CHAPTER VI

THE MINOR VARIETIES OF AMERICAN GRAPES

Abby Clingotten. (Lab.) Noted by Prince in 1863 as a worthless Labrusca.

Ada. (Vin. Lab.) Valk's Seedling. (See page 56.)
Originated in 1845 by Dr. Valk, of Flushing, Long Island, from Isabella fertilized by Black Hamburg. Vigorous, hardy; bunches very large, compact to loose; berries large; skin thin, almost black; vinous flavor. This is the first recorded hybrid between Labrusca and Vinifera.

Adelaide. (Vin. Lab.) A hybrid between Concord and Muscat Hamburg, by Ricketts; brought to notice in 1870. Bunch shouldered, loose; berries large, oval, black; sweet and sprightly.

Adelia. (Rip.?) Petit Noir. Noted in the United States Patent Office Report, 1859, as a small black native grape, raised in Orange County, New Jersey.

Adeline. (Lab.) One of T. B. Miner's seedlings of Concord. Vigorous; berry large, light green.

Admirable. (Line. Aest.) From Munson; introduced in 1894. Vigorous; leaves large, smooth; stamens reflexed; bunch medium, shouldered, moderately compact; berry small, black; sweet and sprightly.

Adobe. (Long.) A wild variety of Vitis longii; found by Munson in Hutchinson County, Texas. Stamens reflexed; cluster small; berry small, black; ripens early.

Aiken. (Lab. Vin.?) Closely resembles Isabella and is the same variety or a seedling.

Albaiis. Noted by Warder in 1867 as follows: "Vine thrifty, hardy; bunch large; berry large, round, black; good."

Albania. (Line. Aest. Lab. Bourq.) Parents, Post-oak, Norton, and Herbemont; from Munson. Very vigorous, prolific; cluster large to very large, shouldered; berry medium, translucent white; juicy, tender, sprightly; very late.

Albert. (Lab.) From Theophile Huber, of Illinois City, Illinois. Vigorous; leaf large, healthy; bunch small, compact; berry very large, round, red with bluish bloom; skin thin, tender; sweet, spicy, vinous; season about with Concord.

Albino. (Lab. Vin.?) Garber's Albino; Garber's White. From J. B. Garber, Columbia, Pennsylvania, previous to 1830, from the seed of York Madeira. Bunch medium; berry medium, oval, greenish-white; sweet.

Aledo. (Lab.) From B.4F. Stinger, Charlottesville, Indiana, about 1887.
Bunch medium, compact; berry medium to large, green, tinged with yellow, nearly round, oblate; ripens with Concord.

Aletha. (Lab. Vin.) Brought to notice about 1870, at Ottawa, Illinois; said to be a Catawba seedling. Bunch medium; berries purple, nearly black; flesh pulpy, foxy; early.

Alfarata. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Brighton crossed with Delaware; from Henry B. Spencer, Rocky River, Ohio, about 1890. Berries small, dark red with a rich, vinous flavor.

Alice Lee. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Lady Washington; from W. H. Lightfoot, Springfield, Illinois. Vigorous, moderately productive; clusters medium, compact; berries large, golden yellow; very good; ripens with Concord.

Allair. Described by Downing in 1869."Bunch small, loose; berry medium, reddish-brown; flesh pulpy, harsh, poor."

Alma. (Rip. Lab. Vin.?) A seedling of Bacchus fertilized with a doubtful hybrid seedling; from Ricketts. Vigorous, healthy; bunch medium, compact, seldom shouldered; berry medium, black, blue bloom; spicy, very sweet; season with or after Hartford.

Alphonse. (Lab. Rip. Vin.) From Theophile Huber, Illinois City, Illinois. Strong open grower; leaf subject to disease; a shy bearer; bunch medium, loose; berry large, oval, yellowish; later than Concord.

Aluwe. (Line. Vin. Lab. Bourq. ?) A seedling of Lucky pollinated by Carman; from Munson in 1899. Stamens renexed; cluster large; berry medium, black; ripens late.

Alvey. (Aest. Vin.) Hagar. From Dr. Harvey, of Hagerstown, Maryland. Brought to notice about 1860; in 1867 listed by the American Pomological Society but dropped in 1883. Medium in vigor, uncertainly productive, mildews; stamens renexed; bunches medium, loose, shouldered; berries small, round, black; juicy, sweet, vinous; very good; skin thin; ripens early.
[More information in 1862 U.S. Agriculture Report. -ASC]

Amalia. (Lab. Rip.) Amelia. A cross between Rommel's Faith and Ives; from F. E. L. Rautenberg, Lincoln, Illinois. Very hardy, healthy; leathery foliage; bunch above medium; berries medium, round, black; good quality; almost like Rogers' Aminia.

Amanda. (Lab.) From Missouri, about 1868. Strong grower, productive; bunches large, compact, shouldered; berries large, black, blue bloom, hard pulp, thick skinned; poor quality; may be the same as August Pioneer.

Ambecon. (Line. Lab. Rup.) Parentage, America crossed with Beacon; from Munson in 1897. Stamens renexed; cluster large; berry medium, black; ripens late.

Amber. (Rip. Lab.) Rommel's Amber. The same parentage as Elvira; from Jacob Rommel. Vigorous, hardy, moderately productive; bunches long, shouldered, somewhat loose; berry medium, oblong, pale amber; pulp tender, sweet, juicy; skin thin; season between Concord and Catawba.

Amberbonte. (Bourq. Line. Rup.) A cross between America and Herbemont; from Munson. Vigorous and prolific; cluster very large; berry small to medium, dark red; skin thin, tough; flesh tender, juicy; fine quality; ripens with Herbemont.

American Hamburg. (Lab.) A large black grape pronounced a worthless Labrusca by Prince in 1863.

Amersion. (Line. Lab. Rup.) Parentage, America pollinated by Profusion; from Munson in 1899. Stamens renexed; cluster large; berry medium, black; ripens late.

Amonta. (Mont. Rup. Line.) A seedling of Vitis monticola pollinated by America; from Munson in 1899. Cluster medium; berry medium, black; ripens late.

Amos. (Bourq. Lab. Vin.) A Delaware seedling grown in 1865 by W. W. Jones, Douglas County, Illinois. Vigorous, productive; berry medium; good keeper.

Amy. (Lab.) A seedling of Concord; from W. H. Lightfoot, Springfield, Illinois. Healthy, hardy; berries greenish-yellow; ripens with parent.

Andover. (Lab.) According to Mitzky, 1893, a black fox grape of no value.

Anida. Mentioned in the Arkansas Experiment Station Report for 1890 as"a variety, the foliage of which was but little affected by the grape leaf folder."

Anna. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Catawba; from Eli Hasbrouck, of Newburgh, New York, fruited in 1851 and later introduced by Dr. Grant of Iona. Resembles the Catawba in appearance of vine but is unhealthy and feeble; bunches medium, loose; berries medium, pale amber; meaty, vinous; ripens with Catawba.
[More information in 1862 U.S. Agriculture Report. -ASC]

Annie M. (Lab.) A chance seedling from L. C. Chisholm. Vigorous, unproductive; stamens upright; bunch medium, compact; berry medium, whitish-green; sweet; ripens with Diamond.

Anuta. (Line. Rup. Lab.) Parentage, America crossed with Beacon; from Munson in 1899. Stamens reflexed; cluster large; berry large, black; ripens medium late.

Arbeka. (Line. Lab. Rup.) Parentage, America crossed with Profusion; from Munson in 1899. Stamens erect; cluster large; berry medium, black; ripens late.

Archer. (Vin. Lab.?) A chance seedling which fruited about 1851 in the garden of Ellis S. Archer, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Foliage shows Vinifera; bunch above medium; berry medium, round, inclining to oval, greenish-white to amber; juicy, sweet; very good; ripens late.

Ariadne. (Vin. Rip. Lab.) A seedling of Clinton and a Vinifera; from Ricketts. Vine moderately vigorous; bunch small to medium, compact; berry small, round, black.

Arkansaw. (Lab.) Wells Seedling. From Joseph Hart, Fayetteville, Arkansas, in 1893. Vigorous, productive; bunch medium, moderately compact; berry medium to large, round, dull pink with minute red dots; sweet, very foxy; hardly fair in quality.

Armalaga. (Vin. Line. Lab.) From Munson, about 1907, who gives it as a hybrid of Armlong and Malaga. Very vigorous, healthy; cluster large, compact; berry large, yellowish-green.

Armbrilong. (Line. Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Armlong crossed with Brilliant; from Munson in 1899. Stamens erect; cluster very large; berry medium, red; ripens late.

Armlong. (Line. Vin. Lab.) A hybrid of Ten-Dollar-Prize crossed with Black Eagle; from Munson. On account of its large clusters, used largely by the originator in crossing.

Aroma. (Lab.) Noted in the Hermann Grape Nurseries Catalog for 1906 as a new red variety; bunches medium; berries very large; fine aroma.


Arrold. (Lab. Vin.) According to Husmann in 1870, "so much like Cassady that it will not pay to cultivate the two."

Atavite. (Lab.) A Concord seedling; from Munson, in 1885. Lacks vigor, unproductive; stamens erect; cluster small, irregular; berries small, black; good; very early; now discarded by Munson.

Atoka. (Line. Rup. Bourq. Lab.) A cross-breed of America and Delaware; listed by Munson in 1899. Vigorous, healthy; clusters large, often with short shoulder, moderately compact; berries small to medium, globular, dark purplish-red; skin thin; juicy, sprightly; good.

Auburn Pearl. (Lab.) Noted by Dr. Parker of Ithaca, New York, as from a Mr. Cox of Auburn, New York. White; mild, sweet; early.

Aughwick. (Rip.) Found wild in the Aughwick Valley, Pennsylvania, by William A. Fraker of Shirleysburg. Resembles Clinton; berries larger and vine less productive.

August Coral. (Lab.) Noted by Prince in 1858 as from North Carolina. Hardy; berries bright red; early, sweet.

August Pioneer. (Lab.) Origin unknown; introduced about 1867. A coarse, large, black grape with firm, hard, pulpy flesh; early.

Augusta. (Lab.) A seedling of Concord; from T. B. Miner. Vigorous, hardy, unproductive; bunch medium; berries medium, white; fair quality; early.

Augusta. (Lab.) From a Mr. Broderick of St. Catherines, Ontario. Noted only as having been exhibited by Ontario at the World's Fair in 1893.

Augustina. (Bourq. Lab. Vin.) By Munson; from Delaware, Goethe and Brilliant. Introduced in 1901 under the name Augusta but changed to the above. Vigorous, very prolific; cluster large; berry very large, translucent, carmine; pulp meaty, tender, juicy.

Australis. (Long.) A wild variety of Vitis longii found by Munson on the Red River in Texas. Stamens reflexed; cluster small to medium; berry very small, black; ripens very early.

Auteonello. Mentioned in the Ontario Fruit Growers' Association Report for 1887 as a variety of medium vigor.

Avery Prolific. (Lab.?) Noted in the American Horticultural Annual for 1870 as a black grape received from John P. Avery, Norwich, Connecticut, and as very early, a great bearer, and of poor quality.

Avilla. (Aest.) Noted in the Missouri Horticultural Society Report for 1891 as a black grape of the same type and character as Cynthiana; a native of southern Kansas. Vigorous, productive, hardy, healthy; fruit black; sweet, sprightly, vinous.

Ayres Pride. (Lab. Vin.) From E. J. Ayres, Villa Ridge, Illinois, about 1890. Healthy; bunch large; berry large, black; quality best; resembles Norfolk.

Azure. (Aest.) Noted in the United States Department of Agriculture Report for 1893, as from J. S. Breece, Fayetteville, North Carolina. Cluster medium, cylindrical,


small shoulders, moderately compact; berry medium to below, roundish, adhering firmly, black; meaty, sweet with pleasant aroma; season with Catawba.

Badart. (Line. Lab. Vin.) Parentage, Ten-Dollar-Prize crossed with Triumph; from Munson in 1899. Stamens reflexed; cluster large; berry large; ripens late.

Bailey Prolific. (Lab.?) A Mr. Weis, in the Illinois Horticultural Society Report for 1865, speaks of Bailey Prolific. Productive, hardy, healthy, superior in flavor to Hartford. May be the same as Avery Prolific.

Bailie. From Samuel Bailie, of Virginia, about 1830. Fruit of medium size, red, free from pulp.

