; skin thick, at first whitish-green speckled with grayish-black dots, changing to pale yellow, and more golden on the side next the sun; sometimes stains of rough brown-russet are dispersed over its surface; flesh white, only slightly firm without being breaking, rather gritty around the center, full of sugary juice, vinous and refreshing; handsome and of good quality; Aug.

Madame Ernest Baltet. 1. Baltet Trait. Cult. Fr. 317, fig. 208. 1908.
French. Fruit large, obtuse-pyriform, reddlsh-brown-yellow, with light russet; flesh very fine, melting, very juicy, sugary, sprightly; very good; Sept. and Oct.

Madame Favre. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:379, fig. 1869.
Obtained by M. Favre, president of the section of Arboriculture of the Agricultural Society of Shalon-sur-Marne, Fr.; it first fruited in 1861. Fruit above medium and often larger, globular surface unequal and bossed; skin rough, greenish-yellow, dotted, streaked, marbled, stained with gray-russet and vermilioned on the cheek next the sun; flesh white, very fine, melting; juice abundant, very sugary, vinous, deliciously perfumed; first; end of Aug.

Madame Flon. 1. Guide Prat. 99. 1876.
Published by M. Flon in 1868. Fruit medium, globular, yellow and gray-russet; flesh very melting and juicy, saccharine, sprightly, perfumed; first; end of Dec.

Madame Grégoire. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 8:9?, fig. 1860. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 809. 1869.
Obtained in 1860 by M. Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel., and was published the same year. Fruit medium to large, long-oval, obtuse; skin greasy, clear green becoming yellow at maturity, marked with gray-russet, especially around the stem, and some dots of whitish-gray; flesh yellowish-white, fine, melting, very juicy, sugary, vinous, perfumed and acidulous; good or very good; Dec. and Jan.

Madame Henri Desportes. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:380, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 609. 1884.
Raised by Leroy, Angers, Fr.; first fruited in 1863. Fruit large, turbinate, uneven in outline, yellow, covered with russety dots and patches; flesh yellowish-white, very fine and very melting, seldom gritty, very juicy, saccharine, acidulous, with a decided aroma and delicious flavor; excellent; first; Oct.

Madame Loriol de Barny. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:381, fig. 1869. 2. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 92. 1872.
Raised by Leroy in 1866 at his nurseries at Angers, Fr., from seed of Bartlett. Fruit large, ovate and nearly cylindrical, always rather irregular, clear yellow clouded with green, more or less streaked and mottled with russet, covered with large, grayish-brown or greenish dots and often stained with fawn around the calyx and stem; flesh yellowish-white, excessively melting and fine, juicy, rarely gritty, sugary, perfumed, with a tart flavor and a delicate and agreeable after-taste of musk; first; Nov.

Madame Lyé-Baltet. 1. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 301, fig. 1906. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 185. 1920.
Obtained by Ernest Baltet, nurseryman at Troyes, Fr.; placed on the market in 1877. Fruit medium or rather large, turbinate, obtuse, swelled, truncated at base; skin fine, green or yellow-green all over, dotted with russet and touched with fawn; flesh white, fine, melting, juicy, sugary and perfumed; very good; Dec. and Jan.

Madame de Madre. 1. Guide Prat. 95. 1895. 2. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 30:271. 1901.
Sent out by Daras de Naghin, Antwerp, Bel., who raised it from Délices d'Hardenpont, in 1881. Fruit medium, pyriform, rather elongated, contracted at the lower end terminating in an oblique cone at the base, compressed on two sides at the narrow end, rounded at the upper end, citron-yellow lightly speckled with rust-red; flesh amber-white, very delicate, melting, very juicy, sweet, with a pleasant perfume, nutty and rather spicy; very good; Oct.

Madame Millet. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:382, fig. 1862. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 610. 1884.
Raised by Charles Millet of Ath, Bel., in 1840. Fruit large, short-obovate or turbinate, rather uneven in its outline; flesh tender, semi-melting, juicy, richly flavored; first; Mar. and Apr.

Madame Morel. 1. Guide Prat. 99. 1876.
Published by M. Morel in 1872. Fruit large; flesh very fine, compact, very melting, juicy, sugary, vinous, sprightly; first; Oct. and Nov.

Madame Planchon. 1. Guide Prat. 99. 1876.
Belgian. Fruit large or very large, in form similar to Bartlett, golden yellow dotted with russet; flesh granular, very juicy; cooking; end of Oct. and beginning of Nov.

Madame Du Puis. 1. Rev. Hort. 147. 1891. 2. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 298, fig. 1906.
A gain of Daras de Naghin, Antwerp, Bel., in 1878. Fruit rather large or large, long, obtuse-pyriform, rounded at lower end, yellow but nearly covered with smooth fawn-russet; flesh very fine, melting, very juicy, sugary, sprightly and perfumed; very good; Dec. to Feb.

Madame de Roucourt. 1. Guide Prat. 58. 1895.
Distributed by Daras de Naghin, Antwerp, Bel. Fruit medium to large, yellowish, dotted with dark brown; flesh fine, saccharine, perfumed; good; Oct.

Madame Stoff. 1. Gard. Chron. 2:220. 1887.
Obtained from seed by M. StofL Fruit large or medium, regular-pyramidal, olive-green speckled with red; flesh fine, melting, buttery, delicate and brisk in flavor; Feb.

Madame Torfs. 1. Guide Prat. 104. 1895.
Described as a new variety and distributed by Daras de Naghin, Antwerp, Bel., in 1895. Fruit medium to large, greenish-yellow, sprinkled with patches of fawn-russet; flesh fine and juicy, white around center, clouded with green toward the skin, very sugary; Oct.

Madame Treyve. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:383, fig. 1869. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 185. 1920.  Souvenir de Madame Treyve. 3. Pom. France 2: No. 63, Pl.63. 1864.
From seed sown in 1848 by M. Treyve, Trévaux, Fr. Fruit large, obtusely obovate, bossed and always very much swelled around its lower part, greenish-yellow, dotted, streaked, and often touched with fawn on the shaded side, but brilliantly encrimsoned on the side exposed to the sun and dotted on that side with gray; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, very juicy, saccharine, acidulous, with a delicate and fine aroma; first, a delicious dessert pear; Sept.

Madame Vazille. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:384, fig. 1869. 2. KoggFruitMan.610. 1884.
From the seed beds of M. Leroy, Angers, Fr.; first fruit in 1866. Fruit above medium, conic-obtuse, fairly regular in outline but always having one side larger than the other; skin thick, somewhat uneven, bronzed all over, sprinkled with dots widely apart and only slightly visible; flesh whitish, fine, melting or semi-melting, very juicy, saccharine, vinous, having a very pleasant flavor; first; Sept.

Madame Verté. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:385, fig. 1869.
Origin uncertain, but it was first sent out by M. de Jonghe, Brussels, Bel., and then extensively propagated in France. Fruit medium, globular-ovate, irregular, yellowish-green, much washed with brown-fawn and speckled with small ashen-gray dots; flesh yellowish, semi-fine, semi-melting, granular at center; juice abundant, sugary, acidulous, with a somewhat savory perfume and after taste of anis; second, variable; from end of Nov. to Jan.

Madame Von Siebold. 1. Guide Prat. 115. 1876. 2. Cornell Sta. Bul. 332:485. 1913.
Japan. The following description was made on the grounds of Messrs. Simon-Louis Bros., Metz, Lorraine; "Madame Von Siebold. Fruit very large, rounded, a little narrow toward the cavity, where it is angular; truncated at the base and indented at the circumference . . . Skin rather smooth, of a pretty brown color, dotted with large gray specks which are very regular and very apparent. Flesh white, slightly yellowish, medium fine, crisp, juicy, sweet, perfumed like quinces, almost eatable raw. The most beautiful of the Japanese Simon-Louis Freres."

Madeleine d'Angers. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:386, fig. 1869.
From the environs of Segre or of Beaupreau, districts in the same department (Maine), where it has been generally grown for 150 years. Fruit medium and sometimes below, conic and very elongated, somewhat contorted at the upper end, grass-green passing to greenish-yellow on the part near the stalk and dotted with gray-russet; flesh white, semi-fine or coarse, rather melting, watery and gritty; juice abundant, sugary, more or less acid, and only slightly perfumed; third; end of July.

Mademoiselle Blanche Sannier. 1. Guide Prat. 96. 1895.
A French variety. Fruit large, oblong-pyriform; flesh fine, melting, perfumed, juicy; Oct.

Mademoiselle Marguerite Gaujard. 1. Guide Prat. 104. 1895.
Obtained by M. Gaujard at Ghent, Fr.; described as a new variety in 1895. Fruit oblong, rather gourd-shaped in form, covered with gray-russet and slightly blushed on the exposed side; flesh melting, of a sprightly taste, perfumed; Jan. to Mar.

Mademoiselle Solange. 1. Jour. Hort. N. S. 15:120. 1888.
Described by the Fruit Committee of the Royal Horticultural Society of England in 1887 as a new variety. Fruit small, nearly globular, green, juicy and of good flavor.

Magherman. 1. Guide Prat. no. 1876.
Tree very vigorous, beautiful in aspect and extremely fertile. Fruit large or very large, long-pyriform, regular in outline, yellow streaked with carmine; flesh yellowish, excessively melting and very juicy, sugary and having an exquisite perfume; first; second half of Sept.

Magnate. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 610. 1884. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 186. 1920.
A seedling raised by Rivers of Sawbridgeworth, Eng., from Louise Bonne de Jersey, prior to 1880. Fruit large, obtuse-pyriform, even and symmetrical in outline, yellow covered with rather dark brown-russet, thickly strewed with large russet freckles, blushed and streaked with crimson; flesh yellow, tender, melting, rather gritty at the core, richly flavored, and with a slight perfume of rose-water; very good; Oct. and Nov.

Magnolia. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 41. 1909. 2. Cornell Sta. Bul. 332:484. 1913.
An oriental hybrid which originated in southern Georgia. Fruit large, globular to pyriform, smooth, yellowish-russet, with numerous irregular dots; flesh white, crisp, tender, juicy, mild, subacid; fair; "three or four weeks later than Kieffer in the South".

Malconnaitre d'Haspin. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 810. 1869.
Tree vigorous, hardy and productive. Fruit large, globular-obovate, dull yellow, with brownish-red cheek, stippled with coarse dots, and russeted at the calyx; flesh juicy, tender, and melting, rich, subacid, perfumed; Oct. and Nov.

Malvoisie de Landsberg. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:171, fig. 182. 1878.
Obtained by Judge Burchardt, Landsberg, Brandenbourg, Ger. Fruit rather large, pyriform, more or less swelled, even in contour, but often irregular in form; skin somewhat firm, at first water-green, dotted with gray, the green changing to yellow and the side next the sun being at maturity slightly washed with rosy red; flesh white, rather fine, buttery, juicy, sweet, acidulous, having a sprightly and somewhat musky flavor; good; Oct.

Manchester. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 810. 1869.
Originated in Providence, R. I. Fruit medium, obovate-pyriform, yellow, with traces and numerous dots of russet; flesh white, moderately juicy, semi-melting, sweet, agreeable; good; Oct.

Mandelblättrige Schneebirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2: igg. 1856.
A French wilding; published 1810. Tree dwarf. Fruit small, globular-turbinate, green, smooth; flesh firm, astringent; winter.

Manning. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 43. 1866.
A seedling raised by S. A. Shurtleff of Brookline, Mass. Fruited in 1866. Fruit large, obovate, yellow with russet streaks and dots; flesh fine-grained, white, juicy, with a rich, pleasant flavor; first; Sept.

Mannsbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:187. 1856.
Württemberg, Ger., 1830. Classed among the Pound pears or Libralia. Fruit large, globular-turbinate, dull green changing to yellowish-green, blushed, both ends covered with russet, rusty dots; third for table, first for kitchen; Nov. and Dec.

Mansfield. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 811. 1869.
A native variety of uncertain origin. Fruit medium, globular-oblate, yellowish-green, with considerable russet and many green and brown dots; flesh whitish, coarse, buttery, melting, sweet, a little astringent; good; Sept.

Mansuette. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:220, Pl.LVIII, fig. 1. 1768. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 611. 1884.  Solitaire. 3. Christ Handb. 534. 1817.
Origin unknown. Fruit large, long-obovate, irregular, obtuse, pale green, spotted with brown and much covered with the same color on the shaded side, and tinged with red on the side exposed to the sun; flesh white, semi-melting, moderately fine, inclined to grow soft, juicy, pleasantly acid and well flavored; a dessert pear; Sept. and Oct.

Mansuette Double. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:388, fig. 1869.
This French cooking pear was first described in 1805. Fruit sometimes considerable, rather variable in form, often conic, obtuse, very swelled in the lower part and slightly bossed, sometimes very long ovate having one side near the base larger than the other, dark yellow, much covered with cinnamon-russet and large dots of ashy gray; flesh greenish-white, coarse, juicy, semi-breaking or breaking, very gritty at the core; juice abundant, deficient in sugar, wanting in perfume, often too acid; second; Oct. to Dec.

Marasquine. 1. Mas Le Verger 2:123, fig. 1866-73. 2; Guide Prat. 99. 1876.
Raised by Major Esperén, Mechlin, Bel. Fruit medium, regular-pyriform, tender green, sprinkled with grayish dots, golden at maturity; flesh very white, fine, buttery, melting, slightly gritty at the center; juice sufficient, having a characteristic perfume; end of Aug.

March Bergamot. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 811. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 611. 1884.
Raised by T. A. Knight, President of the Horticultural Society of London. Fruit small or medium, globular, green or yellowish-brown, partially covered with russet; flesh yellowish-white, buttery, slightly gritty at the core, but very rich; in Europe it is a dessert pear of high merit; in this country, however, it seems to be of small worth; Mar. and will keep later.

Maréchal de Cour. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:390, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man, 612. 1884.
A seedling of Van Mons of which he sent grafts to Alexandre Bivort, five months before his death, in April, 1842. Fruit large, sometimes very large, oblong-pyriform or obtuse-turbinate, one side always smaller than the other, thickly encrusted with russet so that but little of the yellow ground is visible; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, gritty at center, extremely juicy, sugary, vinous, perfumed; first; Sept. to Nov.

Maréchal Dillen. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:391, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 612. 1884.
Raised by Van Mons in 1818 and was published by him in 1820. Fruit very large, obtuse-obovate, yellowish-green, mottled with patches and dots of brown-russet; flesh white, fine, melting, juicy, very saccharine, having a very agreeable flavor of vinegar and musk; first, an excellent dessert pear; Oct. and Nov.

Maréchal Pelissier. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 523. 1857. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:393. 1869.
This pear was raised by M. Flon, Senior, the well-known horticulturist, of Angevin, Fr., in 1845. Fruit medium, ovate, yellow, blushed with red on the side next the sun; flesh tender, juicy; Sept. and Oct.

Marechal Vaillant. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:393, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 612. 1884.
A seedling of M. Boisbunel of Rouen, Fr., gained in 1864. Fruit very large, obovate, uneven in outline, yellowish-green, mottled and dotted with russet; flesh whitish, rather fine, semi-melting; juice sufficient, sugary, vinous, richly flavored and musky; an excellent pear; mid-Dec, to end of Jan.

Margarethenbirne. 1. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 119. 1825. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:30. 1856.
German. Reported in 1789. Fruit small, turbinate, greenish-yellow and heavily dotted with green, seldom blushed; flesh semi-breaking, juicy and aromatic; third for dessert, first for kitchen and market; mid-July.

Marguerite d'Anjou. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:394, fig. 1869.
M. Flon, Angers, obtained this from a seedling in 1863. Fruit above medium, irregular-ovate, and bossed, more enlarged on one side than on the other and often slightly contorted, clear yellow, slightly tinted with pale rose on the side next the sun; flesh white, fine, dense, melting, watery, free from grit; juice abundant, highly saccharine, acidulous, possesses a delicious flavor recalling the perfume of the violet; first; Oct.

Marguerite Chevalier. 1. Guide Prat. 99. 1876.
Fruit medium, nearly spherical, almost entirely covered with fawn-russet; flesh fine, melting, juicy, sprightly; good; end of autumn.

Marguerite Marillat. 1. Guide Prat. 45. 1895. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 186. 1920.
Similar to Souvenir du Congrets but of brighter golden hue, obtained by M. Marillat, Craponne, near Lyons, Fr., 1874. Fruit large, pyriform-turbinate, pale yellow touched with fawn-russet, blushed with red on the side next the sun, sometimes a rich golden yellow at maturity; flesh yellowish-white, semi-fine, very juicy, saccharine, acidulous, aromatic, slightly musky, very rich; second; early Sept.

Maria. 1. Guide Prat. 96. 1895.
Sent out by M. Daras de Naghin, Antwerp, Bel. Fruit rather large, oblong-ovate; flesh yellowish, very agreeable; Feb. and Mar.

Maria de Nantes. 1. Ann. Pom, Beige 2:39, fig. 1854. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 812. 1869.
Raised by M. Gamier near Nantes, Fr., and reported in 1853. Fruit nearly medium, globular-turbinate or oval-turbinate, greenish-yellow covered with fawn-russet; flesh fine, buttery, melting; juice saccharine, highly perfumed, and acidulous; first; Oct. to Dec.

Maria Stuart. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:69. 1856.
Belgian, 1851. A Van Mons seedling. Fruit large, conic, bent, with, unequal sides, lemon-yellow, covered densely with gray dots, lightly russeted; very good for all purposes; Oct.

Marianne de Nancy. I. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:396, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 812. 1869.
A seedling of Van Mons who sent cuttings of it a few days before his death to M. Millot, a pomologist at Nancy, Fr. Fruit medium, obtuse-turbinate, very regular and even in contour, grass-green, stained with brown-russet; flesh whitish, fine, melting or semi-melting; juice abundant, very sugary, acidulous; second, though sometimes first when its flesh is very melting and its juice full of flavor; mid-Aug.

Marie Benoist. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:397, fig. 1869. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 187. 1920.
Obtained from seed by Auguste Benoist, Brissac, Maine-et-Loire, Fr., in 1853. Fruit large, turbinate, very irregular, obtuse and mammillate at the summit, globular at the base and generally much more enlarged on one side than on the other, clear green, dotted and veined with russet, stained with fawn especially around the calyx and stem; flesh white, fine, melting, a little gritty; juice abundant, saccharine, vinous, delicately perfumed; first; Dec. to Feb.

Marie Guisse. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:398, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 613. 1884.
Grown from seed of St. Germain in 1834, near Metz, Lorraine. Fruit medium, obovate-oblong-pyriform, surface uneven, yellow, with shades of red in the sun, and large, dull dark specks; flesh yellowish-white, granular, melting, sweet, vinous; Dec. to Feb.

Marie Henriette. 1. Guide Prat. 96. 1895.
Sent out by Daras de Naghin, Antwerp, Bel. Fruit small or medium, globular; flesh granular, very juicy and sugary; first; Oct.

Marie Jallais. 1. Guide Prat. 100. 1876.
Obtained by Jules Buneau, 1868. Fruit medium, form variable; flesh melting, juicy, very sugary and perfumed, of a sprightly flavor; first; Oct. to Dec.

Marie Louise Nova. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 400. 1845. 2. Ibid. 813. 1869.
Sent by Van Mons to Mr. Manning, and though in some seasons very good, it cannot compare with Marie Louise. Fruit medium, regular-acute-pyriform, yellow, with a brownish-red cheek; flesh at first melting, juicy, but quickly decays; good; end of Sept.

Marie Louise d'Uccle. 1. Gard. Chron. 1060, 1179. 1865. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 187. 1920.
Marie Louise d'Uccle is a seedling of Marie Louise raised by M. Gambier, a neighbor and contemporary of Van Mons. It produced its first fruits in 1846. Fruit rather large, pyriform, pale cinnamon-colored russet, rather similar to Marie Louise; flesh very fine, very melting, buttery, saccharine, very juicy and richly flavored; good to very good; Sept. and Oct.

Marie Mottin. 1. Guide Prat. 96. 1895.
On trial with Messrs. Simon-Louis at Metz, Lorraine, in 1895. Fruit large; flesh melting; first; Oct.

Marie Parent 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:401, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 814. 1869.
Raised by Bivort, director of the nurseries of the Society Van Mons at Geest-Saint-Rémy, Bel., from a seed bed formed in 1844 from seeds of the last generation of Van Mons' seedlings. Fruit above medium, oblong, more or less cylindrical and bossed, or turbinate, very much swelled at the base and bossed at either extremity; skin fine ochre or golden yellow, dotted and stained with russet, washed with brick-red on the cheek next the sun; flesh white, fine, melting or semi-melting, containing numerous small grits around the core, juicy, sugary, vinous, perfumed; first; Oct., often till Dec.

Marietta. 1. Cornell Sta. Bul. 332:484. 1913.
An oriental hybrid. Tree is said to be inclined to grow tall, with a single main stem. Fruit light yellow, with red blush; Oct.

Mariette de Millepieds. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:403, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 614. 1884.
A very late pear which came from the seed beds of Maurice Goubalt, a nurseryman in the suburbs of Angers, Fr., fruiting after his death, in 1854. Fruit large, ovate, irregular and bossed or turbinate, slightly obtuse, one side larger than the other, rough to the touch, rather thick, yellowish-green, washed with dark russet on the cheek next the sun; flesh white, very fine, melting, juicy and scented, refreshing, sugary, acidulous, having an exquisite flavor; first; Mar. often till May.

Markbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:103. 1856.
Mid-Germany, 1797. Fruit fairly large, ventriculous, faint light green turning to pale green, often blushed and dotted with greenish-gray specks and marked with russet; flesh white, fairly soft, buttery, melting, full of flavor; very good for the table and good for culinary purposes; Dec. and Jan.

Marksbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:162. 1856.
Thuringia, Ger., 1799. Fruit small, globular, flattened, greenish-yellow, speckled with yellowish-gray and greenish dots; flesh firm, breaking, juicy and acidulous; first for household; Sept.

Marmion. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 814. 1869. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:29, fig. in. 1878.
According to the Bulletin of the Société Van Mons this was either obtained or propagated by M. Bivort in Belgium. Fruit nearly medium, turbinate, dull water-green, sprinkled with numerous and rather large brown spots, the basic green passing at maturity to lemon-yellow and warmly golden on the side of the sun; flesh white, rather fine, breaking, fairly juicy, saccharine and sprightly; dessert; Sept.

Marquise. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:221, Pl.XLIX. 1768. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 614.  1884.
Of French origin. Merlet described it in 1675 in his Abrégé des bons fruits. Fruit above medium, turbinate, globular in the lower part, conic and slightly obtuse in the upper, bright green changing to yellowish, with a brownish tinge on the side next the sun, thickly covered with dots, which are green on the shaded side and brown or gray on the other; flesh white, semi-fine, breaking, full of sugary juice, slightly acid and musky, and very delicate; a good dessert pear; Nov. and Dec.

Marquise de Bedman. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 814. 1869.
Foreign. Fruit medium or below, roundish-pyriform, pale greenish-yellow, with a few traces and patches of russet and many green and brown dots; flesh white, sweet, rather firm; good; Sept.

Marsaneix. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:406, fig. 1869.
A cooking pear of no particular merit which originated at the market town of Marsaneix, Department of Dordogne, Fr., and was cultivated on the farms of that country in the middle of the eighteenth century. Fruit small, globular, regular in form; skin rough, entirely russeted, dotted with yellowish-gray; flesh whitish, semi-fine, breaking, scented, gritty; juice abundant but deficient in sugar, insipid; second and for cooking only; Jan. and Feb.

Marshall. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 3rd App. 179. 1881.
Said to have originated on the farm of William Marshall, Cambridge, N. Y., some years previous to 1881. Fruit medium, globular, inclining to obtuse-pyriform, yellow, netted and patched with russet over nearly the whole surface and thickly sprinkled with russet dots; flesh white, semi-fine, juicy, semi-melting, slightly vinous and slightly aromatic; very good; end of Sept.

Marshall Wilder. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:407, fig. 1869. 2. Horticulturist 27:150. 1872.
Originated in the nurseries of M. Leroy at Angers, Fr., in 1866. Fruit large, long-conic, very irregular, somewhat like Calebasse in form, more or less bossed; skin rough, clear green slightly yellowish, dotted with gray-russet, marbled with brown and scaly; flesh yellowish-white, fine or semi-fine, juicy, very melting, sugary, deliriously perfumed and refreshing; first; Oct. and Nov.

Martha Ann. 1. Mag. Hort. 16:547. 1850.
A seedling raised by Francis Dana, Roxbury, Mass. Fruit medium or below, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, yellowish-green, with patches and dots of russet; flesh coarse, juicy, astringent; poor; Oct.

Martin. 1. Kans. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 171. 1886.
Originated in Cowley, Kans., and reported as a new fruit and a good substitute for the Vicar of Winkfield. Fruit medium to large, oblate-pyriform, irregular, greenish changing to yellowish-white, smooth; flesh firm, fine grained, buttery, juicy; fair; Jan.

Martin-Sec. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:408, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 615. 1884.  Trockener Martin. 3. Löschnig Mostbirnen 216, fig. 1913.
Hogg tells us that this and the Martin Sire are among the earliest varieties known to have been grown in England, for they are mentioned among the fruits delivered into the Treasury by the fruiterer of Edward I in 1292. In 1530 Charles Estienne of Paris wrote of it as being cultivated in France and affirmed the Pears of Saint Martin were so named because their time of ripening coincided with the Festival of that Saint. Again, in 1675 Merlet in his Abrégé des bons fruits spoke of the Martin-Sec of Provins or of Champagne. Fruit medium or above, long-pyriform-obtuse, regular in form, yellowish and russeted, dotted with gray points and extensively washed with carmine on the face exposed to the sun; flesh whitish, semi-fine, very breaking, rather dry, but sweet and perfumed, very gritty when grafted on quince; third; mid-Nov. to Feb.

Martin-Sire. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:145, PI. XIX, fig. 5. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:410, fig. 1869. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 615. 1884.
This pear, sometimes known as Lord Martin Pear, was grown in England in the thirteenth century. By Claude Saint-Étienne in 1628 it was mentioned under two of its most ancient names, Martin-Sire and Ronville. In the eighteenth century Mayer in the Pomona franconica said the name Martin-Sire which was the most generally recognized of its many names originated from a former Lord of Ronville whose name was Martin. Fruit medium, pyriform, obtuse and very regular; skin fine, smooth and shining, bright green changing to a fine deep yellow, dotted and marked with fawn, carmined on the side next the sun; flesh whitish, semi-fine, breaking, fairly juicy, sweet, perfumed and often with an after-taste of musk; more fit for stewing than dessert; Dec. to Feb.

Marulis. 1. Mag. Hort. 9:388. 1843. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 397. 1854.
Foreign. Fruit small, globular, greenish-yellow; poor; Sept. Mary (Case). 1. Downingr. Fr. Trees Am. 815. 1869
Originated in the grounds of William Case, Cleveland, Ohio. Fruit small to medium, globular-pyriform, greenish-yellow, slight blush in the sun and many minute brown dots; flesh white, juicy, almost buttery, sweet and acid; very good; last of July.

Mary (Van Mons). 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:411, fig. 1869.
A seedling obtained by Van Mons, which gave its first fruit at Brussels about the year 1818. Fruit medium and often above medium, ovate, obtuse, rather regular but generally a little depressed on one side at the calyx, yellow-ochre stained with fawn-brown around the stem and sprinkled with light marblings and large dots of green and russet, very numerous around the base; flesh whitish, very fine, melting; juice very abundant, sugary, with a vinegary flavor both delicate and refreshing; first; mid-Oct.

Mascon Colmar. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:106. 1856.
Originated from seed at Nassau, Ger., 1825. Fruit medium, obtuse-conic, distorted in form, light green turning yellowish-green at maturity, free from any red blush, but much russeted and dotted; flesh white, buttery, melting, juicy, full of flavor; good for dessert and culinary purposes; Feb.

Masselbacher Mostbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:193. 1856.
A perry pear. Württemberg, Ger., 1847. Fruit small, almost a sphere, green turning to yellow, much covered with russet; flesh firm, granular, acidulous: very good for perry and good for household use; end of Sept. and early Oct.

Masuret. 1. Baltet Cult. Fr. 374. 1908.
One of the best French perry pears suitable for commercial and amateur growers; good for the production of sparkling perry; juice clear and very full of perfume; end of Nov.

Mather. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 82. 1856. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 815. 1869.
The Mather pear originated with John Mather, Jenkintown, Pa., from seed planted by him about 1810. Fruit below medium, obovate, yellow, with occasionally a red mottled cheek and russeted at the insertion of the stem; flesh rather coarse, buttery, of delicate flavor and agreeable; good; Aug.

Mathilde. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:55. 1856.
A Van Mons seedling, 1852. Fruit medium, ovate, greenish changing to greenish-yellow, blushed, and speckled with gray dots; flesh semi-melting, granular, sweet, vinous; second for dessert, first for kitchen and market purposes; end of Aug. for 14 days.

Mathilde Gomand. 1. Guide Prat. 100. 1876.
Published by Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel. Fruit medium; skin russeted; flesh melting; first; Jan.

Mathilde Recq. 1. Guide Prat. 96. 1895.
On trial with Messrs. Simon-Louis, at Metz, Lorraine, in 1895. Tree vigorous and fertile. Fruit, flesh fine, very saccharine and highly perfumed; Nov.

Mathilde de Rochefort. 1. Guide Prat. 96. 1895.
On trial with Messrs. Simon-Louis at Metz, Lorraine, in 1895. Tree vigorous, forming good pyramids. Fruit small, ovate, covered with russet; flesh fine, melting, very juicy and sugary; Dec.

Matou. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:414, fig. 1869.
A variety, known also as Chat-Grillé and Chat-Rôti in France and which must not be confounded with the Chat-Brûlé, already described, which ripens in December. Its origin is unknown. Fruit medium, obtuse-pyriform and enlarged around central circumference, golden-yellow, dotted and marbled with gray-russet, washed with carmine on the face exposed to the sun; flesh whitish, semi-fine, breaking, watery, very granular at the center; juice rather abundant, rarely very saccharine, astringent, almost devoid of perfume; third; mid-Aug.

Matthews. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 82. 1903. 2. Hopedale Nurs. Cat. 17. 1913.
Brought from New Jersey about 1835 by a Mr. Chiever and planted at Delavan, Ill. Tree long-lived, a late bearer. Fruit medium to large, apple-shaped, green turning yellow, sweet, juicy; Oct. to Feb.

Maud Hogg. 1. Jour. Hort. 20:30. 1871. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 615. 1884.
Raised by John Mannington, Uckfield, in the Weald of Sussex, Eng.; bore fruit in 1871 for the first time. Fruit above medium, oblong-obovate; skin entirely covered with a crust of warm brown-russet like that of the Beurré Gris, and has a slight orange glow on the side exposed to the sun, very much like the Chaumontel, no yellow or ground color visible; flesh yellowish-white, tender and buttery, very juicy, sweet, richly flavored; a dessert pear of the first quality; Oct. to Dec.

Maude. 1. Guide Prat. 100. 1876.
A French perry pear abundantly cultivated in the Haute-Savoie, Fr. Fruit medium, globular, grayish-green washed with red; flesh coarse, remarkably juicy.

Maurice Desportes. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:415, fig. 1869.
This came from the seed beds of M. André Leroy, Angers, Fr., and first fruited in 1863. Fruit medium, oblong-conic, yellow, dotted with gray, blushed on the sunny side; stem long, rather stout, continuous with the fruit; calyx small, open, in a large cavity; flesh white, rather fine and rather melting, slightly granular, juicy, sweet; first; Sept.

Mausebirne. 1. DochnahlFühr. Obstkunde 2:138. 1856.
Hanover, Ger., 1852. Fruit medium to large, variable in form, distorted, bossed; skin fine, greenish turning to yellow when ripe, almost entirely covered with cinnamon-russet, sprinkled with green spots; flesh yellowish-white, sweet and scented with rose; first for the table and kitchen use; Oct.

Mayflower. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 44. 1866.
A seedling raised by Dr. Shurtleff, Brookline, Mass., which fruited first in 1863. Fruit "short diameter 2½ inches, long diameter 3 inches; flesh rather dry and firm; skin yellow, with red cheek; keeps soundly without extra care until May. A most prolific bearer. Short pyriform."

Maynard. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 52. 1857. 2. Ibid. 815. 1869.
Origin unknown but thought to have been first grown in Lancaster County, Pa. Fruit medium, obovate-pyriform, yellow with russet dots and a crimson cheek; flesh white, juicy and sugary; moderately good; end of July.

Mayr frühzeitige Butterbirne. I. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:113. 1856.
Reported at Gratz, Styria, Austria, 1833. Fruit medium, turbinate-pyriform, uniformly light yellow, slightly russeted on the side next the sun, often with no russet; flesh white, soft, melting, full of flavor, keeps well; first for dessert, good for culinary use and market; Sept, and Oct.

Max. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 73. 1895.
A seedling of Flemish Beauty grown in Ohio. Fruit medium, globular-pyriform, yellow brightly blushed, flavor vinous, subacid; good; Sept. in Ohio.

Mecham. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 195. 1867.
A seedling pear reported from St. George, Utah, in 1867. Fruit very large, bright green, ripens in Oct.

Medaille d'Été. 1. Guide Prat. 100. 1876.
On trial with Messrs. Simon-Louis of Metz, Lorraine, in 1876. Fruit large, ovate-pyramidal, lemon-yellow; flesh semi-breaking, very juicy, highly perfumed; Aug.

Medofka. 1. Can. Hort. 17:292. 1894.
Russian. Fruit very small, conical, clear yellow; flesh very melting, agreeable.

Meissner Grossvatersbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:34. 1856.
Reported to be of Saxon origin, 1833. Fruit small, turbinate, almost entirely covered with light brown-russet, and sprinkled with round red spots; flesh juicy, semi-melting, having a strong aroma of cinnamon.

Meissner Hirschbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:7. 1856.
Saxony, 1803. Fruit medium, conic, bossed, pale light green changing at maturity to light lemon-yellow, often washed extensively with dark blood-red, numerous reddish dots, scentless; flesh breaking, juicy, aromatic; first for household and market; Aug.

