THE PEARS OF NEW YORK

CHAPTER IV

LEADING VARIETIES OF PEARS

ANDRÉ DESPORTES

I. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1: 127, fig. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 3:51, fig. 122. 1878. 3. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 138, fig. 1906.

This old French sort is sparingly grown in New York, and is still listed by a few American nurserymen. The pears are handsome and very good in quality, but they quickly soften at the center and neither keep nor ship well. While usually of medium size, or sometimes large, the pears often run small. The variety is well worth planting in a collection, but has no value in a commercial plantation, and there are many better sorts for home orchards.

The parent tree of this variety grew in the seed beds of M. André Leroy, the well-known authority on pomology, at Angers, France. M. Leroy obtained it in 1854 from pips of Williams' Bon Chrétien, or as it is better known here, the Bartlett pear. He named it after the son of M. Baptiste Desportes, manager of the business department of his establishment. The vigor and high quality of the fruit were quickly appreciated, and the variety was soon disseminated far and wide.

Tree characteristically upright and vigorous, rapid-growing, hardy, productive; branches slender, smooth, light brown overlaid with thin, grayish scarf-skin, marked with small lenticels; branchlets thick, long, with short internodes, reddish-brown, slightly streaked toward the tips with ash-gray scarf-skin, dull, smooth, glabrous, with numerous small, but very conspicuous, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds large, pointed, plump, appressed. Leaves 2 3/4 in. long, 1 5/8 in. wide, ovate, stiff, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin glandular, slightly crenate; petiole 1 1/2 in. long. Flower-buds large, long, conical, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds or on short spurs; flowers showy, 1 1/4 in. across, occasionally tinged pink, in dense clusters, averaging 9 flowers per cluster; pedicels 3/4 in. long, thick, pubescent.
Fruit ripe in August; medium in size, 2 7/8 in. long, 2 1/4 in. wide, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, symmetrical, uniform; stem 1 in. long, thick, curved; cavity obtuse, shallow, dotted with russet, often lipped; calyx small, open; lobes separated at the base, shorty narrow, acute; basin shallow, narrow, obtuse, gently furrowed, symmetrical; skin thin, tender, smooth; color dull greenish-yellow, dotted and marbled with reddish-brown, blushed on the sunny side; dots numerous, small, light colored, obscure; flesh tinged with yellow, fine, tender and melting, buttery, juicy, sweet, aromatic; quality very good. Core large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds small, wide, plump, acute.

ANSAULTAnsault mini picture

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1883. 2. Can. Hort. 24:454, fig. 2169. 1901.
Bonne du Puits-Ansault. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:486, fig. 1867. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 1st App. 123, fig. 1872. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 34. 1877.

Well grown, the fruits of Ansault rival those of Seckel in quality. In particular, the flesh is notable, and is described by the term buttery, so common in pear parlance, rather better than that of any other pear. The rich sweet flavor, and distinct but delicate perfume contribute to make the fruits of highest quality. Unfortunately, the pears are not very attractive in appearance. They are small, and the green coat, nearly covered with russet dots and markings, is dull, though enlivened somewhat at full maturity by a rich yellow. The tree in good pear soils is vigorous, productive, bears annually, and is not more subject to blight than that of the average variety. While not at all suitable for commercial orchards, Ansault should find a place in every collection of pears for home use.
The pear Bonne du Puits-Ansault was raised from seed in the nurseries of M. André Leroy, Angers, France. The parent tree bore fruit in 1863, and M. Leroy states that the name which it bears is that of the enclosure where it was first raised. It was propagated in 1865. The American Pomological Society first listed this variety in its catalog in 1877, and in 1883 shortened the name to its present form.

Tree large, upright-spreading, hardy, very productive; trunk stocky, shaggy; branches thick, dull brownish-red, tinged with green and heavily covered with greenish scarf-skin, with numerous raised lenticels; branchlets long, reddish-brown, with traces of gray scarf-skin, smooth, glabrous, with few inconspicuous, small, slightly raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds plump, pointed, nearly free. Leaf-scars prominent. Leaves numerous, 2¾ in. long, 1½ in. wide, ovate or broadly oval, leathery; apex abruptly pointed; margin finely serrate, with small, reddish, sharp-pointed glands; petiole 1œ in. long, slender, glabrous. Fruit-buds large, conical, plump, free; flowers 1⅛ in. across, in dense clusters, 7 to 9 flowers in a cluster; pedicels ⅝ in. long, thick, greenish, lightly pubescent.
Fruit ripe in late September and early October; medium in size, 2 3/8 in. long, 2 1/8 in. wide, uniform, obtuse-obovate-pyriform, irregular; stem 5/8 in. long, short, thick; cavity obtuse, russeted, furrowed, ribbed; calyx partly open, large; lobes acute; basin somewhat abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled; skin roughened with russet markings and dots; color pale yellow, considerably russeted about the basin and cavity with russet dots, with scattered flecks and patches of russet; dots numerous, small, russet; flesh tinged with yellow, granular at the center, melting and tender, buttery, very juicy, sweet, aromatic; quality good to very good. Core closed, axile, the core-lines clasping; calyx-tube long, narrow, funnel-shaped; seeds rather short, plump, obtuse.

BARTLETTBartlett mini picture

1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 334, fig. 134. 1845. 2. Horticulturist 2:169. 1847-48. 3. Proc. Nat. Con. Fr. Gr. 29. 1848. 4. Hovey Fr. Am. 2:11, Pl. 1851. 5. Horticulturist N. S. 3:350, Pl. 1853. 6. Field Pear Cult. 190, 276, fig. 66. 1858. 7. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 666, fig. 1869. 8. Ont. Dept. Agr. Fr. Ont. 148, fig. 1914.
Williams' Bon Chretien. 9. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 350. 1831. 10. Prince Pom. Man. 1:137-1831. 11. Hogg Fruit Man. 664. 1884.
Williams' Apothekerbirne. 12. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:181. 1856.
Bon Chretien Williams'. 13. Pom. France 1: No. 16, Pl. 16. 1863. 14. Mas Le Verger 2:23, fig. 10. 1866-73.
Williams. 15. Leroy Did. Pom. 2:758, fig. 1869.
Williams Christbirne. 16. Lauche Deut. Pom. II: No. 18, Pl. 18. 1882. 17. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 298. 1889.

Bartlett leads all other pears in number of trees in New York, and vies, with Kieffer for the greatest number in America. Its fruits are more common and more popular in American markets than those of any other pear. When the characters of the variety are passed in review, although several poor ones of fruit and tree appear, the popularity of Bartlett with growers and sellers, if not with consumers, seems justified. As with the leading variety of any fruit, the preeminently meritorious character of this one is its great adaptability to different climates, soils, and situations. Thus, Bartlett is grown with profit in every pear-growing region in America and in all is grown in greater quantities than any other sort excepting, perhaps, the notorious Kieffer. Another character which commends this variety to pear-growers is fruitfulness barring frosts or freezes, the trees bear full crops year after year. Moreover, the trees are very vigorous, attain large size, bear young, live long, are easily managed in the orchard, and thrive on both standard and quince stocks. The pears are large, handsome, of good but not of the best quality, and keep and ship remarkably well.

Bartlett is not without serious faults, however. The trees blight badly, and are not much above the average in resistance to blight, the black plague of the pear. Neither are they as hardy to cold or to heat as those of some other varieties. They are scarcely hardier to cold than those of the peach, and cannot withstand the summer heat of the southern, or of the Mississippi Valley states. Another serious defect of the trees is that, more than those of any other standard variety, their blossoms require cross-fertilization. The fruits are satisfactory in all characters excepting quality. There are many better-flavored pears. The fruits lack the rich, perfumed flavor of Seckel on one hand, and the piquant, vinous taste of Winter Nelis on the other. But the pears are much above the average in quality, and since no other variety is so easily grown, nor so reliable in the markets, Bartlett promises long to continue its supremacy for home and commercial plantations. After Kieffer, it is the most desired of all pears by the canning trade. Bartlett is the parent of several other well-known varieties, and of many sorts of small importance.

This pear was found as a wilding by a Mr. Stair, a schoolmaster at Aldermaston, Berkshire, England. From him it was acquired by a Mr. Williams, a nurseryman at Turnham Green, Middlesex, and as it was propagated and distributed by him it became known by his name, although it is still known as Stair's pear at Aldermaston. It was brought to this country in 1797 or 1799 by James Carter of Boston for Thomas Brewer who planted the variety in his grounds at Roxbury, Massachusetts, under the name of Williams' Bon Chretien, by which name it was then and still is known both in England and France. In 1817 Enoch Bartlett, Dorchester, Massachusetts, became possessed of the Brewer estate, and not knowing its true name allowed the pear to go out under his own. Henceforth it was known in America as Bartlett. The American Pomological Society added this variety to its catalog-list of fruits in 1848.

Tree medium in size, tall, pyriform, upright, hardy, very productive; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown overlaid with ash-gray scarf-skin, with few lenticels; branchlets short, with short internodes, reddish-brown, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with conspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds short, obtuse, pointed, mostly free; leaf-scars prominent. Leaves 2¾ in. long, 1⅖ in. wide, oval, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin tipped with small dark red glands, finely serrate; petiole 1¾ in. long. Flower-buds large, conical, pointed, free; flowers showy, 1¼ in. across, in dense clusters averaging 7 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1⅛ in. long, slender, slightly pubescent.
Fruit matures in September; large, 3⅜ in. long, 2⅜ in. wide, oblong-obtuse-pyriform, tapering toward the apex, symmetrical, uniform; stem 1⅛ in. long, often curved, thick; cavity small, usually lipped, with thin, overspreading streaks of light russet, acute, shallow; calyx partly open; lobes separated at the base, narrow, acute; basin very shallow, narrow, obtuse, furrowed and wrinkled; skin thin, tender, smooth, often dull, the surface somewhat uneven; color clear yellow, with a faint blush on the exposed cheek, more or less dotted with russet and often thinly russeted around the basin; dots many, small, conspicuous, greenish-russet; flesh fine-grained although slightly granular at the center, melting, buttery, very juicy, vinous, aromatic; quality very good. Core large, closed, with -clasping core-lines; calyx-tube long, wide, funnel-shaped; seeds wide, plump, acute.

[I knew better than to plant 'Bartlett' in the Southeastern U.S. due to its well-known susceptibility to fireblight. However, a mislabelled 'Tenn' tree turned out to be 'Bartlett' and it managed to produce one crop of fine, buttery, juicy, sweet and perfumed pears before the tree died dramatically the next year of fireblight. The whole tree exuded massive rivers of multi-colored ooze from the blight. There are better pears which have decent to very good blight resistance, so I wouldn't recommend planting Bartlett in the Southeast, even if you plan to spray with antibiotics (which I didn't). One of the most determined efforts to reproduce 'Bartlett' fruit characteristics was conducted by the Canadian government's Harrow Research Station. Their goal was to produce high-quality pears with fireblight resistance equal to 'Kieffer'. They used 'Bartlett' as a comparator, even going so far as to assess fruit from their seedlings to see if Bartlett's aromatics profile was retained. They actually monitored the fruit of the Bartlett backcross offspring by gas chromatography as a part of their selection process. I grew the first two cultivars that they released, 'Harrow Delight' and 'Harvest Queen' (Quamme, H.A. and G.A. Spearman. 1983. 'Harvest Queen' and 'Harrow Delight' pear. HortScience 18:770-772) on 'Old Home x Farmingdale #51' rootstock. Both were good pears, though distinct from 'Bartlett' to my palate. 'Harrow Delight' was the best early pear in my Georgia orchard. Unfortunately, neither cultivar reached the Kieffer level of fireblight resistance and all died back to the rootstock within 15 years of planting, due to fireblight. Kieffer trees in that part of the country can live for 100 years or more and often pass the 50 year mark. I strongly suspect the difference in observations between WOFTA and myself reflects the difference in inherent fireblight pressure between Ontario and Georgia. The Southeast's heat and humidity make for very high fireblight pressure. -ASC]

BELLE LUCRATIVEBelle Lucrative mini-picture

1. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 364. 1831. 2. Kenrick Am. Orch. 135. 1841. 3; Hovey Fr. Am. 1:41, Pl. 1851. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 53. 1852. 5. Field Pear Cult. 194, fig. 68. 1858.
Fondante d'Automne. 6. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 387, fig. 168. 1845. 7. Hogg Fruit Man. 578. 1884.
Seigneur. 8. Ann. Pom. Belge 7:5, Pl. 1859. 9. Pom. France 1: No. 28, Pl. 28. 1863. 10. Mas Le Verger 3: Pt. 1, 21, fig. 9. 1866-73.
Bergamote Lucrative. 11. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:247, figs. 1867.
Seigneur d'Esperén. 12. Guide Prat. 59, 303. 1876.
Esperén's Herrenbirne. 13. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 212. 1889. 14. Gaucher Pom. Prak. Obst. No. 37, Pl. 85. 1894.
Lucrative. 15. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1889.

This good old pear has been a standard autumn sort for nearly a century. The internal characters of both flesh and flavor are nearly perfect, but externally much more might be desired as to shape and size. In flesh and flavor, the fruits are of the Bergamot type, fine-grained, buttery, juicy, and sugary, with a musky taste and perfume. The fruits are not as large as is desirable, and are variable in shape and color, external defects which a rather handsome color offsets in part. The trees are more satisfactory than the fruits. They bear enormously and almost annually on either standard or dwarfing stocks; they are very vigorous, with a somewhat distinct upright-spreading habit of growth; are hardier than the average variety of this fruit; and are rather more resistant to blight than the average variety. The fruits are too small for a good commercial product, but their delectable flavor and luscious flesh make them as desirable as any other pear for home use; besides which the trees grow so well, and are so easily managed that the variety becomes one of the very best for the home planter.

Belle Lucrative is of Flemish origin. In 1831 it was growing in the London Horticultural Society's gardens at Chiswick, and was then described by Lindley as "another of the new Flemish pears." It had been taken to England by a Mr. Braddick who received the cions from M. Stoffels of Mechlin. By some writers it is considered probable that it originated with M. Stoffels, but the leading Belgian and French writers say that it was raised by Major Esperén, also of Mechlin, about 1827. In this country it first fruited in the Pomological Garden of Robert Manning, Salem, Massachusetts, in 1835 or 1836. The American Pomological Society added the variety to its fruit catalog-list in 1852 under the name Belle Lucrative.

Tree medium in size, vigorous, upright-spreading, dense-topped, rapid-growing, hardy, productive; branches smooth, grayish-brown mingled with red, covered with scarf-skin, with numerous elongated lenticels; branchlets slender, short, light brown, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with few small, inconspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, conical, pointed, plump, appressed. Leaves 3 in. long, 1½ in. wide, stiff; apex abruptly pointed; margin finely serrate, tipped with very small, sharp glands; petiole 2 in. long. Flower-buds conical, pointed, plump, free, singly on very short spurs; flowers with an unpleasant odor, showy, 1½ in. across, average 7 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1 1/16; in. long, thick, thinly pubescent.
Fruit ripe in late September and October; medium in size, 2⅜ in. long, 2¼ in. wide, obovate, conical, with sides unequal; stem 1⅛ in. long; cavity very shallow and narrow, or lacking, the flesh drawn up about the base of the stem; calyx open, large; lobes long, narrow, acuminate; basin shallow, obtuse, smooth; skin thin, tender, smooth; color dull greenish-yellow, thickly sprinkled with small, russet dots, often overspread with russet around the basin; dots numerous, small, russet, conspicuous; flesh tinged with yellow, firm, fine-grained, crisp, buttery, juicy, sweet; quality very good. Core closed, abaxile; calyx-tube long, narrow, funnel-shaped; seeds narrow, plump, acute.

[In the Southeastern United States, Belle Lucrative is too susceptible to fireblight to be grown practically. My trees died of fireblight before fruiting, though I did not spray them with antibiotics. Based on the experience of many others, antibiotic sprays only delay the inevitable with blight-susceptible cultivars. -ASC]
[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

BEURRÉ D'ANJOUAnjou mini picture

1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 136. 1841. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 360. 1845. 3. Hovey Fr. Am. 1:61, Pl. 18:51:. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 53. 1852. 5. Flor. & Pom. 5:1, Pl. 1866. 6. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 679, fig. 1869. 7. Hogg Fruit Man. 510. 1884.
Anjou. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1883.
Winter Meuris. 9. Lucas Tafelbirnen 171, fig. 1894.
Nee plus Meuris. 10. Baltet Cult. Fr. 321, fig. 214. 1908. 21. Guide Prat. 49, 282. 1895.

Beurré d'Anjou is a standard market pear for late fall and early winter, its season lasting until well into January even in common storage. As an early winter pear, it has no superior and few equals in appearance and quality of fruit- In appearance, the pear is of distinct type large, very uniform, the sides slightly unequal, smooth of skin, yellow, marked and dotted with russet, faintly blushed, and borne on a very short, thick stem. A fruit of this variety can never be mistaken for that of another. The internal characters are scarcely less notable than the external ones. The yellowish-white flesh is firm but tender, slightly granular, very juicy, sweet, spicy, with a rich, vinous flavor. Uniformity of shape and the smooth skin are marked and constant characters. In common with all varieties, the fruits of this pear are not always up to their best, but they are never poor in quality. The trees are vigorous, hardy, fairly free from blight, grow rapidly and come in bearing early, but have the serious fault of being uncertain croppers. In Europe and America, the trees thrive on the quince, and the variety is rated by all as a splendid one for dwarfing. Of all winter pears, none is more valuable for commercial or home orchards than Beurré d'Anjou. In particular, it is recommended for New York, where, possibly, it is more at home than in any other part of America.

Beurré d'Anjou is an old French pear the origin of which is obscure, although it is supposed to have originated in the vicinity of Angers. Early in the nineteenth century it was introduced into England by Thomas Rivers, noted author and pomologist. The variety was introduced into this country by Colonel Wilder of Boston about 1842, and first fruited with him in 1845. The American Pomological Society added Beurré d'Anjou to its list of fruits recommended for general cultivation in 1852.

 Tree large, vigorous, spreading, hardy, an uncertain bearer; trunk smooth; branches slightly zigzag, covered with gray scarf-skin over reddish-brown, with few small lenticels; branchlets long, with long internodes, reddish-brown tinged with green, smooth, glabrous, with many conspicuous, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, nearly free. Leaves 3½ in. long, 1½ in. wide, elongated-oval, thin, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin nearly entire or crenate; petiole 2 in. long. Flower-buds large, long, conical, plump, free; flowers 1⅜ in. across, showy, in dense clusters, from 8 to 12 buds in a cluster; pedicels ½ in. long, very thick, pubescent, green.
Fruit ripe November to early January; large, 3½ in. long, 3 in. wide, uniform in size, oblong-obovate-pyriform, with surface irregular in outline, sides slightly unequal, uniform in shape; stem ½ in. long, short, very thick and woody; cavity obtuse, shallow, russeted and furrowed, usually lipped; calyx open; lobes separated at the base, long, narrow, acuminate; basin shallow, narrow, obtuse, smooth, symmetrical and regular; skin thin, tender, smooth, dull; color yellow, clouded with russet around the basin and occasionally with very fine russet lines and markings; dots many, small, russet, conspicuous; flesh yellowish-white, firm, but slightly granular, tender, buttery, very juicy, sweet and spicy, with a rich, aromatic flavor; quality very good. Core large, closed; core-lines clasping; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds large, wide, long, plump, acuminate, tufted at the tips.

[I have not tried to grow Anjou in the Southeastern U.S., based on the writings of many who have tried before and failed due to fireblight. However, breeders have tried to incorporate Anjou's good fruit qualities in fireblight-resistant offspring. Therefore, there are several excellent fireblight-resistant pears with Anjou heritage. 'Ayres' (not to be confused with Ayer) is 'Garber' x 'Anjou' and is a high-quality buttery dessert pear, though not large and subject to biennial bearing without judicious thinning. The USDA station at Kerneysville, WV released 'Potomac' in 1993 and much to my delight, it is both highly blight resistant and produces aromatic, beautiful, large buttery-textured sweet pears that I'm not sure I could distinguish from Anjou in a blind taste test. 'Potomac' is a 'Moonglow' x 'Anjou' cross. 'Moonglow' = US-Mich. 437 x Roi Charles Wurtemburg. US-Michigan 437 = Barseck x Bartlett. So one can see that 'Potomac' is pure P. communis.]
[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

BEURRÉ D'ARENBERG (spelled by many writers "Beurré d'Aremberg")

1. Trans. Lond. Hort. Soc. 5:406. 1824. 2. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 392. 1831. 3. Prince Pom. Man. 1:51. 1831. 4. Kenrick Am. Orch. 188. 1832. 5. Ibid. 156. 1841. 6. Gard. Chron. 716, fig. 2. 1844. 7. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 423, fig. 195. 1845. 8. Proc. Nat. Con. Fr. Gr. 51. 1848. 9. Hovey Fr. Am. 1:1, Pl. 1851. 10. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 93, Pl. 1852. 11. Mas Le Verger 1:161, fig. 79. 1866-73. 12. Hogg Fruit Man. 510. 1884.
Orpheline d'Enghien. 13, Ann. Pom. Belge 3:35, Pl. 1855. 14. Guide Prat. 108, 292. 1876.

In favorable locations this pear seems to possess all of the characters which constitute a first-class fruit; but, notwithstanding, although it has been in the country nearly a century, it is now scarcely to be found in the nurseries, and orchard trees are becoming rare. The fruits are distinguished by their refreshing, vinous taste and long-keeping qualities. Very often, however, they do not ripen in eastern America, and when not properly ripened the pears are highly acidulous and so astringent as to be almost intolerable to the taste. The frequency with which these poor fruits are borne, always on heavy, cold clays and in cold climates, coupled with rather small, short-lived trees, condemn the variety for most pear regions in the East. In the far West, the crop ripens better, and the pears are splendid winter fruits. The merits of the variety are so varying in New York that it is not now worth while attempting to bring it into new life.

Buerre d'Arenberg, in the opinion of some European writers, holds first place among the pears produced by French and Belgian pomologists. Unfortunately, Beurré d'Arenberg and Glou Morceau are often mistaken the one for the other. Beurré d'Arenberg was raised by Monseigneur Deschamps, Abbé of the Orphan Hospital, Enghien, Belgium. At about the same time, M. Noisette, a nurseryman of Paris, sent out Glou Morceau, which he had procured from the gardens of the Due d'Arenberg, under the name Beurré d'Arenberg, so that there were two distinct varieties in cultivation under the same name. The true Beurré d'Arenberg of the Abbé Deschamps came to this country about 1827, having been sent over by Thomas Andrew Knight, President of the London Horticultural Society, to the Hon. John Lowell of Boston. The American Pomological Society recommended this variety for cultivation in 1848, but in 1871 the name disappeared from the Society's catalog.

Tree medium in size and vigor, upright, very hardy and very productive; trunk and branches medium in thickness and smoothness; branchlets slender, short, light brown mingled with green, smooth, glabrous, with numerous, small, raised lenticels. Leaf-buds small, short, plump, free; leaf-scars with prominent shoulders. Leaves 3 in. long; 1⅜ in. wide; apex taper-pointed; margin glandless, finely serrate; petiole 1⅞ in. long. Flower-buds small, short, sharply pointed, free, singly on short spurs.
Fruit ripe December to January; large, obovate-pyriform, ribbed; stem 1 in. long, thick, fleshy at the base, obliquely inserted; cavity lacking, drawn up in an oblique lip about the stem; calyx small, closed; lobes short, sometimes lacking; basin deep, smooth; skin roughish, thick, uneven; color yellow, with patches and tracings of russet especially around the calyx end; dots numerous, cinnamon-russet; flesh white, very juicy, melting, vinous or acidulous; quality very good. Core large; seeds large, roundish, plump.

BEURRÉ BOSCBosc mini picture
1. Kenrick Am. Orch, 161. 1832. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am, 358, fig. 152. 1845. 3. Proc. Nat. Cong, Fr. Gr. 29, 51. 1848. 4. Hovey Fr. Am. 1:65, Pl. 1851. 5. Ann. Pom. Belge 5:79, Pl. 1857. 6. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:320, fig. 1867. 7. Hogg Fruit Man. 514. 1884.
Bosc's Butterbirne. 8. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:100. 1856.
Beurré d'Apremont. 9. Pom. France 1: No. 26, Pl. 26. 1863. 10. Mas Le Verger 3: Pt. 2. 65, fig. 129. 1866-73. 11. Guide Prat. 48, 230. 1895.
Bosc. 12. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1883.
Bosc's Flaschenbirne. 13. Lauche Dent. Pom. II: No. 75, Pl. 75. 1883. 14. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 188. 1889. 15. Deut. Obstsorten 2: Pt. 5, Pl. 1906.

The fruits of Beurré Bosc merit unqualified praise. They are nearly flawless in every character. The pears at once receive approbation from all who see them by virtue of their uniquely beautiful color and shape, in which characters they are wholly unlike any other pear. The shape is pyriform, with a very long, tapering neck, perfectly symmetrical and unequalled in trimness of contour. The color is a dark rich yellow overspread with cinnamon-russet, with here and there a spot of the yellow ground color visible. The quality is rated by all as " very good " or " best;'* the Seckel alone surpasses it as a dessert fruit in the estimation of most pear fanciers. The flesh, while slightly granular, is tender and melting or almost buttery, very juicy, with a rich piquant flavor and a pleasing aroma. The fruits seldom crack, scab, or mildew. The characters of the tree fall far short of those of the fruits. Nurserymen complain that it is difficult to propagate the trees as they make a poor growth in the nursery and come to transplanting age with a root system of two or three prongs almost devoid of fibrous roots. The trees must be humored in soil and climate, and under favorable conditions make but moderate growth as young plants. Established trees in suitable soils, however, surpass most of their neighbors in size and luxuriance of foliage. Very old trees have a nobility of aspect possessed by few other pears. While slow in coming in bearing, after fruiting begins the trees bear regularly and abundantly. The variety does not succeed well on the quince unless double-worked. Unfortunately, the trees are tender to cold and somewhat too susceptible to blight. Beurré Bosc has long been a favorite in the pear regions of Europe and America, and its culture in this country may be recommended for the home, for local and general markets, and for exportation.

This pear is a native of Belgium, having been raised from seed in 1807 by Dr. Van Mons, the renowned pomologist of Louvain, and was in the first instance named by him Calebasse Bosc in honor of M. Bosc, a distinguished French naturalist. In 1820, it was received at the garden of the Horticultural Society of London under the name Beurré Bosc, and Robert Thompson, at that time Director of the gardens, thought it best to retain this name. The variety was early introduced into France. About 1832 or 1833, Robert Manning and William Kenrick received cions in the United States from Van Mons and from the London Horticultural Society. The variety was cataloged by the American Pomological Society at its first meeting in 1848.

Tree medium in size, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, productive, not an early bearer; trunk stocky; branches smooth, brownish, covered with ash-gray scarf-skin, with large lenticels; branchlets brownish, tinged with gray, glossy, smooth, nearly glabrous, with slightly raised, conspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds obtuse, pointed, appressed; leaf-scars prominent. Leaves 3 in. long, 1⅞ in. wide, ovate, thick, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin finely crenate; petiole 1¼ in. long. Flower-buds large, conical, pointed, free; flowers open early, 1½ in. across, showy, in dense clusters, from 10 to 20 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1 in. long, slightly pubescent, light green.
Fruit ripe in late October and November; large, 3⅜ in. long, 2¾ in. wide, uniform in size, acute-obovate-pyriform, with a very long, tapering neck, uniform in shape and very symmetrical; stem 1½ in. long, curved; cavity very obtuse or lacking, occasionally very shallow and narrow, wrinkled, russeted, with a fleshy ring folded up around the stem, slightly lipped; calyx open, small; lobes short, broad, obtuse; basin very shallow, narrow, obtuse, smooth, symmetrical; skin slightly granular, tender, roughened by russet, dull; color dark yellow, overspread with thick, dark russet, laid on in streaks and patches, with a cheek of solid russet; dots small, light russet, obscure; flesh yellowish-white, slightly granular, tender and melting, buttery, very juicy, with a rich, delicious, aromatic flavor; quality very good to best. Core large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds wide, short, plump, obtuse.

BEURRÉ CLAIRGEAUmini Clairgeau picture

1. Hovey Fr. Am. 2:73, Pl. 1851. 2. Ann. Pom. Belge 2:103, Pl. 1854. 3. Card. Chron. 805. 1854. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 337. 1860. 5. Pom. France 1: No. 11, Pl. 11. 1863. 6. Mas Le Verger 1:39, fig. 26. 1866-73. 7. Jour. Hort. N. S. 12:211. 1867, 8. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:335, fig. 1867. 9; Downing Fr. Trees Am. 678. 1869. 10. Card. Chron. 1271. 1873. 11. Hogg Fruit Man. 517. 1884.
Clairgeau's Butterbirne. 12. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:127. 1856. 13. Lauche Deut. Pom. II: No. 7, Pl. 7. 1882. 14. Deut. Obstsorten 3: Pt. 9, Pl. 1907.
Clairgeau. 15. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1883.

Beurré Clairgeau is one of the mainstays in American pear-growing, and is an especially valuable variety in New York. It maintains its place among standard varieties chiefly because of splendid tree-characters, as the fruits, while handsome, are not of the best quality. The tree is second only to-that of Buffum in vigor, health, and productiveness, and is nearly as handsome as an ornamental. It does equally well on quince or pear stock, although the Europeans maintain that the product is better on the dwarfing stock. On either stock, the trees bear young and annually. The fruits are large, smooth, symmetrical, and uniform in shape, with a handsome ground color of rich yellow at maturity and a bright crimson cheek. But here praises end, for the "deceptive cheek of the Clairgeau" is proverbial in pear-growing, the handsome coat covering rather coarse, granular flesh which is sometimes very good but more often commonplace. The core is very large, and the flesh surrounding it often rots or softens prematurely. The fruit is more suitable for cookery than dessert. The pears are heavy and often drop before maturity, and the trees should not be set in windswept situations. Despite these demerits of the fruits, the variety is well worth planting in commercial orchards for late markets.

The original tree of Beurré Clairgeau appears to have grown by chance about 1830 with Pierre Clairgeau, Nantes, France. M. Clairgeau's first account of it was given in 1848 when he exhibited fruit. The reputation of the variety seems to have been at once established, for J. de Jonghe and others combined and purchased the stock of about 300 trees grafted on quince. Together with the parent tree, these were the same year removed to Brussels, and in 1852 the pear was placed on the market. Thus it happened that a French pear was first distributed by Belgian growers. The variety was introduced in America about 1854. The American Pomological Society placed it upon its list of recommended fruits in 1860.

Tree medium in size, vigorous, unusually upright, dense, slow-growing, hardy, productive, a regular bearer; trunk slender, shaggy; branches smooth, slightly zigzag, ash-gray almost completely overspreading reddish-brown, with many lenticels; branchlets thick, short, with short internodes, greenish-brown, smooth, glabrous, with slightly raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds conical, pointed, appressed; leaves very numerous, 3 in. long, 2 in. wide, broadly oval, leathery; apex abruptly pointed; margin glandless, finely serrate; petiole 2 in. long, glabrous; stipules rudimentary or lacking. Flower-buds medium to long, conical, pointed; flowers 1½ in. across, showy, in dense clusters, averaging 7 buds to a cluster; pedicels ⅝ in. long, thick, pubescent, greenish.
Fruit in season, late October and November; large, 3⅝ in. long, 2⅝ in. wide, uniform in size, roundish-acute-pyriform, with a long, tapering neck, symmetrical, uniform in shape; stem ½ in. long, short, very thick and fleshy; cavity obtuse, very shallow and narrow, fleshy around the base of the stem, russeted, lipped; calyx open, large; lobes separated at the base, long, broad, acute or acuminate; basin shallow, narrow, obtuse, furrowed, often compressed; skin thick and granular, tough, smooth, glossy; color yellow, with bright red blush; dots many, small, russet, conspicuous; flesh white, quite granular, firm at first but becoming at maturity tender and melting, buttery, very juicy, sweet, aromatic, with a rich, vinous flavor; quality variable, good to best. Core large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds large, wide, long, plump, acute.

BEURRÉ DIELBeurre Diel mini picture

1. Pom. Mag. 1:19, Pl. 1828. 2. Ibid. 3:131, Pl. 1830. 3. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 392. 1831. 4. Kenrick Am. Orch. 189. 1832. 5. Ibid. 156. 1841. 6. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 360, fig. 153. 1845. 7. Gard. Chron. 856. 1845. 8. Hovey Fr. Am. 1:77, Pl. 1851. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 231. 1854. 10. Pom. France 1: No. 7, Pl. 7. 1863. 11. Mas Le Verger 1:137, fig. 67. 1866-73. 12. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:349, fig. 1867. 13. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 686, fig. 1869. 14. Hogg Fruit Man. 518. 1884. 15. Guide Prat. 234. 1895.
Diel's Butterbirne. 16. Liegel Syst. Anleit. no. 1825. 17. Lauche Deut. Pom. 11: No. 8, Pl. 8. 1882. 18. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 203. 1889.
Diel. 19. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1883.

The catalogs and text-books supply Beurré Diel with several virtues which Nature denies it as the variety grows in New York. As grown in the eastern United States, the pears are dull and unattractive even at maturity when the pale lemon color is brightest. When the tree is happily situated as to soil and care, the quality of its product is excellent, its fruits being delicious and ranking among the very best, but when illy suited to soil, climate or care, the flesh is coarse, the flavor insipid and astringent, bringing the quality down to second or third rate. The pears keep and ship well. The tree is hardy, uncommonly vigorous and fruitful, but very subject to blight; it is characterized by its long twisting branches which need to be pruned back heavily. The variety is still being planted, but there are better autumn pears.

This variety came from a chance seedling found near Brussels in 1805 by M. Meuris, head gardener for Dr. Van Mons. Being unnamed and of fine quality, Van Mons dedicated it to his German friend, Diel, one of the most distinguished German pomologists. Van Mons sent cions of the variety to the London Horticultural Society in 1817. In 1823, Thomas Andrew Knight sent cions to the Massachusetts Agricultural Society whence it became disseminated generally throughout the United States. The American Pomological Society placed this variety upon its fruit catalog-list in 1854.

Tree medium in size and vigor, spreading, open-topped, slow-growing, hardy, productive; trunk slender, smooth; branches slender, twisting, reddish-brown mingled with grayish scarf-skin, with few lenticels; branchlets with short internodes, dark reddish-brown, smooth, glabrous, with few small, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds obtuse, free; leaf-scars prominent. Leaves 2¾ in. long, 1¾ in. wide, oval, thick, leathery; apex abruptly pointed; margin finely serrate; petiole 1½ in. long. Flower-buds large, long, conical, rather plump, free; flowers open early, nearly 1¾ in. across, showy, in dense clusters, 7 or 8 buds in a cluster; pedicels ⅛ in. long, pubescent, greenish.
Fruit ripe in November; large, 3 in. long, 2⅜ wide, uniform in size, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, often irregular and usually with sides unequal; stem 1¼ in. long, thick, curved; cavity obtuse, shallow, very narrow, russeted, furrowed and uneven, often lipped; calyx partly open, large; lobes separated at the base, broad, acute; basin shallow, obtuse, furrowed and uneven; skin very thick and granular, somewhat roughened by russet markings and by dots; color lemon-yellow, with a faint pinkish-red blush and markings and flecks of russet; dots many, russet, very conspicuous; flesh yellowish-white, firm, becoming tender and melting, quite granular around the core, very juicy, sweet, aromatic and rich; quality very good. Core large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds large, wide, long, plump, often abortive, acute.

[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

BEURRÉ GIFFARDmini Beurre Giffard

1. Card. Chron. 69. 1848. 2. Mag. Hort. 18:433, fig. 30. 1852. 3. Ann. Pom. Belge 5:69, Pl. 1857. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 231. 1858. 5. Pom. France 1: No. 1, Pl. 1. 1863. 6. Mas Le Verger 2:39, fig. 18. 1866-73. 7. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:369, fig. 1867. 8. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 689. 1869. 9. Hogg Fruit Man. 521. 1884. 10. Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom. 374, fig. 1904.
Giffard's Butterbirne. 11. Oberdieck Obst-Sort. 255. 1881. 12. Lauche Deut. Pom. II: No. 57, Pl. 57. 1883.
Giffard. 13. Gard. Chron. 415. 1863. 14. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 38. 1883.

This is one of the few summer pears with a distinctly vinous flavor, which, with the crisp and tender flesh, makes it one of the most refreshing of summer fruits. The pears are larger than those of most other sorts of its season, somewhat like those of Beurré Clairgeau in shape and color, and ripen at a time just before Clapp Favorite when good pears should be in demand for home and market. The fruits keep well for summer pears, and are remarkable for their small cores. The trees, while in no way remarkable, are quite up to the average in all characters, and surpass most of their orchard associates in hardiness and fruitfulness. The variety is desirable for both home and commercial orchards.

This early summer pear was found as a chance seedling in 1825 by Nicolas Giffard, Foussieres, France. In 1840, M. Millet, president of the Society of Horticulture of Maine-et-Loire, wrote the first description of it in the Bulletins of the Society. It was introduced in America about 1850, and in 1858 was added to the fruit catalog-list of the American Pomological Society.