Baker. (Lab. Vin.) Mentioned by Mitzky in 1893 as a seedling of Isabella which it resembles.

Baldwin Lenoir. (Bourq.) A supposed seedling of Lenoir from Westchester, Pennsylvania. Foliage and habit of growth like Lincoln; bunch small, loose; berries small, black, sugary; a wine grape.

Balziger. (Lab. Aest.) A cross between Norton and Martha; from J. Balziger, Highland, Illinois. Of agreeable taste, ripens very late.

Balziger's Concord Seedling No. 2. (Lab.) Resembles Concord; ripens later.

Balziger's No. 32. (Lab.) A fine-flavored white Concord seedling; must 840.

Baltimore Seedling. Noted in the United States Patent Office Report for 1845 as from Sidney Weller, Brinkleyville, North Carolina.

Barbara. From Theophile Huber. Moderately vigorous; shy bearer; bunch small and irregular; berry medium, greenish-white; sweet, rich, tender pulp; ripens with Agawam.

Barnes. (Lab. Vin.) From Parker Barnes, Boston, Massachusetts, about 1864. Bunches shouldered; berries medium, oval, black; sweet; good; in season with Hartford.

Barnes. (Champ.) A wild vine of Vitis champini; found in Bell County, Texas, by Munson. Stamens reflexed; clusters small; berry medium, black; ripens mid-season.

Baroness. (Lab.) From Dr. H. Schroeder, Bloomington, Illinois. Resembles Moore Early in vine and fruit.

Bartlett. (Lab.) A pale red variety found in the woods at Lexington, Massachusetts, by Elias Phinney. Pronounced a worthless Labrusca by Prince in 1863.

Bates. (Lab.) Given in the United States Department of Agriculture Report for 1869 as a Labrusca.

Bauchman Red Fox. (Lab.) Prince states in 1830 that he received this vine from C. Bauchman of Pennsylvania. Fruit of large size, resembling the common red fox in flavor and color.

Baxter, (Aest.) A southern grape considered worthless by Prince in 1863. Clusters large; berries small, black; season very late.

Bay State. (Vin. Rip. Lab.) From N. B. White; parents, Marion crossed by Black Hamburg. Vigorous, hardy; bunch medium, shouldered; berry slightly oblong, red; juicy, sweet, sprightly; season early.

Beach. (Line. Lab. Vin.) Parentage, Post-oak No. 3 crossed with Triumph; from Munson in 1889. Stamens reflexed; clusters large; berry medium, black; ripens early.

Beagle. (Rip. Lab.) A seedling of Elvira crossed with Ives; from Munson, about 1888. Vigorous, moderately productive; bunch medium, sometimes shouldered; berry small to medium, oblong, black with heavy bloom; pulp firm, sweet; ripens about with Moore Early.

Beansville. Mentioned by William Saunders of the United States Department of Agriculture in 1864, as not being worthy of further attention.

Beaufort. (Rot.) Given in the United States Department of Agriculture Report for 1871 as a cultivated variety of Rotundifolia.

Beauty of Minnesota. (Lab. Bourq.) From J. C. Kramer of La Crescent, Minnesota, about 1866; supposed parents, Delaware and Concord. Vigorous, healthy; bunch large, compact, often shouldered; berry greenish-yellow; good; ripens early.

Beaverdam. (Lab.? Vin.?) Prince, in 1830, gives this variety as from Virginia, and states that vine and fruit resemble Bland.

Beeby Black. Described in the Illinois Horticultural Society Report for 1897 as more productive than Moore Early; bunch and berry not as large; ripens a little earlier; hardly as good.

Belinda. (Lab.) From T. B. Miner; a white seedling of Concord with large, juicy, sweet, slightly foxy fruit; ripens shortly after Lady.

Belton. (Champ. Vin. Lab. Bourq.) Parentage, De Grasset crossed with Brilliant; from Munson. Stamens erect; cluster medium; berry medium, black; ripens medium early.

Belvidere. (Lab.) Supposed to be a seedling of Concord or Hartford from Belvidere, Illinois; brought to notice by Dr. L. L. Lake in 1870. Resembles the Hartford in vine and fruit; early.

Belvin. (Line. Rip. Lab.) From Munson. Very strong grower; large, loose, oblong bunches; berries medium, black with blue bloom; quality fair; ripens very late.

Ben. (Line. Aest. Lab.) A seedling of Ten-Dollar-Prize crossed with Norton; from Munson in 1889. Stamens reflexed; cluster large; berry medium, black; ripens late.

Ben Hur. (Line. Aest. Lab. Bourq.) A combination of Post-oak with Norton and Herbemont; from Munson. Exhibited at the American Pomological Society in 1903 and introduced about 1904. Vigorous, prolific, healthy; cluster large, rather loose; berry small, black; shells; good; ripens late.

Benjamin. (Lab.) From W. H. Lightfoot, Springfield, Illinois; offspring of Northern Muscadine. Vigorous; cluster large, loose to compact; berry large, black with blue bloom, pulpy; flavor similar to Woodruff; ripens with Concord.

Berks. (Lab. Vin.) Lehigh. A seedling of Catawba; from Berks County, Pennsylvania, about 1863. Vigorous, vine similar to parent; bunch large, shouldered, compact; berry large, red; of Catawba flavor.

Berlaussel. (Berland. Line. Lab.) A seedling of Vitis berlandieri and Laussel; from Munson. Stamens reflexed; clusters large; berry medium, purple; ripens very late.

Berlin. (Lab.) A seedling of Concord; from Geo. Hosford, Ionia, Michigan. Vigorous, hardy, unproductive; bunch large, small-shouldered; berry medium to large, round, greenish-yellow; sweet, vinous, with slight foxiness; quality fair to good; ripens mid-season.

Bertha. (Lab.) From Theophile Huber, Illinois City, Illinois; about 1892. Vigorous; self-fertile; clusters medium to large, compact; berry medium, white with yellowish tinge; of fair quality; ripens with Worden.

Bertha. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Roenbeck; from Fred Roenbeck, Bayonne, New Jersey. Bunch and berries not as large as the parent; white; sweet; of fair quality.

Beta. (Lab. Rip.?) A cross between Carver and Concord; from L. Suelter, Carver, Minnesota. Very hardy, productive; fruit of fair quality; early. [see also the Wikipedia entry- ASC]

Beta. A Labrusca-Vinifera hybrid given by the Canada Experimental Farms Report, 1896, as originating in London, Ontario. A table grape, neither large nor attractive.

Bettina. (Vin. Lab. Rip.) Parentage, Hartford crossed with Muscat Hamburg; from G. W. Campbell, Delaware, Ohio. In appearance and quality intermediate between the two parents.

Big Berry. (Line.) Big Bunch; Great Cluster? A variety of the north Texas glaucous form of Lincecumii considerably used by Munson in his breeding work. It is characterized by great vigor of vine and large bunch and berry. One parent of Bailey, Collier, R. W. Munson, and many others.

Big Black. (Line. Lab.) From Munson. Vigorous; bunches large, loose to compact, shouldered; berries very large, black, similar to Concord in appearance; poor in quality; ripens after Concord; good shipper.

Big Cluster. (Mont.) A variety of Vitis monticola; found by Munson in Bell County, Texas. Stamens reflexed; cluster large to medium; berry small, purple; ripens very late.

Big Hope. (Line. Lab. Vin.) From Munson, about 1889; parents, Big Berry crossed with Triumph. Vigorous; clusters medium to large, variable in compactness; berries small to medium, purplish; fair in quality.

Big Ozark. (Lab.) In 1863, Prince noted this as a worthless Labrusca.

Bird's Egg. (Lab. Vin.) Downing, in 1869, described Bird's Egg as follows:"Bunch long, pointed; berry long, oval, whitish, with brown specks; flesh pulpy; only good as a curiosity."Resembles Catawba.

Bishop. (Lab. Vin.) A chance seedling from D. Bishop, Leavenworth, Kansas, about 1905. A supposed offspring of Brighton fertilized by Diamond. Fruit much like Diamond in color and size but less compact; ripens with Winchell.

Bismarck. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Brighton; produced by F. E. L. Rautenberg, of Lincoln, Illinois. Almost a reproduction of its parent except that it is hardier.

Bismarck. (Lab.?) A chance seedling from Fred Roenbeck, Bayonne, New Jersey. Healthy, vigorous, productive; bunch large; berries large, black, agreeable aroma.

Black Bear. Mentioned in Texas Station Bulletin No. 48, 1898, as"hardly desirable"; bunch oblong, loose; berries size of Lenoir, black with blue bloom; acid but rather pleasant; self-sterile; ripens mid-season.

Black Claret. (Lab.) Noted by W. R. Prince in 1863 as a worthless Labrusca.

Black Cluster. A very hardy, very productive, black, medium-sized native raised at an early day in the Northwest.

Black Delaware. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) A seedling of Delaware raised by Rommel of Missouri over thirty years ago. Fruit resembles Delaware very closely except for the color which is black. Vine mildews in some neighborhoods.

Black Heart. (Vin. Rip. Lab.) Parentage, Marion crossed with Black Hamburg; originated by N. B. White of Norwood, Massachusetts; exhibited at the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1872. Berry medium; sweet and juicy.

Black Herbemont. (Bourq. Aest.? Lab.?) Either a Herbemont seedling or Herbemont crossed with Norton; from Munson, in 1893. Vigorous, productive, healthy; stamens upright; clusters large, loose; berry small, black; poor quality; ripens late.

Black King. (Rip. Lab.?) First noticed by Prince in 1863, who describes it as an early, small, good table and wine grape. Fuller received the variety from Bucks County, Pennsylvania, and in Record of Horticulture for 1868 he writes:"Said to be a fox grape; but the specimen vines we received from a very reliable source, have persisted in bearing Clinton grapes."

Black Madeira. (Vin. Rip. Lab.) Madeira. Parentage, Marion crossed with Black Hamburg; originated by N. B. White; exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1873. Large, open bunch; berry very small; sprightly flavor; good.

Black Rose. (Lab. Vin.) Parentage, Concord crossed with Salem; raised by Rautenberg, of Lincoln, Illinois, in 1884. Vine resembles Concord, hardy, subject to mildew; bunch similar to Concord; berries large, black; of fine flavor.

Black September. (Rip.?) Given in the United States Patent Office Report for 1860 as a small, juicy, unproductive native grape under test by the Department of Agriculture.

Blackstone. (Lab.) An early black grape of poor quality, pronounced a worthless Labrusca by Prince in 1863.

Black Taylor. (Rip. Lab.) Rommel's No. 19. From Rommel, about 1882; similar to Montefiore.

Black Tennessee. (Aest.) According to Gardener's Monthly, 1859: Bunch large, long, shouldered, compact; berries medium, brownish-crimson with blue bloom; very juicy, sweet.

Black Virginia. (Rip.) A wild frost grape of Virginia; said to have been disseminated by Peter Raabe as the Emily.

Blackwood. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) Parentage, Delago by Governor Ireland; from Munson, in 1897. Stamens erect; cluster large; berry large, black; ripens early.

Blanco. (Rip. Vin. Lab.) Seedling of Elvira crossed with Triumph; from Munson. Unproductive, self-sterile; cluster medium, cylindrical, loose; berry medium, oval, purple with blue bloom, moderately juicy, somewhat vinous, sweet; good; season about with Concord.

Bland. (Lab. Vin.) Eland's Fox; Eland's Madeira; Bland's Pale Red; Bland's Virginia; Carolina Powel; Powell; Red Bland; Red Scuppernong; Rose Grape; Virginia Muscadell. An old variety brought to notice by Colonel Bland of Virginia in the latter part of the eighteenth century. Moderately vigorous; leaves lobed, light green, smooth, delicate; cluster long, loose, often with imperfect berries; berries large, round; pedicels long; skin thick, light red to dark purple; flesh pulpy, sprightly, slightly foxy; ripens late. Many of the early authorities consider Bland a probable Vinifera hybrid on account of its resemblance to the European Chasselas.

Blondin. (Bourq. Aest. Line. Lab.) A combination of Ten-Dollar-Prize, Post-oak, Norton and Herbemont; from Munson in 1899. Very vigorous, prolific; cluster large, compact, shouldered; berry medium, white, translucent; juicy, sprightly, acid; ripens with Catawba.