Meissner langstielige Feigenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:167. 1856.
Saxony, 1805. Fruit medium, obtuse-pyriform, ventriculous and flat, crooked, somewhat uneven, light green changing to yellowish-green, often blushed with dark red, without dots, marked with russet; flesh yellowish-green white, coarse-grained, sweet, firm, breaking; third for dessert, first for kitchen; Oct.

Meissner Liebchensbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:167. 1856.
German, chiefly found in Saxony. Fruit small, globular-ventriculous-conic; skin shining, lemon-yellow, becoming highly polished, strongly dotted with round red spots, often marked with fine russet on the side next the sun; flesh yellowish-white, coarse-grained, firm, breaking, wanting in juice; third for the table, first for kitchen and market.

Meissner Zwiebelbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:34. 1856.
Saxony, 1833. Fruit small, globular, light yellow, speckled with numerous fine russety spots; flesh often melting, with musky aroma, fine-grained; first for table and very good for culinary purposes; end of Aug. for three weeks. 

Melanie Michelin. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:55, fig. 412. 1880.
Gained by M. Boisbunel, Junior, Rouen, Fr. Fruit medium, ovate-pyriform, even in contour; skin rather thick, whitish-green, sprinkled with fairly numerous and rather large green spots, scarcely visible and often absent altogether; when ripe the basic green takes a more yellow tone on the side of the sun, and in the case of well-exposed fruits is blushed with a very light rosy red; flesh whitish, slightly tinted with green, tender, a little soft, melting, full of sweet juice and delicately perfumed; good; mid-July.

Mellish. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 815. 1869.
Fruit below medium, globular-pyriform, pale yellow, netted, patched and dotted with russet; flesh whitish, juicy, melting, sweet, pleasant; good to very good; Oct.

Melon. 1. Knoop Fructologie 1:77, Tab. 1. 1771. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:417, fig. 1869.
Of Dutch origin; first described in the Pomology of Knoop in 1766. Fruit medium, typically pyriform, slightly obtuse, regular in outline, sometimes a little uneven and crooked, greenish-yellow when ripe and more or less marked with black, or dark brown, stains, of poor appearance; flesh delicate and gritty, rather succulent and savory but having no particular flavor, not sprightly nor does it justify its name; Aug. and Sept.

Melon de Hellmann. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:83, fig. 330. 1880.
Grown by M. Hellmann, Meiningen, Ger. Fruit large, spherical, even in outline, intense green passing to decided yellow when ripe and warmly golden on the side of the sun, numerous dark green spots; flesh white, coarse, semi-breaking; juice sugary, perfumed and agreeable; second, good for cooking; Sept.

Menagere Sucrée de Van Mons. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:127, fig. 160. 1878.
A seedling of Van Mons who distributed it without name. Fruit medium, conic-turbinate; skin thick, at first very clear green sprinkled with gray dots, numerous, very small but clearly visible; towards maturity the green changes to brilliant lemon-yellow and warmly golden on the side next the sun; flesh whitish, semi-fine, semi-buttery and distinctly perfumed with clove; Oct.

Mendenhall. 1. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. etet. 1900.
Mentioned as one of the "newer "varieties of pears, having given its first ripe specimens on July 5th, 1900. Fruit small, pyriform, yellow, much better in quality than Early Harvest.

Meresia NevUl. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 616. 1884.
A seedling of John Mannington, Uckfield, Sussex, Eng.; first fruited in 1872. Fruit below medium, roundish-obovate or oval, even and regular in outline, entirely covered with thick, dark-brown russet; flesh semi-melting, crisp, juicy, sweet, with a rich vinous flavor; an excellent dessert pear; Dec. and Jan.

Merlet. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:418, fig. 1869.
Merlet came from the nurseries of M. Boisbunel, Rouen, Fr.; it fruited first in 1861. Fruit medium, turbinate, slightly obtuse and bossed; skin smooth, fine and shining, yellowish-green, delicately dotted with gray; flesh greenish-white, semi-fine, melting, watery, granular around the core; juice abundant and saccharine, refreshing and having a highly delicate flavor; first; Aug.

Merriam. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 524. 1857. 2. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 284. 1867.
Originated at Roxbury, Mass.; popular in Boston in 1867. Fruit large, globular, somewhat flattened at base and crown, smooth, rich yellow, covered with pale russet around the stem and calyx, and netted with russet all over; flesh yellowish, rather coarse, melting, juicy, sugary, perfumed, very good; Sept. and Oct.
[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

Meruault. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:184, fig. 576. 1881.
Obtained by M. Pariset from a seed bed of the Easter Beurré made in 1856. Fruit medium, ovate, shortened and thick, water-green sown with dots of fawn-brown, more often almost wholly covered with russet of fawn color; on ripening the basic green changes to an intense lemon-yellow, the russet clears, and the side next the sun becomes golden; flesh whitish, fine, buttery, melting, without grit; juice abundant, rich in sugar, delicately perfumed with musk; first; throughout winter.

Merveille de Moringen. 1. Guide Prat. 100. 1876.
Originated in the environs of Moringen, Ger., where it is very well thought of. Tree large, very fertile, resisted the phenomenal frost of 1879-1880 in Europe. Fruit small, turbinate, a beautiful lemon-yellow; flesh breaking; for cooking; Oct.

Messire Jean. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:173, Pl.XXVI. 1768. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 616. 1884.
Of ancient and untraceable origin, but mentioned by Venette, Rochelle, Fr., in 1678 and 1683. Fruit medium, turbinate, sometimes slightly obovate, surface slightly bossed; skin rough, thick, dark green, passing to buff, washed with dark red on the side of the sun, strewed with speckles of darker russet; flesh white, slightly tinged with lemon, rather fine, breaking, juicy, richly saccharine, perfumed, sprightly; good, either for dessert or kitchen use; Nov. and Dec.

Messire Jean Goubault 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:422, fig. 1869.
This variety dates from 1847 an(i came from a seed bed of M. Goubault, Angers, Fr. Fruit large or medium, turbinate, more or less globular, often irregular, bossed and much larger on one side than on the other; skin fine and wrinkled and entirely reddened and dotted with large grayish spots; flesh whitish, coarse, semi-melting, always doughy and containing some grit around the core; juice rather scanty, sugary, tart, slightly perfumed and very agreeable; second; Nov.

Michaelmas Nelis. 1. Gard. Chron. N. S. 30:272, fig. 82. 1901. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 188. 1920.
A seedling from Winter Nelis, which Messrs. Bunyard, nurserymen, Maidstone, Eng., found by chance in a cottage garden, and sent out in 1901. It was given, an award of merit at a meeting of the Fruit Committee of the Royal Horticultural Society in October, 1902. Fruit medium, pyriform, very shapely, light greenish skin, somewhat russety; flesh white, melting, very little grit, juicy and of delicious flavor; end of Sept.

Michaux. 1. Mag. Hort. 6:45. 1840. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 239. 1854.
Origin not clear but R. Manning, Salem, Mass., stated that he had received it from a town in Alsace, Fr. Fruit medium, nearly globular-pyriform, light yellowish-green changing to yellow, with a slight blush of red; flesh white, coarse, semi-buttery, juicy, sweet; second; Sept. and Oct.

Mignonne d'Été;. 1. Guide Prat. in. 1876.
Obtained by M. Boisbunel, Rouen, Fr., and placed in commerce in 1874. Fruit medium to large, like Calebasse in form; skin glossy and yellow, finely dotted and streaked with gray-russet; flesh fine and melting; Aug.

Mignonne d'Hiver. I. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 816. 1869.
An old Belgian variety. Fruit medium, obovate to oblong-ovate-pyriform, light yellow, mostly covered with thick, rough russet, and veined with crimson and fawn; flesh yellowish, rather granular, juicy, melting, sweet, vinous, aromatic; good; Nov. and Dec.

Mikado. 1. Guide Prat. 115. 1876. 2. Cornell Sia. Bul. 332:449, 484. 1913.
Among the most successful importers of oriental plants was Freiherr V. Siebold who maintained a nursery and botanic garden in Leyden, Holland, during the first half of the nineteenth century. Of the pears imported by him, Mikado was one. This was procured from Von Siebold's nursery in 1873 by Messrs. Simon-Louis, Metz, Lorraine. Fruit rather large, globular-ovoid; skin rough to the touch, yellowish-olive, dotted with gray specks; flesh white, fine, breaking, rather juicy, perfumed, with a pronounced quince flavor, subacid; poor, uneatable raw; end of Sept.

Milan d'Hiver. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:424, fig. 1869.
A very old pear described in 1675 by Merlet, the French pomologist. Fruit large, globular-turbinate, usually mammillate at the summit and very regular; skin thick and rough to the touch, gray-russet, sprinkled around the stalk with large whitish-gray dots; flesh yellowish, fine, semi-melting, granular at the core; juice rarely plentiful, only slightly saccharine, acidulous, feebly aromatic; third; Nov. to Jan.

Milan de Rouen. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:425, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 617. 1884.
Gained by M. Boisbunel, Rouen, Fr.; distributed in 1859. Fruit medium, globular, a little conic toward the summit, slightly bossed and one side less swelled than the other; skin thick, dull yellow, dotted and streaked with fawn, much stained with gray around the stem; flesh yellowish, semi-fine, and semi-melting, juicy, rather granular at the core, sugary; juice aromatic, often spoiled by an unpleasant acerbity; second; end of Aug.

Miller. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:426, fig. 1869.
Raised from seed by Andr6 Leroy; first reported in 1864. Fruit medium and sometimes larger; in form it passes from rounded conic to globular, slightly flattened especially at the base; skin rough to touch, bronzed all over, dotted with russet, and dotted and mottled with greenish-yellow; flesh white, fine, melting, a little granular at the core, juicy, sugary, sourish, with a delicious aroma; first; Oct.

Millot de Nancy. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:427, fig. 1867.
Produced in the nurseries of Van Mons at Louvain; first reported in- 1843. Fruit medium, ovate, very obtuse, more or less regular and bossed, often rather globular, yellow-ochre dotted with gray-russet, mottled with olive-brown, sometimes washed with clear fawn on the cheek exposed to the sun; flesh whitish, semi-fine, melting or semi-melting, gritty at the center; juice rarely abundant, but very saccharine, aromatic and full of flavor, sometimes a little too acid; second; Oct.

Milner. 1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:181. 1908.
Cataloged by Silas Wharton in 1824 under the name of Milner's Favorite. Fruit small, pyriform; good.

Mima Wilder.  1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 152. 1874. 2. Ibid. 120. 1875.
A seedling of Colonel Wilder, in a collection of new pears shown by him in 1874. In November of the following year it was found to have retained its previous good quality.

Ministre Bara. 1. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 49. 1892. 2. Guide Prat. 96. 1895.
A gain of Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel. It was exhibited by P. J. Berckmans of Augusta, Georgia, before the Georgia State Horticultural Society in 1892 and 1893.

Ministre Pirmez. 1. Guide Prat. in. 1876.
Published by Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel. Fruit medium to large; flesh melting; first; Jan. and Feb.

Ministre Viger. 1. Rev. Hort. 113. 1901.
Raised by Messrs. Baltet of Troyes, Fr., from seed of the Pierre Tourasse. It was much noticed at the International Exhibition at Paris in 1900. Fruit large, turbinate, bossed, tender yellow clouded with ochre, washed with rosy gray and salmon on the side next the sun, with speckles of fawn; flesh fine, melting, very juicy, saccharine, with perfume noticeable oh the skin, and flavor recalling that of the Duchesse d'Angouletme; mid-Dec, to.mid-Jan.

Minot Jean Marie. 1. Guide Prat. 100. 1876.
A seedling of Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel. Fruit large, pyriform, shortened, covered with russet on a yellow foundation; flesh yellowish, breaking, very juicy, sugary; first; Dec. to Feb.

Missile d'Hiver. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 169. 1841.
A foreign variety recommended by M. Dalbret and M. Jamin, well known pomologists. Fruit large, buttery, valuable according to M. Jamin; Nov. and Dec.

Mission. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 73. 1895.
Originated at the old mission near Capistrano, California. Fruit medium, acutely pyriform, long, yellow, nearly covered with russet; flesh very fine and buttery; very mild or sweet; ripe in Sept. in southern California.

Mr. Hill's Pear. 1. Langley Pomona 132, PI. LXIII, figs. 2, 4. 1729.
Mentioned by Batty Langley, Twickenham, Eng., as bearing two crops in the year. Fruit rather small, obtuse-pyriform, usually distorted at the upper end, grows in clusters; in 1727 the first crop matured on Aug. 24, and the second crop on Oct. 1.

Mitchell Russet. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 525. 1857. 2. Ibid. 817. 1869.
Originated at Belleville, Ill. Fruit medium or small, obovate inclining to conic; skin rough, dark russet, thickly covered with gray dots; flesh juicy, melting, rich and highly perfumed, astringent; scarcely good; Oct.

Mitschurin. 1. Can. Hort. 17:292. 1894.
Probably Russian. Fruit very large; a good kitchen fruit; mid-season.

Moccas. 1. Gard. Chron. 717. 1841. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 617. 1884.
Raised from seed by Thomas Andrew Knight, Downton Castle, Eng. Fruit medium, oval, uneven, and bossed in outline, lemon-colored, marked with patches and veins of thin pale brown-russet and strewed with russet dots; flesh yellowish, fine, melting, tender, full of rich vinous juice, musky in flavor; a delicious dessert pear.

Mollet Guernsey Beurré. 1. Gard. Chron. 36, 85. 1842.
Raised from seed by Charles Mollet of Guernsey, Channel Islands, who died in 1819. Fruit medium, obovate or somewhat pyramidal, with a remarkable fleshy extension of about J inch at the insertion of the stalk, surface of the pear uneven, yellow, but much obscured with ferruginous russet, sometimes equally scattered, but often disposed in broad, longitudinal stripes; flesh yellowish, very melting, buttery, with a rich Chaumontel flavor though distinct; Dec.

Monarch, 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 312. 1866. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 188. 1920.  Knight Monarch. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 796. 1869.
Raised by Thomas Andrew Knight, Downton Castle, Eng., in 1830. Bunyard says: "Tree easily recognized in winter by its very large oval buds, which stand out like those of a red currant."Fruit medium, globular, yellowish-green, much covered with brown-russet and strewed with gray-russet specks; flesh yellowish, buttery, melting and very juicy, with a rich, vinous, sugary, and agreeably-perfumed flavor; first, one of the most valuable; Dec. and Jan.

Monchallard. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:429, fig. 1869. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 189. 1920.
Found about 1810 by M. Monchallard at Valeuil, Dordogne, Fr. Fruit above medium to large, long-obovate, very obtuse; skin delicate, yellow, clear and dull, speckled uniformly with greenish dots and often washed with dark red on the cheek next the sun; flesh very white, fine or semi-fine, extremely melting, juicy, saccharine, acidulous, slightly aromatic and of delicious flavor; first; end of Aug. and Sept.

Mongolian. 1. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 215. 1896. 2. Cornell Sta. Bul. 332:482. 1913.
Considered by Budd of Iowa to be the best of the oriental varieties yet tested in this country. Obtained from seed at Ames, Iowa. Fruit medium to large, globular-oval, narrowing at both ends, with its greatest diameter near the middle, similar to Kieffer in shape, inclined to ridging near the apex, greenish, with blushed cheeks and russet dots; flesh tender, melting, juicy; good when ripened indoors.

Monseigneur Affre. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:430, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 618. 1884.
Raised by Van Mons though the tree did not produce fruit until 1845, three years after his death. Fruit medium, form variable, globular-obtuse-truncate, pyriform, greenish-yellow; flesh white, reddish under the skin, very melting, juicy, sugary, acidulous, aromatic, with a fine flavor; first; Nov.

Monseigneur des Hons. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:431, fig. 1869.
M. Gibey-Lorne, Troyes, Fr., raised this pear from seed in 1856. Fruit below medium and often small, usually turbinate, rather long and obtuse, but sometimes cylindrical and bossed, olive-green dotted with russet on the shaded side, golden on the exposed face, sometimes blushed with carmine; flesh yellowish-white, fine, melting; juice abundant, saccharine, acidulous, aromatic; second; end of Aug.

Monseigneur Sibour. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:432, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 817. 1869.
Originated at Jodoigne, Bel., from a bed made by Xavier Grégoire; it dates from 1855. Fruit above medium but often less, ovate, swelled in its lower half, yellowish-green, dotted, marbled and streaked with gray-russet and more or less washed with brown-fawn on the side of the sun; flesh whitish, rather coarse, semi-melting, juicy, containing numerous grits around the core; juice saccharine, vinous and aromatic; second; end of Oct.

Moon. 1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:183. 1908.
Cultivated by Silas Wharton in 1824. Its synonyms, Moon's Pound, and Pound, Moon's, are significant of its size. Fruit described by Ragan as medium sized, yellow; flesh melting, juicy; good; late.

Moorcroft. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 619. 1884.
Often called in England the Malvern pear, being much grown about that place; esteemed for perry. Fruit small, globular, even and regular in outline, greenish-yellow on the shaded side, and with a brownish tinge on the side next the sun, strewed all over with large ashy gray freckles of russet; flesh breaking.

Moorfowl Egg. 1. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 361. 1831.  Muirfowl Egg. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 619. 1884.
An old Scotch dessert pear partaking somewhat of the character of Swan Egg. Fruit below medium, globular, dull green changing to yellow-green, mottled with red next the sun, and thickly strewed with pale brown-russety dots; flesh yellowish, semi-buttery, tender, sweet and with a slight perfume; Oct.

Morel. 1. Mag. Hort. 21:151. 1855. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:434, fig. 1869.
Propagated by Alexandre Bivort, successor of Van Mons, and can be traced earlier than 1843. Fruit below medium or small, ovate, sensibly hexagonal, flattened at either extremity, and one side usually more enlarged than the other, yellowish-green, dotted and marbled with russet; flesh yellowish, fine, breaking, rather granular at the center; juice abundant, wanting in sweetness, insipid and of a very unpleasant astringency; second, but good only for cooking; Apr.

Morgan. 1. Horticulturist 14:250, fig. 1859. 2. Mag. Hort. 25:541. 1859.
Originated on the farm of a Mr. Morgan in New Hanover County, North Carolina. Fruit large, oblate varying to obtuse-pyriform, greenish-yellow, speckled with gray-russet intermingled with some tracery of the same; flesh white, a little gritty, juicy, sweet, slightly vinous; very good, nearly best; Oct.
[not to be confused with a pear of the same name released by the University of Tennessee's breeding program of Brooks Drain in the 1950's -ASC]

Morley. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 593. 1629.
Mentioned in Parkinson's list of orchard pears as a "very good peare, like in forme and colour unto the Windsor but somewhat grayer."

Morosovskaja. 1. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 61. 1880.
Mentioned in a paper read by Mr. J. L. Budd before the Horticultural Society of Iowa in 1880. It is a Russian variety, having gritty, thorn-like wood.

Moskovka. 1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:184. 1908.
A Russian variety said to be largely grown for cooking. Fruit small, pyriform, juicy early season.

Mostbirne. 1. DochnahlFühr. Obstkunde 2:173. 1856.
Nassau, Ger., 1802. Fruit medium, pyriform, sides rather unequal, whitish-yellow skin changing to lemon-yellow, without any blush, dotted indistinctly, russeted; flesh yellow, breaking, coarse-grained, juicy, aromatic, sweet; third for dessert, but first for cooking and perry; Sept. and Oct.

Moyamensing. 1. Mag. Hort. 13:274. 1847. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 818. 1869.
Supposed to be a native. The original tree stood in 1847 in the garden of J. B. Smith of Philadelphia. Fruit medium, variable in form, some globular, others obovate, uniform light yellow, with patches and dots of russet; flesh whitish, buttery, melting, coarse, sweet; with a rich, spicy and delicious flavor; good to best; Aug. and Sept.

Mrs. Seden. 1. Garden 76:36, figs. 1912.
A cross between Seckel and Bergamotte Esperén; exhibited by James Veitch and Sons, Chelsea, Eng., before the Royal Horticultural Society in January, 1912, and received an award of merit. Fruit small, round, yellow, toning to a bright crimson on the sunny side; flesh is free from the grittiness which sometimes characterizes the fruits of Bergamotte Esperén; the flavor is remarkably fine; Jan.

Muddy Brook. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 45. 1866.
A seedling from S. A. Shurtleff of Brookline, Mass., which fruited in 1862. Fruit diameter 2¼ inches, short pyriform; skin dark green; flesh white, melting and juicy, with good flavor; great bearer and good market pear; Sept.

Muir Everbearing. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 135. 1920.
Originated with Hal Muir, Bloomfield, Ky., about 1870. Reported as "delicious; August to November."

Mungo Park. 1. Dochnahl Fü. Obstkunde 2:160. 1856. 2. Guide Prat. 100. 1876.
A seedling of Van Mons named after the celebrated Scotch voyager. Fruit small, turbinate-pyriform or globular-ovate, very pale green sprinkled with fawn dots, very small, numerous, and feebly visible, the basic green passing at maturity to pale whitish-yellow and becoming a little golden on the side of the sun; flesh white, very fine, melting, free from grit, full of sugary juice, sprightly and agreeably perfumed; first; Oct.

Munz Apothekerbirne. 1. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 30:370. 1891.
Presumably German. A medium-sized pear, obovate, oblong, with a stalk rather more than an inch long, continuous with the fruit, yellowish; flesh white; of good flavor; Aug.

Muscadine. 1. Mag. Hort. 1:364. 1835. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 818. 1869.
The original tree is supposed to have grown on the farm of a Dr. Fowler near New-burgh, N. Y., and the pear was introduced to notice by Downing. Fruit medium, globular-obovate, regular in form, pale yellowish-green, thickly sprinkled with brown dots; flesh white, buttery, semi-melting, with an agreeable rich, musky flavor; good to very good, a valuable late summer variety; end of Aug. and beginning of Sept.

Muscat Allemand d'Automne, 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:437, fig. 1869. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 256. 1889.
Found in the Horticultural Society's Garden at Angers, Fr., in 1833. Its origin is uncertain but the name indicates that it came from Germany. Fruit medium and sometimes below, rather variable in form, from long-pyriform, slightly obtuse and regular in contour, to irregular-ovate and strongly bossed, somber yellow, dotted with clear gray, extensively washed with russet, and vermilioned on the side exposed to the sun; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, rather granular, watery; juice abundant and saccharine, vinous, musky and almost always marred by too great an acidity; second; Oct.

Muscat Fleuri d'Été. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:121. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:441, fig. 1869.
Known at Orléans at the end of the sixteenth century under the name Muscat à longue queue. Fruit small, globular-turbinate or turbinate slightly ovate, olive-yellow finely dotted with fawn and washed with red-brown on the cheek next the sun; flesh yellowish, coarse, semi-breaking, juicy, saccharine, acidulous, musky; second; end of July.

Muscat Robert, 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:120, PL II. 1768. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 818. 1869.
This pear was mentioned by Le Lectier in 1628 and by la Quintinye in 1690 under the name of Pucelle de Saintonge. Its name of Muscat Robert dates from about 1672 and Merlet wrote of it in 1675 as the Amber Pear or Muscat Robert. It has also been widely known as the Amber Pear. Fruit small, globular, very round in all its lower part but slightly conic at its other extremity where it is a little wrinkled, yellowish-green, finely and uniformly dotted with olive-brown and sometimes rather carmined on the cheek exposed to the sun; flesh whitish, semi-fine, breaking or semi-breaking, inclined to rot before ripe, granular, very juicy, sugary, very musky; second; mid-July,

Muscat Royal. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:120. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:444, fig. 1869.
An old French pear growing in kitchen garden at Versailles planted about 1670 by La Quintinye for Louis XIV. It was then called Muscat fleuri d'Autumne or Muscat à longue queue, on account of its long stem. Fruit small, globular in its lower half but somewhat conic-obtuse in its upper half; skin fine, grayish-yellow, dotted with clear brown and partly covered with russet which often passes into brownish-red of a somber hue on the side next the sun; flesh white, semi-fine, melting or semi-melting, watery, rather granular round the seeds; juice abundant, very saccharine, more or less acid and having a pleasant flavor; second; Sept.

Muscat Royal de Mayer. 1. Mas Le Verger 2:225, fig. in. 1866-73.
This is the Muscat Royal described by the German Mayer in his Pomona Franconia, 1779, and by Diel in 1804, and must not be confused with the Muscat Royal of Duhamel. Fruit small or nearly medium on a pruned tree, globular-turbinate, largest circumference around the middle, very obtuse; skin thick, green, covered with a sort of white bloom which dulls it, sprinkled with numerous round, whitish-gray dots, especially apparent on the side next the sun where they are nearly white; at maturity the green brightens somewhat; by the time it becomes yellow the fruit is already over ripe; flesh greenish, coarse, gritty at the core, semi-buttery, fairly full of sugary juice, with an agreeable musky flavor; third, should be eaten promptly on ripening; end of July.

Muscat Roye. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 1:134. 1831.
Fruit small, oblong; skin rough to the touch, yellowish-green on the shaded side, and of a "pleasant red "next the sun; flesh breaking and perfumed; end of Aug.

Muscatelle. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:448, fig. 1869.
One of the last gains of Major Espéren, Mechlin, Bel., who died in 1847. Fruit small, nearly globular or globular-conic, at first water-green dotted with numerous round points brown in color, changing to lemon-yellow; flesh yellowish, transparent, semi- or nearly melting, full of sugary juice strongly scented with musk; first; Feb. and Mar.

Musette d'Anjou. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:446, fig. 1869.
Claude Saint-Étienne wrote of this pear briefly in 1687, being the first writer to mention it. Probably it originated in the old province of Anjou. Its name and form recall the rural bag-pipes which the Breton country folk play, and dance to, Fruit below medium, very elongated, flattened at its extremities, constricted at the middle, the upper part being often bent so as to make it resemble the musical instrument after which it is named, lemon-yellow or yellow-ochre, dotted uniformly with gray and brown points; flesh white, coarse and breaking, watery and gritty; juice sufficient, rarely very saccharine, more or less astringent, slightly perfumed, and with a disagreeable after-taste; third; Sept.

Musette de Nancy. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 621. 1884.
Fruit large, pyramidal and handsome, with an uneven and undulating outline, shaped like Beurré de Ranee, lemon-yellow covered with a fine, warm, orange-brown or bright cinnamon-colored russet; flesh yellowish-white, rather crisp like the texture of Passe Colmar; juice abundant, rich, saccharine and very finely perfumed; first; end of Oct. and beginning of Nov.

Muskateller-Bergamotte. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:21. 1856.
Origin uncertain, probably German. Fruit small, globular, light grass-green changing to yellowish-green, uniform in color, washed with brown on the side exposed to the sun, strongly dotted with brown; flesh melting, extremely musky; first for the table; Oct.

Muskingum. 1, Cole Am. Fr. Book 153. 1849. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 819. 1869.
Origin uncertain, but probably either Ohio or Connecticut is its native habitat. Fruit medium, globular to obovate, greenish-yellow, with dark specks and much russet; flesh breaking, yellow-white, with many dark specks and much russet, juicy, sprightly, vinous, pleasantly perfumed, aromatic flavor; good; middle and last of Aug.

Muskirte Wintereirbirne. 1. Christ Handb. 508. 1817. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:57. 1856.
A Dutch variety, published in 1801. Fruit small, ovate, medium ventriculous; skin fine and smooth, light straw-yellow changing to a waxy lemon-yellow and often washed with a golden blush; flesh semi-breaking, sweet, having a musky aroma; second for dessert, first for household; Dec. to Feb.

Musquée d'Esperén. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:448, fig. 1869.
A seedling of Major Esperén; probably first reported in 1845. Fruit medium, variable in form, passing from ovate rounded at each end to ovate nearly cylindrical and more or less bossed; greenish-yellow, dotted and streaked with russet; flesh whitish, fine, breaking, perfumed; juice very abundant, saccharine, acidulous and very musky in flavor and agreeable; first; beginning of Feb. and through Mar.

Mussette. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:169. 1856.
A Normandy perry pear. Fruit medium, rather long-pyriform; skin a dirty greenish-yellow changing to brown-green; flesh gritty, juicy, sweet, sharp and vinous; good for household use, first class for perry; end of Oct.

Mützchensbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:162. 1856.
German, 1807. Fruit small, in clusters, short-turbinate, upper end flat, greenish-yellow, covered with cinnamon and dotted; flesh whitish-yellow, tender, sweet, vinous; third for dessert, first for culinary use; Oct.


Naegelgesbirn. 1. Guide Prat. 80. 1876.
A Rhenish-Prussian perry pear which is exceedingly prolific but produces a perry of inferior quality.

Nain Vert. 1. Gard. Chron. 914. 1860. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:450, fig. 1869. 3. Jour. Hort. N. S. 32:256. 1896.
This strange variety was obtained from seed by M. de Nerbonne, in the commune of Huillé (Maine-et-Loire), Fr., and first fruited in 1839. The tree forms a bush between 3 and 4 feet high; it is remarkable for its dwarf habit, and its erect, thick, fleshy branches, Fruit medium and sometimes larger, globular, irregular, but variable in form; skin thin, slightly rough, yellowish-green, uniformly covered with large gray-russet dots; flesh white, semi-fine and semi-melting, rather dry; juice deficient, sugary, sweet, almost without perfume; third; Oct.

Napa. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 68. 1895.
Originated in California and was introduced by Leonard Coates in 1886. Fruit very large, mid-season.

Naples. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:451, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 621. 1884.
This old variety known in France for many centuries and described by Claude Saint-Étienne in 1670 was also known as the Feuille de chêne or Oak leaf. Its name indicates that it came from Italy. Henri Manger said in 1780 that it appeared to him to be identical with the pear Picentia described by Pliny. Fruit medium and often less, turbinate-obtuse much swelled at central circumference, and more or less bossed at both extremities, olive-yellow or bright green at first, changing to a beautiful lemon-yellow, finely dotted with fawn, brownish-red next the sun, changing to bright red as the ground color changes; flesh whitish, semi-fine, semi-breaking, almost free from grit; juice plentiful, sweet and sugary, possessing usually a slight after-taste of anis; second; Jan. to Mar.

Napoleon. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 819. 1869. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 189. 1920.  Napoleon I. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:453, ng- 1869.  Napoleon Butterbirne. 4. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 257. 1889.
Napoleon was raised in 1808 by M. Liard, a gardener at Mons, Bel. Fruit large, obtuse-pyriform, swelled toward the base; skin thin, smooth, bright green changing to greenish-yellow, covered with numerous brown dots, seldom blushed; flesh white and fine, tender, melting, rather granular, very juicy, with a very saccharine, refreshing and aromatic flavor; first, a valuable dessert pear; mid-Oct. or nearly Nov. to Dec.

Napoléon Savinien. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 4:71, fig. 1856. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 819. 1869.
Obtained in the garden of the Society Van Mons at Geest-Saint-Rémy, Bel., in 1854. Fruit medium, turbinate-ventriculous or pyriform-ventriculous, acute at the top which passes into the stalk; greenish-yellow, dotted with gray-russet; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, juicy and perfumed, saccharine; juice musky, delicate; Oct. to Mar.; the long period of its ripening is its very valuable quality.

Napoleon III. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:457, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 622. 1884.
The seedling which bore this beautiful fruit came from the seed beds of André Leroy. It was first reported in 1864. Fruit large, obovate, obtuse, uneven, deep yellow, dotted and streaked with russet, and marked with numerous brownish stains; flesh white, fine, juicy and vinous, saccharine, tastes sourish; an excellent pear, first; Sept.

Naquette. 1. Mas Le Verger 2:109, fig. 53. 1866-73.
Under the name Naquette this pear was described by Claude Saint-Étienne in 1670. After that time it appears to have been classed in the Caillot family with the name Caillot. Later still it received among other names that of Bergamot Early (Lindley) and Bergamote Précoce (Calvel). Fruit medium or smaller, spherical, flattened at both poles; skin thin, smooth, grass-green dotted with fawn, when ripe clouded with yellow on the shaded side and washed or streaked with red on the cheek next the sun; flesh white, rather transparent, fine, melting, full of sugary juice, acidulous, pleasantly perfumed, very delicate; first; mid-Aug.

Nassau Ehre. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:47. 1856.
Belgian, 1823. Fruit medium, pyriform, blushed, somewhat streaked with vermilion, slightly russeted; flesh semi-breaking, fine, cinnamon-flavored, sweet; second for dessert, first for household use; end of Aug.

Naudin. 1. Guide Prat. 101. 1876.
Published in the Revue Horticole, Fr., in 1869. Fruit medium, long-pyriform, grass-green stained with gray; flesh extremely melting, very juicy, pleasantly relieved with a fresh savor; first; Aug. to Oct.

Naumkeag. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 149. 1841.
Originated at Salem, Mass., by George Johonnot; derives its name from the old Indian name of Salem. Fruit medium, globular, yellow-russet; flesh juicy, melting but rather astringent in flavor; good; Oct.

Navez Peintre. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 622. 1884.
Received by Hogg, the English pomologist, from M. Papeleu, Wetteren, Bel., in 1857. Fruit medium, ovate, even and regular in form, yellowish-green on the shaded side and marked with bands of brown-russet, but#with a blush of brownish-red next the sun; flesh yellowish, melting, very juicy, piquant and sugary, with a fine aroma; a very fine pear; end of Sept.

Neapolitan. 1. Brookshaw Hort. Reposit. 2:PL 72. 1823.
Described by Brookshaw in 1823 as a valuable acquisition to English collections. Fruit thin-skinned, green changing to yellow when quite ripe, rich in flavor, and so juicy that it cannot be pared without a considerable quantity of the juice running from it; Nov.

Nee Plus Meuris. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 622. 1884. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 189. 1920.
This is not the Nee Plus Meuris of France which is our Beurré d'Anjou. The origin is uncertain. Fruit small, round-oval, uneven, greenish-yellow, nearly covered with rough brown-russet; stem very short, stout, continuous with the fruit; calyx large, open, in a small basin; flesh pale, yellow, melting, deliciously perfumed; Feb. and Mar.