Tree of medium size, vigorous, spreading, open-topped, hardy, productive; branches reddish-brown, nearly covered with gray scarf-skin, with long and narrow, large lenticels; branchlets slender, new growth willowy, long, reddish-brown, smooth, glabrous except near the tips of the new growth, with conspicuous, raised, round lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, pointed, appressed. Leaves 2¾ in. long, 1½ in. wide, stiff; apex taper-pointed; margin entire, sometimes slightly pubescent; petiole 2½ in. long, slender, reddish-green; stipules very long and slender. Flower-buds small, plump, free, singly on very short spurs; flowers showy, 1¼ in. across, in dense clusters, average 8 buds in a cluster; pedicels ¾ in. long, pubescent.
Fruit ripe in late August; variable in size, averages 3 in. long, 2⅜ in. wide, obovate-acute-pyriform; stem ¾ in. long; cavity lacking, the flesh closing up symmetrically around the stem except when drawn up in a lip; calyx open, small; lobes separated at the base, narrow, accuminate; basin shallow, narrow, obtuse, almost smooth, symmetrical; skin thin, tender, smooth; color dull greenish-yellow, with a dotted, dull red blush, often without blush; dots numerous, small, greenish and russet, very conspicuous; flesh tinged with yellow, granular at the center, melting, very juicy, vinous, highly aromatic; quality very good. Core small, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube narrow, funnel-shaped; seeds plump, acute.

BEURRÉ HARDYmini Beurre Hardy

1. Barry Fr. Garden 314. 1851. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 466. 1857. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 66. 1862. 4. Pom. France 2: No. 46, Pl. 46. 1864. 5. Mas Le Verger 3: Pt. 1, 11, fig. 4. 1866-73. 6. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:379, fig. 1867. 7. Hogg Fruit Man. 521. 1884. 8. Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom. 378, fig. 1904.
Hardy. 9. Gard. Chron. 463. 1863. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 38. 1883.
Gellert's Butterbirne. 11. Gaucher Pom. Prak. Obst. No. 38, Pl. 78. 1894.

Beurré Hardy is one of the good autumn pears. Both fruit and tree commend it. The fruits are usually large; are handsome in appearance; and the flesh and flavor are exceptionally fine. Thus, the flesh, while a little granular at the core, is melting, juicy, and richly aromatic, as truly luscious as in any other pear. Unfortunately the fruits do not keep well, having a tendency to soften at the core as maturity advances. When poorly grown or not properly ripened, the pears are sometimes a little astringent, and there is always a smack of astringency. The trees, while not large, are vigorous, hardy, productive, and healthy except in being a little susceptible to blight. This is a favorite pear with nurserymen to bud or graft on the quince, Japanese pear stocks, or other stocks, since it makes a perfect union with any of those in common use. The tree is one of the best dwarfs, also, for its own crop. Wherever pears are grown, this is a good dessert sort, and in many regions it is a valuable fruit for commerce. Beurré Hardy does especially well in New York and in eastern United States.

This is a French pear raised about 1820 by M. Bonnet, Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. In 1830, it was acquired by M. Jean-Laurent Jamin, a nurseryman near Paris, who named it in honor of M. Hardy, Director and Professor of Arboriculture at the Garden of the Luxembourg. It was propagated, made known, and distributed by M. Jamin between 1840 and 1845. The American Pomological Society added Beurré Hardy to its list of recommended fruits in 1862.

Tree medium in size, vigorous, upright, dense-topped, hardy, productive; trunk stocky; branches smooth, dull brown overspread with gray, marked more or less with scarf-skin, with very numerous large, elongated lenticels; branchlets thick, greenish-brown, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with numerous small, raised, conspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds conical, pointed, plump, usually free; leaf-scars prominent. Leaves 2½ in. long, 2 in. wide, stiff; apex abruptly pointed; margin tipped with small glands, finely serrate; petiole 1½ in. long. Flower-buds small, short, conical, pointed, plump, free, singly or in small clusters on short spurs; flowers 1¼ in. across, well distributed, average 9 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1 in. long, pubescent, reddish-green.
Fruit in season, late September and early October; large, 3 in. long, 2¼ in. wide, uniform, obtuse-pyriform, with a rather long neck, symmetrical; stem ⅞ in. long, thick, slightly curved; cavity obtuse, very shallow and narrow, russeted, often uneven and gently furrowed, lipped; calyx large, open; lobes broad, acute; basin shallow, narrow, obtuse, gently furrowed; skin granular, tender, russet; color dull greenish-yellow, overspread with thin, brownish-russet, without blush; dots numerous, russet, small, very conspicuous; flesh granular, melting, buttery, very juicy, sweet, richly aromatic and somewhat vinous; quality very good to best. Core large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds large, wide, long, plump, acute.

BEURRÉ DE JONGHE
1. Mag. Hort. 28:258. 1857. 2. Card. Chron. 147, fig. 1866. 3. Mas Le Verger 1:73, fig. 43. 1866-73. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 683. 1869. 5. Jour. Hort. N. S. 32:408. 1877. 6. Hogg Fruit Man. 522. 1884. 7. Guide Prat 64, 232. 1895. 8. Garden 49:225. 1896.
De Jonghe's Butterbirne. 9. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 201. 1889.

A prime requisite in any pear of best quality is that there be no disagreeable after-taste in the flesh. The fruits of almost none of the winter pears meet this requirement. Almost all have more or less astringency in the after-taste. But the fruits of this variety are wholly free from this astringency and are, moreover, so sweet and rich that they are nearly as delectable as those of Seckel, the standard of excellence in quality. The pears ripen at Geneva in January and may be kept for a month or six weeks at a season when there are few other sweet, rich pears, the fruits of nearly all other pears of this season being vinous and piquant. The trees are hardy and productive, but are slow in coming in bearing, rather small, and not at all self-assertive and must be coddled somewhat. They are reported by many to do better on quince than on pear stocks. The variety is desirable only for the amateur.

According to Mas, the French pomologist, M. de Jonghe mentioned this pear in a pamphlet on new varieties published in 1865. It was described in the Magazine of Horticulture in 1857 as a new variety. In Gardener's Chronicle, 1866, M. de Jonghe said that he saw this pear first in 1852 at Uccle, Belgium. The seedling had been planted there two years before.

Tree medium in size and vigor, spreading, slow-growing, hardy, very productive; trunk slender, shaggy; branches reddish-brown overspread with thick scarf-skin; branch-lets thick, curved, short, with very short internodes, smooth except for the raised, conspicuous lenticels. Leaf-buds small, short; leaf-scars with prominent shoulders. Leaves 2¾ in. long, 1½ in. wide, thick; apex abruptly pointed; margin glandular, finely serrate; petiole 1½ in. long, reddish-green. Flower-buds large, long, very plump, free; flowers 1¼ in. across, 7 or 8 buds in a cluster; pedicels ½ in. long, thick.
Fruit ripe December to January; medium in size, 3 in. long, 2¼ in. wide, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, very regular; stem short, thick, inserted obliquely; cavity very shallow or none, the flesh often drawn up in a lip on one side of the stem; calyx small, open; basin shallow; skin thin; color dull yellow, thickly overspread with a pale, brownish-russet, often with traces of a russet-red blush; dots numerous, small, dull russet; flesh nearly white, fine-grained, melting, buttery, pleasant flavored, aromatic, sweet; quality very good.

BEURRÉ SUPERFINSuperfin_small

1. Mag. Hort. 20:8, 135. 1854. 2. Horticulturist N. S. 5: 88. 1855. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 465. 1857. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 231. 1858. 5. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:432, fig. 1867. 6. Hogg Fruit Man. 529. 1884.
Hochfeine Butterbirne. 7. Lauche Deut. Pom. II: No. 59, Pl. 59. 1883. 8. Gaudier Pom. Prak. Obst. No. 47, Pl. 60. 1894. Superfin. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 40. 1883.

Tender in skin and delicate in flesh, the product of this variety is not for the markets, but that of few other sorts so admirably supplies those who want choicely good fruits. The pears are not as attractive in appearance as might be wished, but are hardly surpassed in flavor in their season. The flesh is notable for juiciness, rich vinous flavor, and pleasant perfume. The trees are large, healthy even as regards blight, very productive, and are easily suited as to soils. The trees do not bear early, but are regular in bearing after this life event begins. In Europe, the variety is commonly and successfully grown as a dwarf, and the pear-growers of a generation ago in America recommend this variety as one of the good sorts to work on the quince. [Shows delayed incompatibility on quince rootstock without a compatible interstem according to Gur et al., 1978. Scientia Horticulturae. 8(3):249-264. -ASC] The variety is a valuable one for home orchards, especially in New York where it grows exceptionally well.

Beurré Superfin was raised from a bed of pear seeds made at Angers, France, by M. Goubault, a well-known pomologist, in 1837. The parent tree so produced bore fruit in 1844 and the Committee of the Horticultural Society of Maine-et-Loire was requested to report on its merits, which it did in that year, and M. Millet, president of the society, named it Beurré Superfin. It was introduced in America about 1850. The variety was placed on the fruit catalog-list of the American Pomological Society in 1858.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, dense-topped, hardy, very productive; trunk stocky, rough; branches thick, rough and shaggy, zigzag, dull brownish-red, overspread with gray scarf-skin, sprinkled with numerous elongated lenticels; branchlets slender, light brown, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with small, raised, inconspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, conical, pointed, plump, appressed or free; leaf-scars prominent. Leaves 3¼ in. long, 1⅞ in. wide, stiff; apex abruptly pointed; margin tipped with small glands, coarsely serrate; petiole ¾ in. long. Flower-buds conical, pointed, plump, free, singly on short branches and short spurs.
Fruit matures in October; large, 3¼ in. long, 2¾ in. wide, roundish-oblate, with a short, thick, rounded neck, symmetrical; stem 1⅛ in. long, very thick, curved; cavity very shallow and narrow or lacking, the flesh tapering into the stem or wrinkled in a fleshy fold about the base of the stem, often lipped; calyx open; lobes separated at the base, broad, narrow; basin narrow, obtuse, gently furrowed, symmetrical; skin very granular, tender, smooth; color yellow, netted and streaked with light russet, often with a slight brownish-russet cheek; dots numerous, small, russet, conspicuous; flesh tinged with yellow, granular, melting, buttery, very juicy, sweet yet with a rich, brisk, vinous flavor, aromatic; quality very good. Core large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds large, wide, long, plump, acute.

BLOODGOOD
1. Mag. Hort. 3:14. 1837. 2. Manning Book of Fruits 65. 1838. 3. Mag. Hort. 9:366, fig. 31. 1843. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 332, fig. 132. 1845. 5. Proc. Nat. Con. Fr. Gr. 51. 1848. 6. Mas Le Verger 2:181, fig. 89. 1866-73. 7. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:449, fig. 1867. 8. Hogg Fruit Man. 532. 1884.
Bloodgood's Sommerbirne. 9. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 186. 1889.

Bloodgood has long been a standard summer pear in America. It surpasses any European associate of its season in both fruit- and tree-characters. In particular, the fruits are meritorious for flesh of fine texture, which, though a little granular, is melting and juicy, and has a rich, sweet, perfumed flavor. Complaints appear in the horticultural press that the quality is exceedingly variable. The reports of poor flavor may arise from the fact that the quality is always poor if the fruit is not picked as soon as full grown and ripened indoors. The season in New York is August. The trees are resistant to blight, healthy, bear young and regularly, are long-lived, and attain large size, although in some situations they are but medium in size. The variety has little or no value in commercial plantations, but is prized in every collection for home use.

The origin of this pear is unknown, but it is supposed to be a native of New York. It seems to have been brought to notice about 1835 by James Bloodgood of the nursery firm of Bloodgood and Company, Flushing, Long Island. According to Robert Manning, the variety was listed in Prince's Catalogue for 1837 as Early Beurré. After being introduced by Bloodgood and Company, it was speedily recognized as one of the most valuable native sorts. The variety was placed upon the fruit catalog-list of the American Pomological Society in 1848.

Tree medium in size and vigor, upright, dense, slow-growing, productive; trunk medium in thickness and smoothness; branches zigzag, reddish-brown partly overspread with grayish scarf-skin, marked with few small lenticels; branchlets thick, very long, with long internodes, reddish-brown, the new growth greenish, with a brown tinge, glossy, smooth, with small, raised, conspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds broad at the base, small, short, sharply pointed, free; leaf-scars with prominent shoulders. Leaves 2¼ in. long, 1⅜ in. wide, oval, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin finely serrate; petiole 1¼ in. long, slender, tinged red; stipules few, variable in size and shape, tinged red. Flower-buds medium in size and length, conical, plump, free, arranged singly on short spurs; flowers early, 1¼ in. across, in dense clusters, 7 or 8 buds in a cluster; pedicels often ⅞ in. long, pubescent.
Fruit matures in late August; medium in size, 2⅛ in. long, 2 in. wide, roundish-pyriform to acute-pyriform, symmetrical, uniform, with equal sides; stem ¾ in. long, thick; cavity russeted, lipped, drawn up in fleshy folds about the stem; calyx open, small; lobes separated at the base, short, broad, obtuse; basin narrow, obtuse, smooth, symmetrical; skin thick, tough, roughish; color bright yellow, with patches and nettings of russet, producing a mottled russet effect; dots many, small, russet, inconspicuous; flesh tinged yellow, granular, melting, buttery, rich, very juicy, sweet, highly flavored, aromatic; quality very good. Core small, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, narrow, conical; seeds small, short, plump, acute.

[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

BRANDYWINE
1. Horticulturist 3:166, figs. 25 and 26. 1848-49. 2. Mag. Hort. 15:106. 1849. 3. Hovey Fr. Am. 2:51, Pl. 1851. 4. Mag. Hort. 19:450, fig. 30. 1853. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 231. 1858. 6. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:496, fig. 1867. 7. Pom. France 4: No. 160, Pl. 160. 1867.

Were it not that Tyson is better in both tree and fruit, Brandywine, which ripens its crop with that of Tyson, could be put down as about the best pear of its season. Tyson is the better variety, however, in almost every soil and situation, and Brandywine has a place in American pear flora only because the pears have a distinct flavor which gives them the charm of individuality. The flesh is neither sweet nor perfumed, as is that of most pears at this season, but has the piquant smack of some of the winter pears which makes the fruits particularly refreshing. The tree is vigorous, with a handsome pyramidal top, but is not remarkable otherwise. Sometimes it is unproductive. The variety is worth planting for the sake of diversity in home orchards.

The original tree, a chance seedling, was found on the farm of Eli Harvey, Chaddsford, on the banks of the Brandywine River, Pennsylvania. This parent tree began to bear about 1820, but in 1835 wind broke it down near the surface of the ground. The present tree is a sucker from the original, and first fruited in 1844. This fact accounts for its not sooner having become known to cultivation. Dr. Brincklé of Philadelphia showed the fruits first at a meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1848 when it received high commendations. In 1858 the American Pomological Society added Brandywine to its list of recommended fruits.

Tree large, vigorous, very upright, dense-topped, productive; branches long, olive-gray, sprinkled with roundish lenticels; branchlets slender, curved, with short internodes, brownish-red overspread with scarf-skin, glabrous, with few small, obscure lenticels.
Leaf-buds medium in size and length, pointed, free. Leaves small, long-ovate; apex taper-pointed; margin serrate; petiole 1½ in. long. Flower-buds large, plump, conical, free, singly on spurs and as terminal buds; flowers ⅞ in. across, in dense clusters, average 9 buds in a cluster; pedicels ½ in. long, slender, pubescent.
Fruit ripens in late August and early September; medium in size, 2¾ in. long, 2½ in. wide, variable in shape but generally obovate-pyriform; stem 1½ in. long, fleshy, curved, obliquely attached; cavity lacking, the flesh drawn up in a wrinkled fold about the base of the stem; calyx large, open; lobes short, entire; basin small, shallow, usually smooth; skin roughish; color greenish-yellow, blushed with red on the sunny side, marked with tracings of russet especially near the cavity; dots numerous, large, conspicuous, russet; flesh whitish, or faintly tinged with yellow, granular, melting, juicy, aromatic, vinous; quality good to very good. Core small; seeds few, small, dark brown.

BUFFUM
1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 166. 1832. 2. Mag. Hort. 10:300, fig. 15. 1844. 3. Ibid. 16:297. 1850. 4. Hovey Fr. Am. 2:19, Pl. 1851. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 53. 1852. 6. Horticulturist N. S. 6:300, Pl. 1856. 7. Ibid. 25:104, fig. 1870. 8. Mas Le Verger 3: Pt. 1, 81, fig. 39. 1866-73.
Buffam. 9. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 356, fig. 150. 1845.

Without deserving a high place among pears, Buffum has several meritorious characters which should keep it in the list of standard varieties. The variety must depend chiefly on its tree-characters for approbation, and in these it excels nearly all of its orchard associates. The trees are remarkably vigorous, nearly free from blight, very productive, although they have a tendency to bear biennially; and by virtue of great size, symmetrical, pyramidal form, dark green, glossy foliage, and sturdy, ruddy wood in winter, they are among the most ornamental of all fruit trees. In full leaf, a Buffum tree might easily be taken for a Lombardy poplar. The quality of the fruits is very variable. At times the flesh is rich, aromatic, melting, and very good; again, the pears may be insipid or even illy flavored, devoid of perfume, coarse in texture, and poor. The fruits are never large and often run small. To attain good quality, the pears must be picked early and ripened in a moderately cool fruit-room. The culture of Buffum is on the wane, chiefly for the reason that its fruits ripen with those of Seckel and fail in competition, as the Seckels are nearly as large and much better in quality. But because of its admirable tree-characters the variety should not be lost.

Some confusion exists as to the origin of Buffum. Some writers state that the original tree stood on the grounds of Prescott Hall, Newport, Rhode Island. Hovey, however, in his Fruits of America, 1851, says that the variety originated in the garden of David Buffum, Warren, Rhode Island, shortly after the advent of the nineteenth century. In the opinion of Downing the variety came from seed of White Doyenné. Soon after the founding of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1828, Robert Manning exhibited specimens of the Buffum pear, and through him the variety became known in the vicinity of Boston from which place it was disseminated throughout the country. Buffum was added to the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society in 1852.

Tree vigorous, very upright, dense, hardy, almost immune to blight, very productive; branches shaggy, zigzag, reddish-brown, overspread with grayish scarf-skin, with numerous small lenticels; branchlets short, reddish-brown, tinged with green and streaked with grayish scarf-skin, smooth, glabrous, with conspicuous, small, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, conical, pointed, appressed; leaf-scars prominent. Leaves 3¼ in. long, 2 in. wide, oval, thin, leathery; apex abruptly pointed; margin glandular, finely serrate; petiole 2¼ in. long. Flower-buds large, conical, pointed, plump, free, arranged singly on short spurs and branchlets; flowers 1½ in. across, showy, in dense clusters, 6 to 8 buds in a cluster; pedicels ⅞ in. long, slender, pubescent, greenish.
Fruit ripe in late September and October; medium in size, 2¼ in. long, 2 in. wide, uniform in size and shape, oblong-obovate-pyriform, with unequal sides; stem ¾ in. long, very thick; cavity obtuse, very shallow, narrow, russeted, gently furrowed, often lipped; calyx open; lobes separated at the base, short, narrow, obtuse; basin shallow, obtuse, gently furrowed; skin thick, very tough and granular, smooth except for the russet markings, dull; color deep brownish-yellow, with a bright reddish blush on the exposed cheek toward the basin; dots many, small, brownish or russet, conspicuous; flesh white, tinged with yellow, firm, granular, stringy toward the center, juicy, sweet, aromatic; quality good. Core large, closed; core-lines clasping; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds large, wide, plump, acute. 

Source
[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

CLAPP FAVORITEClapp Favorite small

1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 50. 1860. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 20. 1867. 3. Pom. France 4: No. 170, Pl. 170. 1867. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 720, fig. 1869. 5. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 452. 1897.
Favorite de Clapp. 6. Mas Le Verger 2:207, fig. 102. 1866-73.
Clapp's Favourite. 7. Hogg Fruit Man. 548. 1884. 8. Bunyard-Thomas Fr. Card. 134, 462, fig. 1904.
Clapp's Liebling. 9. Gaucher Pom. Prak. Obst. No. 31, Pl. 46. 1894.

Clapp Favorite is by universal consent the standard late summer pear to precede Bartlett, which it much resembles in size, shape, color, and flavor. In most regions in the United States and Canada where pears are largely grown for the market, Clapp Favorite is the first pear to be put on the market. The season is usually a week or sometimes ten days before that of Bartlett. The chief fault of the fruits is that they soon soften at the center after ripening, to obviate which they should be picked at least ten days before they would ripen on the tree. This softening at the core debars the fruit from distant markets, and makes it suitable only for local trade. The illustration of the whole fruit in the accompanying plate is so foreshortened by the camera that size and shape are not shown correctly, but the half-fruit illustrates the size and shape very well. The fruits are usually a little larger than those of Bartlett. Except in one particular, the trees of Clapp Favorite are as nearly perfect as those of any variety in American orchards. The weak character, unfortunately, is a most important one, and all but debars the variety from some regions in which pear-growing is a large industry. The weakness is susceptibility to blight. No standard pear goes down so quickly as this one when blight is epidemic. Two good characters of the trees redeem the variety from failure because of blight.

[I attempted to grow the red sport of Clapp's Favorite, 'Starkrimson' in northern Georgia. It died miserably of fireblight before it produced much fruit. The few fruit it did produce were astringent and low quality, probably more due to the hot environment than the cultivar itself, given its good reputation for quality. I don't recommend it for the Southeastern U.S. -ASC]

After those of Flemish Beauty and Tyson, the trees of this variety show greater hardihood to cold than those of any other standard sort; and of all pears grown in America, Kieffer not excepted, the trees of Clapp Favorite are most fruitful. Other merits of the tree are large size, great vigor, longevity, and earliness and regularity in bearing. The variety shows a predilection for heavy soils, and the trees may be set on the heaviest clays. Clapp Favorite is grown satisfactorily on dwarf as well as standard stocks. The variety is a desirable one wherever pears are grown, and is one of the half-dozen leading sorts in New York.

Clapp Favorite was raised by Thaddeus Clapp, Dorchester, Massachusetts, but the date of its origin is uncertain. It was favorably mentioned as a promising new fruit at the meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1860. By some writers this pear is supposed to be a cross between Flemish Beauty and Bartlett, but this supposition cannot be proved. The variety was early introduced into England and France where it almost immediately received favorable commendation. The American Pomological Society first listed Clapp Favorite in its fruit-catalog in 1867.

Tree large, upright-spreading, round-topped, very productive; trunk stocky, rough; branches characteristically shaggy, zigzag, reddish-brown overspread with gray scarf-skin, marked by few small, roundish, raised lenticels; branchlets short, dull reddish-brown, tinged with green, smooth, glabrous, with few small, inconspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds medium in size, short, conical, pointed; leaf-scars prominent. Leaves 2½ in. long, 1½ in. wide, oval, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin glandular, finely serrate; petiole 2 in. long. Flower-buds large, conical, pointed, plump, free, arranged singly on short spurs and branches; flowers very showy, 1⅝ in. across, large, well distributed, averaging 7 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1 3/16 in. long, lightly pubescent.
Fruit ripe in late August and early September; large, 4 in. long, 3¼ in. wide, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, tapering slightly toward the apex, symmetrical; stem 1¼ in. long, very thick, curved, fleshy; cavity very shallow, narrow, lipped, with a fleshy ring around the stem; calyx large, open; lobes separated at the base, narrow, acuminate, usually erect and very stiff; basin shallow, wide, obtuse, corrugated and wrinkled; skin thick, tough, smooth, glossy; color pale lemon-yellow, mottled and dotted with bright red, deepening in highly colored specimens to a crimson blush, with occasional faint traces of russet; dots numerous, small, russet, conspicuous; flesh tinged with yellow, very granular and gritty at the center, tender and melting, buttery, juicy, sweet, rich, vinous, aromatic; quality very good. Core large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube long, narrow, funnel-shaped; seeds medium in size and width, plump.

[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

COLONEL WILDERCol. Wilder small

1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. Pt. 2. 119. 1875. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 2nd App. 146, fig. 1876. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 23. 1881. 4. Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 114. 1891.

Colonel Wilder originated in California and was once a favorite there, but is now reported as being little planted. At one time it was prominent in eastern orchards because of its late season and large, handsome, well-flavored fruits. The variety came in competition with Beurré d'Anjou, however, the season and fruits of the two being similar, but the trees of Colonel Wilder were so greatly outmatched by those of Beurré d'Anjou that this variety is less and less planted in the East. Perhaps it is worth preserving in pear collections for the sake of variety.

This pear originated from seed sown by Bernard S. Fox, San Jose, California, about 1870. It was named after Marshall P. Wilder, Boston, Massachusetts. Just prior to his death Mr. Fox, in a letter to the editor of the Rural Press, wrote of three pears, P. Barry, Fox, and Colonel Wilder, as follows: "The list of pears is already large, and, unless something extremely good is offered, there is no use adding to it. But, after many years of trial here and elsewhere, I claim now, that, at their respective times of ripening, there are no large pears superior to them in size, flavor, and good shipping qualities."

Tree medium in size, spreading and drooping, open-topped, hardy, an uncertain bearer; trunk shaggy; branches stocky, roughish, reddish-brown nearly covered with gray scarf-skin, marked with many lenticels; branchlets slender, willowy, light brown, with a slight reddish tinge, smooth, glabrous, with few small, slightly raised, obscure lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, sharply pointed, free or slightly appressed. Leaves 2¼ in. long, 1¼ in. wide, narrow, short, oval, leathery; apex abruptly pointed; margin glandless, finely serrate; petiole 2¼ in. long, slender, pale green or yellowish, sometimes with a tinge of pink; stipules light greenish-yellow, with a pink tinge, Flower-buds small, short, conical, plump, free, arranged singly on very short spurs; blossoms open very late; flowers 1¼ in. across, in dense clusters, 7 or 8 buds in a cluster; pedicels ½ in. long, pubescent, greenish.
Fruit in season, late December to February; large, 3 in. long, 2¼ in. wide, uniform in size, ribbed, oblong-obovate-pyriform, with unequal sides; stem ¾ in. long, thick, curved; cavity small, obtuse, shallow, narrow, furrowed, occasionally lipped; calyx large, open; lobes separated at the base, narrow, acute; basin shallow, narrow, abrupt, usually smooth, symmetrical; skin thick, tough, rough, dull; color light yellow, often with a faint orange-red blush on the exposed cheek, with nettings and markings of russet; dots numerous, small, grayish and russet-colored, conspicuous; flesh yellowish-white, granular around the core, melting, buttery, very juicy, sweet, aromatic, with a musky flavor; quality good. Core large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds wide, plump, acute.

['Colonel Wilder' on OHxF 333 rootstock fruited multiple years in North Carolina, however, ultimately the tree died from fireblight infection. The fruit that I managed to harvest was sprightly, but not excellent. The growth habit was terrible, as described above. As a source of alleles for late-ripening and late flowering it is recommended. However, I don't recommend it for sustained fruit production in the Southeast. -ASC]

COLUMBIA

1. Mag. Hort. 2:37. 1836. 2. Kenrick Am. Orch. 159. 1841. 3+ Mag.Hort. 9: 252, fig. 15. 1843. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 430, fig. 198. 1845. 5. Horticulturist 1:20, 480, fig. 9. 1846-47. 6. Hovey Fr. Am. 2:17, Pl. 1851. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 66. 1862. 8. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:589, fig. 1867. 9. Pom. France 4; No. 140, Pl. 140. 1867. 10. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 725. 1869.

Once a favorite in eastern United States, Columbia is planted now only in collections. The variety never was a leader as far north as the pear regions of New York and Massachusetts, but when pear-growing was being attempted in the southern states in the middle of the last century, before the advent of Kieffer, Garber, and Le Conte, Columbia was the most dependable sort for the South. The pears are not attractive in appearance, nor remarkably good in quality, but the trees are vigorous, healthy, and very fruitful, although they come in bearing late. The variety is above the average in both fruit and tree, and is too valuable to be discarded. This variety must not be confused with the Columbia now listed in many catalogs, the proper name of which is Barseck.

The original seedling grew on the farm of a Mr. Casser in Westchester County, thirteen miles from New York City. In 1835, Bloodgood and Company, nurserymen of Flushing, Long Island, secured fruit from the original tree, which was then fifteen inches in diameter, and sent it to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. Later, the variety was propagated and distributed by the Bloodgood Nursery. Columbia was added to the fruit-catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1862.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, very productive; trunk stocky, roughish; branches thick, rough, shaggy, dull brownish-red overspread with much gray scarf-skin, marked with roundish lenticels; branchlets short, light brown intermingled with green, dull, smooth, glabrous, with few very small, slightly raised, lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, conical, pointed, plump, usually appressed. Leaves 3¼ in. long, 1½ in. wide, long-oval, thin; apex abruptly pointed; margin finely serrate, usually tipped with very small glands; petiole 2¼ in. long. Flower-buds small, short, conical, pointed, plump, free, arranged singly on short spurs; blossoms late; flowers 1¾ in. across, very showy, in dense clusters, 9 to 12 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1⅛ in. long, very thick, pubescent, light green.
Fruit ripe from late November to January; large, 3 in. long, 2⅜ in. wide, uniform in size, oblong-obovate-pyriform, broad at the middle, unequal sides, uniform in general shape; stem 1 in. long, curved, thick; cavity obtuse, very shallow and narrow, smooth; calyx partly open, large; lobes narrow, acuminate; basin shallow, obtuse, wrinkled; skin thick, granular, tough, roughish, dull; color yellowish-green, frequently with a dotted, dull red blush on the exposed cheek; dots many, of various colors, conspicuous; flesh yellowish-white, firm, granular, rather tough, very juicy, sweet, aromatic and rich; quality good. Core large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube wide, conical; seeds narrow, very long, often flattened and abortive, acuminate.


DANA HOVEYdana small

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 48. 1891.
Dana's No. 16. 2. Mag. Hort. 19:541. 1853. 3. Ibid. 20:136. 1854.
Dana's Hovey. 4. Mag. Hort. 25:202, fig. 10. 1859. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 68. 1862. 6. Gard. Chron. 1191, fig. 1866. 7. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 730. 1869. 8. Hogg Fruit Man. 556. 1884. 9. Garden 49:226. 1896.
Danas Hovey. 10. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 47:67, fig. 39. 1910.

Dana Hovey is a delicious little dessert pear, so juicy, sweet, and rich that it is a veritable sweetmeat. The fruits are so similar to those of Seckel that the variety is sometimes called "Winter Seckel." Dana Hovey is one of the best pears to succeed Seckel. The fruits come in season about the middle of November and keep six weeks in ordinary storage. The flavor is that of Winter Nelis with a smack of Seckel. If the fruits are picked early and kept in a dry, cool place they ripen early in December with a rich, golden color strewn with russet. It is in the same class with Seckel as to size of fruit, although the pears average larger and are more uniform in size from different trees and in different seasons. The pears are also more brightly colored than those of Seckel. Superiority in size and color makes the fruits of this variety much more attractive than those of the better-known Seckel. The trees are hardy, vigorous, and thrive on various soils but are only moderately productive and are somewhat susceptible to blight, falling far short of those of Seckel in these characters, for which reason the last-named variety is the better for commercial plantations. Dana Hovey is one of few winter pears with fruits of high quality, and thus is very desirable for home plantations and ought to have value in commercial plantations.

Francis Dana, Roxbury, Massachusetts, was an indefatigable raiser of new fruits, there being no fewer than sixteen varieties of pears with the prefix "Dana's," of which the one under notice is the best of all. It was introduced to the public about 1854 under the name of Dana's Hovey in honor of C. M. Hovey, the well-known nurseryman of Boston and author of The Fruits of America. Dana Hovey is so similar to Seckel that the latter is supposed to be one of its parents. The variety was added to the American Pomological Society's fruit-list in 1862.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, rapid-growing, productive; trunk stocky; branches reddish-brown mingled with green which is almost completely overspread with gray scarf-skin, marked by few small lenticels; branchlets thick, short, light brown mingled with green, marked with ash-gray at the tips, smooth, glabrous, with small, scattering, slightly raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, pointed, plump, usually appressed. Leaves 3¼ in. long, 2⅛ in. wide, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin glandless or with few reddish glands, finely serrate; petiole short, stocky, ½ in. long, glabrous. Flower-buds short, conical but obtuse at the apex, plump, free, arranged singly on short spurs; flowers 1½ in. across, in dense clusters, average 8 buds in a cluster; pedicels ¾ in. long, slender, thinly pubescent.
Fruit matures in late October and November; medium in size, 2½ in. long, 2⅛ in. wide, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, symmetrical, uniform; stem ½ in. long, slender; cavity abrupt, shallow, very small, narrow, slightly lipped; calyx partly open, small; lobes short, narrow, acute; basin shallow, narrow, obtuse, smooth, symmetrical; skin thin, tender, smooth; color golden-yellow at maturity, covered with thin russet; dots numerous, small, greenish-russet; flesh tinged with yellow, granular at the center, tender and melting, juicy, sweet, highly perfumed; quality of the best. Core large, closed, abaxile; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds wide, short, plump, obtuse.

[Surprisingly, to me anyway, 'Dana Hovey' has been practically blight-free in my Southeastern orchards for over 20 years on multiple trees, rootstocks and locations. It tends towards a smaller size, even with judicious and early thinning, but the pears are excellent quality- buttery, fine-textured, sweet, juicy and sprightly. It has a reasonable growth habit and the pears ripen late and store well. We have eaten fantastic 'Dana Hovey' pears after New Year's after keeping them in a common refrigerator in a plastic bag in the crisper. I recommend at least trying 'Dana Hovey' for lovers of fine pears. It would be a challenge to grow it profitably commercially due to its finicky bearing habits. Photo of one of my 'Dana Hovey' pears in August 2008
and in June of the same year. -ASC]

DEARBORN

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1883. 2. Ont. Dept. Agr. Fr. Ont. 155. 1914.
Dearborn's Seedling. 3. Kenrick Am. Orch. 154. 1832. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 336, fig. 135. 1845. 5. Proc. Nat. Con. Fr. Gr. 51. 1848. 6. Hovey Fr. Am. 1:63, Pl. 1851. 7. Elliott Fr. Book 336. 1859. 8. Mas Le Verger 2:17, fig. 7. 1866-73. 9. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:7, fig. 1869.

Once a favorite, Dearborn is now nearly lost to cultivation, and few or no nurserymen grow the trees. It is too good a variety to be lost, however, because of splendid fruit- and tree-characters. The fruits ripen early and are of good quality, though hardly as richly flavored as those of Elizabeth which ripen at the same time. Unfortunately the pears run small, but they are attractive in shape and color. In season, the crop succeeds that of Bloodgood and precedes that of Bartlett. The trees are almost flawless, and therefore are well adapted to home orchards where fruits cannot receive the care of skilled hands. Besides being almost free from blight, the trees are hardy, vigorous, and very productive. The variety has many valuable qualities for a summer pear in home orchards.

This pear was found growing in a border of shrubs in 1818 at Brinley Place, Roxbury, Massachusetts, the home of General H. A. S. Dearborn.

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, tall, very productive; trunk stocky; branches thick, zigzag, reddish-brown partly covered with a heavy, gray scarf-skin, marked by many reddish-brown lenticels; branchlets slender, very long, with long internodes, older wood brown, new growth greenish, nearly covered with reddish-brown, mottled with ash-gray scarf-skin, smooth, glabrous becoming pubescent near the tips of the new growth, with numerous small, brownish, round, raised, conspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds very small, short, pointed, plump, free. Leaves 3 in. long, 1½ in. wide, thin; apex obtusely-pointed; margin with very fine dark tips, finely and shallowly serrate; petiole tinged red, 1¾ in. long, glabrous. Flower-buds small, short, conical, plump, free, arranged singly on short spurs; flowers showy, ¼ in. across, in dense clusters, 9 or 10 buds in a cluster; pedicels ¾ in. long, pubescent.
Fruit ripe in late August; small, 2 in. long, 2¼ in. wide, uniform, roundish-pyriform, with a slight neck, symmetrical, uniform; stem 1 in. long, slender; cavity obtuse, shallow, narrow, thinly russeted, often slightly lipped; calyx open, large; lobes separated at the base, narrow, acuminate; basin very shallow, obtuse, gently furrowed and wrinkled, symmetrical; skin thick, very tough, smooth, dull; color pale yellow, with russet specks; dots numerous, small, russet, conspicuous; flesh white, slightly granular at the center, tender and melting, very juicy, sweet but spicy, aromatic; quality good. Core large for the size of the fruit, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds large, wide, long, plump, acute.

[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

DORSET

1. Ellwanger & Barry Cat. 6, fig. 1895. 2. Ibid. 17, fig. 1900. 3. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 118. 1900. 4. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 220. 1902.

Dorset has been on probation in New York for twenty-five years, and its status is not yet decided. The fruits resemble those of Seckel in shape and color, but are larger and come in season later. These external resemblances to Seckel have given it the name "Late Seckel," which, however, is a misnomer, as a taste of the two fruits at once makes plain. Dorset is not nearly as richly flavored as Seckel. The tree-characters are all very good. Since there are few good late pears to follow Seckel, there may be a place for Dorset.

Dorset was raised from seed by Lemuel Clapp, Dorchester, Massachusetts, but the exact date of origin is unknown. The variety was introduced by Ellwanger and Barry, Rochester, New York, in 1895. During the next ten years it was placed on trial by several state experiment stations, and soon gained a reputation for the characters noted in the preceding paragraph.