Blood. (Line. Bourq.) A seedling of Lincecumii fertilized with Herbemont; from Munson. Moderate in vigor and productiveness; bunch small to medium, compact; berry small, black, juicy, with a sprightly subacid flavor, seedy; ripens a week later than Concord.

Blood Black. (Lab.) From a Mr. Blood, Newburyport, Massachusetts, about 1854. Hardy,, vigorous, productive; bunch medium, compact; berry medium, round, black; sweet, with strong, foxy flavor; ripens early.

Blood White. (Lab.) From Blood, Newburyport, Massachusetts, about 1854. A red grape with the same general characters as Blood Black.

Blue Dyer. (Rip.) According to Bushberg Catalogue y 1883: Bunch medium; berries small, black.

Blue Favorite. (Aest.?) Purple Favorite. From Georgia, about 1825 or earlier. Very vigorous, resembling Cunningham but not so prolific; cluster large, conical; berries small, round, black; juicy, vinous; good; ripens with Herbemont.

Blue Imperial. (Lab.) Described by Downing in 1869 as follows:"Vigorous, healthy, unproductive; bunch medium, short; berry large, round, black, hard pulp; poor in quality; ripens with Hartford."

Boadicea. (Lab. Vin.) A cross of Telegraph with Black Hamburg; from Chas. J. Copley, Stapleton, New York. Of medium vigor; bunch medium, compact; berry oval; meaty, sweet with a rich, aromatic flavor; good keeper; ripens with Isabella.

Boadicea. (Lab.) A Concord seedling; from T. B. Miner of New Jersey. Vigorous, unproductive; bunch small; berry small, white.

Bokchito. (Line. Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Early Purple crossed with Brilliant; from Munson in 1899. Stamens erect; cluster large; berry medium, black; ripens mid-season.

Bonne Madame. Listed with varieties which ripened earliest at the Experimental Farms, Canada, in 1905.

Bottsi. (Bourq.) From South Carolina. Very vigorous, productive; bunch very large, loose; berry below medium, light to dark pink, susceptible to black-rot. Very similar to Herbemont and names by some believed to be synonymous.

Boulevard. (Lab. Vin.) From A. Koeth, Charlotte, New York; Concord crossed with Brighton. Vigorous, productive; bunch large, compact, shouldered; berry medium, round, greenish-white; juicy, sweet, vinous; ripens with Concord.

Bowman. (Lab.) Described in Magazine of Horticulture, 1863, by Prince as a dark purple, early table grape of good quality.

Braddock. (Lab.) W. R. Prince, in Magazine of Horticulture for 1863, notes this as a purplish, early sweet table grape; hardy and adapted to New England.

Bradley. (Lab. Vin. ?) Described by A. C. Hubbard of Troy, Michigan, in the United States Patent Office Report for 1849 as a grape of the Isabella type but three or four weeks earlier.

Braendly. (Lab.? Vin.?) From Illinois. Very weak, unproductive; stamens upright; bunch small, irregularly loose; berry small, yellow; of poor quality; ripens with Cynthiana.

Brand White. (Lab. Vin.) Resembles Cassady; exhibited before the Mississippi Valley Grape Growers' Association in 1867.

Breck. (Lab.) Exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1855 by Thomas Waterman who gave it the above name. Resembles Winne. Hardy; early.

Bridgewater. (Lab.) Supposed to be a sport of Worden, received at this Station in 1901 from J. B. Tuckerman, Cassville, New York. Very similar to Worden but said by the originator to be a week or ten days earlier.


Brunk. (Line. Vin. Lab.) A seedling of Lincecumii crossed with Triumph; from Texas. Medium in vigor and productiveness; stamens upright; bunch medium, irregularly loose; berry medium, black; poor quality; susceptible to black-rot.

Buist. (Lab. Vin.) Supposed to be a cross between Catawba and Brighton; from H. B. Buist, Greenville, South Carolina, about 1878. Vigorous, hardy, inclined to mildew; late in ripening.

Bumper. (Line. Aest. Lab.) Post-oak crossed with Norton; from Texas. Very vigorous; stamens reflexed; bunch large, irregular, very loose; berry medium, black; of poor quality; susceptible to black-rot; season with Cynthiana.

Buncombe. (Lab.) A variety of Vitis labrusca found in North Carolina and used by Munson in his breeding work. Stamens reflexed; cluster small; berry large, black; ripens mid-season.

Bundy. (Lab.) A black seedling of Concord from the same lot of seeds as Colerain; from David Bundy, Colerain, Ohio. Vigorous, productive, hardy, healthy; bunch and berry resemble parent in appearance and quality; ripens with Moore Early.

Burlington. Given in American Farmer, 1822, as a New Jersey grape of high quality.

Burlington. (Lab.) A seedling from A. Taylor, Burlington, Vermont, about 1871. Reported hardy in northern New England and equal to Adirondac as a table grape.

Burnet. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Hartford crossed with Black Hamburg; from P. C. Dempsey, Albury, Prince Edward County, Ontario. Vigorous, productive, mildews; stamens reflexed; cluster large, shouldered, loose; berry large, oval, black; juicy; earlier than Concord.

Burroughs. (Rip. Lab.?) According to Downing, 1869, from Vermont. Vine like Clinton; bunch small; berry round, black with thick bloom; harsh, acid; ripens earlier than Isabella.

Burrows No. 42 C. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Concord crossed with Jefferson; from J. G. Burrows, Fishkill, New York, received at this Station in 1888. Sometimes unproductive; bunch medium, very compact, handsome; berry medium or above, dark red with lilac bloom; juicy, sweet, tender, slightly vinous, fine flavor; ripens about with Concord.

Burton Early. (Lab.) Downing notes in 1869: A large, early grape; unworthy of culture.

Bush. (Bourq. Line.) Parentage, Herbemont crossed with a Post-oak; from Munson. Stamens erect; cluster medium; berry medium, black; ripens very late.

Bushberg. (Aest. Lab.) A seedling of Willie crossed with an Aestivalis; from Dr. L. C. Chisholm, Tennessee. Aestivalis characters are predominant in both vine and fruit. Described by the originator as vigorous, healthy; clusters above medium, long, loose, shouldered; berries large, oblong, black, adherent; sprightly, vinous, tender; ripens about with Concord.


Cabot. (Lab. Vin.) Stetson No. 1. A seedling from A. W. Stetson, Braintree, Massachusetts, about 1853 ; a cross of a native Labrusca and Grizzly Frontignan. Bunch long, firm, short shoulder; berries medium, round, black with thick bloom; skin thick; musky, sweet.

Cairnano. Tested by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1864 and discarded as worthless.

California Rosea. Described by Warder in 1867 as:"Bunch large, compact; berry large, round, black, sweet."

California White. Noted by Warder in 1867. Bunch full, medium; berry large, yellow; very fine.

Calloway. (Bourq. Vin.?) Possibly a synonym of Ruckland. Vigorous, healthy, productive; cluster small to medium, compact; berries medium, oval, red; skin thin, tough; quality good; ripens very late.

Calypso. (Lab. Vin.) Produced'by Chas. J. Copley, of Stapleton, New York, from seed of Lady crossed with Secretary; fruited in 1887. Hardy, strong in growth; bunches large, heavily shouldered; berries large, black; juicy, vinous; good; ripens with or after Concord.

Camaks. Found growing in the garden of James Camaks, about 1847. Bunch shouldered, long, loose, tapering; berries small, round, brownish-red; flesh tender, melting, sweet; good.

Cambridge. (Lab.) Originated in the garden of Francis Houghton, Cambridge, Massachusetts, about 1867. Vigorous; bunch large, shouldered, compact; berry large, black, covered with heavy bloom; similar to Concord; ripens four days earlier.

Camden. (Lab.) Bunch medium; berry large, greenish-white; flesh with hard center, acid; poor.

Canaan. Mentioned in the United States Patent Office Report in 1843, as one 0f the varieties grown at that time.

Canby. (Lab. Vin.) From W. Canby, Wilmington, Delaware; probably a seedling of Isabella, brought to notice about 1852. Hardy, vigorous; cluster medium size, compact; berry medium size, purple; flavor sweet; quality"best."

Canonicus. (Lab. Vin.) From D. S. Marvin, Watertown, New York, about 1888. Vigorous and productive; stamens upright; bunch loose, medium; berry medium, round, pale green, translucent, whitish bloom; skin thin; pulp sweet, tender, juicy, sprightly; ripens with Concord.

Cape May Prolific. Large Blue English. Mentioned by Prince in 1863 in a list of varieties in Gardener's Monthly.

Capital. (Lab.) Given in Bushberg Catalogue in 1894 as a white Concord seedling raised by W. H. Lightfoot of Illinois.

Carlotte. (Lab.) Produced by T. B. Miner of Linden, New Jersey, from seed of Concord. Vigorous, hardy; greenish-white; good.


Carminet. (Bourq.?) Bunches small, ragged; berries small, black; sweet; skin and pulp tender.

Carolina Blue Muscadine. Jones' Perfumed. Mentioned by Prince in Gardener's Monthly, 1863.

Caroline. Carolina. Said by Husmann in 1871 to be the same as Concord.

Carter. (Lab. Vin.?) An old variety mentioned as early as 1831; a seedling of Isabella. Bunch large, shouldered; berries large, round, black, heavy bloom; good, very similar to Isabella with which it ripens.

Carter. (Lab.) Mammoth Globe. A large-fruited red Labrusca used by Rogers.

Carver. Given as one of the parents of Beta. Not described.

Case. (Rip.) Mentioned by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1869.

Case Crystal. (Lab.) Noted in the United States Patent Office Report for 1859 as a reliable variety for New England.

Caspar. (Bourq.) A seedling of Louisiana; from A. Caspar of New Orleans, supposed to be a cross with Herbemont. Vigorous; cluster medium, compact; berries brownish-red, small; juice white; good; ripens late.

Cassady. (Lab. Vin.) Arcott; Arnott; Arrott. A chance seedling from H. P. Cassady, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; fruited in 1852. Medium in vigor, productive; stamens upright; cluster medium, compact, sometimes shouldered; berry medium, round, greenish-white, covered with white bloom; skin thick, tough; flesh juicy, tender, pleasant; very good; ripens with Catawba.

Catarobe. Mentioned in the Horticulturist of 1850 as growing well in Illinois.

Catherine. (Lab. Vin.) From Gen. N. M. Waterman of Hartford, Connecticut, 1854. Clusters small, compact, firm; berries medium, slightly oval, green, translucent; skin thin; pulp soft, sweet, well flavored, foxy.

Catoosa. (Line. Vin. Lab. Bourq.?) Parentage, Lucky crossed with Carman; from Munson in 1899. Stamens erect; cluster large; berry medium, black; ripens late.

Caywood No. 1. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) From A. J. Caywood, Marlboro, New York; a red seedling of Poughkeepsie fertilized with Iona.

Caywood No. 50. (Lab. Vin.) From A. J. Caywood, about 1888. Vigorous, healthy, productive; stamens upright; cluster medium, compact, often shouldered; berry large, roundish, black with abundant bloom; shatters; skin thick, tender; pulp juicy, sweet, tough, vinous; good; ripens a little before Worden.

Chambersburg White. Mentioned in Gardener's Monthly in 1863 in a list of worthless varieties.

Chambril. (Champ. Lab. Vin. Bourq.) Parentage, Vitis champini crossed with Brilliant; from Munson. Stamens upright; cluster medium or above; berry small, purplish-black, thin bloom; skin thin, tough; pulp tender, not juicy, vinous; good.

Champanel. (Champ. Lab.) Parents, Vitis champini crossed with Worden; from Munson. Vigorous; clusters large, conical; berries globular, large, black; season with Concord.

Champovo. (Champ. Vin. Lab. Bourq.) Parentage, De Grasset crossed with Brilliant; from Munson. Stamens reflexed; cluster medium; berry large, black; ripens mid-season.

Chandler. (Lab.) A chance seedling from N. M. Chandler, Ottawa, Kansas, about 1886; probably from Worden. Vigorous, productive; stamens upright; cluster medium, shouldered, compact; berry above medium, round, rich yellow; good.

Chapin. Noted in Gardener's Monthly, 1863, as worthless.

Charles. (Rip. Lab.?) Mentioned by Joseph Hobbins about 1869 as having been injured by winter; exhibited at Wisconsin State Fair that year. Resembles Clinton.