Nectarine. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 622. 1884.
Fruit medium, globular-obovate, yellow covered with large dots and patches of pale brown-russet; flesh yellowish, buttery, rich, with a fine, brisk, acidulous flavor and agreeable aroma; first-rate, with a good deal of the character of the Passe Colmar; Oct.

Negley. 1. Mag. Hort. 26:267, 397. 1860. 2. Downing Fr, Trees Am. 820. 1869.
Introduced in 1860 by J. S. Negley, Pittsburg, Pa. Fruit above medium, obtusely obovate, nearly regular, sometimes a perfect pyriform, rich lemon shaded with bright crimson in the sun, sprinkled with minute brown-russet dots; flesh white, a little coarse, moderately melting, juicy, richly saccharine, vinous, slightly aromatic; good to very good; Sept.

New Bridge. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:204. 1832.
Described in the London Horticultural Society's catalog in 1832 as having been produced in the Horticultural Garden at Chiswick. Fruit below medium, turbinate, dull gray covered with thin gray-russet, and light, lively, shining brown on the sunny side; flesh melting, a little gritty, with a sugary juice, but without flavor; Oct.

New Haven. 1. Mag. Hort. 3:327. 1837.
A seedling raised in the garden of Dr. Ives, New Haven, Conn. It was said to partake of the habit of White Doyenné, to be a good cropper, and of excellent quality.

New Meadow. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 623. 1884.
A perry pear, grown in Herefordshire, England. Fruit very small, turbinate, covered with brownish-gray russet, and a brownish cheek next the sun.

Newhall. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 37. 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 820. 1869.
A seedling of F. and L. Clapp, exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1867. Fruit large, obtuse-pyriform, inclining to oval, surface rather uneven, yellow at maturity, with some traces of russet, occasionally blushed on the side next the sun; flesh melting, buttery, tender, very juicy, sweet, with a musky aroma; very good; Oct.

Newtown. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 820. 1869.
Originated at Newtown, Long Island. Fruit medium, globular-obovate, lemon-yellow, netted and patched with russet; flesh whitish, rather coarse, semi-melting, sweet, and pleasant; good; Sept.

Nicholas. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 10. 1869.
A seedling shown by Messrs. F. and L. Clapp in November, 1869. Fruit medium, obovate; skin thin, yellow; very juicy and highly flavored.

Nickerson. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 820. 1869.
Originated from seed planted at Readfield, Me. Fruit large, oblong-pyriform, greenish-yellow, with a dull red cheek on the side next the sun; flesh white, juicy, melting, vinous, sweet; good; Oct.

Nicolas Eischen. 1. Guide Prat. 101. 1876.
Reported in 1876 by Messrs. Simon-Louis as on trial in their nurseries at Metz, Lorraine. It was said to be a beautiful fruit, speckled and very musky like the Bartlett, but more perfumed; Dec. to Feb.

Niell d'Hiver. 1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:189. 1908.
Shown at a meeting of the Cincinnati Horticultural Society in 1855. A late variety, acid in flavor.

Nikitaer Grüne Herbst-Apothekerbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:182. 1856.  Bon-Chrétien de Nikita. 2. Guide Prat. 282. 1895.
German, published 1852. Fruit medium, conic, light green changing to light green-yellow, without any blush, numerous fine dots, russeted on the sun-exposed side; flesh yellowish-white, sweet, vinous; first for household purposes; Oct., eight weeks.

Niles. 1. Mag. Hort. 20:76. 1854. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 821. 1869.
This variety was imported from France about 1850 by the Hon. J. M. Niles, Hartford, Conn., without a name. It was consequently designated "Niles."Some pomologists have considered it to be the Easter Beurré, but it appears to be more oblong in form, more yellow in color, to have a longer stem and to be earlier in time of maturity. Fruit large, obtuse-pyriform, yellow thickly covered with russet dots; flesh juicy, buttery, sweet and pleasant; Dec.

Niochi de Parma. 1. Guide Prat. 101. 1876.
A summer variety highly esteemed in Piedmont, Italy. It is suitable for cultivation on a large scale and is hardy, having resisted the phenomenal European frost of 1879-1880.

Noir Grain. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 180. 1832.
A variety very highly esteemed in Flanders in the early part of the last century. Fruit is of medium size and matures in Sept., the flesh being buttery as is indicated by its synonym Beurré noire graine.

Noire d'Alagier. 1. Guide Prat. 96. 1895.
A Caucasian variety sent out by M. Niemetz, Winnitsa, Podolia, Russia. On trial with Messrs. Simon-Louis of Metz, Lorraine, in 1895. The fruit is said to resemble Winter Nelis, gray, bronze-russeted, rough; flesh fine, juicy.

Nonpareil. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 821. 1869.
A seedling raised by Judge Livingston, of New York. Fruit globular-oblate, russety-yellow, mostly overspread and shaded with red in sun, and bright fawn-russet in shade; flesh yellowish-white, melting, juicy, sweet, perfumed; Nov.

Nordhäuser Winter-Forellenbirne. 1. Deutschland Obst. 2:Pt. 6, Pl.1906.
A North German variety of the Forelle or Trout Pear. It is known as the Winter Forelle or Northern Forelle. Fruit medium, conic-obtuse; skin smooth and shining, greenish-yellow, speckled and washed with red on the side next the sun, dotted all over on the shaded face with fine brownish-red; flesh white, melting, sweet, aromatic and agreeable; Jan. to Mar.

Norfolk County. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 44. 1866.
A seedling raised by S. A. Shurtleff of Brookline, Mass., and submitted by him to the Fruit Committee of the Horticultural Society of that state in 1866. Fruit, long diameter 3¾ inches, short diameter 3¼ inches, long turbinate, green with dots, good grain, juicy, with pleasant flavor, ripens well, a handsome fruit and large bearer; Oct. 11.

Normännische Ciderbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 168, fig. 1913.
This pear was found growing wild in Normandy, Fr., and in Upper Austria, and is excellent for making perry and for distillation. Fruit very small, turbinate, greenish-yellow covered with cinnamon-russet and ashy-gray dots; flesh yellowish-white, rather dry, sweet but with some sprightliness; Sept.

Notaire Lepin, 1. Rev. Hort. 449. 1889.
Notaire Lepin was obtained by M. Rollet, a horticulturist at Villefranche, Rhône, Pr., about 1860 and was placed on the market in 1879. Fruit large or very large, variable in size, obtuse-pyramidal but variable, skin fine, somewhat rough to the touch, yellow, dotted with russet, marbled with fawn, flesh white, granular around the core, fine, melting, very juicy, saccharine, slightly but agreeably perfumed; its quality very variable, rather good, and rarely very good; Jan. to Apr.

Notaire Minot. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:465, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 821. 1869.
A posthumous gain of Van Mons of only very moderate merit. It fruited in nurseries at Geest-Saint-Rémy, Jodoigne, Bel., in 1844. Fruit medium, rather variable in form, but usually irregular ovate-globular or very obtuse-turbinate and ventriculous; skin thick and rather rough, grass-green, dotted all over with fawn and blushed with dark red on the side of the sun; flesh yellowish, semi-fine and semi-melting, very gritty around the core; juice insufficient, saccharine, aromatic, having a disagreeable astringency; third; Oct.

Nouveau Doyenné d'Hiver. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:9, fig. 5. 1872.
Stated by Diel to have been a gain of Van Mons. Fruit medium, spherical or spherical-conic, slightly depressed at the two poles, even in its outline; skin thick and firm, of a very clear green, sprinkled with small brown dots regularly placed in a characteristic manner; at maturity the basic green passes to pale yellow and the side next the sun becomes a little golden; flesh white, rather fine, compact, breaking or semi-breaking; juice deficient, saccharine but wanting in perfume; not very desirable; end of winter.

Nouveau Poiteau. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:466, fig. 1869. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 190. 1920.
According to Leroy this was a. seedling of Van Mons raised in his nursery at Louvain from a bed made in 1827. Fruit large and sometimes enormous, oblong or irregular-ovate, always much bossed, swelled around the middle and often more so on one side than on the other, grass-green, covered with numerous fawn dots, and with some squamose patches of brown-russet on the side of the sun; flesh white, greenish near the core, very fine, melting, juicy, saccharine, acidulous, savory; first; Oct.

Nouvelle Aglaé. 1. Guide Prat. 101. 1876.
Obtained by M. Grégoire, Jodoigne, Brabant. Fruit medium, long-obtuse-oval, dark yellow touched with fawn; flesh fine, juicy; first; end of autumn.

Nouvelle Fulvie. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 4:59, fig. 1857. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 190. 1920.  Belle de Jarnac. 3. LeroyDict. Pom.1:203, fig. 1867.
A gain of M. Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel. First reported in 1854. Fruit large or very large, pyramidal-pyriform, strongly bossed, lemon-yellow when ripe, colored with vivid red on the side exposed to the sun, marked and dotted with russet; flesh yellowish-white, very fine, melting, buttery; juice very abundant, sugary, having an exquisite perfume; good; Nov. to Feb.

Nussbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:162. 1856.
Schwarben, Thuringer Wald, Ger., 1800. Fruit small, globular-turbinate, green, thick skin; flesh firm, breaking, vinous and acidulous; first for household; end of Aug.

Nypse. 1. Guide Prat. 101. 1876.
A winter pear received by Messrs. Simon-Louis, Metz, Lorraine, from Italy, and on trial in that firm's orchards in 1876.


Oakley Park Bergamotte. 1. Mag. Hort. 13:152. 1847.
Raised from seed by T. A. Knight, Downton Castle, Eng. former President of the London Horticultural Society. Fruit medium, globular-obovate, greenish-yellow, with russet; flesh buttery, melting; good; Oct.

Ochsenherz. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:185. 1856.  Caur-de-Boeuf. 2. Guide Prat. 90, 258. 1876.
South Germany, 1801. Fruit large, pyriform, crooked, light green turning to lemon-yellow, almost entirely blushed with dull light red, dotted with green; flesh pulpy and tender, not juicy, very sweet and musky; third for table, first for household and market; end of Oct.

Ockletree. 1. Hist. Mass. Hort. Soc. 37. 1880.
This was a seedling brought from Pittsburg, Pa., in 1804 and planted near Vincennes, Ind. In 1837 it produced 140 bushels of pears, the largest crop recorded from it. In 1855 it measured ten and one-half feet in circumference at the smallest place below the limbs, seventy-five feet across the top, and sixty-five feet in height. In 1867 it was split down by a tornado, and seven or eight years later the trunk also died. It took its name from Mr. Ockletree its owner. The fruit was of inferior quality.

Octave Lachambre. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:469, fig. 1869.
M. Octave Lachambre, Loudon, Vienne, Fr., found this variety in the orchard of the Chateau of Gueriniere about 1825. M. Lachambre propagated it and offered it to Leroy who placed it on the market in 1860. Fruit medium or less, globular-ovate, bossed, flattened at the top, and always smaller on one side than on the other, dull yellow, finely dotted and streaked with russet, slightly mottled with fawn on the cheek exposed to the sun and around the calyx and stalk; flesh whitish, fine, melting or semi-melting, rather granular around the core; juice extremely abundant, acidulous and saccharine, more or less aromatic but always full of flavor; first; May.

Oesterreichische Muskatellerbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:24. 1856.
Austria, 1851. Fruit medium, globular, medium ventriculous; skin thick, greenish-yellow, somewhat blushed with brown and without russet; flesh firm, somewhat gritty, very melting and juicy; first for dessert, household and market; Sept.

Œuf de Woltmann, 1. Mas Le Verger 2:221, fig. 109. 1866-73.
Of German origin. Fruit small to medium, exactly ovate, bright green, sprinkled with numerous dots, some gray and some dark green; at maturity the basic green changes to pale yellow the dots becoming less visible and on well-exposed fruits the side next the sun is slightly blushed with earthy-red on which are some dots of whitish-gray; flesh very white, semi-fine, semi-breaking, sugary, with a refreshing and agreeable perfume; good; etend of July.

Ogereau. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 177:39. 1899.
Believed to be European. Fruit obovate-oblong-pyriform, yellow blushed with red, some russet; flesh white, buttery, vinous, medium quality, for market; Oct. and Nov.

Ognon. 1. Guide Prat. 70. 1895.
Sent out by M. Gilbert, Antwerp, Bel. Fruit small to medium, globular, irregular, green covered with russet; third class; Sept.

Ognonnet. 1. Baltet Cult. Fr. 375. 1908.
A cider pear used in France for the production of alcohol by distillation.

Oignon. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:473, fig- 1869. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 191.  1920.
This is a variety which Leroy found cultivated in the western Departments of France which he thought might be the same as the pear called by Le Lectier in 1628 Oignon d'Été de Bretagne. In England it is one of the most fertile pears grown. Fruit above medium, spherical, much flattened at both ends and often smaller on one side than on the other; skin thick and rough, gray-fawn, entirely covered with large grayish dots; flesh whitish, coarse, breaking, rather granular around the core; juice moderate in amount, sweet, saccharine, only slightly perfumed; second; end of Sept.

Oignonet de Provence. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:474, fig. 1869.
The origin of this pear is unknown, but it was propagated by M. Urbain Audibert, a nurseryman near Tarascon in the South of France. In 1812 M. Audibert sent it to M. Loiseleur-Deslongchamps who later published at Paris the Nouveau Duhamel. In this work it was described and illustrated in 1815. Fruit small, globular or ovate, decidedly rounded; skin fine and thin, grass-green, covered with small gray dots, generally speckled with fawn and washed with clear reddish-russet on the side of the sun; flesh greenish-white, fine or semi-fine, melting"gritty at the center; juice sufficient, saccharine, vinegary, with a rather agreeable taste of anis; second; end of July.

Oken. 1. Dochnahl Führ.Obstkunde 2:21. 1856. 2. Leroy Dict. Pont. 2:475, fig. 1869. Winter Oken. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 668. 1884.
A seedling of Van Mons which fruited about 1826. Fruit medium, nearly globular or globular-ovate; skin fine, tender, pale green sprinkled with gray, extensively stained with fawn and slightly vermilioned on the side next the sun; flesh very white and fine, melting, watery, rather granular around the core; juice abundant, saccharine and having an exquisite aroma; first; mid-Oct. to end of Nov.

Oldfield. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:210. 1832. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 624. 1884.
This is one of the most popular English perry pears, and took its name from the field where it was raised near Ledbury in Herefordshire. Fruit small, globular, even and regularly formed; skin uniform yellow, covered with minute dots, and with a patch of russet around the stalk; flesh yellowish, firm, breaking and very astringent.

Olivenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:188. 1856.  German Rhineland, 1806.
Fruit medium or small, globular-turbinate, dark olive-green turning to dull yellowish, dotted, and somewhat blushed with brownish-red; flesh white, fine, cinnamon-flavored, gritty toward center; third for dessert, first for household; Nov.

Oliver Russet. 1. Mag. Hort. 10:212. 1844. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 579. 1857.
Oliver Russet originated about 1832 and was shown before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in the autumn of 1843 by G. W. Oliver, Lynn, Mass., in whose garden the parent tree was found growing. Fruit medium or below, obovate, obtuse; skin fair cinnamon-russet on a yellow ground, with a blush; flesh yellowish, coarse, melting, juicy without much flavor; Oct.

One-third.  1. Iowa Hort. Soc. Rpt. 219. 1879.
Reported to be growing on the Iowa State College Farm and to have been called One-third, from the fact that it is the third generation from seeds originally sown in Wisconsin.

Oneida. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 823. 1869.
Originated in western New York. Fruit medium or below, globular, pale yellow, partially netted and patched with light russet; flesh white, coarse, juicy, semi-melting, agreeable; good; Sept.

Onion. 1. Mawe-Abercrombie Univ. Gard. Boi. 1778. La Grosse Oignonetie. 2. Brookshaw Pomona 2:Pl.LIIL 1817.
The Onion, or La Grosse Oignonette, is a rare pear and is distinct from Oignonet de Provence, Fruit medium, globular, brown-skinned; flesh sweet, well flavored but rather dry, and when too ripe becomes pithy; Sept.

Orange. 1. Mass. Hort, Soc. Rpt. 44. 1866.
A seedling fruited by S. A. Shurtleff of Brookline, Mass., in 1862. Fruit diameter 31 inches, globular; skin tough and bright yellow, with dots; flesh fine-grained, keeps well and is a good cooking pear; end of Dec.

Orange-Bergamot. 1. Bradley Gard. 199. 1739. 2. Brookshaw Horticultural Repository 1:63, PL 31. 1823. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 625. 1884.
Of English origin. Tree hardy, free bearer, succeeding on either pear or quince stock. Fruit small, globular-turbinate; skin smooth, pale green changing to yellow or yellow-green at maturity, blushed with dull red on the side next the sun, strewed with whitish-gray dots; flesh white, semi-melting, juicy, with a sweet, orange flavor; dessert pear; early Sept.

Orange d'Hiver. 1. Duhamel Trait Arb. Fr. 2:144, PI- XIX, fig. 4. 1768. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 824. 1869.  Winter Pomeranzenbirne. 3. Christ Handb. 507. 1817.
Winter Orange. 4. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 390. 1831.
This is a very old pear, probably of French origin. Tree rather vigorous, said to be a late but heavy bearer. Fruit medium, round, somewhat flattened at base and apex, bright yellow, covered all over with numerous brown dots and lined with russet; stem medium long, stout, inserted in a small, oblique cavity; calyx small, open, set in a small, round, very shallow depression; flesh white, rather gritty, firm, crisp, very juicy, with a pleasant, slightly musky, aromatic flavor; a good cooking pear and a fair dessert pear; Feb. to Apr.

Orange Mandarine. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:483, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 625. 1884.
Raised from seed by Leroy at Angers, Fr., and fruited first in 1863. Fruit below medium and sometimes a little larger, globular, rather regular in outline, more or less mam-millate at the summit, pale yellow, passing to clear russet on the cheek exposed to the sun, and covered with minute brown dots; flesh white, very fine and very melting, slightly gritty at the center; juice abundant, saccharine, acidulous, endowed with an exquisite perfume; first; Oct.

Orange Musquée. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:140, PL X. 1768. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 625. 1884.  Müskierte Pomeranzenbirne. 3. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 255. 1889.
This is an old pear of uncertain origin, though probably French or Italian. Fruit medium, globular, more or less bossed, flattened at both ends though sometimes rather conic and obtuse at the top; smooth skin punctured like an orange, yellow-green changing to fine lemon, with a lively red next the sun but rather variable; flesh white, coarse, breaking, gritty at center; juice not very abundant, rather saccharine, sweet, possessing a musky flavor and perfume; quality variable, on the whole, good; end of Aug.

Orange Rouge. 1. Duhamel Trait Arb. Fr. 2:141. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:486,  fig. 1869. Red Orange. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 636. 1884.
An old variety of obscure origin. Henri Manger wrote in 1783 that it appeared to him to be the Favonianum Rubrum mentioned by Pliny, but it appears according to M. Leroy more likely to have originated at Poitiers, and to be the Rousette or Orange du Poitou or Poire de Poitiers. Fruit medium, round, even, regular or inclining to turbinate; skin thick, clear grayish-yellow, clouded with green on the shaded side, sprinkled with pale gray dots and extensively washed and streaked with a lively dark red; flesh whitish, semi-fine; juice abundant, more or less saccharine, acidulous and musky; second, often third; end of Aug.

Orange Tulipée. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:202, PL XLL 1768. 2. Leroy Dict.  Pom. 488, fig. 1869.
An old French pear grown in the south of France and sold in Paris at a very low price. It is known to have been cultivated for some three centuries, but is not worth growing today. Described in the Jardinier François in 1665. Fruit medium and often below, globular-ovate, or turbinate-rounded, with one side larger than the other; skin thick and rough, yellow-green, sprinkled with large, gray, scaly dots, and well colored with red-brown on the side next the sun, and numerous carmine streaks and marks on the other side; flesh white, semi-fine and semi-melting, more or less granular around the core; juice sufficient, saccharine, slightly astringent, with a slight perfume of fennel; third; Sept.

Orange de Vienne. 1. Guide Prat. 101. 1876.  Wiener Pomeranzenbirne. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:150. 1856. A Van Mons seedling, 1825. Fruit small to medium, short-turbinate, clear yellow, with light brown dots; flesh granular, semi-melting, very sweet and sugary, having a Bergamot flavor; first for table and all purposes; mid-Sept.

Ordensbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:132. 1856.
Originated in Nassau, a former German duchy, 1806. Fruit medium, even-sided; skin smooth and tender, yellowish-green turning to light yellowish and light green, seldom blushed, grass-green dots; flesh white, juicy, semi-buttery; very good for dessert and good for cooking and the market; mid-Aug.

Orel 15. 1. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 187. 1896. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 41, 42. 1915.
Introduced from Russia about 1880 by Professor Budd of the Iowa Agricultural College. Free from blight and apparently valuable as a stock for top-grafting.

Orpheline Colmar. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge2:77, fig. 1854. 2. MathieuNom. Pom. 260. 1889.
The Orpheline Colmar was a gain of Van Mons a few years before his death and is a beautiful and handsome fruit. Fruit very large, pyriform and obtuse-pyramidal, clear green becoming yellow at maturity, streaked and dotted with grayish-brown and black and stained with russet-fawn on the side of the sun and around the calyx; flesh yellowish-white, fine, melting, rather granular around the core, full of saccharine juice and pleasantly perfumed; good.

Osband Summer. 1. Horticulturist 1:211, fig. 59. 1846. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:492, fig. 1869.
Originated in the vicinity of Palmyra in Wayne County, N. Y., about 1840 and was at first known as Summer Virgalieu and so published in the Genesee Farmer in 1845 or 1846. Fruit small, obovate-pyriform, clear yellow, thickly dotted with small greenish and brown dots, with a warm cheek on the side next the sun and with some traces of russet especially around the stem and calyx; flesh white, juicy, melting, with a rich sugary flavor and agreeable perfume of musk; first in quality-and appearance; early in Aug.

Osborne. 1. Mag. Hort. 12:338. 1846. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 825. 1869.
A native variety which originated on the farm of John Osborne, Economy, Ind. It was introduced by Ernst, and published in the Western Farmer and Gardener (Vol. 5), having first fruited in Ernst's nursery in 1844. Fruit small, short-pyriform, stem planted on one side; skin thin, yellowish-green, with numerous gray dots; flesh white, tender, juicy, brisk, sweet, vinous, with a slight astringency and highly-perfumed flavor; first; Aug. and Sept.

Oswego Beurré. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 825. 1869.
Raised by Walter Read, Oswego, N. Y. Tree vigorous, hardy, and productive. Fruit medium, oblate, sometimes inclining to conic, yellowish-green, streaked and mottled with thin russet; flesh melting, buttery, juicy, with a fine, sprightly, vinous and aromatic flavor; good; Oct. and Nov.

Oswego Incomparable. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 826. 1869.
Originated at Oswego, N. Y. Fruit rather large, obtuse-obovate-pyriform, yellow, slightly netted and patched with russet, a tinge of crimson in the sun and many russet dots; flesh whitish, coarse, semi-melting, sweet, juicy, agreeable; moderate quality, sometimes good; Sept.

Ott. 1. Mag. Hort. 14:424. 1848. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 826. 1869.
Ott is a seedling of Seckel and was originated by Samuel Ott, Montgomery County, Pa., and introduced to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society by Dr. Brincklé of Philadelphia in the summer of 1848. Fruit small, globular-obovate, regular, largest about the middle, rounding off to the calyx end and narrowing to the stem where it is obtuse; skin slightly rough, dull green changing to yellow when mature, some russet, bronzy-red on the sunny side and dotted with russet specks intermixed with some greenish spots; flesh greenish-white, coarse, melting, very juicy, rich, sugary, with a spicy aroma resembling the Seckel; very good; end of Aug.

Owen. 1. Cole Am. Fr. Bk. 174. 1849. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 826. 1869.
Originated in the garden of John Owen, Cambridge, Mass. Fruit small, globular-obtuse-pyriform, dark green, shaded with dull red in the sun and thickly sprinkled with green and light dots; flesh tender, delicious and finely colored; one of the finest cooking pears in its season; Oct. to Dec.

Owener Birne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:10. 1856.
Württemberg, 1830. Fruit globular-turbinate, greenish-yellow, with rather dark blush, russeted all over; flesh yellowish-white, astringent, juicy, breaking, aromatic, first for household use and the making of perry; end of Sept.

Ozark. 1. U.S.D.A. Pom. Rpt. 38. 1895.
Originated about 1845 from seed taken by a Mr. Rooks from Kentucky to Polk County, Missouri. Fruit large, oblate, greenish-yellow, with a few russet veinings and patches, dots numerous, minute, russet; stem medium long, in a large, deep basin; calyx large, open; flesh white, with yellow veins, buttery, granular, mild subacid; good; Aug.


Paddock. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 530. 1857. 2. Ibid. 826. 1869.
Sent out by Chauncey Goodrich, Burlington, Vt. Fruit rather below medium, oblong-ovate-pyriform, light yellow, sometimes with a faint blush; flesh fine-grained, melting, sweet, but not very highly flavored; good; end of July.

Pailleau. 1. Mag. Hort. 8:58. 1842. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 826. 1869.
Attributed to Van Mons, Belgium. Fruit large, oblong, greenish-yellow, rough, with brown and green dots and patches of russet; flesh juicy, sweet, rich, good, but rather coarse-grained; excellent quality; early Sept.

Pain-et-Vin. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:494, fig. 1869.
Cultivated in Normandy early in the nineteenth century under the two names of Pain-et-Vin and Chêne-Vert or Green-Oak. Fruit medium, ovate, rather long and swelled; skin thin, rough, dark yellow ground covered with bronze, freely stained and dotted with gray and reddened on the side of the sun; flesh yellowish-white, semi-fine, very firm, although semi-melting, rather gritty at core, very juicy, saccharine, acid, very vinous, with a particularly pleasant flavor; second; about mid-Sept, to beginning of Oct.

Palmischbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:171. 1856. 2. Löschnig Mostbirnen 190, fig. 1913.
A perry pear grown in Germany and Upper Austria and known in different localities by various names. It was published in Germany in 1823. Fruit small, turbinate, regular in contour, greenish-yellow turning to light yellow, often with a dark blush, covered all over with large gray spots; flesh whitish, coarse-grained, very juicy, acidulous and saccharine, aromatic; third for the table, but first for perry; Sept.

Paradiesbirne. 1. ChristHandb. 525. 1817. 2. DochnahlFühr. Obstkunde2:182. 1856.
Thuringia, Ger., 1797. Fruit small to medium, conic, yellow-green changing to golden yellow, slightly blushed, and dotted with brown, thin skin; flesh yellowish-white, very sweet, juicy; second for dessert, first for household; end of Oct.

Pardee. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 530. 1857.
Raised by S. D. Pardee, New Haven, Conn. Fruit small, globular, greenish-yellow, much covered with russet; flesh coarse, granular, buttery, juicy, melting, with a high vinous flavor, strongly perfumed; Oct.

Parfum d'Aout. I. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:136. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:496, fig. 1869.
The Parfum d'Aout described here is the variety described under that name by Jean Merlet in 1675 and 1690 and afterwards by Duhamel in 1768. It probably originated in the village of Berny, not far from Paris. Fruit small, long, nearly pyriform, enlarged on one side more than the other at the lower end; skin smooth, pale yellow, slightly tinged with green, covered with dots and small speckles of fawn, tinged with a beautiful red on the side exposed to the sun; flesh white, semi-fine, breaking or semi-breaking, some grit around the core- juice rarely abundant, saccharine, sweet, with a perfume of musky-anis; second; end of Aug.

Parfum d'Hiver. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 151. 1846. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:497, fig. 1869.
As early as 1600, this variety was grown in France under the name Bouvert Musqué. Tree rather vigorous, very productive. Fruit medium, roundish-turbinate, olive-yellow washed with bright red; stem rather long; calyx large, partially open; flesh brittle, juicy; good for cooking; Feb. to Apr.

Parfum de Rose. 1. Masi] Verger 3:Pt. 1, 185, fig. 91. 1866-73.
Obtained by Bivort and first introduced in 1849. Fruit small, long-pyriform, rather irregular in contour; skin fine, a little thick, water-green and whitish at first, sprinkled with small dots of grayish-green, combined with many stains of the same color, passing at maturity to dull yellow; flesh nearly white, very fine, buttery, melting; juice sufficient, having a distinct perfume of rose, which is its chief distinguishing feature; end of Sept.

Parfumé. 1. Miller Gard. Dict. 3: 1807.
Fruit medium, globular; skin rather thick and tough, of a deep red color, spotted with brown; flesh melting, but dry and has a perfumed flavor; end of Aug.

Parfumée. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:186, fig. 578. 1881.
French. Gained by M. Pariset, Courciat-Dongalon, Fr., and fruited for the first time in 1869. Fruit medium, globular-ovate, short and thick; skin thick, pale green, sprinkled with numerous greenish-gray dots only slightly visible on the side next the sun, at maturity pale yellow and the exposed cheek more or less warm gold; flesh white tinted with yellow, fine, melting, gritty around the center; juice abundant, sugary and perfumed; first; beginning of winter.

Parrot. 1. Bunyard-Thomas Fr. Gard. 140. 1904.
Introduced in England about 1900. Fruit like Bergamot in form; very richly flavored; Oct.

Parsonage. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 530. 1857. 2. Ibid. 828. 1869.
Originated at New Rochelle, N. Y. Fruit medium to large, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, often inclined, orange-yellow, rough, generally shaded with dull crimson, netted and patched with russet and thickly sprinkled with russet dots; flesh white, slightly coarse, somewhat granular, juicy, melting, with a refreshing vinous flavor; good; Sept.

Passa-tutti. 1. Christ Handb. 497. 1817. 2. Guide Prat. 101. 1876.
An Italian autumn pear. Fruit medium, obtuse-pyriform, greenish-yellow, much covered with yellowish-gray russet, lighter yellow on the sunny side, with some red blush; flesh agreeable, with a Muscat flavor; third; Nov. and Dec.

Passans du Portugal. 1. Mag. Hort. 4:390. 1838. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 626. 1884.
Passans du Portugal would seem from its name to be of Portuguese origin. It should not be confused with Summer Portugal although the two varieties have various synonyms in common and have some qualities in common. Fruit medium, oblate, flattened after the Bergamot type, lively green changing to pale yellow on ripening, red next the sun brightening toward maturity to a more vivid shade; flesh white, breaking, juicy, with a fine sugary and perfumed flavor; an excellent dessert pear; Aug.

Passe-Colmar des Belges. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:502. 1869.
Origin unknown but was found growing under this name in the collection of the Horticultural Society of Angers early in the last century. Fruit above medium, turbinate-obtuse and bossed, yellow, dotted and streaked with russet; flesh white, coarse, semi-breaking, wanting in juice and sugar, sharp and acidulous; third; Nov.

Passe Colmar d'Été;. 1. Guide Prat. 101. 1876.
French. Fruit small, turbinate, olive-green; flesh very juicy; good; Sept.

Passe Colmar Musqué. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 5:45, fig. 1857. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 627. 1884.
Obtained by Major Esperén, Mechlin, Bel., from a bed of mixed seeds he made about 1831. It yielded its first fruit and was published in 1845. Passe Colmar Musqué is also known as Autumn Colmar but is distinct from the variety most usually known by that name. Fruit medium and sometimes less, turbinate, otherwise obtuse-conic, rather variable in form; skin thick, tender, green changing to golden-yellow, dotted, mottled and patched with pale cinnamon-russet and often washed on the side next the sun with a light transparent red; flesh slightly yellowish, very fine, melting, very saccharine, richly flavored, aromatic and scented; first; Nov.

Passe Crassane. 1. Pom. France 2:No. 82, Pl.82. 1863. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 192. 1920.
This winter pear was raised by M. Boisbunel, a nurseryman at Rouen, Fr., from a bed of mixed seeds which he made in 1845; it bore fruit and was first published at Rouen in 1855. Fruit medium or rather large, turbinate or globular-conic, flattened in Bergamot fashion; skin rough, thick, of a dull pale green, mottled with russet markings and passing to yellow on the side turned to the sun; flesh white, fine, melting, very juicy, saccharine, perfumed, and agreeably sprightly; very good; Jan. to Mar.

Passe-Goemans. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:111, fig. 152. 1878.  Goemans Gelbe Sommerbirne. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:91. 1856.
Belgian, and probably from Van Mons in 1825. Fruit medium, globular, ventncu-lous, sides unequal, very obtuse, uniformly citron-yellow, blushed with cinnamon on the sun-exposed side; flesh very full of flavor; first; end of Sept.

Passe Madeleine. 1. Mag. Hort. 9:131. 1843.
Probably a French variety. Tree vigorous and very productive. Fruit medium, long, lemon-yellow, lightly tinted with gray on the side next the sun; flesh melting, sugary, rather perfumed; beginning of Sept.

Passe-Tardive. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 506. fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 829. 1869.
Obtained by Major Espéren of Mechlin, Bel., and first published in 1843. Fruit above medium to large, turbinate, regular, bossed and much swelled in all its lower part and greatly contracted at the summit; flesh white, semi-fine and semi-melting, gritty around the core; juice seldom abundant, sugary, agreeable, though but slightly perfumed; second or third for dessert, first for the kitchen; Apr. to June.

Pastor. 1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:197. 1908.
Reported in the Experimental orchard at Agassiz, Br. C, in 1900 and at various Canadian Experiment Farms in 1902. Fruit medium, oblate-pyriform, yellow; flesh melting, sugary, juicy, perfumed flavor; good; late season.

Pastorale. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:231, Pl.LV. 1768. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 628. 1884.
Mayer, director of the gardens of the Grand Duke of Wurtzburg, Bavaria, described this pear in his Pomona franconica in 1776 and 1801, and Duhamel du Monceau wrote of it in 1768. Earlier still Le Lectier spoke of its cultivation before 1628 under the name Musette d'Hiver rosate. Merlet called it Pastorale in 1675, and La Quintinye named it Pastourelle and Musette d'Auiumne in 1688. Fruit above medium, pyriform, slightly obtuse, much puckered at the summit and generally larger on one side than on the other; skin greenish, nearly covered with gray-russet, sprinkled with large brown dots, vermilioned on the side of the sun; flesh whitish, semi-fine, more or less gritty around the core; juice abundant, rather sugary, slightly acid; Nov. to Jan.