Tree small, spreading, very productive, a regular bearer; trunk slender, shaggy; branches slender, smooth, reddish-brown mingled with dull ash-gray, marked with many large lenticels; branchlets slender, dark brown, smooth, glabrous, with large, raised, lenticels.
Leaf-buds medium to small, conical, pointed, free. Leaves 3 in. long, ½ in. wide, oval, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin crenate; petiole ¾ in. long, slender. Flower-buds large, long, conical, pointed, free; blossoms open very early; flowers often 1⅜ in. across, showy, in dense clusters, from 8 to 12 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1 in. or less in length, pubescent, greenish.
Fruit matures in December; medium in size, 2¾ in. long, 2½ in. wide, uniform in size and shape, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, with unequal sides; stem ¾ in. long, curved, cavity almost lacking, obtuse, shallow, narrow, furrowed, compressed, often lipped; calyx open; lobes separated at the base, long, acute; basin narrow, obtuse or often quite abrupt, gently furrowed; skin thick, smooth; color dull greenish-yellow, marked with a dull bronze-red blush on the exposed cheek; dots many, small, grayish and russet, conspicuous; flesh yellowish-white, firm, granular at the center, tender, very juicy, very sweet and aromatic; quality good. Core closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds large, wide, long, plump, acute, broad at the base.


DOUGLAS

1. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 63. 1908-09. 2. Rural N. Y. 70:59, fig. 24. 1911. 3. U.S.D.A. Yearbook 267, Pl. 4. 1912. 4. Rural N. Y. 72:458, fig. 146. 1913. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 41, 42. 1915.

In regions where blight and heat make pear-growing precarious, and only pears with oriental blood, as Kieffer, Garber, and Le Conte, can be grown, Douglas, which belongs with the pears just named, might well be tried. Certainly it is better in flavor than any other variety of its class. The trees come in bearing remarkably early, and are as productive as those of Kieffer, though hardly as large or as vigorous. The trees are inclined to overbear, in which case the fruits run small. The variety has little to recommend it for New York, but those who grow Kieffer might put it on probation with the hope of growing a fruit passably fair for dessert.

Douglas is a seedling of Kieffer crossed, it is believed, with Duchesse d'Angoulême by O. H. Ayer, Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas, about the year 1897. It fruited first in 1902 and attracted the attention of A. H. Griesa, also of Lawrence, who propagated it in 1907, and sent out specimens of it for appraisement in October, 1910, when it was very favorably reported on by many prominent horticulturists. In accordance with Mr. Griesa's suggestion, it was named Douglas after the county of its origin.

Tree medium in size and vigor, upright, very productive; trunk slender, smooth; branches slender, dull brownish-red, mottled with gray scarf-skin; branchlets medium in thickness and length, smooth, glabrous, sprinkled with numerous raised, conspicuous lenticels. Leaf-buds large, long, pointed, plump, free; leaf-scars prominent. Leaves 3¼ in. long, 1½ in. wide, thick; apex taper-pointed; margin glandless, finely and shallowly serrate; petiole 1⅝ in. long. Flower-buds large, long, conical, plump, free; flowers 1¼ in. across, white or occasionally with a faint tinge of pink, 11 or 12 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1⅝ in. long.
Fruit matures in October; large, 3¼ in. long, 2¾ in. wide, obovate-pyriform, tapering at both ends like the Kieffer; stem 1⅝ in. long, slender; cavity deep, narrow, compressed, often lipped; calyx small, partly open; basin furrowed; skin thick, tough; color pale yellow, heavily dotted and sometimes flecked with russet; dots numerous, small, light russet or greenish; flesh tinged with yellow, firm but tender, granular, very juicy, sweet yet with an invigorating flavor; quality good. Core closed, axile; calyx-tube short, wide; seeds long, plump, acute.

[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

DOYENNÉ D'ALENÇON

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 213. 1856. 2. Ibid. 231. 1858. 3. Ann. Pom. Belge 8:15, Pl. 1860. 4. Pom. France 2: No. 47, Pl. 47. 1864. 5. Mas Le Verger 1:23, fig. 10. 1866-73. 6. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 742. 1869. 7. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:55, fig. 1869. 8. Jour. Hort. N. S. 20:135. 1871. 9. Guide Prat. 6r, 264. 1876. 10. Hogg Fruit Man. 564. 1884.
Marmorirte Schmalzbirne. 11. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:65. 1856.
Dechantsbirne von Alençon. 12. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 201. 1889.

This old French pear is worth planting, if the trees can be obtained, because of its very late fruits and long season. The pears come in season under ordinary conditions in December and keep until March. The fruits are not remarkable for either taste or appearance, but are good for a winter product when there is little competition with other varieties. The pears are admirably adapted for culinary purposes. In some seasons the pears fail to ripen, and the variety should be planted only on warm soils and in situations where the season is warm and long. Tree and fruit have a family resemblance to Easter Beurré; the latter, however, is generally a better pear than this one. This variety is much grown in Europe on the quince, and in the various fanciful forms Europeans make use of in training fruit trees.

Doyenné d'Alençon is reported to be a wilding discovered by the Abbé Malassis near Alençon, Orne, France, and propagated by M. Thuillier, a nurseryman at Alençon. There was, however, a pear of the same name and season found at Orleans in 1628, in the orchard of Le Lectier, the renowned pomologist. It is probable that the pear which M. Thuillier propagated was the one found many years previously by Le Lectier. The variety must have been introduced into America between 1840 and 1850, as it was mentioned by the American Pomological Society in 1856 as one of the promising new pears. In 1858, the Society added the variety to its fruit-catalog, but discontinued recommending it in 1897.

Tree medium in size and vigor, upright, dense-topped, productive; trunk thick, shaggy; branches stocky, reddish-brown lightly covered with gray scarf-skin; branchlets slender, curved, short, with short internodes, light brown, with a faint reddish tinge, smooth, pubescent near the tips of the new growth, with numerous small, raised, conspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, sharply pointed, plump, free; leaf-scars with prominent shoulders. Leaves 2¾ in. long, 1⅛ in. wide, thin; apex taper-pointed; margin with few glands, coarsely serrate; petiole 2¾ in. long, glabrous, with tinge of red, slender. Flower-buds small, short, conical, plump, free, arranged singly on short spurs; flowers early, 1¼ in. across, in dense clusters, average 9 buds in a cluster; pedicels ⅝ in. long, lightly pubescent.
Fruit ripe December to February; 2⅞ in. long, 2⅜ in. wide, medium in size, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, symmetrical, uniform; stem ¾ in. long, thick, curved; cavity obtuse, shallow, symmetrical, often slightly lipped, small; calyx open, large; lobes not separated at the base, broad, narrow; basin narrow, abrupt, smooth, symmetrical; skin very thick, tough, roughish; color dull greenish-yellow, with a faint orange blush on the exposed cheek, marked with many brown and russet dots and netted with russet; dots numerous, small, brownish-russet, inconspicuous; flesh tinged with yellow, granular at the center, tender and melting, juicy, aromatic, with a lively vinous flavor; quality good. Core large, closed, axile, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds large, wide, long, plump, acute.

DOYENNÉ BOUSSOCK

1. Hovey Fr. Am. 1:31, Pl. 1851. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 210. 1856. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 742, fig. 1869.
Doyenné Boussock Nouvelle. 4. Kenrick Am. Orch. 143. 1841.
Beurré de Mérode. 5. Ann. Pom. Belge 5:81, Pl. 1857.
Doyenné de Mérode. 6. Pom. France 2: No. 86, Pl. 86. 1864. 8. Guide Prat. 64, 266. 1876. 7. Mas Le Verger 3: Pt. I, 171, fig. 84. 1866-73. [Yes, 8 comes before 7 in this list, as written in the book. -ASC]
Doyenné Boussoch. 9. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:58, fig. 1869. 10, Hogg Fruit Man. 564. 1884.
Boussock. 11. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1883.
Doppelte Philippsbirne. 12. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 204. 1889. 13. Gaucher Pom. Prak. Obst. No. 33, Pl. 61. 1894.

This old Belgian pear is a leader in the second rank of commercial pears in this country. If the fruits were better in quality and kept a little longer, the variety would take rank among the best commercial pears, for the fruits are handsome and the trees are nearly flawless. As the color-plate shows, there are few pears more attractive than this one, but the briskly acid flavor is not pleasing to many, and the fruits become soft at the center soon after ripening. The pears are above medium in size and are sometimes large or very large. The seeds are often abortive. The trees are very large and vigorous, as hardy as those of any other pear to cold, less susceptible to blight than most of their orchard associates, and are remarkable for their prominent buds and large, thick, glossy-green leaves, which turn deep red in the autumn. On some soils the trees do not hold their crop well, and it is always best to plant them where there is some protection against heavy winds. The trees are prodigious bearers, and fruit regularly, characters which make the variety desirable for local markets.

This pear is supposed to have been raised by Van Mons at the beginning of the nineteenth century. It was placed on sale at Brussels about 1819. The variety was first given the name Doyenné de Mérode in honor of the Comte de Mérode of Waterloo, Belgium. In 1836, however, the name was changed to Doyenné Boussock. The catalog of the Horticultural Society of London shows that it was received in England in 1842. William Kenrick, on his return from Europe in the spring of 1841, brought the variety to America. In 1856 the American Pomological Society added this pear to its fruit-list.

Tree very large, vigorous, upright-spreading, tall, hardy, productive; trunk thick, shaggy; branches stocky, shaggy, grayish-brown; branchlets long, with long internodes, light brown tinged with red, overspread with ash-gray, smooth, glabrous, with few elongated, raised, inconspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, sharply pointed, plump, free; leaf-scars with prominent shoulders. Leaves 3½ in. long, 1⅞ in. wide, leathery; apex abruptly pointed; margin very finely serrate; petiole 1½ in. long, slender. Flower-buds small, long and narrow, conical, free, singly on very short spurs; flowers early, showy, 1⅝ in. across, in dense clusters, average 8 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1⅛ in. long, thick, pubescent.
Fruit ripe in September; large, 3 in. long, 2¾ in. wide, uniform, obtuse-obovate-pyriform, symmetrical; stem 1 in. long, very thick; cavity obtuse, rather shallow, broad, often russeted, furrowed, lipped; calyx large, open; lobes separated at the base, broad, acute; basin shallow, wide, obtuse, gently furrowed and wrinkled; skin thin, tender, smooth except for the russet nettings; color pale yellow, occasionally with a mottled pinkish-red blush on the exposed cheek, more or less netted with russet; dots numerous, small, russet, conspicuous; flesh white, tender and melting, buttery, very juicy, briskly acid; quality good. Core large, closed, axile, with meeting core-lines; calyx-tube very short, wide, broadly conical; seeds black, narrow, long, flattened, often abortive.

[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

DOYENNÉ DU COMICEcomice small

1. Mag. Hort. 18:168, fig. 16. 1852. 2. Ann. Pom. Belge 8:47, Pl. 1860. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 68. 1862. 4. Pom. France 2: No. 58, Pl. 58. 1864. 5. Mas Le Verger 3: Pt. 1, 7, fig. 2. 1866-73. 6. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 744, fig. 1869. 7. Jour. Hort. N. S. 17:440, fig. 1869. 8. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:60, fig. 1869. 9. Hogg Fruit Man. 565. 1884. 10. Rev. Hort. 447, Pl. 1908.
Beurré Robert. 11. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:418, fig. 1867. 12. Ibid. 2:775. 1869.
Comice. 13. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1883.
Vereins Dechantsbirne. 14. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 293. 1889. 15. Gaucher Pom. Prak. Obst. No. 68, Pl. 36. 1894. 16. Deut. Obstsorten 5: Pt. 14, Pl. 1909.

This pear has been esteemed long and justly for the beauty and high quality of its fruits. If its tree-characters were better the variety would take high place in commercial orcharding as well as for the home orchard, to which it is now almost wholly confined. The fruits are very large, smooth except for russet markings, clear handsome yellow at maturity, sometimes brightened by a delicate blush, with yellow, fine-grained flesh which is tender, melting, very juicy, sweet, piquant, perfumed. The quality is so good that the fruits of this variety are called by many the best of all pears. The list of faults for the trees is as long as the list of merits for the fruits. The young trees make a poor growth in the nursery; young or old, the trees must be humored in soil, climate, and care; they are subject to blight; while usually productive, they are not always so even where vigorous, healthy, and hardy; lastly, they are a little below the average in hardihood to cold. The variety is seldom at home in New York, but where it thrives, as on the Pacific slope, it is a valuable commercial pear, and is always worthy a place in the home orchard or in the collection of the pear-fancier. In Europe, it is reported as doing especially well on the quince.

The parent tree of Doyenné du Comice was taken from the first seed bed made in the fruit-garden of the Comice Horticole, Angers, Department of Maine-et-Loire, France. In November, 1849, it produced its first fruit, which was at once so highly esteemed that it was named Doyenné du Comice. It was placed on the market with unusual promptitude and rapidly distributed in foreign lands, reaching America about 1850. The variety was recommended for general cultivation by the American Pomological Society in 1862.

Tree vigorous, characteristically upright, dense, usually productive; branches smooth, dull gray mingled with greenish-brown, marked with large lenticels; branchlets long, brown tinged with red, glabrous, with many small, slightly raised, conspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds large, medium to long, conical, pointed, nearly free; leaf-scars prominent. Leaves 3¼ in. long, 1½ in. wide, oval, leathery; margin finely serrate; petiole 2 in. long. Flower-buds short, conical, free; blossoms open late; flowers 1¼ in. across, in dense clusters, about 8 buds in a cluster; pedicels ⅞ in. long, slender, pubescent, light green.
Fruit ripe in late October and November; large, 3 in. long, 2¾ in. wide, obovate-obtuse-pyriform or roundish, with unequal sides; stem 1¼ in. long, very thick, usually curved; cavity obtuse, shallow, narrow, russeted and wrinkled, often with a fleshy ring around the base of the stem; calyx open; lobes separated at the base, long, narrow, acuminate; basin medium to wide, obtuse, often furrowed; skin tough and granular, smooth except for the russet markings, dull; color clear yellow, often with a very faint russet-red blush on the exposed cheek, the surface heavily covered with large patches and nettings of attractive russet; dots many, very small, dark brown, obscure; flesh tinged strongly with yellow, fine-grained near the outside but granular toward the core, melting, tender, buttery, very juicy, sweet and vinous, aromatic; quality very good to best. Core closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds large, wide, long, rather plump, acute, often abortive.

[I have fruited Comice in the Southeast, though it is not recommended due to slow and shy bearing and susceptibility to fireblight. The pears were large, as you find in the stores, but were inferior to several other cultivars that are better suited. -ASC]

DUCHESSE D'ANGOULÊME

1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 171. 1832. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 381. 1845. 3. Ann. Pom. Belge 1:21, Pl. 1853. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 68. 1862. 5. Pom, France 1: No. 17, Pl. 17. 1863. 6. Mas Le Verger 3: Pt. 2, 79, fig. 136. 1866-73. 7. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:98, figs. 1869. 8. Jour. Hort. N. S. 24:26. 1873. 9. Guide Prat. 59, 267. 1876. 10. Hist. Mass. Hort. Soc. 1829-78. 224. 1880. 11. Hogg Fruit Man. 569. 1884.
Duchess of Angoulême. 12. Lindley Guide Orch. Card. 371. 1831.
Angouleme. 13. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1883.
Herzogin von Angoulême. 14. Gaudier Pom. Prak. Obst. No. 46, Pl. 43. 1894.

The fruits of Duchesse d'Angoulême excite admiration and wonder by their enormous size. They may always be known by their great size, squat pyriform shape, and uneven knobby surfaces. Well grown, the pears have other virtues than size, as the flesh is buttery and melting with a rich and delicious flavor; but poorly grown, and on unfavorable soils, the flesh is granular, coarse-grained, but half-melting and nearly devoid of the richness that characterizes the fruits in happier situations. Size shrinks also when poorly grown, so that one may say that a small pear of this variety is seldom fit for dessert and too insipid for a good product in cookery. The trees are vigorous, hardy, and healthy, bear abundantly under favorable conditions, and succeed either as a standard or a dwarf. Possibly it is best grown as a dwarf, and in America at least is more often worked on the dwarfing quince than on the pear. In fact, this variety is the favorite dwarf-pear for garden and home orchard, and commercial orchards of dwarfed trees of it are not uncommon. On either stock, the tree makes a beautiful, symmetrical pyramid, comes in bearing early, and bears regularly. This variety is more popular in New York than in any other part of America, and while less planted than formerly, is still regarded as a standard late autumn variety. It is a particularly desirable sort for the pear-fancier.

The original tree of Duchesse d'Angoulême was a wilding growing in a garden near Angers, Maine-et-Loire, France. About 1808, M. Audusson, a nurseryman at Angers, appreciating the beauty and excellent quality of the pear, obtained the right to propagate it. In 1812 he began selling trees of the variety under the name of "Poire des Eparonnais." In 1820, M. Audusson sent a basket of the fruit to the Duchesse d'Angoulême with a request for permission to name the pear in her honor, a request which was granted. At the exhibition of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society held in 1830, Samuel G. Perkins showed a specimen which measured eleven and three-tenths inches. It was the only one that grew on the tree, and was considered to be the first fruit of this variety produced in America. The American Pomological Society added Duchesse d'Angoulême to its catalog-list of fruits in 1862.

Tree medium in size, vigorous, upright-spreading, dense-topped, slow-growing, usually hardy, productive; trunk thick; branches stocky, shaggy, zigzag, dull reddish-brown overspread with scarf-skin, marked with small lenticels; branchlets thick, short, dull light brown, streaked with gray scarf-skin, smooth, glabrous, with many small, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, conical, pointed, nearly free; leaf-scars prominent. Leaves 2¾ in long, 1⅝ in. wide, oval, thick, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin marked with minute dark brown glands, crenate or nearly entire; petiole 1¾ in. long. Flower-buds large, long, conical, plump, free, arranged singly or in small clusters on short branches and spurs; flowers 1⅜ in. across, 7 or 8 buds in each cluster; pedicels 1 in. long, slender, lightly pubescent, greenish.
Fruit ripe October to November; large, often very large, 4 in. long, 3 in. wide, uniform in size, oblong-obovate-pyriform, with irregular and uneven surface and with sides often unequal; stem frequently 1½ in. long, very thick, curved; cavity acute, deep, furrowed, irregular, often lipped; calyx partly open, small; lobes short, narrow, acute; basin medium to deep, abrupt, furrowed and uneven, often corrugated; skin thick, granular, roughened with russet; color dull yellow, streaked, spotted and netted with dull russet; dots numerous, russet, conspicuous; flesh white, firm becoming somewhat melting and quite tender when fully mature, granular, juicy, sweet, rich and delicious when fully mature; quality good to very good. Core closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds small, narrow, flat, acute, very often abortive.

[After several failed attempts in Georgia and one North Carolina orchard, I finally fruited Duchess in North Carolina. This tree, on OHxF#513, is less than 10 years old, but has shown no significant blight and produced some very nice pears. That said, the texture of the flesh is a bit coarser than the best pears and the flavor not as rich. It's worth a try for the adventurous in the Southeastern U.S. -ASC]
[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

DUCHESSE D'ORLÈANS

1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 143. 1841. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 68. 1862. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am, 749. 1869. 4. Hogg Fruit Man. 570. 1884.
Duchess of Orleans. 5. Hovey Fr. Am. 1:91, Pl. 1851.
Saint-Nicolas. 6. Pom. France 1: No. 33, Pl. 33. 1863. 7. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 343, fig. 1906.
Beurré de Saint-Nicolas. 8. Mas Le Verger 3: Pt. 1, 137, fig. 67. 1866-73. 9. Leroy Dict. Pom. 11426, fig. 1867.
Butterbirne von Saint-Nicolas. 10. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 191. 1889.

In the middle of the last century this pear was heralded as one of the best of the French varieties which were then coming to this country in great numbers, but it is now almost lost to cultivation. While in no way remarkable, the variety is too valuable to be discarded. As the color-plate shows, the fruits are prepossessing in appearance. The pears are bright yellow, with a brilliant cheek, the whole fruit being more or less mottled with golden russet. Few pears are smoother of skin or more symmetrical in shape, and the fruits are more uniform in size than those of most varieties. The quality, as well as the appearance, is pleasing. While the flesh is a little dry and not as rich in flavor as that of most other varieties of its season, it is so crisp and refreshingly piquant in contrast to the sweeter, buttery pears with which it ripens, its season being just after that of Bartlett, that the variety finds favor with all who like pears. The variety fails in its tree-characters. Thus, the trees are late in coming in bearing; are not very vigorous; are somewhat tender to cold; and do not resist blight well. The variety has little value for commercial places, but if the trees can be obtained, is well worth planting in the home orchard.

This pear is a chance seedling found by M. Maurier near Angers, Maine-et-Loire, France, nearly a century ago. It was propagated by M. Flon, a nurseryman of Angers and fruited first in 1839. In England and America the variety has been chiefly known as Duchesse d'Orleans, but many French horticulturists have used the name Saint-Nicolas. The variety was added to the fruit-catalog list of the American Pomological Society in 1862, but was dropped from the list in 1871.

Tree medium in size and vigor, spreading, moderately productive; trunk slender, shaggy; branches medium in thickness and smoothness, reddish-brown partly overspread with thin gray scarf-skin, with few indistinct lenticels; branchlets short, with short inter-nodes, light brownish-red mingled with green and partly covered with thin, gray scarf-skin, dull, smooth, glabrous, with conspicuous, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds long, narrow, sharply pointed, plump, free. Leaves 3 in. long, 1½ in. wide; apex taper-pointed; margin tipped with small, brownish glands, coarsely serrate; petiole 2 in. long, glabrous, reddish-green. Flower-buds long, conical, sharply pointed, free, singly on numerous short spurs; flowers showy, 1⅜ in.across, in dense clusters, average 7 buds in a cluster, the petals widely separated at the base; pedicels 7/16 in. long, slender, lightly pubescent.
Fruit matures in late September and October; medium in size, 2⅞ in. long, 2¼ in. wide, obovate-acute-pyriform, symmetrical; stem 1 in. long, thick; cavity lacking, the flesh drawn up in a symmetrical fold about the stem; calyx small, open; lobes separated at the base, narrow, acute; basin very shallow, narrow, obtuse, smooth or slightly wrinkled; skin thin, tender, smooth; color yellow overlaid with a red blush, faintly mottled with golden russet; dots numerous, whitish or russet, conspicuous; flesh tinged with yellow, firm, granular, crisp, juicy, subacid; quality good. Core small, closed, axile, with meeting core-lines; calyx-tube short, conical; seeds long, plump, acute.

DUHAMEL DU MONCEAU

1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:114, fig. 1869. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am, 2nd App. 146, fig. 1876. 3. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 118. 1881.
Duhamel's Butterbirne. 4. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 207. 1889.
Duhamel. 5. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:241. 1903.

The unattractive little fruits of this pear would have small value were it not for the fact that they are delicious in quality and come into edible condition late. The fruits are of the type of those of Winter Nelis, differing in shape somewhat, but are even better in quality and keep longer. The fruits are further distinguished by a musky taste and perfume, which make them especially agreeable to those who like rich, sweet, perfumed pears. The trees, while in no characters remarkable, are better than most of their orchard associates, and far superior to the unmanageable trees of Winter Nelis with which this variety must compete. After a probationary period of a half century in America, Duhamel du Monceau has not found favor with commercial orchardists, but pear fanciers value it for its delectable late-keeping fruits. Nurserymen find the trees rather difficult to grow.

Duhamel du Monceau was obtained from seed by Andr6 Leroy, the eminent author and pomologist at Angers, France. In naming the variety, M. Leroy said that his purpose was to do honor to the memory of the illustrious professor who filled an important place in pomology, and who, in giving us the Traite des arbres fruitiers published in 1768, rendered and still renders valuable services to horticulturists. The original tree began to fruit in 1862 and was cataloged by Leroy in 1865. The variety seems to have been described first in America by Downing in 1876.

Tree vigorous, upright, dense, hardy; trunk stocky; branches thick, zigzag, dull brownish-red, covered with ash-gray scarf-skin, marked with numerous large lenticels; branchlets very thick, short, with short internodes, brownish-red, tinged with green, dull, smooth, glabrous, with many conspicuous, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds long, obtuse, appressed; leaf-scars prominent. Leaves 3 in. long, 1⅞ in. wide, long, folded lengthwise with the margins curled under, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin entire or coarsely crenate; petiole 2 in. long, slender. Flower-buds large, long, conical, plump, free, singly on short spurs; blossoms open late; flowers 1 in. across, well distributed, averaging 7 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1 3/16 in. long, slender, pubescent, pale green.
Fruit ripe October to November; above medium in size, 3⅛ in. long, 2½ in. wide, uniform in size, roundish-pyriform or at times oblong-pyriform, symmetrical, with equal sides; stem 1 in. long, slightly curved, thick; cavity lacking, the stem being attached to the smooth, flat surface; calyx open; lobes separated at the base, short, obtuse or acute; basin shallow, obtuse, gently furrowed, small; skin thin, tender, roughened by the russet skin, dull; color greenish-yellow overspread with solid russet, or splashed, spotted and sprinkled with russet, the cheek often solid russet; dots many, small, russet, obscure because of the russet color, slightly raised; flesh yellowish-white, granular especially around the core, melting, buttery, very juicy, vinous; quality very good. Core variable in size, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds elongated-oval, wide, plump, acute.

EARLY HARVEST

1. Neb. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 129. 1890. 2. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:243. 1903.
Chambers. 3. Horticulturist 25:263, fig. 1870. 4. Tilton Jour. Hort. 8:293. 1870. 5. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 157. 1874. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 32, 1875. 7. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 3rd App. 174. 1881. 8. Can. Hort. 26:130. 1903. 9. Ont. Dept. Agr. Fr. Ont. 151, fig. 1914.

The fruits of Early Harvest are so poor in quality and rot at the core so soon after ripening, that the variety is hardly worth growing in New York, where there are many better pears of its season. To offset these defects, the pears are large and handsome for early fruits, and the trees are healthy and regular and heavy bearers. The pear is characterized by a thick, fleshy stem and a large closed core. Nurserymen report that the tree is difficult to propagate, and fruit-growers find that it is slow in coming in bearing; the growth is usually straggling and difficult to manage in nursery or orchard. The variety is more popular in the Middle West than in any other part of the country.


This variety appears to have been brought to Middletown, Kentucky, from Maryland by Captain William Chambers about 1800, with several other varieties. According to the rules of pomological nomenclature, this pear should be called Chambers as it was first known. The name Early Harvest was given the variety by Kentucky growers because of its extreme earliness, and became so closely associated with the variety that to-day it is the only one with which the public is familiar. In 1875 this variety was added to the fruit catalog-list of the American Pomological Society under the name Chambers.

Tree large, very vigorous, upright-spreading, dense-topped, very hardy, productive with age, long-lived; trunk very stocky, shaggy; branches thick, shaggy, zigzag, dull reddish-brown mingled with green and heavily covered with grayish scarf-skin, marked with numerous, large, elongated lenticels; branchlets very thick, straight, long, with long inter-nodes, dull olive-green mingled with light brown, smooth, glabrous, with numerous very conspicuous, raised lenticels, variable in size.
Leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, appressed; leaf-scars prominent. Leaves 3⅛ in. long, 2⅜ in. wide; apex very-abruptly pointed; margin glandless, varying from finely serrate to entire; petiole 1⅝ in. long, slender. Flowers open early, showy, 1⅛ in. across, well distributed, average 7 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1 in. long, thinly pubescent.
Fruit ripens in August; large, 3½ in. long, 3 in. wide, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, symmetrical; stem very thick, fleshy at its juncture with the cavity; cavity obtuse, shallow, narrow, often slightly wrinkled and drawn up in fleshy folds around the base of the stem; calyx small, open; lobes short, obtuse; basin shallow, narrow, obtuse, slightly wrinkled; skin thin, smooth; color pale yellow, more or less overspread on the exposed cheek with a pinkish blush, with stripes of carmine; dots numerous, small, greenish-russet, obscure; flesh yellowish, firm, granular, crisp, somewhat tough, variable in juiciness; quality poor. Core large, closed, axile, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube very long, narrow; seeds wide, short, plump, obtuse.

EASTER BEURRÉ

1. Pom. Mag. 2:78, Pl. 1829. 2. Lindley Guide Orch. Card. 397. 1831. 3. Kenrick Am. Orch. 160. 1841. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 425, fig. 196. 1845. 5. Gard. Chron. 168, fig. 1845. 6. Mag. Hort. 16:73. 1850. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 157. 1854. 8. Ibid. 66. 1862. 9. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 751, fig. 1869. 10. Hogg Fruit Man. 572. 1884. 11. Ont. Dept. Agr. Fr. Ont. 159, figs. 1914.
Bergamote de la Pentecôte. 12. Ann. Pom. Belge 4:41, Pl. 1856.
Doyenné d'Hiver. 13. Mas Le Verger 1:43, fig. 28. 1866-73. 14. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:72, fig. 1869. 15. Guide Prat. 61, 265. 1876.
Beurré Rouppé. 16. Mas Pom. Gen. 4:87, fig. 236, 1879.
Winter Dechantsbirne. 17. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 300. 1889. 18. Gaucher Pom. Prak. Obst. No. 71, Pl. 34. 1894.

The fruit-books of Europe have so much to say in praise of Easter Beurré that the variety has been tried time and time again in America, but nearly always with unfavorable results. The variety grows well only in comparatively warm climates and on light, warm, limy soils, and refuses to ripen its crop in any others. There are occasional places in eastern America where Easter Beurré can be well grown, but for most part it is at home only on the Pacific slope. The fruits are of first rate excellence when at their best, and add much to the winter supply of pears, the product of few other winter pears surpassing that of this sort from January to March in regions where it does well. The pears are excellent shippers, keep well in common or cold storage, so that where the variety succeeds it is valuable for home, and distant and foreign markets. The trees are in every way satisfactory except that they bloom a little earlier than other sorts, and are somewhat more susceptible to the scab fungus in both fruit and foliage than a commercial variety should be. Although a little too susceptible to blight, the trees are above the average in immunity, and are hardy, vigorous, and productive. The variety is well worth planting in soils and climates where the crop matures properly.

In the gardens of the Capucin Monastery at Louvain, Belgium, there was, about 1823, an old pear tree known to the monks as the Pastorale de Louvain, which attracted the attention of Van Mons. He propagated the pear and in due course distributed it. By the year 1853, it was to be found pretty generally in the gardens of Belgium under the name of Pastorale. Since that time it has been very widely disseminated, but unfortunately has received a confusing variety of names, Leroy mentioning twenty-four and Mathieu fifty-five. The leading authorities, however, of England and this country have uniformly adopted the name Easter Beurré. It was received in the former country soon after its first dissemination, and it was brought to this country not later than 1837. Since 1862, Easter Beurré has appeared in the list of pears recommended for general cultivation by the American Pomological Society.

Tree medium in size, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped, slow-growing, hardy; branches reddish-brown overspread with gray scarf-skin, sprinkled with inconspicuous lenticels; branchlets variable in length, with short internodes, greenish-brown mingled with red, rough, glabrous, with small, round, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, very short, obtuse, free. Leaves 2⅛ in. long, 1⅛ in. wide, thin; apex abruptly pointed; margin finely serrate, the teeth very short, tipped with red; petiole 2 in. long, slender. Flower-buds small, short, conical, plump, free, singly on short spurs; flowers 1¼ in. across, occasionally tinged with pink in the bud, becoming white when open, well distributed, average 9 buds in a cluster; pedicels ¾ in. long, slender, pubescent.
Fruit in season late December to February; 3 in. long, 2⅜ in. wide, obovate-pyriform, with a short, thick neck; stem ¾ in. long, thick, woody; cavity acute, very deep, narrow, furrowed, uneven, compressed; calyx open; lobes narrow, acute; basin deep, narrow, abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled; skin thick, tough, roughened by the dots, the surface uneven; color yellow, marked with many russet dots and with patches and veinings of russet, often with a dull brownish-red blush; dots numerous, small, very conspicuous, russet; flesh tinged with yellow, granular near the center and toward the calyx, tender and melting, juicy, buttery, sweet, with a rich, pleasant flavor, very aromatic; quality very good. Core large, closed, axile, with meeting core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds large, wide, long, plump, acute.

[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

ELIZABETH

1. Mag. Hort. 8:57. 1842. 2. Ibid. 13:63, fig. 6. 1847. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:126, fig. 1869. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 23. 1897.
Manning's Elizabeth. 5. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 385. 1845. 6. Hovey Fr. Am. 2:41, Pl. 1851. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 231. 1854. 8. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 810, fig. 1869.
Elizabeth de Manning. 9. Mas Le Verger 2:105, fig. 51. 1866-73. 10. Guide Prat. 93, 269. 1876.
Nina. 11. Hogg Fruit Man. 623. 1884. 12. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 258. 1889.

Elizabeth is among the best summer pears for eastern America, either for home consumption or for the markets. The characters which commend it are: handsome, well-flavored fruits; and vigorous, hardy, productive trees, which are as resistant to blight as those of any other European pear, and which come in bearing early and bear annually. Faults are: the fruits are small, a fault that can be overcome somewhat by thinning; they are a little coarse in texture of flesh, which is a little too gritty; and the flavor, while good for an early pear, is not as sweet and rich as might be desired. The trees are nearly flawless, failing, if at all, in not attaining as great size as some other inhabitants of pear orchards. The crop is often borne in clusters a defect by reason of which the fruits are so often small. But even with these defects, we must end as we began with the statement that this is one of the best summer pears.

In the year 1819, Van Mons established his famous nursery at Louvain, Belgium, and in the years 1830 and 1831 he sent from there two consignments of pear cions to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, both of which were unfortunately lost in turn on the way. Three years later, Kenrick, Manning, and Dearborn, Massachusetts horticulturists, requested him to forward another collection. In the successive springs of 1835 and 1836, he sent two more collections which safely arrived in due course, though a large proportion of the cions died. These collections comprised originally about 150 named and 100 seedling unnamed varieties, and Van Mons granted Manning permission to name any of the latter that might prove worthy of cultivation. No. 154 of these, Mr. Manning named Elizabeth {Van Mons). Later on it was disseminated as Manning's Elizabeth, and soon after the name was shortened to Elizabeth. The variety was placed in the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society in 1854.

Tree small, upright, dense-topped, hardy, very productive; trunk slender; branches brownish-green, partly overspread with thin, gray scarf-skin, marked by conspicuous, oval lenticels; branchlets slender, long, reddish-brown mingled with green, new growth exceptionally red, dull, smooth, glabrous except on the younger wood, with obscure, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, pointed, plump, free. Leaves 3 in. long, 1½ in. wide, stiff; apex variable; margin almost entire; petiole 2 in. long, slender, reddish-green; stipules very small and slender when present. Flower-buds small, short, conical, plump, free, singly on short spurs; flowers early, showy, 1⅝ in. across, in dense clusters, average 8 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1 in. long, lightly pubescent.
Fruit ripe in late August; small, 2⅜ in. long, 2½ in. wide, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, symmetrical, uniform; stem 1 in. long, thick, curved; cavity acuminate, shallow, narrow, symmetrical, often lipped; calyx large, almost closed; lobes separated at the base, short, narrow, acuminate; basin shallow, obtuse, gently furrowed and wrinkled; skin tough, characteristically rough, glossy; color bright yellow, with a lively, red cheek, mottled with brownish, minute specks; dots numerous, very small, conspicuous, russet or brown; flesh tinged with yellow, slightly granular under the skin, strongly granular at the center, tender and melting, very juicy, sweet, vinous, aromatic; quality very good. Core large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds wide, plump, acute.

FLEMISH BEAUTY

1. Pom. Mag. 3:128, Pl. 1830. 2. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 373. 1831. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 386, fig. 167. 1845. 4. Proc. Nat. Con. Fr.Gr. 51. 1848. 5. Hovey Fr. Am. 1:51, Pl. 1851. 6. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 760, fig. 1869. 7. Hogg Fruit Man. 578. 1884.
Belle de Flanders. 8. Kenrick Am. Orch. 172. 1832.
Fondante des Bois. 9. Ann. Pom. Belge 6:41, Pl. 1858. 10. Pom. France 1: No. 25, Pl. 25. 1863. 11. Mas Le Verger 3: Pt. 2, 55, fig. 124. 1866-73. 12. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:166, fig. 1869. 13. Guide Prat. 58, 272. 1876. 14. Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom. 412, fig. 1904.
Holzfarbige Butterbirne. 15. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 235. 1889. 16. Gaucher Pom. Prak. Obst. No. 49, Pl. 38. 1894.

At one time Flemish Beauty was a leading commercial variety in the pear regions of eastern America, but it has been supplanted by other varieties because the toll of blighted trees is too great, and the fruits are too often disfigured by the scab fungus. Perhaps the latter is the greater fault as in some seasons no applications of spray give the pears a clean cheek, and they are blackened, scabbed, cracked and malformed with this fungus. Not infrequently the scab-infected foliage drops before the crop matures. To offset these defects, the trees have to their credit great vigor, unusual fruitfulness and as great hardihood to cold as those of any other variety. The trees do not come in bearing early, and are not suitable for dwarfing as they overgrow the quince stock. The fruits are nearly perfect if scab-free and properly matured. To make sure of perfect maturity, the pears must be picked as soon as they attain full size and be permitted to ripen under cover. So treated, a bright-cheeked Flemish Beauty is as handsome as any pear, and is almost unapproachable in quality; the flavor is nicely balanced between sweetness and sourness, very rich, and has a pleasing muskiness. Blight and scab condemn tree and fruit for commercial orchards, but a lover of good pears should combat these troubles for the sake of the choice fruits.