Charles A. Green. A white grape originated by P. W. Loudon, Janesville, Wisconsin; introduced by the Chas. A. Green Nursery Company of Rochester, New York. Said to be"a vigorous grower, and an enormous yielder of very large and beautiful clusters of excellent fruit."

Charlotte. (Lab. Vin.) Prom Edmund Ward, Kelleys Island, Ohio; a seedling of Catawba. Bunch medium, not shouldered; berries medium, roundish, pale red; flesh tender, sweet, vinous; skin thick; season with Delaware.

Charlton. (Vin. Lab.) A cross between Brighton and Mills; from John Charlton, Rochester, New York; fruited about 1893. Vigorous, productive, hardy; clusters large, generally well shouldered, compact; berry large to medium, roundish-oval, dark red; skin rather thin, tough; pulp meaty, tender, releases seeds easily; juicy, sweet, rich, vinous; ripens a week before Concord; keeps well; promising.

Charter Oak. (Lab. Aest.) A large coarse, foxy grape from Connecticut. Vigorous, hardy; canes long with blue bloom; tendrils continuous; clusters small, loose; berries large, roundish, dull dark amber; shatter; flesh soft, tough, foxy; fair quality; ripens with Concord.

Chavoush. Exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1868. Productive; bunch large; berry large, oval, white; keeps well.

Cheowa. Noted in the United States Department of Agriculture Report for 1863 as a variety to be discarded.

Cherokee. (Aest. Lab.) From Stayman, of Kansas; the same parentage as Ozark. Vigorous; free from rot and mildew; bunch large, compact; berry medium, black; tender, juicy, sweet; season with Cynthiana.

Chicago. (Lab.) A chance seedling found in Lincoln, Illinois, by F. E. L. Rautenberg. Vigorous, productive, hardy; bunch medium, sometimes double; berries medium, round; skin tough; color red resembling Delaware; sweet, rich; ripens early; ships well.

Chidester's Seedlings. Produced by C. P. Chidester, Battle Creek, Michigan, about thirty years ago. All are apparently second generation Vinifera-native hybrids. They are of high quality but all seem to have some weakness which makes their permanent popularity doubtful. These varieties appear to have become confused, as the Michigan Experiment Station Bulletins, our chief source of information, have published contradictory descriptions in different places.

No. 1, See Lyon.

No. 2. (Lab. Vin.) Moderately vigorous, hardy; stamens reflexed; cluster medium, compact; berry medium, round, dark red; flesh soft, sweet, vinous; good; ripens early; shatters somewhat.

No. 3. Vigorous; cluster large, loose, shouldered; berry large, dark purple; flesh firm, juicy, sweet; keeps well.

No. 4- Vigorous; cluster medium, roundish, shouldered, loose; berries large, round, nearly black; flesh tender, vinous; good; ripens just after Concord. *

Chillicothe. (Lab. Vin.) From Ohio. Mentioned in the United States Department of Agriculture Report in 1863. Bunch long, loose; berry medium, oval, dark purple.

Chippewa.  Found growing on the banks of Chippewa Creek, Ontario; described in 1858 by W. H. Read. Bunch large, compact, heavily shouldered; berry medium, black; flesh tender, sweet, good.

Chisholm's Seedlings. Produced by Dr. L. C. Chisholm, Spring Hill, Tennessee. Of his named sorts there are: Annie M., Bushberg, Delawba, Gilt Edge, La Marie, Lutie, and Willie, the best known being Lutie. The following unnamed seedlings from Chisholm have been tested and described:

No. 1. (Bourq. Lab. Vin.) A Delaware seedling. Weak, healthy; stamens reflexed; cluster small, very loose; berry medium, purple; quality poor; ripens with Worden.

No. 3. (Bourq. Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Delaware. Medium in vigor, healthy; stamens upright; cluster small, compact; berry small, reddish-purple; quality fair; ripens with Worden.

No. 4. (Bourq. Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Delaware. Vigorous; cluster medium size; berries light green, sprightly, vinous; good; ripens with Delaware.

No. 5. (Bourq. Lab. Vin.) A Delaware seedling. Moderately vigorous; berry light red; good quality; ripens just before Concord.

No. 6. (Bourq. Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Delaware. Weak, apparently healthy, a shy bearer; stamens reflexed; cluster small, loose; berry medium, purple; fair quality; ripens with Worden; not a good keeper.

No. 8. (Bourq. Lab. Vin.) A Delaware seedling. Vigorous, hardy, productive; cluster medium; berry medium, black; very good; ripens with Moore Early.

No. 9. (Aest.) Moderately vigorous, attacked somewhat by black-rot, hardy; stamens upright; cluster medium; berry medium, red; quality hardly fair; ripens with Concord.

Chocolate. Mentioned in a list of worthless varieties in Gardener's Monthly in 1863.

Choteau. (Line. Vin. Lab. Bourq.?) Parentage, Lucky crossed with Carman; from Munson in 1899. Stamens erect; cluster large; berry medium, black; ripens late.

Church Seedling. (Lab.) From Dr. Durfee, Fall River, Massachusetts; a seedling of a wild grape unworthy of cultivation.

Claret. (Rip.) From Charles Carpenter, Kelleys Island, Ohio. Vigorous; bunch and berry medium; claret red; acid; resembles Clinton.

Clarissa. (Lab. Vin.) A white seedling of Salem; from F. E. L. Rautenberg, Lincoln, Illinois.

Clark. (Lab. Vin.) From J. S. Phelps, Washington, District of Columbia. Cluster of medium length, sometimes shouldered, compact; berry medium, oval, dull red, heavy bloom; sweet, foxy.

Clark Seedling. (Lab.) From a Mr. Clark of Framingham, Massachusetts; described in Magazine of Horticulture in 1861. Hardy and early; bunch loose; berry reddish; quality excellent.

Clarkes. Mentioned by Prince in 1830 as being grown in Virginia. Bunch and berry large; early; keeps well.

Claude. (Lab.) From Georgia. Vigorous; stamens upright; bunch medium, loose; berry large, black; poor quality; ripens a little before Norton.

Cleopatra. (Lab. Rip.) Parentage, Ives crossed with Faith; from F. E. L. Rautenberg, Lincoln, Illinois. Vigorous, hardy, productive; bunch and berry medium; black; early.

Clifton. (Lab. Vin.) Parents, Telegraph crossed with White Frontignan; from C. J. Copley, Stapleton, New York. Vigorous, productive; bunch large, compact; berries white, large; ripens in September.

Climax. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling from A. Reisinger of Naples, New York, about 1883; supposed to be a seedling of Catawba. Vigorous; berry medium to large, red; tender, sweet, sprightly; ripens with Concord.

Clinton-Vialia. (Rip.) Probably identical with Franklin. Used in France as a grafting stock.

Cloantha. (Vin. Lab.) An Isabella seedling from Kentucky. Vigorous; berry black, small; foxy.

Clover Street Black. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Diana crossed with Black Hamburg; from Jacob Moore. Bunches large, compact; berries large, round, black; flesh tender, sweet, ripens with Concord.

Clover Street Red. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Diana crossed with Black Hamburg; from Jacob Moore. Vigorous; berries large, roundish-oval, crimson; Diana flavor and season.

Cluster. Mentioned in the United States Patent Office Report, 1852, as a native grape.


Clyde. (Lab. ? Vin. ?) From John Burr, Leavenworth, Kansas. Bunch medium, compact; berry large, red; tender, juicy, sweet.

Cochee. (Lab. Bourq.) From John Burr, Leavenworth, Kansas, 1887. Vigorous; tendrils intermittent; cluster medium to small, compact; berry medium, dark red, lilac bloom; flesh tender, fine, vinous, sweet; good; ripens about with Concord.

Coe. (Lab.) From Iowa. Hardy, vigorous; cluster small, compact, rarely shouldered; berries small to medium, black; a week earlier than Concord.

Colesvine. (Lab.? Vin.?) Enumerated in a list of unpromising grapes for North Carolina by Sidney Weller in 1845.

Collier. (Line. Lab.) Big Red; Dr. Collier. A seedling of Post-oak by Concord; from Munson. Vigorous, productive; tendrils intermittent; stamens upright; cluster medium to large, variable in compactness; berries large, roundish, dark reddish-purple, heavy bloom; flesh tender, fine-grained, vinous, nearly sweet; quality good; ripens just after Concord.

Collina. Hill Grape of Ohio. Listed by Prince in Gardeners' Monthly in 1863. Colorado. From John Gravestock, Canon City, Colorado. Vigorous; cluster medium, long, shouldered, compact; berries medium; sweet, tender; late.

Colp. (Lab.) A wild vine of Vitis labrusca found in Maryland and used by Munson. Stamens depressed; cluster medium; berry large, white; ripens mid-season.

Columbia. (Rip.) Said to have been found by Major Adlum on his farm at Georgetown, District of Columbia., previous to 1830. Vigorous, productive; cluster small, loose; berries round, black, small; quality poor.

Columbia. (Lab.) From J. T. C. Clark, Washington, before 1883. Vigorous; cluster and berry medium, white; good; late.

Columbian. Originated about the same time as Columbian Imperial and probably identical with it. The literature of the two is so confused, Columbian Imperial having been sold as Columbian, that it is impossible to determine whether they are distinct.

Columbus. (Bourq. Aest. Rip.) From John Hertlein, Spielerville, Arkansas; parents, Delaware and Norton. Vigorous; bunches large, nearly compact; berries medium, black; sweet, pleasant flavor; ripens with Delaware.

Compacta. (Bourq. Vin. Lab.) A seedling of Herbemont crossed with Triumph; from Munson. Stamens erect; cluster large; berry small, white; ripens very late. Now discarded by originator.

Concord Chasselas. (Vin. Lab.) From G. W. Campbell, Delaware, Ohio, 1881; a cross between Golden Chasselas and Concord. Vigorous; cluster long, moderately compact, sometimes shouldered; berries large, oval, greenish-white; pure flavor; good; ripens with Concord.

Concord Muscat. (Vin. Lab.) A seedling of Concord crossed with Muscat; from G. W. Campbell. Vigorous; cluster compact, long, sometimes shouldered; berries large, oval, light greenish-white; flesh tender and melting; quality very good; ripens with Concord.

Concordia. (Lab. Bourq.) From Dr. J. Stayman, Leavenworth, Kansas. Vigorous, hardy; bunch large, compact; berry large, black; pulp tender, juicy, sweet, vinous; very good; ripens about with Concord.

Conelva. (Lab. Rip.) A seedling of Concord crossed with Elvira; from Munson. Vigorous, hardy; stamens upright; cluster medium, compact; berry medium, round, black; quality fair; ripens with Cottage.

Connecticut. Mentioned by Prince in a list of worthless varieties in Gardener's Monthly for 1863.

Connecticut Seedling. Cited in the Illinois Horticultural Society Report for 1868 as a promising table grape.

Conqueror. (Vin. Lab.) From Rev. Archer Moore, New Jersey, about 1868; supposed by him to be a cross between Concord and Royal Muscadine. Vigorous; stamens upright; bunch medium, loose; berries medium, oval, black, pulpy; quality fair; ripens about with Concord.

Cooper Wine. From Joseph Cooper, Gloucester County, New Jersey, about 1800. Vigorous; berry round, medium, purple; quality fair.

Copley's Hybrids. Chas. J. Copley of Stapleton, Staten Island, New York, about thirty years ago originated and exhibited a large number of hybrid grapes. His productions were chiefly the result of fertilizing cultivated American varieties with pollen of standard Viniferas, particularly the White Frontignan. His seedlings which received names are Boadicea, Calypso, Clifton, Cornelia, Daphne, D'Elboux, Lulie, Mineola, Paragon, and Zelia. They show too many Vinifera weaknesses, particularly a tendency to mildew, to become popular. None of them was ever introduced.

Coppermine. Discarded as worthless from test vineyards of the Department of Agriculture in 1864.

Corby. (Lab. Vin.) From C. C. Corby, Montclair, New Jersey. Vigorous, hardy, productive; blooms mid-season; stamens upright; clusters above medium, variable in compactness; berries intermediate in size, oval to roundish, dull black with heavy blue bloom; flesh fine-grained, sweet, resembles Concord in flavor; good; ripens about with Concord.

Coriel. (Lab. Vin.) From New Jersey. Hardy; bunch medium; berry small, oval, black; good.