Pater Noster. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 532. 1857. 2. Ann. Pom. Belge 6:33, fig. 1858.
Mentioned in the Van Mons catalog of fruits cultivated from 1798 to 1823. Fruit above medium, and often large, variable in form, oblong or long-turbinate, slightly obtuse, contorted and bossed, clear olive-yellow; flesh white, fine, melting or semi-melting, watery; juice abundant, saccharine, very vinous, acidulous, with an agreeable aroma; first; Nov.

Paul Ambre. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 830. 1869. 2. Guide Prat. 101. 1876.
A Belgian variety resembling Nee Plus Meuris; origin unknown. Fruit globular or globular-oval, pale greenish-yellow, shaded with crimson on the side next the sun, dots and markings of russet; flesh whitish, buttery, melting, juicy, sweet; good to very good; Oct.

Paul Bonamy. 1. Mas Le Verger 2:215, fig. 106. 1866-73.
M. Bonamy, a nurseryman at Toulouse, Fr., obtained this pear and named it after his son. It was first published in 1865. Fruit large, ovate, bossed; skin fine, thin, oily and scented at maturity; flesh white, semi-fine, a little fibrous when the fruit is too ripe melting or semi-melting, streaming with sugary juice, sprightly, highly perfumed; good; Sept.

Paul Coppieters. 1. Guide Prat. 97. 1895.
Sent out by M. Daras de Naghin, Antwerp, Bel., previous to 1895. Fruit rather large, pyriform-turbinate, yellow, dotted and heavily marbled with reddish-yellow; flesh white, very fine, free from granulations, buttery, saccharine and aromatic; beginning of Nov.

Paul d'Hoop. 1. Guide Prat. 104. 1895.
Sent out in 1895 as a new variety by M. Daras de Naghin, Antwerp, Bel. Fruit medium, covered with fawn-russet; flesh fine, yellowish-white, buttery, vinous, saccharine, having a delicious aroma; Jan. and Feb.

Paul Thielens. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:510, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 830. 1869.
Paul Thielens came from a seed bed made by Van Mons in 1829 in his nursery at Lou-vain, Bel. Fruit large, ovate, very irregular, bossed and swelled, or ovate, nearly globular; skin a little rough, transparent greenish-yellow, dotted and marked with grayish-russet, slightly blushed with dull red on the side next the sun; flesh white, semi-fine and semi-melting, gritty at the center; juice rarely abundant, more or less saccharine, slightly aromatic; second; Oct.

Pauls Birne. 1. Guide Prat. 102. 1876.  Poire de Paul. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:15, fig. 488. 1881.
Fruit large or rather large, globular-conic or conic-obtuse, dull water-green, usually entirely covered with a wash of cinnamon color which at maturity becomes golden, and the side exposed to the sun is blushed with a garnet red on which are numerous small gray dots; flesh white tinted with yellow, rather fine, breaking, gritty about the core, juicy, sugary, vinous, slightly perfumed; first for cooking; winter, lasting well toward the end.

Payen. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:511, fig. 1869.
Raised by M. Boisbunel, a nurseryman at Rouen, Fr., from a mixed seed bed made in 1845. It was reported on in 1860 and propagated in 1863. It is distinct from both Beurré Payen and President Payen. Fruit medium, obovate-pyriform, bright greenish-yellow, mottled with fawn and covered with large and numerous brownish dots; flesh white, fine, melting, juicy, sweet; first class; Oct.

Payenche. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:512, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 830. 1869.  Paquency. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 404. 1845.
Found in a hedge at the village of Payenche in Périgord, Fr. It was taken to Paris in 1805. Fruit nearly medium, oblong-ovate-pyriform, light yellow stained or marbled and dotted with gray-russet and colored with brick-red on the side of the sun; flesh white, semi-fine, melting or semi-melting, some grit around the core; juice extremely abundant, very saccharine, acidulous, with a savory perfume and a slight after-taste of anis; first; Oct.

Payton.
According to letters from Nicholas Hallock, Queens, N. Y., this variety originated on the premises of a Mr. Payton of Flatbush, L.I, and had been known locally as Payton for some time previous to 1898. Fruit obovate-obtuse-roundish, about the size of Doyenné Boussock, dull green becoming yellow, thickly sprinkled with small brownish dots; stem short, stout, set in a rather shallow, russeted cavity; calyx open, placed in a shallow, wide basin; flesh not coarse, not gritty, not stringy, white, moderately juicy, good but not highly flavored; Sept., later than Bartlett.

Peach. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am, 533. 1857. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 629. 1884.  Pêche. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:513, fig. 1869.
A variety obtained by Major Esperén, Mechlin, Bel., from a bed of mixed seeds he made in 1836, and first reported in 1845. Fruit small to medium, globular-obovate; skin smooth, pale greenish-yellow when ripe, occasionally tinted with a faint blush of red on the side toward the sun, dotted and mottled with brown; flesh white, citrine, fine, very melting, very juicy, sweet, richly flavored and delicately perfumed; first in France, but variable according to climate; Aug.

Pei-li 1. la. Hart. Soc. Rpt. 376. 1881.
Pei-li or Snow pears: A race of pears grown in northwestern China; globular, white, juicy and generally regarded as the best fruits in the country.

Pemberton. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 831. 1869.
A seedling of S. A. Shurtleff, Boston, Mass. Fruit medium, inclining to oval, light green, thickly sprinkled with dark dots, yellowish on the side of the sun, with sometimes a red cheek; flesh somewhat coarse, but juicy, sweet; good; Feb. and Mar.

Penderson. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 831. 1869.
Raised by Samuel Penderson, New Haven, Conn. Fruit medium, globular, greenish-yellow; flesh white, breaking, semi-melting, brisk, rather astringent; good; Oct.

Pendleton Early York. 1. Mag. Hort. 14:381, fig. 41. 1848'.  York-précoce de Pendleton. 2. Guide Prat. 114, 313. 1876.
Originated by Mrs. Jeremiah York, Connecticut, about 1826 from seed of Rousselet Hâtif. Fruit medium or below, obovate, varying to obtuse-pyriform, pale greenish-yellow, with russet specks, sometimes with a faint blush; flesh white, tender, sweet, melting, slightly perfumed; good; last of July.

Pengethley. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 197. 1832.
Raised by T. A. Knight, President of the London Horticultural Society, who, in February, 1832, sent cions of the variety to Mr. Lowell and the Massachusetts Agricultural Society. Fruit medium, inclining to oval, obovate, pale green, covered with dark dots, changing to yellow as it ripens, sometimes having a red cheek; flesh somewhat coarse, but juicy, sweet, and good; Feb. and Mar.

Penn. 1. Horticulturist 18:58, fig. 1863. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 831. 1869.
The original tree was planted at the beginning of the last century close to the old Penn Manor in Pennsylvania and on the margin of land which became the track of the Camden and Amboy Railroad. Inasmuch as its position was so close to the railway the company threatened to cut it down. Hence it acquired the name of Railroad Fuss by which it was known for many years. Fruit medium, oblate, sometimes globular-oblate, angular, pale lemon-yellow, thickly sprinkled with small grayish and russet dots, sometimes with a few patches and dots of russet around the calyx; flesh white, a little coarse, very juicy, melting, with a sweet, pleasant, refreshing flavor, slightly aromatic, with a little musky perfume; good to very good; Oct.

Pennsylvania. 1. Mag. Hort. 10:213. 1844. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 832. 1869.
A seedling found on the ground of J. B. Smith of Pennsylvania. In 1845 the original tree was stated to be nearly forty feet high, of a pyramidal form and remarkably robust habit. Fruit medium, obovate, tapering toward the stem, obtuse, brown-russet on dull yellow ground, ruddy on the sunny side; flesh yellowish-white, coarse, melting, juicy, rich, sugary, slightly perfumed and with a musky flavor; good but not strictly first rate; as an American fruit it may be ranked with Buffum, Cushing and Fulton; Oct.

Pepin. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:515, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 629. 1884.
This pear was growing in the orchard of Le Lectier in Anjou, Fr., in the year 1600 and was described by Claude Saint-Étienne in 1670. Fruit below medium and sometimes small, globular, bossed, always mammillate at the summit, meadow-green, clouded with pale yellow, dotted with gray and extensively washed with brick red on the side turned to the sun; flesh whitish, fine or semi-fine, breaking, watery; at the center are numerous granulations; juice very saccharine, sweet and savory; second; mid-Aug.

Perpetual. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 832. 1869.
Said to have originated on Long Island, N. Y. Disseminated by Messrs. Berckmans, Augusta, Ga. Fruit medium, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, green and yellow, beautifully blushed in the sun; flesh whitish, firm, moderately juicy, sweet; good; keeps till May.

Perrier. 1. Guide Prat. 111. 1876.
Obtained by M. Morel in 1873. Fruit medium, globular, green; flesh fine, melting, juicy; good; beginning of Aug. Tree vigorous and fertile.

Pertusati. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:516, fig. 1869.
Raised in the nurseries of M. André Leroy, Angers, Fr., in 1867. Fruit medium, globular-ovate, irregular, having one side larger than the other; skin rough, golden-yellow, finely dotted with gray, marbled with clear brown around the calyx and the stem; flesh white, fine, melting; juice abundant, very saccharine, with an acidulous flavor, very pleasant and delicately perfumed; first; Nov.

Petersbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:33. 1856.  Petite Poire de Pierre. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:101, fig. 243. 1879.  Kleine Petersbirne. 3. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 242. 1889.
Altenburg, Ger., 1799. Fruit small, clear green, sprinkled with numerous minute blackish-green dots, turning to dull yellow at maturity and washed over a large area of its surface with dark red, on which the dots are of a darker red; flesh greenish-white, very fine, semi-breaking, sufficiently juicy and agreeably perfumed; a good fruit to preserve or to dry; Aug.

Petit-Blanquet. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:132, Pl.VI. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:517, fig. 1869.  Little Blanquet. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 802. 1869.  Small Blanquet. 4. Hogg Fruit Man. 646. 1884.
This variety was known in French gardens in the middle of the sixteenth century under the name Poire Perle, and some years later also by that of Petit-Blanquet. Fruit small or very small; form rather inconstant, slightly obtuse-pyriform, or more obtuse-ovate; skin smooth and transparent and shining, clear pale yellow or of a white, waxy and pearl-like tone, sprinkled with greenish dots, with occasionally a blush of tender rose on the side next the sun; flesh very white, semi-fine, breaking and firm; juice rarely abundant, saccharine, savory although only slightly perfumed; a second class dessert pear; Aug.

Petit Catiilac. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:3, fig. 98. 1878.  Kleiner Katzenkopf. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 242. 1889.
This pear is probably of German origin. It has points of resemblance in common with the old French Catillac but is distinguished by its size, being often less than that of the latter, its time of maturity being earlier, its flesh being less breaking, more saccharine and without any tartness. Fruit large, ovate-pyriform and much swelled, even in contour, green at first, sprinkled with large, regularly spaced, prominent, brown dots, the green passing to lemon-yellow at maturity, with a blush of red-brown on well-exposed fruits on the side next the sun; flesh white, coarse, semi-buttery; juice abundant, rather vinous and without any appreciable perfume; good for the kitchen; Oct. and Nov.

Petit-Chaumontel. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:519, fig. 1869.
From the old garden of the Horticultural Society of Angers, Fr., and sometimes erroneously confused with Oignon which ripens some six weeks earlier. Fruit medium, globular, very bossed and irregular in form, clear green, dotted, veined with russet and extensively washed with carmine on the side turned to the sun; flesh very white, semi-fine, breaking, gritty at center; juice sufficient, saccharine, vinous, slightly astringent; second; latter half of Aug.

Petit-Hâtiveau. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:520, fig, 1869.
A variety of ancient and unknown origin, but cultivated among a group of pears termed Hâtiveau for over the last five centuries. It was called by the name Petit-Haâtiveau by Claude Saint-Étienne in 1670 to distinguish it from the Gros-Hâtiveau. Fruit small, ovate, obtuse and more or less globular; skin smooth and fine, lemon-yellow, dotted with exceedingly minute greenish points and more or less stained with gray-russet around the calyx and stem; flesh whitish, breaking, semi-fine, scented, juicy and gritty, juice sugary, acid, and slightly musky; third; July.

Petit-Muscat. 1. Knoop Fructologie 1:75, Tab. 1. 1771. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:522, fig. 1869.  Little Muscat 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am, 802. 1869.
Jean Mayer, director of the gardens of the Grand Duke of Wurtzburg, Bavaria, in his Pomona franconica published in 1801 showed that the Petit-Muscat was the antique pear Superba described by Pliny. Various other pomologists wrote of it prior to Mayer as for instance Jacq. Daléchamp, 1615; Jean Jonston, 1662; and Henri Manger, 1783. Charles Estienne was the first to write of it in France, 1530, and he named it Musquette. Fruit very small, turbinate, more or less obtuse and sometimes globular-turbinate; the eye is placed in a regular-formed cavity and is always naked in consequence of the segments of the calyx falling off, pale greenish-yellow, finely dotted and slightly clouded with rose on the side of the sun (in France); flesh yellowish, semi-fine, breaking, not very juicy, sugary, acidulous and with a pleasant musk flavor; second; June.

Petit-Oin. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:524, fig. 1869.  Winterwunder. 2. Christ Handb. 497. 1817.  Müskirte Schmeerbirne. 3. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:13. 1856.  Merveille d'Hiver. 4. Hogg Fruit Man: 616. 1884.
Valerius Cordus was the first to describe this pear which originated in Germany and belongs to the Schmeerbirne or greasy class. About 1650 it was cultivated in France under the name of Oing or Oin, the French equivalent of the German speck or lard. Fruit medium or less, globular-ovate or turbinate, slightly obtuse at summit, with thick but smooth and greasy skin, dull yellow-green, more or less gray, dotted and flecked with greenish-russet; flesh whitish, granular, scented, exceedingly melting and juicy, very saccharine, free from acid and having an exquisite flavor; third; Sept. to Nov.

Petite Charlotte, 1. Guide Prat. 102. 1876.
French. Fruit small, pyramidal, greenish-yellow, highly colored on the side of the sun; flesh breaking, juicy, vinous; excellent; Aug. and Sept.

Petite Fondante. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:153, fig. 461. 1880.  Kleine Schmalzbirne. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 242. 1889.
Origin unknown. Fruit small, nearly spherical, sometimes depressed at both poles, even in contour; skin rather thick and yet tender, pale water-green, sown with numerous very faint, very small, brown dots; at maturity the basic green whitens a little and the side next the sun of fruits well exposed becomes a lighter yellow; flesh whitish, semi-fine, semi-melting, rather gritty around the core, highly saccharine, vinous and sprightly; good; end of Aug.

Petite Marguerite. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:526, fig. 1869. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 192. 1920.
Raised in the nurseries of M. André Leroy, Angers, Fr., in 1862 and propagated in 1863. Fruit medium, irregular ovate, bossed, swelled at the base and having one side always larger than the other, grass-green, dotted with gray and brown and slightly bronzed on the cheek exposed to the sun; flesh greenish-white, fine and very melting, slightly gritty at the center; juice extremely abundant and saccharine, acidulous, with a very pleasant perfume; first; Aug.

Petite Tournaisienne. 1. Guide Prat. in. 1876.
A variety on trial with Messrs. Simon-Louis, Metz. Fruit medium, oval, oblong, yellow; flesh very fine, semi-melting; Apr. and May.

Petite Victorine. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:528, fig. 1869.
A seedling of M. André Leroy raised in 1863. Fruit below medium, globular, flattened at the base but slightly conic at its other extremity, greenish, dotted and marbled with russet; flesh white, fine, melting, generally free from grit; juice sufficient, saccharine, acidulous, with a specially exquisite, musky flavor; first; Dec. and Jan.

Petre. 1. Mag. Hort. 2:437. 1836. 2. IWet 3:83. 1838.
This valuable variety was raised by John Bartram, the proprietor of a botanic garden near Philadelphia, from seed received in a letter from Lord Petre of England about the year 1735. The tree still stands, although becoming decrepit. Fruit medium, obovate, truncate at both ends; skin thin, greenish-yellow, with small pale spots; flesh white, soft, juicy and buttery, with a delicious flavor, very slightly musky and vinous; very good; mid-Sept, to Dec.

Pfaffenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:193. 1856.
Württemberg and Baden, Ger., 1847. Fruit small, turbinate, yellow, tinted with a dark cinnamon-colored blush on the side next the sun; the summit is covered with russet, thickly sprinkled with gray dots; flesh firm and tasteless.

Pfingstbirne. I. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:96. 1856.
German seedling, 1851. Fruit medium, globular, green turning yellowish-green, speckled and dotted with gray; skin thin and scentless; flesh rather white, sweet and musky; first for table, household and market; early summer.

Philiberte. 1. Guide Prat. in. 1876.
French. Fruit rather large, nearly globular, a beautiful lemon-yellow; flesh very fine, melting, very juicy, agreeably perfumed; first; Dec. and Jan.

Philippe-Le-Bon. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:161, fig. 81. 1872.  Philipp der Gute. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:4. 1856.
According to the catalog of Van Mons of 1823 this was one of his seedlings. Fruit hardly medium, ovate, or turbinate-ovate, short and thick, usually even in outline; skin thick, firm, glossy, pale green, whitish-brown dots; at maturity the basic green passes to pale dull yellow, washed with some clear cerise-red; flesh white, rather coarse, buttery, not much juice, but vinous and perfumed; good; Sept. and Oct.

Philippe Couvreur. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 264. 1889. 2. Guide Prat. 72. 1895.
Of Belgian origin. Fruit medium to large, orange-yellow dotted with russet; flesh white, tinted with salmon, fine, juicy, perfumed; good; beginning of Oct.

Philippe Goes. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 3:51, fig. 1855. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 833. 1869.
A posthumous gain from the seed beds of Van Mons. The parent tree gave its first fruit in 1846. Fruit above medium, obovate, uneven and undulating in outline; skin rough to the touch, of a dark olive, much covered with a bright russet; flesh semi-melting, gritty, sweet, rather granular at the center, juice rarely abundant, saccharine, vinous and fairly well perfumed; second; Dec.

Philippot. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:530, fig. 1869.
Originated with M. Philippot, a nurseryman at Saint-Quentin, Aisne, Fr. In 1852 it fruited for the first time and was propagated in 1860. Fruit large to very large, globular-conic, obtuse, swelled and fleshy at the base; skin yellowish, in part dotted and marbled with brownish-fawn; flesh very white, coarse, semi-breaking, watery; juice abundant, sweet, having little sugar or perfume although rather delicate; third for dessert, first for cooking; Jan. to Mar.

Philopena, 1. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 24. 1904.
A chance variety brought to notice by Reuben Ragan of Indiana, about 1850 and named Philopena by him. Fruit small to medium, oblong-pyriform, yellow, with purple blush; calyx open, in a small, shallow basin; stem short, cavity small or absent; quality medium; three or four weeks after Bartlett.

Picciola. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 833. 1869.
Of Belgian origin. Fruit small, globular-oblate, greenish-yellow, sometimes slightly blushed in the sun, with traces of russet; flesh whitish, very juicy, melting, with a vinous flavor; good to very good; Sept.

Pie IX. 1. Mag. Hort. 20:86. 1854. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:531, fig. 1869.  Pius IX. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 631. 1884.
The parent tree of Pie IX sprang from seed sown in 1834 by Van Mons in his nurseries at Louvain, Bel. Fruit large, turbinate, more or less obtuse and elongated, much swelled at the middle, bossed and contorted at its summit, lemon-yellow, dotted and striped with fawn; flesh white, coarse or semi-fine, juicy and melting, rather gritty at the center, saccharine, sour, fairly well perfumed, sometimes disagreeably astringent; second; Sept.

Pierre Corneille. 1. Guide Prat. 104. 1895.
Pierre Corneille was obtained by M. Sannier, Rouen, Fr., from a seedling of Beurré Diel crossed with Doyenné du Comice; introduced about 1894. The fruit has the appearance of Duchesse d'Angoulême. Tree vigorous, fertile and pyramidal in form. Fruit large globular-obovate, greenish-yellow; flesh fine, melting, juicy, sugary, deliciously perfumed; Dec. and Jan.

Pierre Curie. 1. Rev. Hort. 174. 1907.
This is a seedling from Doyenné d'Alençon crossed with Beurré Henri Courcelle by M. Arsène Sannier, a nurseryman at Saint-Sever-Rouen, Fr., and placed on the market in 1907. Fruit medium, oval, of the form of the Doyenné d'Alençon; skin gray; flesh extremely fine, with a very agreeable perfume; Jan. to Mar.

Pierre Macé. 1. Guide Prat. 102. 1876.
French, attributed to André Leroy. Tree vigorous and fertile. Fruit rather large, globular-turbinate, yellow dotted with fawn; flesh fine, melting, juicy, highly perfumed; first; second half of Sept. and early Oct.

Pierre Paternotte. 1. Guide Prat. 60. 1895.
Raised from seed of the Marie-Louise by Pierre Paternotte, at Molenbeck-Saint-Jean, near Brussels, Bel. Tree vigorous and fertile. Fruit large, long, yellow, dotted and marbled with gray; flesh white, fine, melting, juicy; first; Oct. and Nov.

Pierre Pépin. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:532, fig. 1869.
A seedling raised by Leroy, Angers, Fr., and first reported in 1868. Fruit large, obtuse-pyriform, bossed, and swelled in its lower half, more or less hollowed at either end, lemon-yellow, slightly clouded with green and much speckled and spotted with brown; flesh whitish, fine, melting, some grit around the core; juice abundant, saccharine, vinous, and agreeably perfumed; first; mid-Sept.

Pierre Tourasse. 1. Rev. HorL 542. 1894.
Exhibited in France by M. Tourasse, its originator, in 1894. Tree vigorous, upright, stocky, productive. Fruit of good size, broadly turbinate, spotted with brilliant fawn color upon a clear yellow ground, washed with orange and saffron; flesh fine, melting, very juicy, rich in sugar; last of Sept. and first of Oct.

Pimpe. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 593. 1629.
"The Pimpe peare is as great as the Windsor peare, but rounder, and of a very good rellish."

Pinneo. 1. Cultivator 304. 1845. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 833. 1869.  Hebron. 3. Mag. Hort. 24:419. 1858.  Boston. 4. Ibid. 500. 1858.
The parent tree of this variety was found growing in a woodland, New Haven, Conn., by Dea. Pinneo who transplanted it to a spot near his dwelling about the year 1745. It was propagated and distributed over many farms and found a good market in Boston. By error it acquired also the names of Boston and Virgalieu. Fruit medium or below, globular-oblate, slightly pyriform, pale yellow, netted, patched, and dotted with russet, slightly blushed on the sunny side; flesh yellowish-white, fine, melting, juicy, rich, sugary, brisk, with a refreshing and delicious aroma; good; Aug.

Piton. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:533, fig. 1869.
A seedling found by M. Piton who lived at Cholet, Maine-et-Loire, Fr. The Horticultural Society of Angers described it in its Pomology, and it was named after its propagator. Fruit large to very large, long-turbinate-obtuse, depressed at each pole, clear dull green, "sown with large russet dots; flesh white, semi-breaking and semi-fine, watery, containing some grit below the core; juice rather vinous, sugary, and more or less perfumed; second for dessert, first for compotes.

Pitson. 1. Gard. Mon. 27:14. 1885.
A handsome pear from Stone and Wellington, Fonthill, Ont. Fruit medium, regularly pyriform, brown inclining to russet; good; Jan.

Pius X. 1. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 37:309. 1905.
Described in 1905 as a new pear raised by the Alexiens Brothers at Tirlemont, Bel. Fruit large, somewhat cylindric, greenish-olive, with a few brown spots; flesh creamy-white, perfumed; reported to be of first rate quality; Oct.

Plantagenet. 1. Leroy Dict. Pont. 2:534, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Tr ees Am. 834. 1869.
The Plantagenet was raised from seed by the old Horticultural Society of Maine-et-Loire. The parent tree gave its first fruit in 1858 in the Society's garden at Angers. Fruit above medium, irregular-ovate, bossed, swelled at the central circumference, of a uniform bright green, some russet around the calyx and sprinkled with numerous dark brown dots; flesh whitish, fine or semi-fine, extremely melting; juice very abundant, extremely saccharine, acidulous, possessing a delicious perfume which gives an after-taste of musk; first; end of Sept. and early Oct.

Plascart. 1. Guide Prat. 102. 1876. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:37, fig. 115. 1878.
Sent out by the Society Van Mons, Bel., without any account of its origin. Fruit below medium, turbinate-ovate, even in outline; skin firm, pale water-green, covered with numerous large, brown dots, very prominent, the green changing at maturity to a beautiful golden yellow, washed on the side next the sun with a lively vermilion on which the dots are golden yellow; flesh yellowish, semi-fine, rather firm and breaking; juice rich in sugar and perfumed; good; Oct.

Platt. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 535. 1857. 2. Ibid. 834. 1869.
Originated on the farm of Thomas Tredwell, Beekmantown, Clinton County, N. Y. Fruit medium, globular-oblate, pale yellow, netted and patched with russet and sprinkled with russet dots; flesh whitish, juicy, buttery, semi-melting, agreeable; good; Oct.

Platte Honigbirne. 1. Dochnahl Ftlhr. Obstkunde 2:189. 1856.
Nassau, 1801. Fruit medium, obtuse-turbinate, light yellow-green, with a pale blush, numerous gray dots, marked with russet; flesh coarse-grained, aromatic; third for dessert, first for household; Sept.

Pocahontas. 1. Mag. Hort. 13:525. 1847. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 834. 1869.
Originated at Quincy, Mass., and was exhibited before the Horticultural Society of that State in October, 1847. Fruit below medium, obovate-pyriform, yellow, netted, patched, and dotted with russet, sometimes shaded in the sun with bright crimson; flesh white, juicy, melting, sweet, slightly musky; pleasant; good to very good; Sept.

Pöckelbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 192, fig. 1913.
A perry pear grown in Lower Austria. Fruit small to medium, globular-turbinate; skin tough, shining, smooth, green changing to greenish-yellow, blushed and streaked with red on the sunny side, dotted with yellow-brown; flesh yellowish-white, coarse-grained, juicy, subacid; good; Nov.

Poëte Béranger. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:536, fig. 1869.
A seedling of Leroy which first fruited in 1867 and was placed in commerce in 1870. Fruit medium; form rather inconstant, nearly always having unequal sides, globular, or obtuse-turbinate; skin fine, rough, bright yellow shaded with green, dotted with gray and almost entirely washed and mottled with brown-russet, more or less scaly; flesh greenish-white especially under the skin, fine, extremely melting, free from grit; juice very abundant, saccharine, acidulous, vinous, with a delicate perfume; first; mid-Sept.

Poire d'Abbeville. 1. Guide Prat. 81. 1876. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:99, fig. 338. 1880.
The Poire d'Abbeville probably originated at the city of that name in the Department of the Somme, Fr.; for M. Jamin, Senior, propagated it about 1837 when he received it from M. Bennet of Boulogne-sur-Mer, who stated it was very well known and esteemed in the neighborhood of Abbeville. Fruit large, globular-conic but irregular, water-green sprinkled with numerous and large dots of fawn; at maturity the green changes to lemon-yellow; flesh white tinted with yellow, coarse, breaking, slightly gritty at the core, not very juicy or perfumed; first for culinary purposes, keeps easily for a long period; winter.

Poire d'Ange de Meiningen. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:105, fig. 341. 1880.
This pear has been in much request in the neighborhood of Meiningen, Ger., for many years and should be distinguished from the ancient Poire d'Ange, now called Boutoc, which it does not resemble. Fruit small, ovate or ovate-pyriform, even in contour; skin fine, delicate, bright green changing to beautiful bright lemon-yellow, the side next the sun being blushed and streaked with vermilion; the very numerous brown dots change on the blushed part to yellow; flesh tinted with yellow, rather fine, semi-breaking; juice sweet and agreeably perfumed but rather deficient; second; latter half of Aug.

Poire d'Avril. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 536. 1857. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 488. 1884.
Stated by Messrs. Simon-Louis, Metz, Lorraine, to have been received by them from England under this name. Fruit large, pyramidal, obtuse; skin smooth and shining, of a lively dark green, with a brown tinge next the sun, and patches of gray-russet on the shaded side, the whole surface being covered with very large pale-colored specks; flesh crisp, juicy and sweet; first class for cooking according to Messrs. Simon-Louis; Mar. and Apr.

Poire Brune de Gasselin. 1. Pom. France 4:No. 165, Pl.165. 1867.
Gained by M. Durand-Gasselin, architect at Nantes, Fr., from a seed bed made in 1845. Fruit medium, ovate-pyramidal, yellow washed with fawn-russet; flesh very tender, juicy, very sugary and perfumed; first; Oct. and Nov.

Poire de Casserole, 1. Guide Prat. 89. 1S76.  Casserule. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 715. 1869.
Of foreign origin, probably French. Fruit large, obovate-pyriform, yellow, with much russet and brown on cheek; flesh whitish, coarse, granular, breaking, very juicy, rich, with high aroma; first quality for cooking; Oct. and Nov.

Poire des Chartriers. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:133, fig. 451. 1880.
This variety is mentioned by Van Mons in his Catalog and is therein considered to be of Belgian origin. Fruit medium, globular-pyriform, irregular and bossed; skin a little thick at first, water-green, rather dark, sprinkled with very small and numerous dots of gray-brown, the basic green becoming brilliant lemon-yellow and on maturity covered on the side next the sun with golden russet; flesh yellow, very fine, firm, buttery, melting, full of saccharine juice, vinous, perfumed; first; Oct.

Poire des Chasseurs. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 5:31, fig. 1857.  Des Chasseurs. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 735. 1869.
A posthumous gain of Van Mons tasted for the first time in 1842 and reported on by M. Simon Bouvier of Jodoigne, Bel. Fruit medium to large, ovate-pyriform, greenish, dotted with russet, and much stained with russet on the sun-exposed side; flesh yellowish, coarse, watery, melting, granular; juice vinous, agreeably perfumed; first; Oct.

Poire de Coq. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:600, fig. 1867.
This variety is distinct from the Poire de Coq synonymous with the Beurré de Bruxelles, and is of unknown origin. It was cultivated for many years in the old gardens of the Horticultural Society of Angers. Fruit large, long-turbinate, bossed, strongly mammil-late at apex, citron-yellow, dotted and stained with dark gray, and washed with bright carmine on the side exposed to the sun; flesh white, semi-fine and melting; juice sweet with slight perfume but delicate flavor; second Sept.

Poire de Graisse. 1. Knoop Pomologie 1:111, Tab. IV. 1771.
Probably of Belgian or French origin. In Holland it is known as the Smeer-Peer. Fruit medium, oblong, terminating acutely toward the stalk, greenish and speckled with blackish-brown; flesh rather gritty, soft, with a slightly spicy flavor; not of much value.

Poire de gros queue. 1. Miller Card. Dict. 3. 1807.
Fruit large, taking its name from its very thick stalk, globular, yellow, flesh breaking; wanting in juice, having a very musky flavor.

Poire de Hert. 1. Mas Le Verger 1:145, fig. 71. 1866-73.
Mas states he received this variety from Thomas Rivers, the well known English nurseryman of Sawbridgeworth near London, Eng. Fruit medium or nearly medium, ovate-pyriform, symmetrical in contour; skin thick, firm, very pale green all over, sprinkled with dots of gray, changing when ripe to lemon-yellow; flesh white, fine, semi-melting; juice sufficient, flavor refreshing, agreeable; good, of real merit for the season; end of winter and spring.

Poire de Houblon. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:101, fig. 51. 1872.
Origin unknown, but cultivated for a long time in many localities in Germany. Fruit small, ovate or globular-ovate, swelled, usually regular in contour, bright green, sown with grayish dots, passing to golden yellow on the side of the sun; flesh whitish, a little yellow' near the center, coarse, semi-breaking, fairly full of sweet juice, with a fresh perfume of rose; second rate for eating raw but an excellent variety to dry; end of Aug.

Poire de Klevenow. 1. Mas Le Verger 2:121, fig. 59. 1866-73
Originated in the environs of Klevenow, a village of Pomerania, Prussia. Fruit small or nearly medium, regular pyriform, sombre green and yellow blushed with carmine; flesh white, slightly greenish, fine, buttery; juice very sugary and abundant, vinous, perfumed; good; mid-Aug.

Poire Noire à Longue Queue, i, Mas Pom. Gen. 7:165, fig. 563. 1881.
Origin thought to be German. Fruit nearly medium, ovate-pyriform, symmetrical in outline; skin thick, firm, dull green covered with a net-work of gray-russet, through which a light yellow shows at maturity; on the shaded side are some gray dots and on the sun-exposed side are numerous large black-red spots; flesh white, transparent, semi-fine, buttery; juice sufficient, saccharine, slightly acid; good for cooking; Aug.

Poire du Pauvre. 1. Guide Prat. 102. 1876. 2. Rev. Hort. 163. 1889.
This pear was raised from seed of the Urbaniste sown in 1846. Fruit medium or large, oval, pyriform, ventriculous; skin fine and shining, white tinted with green, much covered with fawn around the two ends; flesh white, rather fine, a little gritty around the center, very melting; juice abundant, saccharine, and pleasantly perfumed, with a fresh flavor and agreeable astringency; Oct. and Nov.

Poire des Peintres. 1. Guide Prat. 111. 1876.
Described by Messrs. Simon-Louis, Metz, Lorraine, in 1876 as a new variety. Tree vigorous and very fertile. Fruit rather large, oval-pyriform, dark yellow, extensively washed with lively red; flesh melting, juicy, saccharine and highly perfumed; end of Aug. and Sept.