The parent tree of this variety is said to have been .a wilding found in a wood near Alost, East Flanders, Belgium, about the beginning of the nineteenth century. It was cultivated under the Flemish name of Bosc Peer or Pear of the Woods. About 1810, the propagation of the variety was taken up by Van Mons who introduced it a few years later under the name Fondante des Bois by which name it was known in Europe for many years. Lindley, writing in 1831, described this variety under the name Flemish Beauty, and it appeared then to be in pretty general cultivation in England. Styling it Barnard, Hovey wrote, in 1851, that Flemish Beauty " had been known in Dorchester, Massachusetts, for nearly twenty years/' so that it is to be inferred that the variety was introduced to this country prior to 1830 and possibly by some one by the name of Barnard. The rapid distribution of this pear was promoted by Van Mons who gave numerous grafts of it to his friends and correspondents. The fact that the variety has over sixty synonyms may be taken as some testimony to its popularity and excellence. At the first meeting of the American Pomological Society held in 1848, Flemish Beauty was placed in the list of pears recommended for general cultivation, a place it has since retained.

Tree medium in size, vigorous, spreading, with drooping branches, hardy, productive; trunk smooth; branches thick, shaggy, bright reddish-brown, with dull gray scarf-skin, large lenticels; branchlets thick, short, with short internodes, reddish-brown, smooth, glabrous, with many large, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds large, long, obtuse, pointed, nearly free; leaf-scars prominent. Leaves 3½ in. long, 1¾ in. wide, oval, thick, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin finely serrate; petiole 2 in. long, usually slender. Flower-buds very large, long, conical or pointed, very plump, free; flowers 1¼ in. across, in dense clusters, usually 7 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1¼ in. long, slender, slightly pubescent, light green.
Fruit ripe in late September and early October; large, nearly 2¾ in. long, 2½ in. wide, uniform in size and shape, roundish or obovate-obtuse-pyriform, symmetrical, with nearly equal sides; stem 1⅛ in. long, thick; cavity acute, shallow to deep, narrow, slightly russeted, a little furrowed; calyx open; lobes partly separated at the base, short, obtuse; basin shallow, narrow, abrupt, symmetrical; skin thick, tough, roughish, dull; color clear yellow, overspread on the exposed cheek with a dotted and marbled red blush; dots numerous, russet, small, conspicuous; flesh yellowish-white, firm, becoming melting and tender, granular, juicy, sweet, aromatic, with a slight musky flavor; quality very good. Core closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds rather long, plump, acute.

[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

FONDANTE DE NOËL

1. Mag. Hort. 21:267, fig. 9. 1855. 2. Ann. Pom. Belge 7:67, Pl. 1859. 3. Pom. France 1: No. 14, Pl. 14. 1863. 4. Mas Le Verger 1:65, fig. 39. 1866-73. 5. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 764. 1869. 6. Hogg Fruit Man. 580. 1884.
Belle aprês Noël. 7. Mclntosh Bk. Gard. 2:459. 1855.
Weihnachtsbirne. 8. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:62. 1856. 9. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 296. 1889.
Belle de Noël. 10. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:209, fig. 1867.

It is doubtful whether this rather rare European pear can be purchased from American nurserymen now, but possibly it may be had, and at least it could be re-propagated from old trees. The fruit is distinguished by its trim, top-shaped form and handsome coat, usually enlivened with a dull color on the sunny side. The flesh, while gritty near the core, is tender, juicy, buttery, very rich, sweet, and aromatic. It is just the pear for those who prefer sweetness to vinousness or piquancy, and who object to even a trace of astringency. The trees, while only medium in size, are vigorous, hardy, healthy, and productive. If the variety grows elsewhere as well as it does on the grounds of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station it is too good to be lost. The fruits are in season and at their best for Christmas.

This pear was raised from seed by Major Esperén, Mechlin, Belgium. The tree fruited first in 1842 and was given the name Fondante de Noël to indicate the day on which it was tasted for the first time. In 1862 a pear called Souvenir d' Esperén, attributed to seed grown by Berckmans, a noted Belgian horticulturist living in the United States, was put forth, but after examination there did not appear to be any difference in either the fruit or the wood of this tree from that of the variety grown by Major Esperén. Because the name Souvenir d' Esperén appears in connection with Fondante de Noël, the variety has been confused with another pear which was raised by Major Esperén and named Souvenir d'Esperén. The two, however, are entirely distinct and the last-named sort has long been known and is still found growing in certain pear orchards of the eastern United States.

Tree medium in size and vigor, upright, hardy, productive; trunk thick, smooth; branches brownish-green, nearly covered with gray scarf-skin; branchlets slender, with long internodes, smooth, glabrous, marked with conspicuous, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds large, long, conical, plump, free. Leaves 3½ in. long, 1½ in. wide; apex taper-pointed; margin glandless, finely serrate; petiole 2¼ in. long. Flower-buds large, long, plump, free, singly on short spurs; flowers showy, 1½ in. across, white often tinged pink on the edges of the petals, average 9 buds in a cluster; pedicels ⅞ in. long.
Fruit matures December to January; large, 2½ in. long, 2¾ in. wide, roundish-turbinate, irregular; stem ¾ in. long, thick, woody, obliquely set; cavity obtuse, shallow, narrow, furrowed, often lipped; calyx small, nearly closed; basin narrow, obtuse, furrowed; skin roughened by russet dots and patches; color dull greenish-yellow, with many dots, flecks and patches of russet, often with a faint trace of brownish-red on the sunny side; dots numerous, small, russet, rather conspicuous; flesh white, gritty only near the core, tender, buttery, juicy, sweet, highly aromatic; quality good to very good; core large, with meeting core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide; seeds large, long, plump, acute.

FONTENAY

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 38. 1883.
Jalousie de Fontenay Vendée. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 396, fig. 173. 1845. 3. Am. Pom. Soc, Rpt. 68. 1862.
Belle de Esquermes. 4. Mag. Hort. 20:135. 1854. 
Jalousie de Fontenay. 5. Pom. France 1: No. 44, Pl. 44. 1863. 6. Hogg Fruit Man. 303. 1866. 7. Mas Le Verger 3: Pt. 2, 157, fig. 175. 1866-73. 8. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:295, fig. 1869. 9. Guide Prat. 64, 281. 1876.
Birn von Fontenay. 10. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 215. 1889. 11. Lucas Tafelbirnen 87, fig. 1894.

The reader will discover no noteworthy characters in the description of this pear; nor does the accompanying illustration make the variety particularly alluring, although the color-plate scarcely does the fruits justice in either size or color. The variety is to be found in many old orchards in eastern America, but was long since relegated by pear-growers to the limbo of nurserymen's catalogs. The only reason for giving it a place in The Pears of New York is that the variety was once prominent, and references to it and comparisons with it are so common in horticultural literature that pear-growers are certain to want to know something about it. As the following description shows, the variety is but mediocre in tree and fruit.

Early in the eighteenth century M. Lévêque, an architect, acquired possession of an estate near Fontenay, France. A number of pear seedlings were growing upon this property, one of which was so good as to attract M. Lévêque's attention and he began propagating it in 1828. Later he distributed cions of the variety to his friends under the name Poire de Fontenay. Soon afterward the name was changed to Jalousie de Fontenay. Leroy took the variety to the garden of the Horticultural Society of Angers about 1835, from which place it was still more widely disseminated. It soon found its way to America where it gained early popularity. In 1862 the American Pomological Society listed this variety in its fruit-catalog under the name Jalousie de Fontenay, but shortened the name, in 1883, to Fontenay. In 1899, however, the name disappeared from this catalog and has never been replaced.

Tree medium in size, vigorous, upright, dense-topped, hardy; trunk slender, smooth; branches slender, brown mingled with green, partly covered with thin, gray scarf-skin; branchlets thick, long, with short internodes, light brownish-green, faintly tinged with red, dull, the new growth pubescent near the ends, smooth, with numerous, conspicuous, small, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds very small, short, sharply pointed, free; leaf-scars with large, prominent shoulders. Leaves 3 in. long, 1½ in. wide, very thick; apex taper-pointed; margin almost glandless, finely serrate; petiole 2 in. long, variable in size, glabrous; stipules very slender, tinged red. Flower-buds small, short, conical, free, singly on very short spurs; flowers late, showy, 1¾ in.across, in dense clusters, average 7 buds in a cluster; pedicels ⅝ in. long, lightly pubescent.
Fruit matures in October; small, 2⅝ in. long, 2 in. wide, oblong-acute-pyriform, symmetrical, with equal sides; stem ¾ in. long, curved; cavity lacking, the flesh folded around the base of the stem, often lipped; calyx partly open; lobes broad, acute; basin shallow, narrow, obtuse, slightly wrinkled, symmetrical; skin thick, tough, smooth; color dull yellowish-green, netted and patched with russet, with a tinge of red on the exposed cheek; dots numerous, small, russet, obscure; flesh strongly granular at the center, tender and melting, very juicy, subacid; quality good. Core large, closed, axile, with meeting core-lines; calyx-tube short, narrow, funnel-shaped; carpels emarginate; seeds large, wide, long, plump, acute.

FORELLE

1. Trans. Lond. Hort. Soc. 5:408, Pl. XVII. 1824. 2. Pom. Mag. 3:112, Pl. 1830. 3. Lindley Guide Orch. Card. 399, 1831. 4. Prince Pom. Man. 1:130. 1831. 5. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 389, fig. 169. 1845. 6. Mag. Hort. 13:339, fig. 27. 1847. 7. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 765. 1869. 8. Leroy Did. Pom. 2:183, figs. 1869. 9. Mas Pom. Gen. 1:115, fig. 58. 1872.
Forellenbirne. 10. Christ Handb. 514. 1817. 11. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:12. 1856. 12. Lauche Dent. Pom. II: No. 23, Pl. 23. 1882.
Florelle. 13. Prince Treat. Hort. 13. 1828.
Trout Pear. 14. Gard. Chron. 804, fig. 1846.

The pear fancier prizes Forelle for its singularly handsome and distinctive fruits, which are also of very good quality. Forelle pleases the eye, as well as any pear for bright colors, and is distinguished among fruits of its kind by its trout-like specklings from which comes the name Forelle, the German name for trout. Looks do not belie taste for the flesh is delicate and buttery, is highly flavored, and satisfies those who regard high quality a prime requisite in a pear. The trees are very satisfactory in warm soils and exposures, but fail in heavy clays and cold climates. The variety is worth growing for its beautiful and distinctive fruits.

Nothing is very certainly known of the origin of this pear, but it seems highly probable that it had its birth in northern Saxony at the beginning of the eighteenth century. From Germany it was taken to Flanders, and from there introduced into England. In the latter country, it was first fruited by Thomas Andrew Knight, President of the Horticultural Society of London, who, in 1823, sent cions to the Honorable John Lowell, President of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. Forelle became quite widely disseminated in the eastern United States during the first half of the eighteenth century, and was considered by many pomologists a pear of merit. At the present time, however, the variety has almost disappeared from cultivation. Its place has been filled by Vermont Beauty, a pear introduced from Vermont more than forty years ago. It is not improbable that these two varieties are identical. Vermont Beauty may be the old German pear renamed.

Tree medium in size, vigorous, upright, very hardy and very productive; branches few, dark brownish-red, sprinkled with numerous lenticels; branchlets long, pubescent on the youngest shoots. Leaves small, flat, roundish-ovate; flowers open early.
Fruit ripens November to December; medium in size, 3 in. long, 2 in. wide, oblong-obovate-pyriform, with a neck variable in length; stem 1 in. long, slender; cavity shallow, oblique, narrow, often lipped; calyx small, open; lobes broad; basin shallow, narrow, abrupt; skin smooth; color yellow, more or less overlaid with red, deepening to rich crimson next to the sun, profusely covered with grayish-russet dots which are margined or rayed with crimson; dots numerous, large and small, russet or grayish; flesh white, fine-grained, although slightly granular at the center, melting, buttery, juicy, aromatic, with a rich, vinous flavor; quality good. Core medium in size; seeds nearly black, of medium size.

FOX

1. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:24.5. 1903. 2. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:123. 1908.
B. S. Fox. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 2nd App. 154. 1876. 4, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 42, fig. 1877. 5. Gard. Mon. 22:369. 1880. 6. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 170. 1883.

Fox seems to have failed in the pear-growing regions of America, in spite of its having several excellent characters in both fruit and tree. The fruits are not quite attractive enough to sell on the markets or to grace the table of the amateur, their rough, russet skins detracting greatly from their appearance. When the skin is removed, however, a better late fall pear cannot be found. The flesh is white, fine in texture, very juicy, melting, and has a brisk, vinous flavor and a pleasant aromatic smell and taste that at once place the quality very high. The trees are but mediocre in the prime characters of a good orchard plant, and condemn the variety for any purpose other than the collector's plantation.

Fox is one of many seedlings originated by B. S. Fox, San Jose, California. Most of these seedlings were raised from seed of Belle Lucrative and Fox is among this number. The exact date of origin cannot be determined, but it is assumed to have been in the early seventies. The variety is considered to be one of the best of Fox's seedlings.

Tree medium in size and vigor, upright-spreading, round-topped, moderately productive; trunk slender; branches stocky, smooth, greenish-brown overspread with grayish scarf-skin; branchlets thick, short, with short internodes, zigzag, glabrous, sprinkled with small, raised lenticels. Leaf-buds long, obtuse, pointed, free. Leaves 2⅛ in. long, 1¼ in. wide, thick; apex abruptly pointed; margin nearly entire to finely serrate. Flower-buds conical, pointed, free; flowers open early.
Fruit ripens October to November; large, 3⅛ in. long, 2⅛ in. wide, oblong-obovate-pyriform; stem 1½ in. long, very thick, curved, obliquely set; cavity very shallow or lacking, the flesh folded up around the base of the stem; calyx closed or slightly open, variable in size; lobes much separated at the base, short, broad, acute; basin shallow, narrow, very small, furrowed and compressed; skin thick, granular, tough, roughened by the russet dots; color russet-yellow, often with a russet-red blush on the side next to the sun, almost entirely overspread with russet; dots numerous, conspicuous, russet; flesh white, granular near the core, melting, very juicy, sweet mingled with a brisk, vinous flavor, richly aromatic; quality very good. Core large, closed; calyx-tube short, wide; seeds wide, plump, acute.

FREDERICK CLAPP

1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 2nd App. 148, fig. 1876. 2. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. Pt. II, 94. 1876. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 34. 1877. 4. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:245. 1903.
Clapp No. 22. 5. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 90. 1872. 6. Ibid. Pt. II, 153. 1874. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 38,66,119. 1875.

Frederick Clapp has a place on the pear list, because it is one of the few good varieties with acidulous fruits. The refreshing, piquant flavor, the tender, melting, very juicy flesh, and the bright lemon-yellow color with only a trace of red give sufficient charm and character to the fruits to make the variety desirable in every collection of good pears. The fruits come in season with those of Beurré Superfin, and surpass them in quality at least. The trees are vigorous and healthy and form open, shapely, wide-spreading heads that commend them for orchard management. They grow with rapidity and vigor, come in bearing early, and are unusually fruitful. The variety is seldom planted in commercial orchards, but it has a welcome place in every home orchard fortunate enough to have it.

This pear was raised about 1870 by Lemuel Clapp, Dorchester, Massachusetts, brother of Frederick and Thaddeus Clapp, all of whom were the producers of large numbers of pear seedlings, several of which have been named. In all probability this variety is a cross between Urbaniste and Beurré Superfin. At various exhibitions and meetings of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in the years 1872, 1874, 1875, and 1876 it was shown and favorably reported on, and in 1875 received high praise in a report of the Massachusetts State Fruit Committee to the American Pomological Society. In 1877 the latter Society added Frederick Clapp to its list of fruits recommended for general cultivation.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, with open top, hardy; trunk thick, shaggy; branches stocky, shaggy, zigzag, dull reddish-brown, overspread with thick ash-gray scarf-skin, marked with many small lenticels; branchlets thick, dull reddish-brown, tinged with green, smooth except for the lenticels, glabrous, with many small, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, conical or pointed, plump, usually free. Leaves 3 in. long, 1¾ in. wide, ovate, stiff; apex taper-pointed; margin finely serrate, tipped with very fine, sharp-pointed, reddish-brown glands; petiole 1½ in. long, slender, glabrous. Flower-buds small, short, conical, plump, free; flowers cup-shaped, often with a disagreeable odor, 1 in. wide, averaging 9 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1 in. long, thick, pubescent, pale green.
Fruit ripe in October; medium in size, more than 2 in. long, 2⅜ in. wide, variable in size, roundish or obovate, irregular in shape; stem ¾ in. long, thick; cavity variable in outline and smoothness, often with a fleshy fold drawn up around the base of the stem; calyx open; lobes short, broad, obtuse; basin deep, wide, abrupt, usually smooth, symmetrical; skin thin, tender, smooth; color lemon-yellow, often marked with flecks and mottlings of russet; dots numerous, small, russet, obscure; flesh with a very faint tinge of yellow, fine, tender, melting, characteristically juicy, sweet, with a rich sprightliness; quality very good. Core closed, axile, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube very short, wide, broadly conical; carpels obovate; seeds large, wide, long, plump, acute.

GANSEL SECKEL

1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 502. 1857. a. Ibid. 770. 1869.
Gansel-Seckle. 3. Jour. Hort. N. S. 20:30, fig. 1871. 4. Hogg Fruit Man. 585. 1884. 5. Jour. Hort. 3rd Ser. 23:464, 1891. 6. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 177. 1920.

There are no good reasons why this pear should be grown, it having received much more attention than it deserves during the half century it has been in America. Perhaps it suffices to say that the fruits and trees are in no way equal, except in size of fruit, to those of Seckel, with which variety it would compete, although the crop ripens a little later. While the pears are larger than those of Seckel, the yield is not as great as the trees do not bear as regularly, nor abundantly. The fruits are not as well flavored, nor as attractively colored. The variety is still offered by many nurserymen, most of whom, however, condemn it with faint praise.

According to Bunyard, Gansel Seckel was raised from seed a century ago by a Mr. Williams of Pitmaston, Worcester, England. It was obtained by crossing Seckel with Gansel Bergamot, whence its name.

Tree medium in size and vigor, upright-spreading, variable in yield; branches slender, zigzag, sprinkled with numerous lenticels; branchlets thick, light reddish-brown mingled with green, smooth, glabrous, with small, roundish, raised, conspicuous lenticels. Leaf-buds small, short, pointed, appressed. Leaves 2¼ in. long, 1½ in. wide; apex taper-pointed; margin tipped with few reddish glands, coarsely serrate; petiole 1¼ in. long. Flower-buds small, short, conical, plump, free; flowers open early, 1¼ in. across; pedicels ½ in. long.
Fruit ripens in late October and November; small to medium, 2½ in. long, 2⅜ in. wide, irregular, oblate-pyriform; stem ¾ in. long, stout; cavity variable in width, shallow, irregular; calyx small, closed; lobes erect, acute; basin variable in width, deep; skin roughened with russet, uneven; color pale yellow, overspread with thin cinnamon-russet, sometimes faintly blushed on the exposed cheek; dots distinct, cinnamon-russet; flesh yellowish-white, coarse, melting, buttery, juicy, highly aromatic, with a rich perfume, sweet, but without the spicy flavor of the Seckel; quality very good.

GARBER

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 48. 1891. 2. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man, 2:247. 1903. 3. Chico Nur. Cat. 12. 1904. 4. Cornell Sta. But. 332:481. 1913.
Garber's Hybrid. 5. Black Cult. Peach and Pear 229, 242. 1886. 6. Harcourt Fla. Fruits 255. 1886. 7. Hood Cat. 25. 1905.

A few trivial differences separate Garber from Kieffer the fruits of both are poor. The pears ripen a week or two earlier than those of Kieffer, are a little rounder, flatter at the ends, and some say are a little better in quality certainly they are no worse to eat out of hand. The tree is hardy to heat and cold, and is much planted in the southern states, and in the Mississippi Valley, North and South. The variety might be sparingly planted in New York as an ornamental.

Garber is one of many seedlings of the Chinese Sand pear, raised by J. B. Garber, Columbia, Pennsylvania, sometime previous to 1880. It is supposed to be of hybrid origin. The variety was added to the American Pomological Society's list of recommended fruits in 1891 where it has since remained.

Tree medium in size, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, productive with age; branches smooth, zigzag, reddish-brown partly covered with grayish scarf-skin; branchlets thick, with long internodes, smooth, glabrous, sprinkled with small, round, very conspicuous, raised lenticels. Leaf-buds small, short, pointed and with curved tips, appressed. Leaves 3½ in. long, 2¼ in. wide, thick; apex taper-pointed; margin with very minute and reddish tips, finely serrate; petiole 2¼ in. long, thick. Flower-buds small, conical, sharply pointed, free.
Fruit ripe September to October; large, usually roundish-oblong and tapering toward both ends; stem 1 in. long, stout, obliquely set; cavity small, narrow, often deep and furrowed; calyx variable in size, partly open; lobes slender; basin broad, abrupt, deep, furrowed; color pale yellow, often with a brownish-red blush on the exposed cheek; dots small, numerous, russet; flesh white, granular, crisp but tender, juicy, neither sweet nor sour but with a peculiar, pleasant flavor; quality inferior.

GLOU MORCEAU

1. Mag. Hort. 21:143. 1855. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 503. 1857. 3. Ibid. 773. 1869. 4. Hogg Fruit Man. 586. 1884. 5. Jour. Hort. 3rd Ser. 14:203. 1887. 6. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 178. 1920.
Gloux Morceau. 7. Trans. Lond. Hort. Soc. 2nd App. 5:6. 1824. 8. Kenrick Am. Orch. 194. 1832.
Hardenpont's Winter Butterbirne. 9. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 104. 1825. 10. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:99. 1856. 11. Lauche Deut. Pom. II: No. 11, Pl. 11. 1882. 12. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 231. 1889.
Glout Morceau. 13. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 400. 1831. 14. Gard. Chron. 716, fig. 1. 1844. 15. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 437, fig. 201. 1845. 16. Hovey Fr. Am. 1:5, Pl. 1851. 17. Elliott Fr. Book 325. 1854. 18. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 68. 1862.
Beurré d'Hardenpont. 19. Pom. France 1: No. 12, Pl. 12. 1863. 20. Mas Le Verger 115, fig. 1. 1866-73. 21. Guide Prat. 60, 246. 1876. 22. Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom. 370, fig. 1904.
Beurré d'Arenberg. 23. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:301, fig. 1867.

This old winter pear is nearly lost to cultivation, but is worth growing because of the high quality of the fruit and because the pear comes in season in early winter when there are few others. The pears are not attractively colored, although in this character the illustration does not do the fruit justice. The fruits are rich and sugary without the least trace of acid, but when poorly grown are often astringent. All agree that the quality is better in fruit from dwarf trees in which form the variety grows very well; and that it is better, also, when grown on heavy soils than on light ones. The fruits keep and ship remarkably well. The trees are neither very large nor vigorous, but are usually productive. The variety is in disrepute in many localities because the crop does not always ripen well.

The Abbé of Mons, M. Hardenpont, a pioneer in pear-raising and a worthy forerunner of Van Mons, raised this pear from seed about 1750 in his garden at Mons, Belgium. The variety was introduced into France in 1806 by Louis Noisette, who had found it in the gardens of the Duc d'Arenberg. In France it was known, therefore, as Beurré d'Arenberg, and consequently became much confused with the true Beurré d'Arenberg raised by Monseigneur Deschamps. In order to overcome this confusion the name of the variety raised by M. Hardenpont was changed by a number of prominent Frenchmen to Beurré d'Hardenpont, but the variety has always been grown under both names in France. In 1820, M. Parmentier of Enghien, Belgium, sent this pear to England under the name Glou Morceau. (Glou, in the Walloon language, meaning delicious or dainty; morceau, French, morsel or bit; hence, the translation may be Delicious Morsel or Dainty Bit.) Glou Morceau has long been the popular name of the variety in England and America although, as Bunyard says, "It is regrettable that the memory of the pioneer of Pear raising, l'Abbé Hardenpont, is not commemorated in this fruit." Glou Morceau was brought to America within a few years after its introduction in England and rapidly found favor here as attested by leading American pomologists. In 1862 the American Pomological Society added the variety to its catalog-list of fruits under the name Glou Morceau as it has since remained.

Tree medium in size and vigor, spreading, dense-topped, rapid-growing, productive; trunk stocky; branches thick, reddish-brown, nearly covered with gray scarf-skin, marked with numerous large lenticels; branchlets slender, short, light greenish-brown, overspread with gray scarf-skin, smooth, glabrous, with numerous, small, conspicuous, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, very short, pointed, plump, appressed. Leaves 2¾ in. long, 1¾ in. wide, thick, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin occasionally with very few, small glands, coarsely or finely serrate; petiole 2 in. long, thick, glabrous, greenish. Flower-buds small, short, conical, plump, free, singly on very short spurs; flowers late, showy, 1¼ in. across, in dense clusters, 8 to 11 buds in a cluster; pedicels ⅞ in. long, pubescent.
Fruit matures November to December; large, 3⅛ in. long, 2¾ in. wide, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, irregular, sides unequal, somewhat ribbed; stem ⅞ in. long, thick and woody, curved; cavity deep, narrow, russeted, deeply furrowed, compressed, lipped; calyx open; lobes long, narrow, acute; basin deep, smooth, broadly furrowed; skin tender, very gritty, dull, roughened by russet; color pale greenish-yellow, covered with large and small patches and mottlings of light russet; dots numerous, small, conspicuous, light russet; flesh tinged with yellow, fine-grained except near the core and under the skin, tender, buttery, sweet, with a rich, pleasant, aromatic flavor, astringent near the skin; quality good to very good. Core closed, axile, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, broad, conical; seeds large, wide, long, plump, acute.

[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

GUYOT

1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P.I. Bul. 126:139. 1908.
Dr. Jules Guyot 2. Lauche Deut. Pom. II: No. 71, Pl. 71. 1883. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 562. 1884. 4. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 54. 1892. 5. Garden 52:248. 1897. 6. Deut. Obstsorten 5: Pt. 5, Pl. 1906. 7. Garden 73:564, fig. 1909.
Docteur Jules Guyot. 8. Lucas Tafelbirnen 73, fig. 1894. 9. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 234. 1906.

The fruits of Guyot bear strong resemblance to those of Bartlett, but differ in being larger and rather more handsomely colored, ripen a little earlier, have coarser flesh, and are very differently flavored. The product can seldom compete with that of Bartlett, or even with that of Clapp Favorite with which it ripens, because its season is exceedingly transitory. Unless picked quite green and ripened indoors, the pears rot at the center, and even when ripened under the best conditions quickly become mealy and insipid. Taken at the proper moment, the pears are better flavored than those of Bartlett, as they are richer and have a more delicate taste and perfume than the musky fruits of Bartlett. The trees are quite as satisfactory as those of Bartlett, unless, possibly, they fall short somewhat in productiveness. The variety is well worth planting in collections for its early, handsome, well-flavored fruits.

Guyot was raised in the nurseries of the Baltet Brothers, Troyes, France, about 1870. Within the next decade it was quite widely distributed in France and England where it has since been esteemed as a pear of the Bartlett type. It was first brought to America about 1885.

Tree medium in size, vigorous, upright, hardy, productive, a regular bearer; branches brownish, overlaid with thick scarf-skin, marked by small, round, indistinct lenticels; branchlets slender, very long, curved, with long internodes, reddish-brown mingled with green, smooth, glabrous, sprinkled with raised, conspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, very short, pointed, appressed. Leaves 2⅞ in. long, 1¾ in. wide; apex taper-pointed; margin glandular, variable in serration; petiole 2 in. long, thick, reddish-green. Flower-buds small, short, conical, plump, free, singly on very short spurs; flowers open late, showy, 1¼ in. across, in dense clusters, from 5 to 8 buds in a cluster; pedicels ⅞ in. long, pubescent.
Fruit ripens in early September; large, 3¼ in. long, 2⅝ in. wide, oblong-obtuse-pyriform, irregular, with unequal sides; stem 1¼ in. long, thick, curved; cavity obtuse, shallow, narrow, slightly russeted, drawn up on one side of the stem in a prominent lip; calyx large, open; lobes separated at the base, short, broad, acute; basin shallow, narrow, obtuse, furrowed; skin very thin, tender, roughish; color yellow, more or less mottled and with traces of russet, with a red blush on the exposed cheek; dots numerous, small, russet, conspicuous; flesh yellowish-white, granular, tender, moderately juicy, sweet mingled with sprightliness, aromatic; quality good. Core closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds large, long, plump, acute.

HOWELL

1. Mag. Hort 15:69, fig. 12. 1849. 2. Hovey Fr. Am. 2:75, Pl. 1851. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 210. 1856. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 510, fig. 1857. 5. Hoffy N. Am. Pom. 1: Pl. 1860. 6. Pom. France 3: No. 105, Pl. 105. 1865.
Howell's Seedling. 7. Mag. Hort. 14:519. 1848.

Howell is everywhere condemned by faint praise. The variety is a little too good to be discarded and not quite good enough to be generally recommended. Its characters in tree and fruit are faulty by reason of their mediocrity. After having said that the trees are not above the average in vigor, healthfulness, hardiness, and fruitfulness, it remains only to be said that their spreading tops make them desirable orchard inhabitants and handsome dooryard ornamentals. The fruits cannot be praised for attractive appearance or good quality, but they are preeminently meritorious in that they are probably more often uniform in appearance, quality, and freedom from the ravages of the scab fungus than those of almost any other pear. These qualities make Howell a most estimable variety for the home orchard where intensive care cannot be given. The variety further commends itself to amateur growers, because the trees bear early, annually, and abundantly. Howell seems to be better suited to the middle western states than to the eastern states.

In 1829 or 1830, Thomas Howell, New Haven, Connecticut, planted in his garden seeds from a variety of pear known locally as the Jonah, a hard and tough winter sort which seldom matures sufficiently to be regarded as a dessert fruit. One of the trees resulting from these seeds came into bearing in 1842 or 1843. Specimens were exhibited in Faneuil Hall by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1848 and were considered to be " of the first class and worthy of cultivation in every place where the soil and climate are congenial." In 1856, the Howell pear was recommended for general cultivation by the American Pomological Society.

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, open-topped; trunk thick; branches stocky, reddish-brown, overspread with gray scarf-skin, with few small lenticels; branchlets thick, short, dull reddish-brown, smooth, glabrous, with a few large, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds large, long, conical, free. Leaves 2 in. long, 1⅛ in. wide, oval, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin finely serrate, hairy, tipped with very minute glands; petiole 1½ in. long. Flower-buds large, long, conical, rather plump, free; flowers open early, 1⅜ in. across, in dense clusters, from 7 to 15 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1 1/16 in. long, pubescent, greenish.
Fruit ripe in late September and October; medium in size, 2⅜ in. long, 2¼ in. wide, uniform in size and shape, round-obovate, symmetrical; stem 1 in. long, thick, straight; cavity obtuse, very shallow and narrow, often with almost no cavity, smooth, symmetrical; calyx open, small; lobes separated at the base, short, narrow, obtuse; basin obtuse, slightly furrowed, nearly symmetrical; skin smooth, dull; color pale lemon-yellow, marked on the side exposed to the sun with a trace of blush and with patches and tracings of russet; dots many, small, russet, very conspicuous; flesh yellowish-white, firm but tender, granular, melting, very juicy, sweet, with a rich, somewhat brisk, almost vinous flavor, aromatic; quality very good. Core rather large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds long, plump, acute, frequently abortive.

IDAHO

1. U.S.D.A. Rpt. 572, Pl. II. 1888. 2. Can. Hort. 12:2, fig. 1, Pl. 1889. 3. Wickson Cat. Fruits 341. 1889. 4. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 477, fig. 691. 1897. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1899. 6. Rev. Hort. 60. 1901. 7. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:249. 1903.

There is much difference of opinion as to the value of Idaho in America. Without question, the variety is of considerable worth in parts of the Pacific Northwest, and especially in regions where hardihood is a prime requisite.

There, presumably, the fruits are larger and better flavored than in the East. As the accompanying plate shows, the pears are only medium in size on the grounds of this Station, but they are attractive in color and of excellent taste. The core is small, and the seeds are often abortive and sometimes wanting. The flesh is tender, buttery and almost free from granulation, with a rich, sweet, vinous flavor which make the rating for this fruit "good to very good." In many regions the pears are large, rough, and gross sometimes a facsimile of Duchesse d'Angouléme. The trees are dwarf and fruitful to a fault so that the pears often run small; they are hardier than those of almost any other pear and bear annually. To offset these good characters, however, the trees have the fatal fault of blighting, so that the variety is of value only in regions where blight is not an annual scourge of this fruit.

Idaho was raised from seed of an unknown variety about the year 1867 by a Mrs. Mulkey, Lewiston, Idaho, and, having been propagated by the Idaho Pear Company, was first brought to public notice in the autumn of 1886 by John H. Evans of Lewiston. In 1888 it was introduced to Europe and was shown at the congress of fruit growers held at Geneva, Switzerland, in 1899. Idaho is included in the American Pomological Society's list of fruits recommended for general cultivation, having been added to this list in 1899.

Tree medium in size, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, very productive; trunk smooth; branches slender, smooth, reddish-brown overspread with much gray scarf-skin, sprinkled with many small lenticels; branchlets dull brownish-red, overlaid with scarf-skin, smooth, glabrous, with small lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, conical, pointed, free; leaf-scars prominent. Leaves 2¾ in. long, 1⅘ in. wide, leathery; apex abruptly pointed; margin glandular, finely serrate; petiole 2 in. long. Flower-buds short, conical, very plump, free, singly on short spurs; flowers showy, 1⅛ in.across, in dense racemes, average 8 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1⅛ in. long, pubescent.
Fruit matures in late September and October; medium in size, 2 in. long, 2⅛ in. wide, roundish, slightly pyriform, symmetrical; stem 1 in. long, thick, slightly curved; cavity acute, narrow, furrowed, slightly lipped; calyx closed; lobes broad, acute; basin shallow, obtuse, somewhat furrowed; skin thick and granular, tough, roughish; color dull lemon-yellow, tinged with green, dotted and streaked with russet, splashed with russet patches; dots numerous, small, russet, conspicuous; flesh dull white, tinged with yellow, firm, tender, buttery, juicy, sweet, rich, almost vinous; quality good to very good. Core closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds wide, acute.

JARGONELLE

1. Knoop Pomologie 101, fig. 1771. 2. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 183, fig. 13. 1817. 3. Pom. Mag. 3: 108, Pl. 1830. 4. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 341. 1831. 5. Mag. Hort. 9:363, fig. 30. 1843. 6. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 758. 1869.
Gergonell. 7. Parkinson Par. Ter. 593. 1629.
Épargne. 8. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:133, Pl. VII. 1768. 9. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 181, fig. 10. 1817. 10. Prince Pom. Man. 1:152. 1831. 11. Pom. France 2: No. 85, Pl. 85. 1864. 12. Mas Le Verger 2:19, fig. 8. 1866-73. 13. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:135, fig. 1869. 14. Guide Prat. 62, 269. 1876.
Sparbirne. 15. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:131. 1856. 16. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 286. 1889. Wälsche Birne. 17. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:144. 1856.

At one time the best second early pear, Jargonelle is now little grown in America, native varieties having crowded it out. The crop ripens two or three weeks before that of Bartlett, so that the pears come on the market with those of Bloodgood and Dearborn, which, for most situations, are better sorts. The fruits are as attractive as any of their season and are unique in shape and in having a long, curved stem. The quality leaves much to be desired. The flesh is coarse, rather gritty, and the flavor lacks the rich sugary taste on the one hand, or the refreshing piquancy on the other hand, of good pears. The fruits rot at the core and the season is short. The crop should be picked early and ripened in the house. The trees are large, vigorous and sometimes very productive, but are coarse, untidy bearers, especially when young, and are often uncertain in bearing. After setting the faults against the merits of this variety, one must conclude that is it too worthy to discard, but hardly good enough for a recommendation for other than the home orchard or in the plantings of collectors.

Jargonelle is a patriarch among pears, being one of the oldest of all varieties. Its name appears to be derived from Jargon, anciently Gergon, a corruption of Groecum; whence Merlet, writing in 1675, infers that the Jargonelle was the Pyrum Tarentinum of Cato and Columella, the Numidianum Groecum of Pliny, and the Groeculum of Macrobius. So far as we know the earliest mention of the Jargonelle in England is by John Parkinson, who, writing in 1629, mentions sixty-five varieties of pears, among them being the Peare Gergonell. Stephen Switser, who wrote in 1731, also names it. The vitality of the English Jargonelle is remarkable; the trees, it is said, often live for 200 years. In Scotland the variety is cultivated as far north as pears will grow. William Coxe, Burlington, New Jersey, writing in 1817 of the Jargonelle, said, "This pear has not been much cultivated in America, and almost always under false names."