Cornelia. (Vin. Lab.) A seedling of Telegraph crossed with White Frontignan; from Chas. J. Copley, Stapleton, New York. Bunch large, shouldered; berries round, white with amber tint; juicy, rich, sweet.

Cornucopia. (Vin. Rip.) Arnold's No. 2. Parents, Clinton crossed with Black St. Peters; from Charles Arnold, Paris, Ontario, 1859. Vigorous; stamens upright; cluster large, shouldered, compact; berry medium to large, black; flesh tender, vinous, juicy; good; ripens with Concord.

Corporal. (Lab. Aest. Vin.) Parents, Eumelan crossed with Worden; from D. S. Marvin, about 1881. Bunch and berry medium, loose; black; vinous; good.

Corsican. From Ohio. Hardy; bunch large; berry small, round, red; very good.

Cortland. (Lab.) Courtland. A seedling of Concord crossed with Hartford; from M. F. Cleary, Cortland, New York, about 1863. Believed by some to be identical with Champion. Vigorous; clusters large, compact; berry large, black; sweet; early.

Cotoctin. Described by Fuller in 1867 as a chance seedling from Pennsylvania. Bunch large, shouldered; berries large, white; good; late.

Covert. (Lab.) A chance seedling; from N. B. Covert, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Bunch large, compact; berries large, greenish-white; sweet; ripens with Concord.

Cowan. (Rip.) Me Cowan; McGowan; Me Owen. An old variety of unknown origin; once raised on Lake Champlain. Very hardy; clusters medium; berries small, black, heavy bloom; juicy, sour; very early.

Cozy. (Lab. Vin.) From J. S. Breece, Fayetteville, North Carolina. Cluster large, compact; berry oval, medium, black, blue bloom; flesh translucent, tender; good; ripens a week before Ives.

Craig. (Rip.?) French Grape. A variety found growing at Franklin, Pennsylvania, about 1809; perhaps synonymous with Franklin. Fruit dark-colored; bunch and berry medium; juicy; good.

Critic. (Lab. Vin.?) A seedling of Jefferson; from J. S. Breece, Fayetteville, North Carolina; described in 1892. Cluster large, shouldered, compact; berries round, medium, dull red; foxy; good; earlier than Brighton.

Crown. (Line. Vin. Lab.) From Munson; parents, Post-oak crossed with Triumph. Vigorous; stamens upright; cluster large, compact; berry large, black; good; ripens with Catawba.

Crystal. (Lab.) A native grape found by S. D. Case, Canton Center, Connecticut. Vigorous; cluster medium; berries large, oblate, green with white dots; sweet, juicy.

Culbert Seedling. (Lab. Vin.) From Dr. W. A. M. Culbert, Newburgh, New York. Parents, Iona crossed with Muscat Hamburg. Bunch and berry large; purplish-black; good.

Curtis. Stetson's Seedling No. 4- From Nahum Stetson, Bridgewater, Massachusetts; mentioned in the Magazine of Horticulture in 1857 as being a seedling of"superior flavor".

Curtis. (Line. Vin. Lab.) Parentage, Post-oak No. 3 crossed with Triumph; from Munson in 1889. Stamens erect; cluster large; berry medium, black; ripens mid-season.

 Cuyahoga. (Lab. Vin.?) Coleman's White; Wemple; Wemple's Seedling. Found by a Mr. Wemple at Euclid, Ohio, previous to 1859, and named after the county in which it was found. Vigorous; cluster large, shouldered, compact; berries large, round, covered with bloom, pale yellowish-green tinged with amber; pulp melting, juicy, sweet, fine musky flavor; ripens about with Catawba.
[Mentioned in 1862 Commissioner of Agriculture report. -ASC]

Cuyarano. (Lab.) Given in a list of native fox grapes in the report of the Department of Agriculture in 1869.

Cyncon. (Lab. Aest.) A seedling of Cynthiana crossed with Concord; from Munson. Vigorous, healthy, dark green foliage; bunch long; berry black; late.

Dana. (Lab.) A seedling from Francis Dana, Roxbury, Massachusetts, about 1860. Vigorous, hardy, mildews slightly; bunch medium, shouldered, compact; berries large, nearly round, red with heavy bloom; free from pulp as Delaware, not as sweet; ripens about with Concord.

Danbury. (Lab.) A chance seedling from H. C. Coble, Danbury, Connecticut. Hardy, healthy; bunches medium, compact, sometimes shouldered; berries large, black; flesh tender, mild, sweet; good; ripens earlier than Hartford.

Daphne. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Telegraph crossed with White Frontignan; from Chas. J. Copley, Stapleton, New York, about 1875. Very vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive; bunch medium to large with very long stem; berry medium to large, white; without pulp, sweet, rich, Muscat flavor; ripens early.

Dartmouth. (Lab.) Listed by Prince in Gardener's Monthly for 1863 as a worthless variety.

Darwin. (Aest. Bourq. Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Delaware crossed with some vigorous Aestivalis; from Dr. J. Stayman. Vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive; foliage of Aestivalis type; bunch large, compact, double-shouldered; berry medium, red; tender, juicy, vinous; ripens with Delaware.

Davis. (Long.) A variety of Vitis longii found by Munson in Hutchinson County, Texas. Stamens reflexed; cluster small; berry small, black; ripens early.

Davkina. (Line. Rup. Lab.) A cross of America and Beacon; from Munson in 1899. Stamens erect; cluster large; berry large, black; ripens mid-season.

De Grasset. A variety of Champini, noted by Munson in Texas Station Bulletin No. 56 as the female parent for a few of his crosses.

Delago. (Bourq. Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Delaware cross-pollinated by Goethe; from Munson in 1883; introduced in 1896. Medium in growth and productiveness, not hardy, susceptible to mildew; stamens reflexed; clusters below medium to small^ often oval, variable in compactness; berries medium to above, roundish to oval, dark red, lilac bloom, very persistent; meaty, vinous, sweet; very good; ripens late.

Delaware Seedling. (Bourq. Vin. Lab.) J. A. Warder in 1867 describes a"Delaware Seedling"from Ohio. Healthy; bunch short; berry medium, dull red; rich, sweet, somewhat foxy; very early.

Delaware Seedling. (Vin. Bourq. Lab.) Delaware Seedling No. 4- A seedling of Delaware crossed with Gen. Marmora; from Dr. W. A. M. Culbert, Newburgh, New York. More vigorous grower than Delaware, hardy, prolific.


Delaware Seedling No. 2. (Bourq. Lab. Vin.) From Jacob Rommel. Vigorous, healthy, productive; bunch above medium, compact, shouldered; berry medium, black; pulpy, sweet; very good; ripens earlier than Hartford.

Delaware Seedling No. 9. (Bourq. Lab. Vin.) From Jacob Rommel. Moderate grower, healthy, hardy, very productive; bunch medium, compact; berry medium, black, firm, sweet; ripens before Concord; good keeper and shipper.

Delaware Seedling No. 16. (Bourq. Lab. Vin.) From Jacob Rommel. Moderate grower, very productive, healthy; bunch medium; berry medium, white with white bloom; very sweet, pure flavor, pulpless; ripens with Concord; fine keeper and shipper.

D'Elboux. (Vin. Lab.) D'Elboux Seedling. A seedling of Telegraph crossed with Black Hamburg; from C. J. Copley, Stapleton, New York, in 1876. Very vigorous, productive, hardy, healthy; foliage like Labrusca except smooth underneath; bunch very large, sometimes slightly shouldered, compact, handsome; berries very large, black with blue bloom, oval, persistent; juicy, sweet, rich, vinous; skin thick; ripens with Hartford.

Delgoethe. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Delaware crossed with Goethe; from Munson; possibly same as Delago. Noted by Mitzky in 1893 as still under test.

Delicious. (Line. Bourq.) Big Berry crossed with Herbemont; from Munson in 1887, introduced about 1894. Vigorous, productive, healthy; stamens upright; bunch medium, moderately compact; berry medium, round, black with blue bloom; sprightly, sweet; skin thin, tough;ripens a little after Concord.

Delmar. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) Mentioned by Mitzky in 1893 as a seedling of Delaware crossed with Martha; from Munson.

Delmerlie. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Delago crossed with Governor Ireland; from Munson, in 1898. Stamens erect; cluster large; berry large, black; ripens mid-season.

Dempsey's Seedlings. P. C. Dempsey, Albury, Prince Edward County, Ontario, a noted Canadian hybridist of various cultivated plants, has produced several hybrid grapes which are mentioned in grape literature as follows:

No.4.(Lab.Vin.)Medium in vigor.

No.5.(Lab.Vin.)Resembles Massasoit in some respects but earlier.

No.18.(Lab.Vin.)Failure.

No.25.(Lab.Vin.)Failure.

No.60.(Lab.Vin.)Hardy; white, vinous,verygood.

Apparently none of these were ever introduced. Besides these he originated Burnet. (See p. 443.) Dempsey's work with grapes was done about thirty years ago.

Denison. (Lab.) A seedling of Moore Early; from Munson. Medium in vigor, unproductive, usually healthy; bunch medium in size and compactness; berry large, round, black with blue bloom, of Concord flavor.


Dennis Seedling. (Lab.) Found growing wild on the bank of a river by John Dennis, Hillsborough, New Hampshire. Compact grower, hardy, productive; fruit large, amber-colored, of fine flavor.

Denniston. (Lab.) A native grape found on an island in the Hudson River below Albany, by Isaac Denniston about 1823. Very vigorous, hardy; berry large, yellowish-red; slight musky flavor.

De Soto. (Rot. Muns.) A seedling of Scuppernong pollinated by Vitis munsoniana; from Munson in 1896. Stamens reflexed; cluster small; berry medium, black; ripens very late.

Detroit. (Lab. Vin.) Supposed to be a Catawba seedling; found in the garden of T. R. Chase, Detroit, Michigan, about 1860. Vigorous, hardy, with foliage like Catawba; bunch large, very compact; berry medium, round, darker than Catawba; rich, sweet, sprightly Catawba flavor; earlier than its parent.

Diller. (Lab.) According to Strong, 1866, pulpy and inferior to Isabella which it resembles.

Dingwall White. (Lab.) Vigorous, healthy; bunch short, compact; berry large, round, white; quality poor; late.

Dinkel. (Lab. Vin.) A Catawba seedling; from Munson. Vine and leaf much like parent; bunch medium to large, compact, slightly shouldered; berry medium, round, deep coppery red with thick bloom; much like Catawba in flavor; ripens with parent.

Dixie. (Rot. Line. Lab. Vin. Bourq.) Parents, San Jacinto crossed with Brilliant, from Munson in 1899. Stamens reflexed; cluster small; berry large, amber-colored; ripens late.

Dr. Bain. (Lab.) A white seedling of Concord; from Illinois.

Dr. Kemp. (Line. Bourq.) A seedling of Post-oak crossed with Herbemont; from Munson; introduced in 1896. Vigorous and productive, subject to downy mildew; stamens upright; bunch medium, loose, shouldered; berry small, purple; poor quality; ripens a week after Concord.

Dr. Robinson Seedling. (Lab. ?) Described by Wisconsin Experiment Station in 1888. Productive; bunch medium, compact; berry medium, round, black, purple bloom; poor quality; ripens with Concord.

Dr. Warder. (Lab.) Of unknown parentage; from Theophile Huber, Illinois City, Illinois. Vigorous, hardy, healthy; cluster medium to large, compact, often heavily shouldered; berries large, round, black, heavy bloom; pulp tough, juicy, sprightly, sweet; good; said to ripen before Hartford which it closely resembles.

Doder. Washington. Noted in the American Pomological Society Report for 1877 as a seedling from a Mr. Doder, Washington County, Iowa.

Dog Ridge. (Champ.) A variety of Vitis champini found by Munson in Bell County, Texas. Stamens depressed; cluster small; berry medium, black; ripens mid-season.


Dolle. According to W. F. Bassett in Rural New Yorker for 1885, supposed to have come from Germany but it has none of the characters of Vinifera. Vigorous; clusters sometimes loose; berry larger than Moore Early; of good quality, persistent; ripens early.

Dorinda. (Lab.) Said to be a seedling of Rebecca; from Hudson, New York, about 1858. Bunch medium; berry oval, greenish-white, sweet, sprightly, with scarcely any pulp.