Poire de Pendant. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 1:84. 1831.
"It is from the long stem by which this pear is suspended, which is near two inches in length, that it obtains its title." The Pendar of La Quintinye, and the Hanging pear of Evelyn, although quoted as synonyms of this pear, are probably not the same as they are said to ripen in October. It is also very doubtful whether the synonyms of Pendar and Knaves' pear given by Miller and Forsyth apply to this fruit. Fruit, "The entire height of the fruit is twenty-eight lines, and its breath two inches, and sometimes a line more; "turbinate; skin is ash-colored, approaching russet, and dotted over with small points of russet; flesh greenish-white, melting, sweet, and partially perfumed; end of Sept.

Poire de Preuilly. 1. Guide Prat. 111. 1876.
Published in the French Revue Horticole, 1870. Tree vigorous and very fertile. This is a very large fruit used for decorative purposes. In form it is similar to the Bartlett; skin yellow-green, speckled; flesh breaking.

Poire de Rateau. 1. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:532. 1860.
Tree very vigorous when grafted on pear. Fruit very large, turbinate, greenish-white, reddish and sown with russet dots on the side next the sun; flesh breaking, slightly saccharine and perfumed; eatable raw, and good for cooking; mid-Dec.

Poire Rigoleau. 1. Mag. Hort. 20:136. 1854.
Introduced in 1854 as a new variety. Origin unknown. Fruit small, nearly globular; skin thick, greenish-yellow, covered with russet specks, little russet at either stem and calyx; flesh white, tender, juicy, of a very pleasant flavor; first part of Nov.

Poire du Roeulx. 1. Guide Prat. 104. 1876.
On trial with Messrs. Simon-Louis, Metz, Lorraine, in 1876; it was published in the Revue de VArboriculture in France. Fruit medium, pyriform, short, irregular, yellow clouded with fawn; flesh yellowish, very melting, exceedingly juicy, very saccharine and with a very exquisite perfume; first; latter half of Sept.

Poire Souvenir d'Hortoles Père. 1. Pom. France 4:No. 173, Pl.173. 1865.
A variety unpublished previous to 1865 but cultivated in France, where it had already existed for more than sixty years. Fruit small, pyriform, usually growing in clusters strongly attached to the tree, green, dotted, passing to yellow and washed with dark brilliant red on the side of the sun; flesh white, firm, melting, slightly gritty; juice abundant, with a strong perfume of Muscatel; good; July.

Poire Thouin. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:177, fig. 473- 1880.
According to Diel, Poire Thouin was obtained by Van Mons. Fruit medium, ovate, more or less short, usually symmetrical in contour, largest circumference at center; skin a little thick and firm, bright green, sprinkled with numerous inconspicuous spots of a darker shade, changing to pale yellow, and washed with orange-red on the side next the sun of well-exposed fruits; flesh white, coarse, breaking, full of saccharine juice, perfumed; third, for the season of its maturity; early Sept.

Poire de Torpes. 1. Guide Prat. 107. 1876.
Tree hardy, very productive. Fruit rather large, globular, yellow stained with russet; flesh fine, melting; good; Oct. to Dec.

Poire des Trois Fréres. 1. Guide Prat. 71, 308. 1876.
A wilding found near Maizieres-les-Metz, Fr. It was propagated by Messrs. Maline and placed in commerce in 1863. Tree vigorous, very fertile, and suitable especially for wind-blown situations. Fruit medium, long, green; flesh whitish, buttery, sugary an perfumed; first; end of Aug.

Poire des Trois Jours. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 149. 1841.  Trois Jours. 2. Cullivator, 340. 1847.
Kenrick says: "New and large; beurrée; of first-rate excellence, ripening at Paris in November, according to M. Jamin."

Poire de Vitrier. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:139, PI- XLIV, fig. 4. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:746, fig. 1869.
This is probably a variety of German origin, for Valerius Cordus, who was a native of Hesse and died in 1544, spoke of it as abounding in Saxony, in the suburbs of Eisleben, and very common in all Germany. Duhamel du Monceau described it in France in 1768. Fruit medium, rather regular-ovate, wrinkled and mammillate at the summit, dull yellow, much clouded over with gray-russet, dotted with light brown, and vermilioned on the side toward the sun; flesh whitish, watery, semi-fine and semi-melting, gritty around the center; juice sufficient, sugary, vinous, slightly musky; second; Nov. and Dec.

Poire du Voyageur. 1. Guide Prat. 107, 311. 1876.
Originated by M. Boisbunel of Rouen, Fr. Tree vigorous and fertile. Fruit medium, pyriform, yellowish-green; flesh juicy, granular around the core; third; summer.

Poirier de Jardin. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:143, PI- XIX, fig. 3. 1768.  Garden Pear. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 770. 1869.
Origin unknown; probably French. Fruit large, globular-oblate, orange-shaped, surface a little bossed, on the side of the sun a beautiful deep red, spotted with golden-yellow, the shaded side being streaked and rayed with bright red on yellow; flesh semi-breaking, a little coarse and somewhat gritty around the core; juice sugary and of a very good flavor; good; Dec.

Poiteau. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:537, fig. 1869.
Raised by Van Mons, and first fruited at Louvain, Bel., in 1823. Fruit above medium, long-ovate, variable in form, sometimes being short-ovate and ventriculous, orange-yellow, dotted with brown, stained with greenish-russet around the calyx and stem, and mottled with the same on the cheek next the sun; flesh whitish, rather coarse, melting, gritty, full of saccharine juice, sometimes astringent, without pronounced perfume; second; Oct.

Polish Lemon. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 61. 1887.
Known as Cytrymova in Poland. It was received in 1882 by the Iowa State Agricultural College, and was subsequently propagated and distributed by the College.

Polk. 1. Mag. Hort. 11:252.. 1845.
A seedling raised by H. W. Edwards, New Haven, Conn., at one time Governor of that state. It came into bearing in 1844. Fruit larger than the Seckel, like Bergamot in form; flesh juicy, melting, subacid, sweet and rich; first; Sept to Nov.

Pollan. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 834. 1869.
A Pennsylvania pear. Fruit below medium, nearly globular, greenish-yellow, with a shade of brown in the sun; flesh whitish, a little coarse, moderately juicy, vinous, pleasant; good; Aug.

Pollvaskaja. 1. Iowa Hort. Soc. Rpt. 61. 1880.
A Russian variety growing on the Iowa State College Farm in 1880, and having thorny wood; it unites very imperfectly with the apple. It shows "marked traces of the Chinese forms of the pear in shape, serration, thickness and size of leaf, and in the peculiar enlarged character of the scaly terminal buds."

Polnische grüe Krautbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:155. 1856.
Galicia, 1819. Fruit small, globular-flattened, distorted, grass-green changing to yellowish grass-green and often with a dark blush and brown-russet on the side next the sun; scentless skin; flesh coarse-grained, melting, vinous, very juicy, acidulous; second for dessert, first for household; mid-Sept.

Polnische Seidenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:145. 1856.
Galicia, 1812. Fruit medium to large, regular in form, light lemon-yellow, often rather blushed, sprinkled with numerous small, prominent, light brown and often greenish dots; flesh breaking, and coarse-grained, sweet, Muscatel in flavor; third for dessert, very good for household purposes; Sept.

Pomeranzenbirn von Zabergäu. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 90, fig. 1913.
A perry pear found in Germany and Upper Austria. Fruit large, globular-turbinate; skin smooth, shining, of a light leaf-green changing when ripe to light greenish-yellow, finely dotted, without russet; flesh yellow-white, rather coarse-grained, with small grits around the center, very juicy, saccharine, acidulous, having a strong scent; Oct.

Pomme d'Été;. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:539, fig. 1869.
The origin of the Pomme d'Été; is uncertain, except that M. Leroy of Angers received it from the old garden of the Horticultural Society of Angers about 1849, Fruit medium and below, globular, much flattened and similar to the form of Caillot Rosat and Naquette, yellow-ochre, entirely covered with gray dots; flesh white, fine and breaking, watery, rather granular around the core; juice abundant, saccharine, sweet and very musky; second; end of Sept.

Pope Quaker. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 834. 1869.
Origin, Long Island, N. Y. Fruit very fair, medium-size, oblong-pyriform, smooth, yellow-russet; flesh melting, juicy and pleasant; hardly good; Oct.

Pope Scarlet Major. 1. Mag. Hort. 3:15. 1837. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 834. 1869.
Origin, Long Island, N.Y. Fruit nearly large, obovate, yellow, blushed on exposed side with bright red; flesh white, breaking, rather dry; very indifferent; Oct.

Portail. 1. Miller Card. Dict. 3. 1807. 2. Christ Handb. 503. 1817.
Origin unknown beyond the fact that it was discovered in the old province of Poitou, Fr., and was held in high esteem there. Fruit "longer than it is round,"greenish; flesh yellowish, dry, gritty and hard unless in very favorable seasons and upon very good soil, but may at times be tender and have an unforgetable musky aroma; it bakes well; Jan. to Mar.

Porter. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 44. 1866.
A seedling raised by S. A. Shurtleff, Brookline, Mass. No. 16. Fruited in 1862 Diameter 2½ inches, melting, sweet and juicy; ripens soundly; good market pear; Oct.

Portingall. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 592. 1629.
"The Portingall peare is a great peare, but more goodly in shew then good indeed."

Posey. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 44. 1897.
Found in a fence row on the farm of Jacob Grabel, where it originated about 1880. It was reported by A. R. Ryman, Cedar Grove, Ind. Fruit medium, pyriform, moderately smooth, lemon-yellow, with small brown spots; flesh whitish, buttery, mild subacid; good to very good; Sept. to Dec.

Prager Schaferbirne. 1. Oberdieck Obst. Sort. 321. 1881.
Germany. Fruit medium (3½ x 2½ in.), ovate and pyriform, smooth, greenish turning to lemon-yellow blushed on the sunny side, very finely dotted; flesh yellowish-white, tender, agreeably aromatic and sweet; first for kitchen and household purposes; Oct. to end of Jan.

Prairie du Pond. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 835. 1869.
Introduced by A. H. Ernst, Cincinnati, Ohio. Fruit small, nearly globular, greenish-yellow, with many brown and green dots; flesh whitish, moderately juicy, semi-melting, vinous, astringent; poor; Sept.

Pratt. 1. Horticulturist 1:210, fig. $et. 1846. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:542, fig. 1869.
The Pratt pear was first brought into notice by Owen Mason, Providence, R. L, who obtained cions from the original tree at Scituate, R. I., and distributed them in the spring of 1844. It appears to have originated at Johnson, R. I. Fruit above medium, obovate, greenish-yellow, sprinkled with numerous gray dots and russet spots; flesh white, tender, melting, fine-grained, abounding with saccharine, well-flavored juice; second; Sept.

Pratt Junior. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 151. 1862.
Another native which originated on the same farm as the preceding variety and named by the Rhode Island Society in order to designate its origin; in appearance similar to Winter Nelis.

Pratt Seedling. 1. Chico Nurs. Cat. 13. 1904.
Originated in Salem, Oregon, with Captain Pratt. Shape and color of Sheldon; keeps until Mar.

Precilly. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 835. 1869.
Belgian. Fruit medium to large, obovate-acute-pyriform, greenish-yellow, netted and patched with russet and sprinkled with brown dots; flesh yellowish-white, coarse, breaking, juicy; good for cooking; Oct.

Précoce de Celles. 1. Guide Prat. 111. 1876.
Described by Messrs. Simon-Louis, Metz, Lorraine, in 1876 as a new variety received from Belgium. Fruit medium, like Bergamot in form; very good in quality for its season; early summer.

Précoce de Jodoigne. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:101, fig. 339. 1880.
Obtained by M. Grégoire, Jodoigne, Brabant, Bel., and first published in 1865. Fruit rather small or nearly medium, ovate-pyriform, regular in contour, vivid green covered with a sort of whitish bloom and sprinkled with green dots of a darker shade, changing to yellow and occasionally tinged with red on the side of the sun; flesh whitish, fine, buttery, melting, full of sweet juice, saccharine but not highly flavored; fairly good quality; July.

Précoce de Tivoli. 1. Guide Prat. 102. 1876.
Fruit medium, pyriform, pale yellow, flesh white, gritty, semi-breaking, saccharine; good; Aug.

Précoce de Trévoux. 1. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 328. 1906.
Obtained by M. Treyve, Trévoux, Ain, Fr., and first published in 1862. Fruit full medium size, pyriform-truncate, fine and tender skin of a vivid yellow, very finely dotted with green and washed and streaked with carmine on the side next the sun; flesh white, fine, melting, juicy, sugary and richly flavored, agreeable perfume; good to very good; beginning of Aug.

Précoce Trottier. 1. Rev. Hort. 352. 1912.
A French pear described by M. de la Bastie in the Journal of the Pomological Society of France in 1890. Fruit medium or a little above medium, turbinate-ventriculous; at first the skin is a very bright green changing to pale yellow with some green markings, and blushed with somber red on the side next the sun, dotted with brown; flesh white, semi-fine, nearly melting, juicy, saccharine, agreeably perfumed; good to very good; mid-July.

Premature. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 157. 1832.
Originated in Scotland about 1830. Fruit below medium; flesh very juicy and delicious, superior to the Crawford, of Scotland, reputed a most superior early fruit; early Aug.

Prémices d'Écully. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:544, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 632. 1884.
Obtained by M. Luizet, a nurseryman at Écully-lez-Lyon, Rhône, Fr., from a bed of mixed seeds made in 1847. Fruit rather large, irregular ovate, round and bossed, yellow, with here and there a green tinge, thickly spotted and stained with small blotches of brown-russet; flesh tender, whitish, fine, melting, juicy, easily becoming soft, sweet, saccharine, with a flavor of musk; Sept.

Prémices de Wagelwater. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 836. 1869.
Fruit below medium, globular-obovate-pyriform, sides unequal, yellow with a few traces of russet and thickly sprinkled with brown dots; flesh whitish, melting, juicy, very sweet; good to very good; Oct.

Premier. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 632. 1884.
Raised at the Royal Garden, Frogmore, Eng., and first exhibited in 1871. Fruit above medium, oblong, terminating abruptly and bluntly at the stalk, undulating in outline and contracted with a waist at the middle; skin covered with cinnamon-colored russet; flesh semi-melting, very juicy, sweet, and brisk, with a flavor resembling pineapple; good; Nov.

Premier Président Métivier. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:545, fig. 1869.
A variety raised in Leroy's nurseries at Angers, Fr., in 1867. Fruit above medium or large, globular, flattened at the poles, more enlarged on one side than on the other; skin rough, grass-green, dotted and veined with olive-russet on the shaded side, and bronzed and dotted with bright fawn on the face exposed to the sun; flesh very white, melting, fine or semi-fine, free from granulations, very juicy, acidulous, highly saccharine, with delicious perfume and flavor; first; Oct.

Présent de Van Mons. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:546, fig. 1869.
A seedling of Van Mons raised at Louvain, Bel., but which first fruited with General Delaage at Angers, Fr., in 1844. Fruit large, turbinate, shortened and ventriculous in its lower part, very much narrowed and slightly constricted at the top which is rarely very obtuse, lemon-yellow, strewn with large gray dots, fully colored with dull red on the side exposed to the sun; flesh white, fine, or semi-fine, melting, gritty below the core; juice abundant; saccharine, sourish and vinous, with an aromatic flavor; first; Feb. to Apr.

President. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 44. 1865. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 836. 1869.
A seedling raised by S. A. Shurtleff, Brookline, Mass., and fruited in 1861. Fruit very large, globular-obovate, somewhat irregular; skin slightly rough, greenish-yellow, pale red in the sun, considerable russet next the base of the stalk and traces of russet and conspicuous dots all over; flesh yellowish-white, rather coarse, melting, juicy, slightly vinous; good; early Nov.

Président Barabé. 1. Guide Prat. 97. 1895. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 193. 1920.
First fruited in 1870 from a seed of Bergamotte Esperén with M. Sannier, Rouen, Fr. Fruit medium to below, short-turbinate, deep golden in color; flesh white, fine, melting, a little acid, juicy and of exquisite flavor; Jan. to Mar.

Président de la Bastie. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 265. 1889. 2. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 330, fig. 1906.
Originated with M. Boisselot, Nantes, Fr. Fruit large, shape of Bartlett; flesh white, fine, melting; good to very good; Feb. and Mar.

Président Boncenne. 1. Guide Prat. 97. 1895.
On trial with Messrs. Simon-Louis, Metz, Lorraine, in 1895. This firm had received it from Poitiers. Tree very vigorous and makes a shapely pyramid. Fruit medium, pyramidal, greenish, slightly blushed with red on the side next the sun; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, very juicy, perfumed, saccharine and with a flavor of almond; beginning of Sept.

Président Campy. 1. Guide Prat. 102. 1876.
On trial with Messrs. Simon-Louis, Metz, Lorraine, in 1876 and stated to have been received from Belgium.

President Clark. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 98. 1881.
This was a hybrid produced from the crossing of Seckel with Belle Lucrative. It was raised by Francis Dana, who, before he died, put several seedlings into the hands of Colonel Stone, Dedham, Mass., saying he thought there might be some very good varieties among them. This variety was among them, and was named after the first President of the Massachusetts Agricultural College. Fruit full medium, turbinate, somewhat irregular and variable, clear lemon-yellow, with a carmine cheek next the sun; flesh white, fine-grained, very melting, juicy, slightly astringent, sweet and rich; very good to best; a little later in season than Bartlett.

Président Couprie. 1. Guide Prat. 102. 1876.
French. Fruit medium, oval; flesh yellow, very tender, melting, juicy, highly saccharine and perfumed; Sept. and Oct.

Président Deboutteville. 1. Guide Prat. 102. 1876.
Published by M. Boisbunel. On trial with Messrs. Simon-Louis, Metz, Lorraine, in 1876. Fruit rather large; first; Dec.

President Dr. Ward. 1. N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 157. 1905.
Awarded a premium by the New Jersey Horticultural Society in 1905.

Président d'Estaintot. 1. Guide Prat. in. 1876.
Obtained at Rouen, Fr., from a seed of Soldat-Laboureur, and published by Collette. The fruit is of first quality and is in season from Aug. to Oct.

President Felton. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 836. 1869.
Originated with W. D. Brincklé, Philadelphia, Pa. Fruit medium, globular-oblate, pale yellow, with a crimson cheek in sun, nettings and tracings of russet, and many brown and gray dots; flesh fine, juicy, yellowish-, semi-melting, slightly vinous, sweet; good; Oct.

Président Fortier. 1. Guide Prat. 98. 1895.
Obtained by M. Sannier, Rouen, Fr. Fruit medium, ovate, slightly swelled; flesh white, very fine, melting, sugary, perfumed; Jan. to Apr.

Président Heron. 1. Rev. Hort. 6. 1897.
A new pear placed on the market in 1897 by Arsène Sannier, a nurseryman at Rouen, Fr, Fruit medium; form recalling that of Urbaniste, obovate or oblong-obovate; flesh very fine, juicy, and perfumed.

Président Mas. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 836. 1869. 2. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 333, fig. 1906.
First reported in 1865 as having been raised by M. Boisbunel, horticulturist at Rouen, Fr., and adopted by the Pomological Congress of France. Fruit large, sometimes very large, ovate-conic-obtuse and bossed round the stalk; skin rough, yellowish-green, much dotted with russet, marbled with fawn around the eye; flesh whitish, fine, melting, juicy with a sugary flavor, vinous and very pleasantly perfumed; very good; Nov. to Jan.

Président Muller. 1. Guide Prat. 102. 1876.
Published by M. Grégoire, Jodoigne, Brabant, and on trial with Messrs. Simon-Louis, Metz, Lorraine, in 1876. Fruit large; first; Nov.

Président Olivier. 1. Guide Prat. in. 1876.
Gained by M. Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel., not long previous to 1876.

Président d'Osmonville. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:547, fig. 1869. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 194. 1920.
This variety was a posthumous gain of M. Leon Leclerc, Laval, Fr., in 1834, an amateur well known among French pomologists. Fruit medium, ovate-pyriform; skin smooth, fine and tender, very pale green changing to pale yellow, more golden on the side of the sun, or occasionally washed on the more-exposed fruits with a suggestion of rosy red; flesh yellow, very fine, entirely melting, filled with saccharine juice, vinous, and penetrated with a lively musk flavor; first; Oct.

Président Parigot. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:548, fig. 1869.
A variety originated by Count Nouhes near Pauzauges in the Vendée, Fr., where the seedling gave its first fruit in 1852. Fruit above medium, long-conic, narrowed in its upper part and bossed; skin rather rough, orange-yellow, dotted with greenish-gray and extensively washed with clear gray; flesh whitish, semi-fine, melting, watery, granular around the core; juice abundant, very saccharine, vinous and with a delicious flavor; first; Oct.

Président Payen. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:549. 1869.
This pear issued in 1860 from a seed bed made by M. Briffaut, Sevres, Fr. It was awarded a silver medal in 1861 by the Horticultural Society of Paris. Fruit medium, long-pyriform, golden-russet sometimes washed with a red blush; flesh fine, melting, juicy, saccharine, perfumed, and of good flavor; of moderate merit; beginning of winter.

Président Pouyer-Quertier. 1. Guide Prat. in. 1876.
A French pear dedicated to a President of the Horticultural Society of Rouen. Fruit medium, rather long, covered with gray-russet; flesh very fine, juicy, saccharine; first; Dec. and Jan.

Président Royer. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:549, fig. 1869.
M. Xavier Grégoire, the Belgian tanner of Jodoigne, obtained this pear in 1762 when it fruited for the first time. Fruit medium; form recalling that of the quince, very bossed, rather obtuse, base flat, bright yellow, dotted, streaked and mottled with russet and extensively washed with tender rose on the side of the sun; flesh fine, firm although quite melting, rather granular at core; juice abundant, saccharine, highly perfumed, possessing a slight acidity which renders it agreeable and refreshing; first; Oct.

Président Le Sant. 1. Guide Prat. 102. 1876.
Tree vigorous and fertile. Fruit medium, Bergamot-shaped; skin oily, symmetrical, yellow dotted with fawn; flesh fine, melting, juicy, saccharine, with an agreeable aroma; first; Oct. and Nov.

Président Watier. 1. Guide Prat. 98. 1895.
Obtained about 1880 by the Chevalier de Biseau d'Hauteville, at Binche, Bel. Fruit long-gourd-shaped; flesh salmon-colored, melting, saccharine, well-flavored; Nov.

Présidente Senente. 1. Guide Prat, 98. 1895.
Obtained by M. Sannier, Rouen, Fr. On trial in 1895. Tree healthy, of moderate vigor and pyramidal. Fruit small to medium, globular-oblate; flesh melting, perfumed, very juicy with a pleasant acidity; Dec. and Jan.

Prévost. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:552, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 633. 1884.
Obtained by Alexandre Bivort, director of the nurseries of the Society Van Mons at Geest-Saint-Rémy, Jodoigne, Bel, in 1847. Fruit above medium, rather irregular-ovate, bossed, often much swelled in the lower half, lemon-yellow or golden, dotted and a little speckled with bright maroon, carmined on the cheek turned to the sun; flesh white, semi-fine and semi-melting, having a pleasant muscat flavor; second; Jan. to Mar.

Pricke. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 593. 1629.
"The peare pricke is very like unto the Greenfield peare, being both faire, great, and good."

Primating. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 592. 1629.
Mentioned by John Parkinson in 1629, as "a good moist peare, and early ripe"

Prince Albert. 1. Pom. France 4:No. 141, PL 141. 1865. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 836. 1869.
This was a seedling of the eighth generation raised by Van Mons at Louvain, Bel., sown about 1840. Fruit medium, conic, obtuse and irregular, often contorted, sides unequal, greenish, striped and dotted with fawn, washed with russet around the stem; flesh white, semi-fine and semi-breaking, gritty; juice abundant, saccharine, aromatic, rather savory; second; Nov. and Dec.
[no mention of how well this does canned ;) -ASC]

Prince Harvest, 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 837. 1869.
Raised by William Prince, Flushing, L. I., N. Y. Fruit small, ovate-pyriform, pale yellow, rarely a brownish blush, red cheek in the sun, sprinkled with brown dots, and sometimes patched with russet; flesh white, firm, breaking, moderately juicy, sweet, slightly musky; good; end of July.

Prince Impérial. 1. Guide Prat. 65. 1876.
Obtained by M. Grégoire, Jodoigne, Brabant, Bel., in 1850. Tree vigorous and fertile. Fruit large, ovate, bright yellow all over; flesh salmon-colored, buttery, rather juicy, saccharine and having an agreeable perfume; first; Oct. and Nov.

Prince Impérial de France, 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:554, fig. 1889. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 837. 1869.
M. Grégoire, the well-known Belgian seedsman, obtained this variety at Jodoigne in 1850 from seed of Pastorale sown in 1835. Fruit above medium, irregular-ovate and rather swelled, having one side usually more enlarged than the other, bright green, dotted, streaked, patched and spotted with fawn-russet; flesh white, fine, juicy, melting, slightly gritty below the core; juice abundant, refreshing, saccharine, acidulous, perfumed; first; Sept.

Prince de Joinville. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 837. 1869.
Belgian; first fruited in 1848. Fruit medium, globular, green changing to golden yellow, with a vivid blush on the cheek next the sun, brown spots and some russet; flesh yellowish-white, semi-fine, melting, acidulous, sweet, agreeably aromatic; first for dessert, household and market; Nov.

Prince Napoléon. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:556, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 837. 1869.
Raised by M. Boisbunel, Rouen, Fr., from seed of the Passe Crassane in 1864. Fruit medium and sometimes above, globular, rarely regular and often mammillate at the top, olive-yellow, covered largely with mottlings of brown and sprinkled with indistinct gray dots; flesh white-greenish or yellowish, semi-fine, semi-melting; juice sufficient, saccharine, vinous, with a delicate perfume; first; Feb. and Mar.

Prince d'Orange. 1. Mag. Hort. 21:146. 1855.
Raised by Van Mons at Louvain and numbered 891 in his Catalog of 1823, second and third series, and regarded by J. de Jonghe, Brussels, as one of Van Mons' more remarkable fruits; form and flavor of Passe Colmar.

Prince de Printemps. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 198. 1832.
A Flemish pear imported by a Mr. Braddick in 1819. Fruit small, turbinate, green; flesh buttery, sweet; good; very late.

Prince Saint-Germain. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 447, fig. 207. 1845.
Raised by William Prince, Flushing, Long Island, N. Y., and known also as Brown Saint Germain. Fruit medium, obovate inclining to oval-pyriform, green nearly covered with brownish-russet and blushed with dull red on the side next the sun; flesh yellowish-white, melting, juicy, with a vinous and very agreeable flavor; very good; Nov. to Mar.

Prince Seed Virgalieu. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:163, fig. 562. 1881.
Origin unknown. Fruit medium, turbinate-conic and ventriculous, usually regular in form, pale green, slightly tinted with yellow, sprinkled with brownish-gray dots, small but numerous; at maturity the basic green becomes brilliant lemon-yellow and the side exposed to the sun washed with pale red; flesh white, fine, buttery, very melting; juice sufficient, saccharine; good; Oct.

Princess. 1. Jour. Hort. N. S. 3:260. 1882. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 194. 1920.
Raised by Messrs. Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, Eng., from seed of Louise Bonne de Jersey. Growth compact, upright, free bearer, valuable for market culture, and one to be depended upon in poor seasons; fine as a cordon. Fruit medium, long-pyriform, tapering almost to stalk, not very symmetrical, smooth and shining, rarely russety, green and pale green with a brownish tinge, dark green dots under the skin; flesh white, juicy and melting, briskly acid; very good; Oct. to Christmas, rather variable in season.

Princess Maria. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 580. 1857.
A seedling from Van Mons. Fruit medium or below, pyramidal, yellow, considerably covered with rough, dull russet, and thickly sprinkled with dots; flesh whitish, rather coarse, juicy, melting, vinous, aromatic; good; Sept.

Princesse Charlotte. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:558, fig. 1869. 2, Hogg Fruit Man. 633.  1884.
A pear raised in 1846 by Major Esperén, Mechlin, Bel. Fruit medium, variable in form, much bossed and rather contorted, turbinate-obtuse to globular-ovate, grass-green with brown or orange glow on the sunny side, dotted and marbled with russet; flesh white, semi-fine, semi-melting, watery and gritty, but juicy, saccharine, acidulous, with a fine aroma; a fine pear, evidently of the Passe Colmar race, but quite distinct from that variety; Nov. and later.

Princesse Marianne. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:559, fig. 1869.  Calebasse Princesse Marianne. 2. Ann. Pom. Belge 5:67, fig. 1857.
Although very similar in color and form, this pear is distinct from Calebasse Bosc with which it has been confused. It was obtained by Van Mons at the Fidelite nursery near Brussels before 1817 from a graft of a wilding. Fruit large, pyriform and gourd-shaped, swelled in its lower part, more or less contracted near the summit and not very obtuse; skin rough, greenish-russet, dotted with clear gray and marbled or speckled with brown, flesh white or semi-fine, melting, some grit around the core, juicy, very saccharine, vinous and with a highly delicate aroma; first; Oct.

Princesse d'Orange. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:560. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 634. 1884. According to Van Mons this was found by Count de Coloma in the garden of the Riches-Claires Nunnery at Mechlin, Bel., about 1788, but remained unnamed for forty years. Fruit medium, globular or globular-ovate, bossed, seldom very regular in form, lemon-yellow, largely covered with reddish-brown russet, and more or less carmined on the side next the sun; flesh white and fine, melting or semi-melting, juicy, vinous, saccharine, slightly perfumed with anis; a first-class dessert pear; Oct.

Princière. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:562, fig. 1869.
Of uncertain origin. Leroy received it in 1864 from Charles Baltet, Troyes, Fr., who also described it in the Revue Horticole that year. Fruit above medium, globular, irregular, bossed, often much contorted and usually mammillate at the summit, golden yellow or bright yellow covered all over with large russet dots, streaked with fawn around the calyx; flesh white, fine, melting, full of juice, only slightly saccharine, vinous and slightly aromatic; second; Oct.

Priou. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:563, figs. 1869.
This pear which is one of the best ripening in spring-time was made known in 1863 by M. Priou, a miller at Rondard, near Brissac, Maine-et-Loire, Fr. The parent tree stood in an open pasturage, and was then about fifty years old. Fruit above medium, rather inconstant in form, globular-ovate, irregular, bossed, mammillate at the summit, and pentagonal at its base or almost completely globular, bright yellow, dotted and streaked with gray-russet; flesh white, fine and juicy, melting, slightly gritty at the center, saccharine, agreeably acid, with a delicious perfume; first; May.

Professeur Barral. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:565, fig. 1869.
M. Boisselot, Nantes, Fr., a well known seedsman, obtained this pear from seeds of Bartlett, in 1862. Fruit very large, globular, rather irregular and bossed; skin thick, orange-yellow, dotted with gray and lightly washed with bright russet on the exposed side; flesh whitish, fine or semi-fine, melting, watery; juice abundant, sugary, vinous, acidulous and full of flavor; first; Oct. and beginning of Nov.

Professeur Bazin. 1. Rev. Hort. 494. 1898.
A posthumous variety raised from a seed bed of M. Tourasse and placed on the market in 1898 by M. Baltet, Troyes, Fr. Fruit large, often very large, pyramidal, ventriculous at the middle, water-green, passing to lemon-yellow, mottled with fawn-brown; flesh extremely fine and melting, juicy, saccharine, with a delicate perfume; very good; Dec. and Jan.

Professeur Dubreuil. 1. Pom. France 3: No. 97, Pl.97. 1865. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 634. 1884.
Obtained by M. Dubreuil, professor of horticulture, from a bed of seeds of Louise-Bonne de Jersey made at the Botanical Garden of Rouen in 1840. Fruit medium, pyriform, more or less swelled; skin rather thick, oily, green changing to lemon-yellow, dotted with russet and carmined on the side of the sun; flesh white, fine, buttery, full of sugary juice, with an agreeable perfume; first; end of Aug. and early Sept.

Professeur Grosdemange. 1. Baltet Cult. Fr. 340, 342, fig. 243. 1908.
Fruit large, obovate-pyriform; coloring bright yellow with vermilion blush; flesh of good quality; Jan. to Mar.

Professeur Hennau. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 8:77, fig. 1860.
M. Xavier Grégoire, a tanner at Jodoigne, Bel., obtained this variety from seed. Fruited in 1860. Fruit above medium, ovate, more or less irregular, swelled and bossed, often a little contorted in its lower part, olive-yellow dotted with ashen gray, veined or speckled with fawn and washed with golden russet on the cheek exposed to the sun; flesh white, rather coarse, semi-melting, watery, very granular around the center; juice abundant, saccharine, tartish, delicate although slight perfume; second; Nov.

Professeur Hortolès. 1. Guide Prat. 57. 1895.
Raised by M. F. Morel, a horticulturist at Lyons, Fr. Tree vigorous and fertile, suitable for all forms of growth. Fruit rather large, pyriform-ventriculous, greenish-yellow, blushed with brownish-red on the side next the sun; flesh white, fine, melting, very juicy; first; Sept. and Oct.

Professeur Opoix. 1. Rev. Hort. 532, fig. 240. 1901.
A seedling from the establishment of Baltet Brothers, Troyes, Fr. Reported in 1901. Fruit rather large, globular, slightly oval, a little bossed, bright green passing to whitish-yellow, dotted with brown; flesh fine, yellow-butter tinted, very juicy, melting, saccharine, with a pleasant aromatic perfume; excellent; Jan. to Mar.

Professeur Willermoz. 1. Guide Prat. 98. 1895.
Obtained by M. Joanon at Saint-Cyr near Lyons, Fr. Fruit large or rather large, pyriform ventriculous; flesh very fine, juicy, melting, saccharine and perfumed; Aug. and Sept.

Prud'homme. 1. Guide Prat. 98. 1895.
Published in the Journal of the National Society of Horticulture of France in 1875. Tree vigorous and very fertile. Flesh saccharine, very sprightly; Sept. to Dec.

Pudsey. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 97. 1875.
A native of Nova Scotia which compares "favorably in flavor, richness, and other qualities with some of the most popular sorts at present cultivated."