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, open-topped, rapid-growing, hardy, very productive, long-lived; trunk shaggy; branches reddish-brown overlaid with heavy gray scarf-skin, with large lenticels; branchlets slender, short, reddish-brown overlaid with gray, new growth brownish, dull, smooth, with numerous small, raised, very conspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, pointed, plump, appressed or free. Leaves 3¼ in. long, 2 in. wide, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin tipped with few small, black glands, finely serrate; petiole 3 in. long, slender, tinged with red, glabrous; flower-buds small, very short, conical, plump, singly on short spurs; flowers late, showy, 1½ in. across, in dense clusters, from 8 to 14 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1⅜ in. long, pubescent.
Fruit ripe in late August; large, 3⅜ in. long, 2 3/16 in. wide, oblong-obovate-pyriform, with an acute neck; stem characteristically long and curved, 1⅝ in. long; cavity lacking, the flesh folding up around the base of the stem, russeted, lipped; calyx open; lobes separated at the base, long, broad, acute; basin very shallow and narrow, obtuse, gently furrowed, compressed; skin smooth; color yellow, with a bright blush laid thinly over the exposed cheek in streaks and splashes; dots numerous, greenish-russet, very small, obscure; flesh yellowish-white, granular under the skin, gritty at the center, melting, very juicy, subacid, aromatic, vinous; quality very good. Core large, open, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube long, narrow, conical; seeds large, wide, long, plump, acute.

JARGONELLE (FRENCH)

1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:123. 1768. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 1:154. 1831. 3. Downing Fr, Trees Am. 339. 1845. 4. Ibid. 767. 1869. 5. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:303, fig. 1869. 6. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 237. 1889.
Bellissime d'Ête. 7. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:203, Pl. XLII. 1768. 8. Mas Le Verger 2:193, fig. 95. 1866-73. 9. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:216, fig. 1867. 10. Guide Prat. 70, 235, 1876.
Cuisse Madame. 11. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 181, fig. 11. 1817.
Red Muscadel. 12. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 346. 1831.
Bassin. 13. Hogg Fruit Man. 491. 1884.
Schönste Sommerbirne. 14. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 280. 1889.

This old sort, very different from Jargonelle, is worthy of description only to distinguish it from the much better and older pear of the same name. A generation ago this French Jargonelle was much grown in America, but has given way to better sorts. The pears are handsome, but are poor in quality and are edible only a day or two after maturity as they quickly rot at the center and become dry and mealy toward the periphery.

The name Jargonelle is used in France to denote a group of pears. This fact accounts for the confusion which exists among the names and synonyms of several varieties of this class. The French Jargonelle is said to have originated in Anjou, a former province in France, where it was much cultivated and highly esteemed toward the end of the fifteenth century.

Tree large, vigorous, upright, the younger branches inclined to droop, very productive; branches stocky, dark reddish-brown; branchlets often curved and drooping, short, sprinkled with elongated, inconspicuous lenticels. Leaf-buds large, conical, appressed. Leaves oval, enlarged at the base; apex abruptly pointed; margin coarsely serrate; petiole long, thick. Flower-buds large, long-conic; flowers medium in size.
Fruit ripens in August and September; medium to sometimes large, 3½ in. long, 2½ in. wide, obtuse-pyriform to oblong-pyriform; stem 1 in. long, slender, obliquely inserted; cavity obtuse, very shallow; calyx small, open; lobes long, projecting; basin variable in depth, small, irregular, furrowed; skin smooth, glossy; color lemon-yellow, blushed with red on the sunny side, occasionally marbled with thin orange-russet about the neck; dots light greenish or russet; flesh white, coarse, juicy, sweet, aromatic; quality good. Core large; seeds dark brown, small, narrow, long, often abortive.

JOSÉPHINE DE MALINES

1. McIntosh Bk. Gard. 2:461. 1855. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 68. 1862. 3. Pom. France 2: No. 50, Pl. 50. 1864. 4. Jour. Hort. N. S. 14:67. 1868. 5. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 793, fig. 1869. 6. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:310, fig. 1869. 7. Guide Prat. 61, 282. 1876. 8. Jour. Hort. 3rd Ser. 5:565, fig. 96. 1882. 9. Hogg Fruit Man. 599. 1884. 10. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 182. 1920.
Joséphine von Mecheln. 11. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:93. 1856. 12. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 239. 1889. 13. Gaucher Pom. Prak. Obst. No. 50, Pl. 31. 1894.
Malines. 14. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 24. 1897.

This is another of the few good winter pears. The fruit-characters are so distinctive and meritorious that the variety should be grown in every home orchard, and it possesses much merit for commercial plantations. The fruits have a marked peculiarity. Cut through the shaded yellow-russet; skin, flesh with a faint, rosy tint is displayed. Several red or rosy-fleshed pears are grown in Europe, but this is the only one described by American pomologists. The tree also, has a marked peculiarity; it thrives amazingly well on the white-thorn as well as on pear and quince stocks. But it is the quality of the fruits that commends the variety most highly. The flesh is buttery, juicy, sweet, and perfumed pleasing in every character that gratifies the palate. The season is exceedingly variable, and is given by different pomologists from December to March and January to May. The fruits are not very pleasing in appearance, but the accompanying illustration scarcely does them justice in either size or color. In the orchard, the trees are satisfactory, but the nurserymen find them rather difficult to grow, this, no doubt, being the chief reason for the apparent neglect of this splendid pear. The trees thrive in almost any soil or situation suitable to pears, and are everywhere prodigiously fruitful, hardy, and resistant to blight. The variety deserves wider recognition than it now receives.

This pear originated about 1830 in the seed beds of Major Espéren, the well-known pomologist of Mechlin (Malines), Belgium, who named it Josephine de Malines in honor of his wife. It was introduced in America prior to 1850, and in 1862 was added to the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society, a place it has since retained.

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, tall, dense-topped, rapid-growing, hardy, very productive; trunk stocky; branches thick, shaggy, reddish-brown overlaid with gray scarf-skin, marked with few lenticels; branchlets thick, dull reddish-brown, smooth, glabrous, with small, raised, inconspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds short, obtuse, plump, appressed, Leaves 2¼ in. long, 1¼ in. wide, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin finely serrate; petiole 1¾ in. long. Flower-buds short, plump, free; flowers early, 1⅜ in. across, white, occasionally tinged with pink, well distributed, average 7 buds in a cluster; pedicels ¾ in. long, slender, thinly pubescent.
Fruit ripe December to February; medium in size, 2½ in. long, 2⅜ in. wide, turbinate, inclined to truncate; stem long, very thick; cavity obtuse, shallow, narrow, slightly furrowed; calyx large, open; lobes short, broad, obtuse; basin narrow, obtuse, smooth; skin thick, tough, dull; color pale greenish-yellow, netted and patched more or less with russet; dots numerous, small, brown or russet, conspicuous; flesh light salmon, granular, melting, buttery, very juicy, sweet, slightly aromatic; quality good. Core large, closed, axile, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide; carpels pyriform; seeds large, wide, long, plump, acuminate.

KIEFFER

1. Gard. Mon. 22:49, fig. 1880. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 38, 1883. 3. Jour. Hort. 3rd Ser. 12:131. 1886. 4. Garden 68:398. 1905. 5. Ibid. 69:68. 1906. 6. Cornell Sta. Bul. 332:483. 1913. 7. Country Gent. 84:26, fig. 1919.
Kieffer's Hybrid. 8. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 53. 1879.
Keiffer. 9. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 3rd App. 179. 1881, 10. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 240. 1889. 11. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 178. 1909.

Although the most pretentious cheat in the orchard, Kieffer is grown more commonly than any other pear in North America. Its popularity can be accounted for only by accepting Barnum's dictum that "Americans love to be fooled." Pears are grown to eat, but those of Kieffer are fit to eat only in culinary preparations, dire necessity alone compelling their consumption uncooked. Yet, pleased by a bright cheek and a fair form, regardless of the potato-like flavor, people buy and eat Kieffer pears and persist in doing so. There are several reasons why Kieffer is popular. No pear has been advertised so widely and so unqualifiedly, growers of trees often supplying virtues to the variety which Nature denies it, because of all pears the trees of Kieffer are most easily grown. Besides this virtue in the trees there are several others that commend the variety more highly. Thus, of all pears grown in America, the trees are uniformly the most vigorous, fruitful, endure heat best, are least susceptible to blight, and withstand best the ravages of San José scale. There are several faults, however; the trees are tender to cold, in some soils refuse to set fruit, are often self-sterile, and sometimes with the best of care bear only pears of small size. Worthless for dessert, much can be said for the fruits of Kieffer for culinary preparation. Cooking removes the disagreeable natural taste of the raw pear, and leaves a good product. Canned, the pears retain their shape, color, and flavor well; therefore, and because white and inviting, canned Kieffers are preferred by commercial canners. Use in the cannery is the true place for Kieffer pears in regions where better sorts can be grown for dessert. Now that the first flush of popularity is past, it would seem a wise precaution on the part of pear-growers to grow this fruit chiefly for the cannery, supplying the demands for dessert pears with worthier varieties, although as long as consumers buy it to eat out of hand, growers cannot be blamed for growing it in commercial orchards.

The seed parent of Kieffer was the Sand pear of China. Peter Kieffer, who lived at Roxborough, near Philadelphia, for many years grew the Chinese Sand pear and sold the trees for ornamental purposes. In his garden there were also trees of Bartlett, Among chance seedlings, Mr, Kieffer observed one of peculiar growth which he saved. This tree bore fruit first in 1863. Later, it was exhibited at the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, and finally at the Centennial Exposition where in 1876 it was named Kieffer. The variety was added to the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society in 1883.

Tree of medium size, vigorous, upright, dense-topped, hardy, very productive; branches slender, nearly smooth, reddish-brown, covered with dull ash-gray scarf-skin, marked with few small lenticels; branchlets medium to long, reddish-brown mingled with green, smooth, slightly pubescent, with numerous, large, raised, very conspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, obtuse, slightly pointed, appressed. Leaves 3¼ in. long, 1¾ in. wide, oval, thick, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin often finely serrate; petiole 1⅞ in. long. Flower-buds conical to pointed, free; flowers open early, 1⅝ in. across, fairly well distributed, varying from 3 to 11 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1⅛ in. long, thick, very slightly pubescent, green, rarely tinged red.
Fruit matures in late October and November; above medium to large, 2¾ in. long, 2¼ in. wide, oval, narrowing at both ends, symmetrical, uniform; stem 1 in. long, thick; cavity very small, smooth; calyx open; lobes separated at the base, short, narrow, acute; basin shallow, narrow, obtuse, nearly smooth; skin thick, tough, smooth; color yellow, blushed with dull red on the exposed cheek; dots numerous, small, russet, conspicuous; flesh yellowish-white, very granular and coarse, crisp, juicy, not sweet, often astringent; quality poor. Core large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds wide, plump, acute.

KINGSESSING

1. Mag. Hort. 13:450. 1847. 2. Ibid. 19:453, 516, fig. 32. 1853. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 231. 1858. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 795. 1869.

A summing up of the characters of Kingsessing, as is so often the case with varieties of fruits, makes it appear a most desirable sort. Nevertheless, its culture does not make headway. Growers rate it as a "good pear," but will not grow it, for the reason, no doubt, that it has no outstanding characters for any region, season, or purpose. As the pears grow on the grounds of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station they are a little under size for a good commercial fruit, and while the sweet, perfumed flavor is pleasant, it lacks individuality. The variety is grown chiefly along the Atlantic Coast from Long Island to Maryland.

This is a natural seedling which sprang up in the family burial ground of Isaac Leech, Kingsessing, a suburb of Philadelphia, about 1833. The tree first fruited about 1843. Dr. Brincklé, who introduced the variety, thought from its close resemblance to Chapman that it was probably a seedling from it, or of its parent, the Petre, as trees of both these varieties stood in the vicinity of the Kingsessing. The American Pomological Society placed Kingsessing on its fruit-list in 1858 but dropped it in 1899.

Tree very large and vigorous, upright-spreading, dense-topped, rapid-growing, hardy, medium in yield; trunk very thick; branches very stocky, grayish-brown, sprinkled with numerous large lenticels; branchlets thick, long, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with numerous rather small, raised, conspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds large, long, conical, free. Leaves 2¼ in. long, 1⅜ in. wide; apex abruptly pointed; margin glandular, finely serrate; petiole 1¾ in. long. Flower-buds large, conical, free.
Fruit ripens in September and October; medium in size, 2⅜ in. long, 2⅛ in. wide, obovate-obtuse-pyriform; stem ½ in. long, thick, usually curved, fleshy at the point of insertion in the fruit; cavity obtuse, shallow, slightly furrowed, occasionally lipped; calyx partly open; lobes separated at the base, short, narrow, acute; basin shallow, gently furrowed, usually symmetrical; skin granular, tender, roughish; color yellow, sprinkled and netted with russet, with a thin brownish-red blush on the exposed cheek; dots numerous, grayish or russet, small, conspicuous; flesh white, granular, tender and melting, sweet, aromatic; quality good. Core closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds wide, long, plump, acute.

KOONCE

1. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 159. 1889. 2. Ibid. 55. 1895. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 44. 1897. 4. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:251. 1903. 5. Chico Nur. Cat. 12. 1904. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 41. 1909. 7. Ont. Dept. Agr. Fr. Ont. 168. 1914.

Koonce is a popular early variety grown rather commonly in nearly every pear region in the United States. It is listed by nearly all nurserymen. Its tree-characters are more notable than those of its fruits. The trees make a splendid showing in the nursery and are hardy and productive in the orchard, although of but medium size and rather straggling at maturity. The pears are better in quality than those of Early Harvest or Lawson, with which it often competes, but are hardly as attractive in appearance, being rather small and often irregular in shape. The color is unusually bright, especially on the red cheek. The pears decay quickly after maturity and are suitable only for home and local markets.

This pear originated in southern Illinois but no one seems to know by whom, or at what time, or in what locality in the State. The variety has been grown for more than thirty years. The American Pomological Society added Koonce to its list of fruits in 1909.

Tree medium in size and vigor, upright-spreading, scraggly, open-topped, hardy, productive; trunk shaggy; branches zigzag, dark brownish-red, covered with thick grayish scarf-skin, with few lenticels; branchlets thick, long, with long internodes, dull light brown, smooth, glabrous, sprinkled with small, raised, elongated lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, conical, pointed, plump, appressed; leaf-scars prominent. Leaves 2½ in. long, 1½ in. wide, stiff; apex taper-pointed; margin glandular, finely serrate; petiole 1½ in. long. Flower-buds short, obtuse or conical, plump, free; flowers showy, 1¼ in. across, in dense clusters, average 5 buds in a cluster; pedicels ⅞ in. long, slender, pubescent.
Fruit ripens in August; medium in size, 2⅜ in. long, 2¼ in. wide, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, with unequal sides; stem 1¼ in. long, thick; cavity obtuse, shallow, narrow, compressed, lipped or often drawn up in a wrinkled fold about the base of the stem; calyx open; lobes separated at the base, narrow, acuminate; basin obtuse, gently furrowed; skin thick, tough, roughish; color pale greenish-yellow, with a dull reddish-brown blush spreading over the exposed cheek; dots numerous, very small, greenish-russet, conspicuous; flesh whitish, granular especially at the center, medium tender, juicy, aromatic, sweet but vinous; quality good. Core small, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds small, narrow, short, plump, acute.

LAMY

1. Ragan Nom. Pear, B. P. I. Bul. 126:161. 1908.
Comte de Lamy. 2. Kenrick Am. Orch. 141. 1841. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am, 371, fig. 158. 1845. 4. Card. Chron. 20, fig. 1846. 5. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 727. 1869. 6. Jour. Hort. N. S. 38:359, fig. 52. 1880. 7. Hogg Fruit Man. 553. 1884.
Poire Dingler. 8. Ann.Pom. Belge 2:69, Pl. 1854.
Beurré Curtet. 9. Pom. France 2: No. 771 Pl. 77. 1864. 10. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:341, figs. 1867. 11. Guide Prat. 65, 243. 1876.
Curtet's Butterbirne. 12. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 200. 1889.

As the history shows, this is an old European pear which had its probationary period in America many years ago, and which never got out of the limbo of nurserymen's catalogs and collections. On the grounds of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station, however, the pears are so handsome and so delectable in quality that the variety seems quite worth while describing and illustrating among the major sorts. It is a splendid pear for the home orchard, but the tree is not large nor robust enough for a commercial plantation. A few nurserymen still list it.

This variety was raised from seed about 1828 by M. Bouvier, Jodoigne, Belgium. It was first named Beurré Curtet in honor of M. Curtet, a physician and professor at Brussels. The London Horticultural Society first obtained the variety under the name Comte de Lamy, by which name it has best been known in England. Lamy was early introduced to America where trees have long been found in collections.

Tree small, spreading, open-topped, hardy, productive; trunk slender, shaggy; branches slender, shaggy, dull brown, overspread with thick scarf-skin, sprinkled with numerous lenticels; branchlets slender, curved, short, with short internodes, brown changing to reddish-brown on the newer growth, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with small, raised, conspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, conical, pointed, plump, free. Leaves 2¾ in. long, 1¾ in. wide, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin finely serrate to nearly entire, tipped with few minute glands; petiole 1⅞ in. long, pinkish. Flower-buds large, thick, long, conical, very plump, free, singly as lateral buds or on very short spurs; flowers late, very showy, 1¾ in.across, in dense clusters, average 9 buds in a cluster; pedicels ⅝ in. long, thick, lightly pubescent.
Fruit matures in late October and early November; medium in size, 2⅛ in. long, 2 in. wide, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, often irregular and with unequal sides; stem 1⅛ in. long, thick; cavity almost lacking, very obtuse and shallow, narrow, russeted, often lipped; calyx open; lobes broad, acute; basin rather deep, obtuse or abrupt, gently furrowed, compressed; skin thin, smooth except for the russet dots, dull; color yellow, with a solid, dark red blush on the exposed cheek; dots numerous, large, brownish-russet, very conspicuous; flesh tinged with yellow, granular at the center, tender and melting, buttery, juicy, sweet, with a faint, vinous flavor, pleasantly aromatic; quality good to very good. Core large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, very wide, conical; seeds large, wide, plump, acute.

LAWRENCE

1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 169. 1841. 2. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 4. 1843. 3. Mag. Hort. 10:212. 1844. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 442. 1845. 5. Mag. Hort. 12:432, fig. 29. 1846. 6. Hovey Fr. Am. 2:13, Pl. 1851. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 230. 1854. 8. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 440, fig. 1857. 9. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 480. 1897.

There is great diversity of opinion as to the value of Lawrence for a market pear, but no one denies it a place as one of the very best early winter pears for the home orchard. A generation ago it was held in high esteem as a market pear, but the more showy Kieffer, kept in cold storage, has elbowed the less conspicuous Lawrence off the fruit-stands and almost out of the markets. The tree is hardy, moderately vigorous and fruitful, an early, annual, and uniform bearer, and has the reputation of being one of the longest lived of all pear trees. The fruits are of but medium size, but are shapely in form, trim in contour, and are distinctive in shape because of the rounded, truncate stem end. In color, the pear is a bright, clean lemon-yellow marked with patches of russet and faintly blushed on the side to the sun. No yellow pear is more attractive. The fruits come in season in early winter and have the excellent character of keeping well under ordinary care for a full month or longer. The melting flesh abounds with a rich, sugary, perfumed juice, by virtue of which it is justly esteemed as the best-flavored pear of its season, Lawrence finds congenial soils and climates in nearly every part of New York, and should have a place in every home orchard in the State.

Lawrence is a native of Flushing, Long Island, and was first introduced to growers by Wilcomb and King of Flushing, who sent specimens of it in 1843 to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, saying that it appeared to be a cross between the old Saint Germain and White Doyenné, "as it resembles both of them in wood, foliage, and fruit, and there is no other variety in the neighborhood." The variety rapidly found favor among pear growers and was soon widely disseminated. The American Pomological Society added Lawrence to its fruit-catalog in 1854.

Tree of medium size, vigorous, spreading, with drooping branches, very hardy, productive; trunk shaggy; branches smooth, zigzag, reddish-brown mingled with ash-gray scarf-skin, with numerous large lenticels; branchlets reddish-brown, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with slightly raised, conspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds short, obtuse, plump, nearly free. Leaves 1½ in. long, 1¼ in. wide, oval, leathery; margin finely serrate; petiole 1¾ in. long, slender; stipules rudimentary. Flower-buds hardy, conical or pointed, free; flowers open early, 1⅜ in. across, in rather dense clusters, from 8 to 12 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1⅞ in. long, lightly pubescent, greenish.
Fruit ripe November to December; medium in size, 2⅝ in. long, 2⅛ in. wide, uniform in size and shape, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, generally symmetrical; stem 1 in. long, thick, slightly curved; cavity small, obtuse, shallow, narrow, russeted, furrowed and irregular, often lipped; calyx large, partly open; lobes separated at the base, long, broad, acute; basin wide, obtuse, furrowed and sometimes corrugated; skin thick and granular, tough, roughish; color lemon-yellow, marked with occasional patches of russet and with a faint russet-red blush on the exposed cheek; dots numerous, small, russet, inconspicuous; flesh yellowish-white, firm, granular, tender and melting when fully mature, juicy, rich, sweet; quality very good. Core large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds large, long, plump, acute.

[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

LAWSON

1. Rural N. Y. 43:651, fig. 385. 1884. 2. Gard. Mon. 27:282. 1885. 3. Rural N. Y. 44:693. 1885. 4. Gard. & For. 5:414. 1892. 5. Van Lindley Cat. 22. 1892. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1899. 7. Ont. Dept. Agr. Fr. Ont. 168. 1914. 8. Cal. Com. Hort. Pear Grow. Col. 7:266, fig. 67. 1918.
Comet. 9. Gard. Mon. 27:144. 1885.
Cometbirne. 10. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 198. 1889.

Of all early pears, the fruit of Lawson best satisfies the eye for bright colors. It is as brightly colored as the brilliant Vermont Beauty or as Mount Vernon. Another outstanding character is the small core, which, though the pears ripen early and quickly, seldom softens unduly. The pears are sometimes nearly or quite seedless. Unfortunately, the fruits are often irregular in shape, and in quality are never more than mediocre. The tree is fairly healthy, vigorous, hardy, and free from blight, and is characterized by its tall, upright growth. Although grown for more than a hundred years in New York, the variety has never made headway in this State, but seems to be attracting much attention on the Pacific slope.

This pear originated on the farm of a Mr. Lawson in Ulster County, New York, about 1800, judging from the appearance of the original tree which was standing in 1900. The variety was introduced toward the end of the nineteenth century under the name Comet by reason of its color, so that it is sometimes known as Lawson Comet. The American Pomological Society added Lawson to its fruit-catalog in 1899.

Tree medium in size, vigorous, upright, dense-topped, very productive; branches slender, zigzag, reddish-brown overlaid with grayish scarf-skin, marked with numerous raised, large lenticels; branchlets slender, very long, with characteristically long internodes, rough, zigzag, marked with numerous large, raised, conspicuous lenticels. Leaves 3¼ in. long, 1¼ in. wide; apex abruptly pointed; margin glandless, serrate; petiole 2 in. long. Flowers early, showy, 1½ in. across, in dense clusters, 6 or 8 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1 in. long, thick.
Fruit ripens in August; large, 2¾ in. long, 3¼ in. wide, varies from obovate-obtuse-pyriform to globular-obtuse-pyriform, with unequal sides; stem ⅞ long, thick, curved, woody; cavity very small and narrow, often with a lip drawn up around one side of the stem; calyx partly open; lobes narrow, often reflexed; basin narrow, obtuse, gently furrowed; skin thin, tender, smooth; color pale yellow, overspread on the exposed cheek with a bright red blush; dots numerous, small, greenish or russet, obscure; flesh whitish or often salmon-color, firm, tough, medium juicy, lacking sweetness; quality poor. Core unusually small, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide; seeds short, wide, plump, obtuse, few in number.

Scion Source

LE CONTE

1. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 8, 29. 1878. 2. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 303. 1879. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 38. 1883. 4. Card. Mon. 27:282. 1885. 5. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 55. 1885. 6. Black Cult. Peach & Pear 234. 1886. 7. Cornell Sta. Bul. 332:484. 1913. 8. Ont. Dept. Agr. Fr. Out. 169. 1914.

Le Conte is a hybrid between the Chinese Sand pear and a European sort, therefore similar in parentage to Kieffer which it greatly resembles in both tree and fruit. The fruits are rather poorer in quality than those of Kieffer, if that be possible for an edible fruit, and the tree is in no way superior to that of its better-known rival, but seems to succeed better in warm climates and light soils. There is, therefore, a place for Le Conte in the South, and possibly on parts of Long Island, if a pear is wanted for culinary purposes only. The fruits sometimes rot badly at the core, and should usually be harvested as soon as they attain full size. The trees are more susceptible to blight than those of Kieffer. In the South, the trees are often, if not usually, propagated from cuttings.

Le Conte originated in America, and is probably a hybrid between the Chinese Sand pear and some native. It is supposed to have been carried from Philadelphia to Georgia about 1850 by Major Le Conte, and has since been extensively cultivated in the southern States for northern markets. In 1885 it was recommended by the Georgia Horticultural Society for cultivation in the middle region of that State. The American Pomological Society added Le Conte to its fruit-catalog in 1883.


Tree medium in size, vigorous, upright, very productive, a regular, bearer; branches strongly zigzag, brownish-red mingled with green and covered with scarf-skin; branchlets thick, reddish-brown mingled with green, smooth, pubescent on the new growth which later becomes glabrous, with numerous very small, conspicuous, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, pointed, appressed. Leaves 3 1¼ long, 1½ in. wide, long-ovate or long-oval, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin finely serrate; petiole pale green, glabrous. Flower-buds small, short, conical, plump, free, arranged singly on very short spurs; flowers open very early, 1¼ in. across, in dense clusters, 7 to 10 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1 in. long, slender, lightly pubescent, pale green.
Fruit ripe late October to November; large, 3 1/16 in. long, 2⅝ in. wide, uniform in size and shape, roundish-oval, tapering at both ends, ribbed, symmetrical; stem 1⅛ in. long, very thick, often curved; cavity obtuse, very shallow and narrow, smooth, slightly furrowed and wrinkled, often compressed; calyx partly open; lobes usually dehiscent, separated at the base, short, narrow, acute; basin usually very deep, abrupt, gently furrowed; skin thick, tough, smooth; color pale yellow, occasionally marked with russet; dots numerous, small, russet, conspicuous; flesh white, firm, granular, stringy, tender, juicy, sweet, with a strong and disagreeable flavor; quality poor. Core very large, closed, axile, with meeting core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, broadly conical; seeds large, 2 in each carpel, wide, long, very plump, acute.

LE LECTIER

1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 246. 1889. 2. Guide Prat. 95. 1895. 3. Rev. Hort. 466. 1899. 4. Garden 59:14, 93, 124. 1901. 5. Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom. 420, fig. 1904. 6. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 287, fig. 1906.

In size and beauty of fruit, Le Lectier surpasses most of its associates, and the quality is first rate in soils and climates to which the variety is suited. Unfortunately the tree, while very satisfactory in some situations, is capricious to both soils and climates, and is seldom at home on this side of the Atlantic. The season is December and January, when good pears are scarce, and it would seem that the fine, large fruits of this pear would be most acceptable for either home or market if it could be made to thrive. In Europe, it grows best on warm, rich soils.

Auguste Lesueur, a horticulturist at Orleans, France, obtained this late winter pear about 1882 as a cross between Bartlett and Fortunee. It was named after Le Lectier, the great pomologist of Orleans, who was growing in the year 1628 about 260 varieties of pears. The variety was introduced about 1889. In France, Le Lectier has been described as greatly superior in flavor, aroma, and sweetness to varieties of the same class having established reputations. In 1894, the Royal Horticultural Society of London recommended this variety for cultivation in England.


Tree medium in size, vigorous, upright, dense-topped, very productive; trunk and branches medium in thickness and smoothness; branchlets thick, curved, light brownish-red, tinged with green and overspread with grayish scarf-skin, glabrous, sprinkled with numerous raised, conspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds very small, short, pointed, plump, free. Leaves 2⅞ in. long, 1½ in. wide, thick; apex taper-pointed; margin glandular, finely serrate; petiole 2¼ in. long, slender. Flower-buds short, conical, plump, free, singly on very short spurs; flowers showy, 1½ in. across, 8 or 10 buds in a cluster; pedicels ⅞ in. long.
Fruit ripens December to January; large, elongated-obovate-pyriform, often with a narrow neck; stem slender, rather short, enlarged at both ends, inserted obliquely; cavity irregular, often lipped; calyx variable in size, partly open; basin variable in size, abrupt, irregular; skin glossy, thin, with uneven surface; color yellow, mottled and faintly blushed on the exposed cheek with yellowish-bronze; dots inconspicuous, small; flesh white, fine-grained, melting, juicy, sweet, pleasantly aromatic; quality very good.

LÉON LECLERC (VAN MONS)

1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 3. 1843. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 419, fig. 192. 1845. 3. Hovey Fr. Am. 1:9, Pl. 1851. 4. Ann. Pom. Belge 5:51, Pl. 1857. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 70. 1862. 6. Pom, France 1: No. 29, Pl. 29. 1863. 7. Jour. Hort. N. S. 10:366. 1866. 8. Mas Le Verger 3: Pt. 1, 127, fig. 62. 1866-73. 9. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:722, fig. 1869. 10. Jour. Hort. 3rd Ser. 1:573, fig. 103. 1880. 11. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 361, fig. 1906.
Van Mons Butterbirne. 12. Lauche Dent. Pom. II: No. 65, Pl. 65. 1883. 13. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 292. 1889.

A century ago this pear was being heralded in Europe as the best of all pears, and shortly afterward was introduced into the United States with highest praise. The variety is still popular in Europe, but its reputation there is not sustained here. The pear deserves a place among major varieties only because it fills a particular niche in the pear season, the crop coming in season between late fall and early winter at a time when there are few other good varieties. Were it not for one serious fault, however, the variety might take high rank in America. The fault is great susceptibility to the scab fungus. After Flemish Beauty, no other variety suffers as much both in fruit and foliage. Well grown in a congenial environment, on standard or quince stock, the pears are often as large as those of Duchesse d'Angouletme, with which they compare rather closely in shape. On well-grown specimens, also, the color is rich and beautiful. The flavor is sprightly and refreshing, which, with good flesh-characters, give the variety high rank for quality. There are no remarkable characters in the trees to recommend them, although they are quite up to the average in all characters either on pear or quince stocks. They are said to prefer a rich, deep soil. The variety is suitable only for collections.

This pear was obtained by M. Leon Leclerc, a distinguished pomologist living at Laval, France, who dedicated it to his friend Van Mons. Desiring to couple his own name with that of his friend, he gave it the name of Van Mons Leon Leclerc, by which appellation it has been known by most authors. The variety first fruited in 1828. There has been a good deal of confusion as to the identity of this pear, owing to the fact that Van Mons raised a pear in 1816 which he dedicated to Léon Leclerc. The proper name of the latter pear is Leon Leclerc de Laval. There is also a Leon Leclerc de Louvain. The variety under discussion was fruited in this country previous to 1843 by Marshall P. Wilder. The American Pomological Society added the variety to its fruit-catalog in 1862 but dropped it in 1869.

Tree medium in size, vigorous, spreading, open-topped, productive; trunk shaggy; branches roughish, reddish-brown, overspread with heavy, dull scarf-skin, with conspicuous, numerous, large lenticels; branchlets very slender and curved, short, with short internodes, light brown streaked with gray and tinged with green, dull, smooth, glabrous, with numerous small, conspicuous, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds very small, short, pointed, appressed. Leaves 1½ in. long, 3¼ in. wide, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin glandless, entire; petiole 1½ in. long, glabrous, reddish-green. Flower-buds small, short, conical, plump, free, singly on short spurs; flowers showy, 1¼ in. across, in dense racemes, 7 or 8 buds in a cluster; pedicels ⅝ in. long, pubescent.
Fruit ripe in late September and October; large, 3⅜ in. long, 2¼ in. wide, oblong-pyriform, tapering to a very long, narrow neck; stem 1 in. long, thick, curved; cavity very small, compressed, usually lipped; calyx large, open; lobes separated at the base, broad, acute; basin shallow, narrow, obtuse, symmetrical; skin thick, tough, roughened by russet specks; color dull yellow, covered with dots and tracings of russet and occasionally with a faint russet-red blush; dots numerous, small, russet, conspicuous; flesh granular under the skin, nearly melting, juicy, subacid or with a peculiar sprightliness; quality good. Core large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, narrow, conical; seeds large, wide, long, acute.

LINCOLN

1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 88. 1845. 2. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 196, Pls. 1894. 3. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 141. 1894. 4. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 42. 1889. 5. Rural N. Y. 48:754, figs. 275 and 276. 1889. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1899. 7. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:253. 1903.

Nearly a hundred years old without having received favorable mention from pear growers, Lincoln has been brought from the limbo of lost fruits in recent years to take high rank in the list of pears for the Mississippi Valley. The variety is spoken of in such superlative terms for that region that judging from its behavior in New York, it would seem that western pear-growers give it attributes which Nature denies it. At best, in the East, the fruits are but mediocre in appearance and quality, falling below those of a dozen other varieties of the same season whether judged by the eye or the palate. In Illinois and Missouri, however, the fruits are spoken of as the handsomest and best. These are not regions in which many good pears grow, since the cold of winter, heat of summer, and pear-blight take toll from all but pears of the strongest constitution. Lincoln seems to possess a constitution to withstand these ills. At its best, the fruits of Lincoln seem comparable to those of Bartlett, which the western admirers of the variety say it resembles. In New York, comparisons of the fruits are all in favor of Bartlett, as are the trees in all characters excepting hardiness to heat and cold, and resistance to blight. The variety is valuable only in the Middle West.

This pear had its origin in a seedling grown in the spring of 1835 by Mrs. Maria Fleming, Corwin, Illinois. The original tree proved to be a vigorous grower as well as a heavy cropper, and was ultimately given the name of Lincoln. Augustine and Company of Normal, Illinois, propagated and distributed the variety about 1895. Young trees of the variety appear to be vigorous growers, free from blight and of high quality. The American Pomological Society added Lincoln to its list of fruits in 1899.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped, hardy, very productive; trunk stocky, smooth; branches zigzag, greenish-brown, partly overspread with thin gray scarf-skin, marked on the younger wood with very numerous large, round lenticels; branchlets slender, very long, willowy, brownish-green overlaid with thin gray, dull, the new growth reddish-green, with numerous large, roundish, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds very small, short, pointed, appressed. Leaves 3½ in. long, 1½ in. wide, stiff; apex variable; margin glandless, finely serrate; petiole 2⅝ in. long, glabrous, tinged with red; stipules very long and slender, pinkish. Flower-buds small, short, conical, free, singly on short spurs; flowers 1⅜ in. across, well distributed, average 5 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1⅛ in. long, slender, pubescent.
Fruit matures in late August and September; medium in size, about 2¼ in. in length and width, roundish, with an obtuse neck, tapering very slightly; stem 1⅛ in. long, slender; cavity a slight, narrow depression, occasionally lipped; calyx large, open; lobes separated at the base, long, acuminate; basin shallow, obtuse, smooth, symmetrical; skin thick, tender, roughish; color yellow, sprinkled with few russet lines and nettings; dots numerous, small, russet, conspicuous; flesh tinged with yellow, firm, coarse and granular, tender, very juicy, sweet, aromatic, pleasing but not richly flavored; quality good. Core unusually large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds large, very wide, long, plump, acuminate.

Scion Source

LINCOLN CORELESS

1. Parry Cat. 9, fig. 1891. 2. Ann. Hort. 185. 1892. 3. Ill Hort. Soc. Rpt. 137. 1894. 4. Ibid. 52, 178. 1896. 5. Rural N. Y. 64:256. 1905.

The product of Lincoln Coreless is worthless for dessert, and but a coarse makeshift for culinary purposes. The variety receives attention only because the pear is a monstrosity and a curiosity. The fruits are enormous in size, outweighing all other pears unless it be those of the Pound. They are unique in having a very small core and few or sometimes no seeds. They are further characterized by very late maturity, ripening later than those of any other pear on the grounds of this Station and keeping until April. While usually rather dull greenish-yellow in color, the cheek is often enlivened by a bright blush which makes the fruits rather attractive despite their grossness. The catalogs describe the trees as "blight proof," but they blight on the grounds of this Station. The variety is worth growing only as an interesting curiosity.

According to William Parry, Parry, New Jersey, Lincoln Coreless originated in Lincoln County, Tennessee, near the Alabama line, about 1830. The original tree was rated as productive and free from blight, and young trees propagated from it have been unusually healthy and vigorous. The variety was introduced about 1890 by William Parry.

Tree small, vigorous, upright, very dense, pyramidal, hardy, an uncertain bearer; trunk shaggy; branches smooth, zigzag, reddish-brown mingled with ash-gray, marked with small lenticels; branchlets short to medium, dull brown, smooth, glabrous, with conspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds large, obtuse, plump, appressed. Leaves 3 in. long, 1⅝ in. wide, elongated-oval, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin finely serrate; petiole 1½ in. long, reddish; stipules very long. Flower-buds short, obtuse, plump, free; flowers 1¾ in. across, very large and showy, average 6 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1⅝ in. long, thick, pubescent, pale green.
Fruit ripe in February; very large, 4¾ in. long, 3 in. wide, uniform in size, obovate-acute-pyriform, somewhat ribbed, with unequal sides; stem 1⅜ in. long, thick, curved; cavity obtuse, shallow, narrow, russeted, furrowed, often lipped; calyx open, large; lobes separated at the base, narrow, acute; basin very shallow, narrow, obtuse, furrowed; skin very thick, tough, coarse and granular, smooth, dull; color greenish-yellow, with a handsome blush on the cheek exposed to the sun; dots many, brownish-russet, very conspicuous; flesh yellowish-white, very firm, granular at the core, crisp, tough, medium juicy, rather bitter and astringent; quality poor. Core closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube long, wide, conical; seeds few, narrow, often abortive, acute.