Dorr Seedling. (Bourq. Lab. Vin.) Said to be a seedling of Delaware; from Livingston County, New York. Resembles Delaware in form, color, and bunch but the berries are larger and have a foxy odor.

Dry Hill Beauty. Described in Hermann Grape Nursery Catalog for 1906 as a red, very sweet grape with medium bunches and small berries.

Dufour. (Line. Aest.) Jaeger No. 56. A seedling of Post-oak (No. 43) crossed with Aestivalis; from Hermann Jaeger. Resembles Herbemont in quality and size of bunch and berries, but is of Catawba color; ripens two weeks after Norton.

Dunlap. (Lab. Vin.) One of Ricketts' hybrids; probably the same as Lady Dunlap.

Dunn, (Bourq. ?) G. Onderdonk, of Texas, obtained this variety from a Mr. Dunn, of western Texas. It resembles Herbemont but has larger, paler-colored berries and ripens two weeks later.

Duquett. (Lab. Vin.) Duquetfs Seedling. Noted in the Rural New Yorker, 1868, as a new variety from Orleans County, New York. Hardy; berries large, white, transparent; of White Chasselas flavor.

Eames Seedling. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A cross between Concord and Delaware; from Luther Eames, Framingham, Massachusetts, about 1887. Bunch large, double-shouldered; berry large, light amber; pulp tender with Muscat flavor.

Early. (Lab.) A pure seedling of Pierce; from Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, California. According to originator, the variety is vigorous, productive, and ripens two weeks earlier th#n Concord; berries large, black with lilac bloom; sweet and meaty.

Early Amber. (Lab.) Amber, A native grape from the United Society of Shakers, Harvard, Massachusetts; possibly same as Sage. Hardy, productive, healthy; fruit dark amber; sweet, slightly foxy.

Early August. (Lab.) Burton's Early August. A native seedling from the United Society of Shakers, Lebanon, New York. Large; early; foxy.

Early August. (Lab.) A twin seedling of Pocklington, offspring of Concord; from John Pocklington, Sandy Hill, New York. Vigorous, productive, healthy, hardy, Concord foliage; bunch medium to large, moderately compact, sometimes shouldered; berry medium, round, greenish-yellow, white bloom; translucent, juicy, sweet, slightly acid flavor; ripens before Moore Early.


Early Bird. (Vin. Lab. Bourq.) A dark red grape from. Munson, the parentage being a Lincecumii seedling crossed with Agawam for one parent, and Brilliant for the other.

Early Black. Mentioned in United States Patent Office Report for 1853 as an early foreign variety which always ripens in Utica, New York. Ten years later Prince pronounced this Early Black a worthless Labrusca.

Early Black. (Lab.) A seedling from J. B. Moore, Concord, Massachusetts; exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1880. Bunch and berry large; quality similar to Hartford.

Early Black. (Bourq. Lab. Vin.) According to Mitzky, 1893, a seedling of Delaware; from Jacob Rommel. Vigorous, productive, healthy; bunch medium, compact, shouldered; berries medium, black; firm, sweet; ripens with Hartford.

Early Black July. (Rip. Vin.?) Described by Dufour in 1826 as a prolific bearer: bunches small; berries small, round, black; season early. Dufour suspects it to be a Riparia-Vinifera hybrid.

Early Black Summer Grape. (Lab.?) Noted by Prince in 1830 as an early Virginia variety with fruit of large size.

Early Concord. (Lab.) A seedling from John Kready, Mt. Joy, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania in 1874. Vigorous, hardy; bunch and berries resembling Concord in size, color, taste, and substance; ripens early.

Early Delmonico. (Lab. Vin.) Noted in Rural New Yorker for 1886 as a variety resembling Brighton; from Wm. E. Green, Vermont. Green states that the variety is very early and superior to Vergennes or Brighton.

Early Golden. (Lab. Vin.) Campbell. A seedling of Triumph; from Munson from seed planted in 1883; disseminated as Campbell but the name was changed in 1894 to Early Golden to avoid confusion with Campbell Early. Weak grower, productive; bunch large, usually shouldered, compact; berry medium, roundish, yellowish-green, gray bloom, usually persistent; later than Catawba.

Early Harvest. (Lab.) Noted in United States Patent Office Report for 1855 as an early grape grown in Indiana. Fruit larger and rounder than Isabella; light purple to amber; sweet, juicy, musky flavor.

Early Hudson. (Lab.?) Mentioned by Prince in 1863 as a worthless variety. Berries medium, round, black; early; frequently seedless.

Early June. (Rip.? Lab.?) Described by Warder in 1867 as like Vitis cordifolia. Bunch large; berry large, dark; sweet; very early.

Early Lebanon. Given by Warder in 1867 as from Pennsylvania. Bunch medium; berry medium, blue; good; very early.

Early Malvasia. (Vin.?) Noted in United States Patent Office Report for 1853 as a foreign variety that habitually ripens at Utica, New York.


Early Market. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Elvira, crossed with Bacchus; from Munson, in 1885. Vigorous, productive; subject to mildew; bunch small to medium, moderately compact; berry small, round, black; of fair quality; ripens with Moore Early,

Early Prolific. (Lab.) Supposed to be a Concord seedling. Described in Missouri Horticultural Society Report for 1892, as vigorous, very hardy, productive; bunch large, shouldered, compact, handsome; berry large, black, tender, juicy, sprightly, sweet; very good; ripens a few days after Jewel.

Early Purple. (Line.) A Post-oak native grape found in the woods near Denison, Texas; used by Munson in grape-breeding. Described in his catalog for 1901 as vigorous, healthy; stamens reflexed; clusters large, cylindrical, shouldered; berry large, purple, persistent; of fair quality.

Early Vicks. Noted in the Wisconsin Horticultural Society Report for 1886 as a desirable red grape.

Early Wine. (Line. Rup.) Parentage, Jaeger No. 70 crossed with a Rupestris seedling; from Munson about 1894. Very vigorous, productive; clusters small to medium, moderately compact; berries medium, black with heavy bloom; fair quality.

Ebony. One of Munson's grapes which was not introduced on account of reflexed stamens. Vines tested at Wisconsin Experiment Station proved very vigorous and productive; bunch and berry medium; black; fair quality.

Echland. Mentioned in the Ontario Fruit Growers' Association Report for 1887 as a variety of medium vigor.

Eden. (Rot.) Exhibited by Dr. Samuel Hape, Hapeville, Georgia, before the American Pomological Society in 1887 as a new fruit. Very vigorous, productive; bunches contain from four to twelve black berries; good quality; ripens late.

Edmeston. (Lab.) Edmeston No. 1. Supposed to be a pure Concord seedling; from D. G. Edmeston, Adrian, Michigan, in 1890. Vigorous; stamens upright; bunch medium, moderately compact; berry medium to large, dark purple with blue bloom; pulp moderately tough, juicy, vinous, sweet, good; ripens with Concord.

Edward. (Lab.) From Theophile Huber, Illinois City, Illinois. Vigorous; stamens upright; bunch medium, compact, shouldered; berry medium, golden yellow; tender, sweet; ripens about with Concord.

Elaine. (Lab. Vin.) Supposed to be a seedling of Salem; from C. Engle, Paw Paw, Michigan, about 1890. Vigorous, unproductive, hardy, healthy; stamens reflexed; bunch long, loose; berry medium, dark red with bluish-white bloom; juicy, rich, sprightly; very good; ripens early.

Elbling. (Lab.) Mentioned in the United States Patent Office Report for 1859 as a northern grape under test in the government experimental garden.

Eleala. (Lab.? Vin.? Bourq.?) Described in the Missouri Horticultural Society Report, 1904. Very vigorous; bunch and berry much like Concord; white; quality similar to Wapanuka but flesh is more meaty.

Electra. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Brighton crossed with Delaware; from Henry B. Spencer, Rocky River, Ohio, about 1890. The berries resemble Delaware but the bunches are larger.

Elizabeth. (Lab. Vin.) From Joseph Hart, near Rochester, New York, about 1845. Productive, medium hardy; bunches large, compact, sometimes shouldered; berries large, oval, greenish-white with reddish tinge in the sun; juicy, pleasant, brisk acid flavor.

Elkton, (Lab.) Described by Adlum in 1828 as an uncommonly large fox grape of a deep purple color.

Ellen. (Lab. Vin.?) From Charles Carpenter, Kelleys Island, Ohio, exhibited as a new variety before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1862. Berries small, amber-colored; subacid, with slight Catawba flavor.

Elpo. (Line. Rip. Lab.) A seedling of Elvira crossed with Lincecumii; from Munson. Described by the Virginia Experiment Station in 1898 as vigorous, productive; bunch long, rather loose, sometimes shouldered; berry small, globular, pale green, not adherent; skin thin, tough; pulp firm, meaty, tender, mild subacid, almost sweet, agreeable; good; resembles Elvira.

Elsmere. From Texas. Described by Georgia Experiment Station in 1901 as very vigorous, productive; stamens upright; bunch large, moderately compact; berry small, black; ripens just after Concord.

Elvibach. (Rip. Lab.) A seedling of Elvira crossed with Bacchus; from Munson. Vigorous and hardy, very productive; stamens reflexed; clusters medium, sometimes single-shouldered, compact; berries medium to small, roundish, black, heavy blue bloom, not adherent; spicy, good in flavor and quality; skin thin, tender; ripens before Concord.

Elvin. (Lab. Rip. Vin.) Parentage, Elvira crossed with Irving; from Munson in 1885. Stamens erect; cluster medium; berry large, white; ripens mid-season.

Emerald. (Vin. Bourq. Lab.) A supposed cross of Delaware and some foreign variety, possibly Buckland Sweetwater; from Dr. William Saunders, Ottawa, Canada, about 1886. Vigorous, hardy, not productive; stamens upright; clusters small to medium, cylindrical, usually not shouldered, medium to compact; berries small, roundish, jet-black with heavy bloom; juicy, tender, spicy, vinous, mildly sweet.

Emma. (Lab.) Of unknown parentage; from Theophile Huber, Illinois City, Illinois. Lacking in vigor; stamens upright; bunch medium to small, shouldered, compact; berry round, translucent, yellow; rich, sweet, tender pulp; skin very thin, tender.

Enfield. Mentioned in the United States Patent Office Report for 1845 as a select American grape grown in North Carolina.

Engle's Seedlings. C. Engle, of Paw Paw, Michigan, about twenty-five years ago originated Elaine, Guinevra, Honey, Iris, Metis, Michigan, Pulpless, Themis, and Vesta. They are all seedlings of Salem. None of them has ever been regularly introduced although some have been sent out for testing.


Ensenberger's Seedlings. About twenty-five years ago, G. A. Ensenberger, of Bloomington, Illinois, originated several varieties of grapes from seed of standard sorts. Of his varieties which received names there are: Herald, Hercules, Isabella Seedling, Juno and Mathilde. None of them has apparently been introduced and none has qualities which would make it permanently popular.

Eolia. (Lab.) According to Mitzky, 1893, a seedling of Concord; from Robert Linville, Forsyth County, North Carolina, and introduced by N. W. Craft, Shore, North Carolina. Hardy; bunch large, compact, shouldered; berry medium, greenish-white; tender, sweet; ripens with Concord.

Epurill. (Line. Vin. Lab. Bourq.) A seedling of Early Purple crossed with Brilliant; from Munson in 1897. Stamens reflexed; cluster medium; berry very large, red; ripens late.

Erickson. (Lab.) Pronounced a worthless Labrusca by Prince in 1863.

Essex County (Mass.) Seedling. (Lab.) Given in the American Pomological Society Report, 1862, as from Thomas C. Thurlow; a variety of fox grape; common all through the country.

Estella. (Line. Rup. Rip. Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Jaeger No. 72 crossed with Rommel; from Munson in 1899. Stamens erect; cluster medium; berry medium, white; ripens late.

Etawa. (Lab. Vin.?) Woodruff's No. 1. Described in the American Pomological Society Report, 1883, as an accidental seedling from W. W. Woodruff, Vineyard P. O., near Griffin, Georgia. Vigorous, foliage luxuriant, shows Labrusca characters; bunch large; berry large, round, blue; pulp dissolving, vinous; best; fruit showy and hangs on the vines for two months.

Eudora. (Lab.) Noted as a worthless Labrusca by Prince in Gardener's Monthly for 1863.