Puebla. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:568, fig. 1869.
A seedling of M. André Leroy, Angers, Fr., reported in 1863. Fruit large, ovate, rather ventriculous and much bossed, with one side nearly always less swelled than the other; skin thick and rough, yellow, covered with large patches of russet and grayish dots; flesh very white and very fine, melting, with some grit at the center, full of sugary juice, with an acid taste and agreeable perfume; first; Oct.

Pulsifer. 1. Horticulturist 8:460, fig. 1853.
Dr. John Pulsifer of Hennepin, 111., in the spring of 1843 planted in his garden a pear .seed which produced a tree bearing fruit of great merit. An early and prolific bearer, hardy, vigorous. Fruit hardly medium, pyriform, dull golden-yellow, covered with an open network of slight russet; flesh white, melting, juicy, sweet, and delicious, much like Louise Bonne de Jersey, but superior to it; Aug.

Pushkin. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 135. 1920.
Pyrus ovoidea x R. et K. 533, a Russian pear. Originated by N. E. Hansen, Brookings, S. D., and introduced by him in 1919.


Queen Jargonelle. 1. Gard. Chron. 3d Ser. 2:369. 1887.
Of unknown origin but it appears to have been disseminated by the Rev. W. Kingsley, Thirsk, Yorkshire, Eng. Fruit soft, juicy and agreeable; Aug.

Queen Victoria. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 635. 1884.
Raised by Mr. W. Willison, a florist at Whitby, Yorkshire, Eng. Fruit medium, obovate, even in its contour, greenish-yellow at maturity, with a crust of cinnamon-russet on the side next the sun; flesh tender, juicy, sweet, and with an almond flavor; end of Aug.

Quiletette. 1. Mag. Hort. 9:388. 1843. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 840. 1869.
This is a Van Mons seedling, and was exhibited at the fifteenth annual exhibition of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in September, 1843, by R. Manning of Salem. Fruit nearly medium, globular, a little flattened, greenish, nearly, covered with dull iron-colored russet; flesh white, buttery, melting, rich, sweet and perfumed; an odd-looking fruit, scarcely good; Nov.

Quince. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 46. 1866.
A seedling raised by S. A. Shurtlefl, Brookline, Mass., and fruited in 1862. Fruit diameter 3 inches; skin lumpy and nodular; flesh fine-grained, juicy and sweet; great bearer; Sept.

Quinn. 1. Horticulturist 22:42, 117, fig. 25. 1867.
P. T. Quinn, Newark, N. J., submitted specimens of this pear to the Committee of the Farmers' Club of the American Institute which issued a report upon it on January 2d, 1867. The pear had been imported by Professor Mapes and the name lost, and at a previous meeting the Committee had named it Quinn. Fruit below medium, pyriform, tapering rapidly toward the stem end; skin inclined to golden-russet; flesh rich and juicy and in flavor and aroma occupies the first rank; good; Jan. and keeps till Mar.


Rainbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:166. 1856.
Hesse, Ger., 1816. Fruit medium, ovate, somewhat swelled; skin polished, pale light green turning to lemon-yellow, without any red blush, sprinkled with numerous fine light brown dots, fine russet on the side next the sun; flesh granular, vinous and highly aromatic; first for culinary use; mid-Oct.

Rallay. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 382. 1854.
An old variety of unknown origin. Fruit small to medium, globular-acute-pyriform; skin rough, dull yellow, dull reddish cheek, dotted all over with russet; flesh yellowish-white, breaking, juicy, gritty; good; Nov. and Dec.

Rameau. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 239. 1854. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:572, fig. 1869.  Silberästige Gewürzbirne. 3. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:15. 1856.
A seedling of Van Mons distinct from Besi des Veterans. Fruit above medium, oblong-oval; skin thick, rough, greenish, gray or bronzed on sunny side, stained and dotted with dark russet; flesh yellowish-white, very fine, melting, juicy, sweet, acidulous, aromatic; inferior.

Ramilies. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 165. 1841. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 195. 1920.
Described in 1842 in the London Horticultural Society's Catalog of Fruits. Fruit large, obovate, yellow obscured with russet, red next, the sun, beautiful in appearance; flesh breaking; very good for cooking; Nov. to Feb.

Rankin. 1. Van Lindley Nurs. Cat. 53. 1913.
Introduced by J. Van Lindley Nursery Company about 1905 and said to be a seedling of Duchesse d'Angoulême picked up from the side of the Southern Railway by W. H. Rankin, Guilford County, N. C. Tree strong, hardy. Fruit similar to Duchesse d'Angoulême but two weeks earlier.

Rannaja. 1. Iowa Hort. Soc. Rpt. 61. 1880.
Imported by Professor Budd from the northern steppes of Russia, where the summers are fully as dry and hot and the winters far more severe than those of Iowa; said to unite well with the apple when root or top grafted.

Rapelje. 1. Horticulturist 1:239, fig. 62. 1846.
A native variety introduced by Professor Stephens, Astoria, Long Island. Fruit medium, obovate, sometimes obtuse, and sometimes acute-pyriform, yellowish, covered with cinnamon-russet; flesh whitish, somewhat granular, juicy, melting, with a sweet, vinous, aromatic flavor; variable, sometimes poor; Sept.

Rastlerbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 18, fig. 1913.
Found in Northern Tyrol and the Austrian Province of the Voralberg. Fruit large, globular-turbinate, almost acute, green turning yellow-green when ripe, faintly blushed; flesh granular, greenish-white; a very good perry pear and suitable for baking; Oct. and Nov.

Rateau Blanc. 1. Pom. France 4: No. 155, Pl.155. 1865.
A variety of unknown origin, but cultivated from very early times in the Gironde, Fr., and much esteemed in the markets of the Pyrenees, Fruit above medium, irregular in form, usually pyramidal or long-ovate, sides unequal; skin rough to the touch, orange-yellow, shaded with green, whitish on the cheek opposed to the sun, stained with fawn around the stalk and covered, particularly on the lower part, with russet and large gray dots; flesh whitish, coarse, semi-breaking; juice rather deficient, slightly acidulous, somewhat saccharine; second for the table, first for the kitchen; Mar.

Ravenswood. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 196. 1858.
Ravenswood was a seedling found in the woods of Astoria, L.I., and transplanted to the grounds of Charles Ehrard. Fruit small, obovate-pyriform, pale yellow, with sometimes a tinge of red in the sun and thickly sprinkled with green dots; flesh whitish, slightly coarse, extremely full of vinous, carbonated juice, with a rich aromatic flavor; good to very good, superior to most pears of its period; mid-July to mid-Aug.

Ravut. 1. Guide Prat. 71. 1876.  Ravu, 2. Mag. Hort. 25:256. 1859.
Described by M. Baltet, Troyes, Fr., as a new fruit, in 1859. Tree moderately vigorous and very productive. Fruit medium, turbinate, pale yellow, dotted with russet; flesh fine, melting, sugary, remaining sound when ripe; Aug. and Sept.

Raymond. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 183. 1832.
Raised by Joseph Wight, Raymond, Me. Fruit medium, obovate-pyriform, yellow, marked with russet near the stalk and tinged with a little red toward the sun, thickly sprinkled with russet dots; flesh white, buttery, melting, juicy, sweet, aromatic; good to very good; Sept.

Raymond de Montlaur. 1. Guide Prat. 103. 1876.
On trial with Messrs. Simon-Louis, Metz, Lorraine, in 1876, and in 1895 placed in their list of pears of little value. Fruit very large, beautiful in form and color; flesh very white, fine, melting and very juicy, saccharine, and agreeably aromatic; Oct.

Raymould. 1. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 8. 1895.
Mentioned in a report of the Committee on New Fruits of the Ohio State Horticultural Society in 1895. Fruit fair but not of sufficient size or quality to be recommended for cultivation.

Re Umberto primo. 1. Rev. Hort 224. 1896.
Published in France in 1896 as a new Italian variety. Fruit ovate, lemon-yellow, dotted with small rough points; flesh rather breaking, slightly acidulous, very saccharine and highly perfumed.

Reading. 1. Mag. Hort. 19:173. 1853. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 841. 1869.
A native variety, new about 1853. Introduced by Charles Kessler. Originated in Oley Township, Reading, Pa. Fruit medium to large, obovate-pyriform, tapering to the crown, yellow, thickly dotted with brown points and sprinkled with russet; flesh greenish-white, abounding in juice of a mild and agreeable flavor, melting, vinous; good; Jan. to Mar.

Recq de Pambroye. 1. Guide Prat. 104. 1895.
Messrs. Simon-Louis, Metz, Lorraine, in 1895 classed this among "new varieties" and stated that they had received it from M. Daras de Naghin, Antwerp, Bel. Tree rather vigorous, forward according to accounts, fertile. Fruit medium or rather large, bronze in color, washed with red on the side exposed to the sun; flesh fine, juicy, sugary, vinous; Jan.

Red Garden. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 841. 1869.
Raised by Josiah Youngken, Richlandtown, Pa. Fruit medium, obovate-pyriform, pale yellow, shaded and mottled with a few crimson dots on the side next the sun, netted and patched with russet and thickly sprinkled with brown dots; flesh whitish, a little coarse, juicy, melting, sweet, pleasant; good to very good; Sept.

Red Pear. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 636. 1884.
A perry pear grown largely in Herefordshire, Eng. Fruit small, globular, even and regular in outline, inclining to turbinate, almost entirely covered with rather bright red, yellow around the stalk where shaded, sprinkled all over with pale gray dots; flesh quite yellow, firm, dry and gritty.

Redfield. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 195. 1867.
Raised from seed by J. W. Crosby, St. George, Utah, and first fruited in 1861. Fruit in size, shape and color resembles Bartlett, but is a little more tapering at the stem, yellowish-green, with a brownish-red cheek; flesh sweet, sprightly, melting; ripens a little later than Bartlett.

Refreshing. 1. Rural N. Y. 242, figs. 133, 134. 1885.
Raised by Benjamin Macomber, Grand Isle, Vt. Fruit below medium, bright golden yellow; stem stout, medium long, in a small cavity; flesh whitish, juicy, melting, sweet; very good; Sept.

Regina Margherita. 1. Rev. Hort. 224. 1896.
An Italian pear published in 1896 as a new variety. Fruit in form similar to that of Passe Crassane, greenish-yellow, washed with green; flesh very saccharine, somewhat acid, buttery, perfumed.

Régine. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 841. 1869.
A Van Mons seedling. Fruit medium, globular-pyriform, greenish-yellow, with slight nettings of russet and thickly sprinkled with green and brown dots; flesh white, juicy, melting, sweet, pleasant; good; Sept.

Regnier. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 185. 1854.
A native variety which originated with Madame Regnier, Philadelphia, Pa. Reported by the Committee on Fruits of the American Pomological Society in 1854. Fruit above medium, ovate, yellow, with usually a colored cheek; very good;

Reichenäckerin. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:10. 1856.
Württemberg, Ger., 1847. Fruit medium, globular, dark green, with brownish blush, gray dots; first for household; mid-Dec, and Jan.

Reine des Belges. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:578, fig. 1869.
A seedling raised by Van Mons at Louvain, Bel., in 1832. Fruit above medium, ovate, tending to globular, always slightly mammillate at the top; skin fine and shining, pale yellow, sprinkled with very small russet dots, and slightly blushed with tender rose on the side exposed to the sun; flesh very white, a little coarse, melting or semi-breaking, watery, rather granular at center; juice saccharine, vinous, perfumed; second; Sept.

Reine d'Hiver. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 841. 1869.
Fruit small, globular-oblate, yellow, with a brownish tinge on the cheek exposed to the sun and with nettings, patches and dots of russet; flesh yellowish, melting, juicy, sweet, pleasant; good; Nov.

Reine des Poires. 1. Manning Book of Fruits 84. 1828. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:581, fig. 1869.
The Count de Coloma came into possession of the garden of the Nunnery of the Riches-Claires, Mechlin, Bel., directly after the suppression of the order in 1786 and two years later made seed beds from which were raised, among other good varieties, the Reine des Poires. Fruit below medium, turbinate-ovate but irregular in form; skin rather thick and yet tender, green dotted with small brown points, changing to yellow, much covered with a brownish-red russet; flesh whitish, semi-fine, melting; juice abundant, saccharine and acidulous, with an exquisite perfume; first; Oct.

Reine des Précoces. 1. Mas Le Verger 2:201, fig. 99. 1866-73.
Probably of Belgian origin. Fruit small, globular-turbinate or nearly globular, regular in contour; skin thick, at first intense green sprinkled with numerous large, prominent, gray-green dots; the basic green changes to yellow on the shaded side and intense brownish-red on the side of the sun; flesh white, rather coarse, semi-buttery, a little gritty at the center, little juice or sugar, rather agreeable; second; end of July.

Reine des Tardives. 1. Guide Prat. 104. 1876.
Published by M. Bruant in 1865. Fruit rather large, vivid yellow; flesh juicy, saccharine; easily keeps till June.

Reine Victoria. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 842. 1869.
Said to be a seedling from Van Mons. Fruit medium, obovate-acute-pyriform, greenish-yellow, with shades and patches of fawn; flesh white, tinted with rose, fine, melting, juicy, sweet; Dec.

Reliance. 1. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 24. 1890.
Introduced by P. J. Berckmans to the Georgia State Horticultural Society and accepted by that Society in 1890. It was raised from seed sown in 1857, and named Reliance "because it bears every year. "Fruit small; a dessert pear almost as good as Seckel, rated as very good; summer season.

Remy Chatenay. 1. Guide Prat. 98. 1895.
Obtained by M. Sannier, Rouen, Fr. Tree healthy and of fair vigor, very fertile, and suitable for all forms of cultivation. Fruit of the form and appearance of Beurré d'Arenberg though not so large or delicate; matures in the spring.

René Dunan. 1. Guide Prat. 98. 1895.
On trial with Messrs. Simon-Louis at Metz, Lorraine, in 1895 and at Agassiz, British Columbia and other Canadian Experiment Stations in 1900. The tree pyramidal and very fertile. Fruit very large, lemon-yellow, vermilioned on the side of the sun; flesh fine, melting, acidulous, recalling the flavor of the Beurré Gris; Nov. and Dec.

Rettigbirne. 1. Christ Handb. 527. 1817. 2. Dochnahl Führ Obstkunde 2:34. 1856.
Of German origin. Reported in 1815. Fruit small, globular-pyriform, medium ventriculous, light yellow, dotted with gray, and speckled with brown; flesh acid and aromatic; first for all purposes; beginning of Sept. for three weeks.

Reuterbirne. 1. Dochnshl Führ. Obstkunde 2:189. 1856.
Nassau, Prussia, 1807. Fruit almost small, ovate, ventriculous, uneven in outline, pale yellow-green turning to light lemon-yellow, often covered with thin russet on the side of the sun; flesh dense, juicy, wanting in flavor, sweet and acidulous; third for dessert, first for household; Oct.

Rewell. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 593. 1629.
"The good Rewell is a reasonable great peare, as good to bake as to eate rawe, and both wayes it is a good fruit."

Reymenans. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:152. 1856.
A Van Mons seedling. Belgium, 1825. Fruit small, turbinate-globular, even in contour, light green turning to lemon-yellow, without any red blush, sprinkled with fine dots, with delicate russet on the cheek next the sun; skin without scent; flesh semi-melting, sweet, aromatic; second for dessert, first for household and market; Feb. and Mar.

Reynaert Beernaert. 1. Mag. Hort. 26:220. 1860. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:21, fig. 395. 1880.
Obtained by M. Bivort, director of the Society Van Mons, Bel. Fruit medium or nearly large, globular, flattened at both poles, regular in contour; skin rather thick, water-green, sprinkled with numerous large and regularly-spaced, gray dots, turning at maturity to dull yellowish-green and the side next the sun golden or orange colored; flesh whitish, coarse, semi-melting, wanting in juice and sugar, vinous but without appreciable perfume; second; Nov.

Rheinische Birne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:6. 1856.
Westphalia, a province of Prussia, 1802. Fruit large, ovate, light green turning pale yellow, without any blush, strongly dotted; flesh breaking, juicy, aromatic; first for household use; Oct.

Rheinische Herbstapothekerbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:178. 1856.
Nassau, Prussia, 1805. Fruit very large, conic, often very irregular in form, light yellow-green turning to pale light yellow, often stained blood-red, covered with very numerous and minute spots, speckled and marked with russet; flesh whitish, granular, semi-melting, sweet and aromatic; second for table, first for cooking.

Rheinische Paradiesbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:169. 1856.
Thuringia, Ger., 1801. Fruit large, conic, yellow, blushed and streaked with light red, dotted with yellow; flesh yellow, gritty around the center, sweet; third for the table, first for culinary use; end of Oct. and Nov.

Rhenser Schmalzbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:63. 1856.
The German Rhineland, 1833. Fruit fairly large, pyriform, smooth, yellow, blushed with blood-red, covered with fine dots; flesh yellowish, breaking, sweet, aromatic; third for dessert, first for kitchen; Jan. to Mar.

Richards. 1. Mag. Hort. 22:540. 1856. 2. Downing Ft. Trees Am. 842. 1869.
Originated at Wilmington, Del. It was placed on the list of the American Pomological Society in 1856 at its biennial session at Rochester. Fruit medium, obovate-acute-pyri-form, yellow sprinkled with numerous small russet dots and patches of russet; flesh buttery, melting, granular, with a sweet, pleasantly vinous flavor; good; Oct.

Richardson. 1. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 570. 1885.
Fruit rather large, obovate; flesh melting, sprightly, pleasant; Oct.

Riche Dépouille, 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:205. 1832.
A French variety introduced early in the last century. Its name may be translated Rich-skinned. Fruit large, oblong-obovate, rather irregular in its outline and resembling in form the Saint Germain, clear lemon-yellow, with a tinge of scarlet on the side exposed to the sun, a little mottled with russet, and the whole skin rough like the skin of an orange; flesh white, melting, without perfume but sweet and pleasant; late autumn or winter.

Ridelle. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 87. 1845. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 842. 1869.
Shown at the seventeenth annual exhibition of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in September, 1845, by the President of the Society. Fruit medium, oblate-turbinate, remotely pyriform, yellow covered nearly all over with bright red; flesh semi-fine, rather juicy, not melting or delicate in flavor; scarcely good; Sept.

Riocreux. 1. Guide Prat. 104. 1876.
Probably French. Fruit rather large, like Calebasse in form, symmetrical, yellowish-green; flesh fine, extremely melting, juicy, with an exquisite perfume; first; Aug. and Sept.

Ritson. 1. Ont. Dept. Agr. Fr. Ont. 175, figs. 1914.
Originated at Oshawa, Ontario, Can. W. E. Wellington stated that his grandmother, Mrs. John Ritson, planted the seeds from a pear sent to her from Boston, and that the tree had stood on the homestead as long as he could remember. Fruit medium, obovate-pyriform, usually one-sided, yellow, shaded with golden-russet arid numerous minute dots of a darker hue; flesh medium, creamy-white, fine, tender, buttery, juicy, sweet, delicately perfumed; dessert, very good to best; Oct.

Ritter. 1. Mag. Hort. 23:106. 1857.
Dr. Brincklé, chairman of the Committee on Native Fruits of the American Pomological Society, reported in 1857 that specimens had been received from Louis Ritter, Reading, Pa. The tree from which they were obtained was purchased in the spring of 1851 for Seckel, but the tree instead of having a rounded head is pyramidal in growth. Fruit small, obovate, greenish-yellow, a good deal russeted, with occasionally a faint brown cheek; flesh fine texture, melting and buttery, saccharine, with the full Seckel aroma; best; Oct.

Rival Dumont. 1. Guide Prat. in. 1876.
Fruit rather large, oval-turbinate, russet washed with yellow; flesh melting, buttery-juicy, aromatic; first; Nov. and Dec.

Rivers. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:583, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fr nit Man. 637. 1884.
A delicious pear raised in 1864 by Leroy at Angers, Fr., and dedicated by him to Thomas Rivers, the distinguished English pomologist. Fruit medium, turbinate, regular in outline, greenish, dotted with brown and almost entirely covered with bright brown-russet; flesh very melting, white, fine, juicy, saccharine, vinous, refreshing, with a delicate musky perfume; first; Sept.

Robert Hogg. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:584, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 637. 1884.
Raised by Leroy, Angers, Fr., and named after Doctor Robert Hogg, the English horticulturist. It first fruited in 1868. Fruit above medium, ovate, more or less irregular and generally rather swelled in its lower part; skin slightly rough, rather deep green, much covered with fawn-colored mottles of russet and small gray dots; flesh whitish, watery, semi-fine, melting; juice very abundant, saccharine, richly flavored, aromatic, with an agreeable acidity; first; Sept. and Oct.

Robert Treel. 1. Guide Prat. 104. 1876.
Published by J. de Jonghe, Bel. Tree very fertile. Fruit medium; flesh melting; first; Feb.

Robine. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:174, PL XXVII. 1768. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 637. 1884.
This is an ancient pear of unascertained origin, though the pomologists Turpin and Poiteau and others have regarded it as French. It is often known as the Royale d'Été;, and has had various other synonyms. Fruit below medium, globular-turbinate, bright green changing to yellow, dotted with greenish-gray; flesh white, fine or semi-fine, almost breaking, rather dry, very saccharine, sweet and having an agreeable musky flavor; second; mid-Aug.

Robitaillié père. 1. Rev. Hort. 463. 1906.
A French pear raised at the beginning of the present century by M. Robitaillié. Fruit very large; skin yellow, dotted with green and fawn, becoming golden at full maturity; flesh fine, saccharine, acidulous, very juicy; first; season late and prolonged until Jan.

Rockeneirbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:2. 1856.
South Germany, 1847. Fruit small, smooth and shining; flesh yellow-white, somewhat blushed; first, for household use and perry; Sept.

Roe Bergamot. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 843. 1869.  Bergamoite de Roe. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:117, fig- 59- 1872.
Raised by William Roe, Newburgh, N. Y. Fruit medium in size, form oblate or Bergamot-shaped, rather irregular; skin smooth, yellow, with minute yellow dots on the shaded side, washed with red on the side of the sun; flesh rather coarse, sweet, rich, perfumed flavor suggestive of Gansel Bergamot but much more sugary; good to very good; Sept. Tree fairly vigorous and prolific.

Rogers. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 157. 1867.
Reported as a new pear in 1867. Fruit said to be similar to the Louise Bonne de Jersey in shape and size but like the Washington in dots, markings and flavor; end of Sept.

Roggenhoferbime. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 170, fig. 1913.
A perry pear which came first probably from Lower Austria. Fruit small to medium, turbinate to pyriform, the apex being rather acute; skin firm, grass-green turning to greenish-yellow, blushed on the sunny side, dotted all over with numerous gray-brown dots; flesh whitish, coarse-grained, fairly juicy, subacid; good for cider and drying; end of Aug.

Roi-Guillaume. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:91, fig. 238. 1879.
Gained by Van Mons. Fruit medium, ovate, uneven on all its surface; skin at first pale water-green, sprinkled with brown dots, changing to lemon-yellow, more golden on the side next the sun and often washed with orange-red; flesh-white, coarse, granular, rather gritty at core; juice saccharine and perfumed but rather wanting in amount; third for the table, good for the kitchen; Sept.

Roi de Rome. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 6:51, fig. 1858. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 843. 1869.
The AbbéDuquesnes, to whom we are beholden for many good fruits, found this pear in Hainaut, Bel. Fruit very large, pyriform, pyramidal, olive-green, with dark gray shading around the stalk and calyx, strongly blushed with orange-red and dotted with bright gray on the side next the sun, and yellow at maturity on the shaded cheek, with brown-black dots; flesh fine, semi-melting, yellowish-white; juice abundant, saccharine, with an agreeable perfume; second for table, first for household; Sept.

Roitelet. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 843. 1869.
A Flemish pear. Fruit small, globular, yellow, netted, shaded and sprinkled with russet; flesh whitish, semi-melting, juicy, sweet; good; Sept.

Rokeby. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 844. 1869. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:73, fig. 37. 1872.
Gained by M. Bivort, Bel., and first published in 1848. Fruit medium or below, pyriform, swelled in lower half, lower end flat, bright green turning to bright yellow in the shade and blood-red on the cheek exposed to the sun; flesh white, semi-fine, juicy, wanting in quality; second; Aug. and Sept.

Rolmaston Duchess. 1. Horticulturist 29:148. 1874.
Published in 1874. Fruit medium, pyriform, yellow-green; flesh fine, melting, juicy, vinous; very good; Oct.

Ronde du Bosquet. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:586, fig. 1869.
Raised from seed and bore the name of the place where the parent tree, which was first described in 1863, grew in M. Leroy's grounds, Angers, Fr. Fruit below medium, irregularly globular and strongly bossed, bright yellow, dotted with brown, much mottled with russet; flesh whitish, watery, very fine, melting, rarely gritty; juice abundant, vinous, saccharine, possessing a delicious perfume; first; Oct.

Rondelet. 1. Mag. Hort. 12:340. .1846. 2. Ibid. 18:436, fig. 32. 1852.
Obtained in France by M. François Dehove. Fruit medium, remarkably oblate, with a slightly uneven surface, much flattened at each end; skin fair, smooth, green turning yellow at maturity, faintly blushed on the side next the sun, and thickly dotted with russet intermixed with a few greenish specks; flesh yellow-white, buttery, melting, juicy, saccharine and musky; first; Oct.

Ropes. 1. Mag. Hort. 12:500. 1846. 2, Downing Fr. Trees Apt. 844. 1869.
Originated with Mr. Ropes, Salem, Mass., about 1846. Fruit medium, obovate, cinnamon-russet; stem short; cavity inclined; calyx small, open, set in a shallow basin; flesh whitish, coarse, melting, juicy, sugary, aromatic; good; Oct. and Nov.

Rorreger Mostbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 50, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit large, globular-turbinate to pyriform; skin smooth, shining green turning yellow, numerous small green dots; flesh whitish, rather coarse-grained, subacid and very juicy; mid-Oct. and Nov.

Rosabirne. 1. Horticulturist 8:65. 1853.
A foreign pear introduced to this country as a new variety in the middle of the last century. Fruit medium, obovate-acute-pyriform, surface uneven, dull greenish-yellow, almost entirely overspread with russet; flesh white, melting and juicy, with a delicious, brisk, subacid flavor, vinous, resembles Brown Beurré; promised to be very good, one of the best; Oct. and Nov.

Rosalie Wolters. 1. Guide Prat. 98. 1895.
Published in 1878. Fruit medium, oblong, whitish yellow; flesh yellowish, fine, very saccharine; first; Oct.

Rosanne. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:69, fig. 227. 1879.
Origin unknown; Diel states he had received it from Strasland, Prussia. Fruit medium, ovate-pyriform, symmetrical in contour, green marked with gray dots, changing at maturity to lemon-yellow, extensively washed on the side next the sun with wine red, over which are scattered numerous very distinct, brighter-red dots, giving the pear a great resemblance to Vermont Beauty; flesh whitish, rather fine, buttery; juice somewhat deficient but pleasantly acid; good; mid-Aug.

Rose Doyenné. 1. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 713. 1897.
Fruit rather large, obovate, yellow and crimson; flesh coarse, granular, flavor poor, rots at core; Oct.

Rose Water. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 592. 1629.
An old English pear. Fruit medium, globular, rough skin, brownish-red; flesh breaking, of a fine and delicate flavor; of fair quality but superseded; mid-Sept.

Rosenhofbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 92, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit medium, globular-oblate; skin tough, shining, light, yellow when ripe, blushed slightly on the sunny side, with numerous fine dots; flesh yellow-white, coarse-grained, juicy, very astringent; Oct.

Rosenwasserbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:41. 1856.
Rheinfalz, Bavaria. Fruit medium, long-turbinate, even in outline; tender skin,, green turning yellowish-white, without dots, often flecked with dark specks; flesh juicy,, with a rose-like aroma, very white, semi-melting, very good; mid-Aug.

Rosinenbirne, 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:73. 1856.
On the Rhine, Ger., 1802. Fruit small, globular-flattened, light green turning to] yellow-green, without any blush, covered with small dots and russet on the side next the: sun, often flecked with dark russet; flesh breaking, fine, very sweet and aromatic; third for dessert and first for kitchen; Nov.

Roslyn. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 844. 1869.
A wilding found on the land of W. C. Bryant, Roslyn, L. I. Fruit medium, almost spherical, yellow, netted, patched and dotted with russet; flesh whitish, melting, juicy r slightly vinous; good to very good; end of Aug.

Ross. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 165. 1841.
A seedling introduced by Thomas Andrew Knight in 1832. Fruit large, obovate,, yellowish-green interspersed with russet; flesh inclining to yellow, gritty near the center,, rich, juicy, saccharine; second-class dessert pear; Jan.

Rossney. 1. Pioneer Nurs. Co. Cat. fig. 1898. 2. U.S.D.A. Yearbook 402, PL LII.. 1904.
Raised in Salt Lake City, Utah, from a mixed lot of Winter Nelis and Bartlett seed planted for stocks by William Woodberry about 1881, and introduced by the Pioneer Nurseries Company, Salt Lake City, in 1898. Fruit medium to large, oval-pyriform, somewhat angular and ribbed towards the apex, golden yellow, blushed with scarlet and thinly overspread with a bluish-white bloom; dots numerous, minute, russet; stem rather long, moderately stout; calyx closed; flesh yellowish, buttery, juicy, subacid; good; ten days later than Bartlett.

Rostiezer. 1. Manning Book of Fruits 72. 1838.
Origin uncertain. It was, however, received from A. N. Baumann, Bollweiler, Alsace, by R. Manning, Salem, Mass., in 1834 or 1835. Often called Early Seckel in the west. Fruit medium or below, pyriform, regular in form, grass-green on the shaded side, reddish on the exposed face and sprinkled with small gray dots; flesh greenish-white, fine, melting, rather granular below the core; juice very abundant, vinous, acidulous, very saccharine, with a most delicate flavor; first; last of Aug.
[Description in 1862 Report of the U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture.]

Rote Hanglbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 196, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit small to medium, spherical; skin tough, lemon-yellow when ripe, no blush, dotted with russet; flesh yellowish-white, coarse-grained, juicy, subacid; very good for transportation; Nov.

Rote Holzbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 198, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit medium, globular-turbinate, greenish to citron-yellow, slightly blushed on the sunny side and densely dotted with cinnamon; flesh yellowish, rather coarse-grained, very juicy, subacid; Oct.

Rote Kochbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 200, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit small, globular-turbinate, greatest diameter at center, flat at base; skin tough, rough, grayish-green, dull blush on the exposed side; flesh yellowish-white, very firm, juicy, excessively astringent, subacid; Nov. and Dec.

Rote Pilchelbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 52, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear of second quality. Fruit fairly large, pyriform-obtuse, also conic, golden yellow when ripe, red on the sunny side, plentifully sprinkled with small dots; flesh yellowish, coarse-grained, very juicy, with subacid flavor; Sept. and Oct.

Rote Scheibelbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 94, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit small to fairly large, flattened-globular, symmetrical in outline, smooth, polished, dark green changing to greenish-yellow, blushed on the sunny side, densely and finely dotted; flesh whitish, coarse, with an aroma peculiar to itself, subacid and very juicy; Oct.

Rote Winawitz. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 204, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit small to medium, turbinate to pyriform, very variable; skin firm and rough, yellow when ripe, without any blush, dotted with numerous fine, russet spots; flesh yellow-white, coarse-grained, very juicy, subacid, aromatic; Oct. and Nov.

Rotfleischige Mostbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 220, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit small, globular-turbinate, calyx end flat, leaf-green, dotted with russet and flecked with red; flesh under the skin firm but near the core softer, coarse-grained, juicy, subacid; Oct. to mid-Nov.

Rothbackige Sommerzuckerbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Gbstkunde 2:49. 1856.
Germany, 1801. Fruit small, pyriform, smooth, pale green turning to shining lemon-yellow, lightly blushed on the sunny side, dotted; flesh rose-tinted, saccharine, semi-melting, granular, deficient in flavor; second for dessert, first for cuisine and market; Sept.

Rothe Confesselsbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:14. 1856.
German, published in 1766. Fruit medium, oblong, somewhat swelled, skin thick, gray-green with brown russet; flesh yellowish, semi-melting, juicy, aromatic, tender; second for table, good for culinary use; Oct.

Rothe Jakobsbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:48. 1856.
Nassau, Ger., 1806. Fruit small, ovate, light green turning yellow-green, with brownish-red russet; flesh granular, agreeable, sweet; second for the table, good for household and market purposes; July.

Rothe langstielige Honigbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:11. 1856.
Originated near the Rhine, Ger., 1804. Fruit medium, pyriform, ventriculous and bent] obtuse, sides unequal, light green, changing to dark red with indistinct yellow and light red spots; flesh tender, juicy, aromatic; second for the table; good for cooking.

Rothe oder grosse Pfalzgrafinbirne. 1. Christ Handb. 538. 1817. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:60. 1856.
Germany, 1797. Fruit medium, conic, entirely covered with dark blush, densely sprinkled with gray dots and dark speckles; flesh yellow-white, honey-sweet, semi-melting, aromatic; third for the table, first for kitchen and market; Sept.

Rothe Rettigbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:34. 1856.
Altenburg, Ger., 1821. Fruit small, spherical, yellow-green, covered all over with dirty red, densely dotted and speckled with russet; flesh whitish-yellow, granular, melting,, juicy; first for table and cuisine; Aug.

Rothe Winterkappesbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:167. 1856.
German, 1805. Fruit medium, long-turbinate, often spherical, flattened and sides unequal, green turning to lemon-yellow, firm and shining, blushed with red, dotted with gray; flesh rather white, coarse-grained, acidulous; good for the kitchen; Dec. to Feb.

Rothe Winterkochbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:192. 1856.
Germany, on the Main, 1805. Fruit medium, obtuse-conic, symmetrical in contour, smooth and shining, light green turning to a beautiful lemon-yellow, finely dotted with gray, flecked with russet on the side opposed to the sun; flesh coarse, saccharine, juicy, wanting in aroma; third for dessert, very good for household use and market; Nov. and Dec.