LOUISE BONNE DE JERSEY

1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 148. 1841. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 53. 1852. 3. Field Pear Cult. 218, fig. 81. 1858.
Louise Bonne of Jersey. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 397, fig. 174. 1845. 5; Hovey Fr. Am. 1:39, Pl. 1851. 6. Jour. Hort. N. S. 38:161, fig. 26. 1880. 7. Hogg Fruit Man. 606. 1884.
Gute Louise von Avranches. 8. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:138. 1856. 9. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 229. 1889.
Bonne Louise d'Avranches. 10. Ann. Pom. Belge 6:29, Pl. 1858. 11. Pom France 1: No. 21, Pl. 21. 1863. 12. Mas Le Verger 3: Pt. 1, 67, fig. 32. 1866-73. 13. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:482, fig. 1867. 14. Guide Prat. 286. 1876.
Louise. 15. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 23. 1897. 16. Ont. Dept. Agr. Fr. Ont. 170, fig. 1914.

Now known in America as Louise, a name given it by the American Pomological Society, this variety is described under the name given it in England to distinguish it from at least eight other varieties having Louise as the whole or a part of the name. The pear is an old one, having many excellent qualities of fruit and tree, which, however, are not sufficiently above the average to give it high place in the list of pears for the market. The pears are medium to large, handsome, of excellent quality, and keep and ship well. These qualities have given it some preeminence as a pear for the export trade. The trees are precariously hardy and somewhat subject to blight, but very vigorous, productive, and long-lived. In Europe, the testimony of prominent pomologists agrees that the fruits are better and the trees more productive when worked on the quince, and in America the variety is considered one of the best for dwarfing. This pear is a standard one for home collections, and finds favor in many commercial orchards in New York.

The parent tree of this pear was raised from seed about 1780 by M. de Longueval, Avranches, Normandy. Some authorities say that the variety was first named Bonne de Longueval; others, that M. de Longueval immediately dedicated the pear to his wife and called it Bonne Louise de Longueval. Later still, the Pomological Congress adopted the name of Bonne Louise d'Avranches, by which it became more generally known, though in England, it rather unfortunately became widely disseminated as Louise Bonne de Jersey, having, presumably, found its way there through the Channel Islands. The variety was brought to the United States early in the nineteenth century, and in 1852 was entered in the recommended list of fruits of the American Pomological Society. In 1897, this Society shortened the name to Louise.

Tree large, vigorous, upright, very tall, dense-topped, hardy, productive, long-lived; trunk stocky; branches slightly zigzag, reddish-brown mingled with very dark grayish scarf-skin, with numerous raised lenticels; branchlets slender, long, dark reddish-brown, nearly smooth, glabrous, with few small, slightly raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds pointed, semi-free. Leaves 3¼ in. long, 1¼ in. wide, much curled under at the margins, oval, leathery; apex slightly taper-pointed; margin glandless, finely serrate; petiole 1½ in. long, slender. Flower-buds small, conical or pointed, free; flowers with a disagreeable odor, 1½ in., across, white or tinged with pink along the edge of the petals, averaging 6 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1½ in. long, slender, pubescent, light green.
Fruit matures in October; medium to large, 2⅞ in. long, 2¼ in. wide, uniform in size and shape, oblong-pyriform, somewhat irregular, with unequal sides; stem 1 in. long, slender, usually curved; cavity obtuse, very shallow and very narrow, furrowed and wrinkled, often lipped, the flesh folded up around the stem; calyx open, large; lobes broad, acute; basin obtuse, furrowed and uneven; skin granular, smooth; color pale yellowy marked on the exposed cheek with a dull red blush and with streaks of russet; dots numerous, small, grayish or russet, conspicuous; fruit yellowish-white, somewhat granular, tender and melting, very juicy, sweet and vinous, aromatic, rich; quality very good. Core closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds large, wide, long, plump, acute.

[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

LUCY DUKE

Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 153. 1885. 2. W. N. F. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 65. 1889. 3. Van Lindley Cat. 22, Pl. 1892. 4. N.Y. Sta. Bul. 364:182. 1913.

Why Lucy Duke is neglected is hard to see. Tree and fruit are highly praised, Charles Downing thought the pear "not quite so fine as a first-class Seckel, but I must aver it is not far behind." The pear has a rich, juicy, spicy, melting flesh that makes it one of the best. In form, the fruits resemble those of Bartlett, which is probably one of the parents; they are of but medium size, but are of a beautiful golden-russet color, which makes them as handsome as the handsomest. The skin is thick and the pears stand shipping well. The variety can be recommended for home and local markets, but the trees are a little too unproductive and too irregular in bearing for commercial orchards. The tree is hardy but only moderately vigorous and resembles Winter Nelis, supposed to be the other parent, in habit of growth. The variety is relatively free from blight.

Lucy Duke was grown about 1880 by Mrs. Lucy Duke, Beaufort County, North Carolina, from seed of a Bartlett pear which she had received from California. Its tree-characters are so nearly like those of Winter Nelis that the other parent is supposed to be that variety. Lucy Duke was introduced about 1892 by J. Van Lindley, Pomona, North Carolina.

['Lucy Duke' blighted pretty badly in my North Carolina orchard in the Piedmont region of the state. If it is the result of a cross between 'Bartlett' and 'Winter Nelis', both of which are very susceptible to blight, then this observation makes perfect sense. I suspect Mrs. Duke's tree was a bit isolated and thus also avoided blight long enough to be propagated. The fruit ripens with several much better sorts both in terms of disease resistance and fruit quality. The fruit is sweet and tasty, but neither richer nor distinct than others of its season in the Southeastern U.S. I don't recommend it for the Southeastern U.S. -ASC]

Tree medium to large, variable in vigor, upright becoming slightly spreading, dense-topped, hardy, productive; trunk shaggy; branches thick, zigzag, marked by numerous elongated lenticels; branchlets strongly curved, with short internodes, dark brownish-red mingled with green, mottled with scarf-skin, smooth, glabrous, with small, elongated or roundish, conspicuous, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, pointed, plump, usually free; leaf-scars prominent. Leaves 3 in. long, 1⅜ in. wide, thin; margin occasionally glandular, finely serrate or entire; petiole 1½ in. long, slender. Flower-buds large, long, pointed, plump, free, singly on short spurs; flowers open late, with an unpleasant odor, 1⅝ in.across; pedicels 1⅛ in. long.
Fruit ripens in late October and November; medium in size, acute-pyriform to oblong-pyriform, symmetrical; stem short, thick, curved; cavity obtuse, shallow, narrow, russeted, often wrinkled and occasionally lipped; calyx large, open, rounded and with a deeply-set center; basin obtuse, smooth, symmetrical; skin very tough, roughened with thick russet; color greenish-yellow, usually entirely overspread with solid, dark russet, changing to golden russet on the cheek exposed to the sun, with mottlings and flecks of russet; dots numerous, small, russet, obscure; flesh yellowish-white, fine, melting, rich, juicy, sweet; quality very good. Core large, closed, axile; calyx-tube short, wide, broadly conical; seeds large, wide, long, plump, acute.

MADELEINE

1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:124, Pl. IV. 1768. 2. Pom. Mag. 2:51, Pl. 1829. 3. Prince Pom. Man. 1:13. 1831. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 341, fig. 138. 1845. 5. Proc. Nat. Con. Fr. Gr. 51. 1848. 6. Elliott Fr. Book 331, fig. 1854. 7. Mas Le Verger 2:59, fig. 28. 1866-73. 8. Guide Prat. 62, 287. 1876.
Sainte Madelaine. 9. Knoop Pomologie 76, Tab. 1, fig. 1771.
Grüne Sommer-Magdalene. 10. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:150. 1856. 11. Lucas Tafelbirnen 47, fig. 1894.
Citron des Carmes. 12. Pom. France 3: No. 101, Pl. 101. 1865. 13. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:563, fig. 1867. 14. Hogg Fruit Man. 548. 1884. 15. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 212, fig. 1906.
Grüne Magdalene. 16. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 228. 1889.

Madeleine has long been a dependable summer variety, the crop of which ripens just before that of Bloodgood. Many consider it the best very early summer pear, and if the product alone were to be considered it might well be called the best, but, unfortunately, the faults of the trees more than offset the virtues of the fruits. The pears are attractive in appearance, and very good in quality; but their season is short, their skins are tender, and the flesh quickly softens at the core. While the trees are productive, they are not resistant to blight, do not hold their crop well, are tender to cold, and are short-lived. The variety is worth planting only for the sake of succession in crop, and in large collections of pears. The variety is recommended on the Pacific slope for local markets.

The Madeleine pear is of ancient and somewhat uncertain origin. It was cultivated by M. Le Lectier in his garden at 0rléans in 1628, but previously no other author had made mention of it, though M. Leroy, writing in 1867, deemed it presumable that it had originated in France. Besides its original names this pear has been known by some fifty others in different localities and at different times, but Madeleine is now its recognized name in this country. In England, it is known as the Citron des Cannes. When and by whom it was introduced to America is not clear, but it was a standard variety as early as 1831 when Prince first described it. At the national convention of fruit-growers held in 1848, Madeleine was recommended for general cultivation, and ever since this time the variety has appeared in the fruit-catalog of the American Pomological Society.

Tree large, vigorous, upright, open-topped, tender, productive; trunk shaggy; branches zigzag, light greenish-brown covered with gray scarf-skin; branchlets slender, long, reddish-brown mingled with green, mottled with ash-gray near the tips, smooth, glabrous, with small, raised, conspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, very short, pointed, appressed. Leaves 3 in. long, 1½ in. wide, thin; apex taper-pointed; margin glandless, finely serrate; petiole 1¾ in. long, glabrous, reddish-green. Flower-buds small, thick, short, conical, plump, free, distributed as lateral buds or on very short spurs; flowers showy, 1⅜ in.across, in dense clusters, average 11 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1¼ in. long, slightly pubescent.
Fruit ripens in early August; inferior in size, 2⅛ in. long, 2 in. wide, roundish-obtuse-pyriform; stem 1½ in. long, thick, curved; cavity very shallow and narrow, or lacking, the flesh folded in a lip on one side of the stem; calyx partly open; lobes separated at the base, short, narrow, acuminate; basin shallow, narrow, obtuse, gently furrowed, symmetrical; skin thin, smooth, very tender; color dull green, occasionally with a faint, dotted, brownish blush; dots numerous, greenish, obscure; flesh slightly tinged yellow, granular at the center, tender and melting, very juicy, sweet, vinous; quality good to very good. Core closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds wide, short, plump, acuminate.

MARGARET

1. Horticulturist 21:172, 245, fig. 80. 1866. 2. Am. Pom, Soc. Rpt. 53. 1869. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 811. 1869. 4. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 35, 36. 1890. 5. Guide Prat. 68, 279. 1895. Mary. 6. Horticulturist 21:78, figs. 43 and 44. 1866.

The fruits of Margaret are early and attractive in color and shape. This is about all that can be said for them, as they run small in size, and in neither flesh nor flavor can they compete with the product of several other varieties of the same season. The trees are hardly more desirable than the fruits, since they are tender to cold, blight badly, and are short-lived, seldom attaining full size. Despite these defects of fruit and tree, the variety is a one-time favorite still rather commonly planted. Better summer pears can be found for New York, and for almost every part of the country.

In the middle of the nineteenth century, Christopher Wiegel, a German nurseryman of Cleveland, Ohio, planted some seeds which he believed to have been from a Seckel pear. Out of the trees grown from these he selected two for further trial " because of their early coming into bearing, their upright, vigorous habits of growth, profuse bearing, and good quality of fruit." In 1866, Mr. Wiegel named one of these Mary but later changed the name to Margaret.

Tree medium in size, vigorous, spreading, somewhat drooping, open-topped, productive; trunk shaggy; branches brown mingled with much red, overspread with thin gray scarf-skin, marked by numerous lenticels; branchlets slender, long, with long inter-nodes, light reddish-brown, streaked with ash-gray scarf-skin, glossy, smooth, glabrous except on the newer growth, with numerous small, roundish, raised, conspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, very short, pointed, appressed. Leaves 3 in. long, 1¾ in. wide, thin; margin tipped with few pinkish glands, finely serrate; petiole 1¾ in. long, green; stipules of medium size. Flower-buds small, short, conical, pointed, free, singly on short spurs; flowers showy, 1¾ in. long, large, in dense clusters, 6 or 8 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1⅛ in. long, thick, pubescent.
Fruit matures in late August and early September; medium in size, 3 in. long, 2¾ in. wide, oblong-obovate-pyriform, irregular; stem 1¼ in. long, thick, curved; cavity acuminate, deep, narrow, russeted, furrowed and compressed, often with a pronounced lip; calyx open, large; lobes separated at the base, broad, acute, reflexed; basin deep, abrupt, furrowed, often compressed; skin thin, tender, smooth; color dull greenish-yellow, often with a deep but dull reddish-brown blush and occasional patches of russet; dots numerous, small, green or russet, obscure; flesh fine under the skin but granular and gritty near the center; tender, buttery, very juicy, faintly vinous, slightly aromatic; quality good. Core large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube long, wide, funnel-shaped; seeds large, wide, plump, obtuse or acute.

MARIE LOUISE

1. Pom. Mag. 3:122, Pl. 1830. 2. Prince Pom. Mag. 1:131. 1831. 3. Kenrick Am. Orch. 179. 1832. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 399. 1845. 5. Hovey Fr. Am. 2:37, Pl. 1851. 6. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:59. 1856. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 70. 1862. 8. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:399, fig. 1869. 9. Guide Prat. 59, 287. 1876. 10. Lauche Deut. Pom. II: No. 38, Pl. 38. 1882. 11. Hogg. Fruit Man. 613. 1884. 12. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 251. 1889.
Marie-Louise Delcourt. 13. Pom. France 1: No. 19, Pl. 19. 1863. 14. Mas Le Verger 3: Pt. 1, 163, fig. 80. 1866-73.

The fruits of Marie Louise are among the perfections of Nature, and were the tree more certain in bearing and less fastidious as to environment and care, the variety would rank as one of the best of all pears. Pomologists generally agree that its fruits are the finest flavored of their season. The flesh is tender and melting, very juicy, and the flavor is a most delectable commingling of refreshing piquancy and scented sweetness. In shape, the pears resemble those of Beurré Bosc, having the same trim contour, but the color is very different rich yellow, netted and sprinkled with russet, and sun-flecked with red on the sunny side. The fruit is somewhat susceptible to the scab fungus, and even the most careful spraying fails to give it a fair cheek in some seasons. The trees are hardy but only moderately vigorous, somewhat susceptible to blight, rather uncertain in bearing, and vary much from season to season in abundance and quality of product. Not at all suited for a commercial plantation, Marie Louise is one of the choicest sorts for a home collection or in the hands of a pear fancier.

The Abbé Duquesne, Mons, Belgium, raised this pear from seed in 1809 and dedicated it to Marie Louise, the second consort of Napoleon the First. The AbM passed the pear on to Van Mons, who in 1816 sent it without a name to a Mr. Braddick of Thames Ditton, England, where in time it became one of the best-known pears. Thomas Andrew Knight sent cions of the variety from England to John Lowell, Roxbury, Massachusetts, in 1823, whence it became widely disseminated in America. The American Pomological Society placed Marie Louise in its list of fruits in 1862.

Tree medium in size, vigorous, spreading, open-topped, hardy, productive; trunk slender; branches dark reddish-brown mingled with thin gray scarf-skin, marked with many large lenticels; branchlets very slender and very short, with short internodes, light brown, tinged with brownish-red, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with very small, slightly raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, sharply pointed, plump, free. Leaves 2½ in. long, 1¼ in. wide, narrow, short, oval or somewhat elongated, leathery; apex obtusely or slightly taper-pointed; margin glandless, entire; petiole 2 in. long, greenish, glabrous, slender. Flower-buds small, conical, free, arranged singly as lateral buds or on short spurs; flowers very showy, 1¾ in. across, in dense clusters, 7 to 9 buds in a cluster; pedicels often 1⅛ in. long, slender, slightly pubescent, greenish.
Fruit ripe in late September and early October; above medium in size, 3⅛ in. long, 2 5/16 in. wide, variable in size, oblong-pyriform, irregular, usually with sides unequal; stem 1⅛ in. long, thick, curved; cavity very small and one-sided, russeted, often lipped; calyx large, open; lobes separated at the base, narrow, acuminate; basin obtuse, considerably furrowed; skin thin, tender, smooth, dull; color yellow, netted and sprinkled with russet especially on the exposed cheek; dots numerous, small, russet, somewhat obscure; flesh yellowish-white, granular, tender, buttery, very juicy, aromatic, with a rich, vinous flavor; quality very good. Core closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, narrow, conical; seeds wide, acute.

MOUNT VERNON

1.  Am. Jour. Hort. 3:144, figs. 1868. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 818. 1869. 3. Horticulturist 24:367, fig. 1869. 4. Ibid. 26:361. 1871. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 20. 1871. 6. Horticulturist 27:204. 1872. 7. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:256. 1903.

As a distinct type, and because the pears ripen at a season when there are few other varieties of this fruit, Mount Vernon has a prominent place in the list of worthy American pears. The top-shaped form and reddish-russet color give the pear a unique appearance, and with the greenish-yellow, granular, spicy, piquant flesh constitute very distinct characters in its quality. Unfortunately, the russet color is not well brought out in the accompanying color-plate. Lack of uniformity in shape and size are the chief defects in the appearance of the pears. The variety is valuable because it ripens its crop in early winter from which time, under good conditions, it may be kept until mid-winter, a season in which there are few good pears. The trees are unusually satisfactory in most of the characters of importance in a good pear-tree. The tree is vigorous but the head is small, with numerous, short, stocky branches, many of which droop. The aspect given the top by these peculiarities is quite distinct. The variety is worthy when a winter pear is wanted whether for home or market.

This pear, which is very distinct from any other variety, originated from a chance seedling in the garden of Samuel Walker, Roxbury, Massachusetts, at the end of the first half of the nineteenth century.

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, with many drooping branches, dense-topped, hardy, productive, long-lived; trunk stocky; branches thick, shaggy, reddish-brown, overcast with gray scarf-skin, marked by few large lenticels; branchlets thick, with short internodes, grayish-brown, smooth, glabrous, with a few large, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds variable in shape, usually free. Leaves 2½ in. long, 1½ in. wide, oval, medium to thick, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin crenate, tipped with rudimentary glands; petiole 1¼ in. long. Flower-buds large, long, conical or pointed, free; flowers 1⅜ in. across, in dense clusters, 7 to 9 buds in a cluster; pedicels ¾ in. long, slender, lightly pubescent, pale green, with a faint tinge of red.
Fruit ripe in late October and November; medium in size, 2½ in. long, 2⅛ in. wide, uniform in size, roundish-obtuse-pyriform, irregular, with unequal sides, variable in shape; stem 1 in. long, thick, usually curved; cavity obtuse, very shallow and narrow, russeted, furrowed, often very heavily lipped, so that the stem appears to be inserted under a fleshy enlargement; calyx open; lobes short, narrow, acute to acuminate; basin narrow, obtuse, smooth, usually symmetrical; skin granular, roughened by russet, dull; color light russet overspreading a greenish-yellow ground, with a brownish-red blush on the exposed cheek, dotted and netted with russet; dots numerous, small, russet, obscure; flesh white, with a faint tinge of yellow, often with a green tinge under the skin, granular, tender and melting, juicy, sweet, aromatic, with a vinous tendency; quality good to very good. Core large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds variable in size, wide, long, plump, acute, many abortive.

OLIVIER DE SERRES

1. Mas Le Verger 1:67, fig. 40. 1866-73. 2. Downing Fr. Trees. Am. 822. 1869. 3, Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:477, fig. 1869. 4. Tilton Jour. Hort. 9:377, fig. 1871. 5. Oberdieck Obst-Sort. 316. 1881. 6. Jour. Hort. 3rd Ser. 4:15, fig. 4. 1882. 7. Hogg Fruit Man. 624. 1884. 8. Gaucher Pom. Prak. Obst. No. 58, Pl. 51. 1894. 9. Deut. Obstsorten 5: Pt. 15, Pl. 1909.

This variety is rated in Europe as a delicious late-winter pear, and the pomological writers of the last century give it all of the virtues on this side of the Atlantic ascribed to it by Europeans. A closer study of the variety as grown in America shows that it does not possess the merits in this country given it by the French and English. The quality of the pear as grown in New York is below that of several other sorts of its season. The flesh is coarse and gritty and the flavor is mediocre. The tree-characters are good, but are not sufficiently good to offset the faults of the fruits.

Olivier de Serres was raised from seed of Fortunee about the middle of the nineteenth century by M. Boisbunel, Rouen, France. It fruited a few years later, but did not receive attention until about 1862. At that time it was brought to the notice of the French Society of Horticulture, and was pronounced a fruit of merit. At the suggestion of M. Boisbunel, it was named after the illustrious Frenchman, Olivier de Serres, who in France is called "The Father of Agriculture." It was brought to America about 1865.

Tree medium in size, vigorous, dense-topped, upright-spreading, productive; trunk and branches marked with numerous lenticels; branchlets slender, short, curved, with short internodes, light reddish-brown, tinged with green, sprinkled with scattering, inconspicuous, very small, raised lenticels. Leaf-buds small, short, sharply pointed, free; leaf-scars with prominent shoulders. Leaves 2¾ in. long, 1¼ in. wide; apex taper-pointed; margin glandular, finely serrate; petiole 2 in. long, slender. Flower-buds small, short, sharply pointed, free, singly on short spurs; flowers with an unpleasant odor, showy, 1 9/16 in. across; pedicels 1 in. long, thinly pubescent.
Fruit ripens January to March; medium in size, 2½ in. long, 2¾ in. wide, roundish-obtuse-pyriform, truncate at both ends, irregular in outline; stem variable in length, averaging ¾ in. long, thick, enlarged at the top, curved; cavity broad, slightly furrowed; calyx large, slightly open; basin variable in depth, furrowed; skin tender; color greenish-yellow, partly overspread with cinnamon-russet and sometimes with a dull blush on the exposed cheek; flesh whitish, variable in texture, juicy, varying from sweet to a brisk, vinous flavor; quality poor unless grown under the most favorable conditions.

ONONDAGA

1. Horticulturist 1:322, fig. 77. 1846-47. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 231. 1858. 3. Mas Le Verger 3: Pt. 1, 179, fig. 88. 1866-73. 4. Downing Fr, Trees Am. 823, fig. 1869. 5. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:480, fig. 1869. 6. Guide Prat. 74, 292. 1876. 7. Hogg Fruit Man. 625. 1884.
Swan's Orange. 8. Mag. Hort. 13:243, fig. 19. 1847. 9. Hovey Fr. Am. 1:21, Pl. 1851.

Some seventy or eighty years ago this pear was widely introduced under the names Onondaga and Swan's Orange, and for a generation and more was much grown in eastern pear regions. It has now practically passed from cultivation in commercial orchards, but is still to be found in collections and home plantings. The fruits are large, handsome, and of very good quality, resembling those of Bartlett in flavor and with even better flesh-characters. The trees are vigorous, hardy, fruitful almost ideal in every character but one. The tree is so susceptible to blight that the variety can never have commercial value in American orchards. Whether or not it is worth planting in home orchards depends upon the planter's willingness to suffer loss from blight.

It seems impossible to trace this variety to its ultimate source. We know, however, that Henry Case, Liverpool, New York, cut a graft during the winter of 1806 from a tree growing on land of a Mr. Curtiss at Farmington, Connecticut. In the spring of the same year, Mr. Case grafted this cion into a tree about three miles west of Onondaga Hill, New York, and in 1808 moved the tree to Liverpool where it grew and bore fruit. Many grafts were taken from this tree before it died in 1823. Up to this time, the variety appears to have received no name nor had it been generally disseminated. We hear nothing further of it until about 1840 when it was brought to notice by a Mr. Swan of Onondaga Hollow, who exhibited specimens of the variety in Rochester. Ellwanger and Barry were so impressed with the fruit that they secured cions and propagated it under the name Swan's Orange which they changed later to Onondaga. Onondaga was given a place in the American Pomological Society's fruit-catalog in 1858.

Tree medium in size, vigorous, spreading, open-topped, very productive; branches zigzag, reddish-brown, overspread with thin gray scarf-skin, marked with many large lenticels; branchlets slender, short, light brown, tinged with green and lightly streaked with ash-gray scarf-skin, dull, smooth, the new growth slightly pubescent, with small, raised, pinkish lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, sharply pointed, plump, free. Leaves 3 1/16 in. long, 1¼ in. wide, narrow, oval, stiff, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin coarsely but shallowly serrate, tipped with many reddish glands; petiole 1⅞ in. long, light green mingled with red; stipules often lacking but when present very small, pale green. Flower-buds small, short, conical, plump, free, arranged singly on very short spurs; blossoms 1⅛ in.across, in dense clusters, 7 to 8 buds in a cluster; pedicels pubescent, greenish.
Fruit ripe in early October; above medium to large, 2¾ in. long, 2½ in. wide, ovate or obovate-obtuse-pyriform, symmetrical, with unequal sides; stem ⅝ in. long, thick, curved; cavity a slight depression, with a fleshy enlargement at one side of the stem; calyx closed; lobes narrow, acute; basin narrow, obtuse, furrowed, uneven; skin granular, tender, smooth, dull; color pale yellow, with few lines of russet and with many russet spots; dots numerous, small, russet, conspicuous; flesh yellowish, granular both near the skin and at the center, melting, buttery, very juicy, aromatic, with a sweet, rich, vinous flavor; quality very good. Core large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube long, conical; seeds narrow, long, acute.

[Description in 1862 U.S. Commmissioner of Agriculture Report.]

ONTARIO

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 200, fig. 1856, 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 529. 1857. 3. Horticulturist N. S. 7:112, fig. 1857. 4. Mag. Hort. 23:110, fig. 3. 1857. 5. Mas Le Verger 3: Pt. 2, 85, fig. 139. 1866-73. 6. Horticulturist 23:331, fig. 102. 1868. 7. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 824. 1869. 8. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 463, fig. 672. 1897.

This variety was introduced nearly seventy years ago with the expectation that the crop would follow that of Bartlett and be in as great demand. While the variety did not come up to expectations, it seems to have been too good to discard, and is to be found in many collections in New York. The fruits are of the type of Bartlett, but are smaller and usually lack the blush found on the fruits of Bartlett. The trees are very satisfactory. The variety fails chiefly in the small size of the fruits, although these are not as small as the rather poor specimens illustrated in the accompanying plate, which were grown on the grounds of this Station where the pears run below the average.

This variety was raised from seed of Canandaigua in the nurseries of W. and T. Smith, Geneva, Ontario County, New York, and was first introduced at the meeting of the American Pomological Society, Rochester, New York, in 1856.

Tree large, vigorous, upright, open-topped, hardy, productive; trunk stocky; branches thick, roughish, dull reddish-brown, overspread with dark ash-gray scarf-skin, marked by small lenticels; branchlets thick, very short, with short internodes, light brown mingled with green, smooth, glabrous, with small, raised, conspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, pointed, free. Leaves 2 in. long, 1½ in. wide, oval, thin, leathery, slightly curled under along the margins; apex abruptly pointed; margin glandular toward the apex, very finely serrate; petiole 1½ in. long. Flower-buds small, short, conical or pointed, plump, free, singly or in small clusters on short branches or very short spurs; flowers 1⅛ in. across, in a scattering raceme, from 8 to 10 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1¼ in. long, slender, pubescent, light green.
Fruit in season from the middle to the last of September; medium in size, 2½ in. long, 1⅞ in. wide, uniform in size and shape, oblong-pyriform, with sides usually unequal; stem ¾ in. long, thick; cavity obtuse, shallow, narrow, often russeted and lipped; calyx open; lobes separated at the base, narrow, acute; basin shallow to medium, obtuse, gently furrowed, sometimes compressed; skin smooth, dull; color pale yellow, with small patches and streaks of light-colored russet; dots numerous, very small, russet, obscure; flesh whitish, with a yellow tinge at the core, granular, firm but tender, juicy, sweet, slightly aromatic; quality good. Core closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds large, wide, long, plump, acute.

P. BARRY

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 38. 1875. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 2d App. 152, fig. 1876. 3. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 18. 1882. 4. Wickson Cal. Fruits 340. 1889. 5. Ellwanger & Barry Cat. 20. 1892.  6. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 17, 68. 1895. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 41. 1909. 8. Wickson Cal. Fruits 273. 1919.

The fruits of P. Barry are among the latest of all the pears grown on the grounds of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station. They do not ripen here until mid-winter and then keep until spring. A serious defect is that they sometimes refuse to ripen but shrivel until decay sets in late in the spring. To make certain that the pears ripen properly, the fruit-room must not be too cold. The pears are excellent in flavor, have good flesh-characters, and when properly ripened are excelled in quality by no other winter pear. The variety should have a place in the collection of every pear fancier to extend the season for this fruit, and commercial pear growers might find it a profitable sort for local market. Unfortunately, the trees are small, fastidious as to environment, and somewhat uncertain in bearing.

Bernard S. Fox, San Jose, California, raised many pears from seed of Belle Lucrative. Among these seedlings was one which fruited in 1873 and was named P. Barry, in honor of Patrick Barry, an eminent nurseryman and horticulturist of Rochester, New York. Of many scores of seedlings raised by Mr. Pox only this one, Fox, and Colonel Wilder were considered by the originator to be worthy of propagation. All these received Wilder medals from the American Pomological Society in 1875 and 1881. In 1909, this Society added P. Barry to its catalog-list of fruits.

Tree variable in size, lacking in vigor, spreading, open-topped, unusually hardy, medium in productiveness; trunk slender; branches stocky, zigzag, reddish-brown mingled with gray scarf-skin, marked with large lenticels; branchlets slender, long, with long internodes, reddish-brown, smooth, glabrous, with few small, very slightly raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, conical, free. Leaves 1¾ in. long, 1⅛ in. wide, leathery; apex abruptly pointed; margin finely serrate, tipped with few glands; petiole 1½ long. Flower-buds small, short, somewhat obtuse, free; flowers open late, 1¼ in. across, well distributed, averaging 7 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1 in. long, slender, slightly pubescent, pale green.
Fruit matures in late December to February; variable in size, averaging 2¾ in. long, 2¼ in. wide, oblong-obtuse-pyriform, irregular, with unequal sides; stem 1 in. long, thick, curved; cavity obtuse, narrow, furrowed, compressed, often lipped; calyx small, open; lobes separated at the base, short, narrow, obtuse; basin shallow, narrow, obtuse, smooth and regular; skin variable in smoothness, dull; color rich yellow, many specimens almost entirely overspread with russet or with russet coating around the cavity and with russet nettings and patches; dots numerous, small, russet, conspicuous; flesh yellowish-white, fine, melting, sweet, juicy, with a rich, vinous, aromatic flavor; quality good. Core large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, conical; seeds large, wide, long, plump, acute.

PASSE COLMAR

1. Trans. Lond. Hort. Soc. 5:410. 1824. 2. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 403. 1831. 3. Prince Pom. Man. 1:101. 1831. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 444, fig. 205. 1845. 5. Gard. Chron. 185, fig. 1845. 6. Mag. Hort. 15:445, fig. 39. 1849. 7. Gard. Chron. 989. 1861. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 70. 1862. 9. Pom. France 1: No. 2, Pl. 2. 1863. 10. Mas Le Verger 1:121, fig. 59. 1866-73. 11. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:499, figs. 1869. 12. Guide Prat. 60, 293. 1876. 13. Hogg Fruit Man. 627. 1884. 14. Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom. 436, fig. 1904.
Preul's Colmar. 15. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 104. 1825. 
Regentin. 16. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:103. 1856. 17. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 268. 1889. 18. Gaucher Pom. Prak. Obst. No. 61, Pl. 88. 1894.

Little known in America, this is one of the standard winter pears in England. The fruits are exceedingly sugary, mildly spiced with cinnamon, a flavor so unique, especially when compared with the piquant flavor most common in winter pears, that the variety is worth growing where it succeeds for the sake of diversity. The chief fault of the variety is variability of product. On unsuitable soils and under indifferent care, the pears are unattractive and poor in quality. The accompanying illustration, it is to be feared, shows the variety at its worst rather than at its best, since it does not thrive on the heavy, cold clay of the Station lands. Under conditions at this Station, the flesh is crisp and gritty, rather than buttery and fine as it seems to be under more suitable conditions. The trees are very vigorous on standard stocks and heavy soils, with the result that the fruits are many but small and poor; checking vigor by dwarfing on quince or planting on poor soil suits the variety. The trees are hardy and as free as the average pear from blight. The variety is a good winter sort for home or market.

This variety was raised in 1758 at Mons by the Abbé Hardenpont, the Belgian priest and horticulturist. Extensively cultivated in Belgium, it acquired a great diversity of names in different localities. From that country it passed first to Germany toward the end of the eighteenth century, and early in the nineteenth was taken to France. Soon after the close of the Napoleonic wars, about 1817, it was received in England. Within a few years after its introduction in England, the variety found its way to America where, for a time, it was quite extensively grown. The American Pomological Society added Passe Colmar to its fruit-list in 1862 but dropped it in 1899.

Tree medium in size, vigorous, upright, tall, rapid-growing, productive; trunk slender; branches medium in thickness and smoothness, reddish-brown almost entirely overspread with thick, gray scarf-skin, marked by large, conspicuous lenticels; branchlets thick, long, light brown mingled with green, dull, smooth, pubescent only near the ends of the new growth, sprinkled with few small, raised, inconspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds short, plump, free, thick at the base; leaf-scars with prominent shoulders. Leaves 3 in. long, 1½ in. wide, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin tipped with few small glands, finely serrate to nearly entire; petiole 2 in. long, glabrous, pinkish-green. Flower-buds small, short, thick, conical, plump, free, singly as lateral buds or on very short spurs; flowers late, showy, 1¾ in. across, unusually large, in dense clusters, average 6 buds in a cluster; pedicels ¾ in. long, thick, thinly pubescent.
Fruit ripe December to January; medium in size, 2½ in. long, 2⅛ in. wide, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, somewhat irregular; stem 1 in. long, very thick; cavity obtuse, shallow, narrow, russeted, slightly furrowed; calyx partly open; lobes separated at the base, rather narrow, acute; basin shallow, narrow, obtuse, gently furrowed; skin thick, granular, tender, roughish; color greenish-yellow, sprinkled with reddish-brown and russet patches and nettings; dots numerous, small, russet, obscure; flesh tinged with yellow, granular, tender, buttery, very juicy, sweet, vinous, aromatic; quality very good. Core large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds large, wide, plump, acute.

PITMASTON

1.  Can. Hort. 26:129, fig. 2564. 1903. 2. Ont. Dept. Agr. Fr. Ont. 173, fig. 1914.
Pitmaston Duchesse d'Angoulême. 3. Gard. Chron. 1108, fig. 1864. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 55. 1871.
Pitmaston Duchess. 5. Jour. Hort. N. S. 18:11, fig. 1870. 6. Tilton Jour. Hort. 7:239, fig. 1870. 7. Jour. Hort. N. S. 38:201, fig. 30. 1880. 8. Hogg Fruit Man. 631. 1884. 9. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 4:608. 1888. 10. Rev. Hort. 196, 651. 1900. 11. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 193. 1920.

Although this fine old English pear has more than ordinary merit, it seems to be little grown in America. In appearance, the pears are unsurpassed. The accompanying color-plate shows the shape and color very well, but not the size, as, well grown, the pears are larger. From the illustration, all must agree that the pears are handsome, fruits of few other sorts being so alluring in shape and color. On warm soils or in warm seasons, the flavor is choicely good giving the pears a rating of "good to very good;" but in cold soils and seasons, the flavor is often austere, or even acid and astringent. The season prolongs that of Bartlett, and as the fruits are flavored very differently, being more piquant and refreshing, and are ordinarily larger and handsomer, Pitmaston ought to make a good market variety where it thrives. The subacid flavor makes this one of the very best pears for culinary purposes. Such reports as are at hand state that the fruits keep and ship well. The variety seems not to have been grown widely in America, so that one cannot speak with assurance of the tree-characters; but on the grounds of this Station, the trees have fewer faults than those of most of the standard varieties. They are hardy, vigorous, fairly immune to blight, and while but moderately productive, bear annually, and the large size of the fruits makes them high yielders. The variety should be put on probation by those who grow for the markets, and is well worthy a place in all home orchards.