Eufaula. (Line. Rup. Bourq. Lab. Aest. Vin.) A seedling of America crossed with Laura; from Munson in 1895. Weak grower; stamens erect; cluster large, loose; berry small, red; ripens late.

Eugenia. (Vin. Lab.) A seedling of White Frontignan crossed with Catawba; from J. T. Clark, of Washington. Said to have been raised from seed of the same berry that produced the Columbia, a white grape. A red grape of good quality; late.

Eugenia. (Lab.) A seedling of Concord; from T. B. Miner. Vigorous, hardy; bunch medium; berry medium, white; fair quality; ripens early.

Eumedel. (Lab. Vin. Aest. Bourq.) A seedling of Eumelan crossed with Delaware; from Munson. Of medium growth, usually hardy, variable in productiveness, susceptible to mildew; stamens upright; clusters medium to small, shouldered, compact; berries small, roundish, black, heavy blue bloom, persistent; flesh tender, slightly foxy, sweet to agreeably tart; good. The vine has pronounced Labrusca characters.


Eumorely. (Lab. Aest. Vin.) Parents, Eumelan crossed with Moore Early; from Munson, in 1887. Stamens erect; cluster large; berry large, black; ripens early. Discarded by originator.

Eva. (Lab.) Miller's No. 2. A Concord seedling; from Samuel Miller, Calmdale, Pennsylvania, about 1860. On account of its close resemblance to its sister Martha, it was dropped by the originator. Medium in vigor, tender; stamens upright; bunch small, compact; berries medium, greenish-yellow, sweet, of mild flavor, lacks sprightliness; ripens about with Martha.

Evaline. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Ideal; from John Burr, Leavenworth, Kansas. Vigorous, hardy, productive; bunch medium, compact; berry medium, white with light bloom; very tender, juicy, sweet, sprightly, vinous; skin thin, tough; ripens before Concord.

Everett. Noted in the United States Patent Office Report, 1860, as a native grape under propagation at the government experimental garden.

Ewing. (Lab. Vin.) Ewing's Seedling. A seedling of Isabella; from Jefferson City, Missouri. Husmann, in 1869, considered this variety an improvement on its parent which it resembles.

Exquisite. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) A seedling of Delaware; from J. Stayman, Leavenworth, Kansas. Moderate grower, hardy, healthy, productive; bunch medium, compact; berry small, black, slight bloom; very tender, juicy, sweet, sprightly, vinous; ripens with Delaware.

Extra. (Line. Lab. Vin.) Big Extra. A seedling of Post-oak crossed with Triumph; from Munson. Vigorous, healthy, productive; cluster large, usually shouldered, compact; berry medium to large, dark purple or black; good in quality in the South; does not mature at Geneva.

Fallwicke. An undescribed variety from Joseph Fallwicke, Wartburg, Morgan County, Tennessee, about 1860.

Fancher. (Lab. Vin.) Saratoga. Introduced by T. B. Fancher of Lansingburg, New York, over fifty years ago. A seedling of Catawba and so similar to it that many consider them identical.

Fanny Hoke. A chance seedling of Aestivalis or Bourquiniana reported from North Carolina in 1871. Vigorous, short-jointed; cluster rather large, not shouldered; berry medium, black; sweet, sprightly.

Farmers Club. A seedling from David Thompson of Green Island, near Troy, New York, over forty years ago. A green grape, undescribed.

Farrell. A seedling found in the garden of a Dr. Farrell and introduced by Dr. Stayman of Leavenworth, Kansas, about 1880. Hardy, vigorous, productive; clusters medium, tapering; berries large, light yellowish-green, roundish or slightly oblate; pulp firm, moderately juicy, sweet; good; skin thin, tender; ripens with Concord.

Far West. (Aest.) A variety of Aestivalis; found by Hermann Jaeger in the woods of southwest Missouri, about 1870. Vigorous, hardy; leaves large; clusters large, shouldered; berries small; skin thin, tough, black with blue bloom; pulp soft, tender, meaty, sweet and spicy; seeds few; ripens with Norton.

Feemster. (Lab.) Cluster and berry small; foxy and worthless.

Feemster Favorite. (Lab.) From Indiana. Hardy; cluster medium; berry large, green.

Fena. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) A seedling of Jewel; from Ludwig Hencke, Collinsville, Illinois. Similar to its parent but more vigorous and with fruit larger in bunch and berry.

Fisk. (Lab. Vin.) Probably a seedling of Isabella which it resembles very closely, It was originated by John Fisk Allen of Salem, Massachusetts, about fifty years ago.

Fitchburg. (Lab.) Fox; Free Black. A local New England variety of Labrusca, apparently never known in cultivation.

Flickwir. (Rip. Lab.) Tested by the United States Department of Agriculture about 1860 and proved to be the same as Clinton.

Flora. (Vin. Lab.) A Vinifera hybrid; from A. M. Spangler of Philadelphia, about the middle of the last century. Vine hardy and productive; cluster small, compact; berry medium, oval, dark purplish-red; somewhat pulpy, juicy; late.

Florence. (Lab. Vin. Aest.) Originated by Marine, about 1875. It is a probable cross between Eumelan and Union Village and is a large, handsome grape, resembling in some respects the Isabella.

Florence. (Lab.) A variety known for about thirty years and which has attracted considerable attention on account of its extreme earliness, ripening earlier even than Hartford. Hardy, vigorous; bunches small, imperfect; berries medium, black; resembles Hartford in quality.

Flower of Missouri. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) A Delaware seedling; from William Poe-schel, Hermann, Missouri. Said to resemble Walter.

Flowers. (Rot.) A Rotundifolia, the origin of which is unknown; introduced about 1850. Vine tender, very vigorous, very productive; berries large, oval, growing in clusters of twelve to fifteen; blossoms self-sterile; ripens very late; quality not as good as Scuppernong. Probably a strain of other than Rotundifolia blood is present.

Fluke's Hybrids. Newton K. Fluke, of Davenport, Iowa, has originated a series of hybrids which are now being tested but as yet none has been introduced.

Foster. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Niagara; from John Reichenbach, Columbus, Ohio. A white grape said by the originator to be of high quality.

Fox. This name has been applied to many varieties of Labrusca and Rotundifolia. It does not indicate any particular variety.

Framingham. (Lab.) Resembles Hartford so closely that they can hardly be distinguished. It was raised by J. G. Morneberg, Saxonville, Massachusetts, about 1850.

Frances E. Willard. (Lab.? Bourq.? Vin.) A seedling noted in the Rural New Yorker for 1894. Said to resemble Delaware but with a thicker skin.

Franklin. French grape, A wild grape found at least sixty years ago on an island in French Creek, Crawford County, Pennsylvania. It resembles Clinton very closely but the wood is of lighter color, the fruit sweeter, and it matures earlier.

Fredonia. (Lab. Vin.) From Seth Avery of Fredonia, New York. Vigorous, hardy, productive; tendrils continuous, sometimes intermittent; leaves of the Labrusca type; clusters medium, sometimes shouldered; berries medium, oval, light green with gray bloom, some small, dark-colored dots; sweet; good.

Fritz. A seedling of Roenbeck; raised by F. Roenbeck, of Bergen Point, New Jersey. Vigorous; cluster large, compact; berry white; skin thin, tough; juicy; ripens with Concord.

Frost. A class name commonly applied in America to varieties of Cordifolia though sometimes to those of Riparia.

Gallup Seedling. (Lab. Vin.) Probably a seedling of Salem; from Adams Basin, New York. Resembles Salem; berries a little larger; quality good; excellent keeper; ripens with Concord.

Garber. (Lab.) A seedling from J. B. Garber, Columbia, Pennsylvania. Vigorous, hardy, very productive; bunch below medium, compact; berries medium, black, with very dark juice; fair quality; ripens early.

Garber Red Fox. (Lab. Vin.?) Produced by J. B. Garber, of Pennsylvania, from the same lot of seed as Albino. Fruit resembles the wild red Labrusca, except that it ripens later and is sweeter.

Garfield. (Rip. Lab.) A seedling of Missouri Riesling, from John Reichenbach, Columbus, Ohio, about 1902. Vigorous; berries large, green; rich and sweet.

Garnet. (Vin. Rip. Lab.) A seedling of Red Frontignan and Clinton; from Dr. A. P. Wylie, Chester, South Carolina. Bunch and berries larger than Clinton; deep garnet color; flavor and texture that of a Vinifera but foliage that of Clinton.

Garrigues. (Lab. Vin.?) Probably a seedling of Isabella; from Edward G. Kingsessing, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Resembles Isabella but is a few days earlier.

Gassman. (Aest.) Noted in the United States Department of Agriculture Report for 1869 as a variety of Aestivalis.

Gauger. Described in the Illinois Horticultural Society Report for 1901 as vigorous and healthy, but too poor in flavor to be desirable.

Gazelle, A seedling from J. H. Ricketts. Vigorous, healthy and productive; bunches medium, compact; berry small, greenish-white; sprightly, sweet, pleasant.

General Pope. (Aest.) A seedling from John Burr, of Leavenworth, Kansas, about 1880. Very vigorous, hardy, healthy and productive; bunch and berries smaller than those of Concord; without foxiness.


Genesee. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Delaware crossed with Iona; from near Rochester, New York, about 1880. Vigorous, productive, healthy; bunch large, compact; berries large, red; high quality.

Gerbig No. 2. (Lab. Vin. Aest.) A seedling of Eumelan, open to cross fertilization; from A. V. Gerbig, Archbald, Pennsylvania, about 1890.

Gerbig No. 10. (Lab. Vin. Aest.) A seedling of Gerbig No. 2, open to cross fertilization; from A. V. Gerbig, about 1892. Vigorous, hardy, productive; cluster small, compact; berry medium, slightly oval, yellowish-green; juicy, slightly meaty, sweet, mild; good.

German Seedling. (Rip.) Noted in the Illinois Horticultural Society Report, 1871, as much like Clinton but not as productive.

Giant. (Rup.) A wild male Rupestris; found by Munson in Missouri. It is now discarded by him.

Gibb. (Rip[) From Magloire Dery, St. Hilaire, Canada. Slow in growth, hardy; bunch small, loose, sometimes shouldered; berry small, black with heavy bloom; melting, juicy; good.

Gilbert's White Shonga. (Lab. Vin.) According to Floy-Lindley, 1833, this is a wild grape found by Garret Gilbert on the Shonga Mountains, New York, in 1825. Similar to Isabella in habits; bunch and berries resemble Isabella in size and shape; white with purple tinge on sunny side; sweet; good.

Gill Wylie. (Lab. Vin.) Noted in the Bushberg Catalogue, 1883, as a new grape from Dr. A. P. Wylie, Chester, South Carolina. Foliage healthy, of Labrusca type; bunch large, loose, shouldered; berry large, oblong; texture soft, rich; ripens with Concord.

Gilt Edge. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) A seedling of Delaware; from Dr. L. C. Chisholm. Medium in vigor, shy bearer; stamens upright; bunch small, compact; berries small, yellowish-green; subacid, delicate flavor; ripens a few days later than its parent.

Gold Dust. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) Munson No. 22. A seedling of Lindley crossed with Delaware; from Munson, about 1880. Vigorous, productive; stamens upright; clusters medium to above, usually shouldered, loose; berries medium, roundish, yellowish-green with thin gray bloom, persistent, with tendency to shrivel before ripening; juicy, foxy, mild; fair in quality.

Golden Beauty. (Lab.) A seedling of Perkins; from J. B. Miller, Anna, Illinois. Bunches short; berries medium; sweet; good; long keeper.

Golden Berry. (Vin. Lab.) Culbert No. 5. A white seedling of Hartford and General Marmora; from Dr. W. A. M. Culbert, Newburgh, New York; exhibited as a new fruit before the American Pomological Society in 1877; hardy and a free bearer.

Golden Clinton. (Rip.) King. A chance seedling, probably of Clinton, found in a garden in Rochester; fruited in 1857; introduced by William King. Apparently the same as Clinton except that it is less productive and the berries are greenish-white.


Golden Concord. (Lab.) Voile's White Concord. A white seedling of Concord; from John Valle, New Haven, Missouri. Reported as inferior to Martha.

Golden Drop. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Adirondac crossed with Delaware, from C. G. Pringle, Vermont, in 1869. Medium in vigor, shy bearer; stamens upright; clusters small, loose; berries small, roundish, greenish-yellow, persistent; firm, juicy; tender, sweet, mild; good.