Rothe Zucherlachsbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:49. 1856.
Nassau, Germany, 1805. Fruit medium, obtuse-long-conic, yellowish light green, dark red blush, changing to light lemon-yellow with carmine cheek, mottled and flecked with brown-russet; flesh semi-melting, granular, gritty near core, very sweet, vinous and acidulous; second for the table, very good for kitchen and market; Aug.

Rother Winterhasenkopf. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:147. 1856.
Nassau, Ger., 1806. Fruit large, irregular in form, sides unequal, crooked, yellowish pale green turning yellow, with dark blush, very prominent brown dots; flesh breaking,, sweet, acidulous, vinous; third for table, good for household use; considered by Messrs. Simon-Louis to be analogous to the Catillac; Jan. to Mar.

Rothgraue Kirchmessbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:109. 1856.
Hesse, Ger., 1804. Fruit meditun to rather large, conic, slightly bossed, sides unequal; skin rough and covered with brownish-gray russet, often faintly blushed; flesh yellowish-green, coarse-grained, sweet, acidulous and musky; second for dessert, first for kitchen; mid-Sept.

Rougeaude. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 1:88. 1831.
Fruit medium, pyramidal, fairly regular, skin yellowish on the shaded side, but about three-fourths of the fruit is of a darker or lighter shade of red; flesh firm, dry, with some sweetness but insipid and wanting in flavor; indifferent; Jan.

Rouget. 1. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:537. 1860. 2. Baltet Cult.Fr. 404, 405. 1908.
The flesh of this small French pear becomes red when cooked and the confectioners of Paris use large quantites of it obtained from the neighborhood of Etampes. It is also considered a first class pear for perry.

Roulef. 1. Can. Hort. 17:292, fig. 684. 1894.
Raised from seed by Mr. Mitschurin, Tambow, Russia. Fruit medium, yellow, firm, vinous; good.

Rouse Lench. 1. "Kendrick Am. Orch. 165. 1841. 2. "Bunyand Handb. Hardy Fr. 195. 1920.
Raised by T. A. Knight, and first fruited in 1820. In 1850 it was placed on the "Rejected Fruits "list by the second Congress of Fruit Growers at New York. Fruit large, long-oval, uneven, pale yellow-green, with thin russet; no depression at base of very long woody stem; calyx open, basin shallow; flesh pale yellow, juicy; fair; Jan. and Feb.

Rousselet Aelens. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 4:92, fig. 1856. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 844. 1869.
A Belgian pear of unknown origin. Fruit small to medium, turbinate, obtuse-pyriform, golden yellow at time of maturity, faintly colored on the sunny side, patches of russet, and dots of grayish red; flesh yellowish-white, rather fine, melting; juice abundant, sweet and possessing a decided perfume of the Rousselets; quality would be first class if the flesh were less granular; Nov.

Rousselet d'Anvers. 1. Guide Prat. 58. 1895.
A variety raised by M. Daras de Naghin, Antwerp, Bel. Tree vigorous and fertile, hardy, resisted the great European frost of 1879-1880. Fruit medium, globular-ovate, yellowish-green, slightly tinged with dark red; flesh semi-fine, melting, saccharine and well flavored; first; Oct.

Rousselet Baud. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:177, fig. 185. 1878.
Gained by Dr. Van Mons and mentioned in his Catalog of 1823. Fruit small or rather small, ovate, more or less swelled, even in outline; skin a little thick, at first water-green with many very numerous and small dots, sometimes much covered with cinnamon-colored russet, changing to citron-yellow and the russet becoming golden on the side next the sun; flesh yellow-white, rather fine, dense, buttery, melting; juice sufficient, richly saccharine and perfumed; Oct. and Nov.

Rousselet Bivort. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 4:9, fig. 1856. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 845. 1869.
Raised from a bed of the seeds of Simon Bouvier made in the grounds of the Society Van Mons at Geest-Saint-Rémy, Bel., in 1840. Fruit small, turbinate; skin smooth, bright green turning to lemon-yellow, shaded and mottled with russet-fawn especially on the side exposed to the sun, dotted with brown-black and brown-russet; flesh yellowish-white, fine, melting, semi-buttery: juice abundant, saccharine and agreeably perfumed recalling the scent of the Rousselets; good, suitable for large collections; Oct. to Jan.

Rousselet Blanc. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:37, fig. 307. 1880.
Raised by Van Mons and cataloged by him in 1823. Fruit rather small, globular-turbinate, even in contour, bright green, whitish, a few very small, bright, gray dots, no russet, at maturity it becomes pale yellow and the side next the sun is blushed extensively with bright blood-red, a white bloom covering the whole surface of the fruit and numerous very small dots of golden-yellow appearing on the red; flesh whitish, rather fine, semi-buttery; juice sufficient, sugary, vinous, with the agreeable perfume of the Rousselets; first; Aug.

Rousselet de la Cour. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:589, fig. 1869.
A wilding found on a farm which adjoined M. Leroy's nurseries of La Cour at Angers, Fr. Fruit below medium, turbinate, regular, acute, one side usually larger than the other; skin rough and thick, bronzed all over and covered with gray or white dots; flesh white, fine, breaking, watery; juice abundant, saccharine, sourish, with an agreeable perfume; second; end of Sept. and beginning of Oct.

Rousselet Decoster. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 845. 1869.
Raised by Van Mons. Tree of medium vigor but very weak on quince stock. Fruit small to medium, globular-ovate, pale yellow, mottled with golden-russet and tinted with brownish-red; flesh yellowish, buttery, very saccharine, with the characteristic perfume of the Rousselets; first; Oct. and Nov.

Rousselet Doré d'Hiver. 1. Leroy Dict.. Pom. 2:590, fig. 1869.
Origin unknown, though Leroy, Angers, Fr., possessed it about 1845. Fruit below medium, variable in form, turbinate, slightly obtuse, or turbinate and spherical and nearly always larger on one side than on the other; skin thick and rough, shining, some bright and golden-russet, some small, brown and green spots; flesh whitish, fine, semi-melting, juicy, saccharine, vinous, fairly well perfumed; second; Feb. and Mar.

Rousselet Hâtif. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:148. 1768. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 846. 1869.  Early Rousselet. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 571. 1884.
The origin of this pear is uncertain though it was probably French, for in 1600 it was under cultivation at Orléans, Fr., according to Le Lectier. Fruit small, pyriform, slightly obtuse, sides often unequal; skin fine, lemon-yellow on the shaded side, and vivid red sprinkled with gray spots on the side next the sun; flesh yellowish, fine, semi-breaking and crisp; juice well perfumed, saccharine, abundant and aromatic; second; mid-July.

Rousselet de Janvier. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:594, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 845. 1869.
Gained by Alexandre Bivort, director of the nurseries of the Society Van Mons at Geest-Saint-Rémy, Bel., in 1848. Fruit medium, generally regular-ovate; skin slightly rough, lemon-yellow in the shade, washed with red-brown on the other cheek; flesh yellowish; very fine, melting; juice sufficient and fairly saccharine, vinous and richly perfumed; second; Dec. and Jan.

Rousselet Jaune d'Été. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:23, fig. 108. 1878.  Gelbe Sommerrusselet. 2. Christ Handb. 546. 1817.
French, 1801. Fruit small; skin rough, almost entirely covered with brilliant red, densely covered with small gray dots, scentless; flesh granular, melting, saccharine, sweet; second for table, first for household; Sept.

Rousselet de Jodoigne. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:69, fig. 419. 1880.
Described in 1876 as a "recent" gain of M. Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel. Fruit small globular-turbinate, obtuse at apex; skin rather firm, bright and vivid green, sprinkled with numerous very small dots of gray-green, russeted around the calyx and lower part of the fruit; flesh white, tinted with green, semi-fine, semi-buttery; juice abundant, saccharine, acidulous, having the characteristic Rousselet perfume.

Rousselet de Jonghe. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 639. 1884.
Fruit small, obovate, curved, uneven and irregular in its outline; skin smooth, of a uniform lemon; flesh yellow, fine-grained, firm, melting and juicy, with a very rich, sugary flavor; its delicious flavor compensates for its small size; Nov. and Dec.

Rousselet de Meestre. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 639. 1884.
Fruit large, obtuse-pyriform or pyramidal; skin smooth and shining, golden yellow, thickly dotted all over with large brown-russet freckles; flesh semi-buttery, firm, fairly juicy, and well flavored; of indifferent quality.

Rousselet Panacheé. 1. Guide Prat. 80. 1876.
A variegated variety of French origin and new about 1825. Fruit small, short-ovate, greenish-yellow, with light and dark streakings; first for dessert and household; end of Sept.

Rousselet de Pomponne. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:67, fig. 418. 1880.
Obtained by M.M. Pradel, nurserymen at Montauban, Fr. Fruit small, globular-ovate or nearly globular, even in outline, pale green at first, sprinkled with numerous large, regularly spaced dots of gray circled with darker green, changing at maturity to pale yellow and washed on the side opposed to the sun with bright rosy-red on which the dots are blood-red; flesh white, semi-breaking; juice sufficient, saccharine, with little flavor; second; mid-Aug.

Rousselet Précoce. 1. Mag. Hort. 18:151. 1852. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 6:91, fig. 430. 1880.
This is the variety known in Germany as Frühe Geishirtlebirne and must be distinguished from the Rousselet Hâtif or Poire de Chypre of Duhamel. It was classed in 1851 by Mr. Cabot, President of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, among the new or recently introduced fruits. Fruit rather small, pyriform, regular in contour, vivid green slightly touched with yellow, sprinkled with very numerous, very small, gray dots, changing at maturity to lemon-yellow, preserving sometimes a tone of green, the side next the sun being washed with blood-red spots having yellow centers; flesh whitish, fine, tender, semi-buttery, juicy, saccharine, and scented with the perfume of the Rousselets; good; mid-July.

Rousselet de Rheims. 1. Duhamel Trait Arb. Fr. 2:147, PL XI. 1768. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 196. 1920.
This pear is of very ancient and uncertain origin. Many authors have endeavored to trace it back to the days of the Romans. But Pliny and the other Latin horticulturists did not give descriptions of their fruits sufficiently technical to enable us to make identification of their varieties with ours certain. It is, however, clear that the Rousselet de Rheims has existed, particularly around the city of Reims, Fr., for some centuries. Fruit small, turbinate, regular in form, rarely very obtuse, bright green or yellow-green, sprinkled with large and small gray-russet dots and extensively shaded with reddish-brown on the side opposed to the sun; flesh white, fine or semi-fine, almost melting, not very juicy, rich in sugar, acidulous, refreshing, highly perfumed; one of the best early pears for dessert, very good for candying; Sept.

Rousselet de Rheims Panaché. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:597, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 639. 1884.
A variety similar in all respects to the preceding, of which it is a bud sport, except that the leaves and fruit are striped with yellow and green. Its propagation antedates 1830.

Rousselet Royal. 1. Guide Prat. 104. 1876.
On trial with Messrs. Simon-Louis, Metz, Lorraine, in 1876. Fruit medium; first; Sept.

Rousselet Saint Nicolas. 1. Mas Le Verger 3:Pt. 2, 13, fig. 103. 1866-73.
Obtained by M. Bivort. Fruit small, turbinate-ventriculous, gray-green tinted with yellow, sprinkled with large brown or green dots, numerous and evenly distributed, changing at maturity to pale yellow, the side exposed to the sun being washed with brown-red on which are blackish-red dots; flesh yellowish, very fine, melting, rather gritty at the center, full of sweet juice, saccharine, agreeably perfumed; good; Oct.

Rousselet Saint-Quentin. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:53, fig. 507. 1881.  De Quentin. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 635. 1884.
Gained by M. Van Dooren, a former director of the middle school at Namur, Bel. Fruit small or medium on a pruned tree, globular-ovate or globular-conic, symmetrical in its contour, somber green sprinkled with large, "widely spaced gray dots, changing to yellow, and well colored with brownish-red on the side next the sun; flesh white, slightly greenish, fine, buttery; juice sufficient, saccharine, having the characteristic perfume of the Rousselets; first; Sept. and Oct.

Rousselet Saint Vincent. 1. Mag. Hort. 16:296. 1850. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:598, fig. 1869.
The origin of this pear is uncertain. It seems probable to Leroy that it was raised by Van Mons. In this country it was placed on the Rejected List by the second Congress of Fruit Growers at New York in 1850. Fruit above medium, globular-ovate, irregular in outline especially at the summit, bright yellow, dotted with russet; flesh white, fine, juicy, saccharine, acidulous, of a delicate flavor though not recalling in the least that of the Rousselets; first; Oct.

Rousselet de Stuttgardt. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 639. 1884.  Des Chevriers de Stuttgardt. 2. Leroy Dict. Pont. 1:558, fig. 1867.  Stuttgarier Geisshirtel. 3. Oberdieck Obst-Sort. 289. 1881.
It is said that this was a wilding found by a shepherd in the neighborhood of Stuttgart, Ger., before 1779. Fruit below medium, pyriform, fine, tender, at first dark water-green sprinkled with very numerous large dots of a darker shade, changing to yellow-green, tinged on the side next the sun with brownish-red on which the dots become yellow; the surface is covered with a characteristic sort of grayish-white bloom which passes to a rosy-violet on the bright parts; flesh greenish, not very fine but tender, buttery, sufficiently juicy, aromatic; first; Aug.

Rousselet Thaon. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:73, fig. 229. 1879.
The Bulletin of the Van Mons Society appears to indicate that Rousselet Thaon was a gain of M. Bivort. Fruit small, short-turbinate, symmetrical in outline; skin thick, firm, bright green dotted with darker green changing to pale yellow, the side next the sun being more golden and washed with brown-red on fruits well exposed; flesh white, coarse, semi-buttery; juice moderate in amount but saccharine and perfumed with musk; second; Sept. and Oct.

Rousselet Theuss. 1. Mas Le Verger 2:37, fig. 17. 1866-73.
In his abridged descriptive Catalog published at Louvain in 1823 Van Mons stated that the Rousselet Theuss was raised by him. Fruit small or nearly medium, ovate-turbinate; skin rather thick and firm, at first bright water-green, sprinkled with gray-green dots turning pale yellow and encrimsoned on the side next the sun, sometimes very vividly on well-exposed fruits; flesh white, slightly yellow under the skin, semi-fine, melting, full of saccharine juice, acidulous, well perfumed with the characteristic Rousselet scent; owing to its excellence and beauty this pear deserves a place in the fruit garden as well as in the large orchard; Aug.

Rousselet Vanderwecken. 1. Ann, Pom. Belge 3:41, fig. 1855.
Raised by M. Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel. Tree pyramidal, of good vigor, very productive. Fruit small, turbinate to ovoid, yellow; stem short, curved, rather thick; calyx large for the size of the fruit, open; flesh white, fine, melting, very juicy, very sweet, musky, strongly aromatic; first; Nov.

Rousseline. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:153, PL XV. 1768. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 847. 1869.
Merlet, the French pomologist, writing in 1675 appears to have been the first to describe this pear and he said it was well named Rousseline being so similar to Rousselet in the buttery character of its flesh and its extraordinarily musky flavor. Fruit below medium, pyriform inclining to obovate, swollen in the middle and narrowing obtusely toward the calyx and more acutely toward the stalk, dull green dotted with brown scales and partly covered with large russet stains intermingled with gray mottlings; flesh white, fine, semi-melting, some grit around the center; juice rarely abundant, highly saccharine, vinous and musky; second; Nov. and Dec.

Rousselon. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:601, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees. Am. 847. 1869.
This variety was gained by Major Esperén of Mechlin, Bel.; it fruited for the first time in 1846. Fruit medium and above, ovate, much swelled in its lower part and contracted near its summit; skin very shining, yellow-ochre, dotted with gray-russet, stained with the same at either extremity and carmined on the cheek touched by the sun; flesh yellow-white, semi-fine, semi-breaking, granular around the core; juice rather deficient, saccharine, sweet, more or less perfumed, rather delicate; second; Feb. to Apr.

Roux Carcas. 1. Gard. Chron. 55. 1865. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:602, fig. 1869.
This pear bears the name of a nurseryman at Carcassone, Aude, Fr., who raised it in 1863. Fruit below medium or small, globular, flattened at both poles and often slightly bossed, yellow-green dotted with small gray points, slightly marbled with russet; flesh whitish, coarse, semi-melting, gritty at center; juice abundant, musky, and saccharine, possessing a rather astringent after-taste; second; end of Aug.

Rové. I. Guide Prat. 83. 1895.
A perry pear which originated in the neighborhood of Metz, Lorraine, and is in much request there. Fruit rather large, orange-yellow, well colored with red; flesh breaking, juicy, saccharine, of an agreeable flavor; of first quality for perry and for cooking and also rather good to eat; end of winter and spring.

Rowling. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 592. 1629.
"The Rowling peare is a good peare, but hard, and not good before it bee a little rowled or bruised, to make it eate the more mellow."

Royal. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 847. 1869.
Raised from seed by Thomas R. Peck, Waterloo, N. Y. Fruit medium, globular-pyriform, yellow largely covered with thin crimson on the side next the sun, sprinkled with brown and russet dots; flesh white, melting, juicy, sweet, slightly aromatic; good to very good; Sept.

Royal d'Hiver. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:191, PL XXXV. 1768. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 640. 1884.
The origin of the Royal d'Hiver is uncertain. In 1704 Le Gentil, director of the orchard at the Chartreux Convent of Paris, said that it was a new pear and had been brought from Constantinople for the King (Louis XIV). The Turkish origin of the pear, however, was probably based on not much more than hearsay. Fruit large, turbinate-obtuse, bossed; skin fine, dull lemon-yellow, washed with orange-red on the side next the sun, dotted and marbled with fawn; flesh yellow-white, fine, melting or semi-melting, juicy, saccharine, sweet and having a pleasant, musky flavor; good; Nov. to Jan.

Royale Vendée. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:607, fig. 1869.
Count Eugène of Nouhes obtained this variety from seed at la Cacaudiere, in the commune of Pouzauges, Vendee, Fr., in 1860. Fruit medium, globular-ovate, bossed; skin rough, dark yellowish-green, lightly marbled with gray and bright fawn; flesh citrine, fine, very melting and juicy, with a saccharine, sprightly flavor and delicate perfume; very good; Jan. to Mar.

Ruhschiebler. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 96, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit small to medium, globular-turbinate, yellow-green, with large and small russet dots; flesh coarse, juicy, with a strong acid taste; good for transportation; end of Sept. and Oct.

Rummelter Birne. I. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:193. 1856. 2. Löschnig Mostbirnen 98, fig. 1913.
A perry pear grown extensively in Austria and Germany. Fruit medium, turbinate-oblate, light green, heavily sprinkled with gray dots, turning orange-yellow, with russet on the exposed side; flesh white, very coarse, subacid; end of Sept. to Nov.

Runde gelbe Honigbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:162. 1856.
Saxony, 1804. Fruit medium, turbinate-oblate, light green turning white and straw color with a vivid light blush, fine light brown dots; flesh yellow-white, coarse-grained, gritty near center, astringent, honey-sweet; very good for household use and perry; end of Sept. for three or four weeks.

Runde Sommerpomeranzenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:150. 1856.
Trieste, Austria, 1805. Fruit small, globular-ovate, flattened, sides unequal, yellowish light green turning to light lemon-yellow tinged with green and often slightly blushed with dull red; flesh semi-melting, aromatic; first for dessert, household and market; beginning of Sept. for fourteen days.

Russbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:173. I^56.
Thuringia, Ger., 1803. Fruit medium, globular-turbinate, variable in form; skin rough, almost entirely covered with cinnamon-russet, often with light brown blush; flesh whitish, coarse-grained, saccharine, breaking, juicy; third for the table, first for household; Nov. and Dec.

Russelet Petit. 1. Langley Pomona 132, PI. LXIV. 1729.
Fruit small, pyramidal, irregular; stem set on one side obliquely; late Aug.

Russet Bartlett.
About 1893 Robert McHinds, Clarksville, N. Y., planted 700 Bartlett pear trees. When these trees came into bearing, one was found to produce russet-colored fruits, whence the name Russet Bartlett. The tree is an exact counterpart of Bartlett in manner of growth and the fruit differs from Bartlett only in the russet skin. It is, therefore, not improbable that the variety is a bud sport of Bartlett.

Russet Catherine. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 592. 1629.
"The Russet Catherine is a very good middle sized peare."

Rylsk. 1. Can. Hort. 27:292. 1894.
Russian. Fruit medium yellow; flesh breaking, sweet; very late.


S.T. Wright. 1. Garden 66:299, fig. 1904.
This English pear raised by Messrs. Veitch, was introduced in 1904 at the Royal Horticultural Society's fruit show in London. It is the product of Beurré Bachelier and Bartlett. Fruit medium, oblate-pyriform, rather swelled; skin rich golden; of good flavor; Oct.

Sabine. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:610, fig. 1869.
The parent tree of this variety was acquired by Van Mons from a garden at Schaerbeek, Bel., and ripened its fruit first in 1817. Fruit medium, sometimes irregular-conic, sometimes ovate-pyriform and often rather deformed in contour; skin rather rough, bright green, dotted uniformly with dark gray changing to lemon-yellow, washed with thin yet vivid crimson; flesh white tinted with yellow, fine, melting, rather gritty around the core, full of sweet juice and delicately perfumed; first; Dec. and Jan.

Sabine d'Été;. 1. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 348. 1831.
Raised in 1819 by M. Stoffels of Mechlin, Bel. Fruit pyramidal, broadest at the base and tapering to a round, blunt point at the stalk; skin smooth and even, yellow on the shaded side, and of a fine scarlet, minutely dotted when exposed to the sun; flesh white, melting, juicy, highly perfumed; Aug.

Sacandaga. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 849. 1869.
The parent tree was found on the farm of William Van Vranken, Edinburgh, N. Y. Fruit small, nearly globular, pale greenish-yellow, shaded with brownish-crimson, and netted and dotted with russet; flesh white,.juicy, melting, sweet, rich, slightly perfumed; good to very good; Sept.

Sächsische Glockenbirne. 1. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 130, 1825.
Saxony. First published in 1816. Fruit medium, spherical, light citron-yellow turning golden yellow, blushed; flesh firm, coarse-grained, sweet and musky; third for dessert, good for kitchen purposes; Oct.

Sächsische Lange Grüne Winterbirne. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 274. 1889.  Longue Verte d'Hiver. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:137, fig. 549. 1881.
A pear of German origin and cultivated especially in Thuringia and Saxony. Fruit medium or nearly medium, conic-pyriform, water-green, sown with dots of a darker green, passing to greenish-white or yellowish-white at maturity; flesh white, rather fine, semi-melting, full of sweet, saccharine juice but without any appreciable perfume; good; autumn and early winter.

Safran. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:611, fig. 1869.
An old French pear known in the seventeenth century as the Saffran d'Hyver. Fruit medium and sometimes less, variable in form, usually ovate, very globular and irregular or slightly long-conic; skin rather rough, saffron-yellow, shaded with gray, dotted, veined and marked with brown-russet; flesh yellowish, semi-melting, and semi-fine, granular; juice sufficient, saccharine, acidulous, with a perfume resembling that of fennel rather than of musk; third; Oct. to Jan.

Saint André. 1. HoveyFr. Am. 1:79, fig. 1851. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:613, fig. 1869.
The origin of this pear is unascertainable but it was introduced to this country by R. Manning, Salem, Mass., who imported cions of it from Messrs. Baumann, nurserymen, Bollwiller, Fr. (Bollweiler, Alsace), in 1834 or 1835. Fruit medium or below, ovate, rather symmetrical, bossed and sometimes a little ventriculated in its lower half; skin fine and smooth, yellow-green, dotted and streaked with gray, very rarely colored on the cheek next the sun; flesh greenish-white, fine and most melting, extremely juicy, sweet, saccharine, slightly vinous, delicate and highly perfumed; first; Oct.

Saint Andrew. 1. Langley Pomona 131. 1729.
Described in 1729 as one of the best pears in England. Fruit large, oblong, very obtuse, greatest diameter two-thirds down toward the base, diminished only slightly toward the stem; Sept.

Saint Aubin sur Riga. 1. McIntosh Bk. Gard. 2:461. 1855.
"A New Jersey pear of much excellence either as a wall or standard." Fruit large; flesh melting, tender, of rich flavor; excellent; Jan. and Feb.

Saint-Augustin. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:230, Pl.LVIII, fig. 3. 1768. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:614, fig. 1869.
An old French pear published in 1650 by Menage. Fruit below medium, pyriform-ovate, rather regular in form, slightly obtuse, dirty yellow, dotted with gray, stained with fawn around both poles and sometimes slightly clouded with brown-red on the side next the sun; flesh white, semi-fine, breaking; juice rather wanting, sweet, saccharine, slightly musky and pleasant; second; Feb. to Apr.

Saint Denis. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 849. 1869.
Fruit small, turbinate and uneven in its outline, pale yellow, with a crimson cheek and thickly dotted with crimson dots; flesh semi-melting, very juicy and sweet, with a fine aroma; good; Aug. and Sept.

Saint Dorothée. 1. Mag. Hort. 14:110. 1848. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 849. 1869.
A variety received in this country from France and fruited here for the first time in 1847. Fruit large, fusiform or spindle-shaped, bright lemon-yellow; flesh fine, buttery, with a saccharine, sprightly and highly perfumed flavor; good; Oct. and Nov.

Saint François, 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:616, fig. 1869.
Until 1675 when Merlet described it this variety was little known and he then called it de Grillon or Bonne-Amet but in 1690 on re-printing and completing his work he spoke of it as the Saint François. Fruit above medium and sometimes very large, long-conic, slightly obtuse and bossed, one side more swelled than the other, dull greenish-yellow, finely dotted with brown, widely stained with fawn around the stem and more or less flecked with the same and slightly carmined on the side of the sun: flesh white, extremely fine, semi-breaking, rarely gritty; juice scanty and wanting in sugar, musky, delicate in flavor; third for eating raw, first for cooking; mid-Nov. to end of Jan.

Saint Gallus Weinbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obsfkunde 2:194. 1856.
Germany, on the Rhine, Württemberg and Baden. First published in 1830. Fruit small, apple-shaped, often flat-turbinate, medium swelled, uneven; skin very firm, green, almost entirely covered with a dark, dirty red blush, scarcely dotted at all; good for household use and perry; Jan. to Mar.

Saint George. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:617, fig. 1869.
The Saint George was described by Diel, Stuttgart, Ger., in 1812, as a French pear originated on the Moselle. Fruit above medium and often larger, very long and always variable, often of Calebasse form, obtuse and contorted, sometimes ovate and regular in outline; skin thin, rough, greenish, much stained with gray around the calyx and covered with large brown dots and scaly patches of russet; flesh white, fine, melting, juice abundant, saccharine, acid and vinous, pleasantly perfumed; first; mid-Sept.

Saint Germain 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:225, PL LIL 1768. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 196. 1920.
Merlet, the French pomologist, wrote in 1680 that this pear originated from a wilding on the banks of the Fare, a little river in the parish of Saint Germain d'Areé. Fruit medium or large, long-pyriform, slightly swelled, often irregular in contour; skin rather thick and rough, greenish-yellow, dotted with russet, slightly golden on the cheek exposed to the sun; flesh whitish, fine, very melting, very juicy, rich in sugar with an agreeable, perfumed flavor; very good, but is gritty and worthless if grown on cold, moist soil; Nov. to Mar. [not to be confused with Uvedale's Saint Germain, a.k.a. 'Pound' -ASC]

Saint Germain Gris. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:623, fig- 1869.
Found by M. Prevost, long president of the Horticultural Society of Seine-Inferieure, Fr., in the ancient garden of the Friars of Saint-Ouen, at Rouen, about the year 1804. Fruit medium to large, long-ovate, irregular in its upper part and often bossed and elevated more on one side of the stalk than on the other, grayish-green dotted with brown; flesh yellowish, semi-fine, melting, saccharine, juicy, slightly acidulous, with a deliciously scented flavor; first; mid-Dec, and Jan.

Saint Germain Panaché. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:625. 1869.
This variegated variety of Saint Germain is of French origin; the date of its publication is about 1819. Fruit simply a variegated form of the Saint Germain, covered with rather large bands of bright yellow sometimes extending from stem to calyx.

Saint Germain de Pepins. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 850. 1869.
Foreign. Origin unknown. Fruit medium, nearly globular or obovate, slightly pyriform, pale yellow, lightly shaded or mottled with crimson in the sun, netted and patched with russet and thickly sprinkled with russet dots; flesh yellowish, coarse and gritty, with a hard core; good; Feb.

Saint Germain Puvis. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:625, fig. 1869.
M. Pariset, Curciat-Dongalon, Fr., obtained this variety in 1842. Fruit above medium, long-conic, obtuse, irregular, much bossed, grass-green, clouded with olive-yellow, sprinkled with small gray dots; flesh whitish, semi-fine, watery and melting, almost free from granulations; juice rather deficient, saccharine, acidulous, agreeable; second; end of Sept. and Oct.

Saint Germain du Tilloy. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:626, fig. 1869.
The origin of this pear is unknown though Leroy thought that its name indicated origin in the Department of the Nord where it formerly existed in important nurseries and where are two towns bearing the name Tilloy. Fruit medium and above, long-conic or cylindrical-conic, very obtuse, rather variable, golden-yellow, clouded with olive-yellow, covered with gray dots and speckles, always rather squamose, more or less washed with cinnamon-russet on the side next the sun; flesh white, semi-fine and semi-melting, gritty at center; juice abundant, sugary, acidulous, aromatic; first; mid-Oct. to end of Nov.

Saint Germain Van Mons. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:628, fig. 1869.  Van Mons Hermannsbirne. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:60. 1856.
The parent tree of this variety was a seedling raised by Van Mons at Brussels which fruited for the first time in 1819. Fruit rather above medium or medium, obovate-pyriform, one side habitually more swelled than the other, yellow-ochre, sprinkled with numerous gray and green dots; flesh yellowish, semi-fine and semi-melting, very granular at the core; juice rarely abundant, sugary, acidulous, rather savory; second; Oct.

Saint Ghislain. 1. Hovey Fr. Am. 2:45, fig- 1851. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:629, fig. 1869.
This pear was raised at the village of Jammapes, Hainaut, Bel., by M. Dorlain and was propagated by Van Mons and others. Fruit medium; form irregular, globular gourd-shaped and swelled in its lower part or elongated gourd-shaped and sometimes regular-turbinate, always, however, diminishing acutely to the stalk; skin rather thick and rough, grass-green, covered all over with large gray dots and shaded with dull red on the side exposed to the sun; flesh white, fine or semi-fine, melting or semi-melting, watery; juice very saccharine, vinous, with a delicious perfume and an after-taste of musk; first; end of Aug.

Saint Herblain d'Hiver. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:147, fig. 74- 1872.
The Saint Herblain d'Hiver was propagated by M. Bruneau, a nurseryman, Nantes, Pr., where it was raised, cultivated and much appreciated. Fruit medium, conic-ovate, usually symmetrical in outline; skin rather thick and firm, at first bright green sprinkled with brown dots very regularly spaced and prominent, changing to citron-yellow with the side next the sun a little golden; flesh white, semi-fine, dense, semi-breaking, full of sweet juice, saccharine, refreshing, more tender when eaten at its extreme maturity; a good winter, cooking pear; end of winter.

Saint Lézin. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:632, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 642. 1884.
First among French pomologists to mention it was Claude Saint-Étienne, in 1670. Fruit large to very large, pyriform but variable, green clouded with pale yellow, dotted with small gray specks; flesh white, semi-fine, semi-breaking; juice plentiful, but deficient in sugar and without perfume; second for dessert, but good for stewing; Sept. and Oct.

Saint Louis. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:634, fig. 1869.
Found in the ancient fruit garden of the Horticultural Society of Angers, Fr., and without any record of origin. Fruit medium or below, globular-ovate, somewhat bossed, yellow-ochre all over, sprinkled with dots and very small specks of fawn, more or less carmined on the face turned to the sun; flesh white, rather coarse, semi-melting; juice abundant, rather saccharine, sweetish, without any appreciable perfume; third; latter part of Aug.

Saint Luc. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:29, fig. 495. 1881.
Origin unknown. Fruit rather small, ovate-pyriform, symmetrical in contour, having its largest diameter somewhat below the center; skin rather thick though tender, at first pale water-green, with dots of green-gray, changing at maturity to pale golden-yellow, tinged with very light red on the cheek opposed to the sun; flesh whitish, fine, buttery; juice fairly abundant, very saccharine and slightly perfumed; good; Aug.

Saint Luke. 1. Garden 66:305. 1904.
Introduced by Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, Eng., about 1900. At the Royal Horticultural Society's show of hardy fruits at Westminister in 1904 it was regarded as a valuable introduction, able to compete with the best, owing to its rich mellow flavor and melting flesh, and perfect shape and finish. Fruit rough, russety, deep cinnamon-brown with green patches; flesh melting, juicy, rich, sweet; Oct.

Saint Menin. 1. Mag. Hort. 22:231, fig. 16. 1856. 2. Mas Le Verger 2:187, fig-1 92. 1866-73.  Omer-Pacha. 3. Mag. Hort. 21:87. 1855. 4. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:478, fig. 1869.
Received in America from Leroy about 1855 under the name Omer-Pacha. It was known, however, as early as 1846 in this country under the name of Saint Menin. Fruit rather large, obovate-obtuse, pale yellow, slightly brown in the sun, netted and patched with russet, and thickly dotted with conspicuous russet dots; flesh whitish, fine, melting; juice abundant, saccharine, vinous, with a delicate aroma; first; Sept.

St. Michel Archange. 1. Pom. France i:No. 41, Pl.41. 1863. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 324. 1866.
A French pear originated in the neighborhood of Nantes in the middle of the last century. Fruit medium or rather large, turbinate but irregular in form, sometimes obovate, sometimes long-pyriform; skin fine, smooth, greenish-yellow, much dotted with gray-russet, washed with orange-red on the side next the sun; flesh yellow-white, fine, melting, very juicy, tender, agreeably perfumed; very good; Sept. and Oct.