[I was never able to fruit Pitmaston in North Carolina. I grafted three trees on OHxF 513 rootstock, one died in the nursery from fireblight, another died of the same cause upon its first year of blossoming and the third a couple of years later. Another serious and unusual fault of Pitmaston is that it has very brittle wood, especially at the crotches. Attempts to spread the limbs to encourage fruiting resulted in loss of those limbs, which split cleanly from the trunk. I don't recommend this cultivar for the Southeastern U.S. -ASC]

Pitmaston was raised by John Williams at Pitmaston, near Worcester, England, in 1841. It has been generally stated that it originated from a cross between Duchesse d'Angoulême and Glou Morceau, although an old gardener, who was employed by Mr. Williams, stated that there was no record whatever of its parentage, but that it was the best of a number of seedlings. For some time it was known as the Pitmaston Duchesse d'Angoulême on account of the theory of its derivation in part from the Duchesse d'Angoulême; but in 1870 its name was simplified in England to Pitmaston Duchess. In 1874 it obtained a first-class certificate from the Royal Horticultural Society, England. In this country it was first fruited by John Saul, Washington, District of Columbia, in 1870, and was noted and illustrated by Elliott in the Rural New Yorker under the name Pitmaston Duchesse d' Angoulême. Although favorably mentioned several times by the American Pomological Society, the variety has never received a place in the Society's fruit-catalog.

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, dense-topped, moderately productive; trunk stocky, shaggy; branches thick, slightly zigzag, reddish-brown, overlaid with very dark grayish scarf-skin, marked with numerous large lenticels; branchlets long, dull, dark reddish-brown, roughish, glabrous, with numerous small, raised, conspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds short, obtuse, appressed; leaf-scars prominent. Leaves 2½ in. long, 1½ in. wide, leathery; apex abruptly pointed; margin finely serrate; petiole 1¾ in. long. Flower-buds short, conical, pointed, free; flowers showy, 1¾ in. across, well distributed, average 7 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1 in. long, pubescent.
Fruit ripe in October; large, 3¾ in. long, 3 in. wide, oblong-obovate-pyriform, symmetrical ; stem 1 in. long, thick, often curved; cavity very shallow and very narrow, or lacking, the flesh drawn up in a wrinkled fold around the base of the stem, often lipped; calyx closed, large; lobes long, broad, acute; basin shallow, obtuse, furrowed and wrinkled; skin thin, granular, smooth, tender, dull; color pale lemon-yellow, dotted and somewhat patched with light russet especially around the stem, without blush; dots numerous, small, russet, conspicuous; flesh tinged with yellow, somewhat granular, melting, buttery, very juicy, piquant and vinous; quality good to very good. Core large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds narrow, long, flat, acute, very often abortive.

Scion Source

POUNDPound small

1. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 209, fig. 63. 1817. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 1:149. 1831. 3. Kenrick Am. Orch. 151. 1832. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 445. 1845. 5. Ibid. 835. 1869. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 22. 1871. 7. Wickson Cat. Fruits 326, 338, 344. 1889.
Pickering. 8. Langley Pomona 133, Pl. 71, fig. 1. 1729.
Union. 9. Miller Gard. Kal. 31, 54. 1734. 10. Miller Gard. Dict. 2: Pt. 1. 1807.
Uvedales St. Germain. 11. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 413. 1831. 12. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 70. 1862. 13. Hogg Fruit Man. 657. 1884. 14. Jour. Hort. 3rd Ser. 13:465. 1886. 15. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 202. 1920.
Bruderbirne. 16. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:148. 1856.
Winter Bell. 17. Watson Am. Home Gard. 404, fig. 264. 1859.
Belle Angevine. 18. Gard. Chron. 979. 1860. 19. Mas Le Verger 1:31 bis, fig. 20. 1866-73. 20. Gard. Chron. 138. 1869. 21. Guide Prat. 61, 233. 1876.
Schöne Angevine. 22. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 279. 1889.

Pound is grown in collections for its monstrous fruits, which have few virtues other than large size. The pears not infrequently weigh three pounds, and one is noted in the next paragraph weighing four pounds, nine ounces. The pears are coarse in form, texture and flavor but one degree better in flavor than the potato-like fruits of Kieffer and even more sappy. The pears keep well and are said to be fairly good for culinary purposes. The trees are unusually satisfactory, because of which the variety should make a good parent from which to breed.

[I managed to fruit three trees of 'Belle Angevine'/'Pound' grafted onto OHxF 513 rootstock in two different North Carolina orchards. The fruits are extremely large and cook well into a pink sauce. We made some fine pear pies from those fruit, though no better than pies from other cultivars. The trees are quite blight susceptible and within 10 years all trees were dead from blight. They also rarely made seed, thus, I must disagree with Dr. Hedrick regarding their value in breeding. I don't recommend this cultivar for the Southeastern U.S. -ASC]

The name "Pound" has been applied to a number of varieties, notably Black Worcester, Angora, Verulam, and others. The variety now known as Pound in America is more generally known in Europe as Belle Angevine or Uvedale's St. Germain. This sort appears to have been raised by a Dr. Uvedale, who was a schoolmaster at Eltham, England, in 1690. Miller in his Dictionary, in 1724, speaks of him as a Dr. Udal of Enfield, "a curious collector and introducer of many rare exotics, plants and flowers," and Bradley, in 1733, speaks of the pear as "Dr. Udale's great pear, called by some the Union pear." William Robert Prince mentions the Pound pear in 1831 saying that "it often weighs from twenty-five to thirty ounces, and one was exhibited in New Jersey about four years since, weighing forty and a half ounces." In 1870, according to Wickson, a Pound pear sent from Sacramento to the late Marshall P. Wilder, President of the American Pomological Society, weighed four pounds and nine ounces. In 1862, the American Pomological Society added this variety to its fruit-catalog under the name Uvedale's St. Germain, but in 1871 changed the name to Pound. The name continued to appear in the Society's catalogs until 1909 when it was dropped.

Tree medium in size, upright, dense-topped, hardy, very productive; trunk stocky, shaggy; branches thick, shaggy, zigzag, dull reddish-brown, heavily covered with gray scarf-skin, marked with many large lenticels; branchlets short, with short internodes, brownish-red, mottled with gray scarf-skin, smooth, glabrous, with few small, elongated lenticels.
Leaf-buds large, long, conical or pointed, plump, free; leaf-scars prominent. Leaves 4¼ in. long, 3¼ in. wide, ovate, thin, stiff; apex taper-pointed; margin glandular, finely serrate; petiole 1¾ in. long, slender. Flower-buds large, long, conical or pointed, very plump, free, usually singly on short spurs; flowers open early, 1⅜ in. across, large, well distributed, average 7 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1½ in. long, pubescent, pale green.
Fruit matures in February; large, 4 in. long, 2⅞ in. wide, uniform in size and shape, obovate-acute-pyriform, with unequal sides; stem long, thick, curved; cavity obtuse, very shallow, narrow, russeted, furrowed, drawn up in a fleshy ring about the stem; calyx large, open; lobes separated at the base, obtuse; basin shallow, narrow, obtuse, slightly furrowed, symmetrical; skin thick, tough, with patches of russet, dull, roughened by the dots and by the russet markings; color golden-yellow, often marked on the exposed cheek with a bronze or pinkish blush; dots numerous, russet, very conspicuous; flesh yellowish, firm, granular, very tough, subacid, inferior in flavor; quality very poor. Core large, closed, axile, with meeting core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; carpels pear-shaped; seeds very large, brownish-black, wide, long, acuminate.

PRÉSIDENT DROUARD

1. Gard. Chron. N. S. 25:431. 1886. 2. Guide Prat. 51. 1895. 3. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 331, fig. 1906.
Président Drouard. 4. Lucas Tafelbirnen 211, fig. 1894.
Drouard. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 35. 1899. 6. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:241. 1903. 7. Mich. Sta. Sp. Bul. 27:22. 1903.

President Drouard has been on probation in the United States for nearly thirty years, but does not seem to be in great demand in any part of the country. In the pear-growing region of New York to which it first came, it is scarcely known. The accompanying description shows that the fruits contain all of the requisites of a good pear. The flesh is juicy, melting, saccharine, rich, and perfumed. The trees, however, are not satisfactory. They lack vigor, blight badly, and are niggardly in bearing. With these faults, there is no place for the variety in commercial plantations, but it may well be planted in home orchards and in collections.

President Drouard is a chance seedling found in the suburbs of Pont-de-Ce, Maine-et-Loire, France, by M. Olivier, gardener at the Fruit-Garden at Angers. It was sent out by M. Louis Leroy of Angers and was described in 1886 as a new pear. It seems to have been introduced in this country by Charles A. Green, Rochester, New York. The American Pomological Society added the variety to its list of fruits under the name Drouard in 1899.

Tree of medium size, spreading, open-topped, usually hardy; branches reddish-brown, nearly covered with gray scarf-skin, marked with small lenticels; branchlets thick, long, greenish-brown mingled with red, dull, smooth, pubescent on the new growth, with numerous small, brownish, raised, conspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, pointed, plump, free; leaf-scars with very prominent shoulders; Leaves 3 in. long, 1¾ in. wide, oval, thick, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin glandless or with but few glands, entire or closely serrate; petiole glabrous, greenish, thick, 1⅝ in. long, tinged red; stipules very short, tinged with pink. Flower-buds short, conical, very plump, free, arranged singly on short spurs; flowers 1⅜ in. across, in dense clusters, 6 to 9 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1⅛ in. long, lightly pubescent, greenish.
Fruit in season from late November to December; large, 3½ in. long, 3 in. wide, oblong-obovate-pyriform, with unequal sides, uniform in shape; stem 1 in. long, very thick and woody; cavity obtuse, deep, irregular, furrowed, usually lipped; calyx large, open; lobes separated at the base, long, narrow, acuminate; basin deep, abrupt, usually smooth but sometimes gently furrowed; skin thick, tough, rough, dull; color clear lemon-yellow, with nettings and streaks of russet; dots numerous, small, russet, obscure; flesh tinged with yellow, very granular at the core, tender and melting, buttery, juicy, aromatic, sweet; quality good. Core large, closed, axile, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds large, wide, long, plump, acute, occasionally abortive.

REEDER

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 40. 1883. 2. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:260. 1903.
Reeder's Seedling. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 150. 1867.
Doctor Reeder. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 739, fig. 1869. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 20. 1871.
Docteur Rhéder. 6. Rev. Hort. 87. 1889.

Reeder is another of the pears too good to discard, and not quite good enough to give an ardent recommendation. In quality, the fruits rank but little below those of Seckel; are about the same size as grown under average conditions; but are even duller and less attractive in color than the modest fruits of Seckel, which is probably one of its parents. The fruits have a place in the home and markets as a pear to follow Seckel, the crop coming in season just after that of Seckel passes out. The trees do poorly in the nursery, as they make but a short, slender growth until well established in the orchard, after which they become of medium size but very vigorous. The branches droop as do those of Winter Nelis, the other parent, although not so markedly. The variety is as nearly blight-proof as either of its parents.

Reeder is a seedling raised about 1855 by Dr. Henry Reeder, Varick, New York, from seed of Winter Nelis. The parent tree stood near a Seckel and it is considered that Reeder is a cross between the two varieties. The American Pomological Society added the variety to its fruit-catalog in 1871 under the name Doctor Reeder, but in 1883 changed the name to Reeder.

Tree medium in size, vigorous, spreading, drooping, open-topped, productive; branches zigzag, reddish-brown partly overspread with gray scarf-skin, sprinkled with numerous lenticels; branchlets slender, willowy, long, reddish-brown mingled with gray, the new growth reddish-green, dull, smooth, glabrous except near the tips of the new growth, with few very small, inconspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, pointed, appressed. Leaves 2¾ in. long, 1¼ in, wide, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin crenate to nearly entire; petiole 2 in. long, tinged with red; stipules few, very small, reddish-green. Flower-buds small, short, conical, free, singly on short spurs; flowers 1¼ in. across, in dense clusters, average 9 buds in a cluster; pedicels ¾ in. long, slender.
Fruit ripe in October and November; small, 1¾ in. long, 1⅞ in. wide, globular-obtuse-pyriform, slightly ribbed and irregular; stem 1¼ in. long, slender, curved; cavity a very small depression in which is inserted the base of the stem, symmetrical; calyx large, open; lobes separated at the base, long, narrow, reflexed, acuminate; basin very shallow and narrow, smooth; skin thick, smooth, tender; color dull greenish-yellow, mottled and streaked with russet, blushed faintly on the exposed cheek with brownish-red; dots few, small, obscure, greenish or russet; flesh white, granular toward the center but fine-grained near the skin, tender, somewhat stringy, very juicy, aromatic; quality good. Core large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube long, narrow, funnel-shaped; seeds unusually large, wide, long, plump, acute.

RIEHL BEST
1. Stark Bros. Cat. 18. 1912. 2. Ibid. 55. 1916.

Riehl Best is described among the major varieties because it is as nearly blight-proof as any other European pear. It might well be tried in localities where standard sorts cannot be raised because of blight, and is worth growing in breeding work as a parent to obtain blight-resistant varieties. The pears are rather unattractive in appearance, but are excellent in quality. The flesh is juicy, tender, vinous, free from grittiness and seldom rots at the core. The trees, besides being nearly free from blight, are hardy to heat and cold, and bear annually. The fruits fall far short of those of standard varieties in New York.

This pear was discovered by Edwin H. Riehl, Godfrey, Illinois, and was introduced by Stark Brothers, Louisiana, Missouri. Mr. Riehl says: "The farm on which the original tree stood was owned by a pioneer nurseryman who evidently imported from France a number of varieties, some perhaps without name. Riehl Best trees and several hundreds of other varieties represent the remains of three old orchards planted fifty years ago. Trees of other varieties are ruined by blight while Riehl Best is in perfect health and bears every season/' From this history it is probable that Riehl Best is an old European pear renamed.

Tree large, vigorous, upright, dense-topped, rapid-growing, productive; trunk stocky; branches thick, light reddish-brown, overspread with thin scarf-skin, marked with large, conspicuous, numerous lenticels; branchlets slender, often willowy, long, greenish-brown, dull, smooth, pubescent only near the ends of the new growth, sprinkled with small, slightly raised, inconspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, pointed, plump, free; leaf-scars with prominent shoulders. Leaves 3 in. long, 1¾ in. wide, thick; apex abruptly pointed; margin glandless, variable in serrations; petiole 2 in. long. Flower-buds small, short, conical, plump, free, singly on short spurs; flowers 1⅝ in. across, in dense clusters, average 6 buds in a cluster; pedicels ⅞ in. long, lightly pubescent.
Fruit ripens in October; medium in size, 2½ in. long, 2 in. wide, obovate-conic-pyriform, irregular, with unequal sides; stem 1⅛ in. long; cavity very shallow and narrow when present, or lacking, the flesh drawn up in a lip on one side of the stem; calyx open; lobes separated at the base, broad, obtuse; basin obtuse, furrowed; skin thick, roughened with russet; color dull yellow, largely overlaid with patches of russet, marked with distinct russet dots and with a faint trace of a pinkish-red blush on the cheek next the sun; dots numerous, russet, conspicuous; flesh tinged with yellow, granular under the skin, tender, moderately juicy, vinous; quality good. Core large, closed, axile, with meeting core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; carpels ovate; seeds medium in size, width, and plumpness, obtuse.

ROOSEVELT

1. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 37:243, fig. 92. 1905. 2. Rev. Hort. 454. 1905. 3. Rural N. Y. 54:826, fig, 352. 1905. 4. Bunyard Cat. 43. 1913-14. 5. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 195. 1920.

This variety is still on probation in America, with the chances strongly against it proving worthy to bear the name of the man after whom it was called. On the grounds of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station, the fruits are too small, too poorly colored, and too poor in quality to compete with those of a score of other sorts of the same season. The core is remarkably small, and the seeds are few and small, but these are insufficient merits to count against the several defects named. The tree is robust and generally satisfactory. The variety may not be at its best on the grounds of this Station, as in Europe it was heralded as a most remarkable sort one "destined to bring about a revolution in pear-growing." It may be worth further trial in New York.

This pear was introduced in 1905 by the noted French pomologist Charles Baltet, Troyes, France, after he had tested it for several years. He named it after President Roosevelt. The variety was approved at Horticultural Congresses in Paris, Lyons, and Orleans, as well as by the Royal Horticultural Society of London. It was received in America shortly after its dissemination in France.

Tree medium to large, vigorous, very upright, dense-topped, rapid-growing, productive; trunk slender, smooth; branches slender, smooth, glossy reddish-brown, mottled and overlaid with gray scarf-skin, marked with numerous small, raised lenticels; branchlets characteristically thick, with blunt ends, long, with short internodes, dull reddish-brown mingled with gray scarf-skin, smooth, glabrous, with many large, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds long, conical, sharply pointed, plump, free; leaf-scars with prominent shoulders. Leaves 3 in. long, 1⅜ in. wide, stiff; apex taper-pointed; margin usually glandless, finely serrate to almost entire; petiole 2 in. long, slender, curved. Flower-buds large, long, conical, pointed, free, singly on short spurs; flowers with a disagreeable odor, early, showy, 1⅝ in.across, in dense clusters, average 7 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1⅛ in. long, thick, pubescent.
Fruit ripens in late September and October; medium in size, about 2 7/16 in. in length and width, roundish-obtuse-pyriform, symmetrical; stem 1 in. long, thick; cavity very shallow, or lacking, faintly lipped; calyx very open, large; lobes separated at the base, narrow, acute; basin shallow, wide, obtuse, smooth, symmetrical; skin unusually thick, tough, smooth, dull; color pale lemon-yellow, mottled and netted with russet, with a faint blush; dots numerous, small, light russet, obscure; flesh light salmon, fine-grained except at the center which is granular, tender and melting, very juicy, mildly sweet, without much character; quality medium. Core small, closed, axile, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube long, very wide, conical; carpels cordate; seeds wide, acute.

RUTTER

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 151. 1867. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 24. 1869. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 848, fig. 1869.

Rutter does not seem to have made a very high place for itself in the country at large, but about Geneva, New York, it is a most excellent late autumn variety. The pears are good or very good in quality, rather attractive, keep well, ship well, and sell well to those who know the variety. The trees have a combination of good characters that commend them most highly. Thus, they are comparatively immune to blight, enormously productive, bear early, grow rapidly, live long, and are hardy. The fruits hang exceptionally well to the trees, so that the variety is a valuable one for exposed situations. Rutter can be recommended for both home and market plantations.

This variety was raised by John Rutter, West Chester, Pennsylvania, from seed of Léon Leclerc (Van Mons) about sixty years ago. It was approved by the Committee on New Native Fruits of the American Pomological Society in 1867. This Society placed the variety on its list of recommended fruits in 1869.

Tree large, vigorous, upright, dense-topped, rapid-growing, productive; trunk stocky; branches thick, reddish-brown, covered with gray scarf-skin, sprinkled with very conspicuous lenticels; branchlets long, light brown mingled with green and streaked with ash-gray scarf-skin, smooth, glabrous, with small, conspicuous, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds long, conical, pointed, plump, free. Leaves 3⅜ in. long, 1⅝ in. wide, thick, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin nearly glandless, almost entire; petiole 2 in. long, glabrous, reddish-green. Flower-buds medium in size and length, conical, plump, free, singly on short spurs; flowers very showy, 1⅜ in.across, almost in racemes, 6 or 8 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1¼ in. long, pubescent.
Fruit matures in late October and early November; large, 3⅛ in. long, 3 in. wide, roundish-obtuse-pyriform, with a very thick, blunt neck, with unequal sides; stem ¾ in. long, thick, woody; cavity acuminate, unusually large, deep, russeted, occasionally furrowed and wrinkled, slightly lipped; calyx small, open; lobes separated at the base, short, narrow, acute; basin deep, obtuse, smooth, symmetrical; skin thick, gritty, roughish, dull; color yellow, overspread with light russet, mottled and flecked with russet; dots numerous, small, russet, conspicuous; flesh whitish, granular at the center, tender and melting, juicy, aromatic, sweet but refreshing; quality good to very good. Core small, closed, abaxile, with meeting core-lines; calyx-tube long, conical; seeds small, roundish, plump, obtuse.

SECKEL

1. Prince Pom. Man. 1:139. 1831. 2. Kenrick Am. Orch. 183. 1832. 3. Card. Chron. 708, fig. 1842. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 415, fig. 188. 1845. 5. Proc. Nat. Con. Fr. Gr. 51. 1848. 6. Hovey Fr. Am. 2:33, Pl. 1851. 7. Mag. Hort. 19:457, fig. 34. 1853. 8. Mas Le Verger 3: Pt. 1, 29, fig. 13. 1866-73. 9. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:656, figs. 1869. 10. Guide Prat. 63, 303. 1876.
Seckle. 11. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 189, fig. 25. 1817. 12. Trans. Lond. Hort. Soc. 3:256, Pl. 9. 1820. 13. Pom. Mag. 2:72, Pl. 1829. 14. Hort. Reg. (Eng.) 1:488. 1833. 15. Pom. France 2: No. 64, Pl. 64. 1864. 16. Jour. Hort. 3rd Ser. 4:128. 1882. 17. Hogg Fruit Man. 644. 1884. 18. Bunyard Handb. Hardy Fr. 197. 1920.

Seckel is an American pear distinct in type from any European variety. Among the several hundred pears that are grown on this side of the Atlantic, Seckel stands almost alone in vigor of tree, productiveness, and immunity to blight, and is equalled by no other variety in high quality of fruit. If the fruits were larger, Seckel would challenge the world as a pear for the markets as it now does as a pear for the home orchard. After Bartlett and the disreputable Kieffer, it is now more grown than any other variety in America, everywhere being used as the standard for excellence. The fruits are small, not highly colored, but attractive because clean and trim in contour. But it is the flesh-characters that give the fruits their high standing. The flesh is melting, juicy, perfumed and most exquisitely and delicately flavored, with the curious character of having much of its spicy, aromatic flavor in the skin, which should never be discarded in eating. The reddish-brown color of the fruit is another distinguishing character of Seckel. Unlike most other dessert pears, the fruits of this one are excellent for culinary purposes. Still another distinctive character is that the fruits do not lose much in quality by ripening on the tree. Besides being nearly iron-clad in resistance to blight and very productive, the trees are almost as hardy as those of any other pear, and are remarkable for their large, low, compact, broadly pyramidal tops. The tree is further distinguished by its short-jointed, stout, olive-colored wood, and its habit of bearing fruits in clusters on the ends of the branches. The trees do best in fertile soils which must not be a heavy clay. Its blossoms are markedly self-fertile. There are several faults of fruit and tree. The fruits are small and do not keep after maturity; it costs twice as much to pick them as it does the large-fruited Bartlett; fruit and foliage are susceptible to scab; the pears are too small for commercial canning; and the trees are late in coming in bearing. With these several faults, however, Seckel is usually a profitable commercial variety as a well-grown crop almost always commands a fancy price. For the home orchard, Seckel has no rival in any part of North America where European varieties are grown.

Toward the close of the eighteenth century, there lived in Philadelphia a well-known sportsman and cattle dealer known as "Dutch Jacob." Every autumn, upon returning from shooting excursions, Dutch Jacob distributed among his neighbors pears of exceedingly delicious flavor. The place of their growth he kept secret. In time, a tract of land south of Philadelphia was disposed of in parcels, and Dutch Jacob secured the ground on which his favorite pear tree stood, a neck of land near the Delaware river. Shortly afterwards this land became the property of a Mr. Seckel, who gave the pear his name and introduced it. Later, the property was added to the estate of Stephen Girard, and the original tree long remained vigorous and fruitful. The new variety was soon widely disseminated and everywhere became popular. As early as 1819, Dr. Hossack of New York sent trees of the variety to the London Horticultural Society, whence it was later distributed in England. There is much difference of opinion as to the spelling of the name of this pear. Coxe, who lived in Philadelphia and probably knew the introducer of the pear, writing in 1817, spelled the name Seckle. English pomologists have followed Coxe. Nearly all of Coxe's contemporaries, however, spelled it Seckel, the spelling now in common use. At the first meeting of the American Pomological Society, held in 1848, Seckel was recommended for general cultivation and the variety has ever held its place among the pears recommended by the Society.

Tree large and very vigorous, upright-spreading, dense-topped, hardy, very productive, long-lived; trunk very stocky; branches thick, reddish-brown mingled with dull gray scarf-skin, covered with small lenticels; branchlets thick, long, dark reddish-brown, dull, smooth, glabrous, with small, slightly raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, obtuse or pointed, appressed; leaf-scars prominent. Leaves 2½ in. long, 1½ in. wide, oval, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin finely serrate; petiole 1½ in. long; stipules very long when present. Flower-buds small, short, conical, free; flowers 1¼ in. across, in dense clusters, 7 or 8 buds in a cluster; pedicels ⅝ in. long, slender, lightly pubescent, light green, slightly streaked with red.
Fruit ripe in October; small, 2¼ in. long, 2 in. wide, uniform in size and shape, obovate, symmetrical; stem ½ in. long, short, thick, often curved; cavity obtuse, with a very shallow, narrow depression, symmetrical; calyx small, partly open; lobes separated at the base, short, variable in width, acute; basin very shallow and narrow, strongly obtuse, symmetrical; skin smooth, dull; color yellowish-brown, lightly marked with pale russet and often with a lively russet-red cheek; dots numerous, very small, russet or grayish; flesh white, with a faint tinge of yellow, slightly granular, melting, buttery, very juicy; sweet, with an exceedingly rich, aromatic, spicy flavor; quality very good to best. Core small, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, conical; seeds small, short, not very plump, obtuse.

[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

SHELDON

1. Mag. Hort. 17:252, fig. 25. 1851. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 151. 1854. 3. Ibid. 210. 1856. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 444, fig. 1857. 5. Elliott Fr. Book 347. 1859. 6. Hoffy N. Am. Pom. 1: Pl. 1860. 7. Mas Le Verger 3: Pt. 2, 119, fig. 156. 1866-73. 8. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 855, fig. 1869. 9. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:662, fig. 1869.

Were the fruits alone to be considered, Sheldon would take rank as one of the best of all pears. The fruits please both the eye and the palate. Those of no rival in season surpass them either in appearance or in characters that satisfy taste. While not large, the fruits are of sufficient size to meet the demands of a good dessert pear. The shape is a perfect turbinate, truncated at the base of the fruit, usually very symmetrical, and the fruits run uniform in shape. In color, the pears are distinctive in their russeted skin, with a handsome ruddy cheek. The accompanying color-plate does not do justice to the fruit in illustrating size, shape, or color. The flesh is melting and juicy, and deserves, more than that of almost any other pear, the adjective luscious. The flavor is sweet, vinous, and highly perfumed. The fruits keep well, ship well, and sell well during their season, and are esteemed both for dessert and for culinary purposes. The list of faults in the trees is as long as the list of virtues in the fruits. The trees, while large, vigorous, and hardy, blight as badly as any pear-tree in the orchard, are reluctant in coming in bearing, niggardly in production, and seldom hold their crop well. With these faults of the tree, Sheldon is not a commercial variety of high rank, but the splendid fruits make it worth growing by the pear-fancier, in the home orchard, or for the markets where the faults of the trees are not too marked. The variety grows better in New York, possibly, than in any other part of the United States.

This pear is a native of the town of Huron, New York. The original tree stood on the premises of Major Sheldon, having sprung from seed brought by his father from Washington, New York, about 1815. The fruit was first exhibited at the Pomological Convention in Syracuse in the autumn of 1849. In 1854, Sheldon was mentioned by the American Pomological Society as promising well, and in 1856 it was given a place in the Society's fruit-catalog.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, rapid-growing, hardy, moderately productive; trunk stocky; branches thick, reddish-brown, overlaid with dull gray scarf-skin, marked with large lenticels; branches thick, dull brown, glabrous, with numerous slightly raised, conspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds large, above medium in length, obtuse or somewhat pointed, appressed. Leaves 2½ in. long, 1¼ in. wide, oval, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin finely serrate; petiole 1½ in. long. Flower-buds conical or pointed, free; flowers 1⅛ in. across, in dense clusters, 13 or 14 buds in a cluster; pedicels ½ in. long, thick, pubescent, greenish.
Fruit matures in October; large, 2¾ in. long, 2½ in. wide, uniform in size and shape, turbinate, often with a tendency to oblateness, symmetrical; stem ¾ in. long, thick, nearly straight; cavity obtuse, deep, slightly furrowed, occasionally lipped; calyx large, open; lobes very broad, obtuse; basin wide, obtuse, symmetrical; skin thick, granular, tender, roughish; color dull greenish-yellow, with a brownish-red blush, overspread with russet nettings and streaks; dots numerous, small, russet; flesh whitish, somewhat granular, tender and melting, very juicy, sweet, and vinous, with a rich and pleasantly aromatic flavor; quality very good to best. Core large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds acute.

[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

SOUVENIR DU CONGRÈS

1. Pom. France 4: No. 162, Pl. 162. 1867. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 34. 1875. 3. Flor. & Pom. 37, Pl. 1875. 4. Jour. Hort. N. S. 38:120, fig. 19. 1880. 5. Hogg Fruit Man. 647. 1884, 6. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 350, fig. 1906.
Andenken an den Congress. 7. Oberdieck Obst-Sort. 237. 1881. 8. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 168. 1889. 9. Deut. Obstsorten 6: Pt. 16, Pl. 1910.
Souvenir. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 24. 1897. 11. Ont. Dept. Agr. Fr. Ont. 179. 1914.

Very similar to Clapp Favorite and Bartlett, and not as good as either in fruit-characters, Souvenir du Congrès hardly merits a place in American pomology. The crop ripens between those of the two sorts with which it has been compared, and the fruits are larger and often handsomer. The fruits are said to be larger and of better quality when the tree is double-worked on the quince. The tree is remarkable for vigor, hardihood to cold, and healthfulness; and bears so abundantly that the crop must be thinned to prevent breaking of branches. The variety grows especially well in New York, and is deserving a place in home orchards and in fruit-collections. The accompanying color-plate illustrates the size, shape, and color of this pear remarkably well.

Souvenir du Congres owes its origin to M. François Morel, Lyons, France. M. Morel grafted one of his pear-trees with cions taken from several other varieties, including Bartlett, and from the tree thus grafted he obtained fruit, seeds of which he sowed in 1852. One of the resultant trees bore fruit in 1863, and the pears had so many earmarks of Bartlett that it was at once assumed to be a seedling of that variety. The tree continued to do well and in due course the variety was judged to be worthy of dissemination by the Rhône Horticultural Society. Later, M. Morel dedicated the new pear to the Pomological Congress of France. The variety was introduced in the United States about 1870. The American Pomological Society placed Souvenir du Congrès on its fruit-catalog list in 1875.

Tree medium in size and vigor, upright-spreading, open-topped, very productive; branches zigzag, dull reddish-brown, heavily overspread with ash-gray scarf-skin, marked by small, raised lenticels; branchlets thick, long, reddish-brown, overspread with dull gray mingled with green, smooth, glabrous, with few small, slightly raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, pointed, plump, free. Leaves ⅞ in. long, 1½ in. wide, roundish-oval, leathery; apex abruptly pointed; margin tipped with very few glands, finely serrate; petiole 1½ in. long, glabrous, tinged with red. Flower-buds short, conical or pointed, plump, free, arranged singly on very short spurs or branchlets; flowers with a disagreeable odor, 1⅛ in. across, pinkish-white as the buds unfold, becoming whitish, in dense clusters, 6 to 8 buds in a cluster; pedicels ¾ in. long, thick, heavily pubescent, light green.
Fruit ripe in September; large, 3 7/16 in. long, 2 11/16 in. wide, uniform in size and shape, oblong-acute-pyriform, symmetrical, with unequal sides; stem 1 in. long, short, thick, curved; cavity obtuse, almost lacking, very shallow, narrow, russeted, slightly furrowed, often with the stem inserted beneath a pronounced irregular lip; calyx open; lobes separated at the base, narrow, acute; basin wide, obtuse and flaring, slightly furrowed, symmetrical, smooth except for the thick, russet covering; color yellow, with a reddish blush on the exposed cheek, covered with nettings of russet and yellow patches; dots numerous, small, russet, conspicuous; flesh white, with a faint tinge of yellow, firm, granular, tender, very juicy, sweet, with a musky flavor; quality good. Core closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds large, wide, plump, acute.

SOUVENIR D'ESPEREN

1. Barry Fr. Garden 318. 1851. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 857. 1869. 3. Tilton Jour. Hort. 6:14, fig. 1869.

Downing, in 1869, noted this old French pear as one of the best for either amateur or commercial grower, and at that time it was rather widely planted. Now, however, growers seldom set it. The trees are vigorous, hardy, healthy, and productive, and the fruits are attractive in appearance and rather good in quality, but neither tree nor fruit rise much above mediocrity, and the variety has no outstanding character to give it individuality. The crop comes in season in December, the pears keeping well until ripe, after which they quickly decay. The variety is worth planting only for the sake of diversity.

Major Esperén, Mechlin, Belgium, raised this pear from seed about the middle of the nineteenth century. The name Souvenir d'Esperén was at one time applied to Fondante de Noël, in consequence of which confusion has existed as to the identity of the two sorts. The pear reached America about 1850.

Tree medium in size, upright, slightly spreading, dense-topped, productive; branches reddish-brown overlaid with thin scarf-skin, marked with very conspicuous but scattering lenticels; branchlets very thick and long, with long internodes, light brown mingled with green, dull, glabrous, sprinkled with small, conspicuous, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds very small, short, pointed, plump, free. Leaves 3 in. long, 1⅝ in. wide; apex abruptly pointed; margin uneven, finely serrate; petiole 2⅝ in. long, tinged red. Flower-buds small, short, conical, plump, free, singly on very short spurs; flowers open late, showy, 1⅜ in.across, average 7 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1¼ in. long, slender.
Fruit ripe the last of November and December; large, 3½ in. long, 2⅝ in. wide, oblong-obovate-pyriform, the surface uneven; stem 1¼ in. long, slender; cavity very obtuse and shallow or lacking, the flesh drawn up about the base of the stem in a lip; calyx partly open, small; lobes separated at the base, short, narrow, acute; basin shallow, narrow, obtuse, wrinkled; skin thick, roughened with russet; color greenish-yellow, mottled and patched with russet, sprinkled with many russet dots and often with russet overspreading nearly the entire surface; dots numerous, russet, small; flesh yellowish, very granular near the center, firm, crisp but tender, juicy, with a pleasant, aromatic, vinous flavor; quality good to very good. Core large, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds small, short, plump, acute, light brown.

SUDDUTH

1. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 144, Pl. 1894. 2. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 141. 1894. 3. Can. Hort. 19:126, figs. 936 and 937. 1896. 4. Gard. Chron. 3rd Ser. 19:108. 1896. 5. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 9. 1897. 6. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:264. 1903.

Sudduth has little to recommend it for New York or eastern pear regions, but it is a standard sort in parts of the Mississippi Valley. The characters which give it a place in the pear flora of the region just named are remarkable freedom from blight, hardiness to cold and heat, capacity to withstand drought, early bearing, and great productiveness. The fruits are neither attractive in appearance nor high in quality hardly fit for dessert, being but a grade or two better than the disreputable Kieffer. Like those of the Kieffer, however, the fruits do very well for all culinary purposes. They do not keep well as they soften at the center soon after becoming edible. The trees are said to be nearly as hardy as those of the wild crab-apple. The variety is desirable only where hardiness and freedom from blight are prime requisites.

The Sudduth pear was introduced about 1895, although the parent tree was at that time fully seventy years old. It originated from seed planted by Thomas Constant in 1820, in Sangamon County, Illinois. Later, Judge Stephen A. Logan of Springfield, Abraham Lincoln's first law partner, acquired the property on which the tree stood and from him Titus Sudduth bought the place in 1862, Sudduth was so impressed with the fruit that he had trees propagated by Augustine and Company, Normal, Illinois, and disseminated under his name.

Tree large, vigorous, upright becoming quite spreading, open-topped, hardy, productive; trunk stocky, shaggy; branches thick, smooth, dull reddish-brown, almost entirely covered with gray scarf-skin, sprinkled with numerous large, raised lenticels; branchlets slender, curved, long, with long internodes, dull reddish-brown, overspread with thin gray scarf-skin which is mingled with green, dull, smooth, glabrous, with conspicuous, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, pointed, appressed, somewhat flattened. Leaves 3 in. long, 1⅝ in. wide, thin, velvety; apex taper-pointed; margin glandless, finely serrate; petiole 2 in. long, slender, tinged red, glabrous. Flower-buds small, short, conical, free] singly on very short spurs; flowers late, 1⅛ in. across, in dense clusters, average 8 buds in a cluster; pedicels ⅞ in. long, thick, pubescent.
Fruit ripe in late September and October; medium or below in size, 2¼ in. long, 2⅜ in. wide, roundish-oblate, slightly conical toward the apex; stem ⅞ in. long, slender; cavity acute, deep, narrow, smooth, sometimes lipped; calyx large, open; lobes separated at the base, long, acute; basin very shallow, narrow, obtuse, occasionally wrinkled; skin thin, tough, smooth, dull; color light green, without blush; dots very small, russet or greenish, very obscure; flesh greenish-white, firm, crisp, rather dry, subacid; quality medium to poor. Core large, closed, axile, with meeting core-lines; calyx-tube wide, conical; carpels ovate; seeds variable in size, wide, flat, obtuse.

Scion Source

SUMMER DOYENNÉ

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 40. 1883. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 651. 1884. 3. Ont. Dept. Agr. Fr. Ont. 180, fig. 1914.
Doyenné d'Été. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 336. 1845. 5. Gard. Chron. 508, fig. 1847. 6. Mag. Hort. 13:66, fig. 8. 1847. 7. Hovey Fr. Am. 1:59, Pl. 1851. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 53. 1852. 9. Horticulturist N. S. 3:491, fig. 1853. 10. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 742, fig. 1869.
Sommerdechantsbirne. 11. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:20. 1856.
Doyenné de Juillet. 12. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:77, fig. 1869. 13. Guide Prat. 57, 266. 1876.
Juli Dechantsbirne. 14. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 239. 1889. 15. Gaucher Pom. Prak. Obst. No. 51, Pl. 108. 1894.