Saint Patrick. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 45. 1866.
Raised from seed by S. A. Shurtleff, Brookline, Mass., and fruited in 1863. Fruit, diameter 2½ inches, short-pyriform, green, with dots and some blush; keeps well, and ripens perfectly, with a pleasant flavor; Feb. 15.

Saint Père. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:638, fig. 1869.  Poire de Saint Père. 2. Guide Prat. 82, 253. 1895.
The origin of Saint Père is ancient and indeterminate. Without accepting the doubtful synonyms of Bugiada d'Hiver des Italiens and Brute-Bonne de Rome which have been applied to it, we may judge from its name, Holy Father, that it came from Italy. Fruit above medium and often larger, sometimes conic-pyriform and sometimes ovate-pyriform, but irregular in outline, yellow, much mottled with gray-russet, sprinkled with very many and rather large brown dots; flesh white, coarse, watery, semi-breaking, juicy, wanting in sugar, often acrid, without perfume; first for cooking purposes; Feb. to Apr.

St. Swithin. 1. Jour. Hort 35:149, fig. 20. 1878. 2, Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 196. 1920.
Raised by Rivers, Sawbridgeworth Nurseries, Eng., from seed of Calebasse Tougard, Fruit below medium, obovate or pyriform; skin smooth, grass-green, thickly dotted and mottled with russet and sometimes with a faint blush on the side next the sun; flesh yellowish-white, with a greenish tinge, tender, juicy and sweet, with a fine, brisk flavor; good, superior to Doyenné d'Été;; July and Aug.

Saint Vincent de Paul. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:641, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 851. 1869.
M. Flon-Grolleau, a nurseryman, Angers, Fr., obtained this pear which was first tasted when ripe in mid-January, 1853. Fruit above medium, regular-obtuse-turbinate, meadow-green, sprinkled with yellow dots and russet, washed with fawn around the stem and on the cheek exposed to the sun; flesh whitish, fine, breaking and gritty, juicy, having little sugar, rather astringent and without perfume; third for dessert, second for cooking; Oct.

Sainte Anne. 1. Guide Prat 99. 1895.
Obtained by M. Joanon at Saint-Cyr near Lyons, Fr. Fruit medium, oval, rounded at either end, greenish-yellow, washed with rose on the side next the sun; flesh white, rather fine, buttery, very juicy, melting, saccharine; matures after Beurré Giffard, about the beginning of Aug.

Sainte Thérèse. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:642, fig. 1869.
Raised by André Leroy, Angers, Fr. It first fruited in 1863. Fruit medium and often larger, ovate, irregular and rather long, always larger on one side than on the other, water-green, dotted and mottled with russet and stained with patches of fawn; flesh white, fine, melting; juice very abundant, very saccharine, perfumed and possessing an agreeably acid flavor; latter half of Oct.

Salisbury. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 541. 1857.
A native of western New York. Fruit depressed-pyriform; skin rough, somewhat covered with russet and thickly sprinkled with russet dots; flesh coarse; of only moderate quality; Oct.

Salviati. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:137, PL IX. 1768. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 643.  1884.
Merlet, French pomologist, described this pear in L'Abrégé des bon fruits in 1675. Fruit below medium to medium; form variable from obtuse-turbinate to slightly long ovate-turbinate; skin thin, wax-yellow, dotted with greenish spots, sometimes much stained with scaly russet and sometimes tinted with reddish-brown on the side touched by the sun; flesh whitish, coarse, semi-melting, gritty at the center; juice scanty, rather saccharine, sweet, but with a strong and disagreeable odor of musk; third; Sept.

Salzburger von Adlitz. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2114. 1856.
A pear much esteemed in Bavaria, Württemberg, and Upper Austria. Fruit nearly medium, short-conic, even in outline, greenish-yellow, handsomely blushed, densely dotted with fine points; skin without scent; flesh mild, tender, melting; first for dessert, especially good for household and market; beginning of Sept.

Sam Brown. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 2nd App. 134, fig. 1872.
Originated with Samuel Brown, Junior, Walnut Hills, Md. Exhibited at Philadelphia in 1869. Fruit full medium size or under, globular, obtuse-pyriform, a little uneven, pale yellow partly covered with thin russet, resembling Brown Beurré somewhat in appearance and very much in flavor, sometimes rather brownish in the sun; flesh white, a little coarse, melting, juicy, vinous and rich; very good, nearly best; Sept.

Samenlose. 1. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 382. 1885.
A Russian pear from the province of Vilna, which seems to be a near relative of the Bessemianka, but differs in expression of tree. Fruit above medium, of Bergamot type and good in quality.

Sanguine d'Italie. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:647, fig. 1869.
Imported into France about the beginning of the last century. Fruit medium, turbinate and regular, rather obtuse, grass-green, dotted with gray on the shaded side and with yellow-red on the sun-exposed side; flesh breaking, gritty, coarse, dull yellow, veined with red especially about the core where the yellow almost entirely disappears under the blood-red; juice never abundant, saccharine, sweet, without much perfume; third; Aug. and Sept.

Sanguinole. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 851. 1869. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr.  197. 1920. Sanguine de France. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:645, fig. 1869.
This old pear is of consequence only on account of the color of its flesh. According to Claude Mollet, 1810, it was imported to France from Switzerland. It was known in Germany in 1500. Fruit below medium or small, variable in form, turbinate-obtuse, or globular, bossed; skin rather thick and rough, green dotted with gray and red, sprinkled with streaks and patches of russet, and sometimes slightly carmined on the face exposed to the sun; flesh transparent, red, semi-fine, semi-breaking, juicy, saccharine, acidulous, more or less musky, agreeable; second, sometimes third, the flesh decomposing rapidly; Aug. and Sept.

Sanguinole de Belgique. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 852. 1869.  Belgische Blutbirne. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:67. 1856.
Raised by M. Berckmans, a Belgian nurseryman who came to the United States but also maintained the original establishment, where this seedling was produced in 1851. It is of interest only on account of its rose-tinted flesh. Fruit medium, long-ovate, vivid yellow, blushed and dotted with red, with some brown-russet; flesh yellowish-white, tinted with red, semi-melting, saccharine and highly aromatic; second for the table; Oct. and early Nov.

Sans-Pareille du Nord. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:648, fig. 1869.  Unvergleichliche. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 291. 1889.
A French variety described first in 1847. Its origin is unknown. Fruit large and sometimes very large, very long, cylindrical and contorted, often slightly constricted in the middle like Calebasse; skin thin, lemon-yellow, sprinkled with large gray dots, some fine patches of fawn, more or less tinted with vivid rose on the face opposed to the sun; flesh very white, semi-breaking and semi-fine; juice never abundant, sweetish, rather saccharine, wanting in perfume, but yet having a slight characteristic flavor; third for dessert, first for compotes; Nov. to Jan.

Sans Peau. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:150, PL XIII. 1768. 2. Hogg Fruit Man., 644. 1884.  Skinless. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 8$6. 1869.
Of ancient and uncertain origin; the first certain French description was written by La Quintinye in 1690. Fruit below medium or small, ovate, more or less long but always regular; skin exceedingly thin, and slightly rough to the touch, yellow-white, sprinkled with dots of darker green and often washed with pale rose on the sun-exposed side on which the dots are gray; flesh yellowish, coarse, melting, watery; juice sufficient, saccharine, acidulous, feebly perfumed; second; Aug.

Santa Anna. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 68. 1895.
Originated in Santa Anna, California. Fruit large, obtuse-pyriform, yellow-russeted; flesh tough, highly perfumed; first; season late.

Santa Claus. 1. Garden 67:17, 35. 1905. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 197. 1920.
Colonel Brymer, Dorchester, Eng., introduced this pear to the notice of the Royal Horticultural Society in 1905 explaining that the parent tree had come originally from Belgium some thirty years previously. Fruit medium, conical, slightly pyriform, fairly-even, slightly rough, dull brown-red, practically covered with russet; stem long, slender; calyx partially open, in an even basin; flesh pale yellowish, melting, deliriously flavored; Dec.

Santa Rosa. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 68. 1895.
Originated in California. Fruit large, pyriform; flesh buttery, vinous; mid-season.

Sapieganka. 1. Mont. Hort. Soc. Rpt. $6, fig. 1881-2. 2. Cal. Com. Hort. Pear Grow. Cal. 7:No. 5, 179. 1914. Bergamotte Sapieganka. 3. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 83. 1882.
Originated in northern Poland and introduced into this country in 1879. There is a suspicion that it may be the Bergamotte d'Été renamed after a Polish nobleman. It has been found tender in Manitoba and the Northwest, but perfectly hardy at Ottawa and in Muskoka. Fruit medium, oblate, often somewhat flattened, brownish-yellow, with brownish-red in the sun, with numerous small dots; flesh white, coarse, somewhat firm and juicy; poor quality both for dessert and cooking, third for market; Aug.

Sarah. 1. Mass. Hort Soc. Rpt. 37. 1867.
Raised by Thaddeus Clapp of Dorchester, Mass. It was exhibited at the Massachusetts Horticultural Society's rooms in 1867. Fruit medium size, globular-obovate-pyriform, greenish-yellow, partially netted and patched with russet, and thickly sprinkled with brown dots; flesh white, fine, juicy, melting, sweet, rich, aromatic; very good; Oct.

Sarrasin. 1. Duhamel Trait Arb. Fr. 2:249. 1768. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 644. 1884.
Duhamel du Monceau was the first writer to mention this pear, the origin of which is unknown. Fruit medium, turbinate, more or less obtuse and elongated, dull yellow, etslightly greenish, dotted all over with bright russet, seldom mottled but amply washed with rose on the cheek exposed to the sun; flesh white, semi-fine and semi-breaking; juice abundant, saccharine, acidulous, having a taste of anis; second as a fruit to eat raw, first for compotes; Duhamel terms it the longest keeping of all pears; Mar. to June.

Sary-Birne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:56. 1856.
Published in Germany in 1851. Also known as Sary Armud and the Turkish Musk Summer Pear. Fruit small, ventriculous-conic, often somewhat bossed, greenish-yellow turning yellow, seldom blushed, dotted with fine russet points; flesh very sweet, semi-melting, granular, without any particular aroma; second for table, good for kitchen and market; Aug.

Säuerliche Margarethenbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:165. 1856.  Marguerite-Acidule. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:43, fig. 22. 1872.
Obtained by Diel in the neighborhood of Nassau, Ger. Fruit small, usually globular-turbinate and sometimes ovate-pyriform, yellowish light green changing to pale light yellow, often blushed with brownish-red on the side of the sun, on which are numerous dots; flesh granular, white, semi-melting; juice sufficient, moderately sweet, refreshing; third; end of July.

Schellesbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:172. 1856.
Württemberg, Ger. First published in 1830. Fruit medium, turbinate, rather bossed and unequal-sided; skin testaceous, light green turning to yellow-green, light blood-red marblings, sprinkled with dark, grayish-green, round dots; third for the table; good for perry; beginning of Oct.

Schmalblättrige Schneebirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:199. 1856.
Germany, 1809. Fruit grows in bunches, small, spherical; skin thick, yellow-green, dotted and speckled with brown; flesh coarse; third; Dec. and Jan.

Schmotzbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 136, fig. 1913.
A perry pear known under many names in different parts of Austria. Fruit below medium, globular-ovate, often turbinate, smooth, yellow when ripe, thickly dotted with russet; flesh yellow-white, coarse-grained, very juicy, subacid; Oct.

Schnackenburger Winterbirne. 1. Oberdieck Obst-Sort. 338. 1881.
Published in Germany. Fruit rather large, flattened, globular-yellow washed with brownish-red; flesh breaking; a cooking pear; winter.

Schöberlbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 100, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit medium, Bergamot-form to short-turbinate, light green turning to greenish-yellow, dotted with russet; flesh very white, rather coarse, very juicy, subacid; mid-Oct. to Dec.

Schöne Müllerin. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:173. 1856.
Nassau, Ger., published in 1805. Fruit very small, turbinate, or blunt-conic, grass-green turning to yellow-green, often with dark red blush and having brown dots changing to green, light brown-russet markings; flesh fine-grained, with sweet, cinnamon flavor, breaking and juicy; third for dessert, very good for household; end of Sept. to beginning of Oct. for five to six weeks.

Schönebeck Tafelbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:50. 1856.
Germany, on the Rhine, 1816. Fruit small, conic; skin polished, greenish-yellow turning to lemon-yellow, blushed with red, heavily dotted with green; flesh marrowy, acid, vinous; second for the table, good for household and market; beginning of Sept. for two weeks.

Schönerts Omsewitzer Schmalzbirne. 1. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 108. 1825.  Fondante de Schonert. 2. Mas Le Verger 2:223, fig. no. 1866-73.
According to Diel this pear was raised at the village of Omsewitz, near Dresden, by a farmer named Schonert. Fruit hardly medium, long-conic-pyriform, its greatest diameter being below its center; skin rather thick and firm, pale green changing to very pale yellow, without any blush, sprinkled with small gray-green dots; flesh white, fine, rather firm yet melting, full of saccharine juice, acidulous, refreshing, and delicately per-fumed; first for household; Sept.

Schönlin Stuttgarter späte Winterbutterbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:133. 1856.
Raised from seed at Württemberg, Ger., and first published in 1825. Fruit large, oblong, slightly bossed, light green turning lemon-yellow, red dots, marked with russet, thick-skinned; flesh white, buttery, melting, juicy, aromatic and excellent in flavor; first for dessert, household and market; Feb. to Apr.

Schuman. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 852. 1869.
A native of Bucks County, Pa. Fruit medium, globular-obovate, pale yellow, tinted with red on the cheek next the sun; flesh coarse, pasty; poor; Sept.

Schwarze Birne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:170. 1856.
Saxony. First published in 1804. Fruit medium, globular-turbinate, grass-green turning yellowish, almost entirely covered with dark russet, often blushed with dirty brown red on the side next the sun; flesh yellowish-white, firm, breaking, aromatic, sweet and vinous; first for household purposes; Jan. to Apr.

Schweizer Wasserbirne. 1. Oberdieck Obst-SorL 338. 1881. 2. Löschnig Mostbirnen 206, fig. 1913.  Weingifterin. 3. Dochnahl Führ.Obstkunde 2:162. 1856.
Used in Austria and Switzerland for the making of perry. Fruit rather large, very globular, somewhat flattened at both poles; skin fairly rough, green-yellow, tinged with dull washed-out red, numerous dots and flecks of russet over the whole fruit; late Sept. to mid-Oct. for four weeks.

Sdegnata. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:653, fig. 1869.
Major Esperén, the Belgian pomologist, raised this pear from seed, but at what date appears to be unknown. Fruit long-ovate, irregular and bossed; skin rather rough, greenish-yellow, dotted with russet and changing to meadow-green on the side exposed to the sun, marbled with gray-russet; flesh white, fine or semi-fine, juicy, dense although very melting, rather granular at the core; juice extremely abundant, saccharine, acidulous, with a characteristic flavor, deliriously perfumed; first; Aug.

Seal. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 852. 1869.
Originated in Pennsylvania. Fruit medium or below, globular, pale yellow, lightly shaded with crimson in the sun and thickly sprinkled with green and russet dots; flesh white, coarse, moderately juicy, melting, slightly astringent; good; end of Aug.

Sébastien. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:181, fig. 573. 1881.
Raised by M. Pariset, Ain, Fr., in 1852, and first published in 1867. Fruit medium, cylindrical-ovate, even in its outline; skin rather thin but firm, at first intensely green, sprinkled with brown dots, large and prominent, changing to a brighter green at maturity with russet coloring on the side next the sun; flesh white, slightly tinted with green, especially under the skin, very fine, entirely melting, full of sweet juice, saccharine, with an agreeable perfume; first; Dec.

Sebastopol. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:655, fig- 1869- 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 852. 1869.
M. Minot, Jodoigne, Bel., obtained Sebastopol, which ripened for the first time in 1858. Fruit below medium, ovate-turbinate, symmetrical, green tinted with dull yellow, dotted with brown and mottled with russet; flesh white, rather coarse, semi-melting and watery, having some grit around the core, juice abundant, saccharine, acidulous, rarely much perfumed; second; mid-Aug.

Seckel Seedling No.1. 1. Iowa Hort. Soc. Rpt. 131. 1915.
Mentioned in a report of the Supervising Committee of the Iowa Horticultural Society as a valuable seedling raised by Charles G. Patten. "The fruit is larger than the old Seckel, of excellent quality, and the tree is vigorous, hardy and free from blight"

Secreétaire Maréschal. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 281. 1889. 2. Guide Prat. 99. 1895.
Obtained by M. Sannier, Rouen, Fr.; published in 1886. Fruit medium, resembling Beurré1 Clairgeau; flesh very fine, juicy, perfumed; Nov. and Dec.

Secrétaire Rodin. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 281. 1889. 2. Guide Prat. 99. 1895.
Obtained by M. Sannier, Rouen, Fr. It was first published in 1881. Fruit medium to large recalling in appearance the Duchesse d'Angoulême; flesh yellow, vinous, of an agreeable perfume and distinctive flavor; Nov. and Dec.

Seigneur Daras. 1. Guide Prat. 99. 1895.
Tree very fertile, not very vigorous and best cultivated on wild stock. Fruit medium, of the form of the Doyenné; flesh fine, juicy, saccharine, perfumed; Oct.

Seigneur d'Été;. 1. Lindley Guide Orch. Card. 348. 1831.
An old Flemish pear sent to England by M. Stoffels of Mechlin and exhibited by the Horticultural Society of London in 1819. Fruit above medium, obtuse-oval; skin fine orange, with bright scarlet on the sunny side, sprinkled with small brown spots and partially marked with larger ones of the same color; flesh melting, with an extremely small core, and a rich, highly flavored juice; beginning and middle of Sept.

Selleck. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 854. 1869.
The origin of Selleck is unknown. Some thirty years ago the oldest known bearing tree of the variety was standing on the grounds of Columbus Selleck, Sudbury, Vermont, and was then still healthy and very productive. Fruit large, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, surface uneven; skin a fine yellow, with a crimson cheek and thickly sprinkled with russet dots; flesh white, a little coarse, juicy, melting, sweet, aromatic; good to very good; Sept. and Oct.

Semis d'Echasserie. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 7:188, fig. 580. 1881.
Obtained by M. Pariset, Ain, Fr., from a seed bed made in 1840. It was first published in 1862. Fruit below medium, globular-ovate, symmetrical in contour; skin rather thick and rough to the touch, yellow-green passing to bright yellow at maturity, tinged with earthy-red on fruits well exposed to the sun; flesh a little coarse, semi-breaking, rather full of saccharine juice, slightly gritty about the core, insufficiently perfumed; second; Dec. and Jan.

Semis Léon Leclerc. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:173, fig. 279. 1879.
Sent out by M. Bivort from Belgium about the year 1859. Fruit small or nearly medium on a well-pruned tree, ovate, often ventriculous, symmetrical in its contour; skin thin, smooth, green sprinkled with dots of darker green, changing at maturity to whitish-yellow, rather deeper on the side next the sun, sometimes washed with light red on which the dots are grayish or yellow; flesh white, semi-fine, melting, full of saccharine juice and pleasantly perfumed; good for its season; beginning of Aug.

Sénateur Prefet 1. Guide Prat. in. 1876.
Published in France by M. Boisbunel. Tree vigorous and very fertile. Fruit medium or large, oval-pyriform; flesh white, fine, melting, juicy, saccharine, vinous; first; March to May.

Sénateur Vaisse. 1. Pom. France 4: No. 169, Pl.169. 1867.
M. Lagrange, a nurseryman of Lyons, Fr., grew this pear from seed in 1861. Tree pyramidal, rather vigorous, productive. Fruit rather large, obovate, pale yellow, with a rosy tint on the sunny side; flesh crisp, juicy, very sweet, slightly gritty; good; Sept.

Seneca. 1. Guide Prat. 104. 1895.
A wildling found by James Payne and nurtured by A. C. Clark, both of Tyre, N. Y., and reported as about twelve years old in 1896. Similar to Bartlett but of higher quality, better color, and later season. Fruit large, obovate-pyriform, light yellow, with blushed cheek, green mottling and black dots on shady side; flesh white, vinous, sprightly; very good; Oct. and Nov.

Senfbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:183. 1856.
Hanover. First published in 1852. Fruit medium, ventriculous and conic, often somewhat turbinate, unattractive green turning yellowish, often darkly blushed, spotted; flesh rather coarse, fairly juicy, sweet; first for household use; Oct. and Nov. for six weeks.

Seringe. 1. Gard. Chron. 1045. 1866.
M. Nérard, a nurseryman at Lyons, Fr., obtained Seringe, which was published first in 1864. Fruit medium, oval, inclining to obovate, a little depressed at the ends; skin citron or pale yellow, smooth, with some russet specks; flesh white, very melting and sugary; Aug.

Serrurier. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 543. 1857. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:660. 1869.
Van Mons obtained this variety from seed at Louvain, Bel., about 1825. Fruit large; form rather inconstant, passing from irregular ovate, swelled and much bossed, to ovate more or less globular, and mammillate at the summit; skin thick, olive-yellow, closely dotted with gray, stained with fawn around the calyx and touched with some brown-russet and occasionally vermilioned on the side exposed to the sun; flesh whitish, melting or semi-melting, juicy, vinous and saccharine, possessing a tartish flavor and a particularly pleasant aroma; first; Oct. and Nov.

Seutin. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 854. 1869.  Poire Seutin. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:143, fig. 360. 1880.
According to Bivort the pear Seutin was obtained by M. Bouvier, Jodoigne, Bel. Fruit medium, ovate-pyriform, more or less long, sometimes symmetrical, sometimes rather angular in its contour; skin thick, firm, at first bright green sprinkled with dots of green-gray, changing to lemon-yellow tinged with golden-russet on the side next the sun; flesh whitish, rather fine, gritty at the center, semi-buttery, fairly juicy, sweet, and delicately perfumed; winter.

Sha Lea. 1. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 303. 1879. 2. Cornell Sta. Bul. 332:485. 1913.  Chinese Sand. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 851. 1869.
A Chinese sand pear imported from China by Wm. R. Prince, Flushing, N. Y., about 1820. Fruit medium, globular-pyriform, dull yellow, covered with a rough, sandy-like russet; flesh firm, moderately juicy; cooks well and acquires a fine flavor; Sept.

Shawmut. 1. Mag. Hort. 25:209, fig. 14. 1859.
Originated with Francis Dana, Roxbury, Mass. Fruit large, obtuse-pyriform, regular; skin fair, nearly smooth, dull yellow at maturity, dotted with large, round, russet specks, most numerous on the sunny side; flesh yellowish, coarse, melting, very juicy, rich, vinous, sprightly, with a pleasant musky perfume; Oct.

Shenandoah. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 43. 1866.
A seedling raised by S. A. Shurtleff, Brookline, Mass. It fruited first in 1862. Fruit "Skin yellow; flesh fine-grained and sweet, keeps well, and is a good market pear; pyriform."

Sheppard. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 855. 1869.
Raised by James Sheppard, Dorchester, Mass. Fruit large, obovate-pyriform; skin rough, yellow, sometimes with a brownish-red cheek, slightly sprinkled with russet dots and with some patches of russet; flesh whitish, coarse and granular, buttery, melting, juicy, vinous, perfumed; good to very good; end of Sept. and first of Oct.

Sheridan. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 44. 1866.
A seedling raised by S. A. Shurtleff, Brookline, Mass. "Fruited in 1864. Short diam. 3 inches; long diam. 3½ inches; good grain, juicy, rather vinous in flavor; color dark green; ripens soundly. Large bearer, and good market pear. Turbinate."

Shindel. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 44. 1897.
This pear has been locally grown about Emigsville, Pa., since the early part of the last century, and up to 1897 was reported never to have been affected with blight. Fruit medium, globular-obovate; skin rather smooth, lemon-yellow, with thin golden-russet patches and veining; flesh whitish, rather fine, granular, moderately juicy, mild, sugary, moderately rich; good; Aug. and Sept.

Shobden Court. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 646. 1884.
Raised by T. A. Knight, President of the Horticultural Society of London. Fruit below medium, oblate, symmetrical in form, deep rich yellow, blushed with red on the side next the sun, sprinkled all over with rough, russety dots; flesh white, coarse-grained, juicy, briskly acid and sweet, not highly flavored; second; Jan. and Feb.

Shurtleff. 1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 44. 1866.
A seedling raised by S. A. Shurtleff, Brookline, Mass. "Fruited in 1863. Short diam. 2½ inches; long diam. 3 inches; flesh rather dry, and firm; skin yellow with red cheek; keeps soundly without extra care until May. A most prolific bearer. Short pyriform."

Sieboldii. 1. Guide Prat. 115. 1876. 2. Cornell Sta. Bul. 332:485. 1913.
Japan. Sieboldii is a variety distinct from Madame von Siebold and was described by Messrs. Simon-Louis of Metz, Lorraine, as follows: "Medium to large pyriform with elongated tendency, angled and irregular; . . . color slightly red on sunny side, grayish in shade; flesh white, breaking, sweet, perfumed; cannot be eaten raw with pleasure."

Sievenicher Mostbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 208, fig. 1913.
A perry pear grown in Austria and Germany. Fruit medium to fairly large, globular, short, diminishing somewhat acutely to the stalk; yellow-green, blushed with brown; flesh coarse, subacid and dry; end of Sept. and beginning of Oct.

Sikaya. 1. Cornell Sta. Bul. 332:485. 1913.
An Oriental variety. Fruit medium to small, oblate, symmetrical, buff, russeted; skin tough, almost covered with large russet dots; flesh yellowish-white, coarse, poor, insipid, subacid, melting, gritty; late.

Simon Bouvier. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:666, fig. 1869. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 646. 1884.  Souvenir de Simon Bouvier. 3. Guide Prat. 108, 305. 1876.
Raised by Simon Bouvier, Jodoigne, Bel. Fruit medium, symmetrical, ovate, always swelled toward the base, green shaded with dull yellow, dotted and stained with russet; flesh whitish, fine, juicy and melting, almost free from granulations; juice extremely abundant and saccharine, very acidulous, highly perfumed, having an after taste of musky-anis which adds to its delicacy; first; Sept.

Sinai'sche Buschelbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:198. 1856. Mount Sinai, Persia, 1815. Fruit very small, globular, flattened, greenish, blushed, very finely dotted; flesh hard, coarse-grained, juiceless, sour, but sweet when ripe; third; winter.

Sinclair. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:74. 1856. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 646. 1884.
Raised by Van Mons. Fruit large and handsome, long-turbinate, very wide at the base and tapering abruptly by deep concave curves to a narrow point near the stalk, even and symmetrical in shape, smooth, fine, clear lemon-yellow, with a faint blush of red next the sun; flesh fine-grained, buttery, melting, very juicy and sweet, with a rich, vinous flavor and a slight musky perfume; very good for dessert and also for household and market purposes; Sept. and Oct.

Sirningers Mostbirne. 1. Löschnig Mostbirnen 210, fig. 1913.
An Austrian perry pear. Fruit medium to large, long-conic; skin firm, green turning yellowish-russet; flesh greenish-white, very firm, rather acid flavor; Oct.

Slavonische Wasserbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:183. 1856.
Originated at Siebenburgen, Ger. First published in 1851. Fruit below medium, ventriculous-conic, green turning greenish-yellow, with light brown wash on the sunny side; flesh coarse, saccharine, firm, very juicy and sweet; third for the table, first for household use; beginning of Sept.

Slutsk. 1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. /. Bul. 126:231. 1908.
Originated in Minsk, Russia, and received in this country about 1890. Fruit large, symmetrical, roundish-obtuse-pyriform, yellow, largely overspread with bright red and thickly sprinkled with brown dots; stem long, slender, in a deep cavity; calyx open; flesh moderately juicy, somewhat astringent, not sugary; good; Oct.

Smet Fils Unique. 1. Guide Prat. 106. 1876.
Fruit large, Doyenné in form; flesh fine, melting, juicy; first; end of autumn.

Smith. 1. Cornell Sta. Bul. 332:485, fig. 1913.
An oriental variety or hybrid, very similar to Le Conte but blooms later. Fruit medium to large, oval, truncate at basin end; skin yellowish-green, smooth, with patches of russet; flesh white, firm, insipid, dry, mealy; poor; Oct.

Smith Beauty. 1. Cornell Sta. Bul. 332:485. 1913.
An oriental hybrid, similar to Le Conte, with no blush, shorter than Dewey. Variety name has been listed as Smith's Winter Beauty.

Smith Duchess. 1. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 101. 1883.
An American hybrid of the Chinese Sand Pear.

Snow. 1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 149. 1873.
Originated with Suel Foster, Muscatine, la. Reported in 1873 as "better than Vicar except for size and keeping. Its flesh is very white; valuable for cooking."

Sœur Grégoire. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:667, fig. 1869. Xavier Grégoire, the well-known Belgian seedsman, Jodoigne, Brabant, obtained this variety. It bore its first fruit in 1858. Fruit large, in form variable from irregular long gourd-shaped to long-cylindrical, usually rather bossed; skin thick and rough, yellow-ochre, dotted and stained with gray-russet and shaded with dark red on the cheek next the sun; flesh yellowish, semi-fine, melting, granular at the core; juice rarely abundant but very aromatic, saccharine and with a delicate flavor; first when sufficiently juicy, otherwise second; Nov. and Dec.

Soldat Bouvier. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:37, fig. 211. 1879.
Raised by Xavier Grégoire, Jodoigne, Bel. Fruit nearly medium, globular-conic, regular in outline; skin rather firm, at first a dark green, sprinkled with dots of a darker shade, brightening to yellowish at maturity and extensively colored with blood-red on the cheek next the sun; flesh whitish, rather fine, buttery, melting; juice sufficient, saccharine and delicately perfumed; good to first; Sept.

Soldat Laboureur. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 3:31, fig. 1855. 2. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 198. 1920.
Soldat Laboureur was obtained from a seed bed made about 1820 by Major Esperén, Mechlin, Bel. Fruit medium to large, ovate-pyriform or turbinate, bossed; skin smooth, rather thick, bright green passing to golden-yellow when perfectly ripe, dotted and shaded with fawn; flesh yellowish-white, semi-fine, melting; juice abundant, saccharine, perfumed, and, on land suiting it, very vinous; very good, highest quality; Oct. and Nov.

Sommer-Russelet. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:46. 1856.
Thuringia, 1807. Fruit medium, pyriform, light yellow, blushed all over; flesh breaking, juicy, with a flavor of cinnamon; second for table, first for household and market; beginning of Aug.

Sommer-Zuckerbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:53. 1856.
Thuringia, Ger. Published in 1798. Fruit medium, long-pyriform, obtuse, yellowish-green turning a lighter tint at maturity, with dark blush on the side of the sun and yellow dots which turn green; flesh yellowish-white, breaking, saccharine; second for dessert and good for household and market purposes; Aug.

Sommeralantbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:14. 1856.  Poire d'Aunée d'Été. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 5:77, fig. 327. 1880.
Upper Hesse, Prussia; first published in 1802. Fruit medium, long-conic; skin fine, light green turning yellowish, with dark red blush and very fine dots; wanting in juice, buttery, mild and tender, aromatic; first for table, household and market; Aug. and Sept.

Sommerkönigin. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:109. 1856.
Nassau, Ger.; published in 1804. Fruit above medium, obtuse-conic, inclined to one side at the top, yellowish-green turning to light yellow, with a pale blush, greenish dots and flecked with russet; flesh white, juicy, buttery, melting and full of flavor; Sept.

Sommerwachsbirne. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:50. 1856.
Nassau, Ger.; published in 1805. Fruit medium, pyriform, symmetrical; skin smooth, straw-white turning to a waxy light yellow, with often a faint blush, light green dots turning red, without scent; flesh semi-melting, very juicy and saccharine; third for table, good for household purposes; first of Sept.

Sophie de l'Ukranie. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 647. 1884.
Fruits rather large, obovate, even and regular, in shape rather resembling White Doyenn#; pale yellow, covered with minute dots on the shaded side and with a tinge of warm orange on the side opposed to the sun; flesh neither melting nor juicy, only sweet; an inferior pear; soon becomes soft; Nov.

Sotschnaja. 1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 61, 1880.
A northern European variety reported by J. L. Budd as imported by him and on trial at the Iowa State College. Shows marked traces of the Chinese forms of the pear in shape, serration, thickness and size of leaf. The wood is gritty and thorn-like and unites very imperfectly with the apple.

Soueraigne. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 592. 1629.
"The Soueraigne peare, that which I have seene and taste, and so termed unto me, was a small brownish yellow peare, but of a most dainty taste; but some doe take a kind of Bon Chrétien, called the Elizabeth peare, to be the Soueraigne; how truly let others judge"

Soutmann. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:130. 1856.
Holland, 1821. Fruit medium, globular-oblong, light green turning to yellowish-green, without any blush, small brown dots; flesh white, buttery, melting, juicy, and with a sweet aromatic flavor of cinnamon; very good dessert fruit; Dec.

Souvenir de l'Abbé Lefebvre. 1. Guide Prat. 100. 1895.
Obtained by M. Sannier, Rouen, Fr. Tree of moderate vigor, fertile and adapts itself to all forms of growth. Fruit medium in size; flesh very fine, perfumed and excellent; Nov. and Dec.

Souvenir de du Breuil Père. 1. Pom. France 4:No. 159, PL 159. 1867.  Poire du Breuil Père. 2. Rev: Hort. 202. 1889.
Obtained from a bed of seeds of Louise Bonne de Jersey made by A. du Breuil, Rouen, Fr., in 1840. Fruit medium or rather large, sub-spherical, more often inclined by the oblique truncation of its wide top; skin very fine, yellow at maturity, much mottled and dotted with bright russet all over, the russet becoming purple on the side next the sun; flesh white, melting, very juicy, saccharine, pleasantly perfumed and sprightly; excellent; Nov. to Jan.

Souvenir Deschamps. 1. Rev. Hort 182. 1891. 2. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 9:57. 1891.
Described in 1891 as a newly introduced seedling raised in the State School of Horticulture, Ghent, Bel. Fruit large, elongated, like Calebasse in form, sometimes 'spindle-form and straight, slightly constricted about the