The extremely early and highly flavored fruits, which are borne in prodigious quantities, make this a very desirable pear for the home garden. The fruits have no value for the markets, as they are small, do not keep well, and are unattractive. The tree, while never large, is of medium size, comes in bearing early, is hardy, and is as free as most of its orchard associates from blight. Both fruit and foliage suffer badly from pear-scab, and no amount of spraying can give the fruits a fair cheek in seasons when this fungus is epidemic.

Van Mons is supposed to have originated this variety about 1800 as Diel mentioned it among his best pears in 1812. Summer Doyenné was first brought to the notice of American pomologists by William Kenrick, who compiled a description of it as early as 1836. It does not, however, appear to have been introduced until 1843. It was recommended for general culture in the United States by the American Pomological Society in 1852.

Tree variable in size, upright, vigorous, very productive; trunk slender; branches slender, slightly zigzag, brownish, overlaid with gray scarf-skin, marked with numerous conspicuous lenticels; branchlets slender, long, light brown mingled with green, the new growth tinged with red, smooth, glabrous except near the ends of the new growth, with numerous raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, sharply pointed, plump, free; leaf-scars with prominent shoulders. Leaves 2⅞ in. long, 1⅛ in. wide, thin, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin finely serrate; petiole 1¾ in. long, tinged with pink. Flower-buds small, short, plump, free, singly on very short spurs; flowers showy, 1¼ in.across, in dense clusters, 7 to 9 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1¼ in. long, slender, pubescent.
Fruit ripe in early August; small, 1½ in. long, 1⅝ in. wide, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, symmetrical; stem 1⅛ in. long, slender; cavity obtuse, shallow, narrow, slightly furrowed, often lipped; calyx small, closed; lobes separated at the base, short, narrow, acuminate; basin shallow, obtuse, furrowed; skin thin, smooth, tender, waxen yellow, washed or blushed with bright red, deepening on the exposed cheek to crimson; dots numerous, small, russet, obscure; flesh tinged with yellow, fine-grained, tender and melting, juicy, variable in flavor and quality, pleasantly sprightly under favorable conditions; quality variable, good under the best conditions. Core closed, axile, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, narrow, urn-shaped; carpels roundish-ovate; seeds small, narrow, flat, acute.

TYSONtyson small

1. Mag. Hort. 12:433, fig. 30. 1846. 2. Horticulturist 1:433. 1846-47. 3. Proc. Nat. Con. Fr. Gr. 51. 1848. 4. Hovey Fr. Am. 1:33, Pl. 1851. 5. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 444, fig. 1857. 6. Ibid. 870, fig. 1869. 7. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:710, fig. 1869. 8. Oberdieck Obst-Sort. 333. 1881. 9. Lauche Deut. Pom. II: No. 95, Pl. 95. 1883. 10. Ont. Dept. Agr. Fr. Ont. 182, fig. 1914.

Tyson competes with Clapp Favorite as the precursor of the pear season which is really opened by Bartlett. In every character of fruit and tree excepting size and color of fruit, Tyson excels Clapp Favorite. The quality of the fruit far excels that of Clapp Favorite and it is better than that of Bartlett. Indeed, of commonly grown pears, the characters of flesh and flavor are second only to those of the fruits of Seckel. The flesh is melting and juicy, with a spicy, scented sweetness that gives the fruit the charm of individuality. The pears keep longer and ship better than those of Clapp Favorite; their season in New York is from the middle of August to the middle of September. Unfortunately, the pears are but medium in size, and are often poorly colored, both of which defects appear on the fruits of this variety as grown on the. grounds of this Station and shown in the accompanying illustration. The tree is the most nearly perfect of that of any pear grown in America the Kieffer, praiseworthy only in its tree, not excepted. The tree is certainly as hardy as that of any other variety, if not hardier, and resists better than that of any other sort the black scourge of blight. Add to these notable characters large size, great vigor, and fruitfulness, and it is seen that the trees are nearly flawless. The only fault is, and this a comparatively trifling one, that the trees are slow in coming in bearing. Tyson is the best pear of its season for the home orchard, and has much merit for commercial orchards. Were the fruits larger, it would rival Bartlett for the markets. No other variety offers so many good starting points for the pear-breeder.

Tyson originated as a wilding found about 1794 in a hedge on the land of Jonathan Tyson, Jenkintown, Pennsylvania. The tree first bore fruit in 1800. The pears proved to be so good that Mr. Tyson distributed cions among his neighbors, but the variety was not generally disseminated. About 1837, a Doctor Mease of Philadelphia sent cions to B. V. French, Braintree, near Boston, who in turn distributed them among his friends. The variety fruited here about 1842, and the fruit was exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society under the name Tyson. In 1848, at the National Convention of Fruit-Growers, Tyson was recommended for general cultivation, and since that date the name has appeared continuously in the catalogs of the American Pomological Society.

Tree very large, vigorous, upright-spreading, tall, dense-topped, hardy, productive; trunk very stocky, rough; branches thick, dull reddish-brown, overspread with gray scarf-skin, with few lenticels; branchlets slender, short, light brown mingled with green, smooth, glabrous, sprinkled with few small, inconspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, conical, pointed, plump, appressed or free. Leaves 2¾ in. long, 1½ in. wide, thin; apex abruptly pointed; margin finely and shallowly serrate; petiole 1⅝ in. long. Flower-buds small, short, conical, pointed, plump, free, singly on short spurs; flowers medium in season of bloom.
Fruit matures in late August; medium in size, 2⅛ in. long, 1¾ in. wide, roundish-acute-pyriform, with unequal sides; stem 1¾ in. long, curved; cavity very shallow, obtuse, roughened, usually drawing up as a lip about the base of the stem; calyx open, small; lobes separated at the base, short, narrow, acute; basin shallow, narrow, flaring, slightly furrowed, compressed; skin tough, smooth, slightly russeted, dull; color deep yellow, usually blushed; dots numerous, very small, obscure; flesh tinged with yellow, granular around the basin, otherwise rather fine-grained, tender and melting, very juicy, sweet, aromatic; quality very good. Core small, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube, short, wide, conical; seeds medium in size and width, plump, acute.


[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

URBANISTE

1. Trans. Lond. Hort. Soc. 5:411. 1824. 2. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 384. 1831. 3. Kenrick Am. Orch. 186. 1832. 4. Mag. Hort. 10:131, fig. 1844. 5. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 417, fig. 190. 1845. 6. Gard. Chron. 68, fig. 1847. 7. Hovey Fr. Am. 2:21, Pl. 1851. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 53. 1852. 9. Pom. France. 1: No. 32, Pl. 32. 1863. 10. Mas Le Verger 3:Pt. 1, 193, fig. 95. 1866-73. 11. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 871, fig. 1869. 12. Guide Prat. 59, 308. 1876. 13. Hogg Fruit Man. 657. 1884.
Urbanister Sämling. 14. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:116. 1856.
Poire des Urbanistes. 15. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:712, fig. 1869.
Coloma's Herbst Butterbirne. 16. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 197. 1889. 17. Lucas Tafelbirnen 109, fig. 1894.

Urbaniste is another variety desirable for home use because of its highly-flavored fruits so sweet, rich, perfumed, and luscious as to be a natural sweetmeat. The fruits are of but medium size and not particularly handsome, but the taste excels the looks. The flesh is as tender, sweet, juicy, and as delicately perfumed as that of Seckel or White Doyenné, but with a distinct flavor and scent which give the fruits the added charm of individuality. The crop ripens in October, in a season when there are many other pears, but the fruits stand comparison with those of any other variety and are welcome additions to the fruit-basket. The trees have several defects, chief of which is tardiness in coming in bearing, to remedy which grafting on the quince is recommended. They are also susceptible to blight, and are not as hardy as might be wished. Of all pears, the tree of this variety is one of the handsomest clean and tidy, slender and graceful, yet robust and productive. Fruit and tree make this a valuable variety for home plantings.

Urbaniste originated as a wilding in the gardens of the religious order of Urbanistes, Mechlin, Belgium. After the suppression of this order in 1783, their gardens remained uncultivated for some time and produced new seedlings of considerable merit. The beauty of one of these attracted the attention of Count de Coloma, a well-known pomologist, who acquired this property in 1786, and in due course propagated and disseminated the variety under the name Urbaniste. Early in the nineteenth century, Count de Coloma sent specimens of the pear to the London Horticultural Society, which organization afterwards distributed it in England about 1823. Thomas Andrew Knight sent cions to John Lowell, Roxbury, Massachusetts, through whom it became disseminated in the United States. The American Pomological Society added Urbaniste to its fruit-catalog list in 1852.

Tree medium in size, vigorous, upright-spreading, slow-growing, productive with age; trunk slender, shaggy; branches stocky, shaggy, zigzag, reddish-brown, overspread with gray scarf-skin, sprinkled with numerous lenticels; branchlets long, reddish-brown mingled with grayish scarf-skin, smooth, zigzag, glabrous, marked with conspicuous, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds large, obtuse, semi-free. Leaves 2¼ in. long, ⅞ in. wide, thin, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin finely serrate; petiole 1½ in. long, slender. Flower-buds short, variable in shape, free.
Fruit ripe in late October and early November; medium in size, 2⅜ in. long, 2 in. wide, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, with unequal sides; stem ⅝ in. long, short, thick; cavity obtuse, shallow, narrow, faintly russeted, furrowed, slightly lipped; calyx open; lobes separated at the base, narrow, obtuse; basin shallow, narrow, obtuse, slightly furrowed; skin thick, tough, roughened by the russet nettings, dull; color pale yellow, often with a faint russet-red blush on the exposed cheek and marked with nettings and patches of russet; dots numerous, small, russet, conspicuous; flesh tinged with yellow, granular especially around the core, tender and melting, buttery, juicy, sweet, pleasantly aromatic; quality very good. Core closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds medium in size and width, long, plump, acute.

[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

VERMONT BEAUTY

1. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 65. 1889. 2. Ibid. 176. 1890. 3. Ibid. 134. 1891. 4. Can. Hort. 16:184. 1893. 5. Am.Pom.Soc.Cat. 37. 1899. 6. Ellwanger & Barry Cat. 18. 1900. 7. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:267. 1903.

The fruits of Vermont Beauty elicit praise from all who see or taste them. The bright-cheeked pears are as alluring to the eye as those of any other, and are almost as delectable as those of Seckel, which they resemble in shape, but are larger and handsomer. Of all pears, those of this variety (or of Forelle, with which it may be identical) best satisfy the eye for bright color. The crop ripens a little later and keeps longer than that of Seckel, and for these reasons, and because of the handsome appearance, should sell better. The pears will probably be most used to grace the table and for dessert, but the somewhat more sprightly flavor makes them better suited for all culinary purposes than those of Seckel. The trees are scarcely less satisfactory than the fruits. They are preeminent among their kind by virtue of large size, rapidity of growth, productivity, and hardiness, the region from which the variety came bespeaking greater hardihood to cold than that possessed by the average variety. The trees rejoice in vigor and health as do those of almost no other variety, and while hardly as productive as those of Seckel, yet because of greater size the pears fill the basket nearly as quickly. Vermont Beauty is one of the best of the pears of its season, and deserves a place in the orchards of the country for home and market.

Vermont Beauty is supposed to have originated in the nursery of Benjamin Macomber, Grand Isle, Vermont, more than forty years ago. Macomber maintained a small nursery, and this pear was one of several hundreds planted for stock. The tree was budded in the usual manner, but the bud failed to grow, and the original tree was allowed to stand without another budding. After the variety fruited, it attracted so much attention that Macomber propagated it. Later, it was introduced by W, P. Rupert and Son, Seneca, New York. The American Pomological Society, recognizing its worth, added the variety to its fruit-catalog in 1899. There has long been doubt in the minds of the writers as to whether Vermont Beauty is distinct from Forelle. Careful comparison has been made of the fruit- and tree-characters of the two sorts, and it is found that they are so closely allied as to be indistinguishable. It is possible that a tree of the old German pear may have found its way into Macomber's nursery and received the new name.

Tree medium in size, vigorous, upright-spreading, dense-topped, hardy, productive; trunk stocky, shaggy; branches zigzag, reddish-brown, thinly overspread with gray scarf-skin, with numerous large lenticels; branchlets very thick, long, reddish-brown mingled with green, thickly covered with ash-gray scarf-skin near the tips, smooth, glabrous except near the ends of the new growth, sprinkled with numerous small, roundish, conspicuous, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, pointed, plump, free. Leaves 2¾ in. long, 1⅜ in. wide, leathery; apex abruptly-or taper-pointed; margin glandless, finely serrate; petiole 2 in. long, glabrous, slender, pinkish-green. Flower-buds small, short, conical, plump, free, singly on short spurs; flowers characteristically small, average 1 in. across, in dense clusters, about 6 buds in a cluster, the petals unusually small; pedicels ⅞ in. long, slender, pubescent.
Fruit ripe in late October and November; medium in size, 2½ in. long, 2 in. wide, obovate-acute-pyriform, symmetrical; stem ¾ in. long, curved; cavity extremely small or lacking, the flesh folded up around the base of the stem, occasionally lipped; calyx small, open; lobes separated at the base, short, narrow, acute; basin shallow, narrow, obtuse, smooth, symmetrical; skin thick, tough, smooth or with slight russet markings; color clear pale lemon-yellow, with a broad and brilliantly blushed cheek, fading at the sides into pinkish-red dots; dots numerous, very small, light russet, conspicuous; flesh tinged with yellow, granular at the center but fine-grained near the skin, tender and melting, very juicy, with a rich, vinous flavor; quality very good. Core closed, axile, with meeting core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds large, wide, plump, acute.

Scion Source

VICAR OF WINKFIELD

1. Gard. Chron. 20, fig. 1843. 2. Mag. Hort. 9:129, 269. 1843. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 448, fig. 208. 1845. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 53. 1852. 5. Elliott Fr. Book 344, fig. 1854. 6. Jour. Hort. N. S. 7:414. 1864. 7. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 875, fig. 1869. 8. Hogg Fruit Man. 660. 1884.
Vicar. 9. Mawe-Abererombie Univ. Gard. Bot. 1778. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 40. 1883. 11. Ont. Dept. Agr. Fr. Ont 183. 1914.
Clion. 12. Kenrick Am. Orch. 159. 1841.
Le Curé. 13. Hovey Fr. Am. 1:47, Pl. 1851.
Curé 14. Pom. France 1: No. 18, Pl. 18. 1863. 15. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:610, fig. 1867. 16. Guide Prat. 61,261. 1876. 17. Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom. 396, fig. 1904. 18. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 221, fig. 1906.
Pastorenbirne. 19. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 262. 1889. 20. Gaucher Pom. Prak. Obst. No. 59, Pl. 49. 1894.

Though large and handsome, the pears of this variety vary so much in quality, often being wretchedly poor, that trees of it are now seldom planted in America. The variety is not liked, also, because the trees blight badly. The fruits, besides being large and handsome, keep well, and are excellent for all culinary purposes. They are in season from November to January. The pears have a strong musky smell, and are more or less astringent. The quality depends largely on the soil, and is best when the trees stand in a deep, warm loam. The fruits are long-pyriform, usually one-sided, and are further characterized by the peculiarity that the calyx is not in line with the axis, as in other pears, but is on one side, generally opposite to that in which the stalk is inserted as shown in the accompanying illustration. The trees, barring susceptibility to blight, are about all that could be desired large, vigorous, handsome, and thrive both as standards and dwarfs. Many old trees of largest size of this variety are still to be found in New York, but young stock is now seldom set.

In 1760, this pear was found as a wilding by a French curate at Villiers-en-Brenne. In due course it was introduced into England by the Rev. W. L. Rahm, Vicar of Winkfield, in Berkshire, and from this circumstance it lost its proper name, Curé or Le Curé, and wrongly acquired that by which it is now known here and in England. The variety was introduced to America early in the nineteenth century. It was placed on the list of recommended fruits by the American Pomological Society in 1852.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, dense-topped, hardy, very productive, long-lived; trunk and branches stocky; branches zigzag, greenish-brown overspread with grayish scarf-skin, with lenticels variable in number and size; branchlets curved, thick, long and willowy, with long internodes, light greenish-brown which is mingled with red on the newer growth, smooth, glabrous except near the ends of the new growth, sprinkled with conspicuous, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, pointed, free. Leaves 3 in. long, 2¼ in. wide, thick, leathery; apex abruptly pointed; margin tipped with minute scattering glands, finely serrate; petiole variable in length, pinkish-green; stipules short, tinged with pink. Flower-buds small, short, conical, plump, free, singly on very short spurs.
Fruit ripe December to January; large, 4¼ in. long, 3 in. wide, oblong-pyriform, with a long, tapering neck, with unequal sides; stem 1⅛ in. long, slender, curved; cavity lacking, with stem obliquely set without a depression and often with a fleshy fold around the base in the form of a lip; calyx large, open; lobes long, unusually broad, obtusely pointed; basin very shallow, narrow, obtuse, smooth, symmetrical; skin thick, tough, smooth, dull; color pale yellow, often with a faint trace of a brownish-red blush over the exposed cheek, marked with light russet around the calyx, and occasionally with russet flecks scattered over the surface; dots numerous, small, conspicuous, brownish-russet; flesh white, granular only near the center, tender and melting, juicy, somewhat astringent or with a sprightly muski-ness, with no pleasant aroma; quality inferior for dessert but good for cooking. Core small, closed, axile, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube long, narrow, funnel-shaped; carpels long-oval; seeds large, long, not very plump, often abortive.

[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

WHITE DOYENNÉ

1. Pom. Mag. 2:60, Pl. 1829. 2. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 385. 1831. 3. Prince Pom. Man. 1:43. 1831. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 378, fig. 162. 1845. 5. Proc. Nat. Con. Fr. Gr. 51. 1848. 6. Hovey Fr. Am. 2:85, Pl. 1851. 7. Horticulturist N. S. 4:158, Pl. -1854. 8. Ibid. N. S. 6:406. 1856. 9. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 880, fig. 1869. 10. Hogg Fruit Man. 663. 1884.
Warwicke. 11. Parkinson Par. Ter. 592. 1629.
Doyenné. 12. Langley Pomona 132. 1729. 13. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:205, Pl. XLIII. 1768. 14. Miller Gard. Dict. 2: Pt. 1. 1807. 15. Brookshaw Pom. Brit. 2: Pl. 49. 1817. 16. Brookshaw Hort. Reposit. 2:175, Pl. 92. 1823. 17. Leroy Dict. Pom. 2:52, fig. 1869. 18. Rev. Hort. 51. 1898.
Virgalieu. 19. Prince Cat. 1771.

White Beurré. 20. Mawe-Abercrombie Univ. Gard. Bot. 1778.
Weisse Herbst Butterbirne. 21. Christ Handb. 511. 1817. 22. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 100. 1825. 23. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:84. l856. 24. Lauche Deut. Pom. II: No. i6f Pl. 16. 1882. 25. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 296. 1889.
Saint-Michael. 26. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 191, fig. 38. 1817.
Doyenné Blanc. 27. Trans. Lond. Hort. Soc. 5:135. 1824. 28. Kenrick Am. Orch. 121. 1841. 29. Pom. France 1: No. 74, Pl. 74. 1863. 30. Mas Le Verger 3: Pt. 2, 19, fig. 106. 1866-73, 31. Guide Prat. 63, 264. 1876. 32. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 236, fig. 1906.
Thorp. 33. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 553. 1857. 34. Mag. Hort. 24:516. 1858.
Bonne-Ente. 35. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:532. 1860.

This ancient and world-renowned pear, its fruits the most delectable of any that come from a pear orchard, is now rarely planted in America. It is being discarded because the small and comparatively unattractive fruits fail to satisfy commercial demands. In the middle of the last century, when there was almost a mania for the best of the European pears, when fruits were judged by the palate rather than the eye as now, White Doyenné was one of the most commonly planted varieties. Proof of its popularity at home and abroad is found in the great number of names under which it has been grown. A more serious fault than small and unattractive pears is that the fruits and foliage are inviting prey to the scab-fungus, which often cracks and scabs the pears and defoliates the trees. Except in susceptibility to scab, the trees are nearly perfect when grown in the soil which they prefer a rich clay, heavy rather than light. On such a soil, tree and fruit attain perfection. The accompanying illustration shows this pear at its best in color and size a handsome fruit rather than the unattractive product so often seen. Grown in a light soil, and when scab is unchecked, the fruits are small, green, cracked, and cankered intolerable to sight and taste. Unfortunately, also, the trees are ravaged by blight when that disease is epidemic. The faults named have made the variety an outcast, but it should still receive attention for the superb quality of its fruits where scab and blight can be controlled.

This pear is one of the oldest of all varieties. It is impossible to state whether it originated in France or was brought to that country from Italy. A German, Henri Manger, who studied the origin of fruits, states in his Systematische Pomologie, 1780, that the White Doyenné originated with the Romans; he considered it to be their Sementinum. Agostino Gallo, I559] called the variety Per a Ghiacciuola. In 1660, Claude Saint-Etienne described a Poire de Neige. Both of these descriptions represent White Doyenné. In the sixteenth century and for part of the seventeenth, the name Ghiacciuola was accepted for the variety in France with the synonym Saint-Michel. Leroy states that Le Lectier, in his catalog of the fruit trees which he grew at Orleans in 1628, changed the name to Giaccole de Rome, and Nicholas de Bonnefonds modified it in the first edition of his Jardinier Francais, 1652, to Giacciola di Roma. English pomologists have mentioned this pear under a variety of names since early in the seventeenth century. The names Poire Doyenné and White Doyenné have been most generally applied to it. The date of its introduction to America is not known, but it was probably brought to this country by the earliest French settlers. The first American catalogs mentioned the variety, and it was extensively grown in the vicinity of New York and Long Island where it was commonly called the Virgalieu pear. In the neighborhood of Boston, the name Saint-Michael was applied to it; while around Philadelphia it was called the Butter Pear. For nearly a century, however, the variety has been most generally known in this country as White Doyenné. At the Convention of Fruit-Growers held in New York, in 1848, White Doyenné was included in a short list of pears recommended for general cultivation. Since that date, the American Pomological Society has given the variety a place in its fruit-catalog.

Tree large, vigorous, upright, vasiform, hardy, very productive; trunk stocky, somewhat smooth; branches thick, dark gray, with many large lenticels; branchlets thick, reddish-brown, smooth, glabrous, with small, very slightly raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds obtuse, pointed, appressed. Leaves 2½ in. long, 1¾ in. wide, flattened, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin finely serrate; petiole 1½ in. long, slender. Flower-buds large, long, conical or pointed, free; flowers early, 1⅛ in. across, in dense clusters, 7 or 8 buds in a cluster; pedicels ⅞ in. long, slender, pubescent, light green.
Fruit matures in early October; medium in size, 2¼ in. long, 2⅛ in. wide, uniform, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, symmetrical; stem ¾ in. long, thick, slightly curved; cavity obtuse, shallow, narrow, russeted, usually symmetrical; calyx small, open or closed; lobes short, narrow, obtuse; basin shallow, obtuse, nearly smooth, symmetrical; skin thick, tough, smooth, dull; color clear pale yellow, with a small, bright red blush on the exposed cheek; dots numerous, small, russet, conspicuous; flesh yellowish-white, granular, firm at first but becoming melting when fully ripe, juicy, sweet, with a rich, aromatic flavor; quality very good. Core closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds wide, plump, obtuse.

[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

WILDER EARLYtree in North Carolinabloom in North Carolinafruit grown in North Carolina

1. Can. Hort. 12:286, fig. 73. 1889. 2. Ibid. 13:251, Pl. 1890. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 37. 1899. 4. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:268. 1903.
Early Wilder. 5. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 45. 1896. Wilder. 6. Ont. Dept. Agr. Fr. Ont. 183, fig. 1914.

This is one of the good, early pears for the markets. It is more highly prized in the Mississippi Valley than in New York and the Eastern states where summer pears are raised in greater variety. The pears are very attractive in size, shape, and particularly in the bright lemon-yellow color, with a flaming cheek to the sun, the whole pear being characteristically marked with small, russet dots set in a pinkish circle. Of all summer pears the fruits of this one seem least inclined to rot at the center, and usually keep longer and ship better, although the skin is tender and bruises easily. The flesh is buttery, moderately juicy, sweet and rich, with a faint, pleasant perfume. The fruits are small but are usually larger than those of the well-known Seckel, and are edible almost to the very center. The tree is large, vigorous, prodigiously productive, as healthy as any, and a remarkably handsome ornamental. Despite this catalog of virtues, Wilder Early is not largely planted in New York.

Wilder Early is a chance seedling found by Charles A. Green, Rochester, New York, about 1884, in Chautauqua County, New York. At the time of its discovery the tree was already in bearing. The variety was named after Marshall P. Wilder, President of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. The name first appeared in the fruit-catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1899.

Tree large, vigorous, upright, dense-topped, rapid-growing, hardy, very productive; branches zigzag, reddish-brown overspread with gray scarf-skin, with numerous lenticels; branchlets thick, very long, light greenish-brown, lightly streaked with ash-gray scarf-skin, dull, smooth, glabrous except near the tips of the new growth, sprinkled with many conspicuous, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds small, short, pointed, appressed; leaf-scars prominent. Leaves 3¼ in. long, 1&frac178; in. wide, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin very finely serrate; petiole 2 in. long, glabrous. Flower-buds small, short, conical, plump, free, singly on short spurs; flowers late, 1 3/16 in. across, white or tinged with pink, in dense clusters, average 7 buds in a cluster; pedicels ½ in. long, pubescent.
Fruit ripe in late August; large, 2¾ in. long, 2⅜ in. wide, oblong-pyriform, symmetrical; stem ¾ in. long, very thick; cavity acute, narrow, russeted and with rays of russet extending over the sides, slightly compressed, rarely lipped; calyx large, open; lobes separated at the base, long, narrow, acuminate; basin very shallow, narrow, obtuse, wrinkled; skin thin, tender, smooth, dull; color pale lemon-yellow, with a pinkish blush on the exposed cheek often deepening to dark pink; dots characteristically distinct, very numerous, small, russet or russet-red; flesh white, stringy, tender and melting, buttery, moderately juicy, sweet, faintly aromatic; quality good. Core small, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube long, narrow, conical; seeds long, narrow, acute.

WINTER BARTLETT

1. Ore. Bd. Hort. Rpt. 42. 1895. 2. Ore. Nur. Cat. 19. 1903. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 41. 1909. 4. Cal. Com. Hort. Pear Grow. Cal. 7: No. 5, 278, fig. 94. 1918.

Winter Bartlett is heralded from the Pacific Coast as a winter variety bearing fruits similar to those of Bartlett. As the fruits grow in New York there is a suggestion of Bartlett in the shape, color, and flavor of the fruits, but in size, as the color-plate shows, the newcomer falls far short of the older pear. The season is December and January, a time when there are a half-dozen other good pears, and since this one has no outstanding characters to make it notable, it is doubtful if it will outlive a brief period of probation in eastern orchards. The westerners say that the tree is very resistant to blight, a statement neither proved nor disproved in the East as yet. The variety is worth trying in a small way in New York.

This pear seems to have originated at Eugene, Oregon, some time prior to 1880, and to have been introduced by D. W. Coolidge of Eugene, although it must have been grown to some extent before Mr. Coolidge brought it to the front. Because of its resemblance to Bartlett, it is assumed that it is a seedling of that variety. The American Pomological Society added Winter Bartlett to its catalog of fruits in 1909.

Tree large, vigorous, upright, scraggly, open-topped, hardy, productive; branches stocky, smooth, light-brown overlaid with gray scarf-skin, with few lenticels; branchlets thick, curved, long, with long internodes, brownish-red, streaked with gray scarf-skin, glossy, smooth, glabrous, sprinkled with conspicuous, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds large, long, conical, pointed, plump, free; leaf-scars with very prominent shoulders. Leaves 3¼ in. long, 1⅜ in. wide, stiff; apex taper-pointed; margin finely serrate; petiole 2¼ in. long. Flower-buds conical, plump, free, singly on spurs variable in length; flowers very late, 1½ in. across, in dense clusters, average 5 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1 in. long, thick, thinly pubescent.
Fruit ripe in December and January; large, 3 in. long, 2⅜ in. wide, oblong-obovate-pyriform; stem 1 in. long, thick, curved; cavity narrow, shallow, smooth, oblique; calyx small, nearly closed; lobes short; basin small, shallow, irregular; skin uneven in surface; color yellow, splashed with russet and often blushed on the exposed cheek with bright red; dots numerous, small, brownish-russet; flesh yellowish-white, fine-grained, tender, juicy, sweet, pleasant-flavored; quality good to very good. Core small, nearly closed, with meeting core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide; seeds large, long, plump, obtuse.

WINTER NELIS

1. Pom. Mag. 3:126, Pl. 1830. 2. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 409. 1831. 3. Kenrick Am. Orch. 199. 1832. 4. Mag. Hort. 10:127. 1844. 5. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 450, fig. 208. 1845. 6. Gard. Chron. 20, fig. 1845. 7. Proc. Nat. Con. Fr. Gr. 51. 1848. 8. Hovey Fr. Am. 1:15, Pl. 1851. 9. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 884, fig. 1869. 10. Oberdieck Obst-Sort. 339. 1881. 11. Lauche Deut. Pom. II: No. 49, Pl. 49. 1882. 12. Hogg Fruit Man. 667. 1884. 13. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 301. 1889. 14. Deut. Obstsorten 5: Pt. 15, Pl. 1909.
La Bonne Malinoise. 15. Trans. Lond. Hort. Soc. 4:276. 1822. 16. Ibid. 5:408. 1824.
Thouin. 17. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 2:23. 1856.
Bonne de Malines. 18. Ann. Pom. Belge 6:77, Pl. 1858. 19. Pom. France 2: No. 53, Pl. 53. 1864. 20. Leroy Dict. Pom. 1:484, figs. 1867. 21. Guide Prat. 60, 252. 1876. 22. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 202. 1906.
Nélis d'Hiver. 23. Mas Le Verger 1:29 bis, fig. 21. 1866-73.

Winter Nelis is the standard winter pear in the United States. Both fruits and trees possess several serious faults, but these are outmatched by virtues which make the variety preeminent in its season. The fruits are small and are often so poorly colored as to be unattractive, but well grown they are sufficiently large for dessert fruits and are very handsome in a much-russeted coat and a ruddy cheek. Flesh and flavor are the chief assets of the fruits. The flesh is tender, melting, juicy, luscious, with a rich, sweet, aromatic flavor one of the most delectable of all pears. The fruits keep, ship, and sell well. The season is from Christmas to March, but the pears can be kept until late spring in cold-storage. The trees begin badly, for no variety is more difficult to grow well in the nursery. They thrive only on standard stocks, refusing to do well on the quince unless double worked. In the orchard, the trees are among the unmanageables. They are small or of but medium size, with straggling, wayward tops with habits of growth so self assertive that no art nor skill of the pruner can bring the branches under control. The limbs are always crooked; some bend inward toward the main stem, some are upright, some droop, and no two behave in quite the same way. Notwithstanding the illy-shaped tops, the trees are often enormously productive so that the crop usually requires thinning. They bear almost annually; come in bearing young; are fairly hardy; and are adapted to almost any soil or situation provided, only, that the soil is fertile or well fertilized. They are as nearly immune to blight as those of any other European pear. The trees are characterized by two marked peculiarities: the old wood is thickly set with small, short spurs; and they are about the latest of all their kind in leafing out in the spring. There is no better winter pear for either the commercial pear-grower or the amateur, and the variety grows especially well in New York.

Winter Nelis was raised from seed by Jean Charles Nélis, Mechlin, Belgium, early in the nineteenth century. It was introduced into England by the London Horticultural Society under the name La Bonne Malinoise. Subsequently this name was cancelled and that of Winter Nelis adopted, the name which had been given the variety by Van Mons in honor of the originator. In 1823, Thomas Andrew Knight, President of the London Horticultural Society, sent cions of the variety to John Lowell, Roxbury, Massachusetts, who, in his turn, shared them with Robert Manning, Salem, Massachusetts, whence the sort was very generally disseminated in this country and attained great popularity. At the National Convention of Fruit-Growers held in New York in 1848, Winter Nelis was included in a short list of pears recommended for general cultivation. For more than half a century the name has appeared in the fruit-catalogs of the American Pomological Society.

Tree medium in size and vigor, spreading, hardy, very productive; trunk stocky; branches thick, zigzag, reddish-brown mingled with gray scarf-skin, marked with small lenticels; branchlets with short internodes, reddish-brown, dull, smooth, glabrous, with numerous raised, conspicuous lenticels.
Leaf-buds medium to large, long, conical or pointed, free. Leaves 3 in. long, 1⅛ in. wide, elongated-oval, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin varies from crenate to serrate; petiole 1½ in. long, slender. Flower-buds conical or pointed, free; flowers open late, 1¾ in.across, 6 or 7 buds in a cluster; pedicels ⅞ in. long, rather slender, lightly pubescent, greenish.
Fruit ripe late November to early January; medium in size, 2¼ in. long, about 2¼ in. wide, uniform in size and shape, roundish-obovate to obtuse-obovate-pyriform, quite symmetrical except for the unequal sides; stem 1⅜ in. long, thick, curved; cavity obtuse, shallow, narrow, russeted, gently furrowed, occasionally lipped; calyx large, open; lobes separated at the base, short, broad, acute; basin shallow, obtuse, lightly furrowed, symmetrical; skin thick, tender, roughened with much russet, dull; color yellow with a tinge of green, dotted with grayish-russet and with many russet streaks and patches on the exposed cheek which is usually blushed with bright red; dots numerous, small, russet, conspicuous; flesh yellowish-white, quite granular at the center and underneath the skin, tender and melting, buttery, very juicy, sweet, aromatic; quality very good. Core large, closed, axile, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds large, wide, long, plump, acute.

[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

WORDEN SECKEL

1. Rural N. Y. 50:888, figs. 326 and 327. 1891. 2. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 465, fig. 675. 1897. 3. Franklin Davis Nur. Cat. 23. 1901. 4. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:268. 1903. 5, Banker Cat. 19. 1915.
Worden. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 41. 1909.

Possibly no pear has been more widely advertised during the last quarter-century than Worden Seckel. Nurserymen and pear-growers alike describe it as a better variety than Seckel, and say that it ought to take the place of that good old sort of which it is a seedling. But it is not driving Seckel out in most pear regions, though in many it is considered the more profitable pear of the two. It is a splendid pear, but falls short of Seckel in not being quite as dependable in different soils and climates; the trees are not as vigorous, though just as productive in many places, they are not quite as resistant to blight, and the fruits are not as high in quality. On the other hand, the pears are larger and handsomer. Well grown, the fruits of Worden Seckel are voluptuously handsome in form and color. The pears are smooth, glossy, trim of contour, well turned, unusually uniform, with a beautifully blushed cheek on a handsome green and yellow background. The accompanying illustration does not do the pear justice in size or color and shows a lack of symmetry not usually present. When the crop is thinned so that the fruits attain their largest size, no pear is handsomer or will bring a higher price on the fruit-stands. The crop comes in with Seckel, but keeps longer, lasting until December in cold-storage. The tree is very hardy and bears young, but does poorly in the nursery. Commercial growers should give this variety a thorough test, and amateurs everywhere will find it worth planting.

Worden Seckel, as its name suggests, is a seedling of Seckel, raised by Sylvester Worden, Minetto, Oswego County, New York, about 1881. Smiths and Powell, Syracuse, New York, placed it on the market about 1890. The American Pomological Society added the variety to its fruit-list in 1909.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, rapid-growing, very productive; trunk thick; branches reddish-brown, nearly covered with thin, gray scarf-skin, marked with numerous lenticels; branchlets short, with internodes variable in length, light greenish-brown, dull, glabrous except near the ends of the new growth, sprinkled with numerous small, conspicuous, raised lenticels.
Leaf-buds very small, short, pointed, appressed. Leaves 2½ in. long, 1½ in. wide, thick, leathery; apex taper-pointed; margin tipped with few minute glands, finely or coarsely serrate; petiole 1½ in. long, glabrous, slender, tinged with red; stipules very small when present. Flower-buds small, short, conical, sharply pointed, plump, free, singly on very short spurs; flowers showy, 1½ in. across, in dense clusters, 8 or 10 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1¼ in. long, slightly pubescent.
Fruit ripe late September to October; medium in size, 2½ in. long, 2⅛ in. wide, obovate-acute-pyriform, symmetrical; stem ¾ in. long, thick; cavity very shallow and obtuse or lacking, the flesh folded up around the base of the stem and often lipped; calyx open, large; lobes narrow, acute; basin shallow, narrow, obtuse, smooth or gently furrowed, symmetrical; skin thin, tender, smooth, glossy; color pale golden-yellow, blushed on the exposed cheek with solid bright red, becoming almost crimson in highly colored specimens; dots numerous, small, russet, obscure; flesh yellowish-white or dull white, fine-grained near the skin, granular at the center, tender and melting, buttery, very juicy, characteristically spicy and aromatic; quality very good. Core closed, axile, with meeting core-lines; calyx-tube conical; carpels ovate; seeds wide, plump, obtuse.

Scion Source