Golden Gem. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Delaware crossed with Iona; from J. H. Ricketts; first exhibited before American Pomological Society in 1881. Vigorous, hardy, productive; clusters small, shouldered, compact; berries small, roundish, golden yellow, thin bloom; juicy, sweet, vinous; very good; ripens with Concord.

Golden Grain. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Lindley crossed with Delaware; from Munson. Vigorous, doubtfully hardy, productive; stamens upright; clusters medium, frequently shouldered, compact; berries small, oval, light green, thin bloom, inclined to drop and to shrivel; moderately juicy, foxy, sweet; fair quality.

Goldstein. (Lab.) Goldstein's Early. From Mississippi, about 1897; similar to Champion. Vigorous, hardy, productive; stamens upright; clusters medium, shouldered, compact; berries large, round, black; poor quality; ripens early.

Good Adle. (Vin.?) Noted in the Wisconsin Horticultural Society Report for 1872 as a fine white German grape; exhibited by a Mrs. Curtis, Milwaukee.

Goodman. (Lab.) Noted by Prince in Gardener's Monthly for 1863 as a worthless Labrusca.

Governor Ireland. (Lab.) A pure seedling of Moore Early; from Munson. Lacks vigor, medium in productiveness; bunch large, loose; berry large, globular, black with whitish bloom; resembles Concord but is much coarser; subject to rot.

Governor Ross. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Triumph; from Munson and introduced in 1894. Weak to medium in growth, not productive; stamens upright; nearly self-sterile; bunch large, oblong, compact; berries large, oval; sprightly, sweet; good; rots badly.

Graham. An accidental seedling, supposed to have been a cross of Bland and Elsinburgh; from W. Graham of Philadelphia, about 1850. Cluster of medium size, shouldered, not compact; berry large, round, purple; juicy, sweet, sprightly; very good.

Gravel. Received by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1863 for testing.

Grayson. (Lab.) Seedling of Moore Early; raised by Munson. A black, large-berried variety with clusters medium to large; moderately vigorous and productive; flavor sweet but lacks character; good.

Gray's Seedlings. A number of seedlings of Concord were raised by W. C. Gray of Atwood, Illinois, about 1890. None attained prominence.

Green Castle. (Lab.) A large-clustered, large-berried black seedling of Concord; from D. S. Marvin.


Green Ulster. (Lab.) A light green seedling of Concord; from J. B. Moore, of Concord, Massachusetts, about 1870.

Greer. (Doan.) A wild male vine of Vitis doaniana found by Munson in Greer County, Oklahoma.

Grein Extra Early. (Rip. Lab.) Grein No. 7. A yellowish-green seedling of Taylor; from Nicholas Grein. Vigorous, productive; bunch medium; berry small with speck at distal end; good; ripens with Concord.

Grein's Seedlings. Nicholas Grein, of Hermann, Missouri, over thirty years ago planted a number of seeds of the European Riesling, and also seeds of Taylor. He stated that the Taylor seedlings failed to germinate but that the European Riesling seeds germinated and of the resulting seedlings Missouri Riesling, Grein Golden and Grein Extra Early were named and introduced. As they are all of the Riparia type, very similar to Taylor, and show no trace of Vinifera, it has always been supposed that Grein had his seeds confused and that it was the European Riesling that failed to germinate, Taylor being the real parent of these varieties.

Grevaduly. A Massachusetts seedling of over fifty years ago, mentioned in the United States Patent Office Report of 1859.

Greverson. A seedling received by the United States Department of Agriculture over fifty years ago.

Grote. (Rip.) A wild variety of Vitis riparia secured by Munson from Mauston, Wisconsin. Stamens reflexed; cluster small; berry small, black; ripens early.

Grove. (Lab. Vin.) A cross of Clinton with Concord. Vigorous, hardy, productive; cluster and berry of medium size and of pale green to amber color; flesh tender, sweet and spicy; ripens shortly after Concord.

Guesta. A variety mentioned in the United States Patent Office Report for 1860 as being blue; sweet, slightly pulpy, of agreeable flavor.

Guignard. Black Guignard. Origin unknown but at one time raised by Longworth, of Ohio. Vigorous, productive; small, brown berries; high quality.

Guinevra. (Lab. Vin.) From C. Engle, of Paw Paw, Michigan; a seedling of Salem. Hardy, vigorous, productive; clusters large, sometimes shouldered, compact; berry large, yellowish-green; very late.

Gula. (Line. Lab. Rup.) A seedling of America crossed with Beacon; from Munson in 1899. Stamens erect; cluster large; berry large, black; ripens mid-season.

Gulch. (Line. Rup.) Parents, Jaeger No. 70 crossed with a seedling Rupestris; from Munson in 1888. Stamens erect; cluster large; berry medium, black; ripens late; now discarded by the originator.

Hadden Seedling. (Lab. Vin.) From a Mr. Hadden, of Pulteney, New York, about 1890. Vigorous; cluster small, compact; berries red with a peculiarly wrinkled skin; pleasant, sweet, Muscat flavor.

Hagar. Noted in the Illinois Horticultural Society Report, 1893, as one of the varieties exhibited at the World's Fair.

Halifax. (Lab.) Welter's Halifax. Noted by Sidney Weller, Brinkleyville, Halifax County, North Carolina, in United States Patent Office Report for 1845, as a native grape.

Halifax Seedling. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Halifax by a Vinifera; from Sidney Weller, about 1840. Fruit like Catawba but sweeter. Used by Dr. A. P. Wylie in the production of new varieties.

Hall. A seedling from David Hall, Urbana, Ohio; first mentioned in 1858. Berries larger and better flavored than Clinton, but not equal to Isabella; nearly black; ripens earlier than Isabella.

Hall. (Lab.) From a Mr. Hall, Michigan; received at the Michigan Experiment Station in 1893. Very vigorous, productive; bunches below medium, cylindrical, compact, shouldered; berries above medium, round, black; ripens with Early Victor.

Hamilton. (Vin. Lab.) A seedling of Mills; from a Mr. Gardner, of Rochester, New York. Less vigorous than parent; bunches large, shouldered, compact, attractive; berries adherent; pulp tougher than Mills and the flavor is inferior; keeps well.

Hamill Seedling. (Lab. Vin.?) Tested by the United States Department of Agriculture about 1860 and proved to be so near like Isabella that the two could not be distinguished.

Hardy Chasselas. (Vin. Lab.) From a cross between Diana and Royal Muscadine; from Jacob Moore; exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 1865. Hardy, with Vinifera foliage; juicy; good.

Harmer. (Lab. Rip.) A cross between Vitis labrusca and Vitis riparia, found in Hartford County, Connecticut, by D. Alderton, Marlboro, New York. Very vigorous, healthy, hardy, medium in productiveness; bunch small, compact; berries black with hard pulp; sweet, spicy; late.

Harmer Seedling. (Lab. Vin.) Noted in the American Horticultural Annual for 1870 as a native red grape with a small Catawba-like berry having hard pulp.

Harrell. (Lab.) A chance seedling; from Obed Harrell, Chrisman, Illinois, about 1890. Vigorous, productive; cluster medium, compact; berry medium, white, round; very sweet.

Harriet Beecher. From William M. Marine. Bunch small; berry large, round, dark red; pulp soft; skin thick; good.

Harris. (Bourq. ?) Old House Grape. Found growing near a deserted house by a Mr. Harris of Milledgeville, Georgia. Described in Horticulturist for 1857 as vigorous; clusters medium, shouldered, compact; berries small to medium, round, black with blue bloom; a little pulpy, sweet, juicy, agreeable; very good.

Harrison. (Lab.) A seedling of Concord; from Isaac Staples, Dayton, Ohio. Thrifty as Concord, hardy; foliage thick, healthy; bunch large, compact; berries medium, red, pure flavor; ripens with Concord.


Harrison. (Lab.) T. T. Lyon, in the Michigan Horticultural Society Report for 1881, thinks this is Woodruff's No. 2. A black grape of the character of Concord, but larger in both berry and bunch and a week earlier.

Harvard Seedling. (Lab.) Noted in the United States Patent Office Report for 1853 as a native seedling raised at Harvard, Worcester County, Massachusetts; may be synonymous with Northern Muscadine.

Harwood. (Bourq.) Improved Warren; Sacks of Wine. From Major Harwood, Gonzales, Texas; noted in the American Pomological Society Report for 1881. Like Herbemont but not as vigorous and the fruit is about twice as large, lighter purple, and ripens four or five days earlier.

Haskell's Seedlings. George Haskell, of Ipswich, Massachusetts, was one of the early and persistent grape-breeders of the last century. His efforts were similar to those of Rogers in that he produced direct hybrids of Vinifera with early ripening selected Labruscas. He used several varieties of both parent species and produced several thousand seedlings. Experts to whom samples were sent affirmed that their quality was of the best. A few were sent out for testing but the most of them were destroyed as Mr. Haskell did not think that any of the offers would recompense him for the cost of production. Those sent out were highly commended at first but soon dropped from sight. The only named variety of his is Ruby.

Haskew. Noted in the American Horticultural Annual for 1871 as a native grape from W. B. Kelly, Abingdon, Virginia.

Hattie. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Michigan or Catawba; from N. R. Haskell, Monroe, Michigan; fruited in 1861. Leaves similar to Catawba but smaller; bunch medium, loose; berries medium, slightly oval, red with white bloom; little pulp, pleasantly vinous; ripens with Concord.

Hattie. (Lab.) Given by Mitzky, 1893, as a chance seedling from J. A. Putnam, Fredonia, New York. Productive; bunch short, compact; berries medium, black; very sweet, flavor similar to Aminia; ripens with Moore Early.

Hattie. (Lab.) Noted by Mitzky, in 1893, as a supposed seedling of Concord; from Benjamin Stratton, Richmond, Indiana; nearly identical with Concord. Probably the same variety that Bush mentions as being introduced by E. Y. Teas, of Richmond.

Hatton. (Lab. Rip.) A cross between Faith and Ives; from F. E. L. Rautenberg, Lincoln, Illinois. Vigorous, hardy, healthy, very productive; foliage resembles Faith, and fruit, Telegraph; bunch medium, compact; berry medium, black; vinous; ripens a little after Concord; a better keeper.

Hattus. (Lab. Vin. ?) Noted by Mead in 1867 as perhaps the same as Hattie. Said to be a seedling of Catawba, but of smaller size and quite acid; of claret color.

Hawkins No. 3. From William Hawkins, Hamilton, Ontario. Exhibited as a new grape at the American Pomological Society meeting in 1879. Described as hardy; bunch and berry large; white; vinous, high flavored; best.

Hawkins No. 10. From same grower as above and exhibited at the same time and place. Hardy; bunch and berry small; white; sweet, very good; skin tough.

Hearthenge. Listed with varieties of grapes under test by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1863.

Helen. Noted by Buchanan as a grape grown and exhibited by N. Longworth in 1846.

Helen Keller. (Lab. Vin. Aest.?) Said to be an accidental seedling from James Nicholson; sent out in 1895 ^0Y P- R- ^e Muth, Connellsville, Pennsylvania. Very vigorous, hardy, usually productive; stamens reflexed; clusters medium, usually shouldered, loose; berries large, roundish, dark dull red with lilac bloom, persistent; juicy, tender, vinous, good; skin thick, rather tender, inclined to crack. Resembles Salem in appearance; worthy of further trial.

Helpfer. (Lab.) According to Mitzky, 1893, from Theophile Huber, Illinois City, Illinois. Medium in vigor and hardiness; bunch and berries medium, white; good.

Henrico. Noted by Prince in his Treatise on the Vine, 1830, as a native grape found in Henrico County, Virginia. Berries size of Bland; clusters half the size; pale blue or purplish; sweet, agreeable.

Henry. (Lab.) From Theophile Huber. Described by Mitzky in 1893; bunch size of Concord; berry large, round, white; juicy, sweet, foxy; ripens with Concord.

Henshaw. A native grape from Martinsburg, Virginia. Described in United States Patent Office Report for 1859 as purple and of medium size.

Herald. (Lab.) Received from G. A. Ensenberger, Bloomington, Illinois, in 1889. Vigorous, productive; foliage good; stamens upright; bunch medium, compact; berry large, poor in quality; ripens early.

Herbemont Seedling. (Bourq.) Noted by Warder in 1867 as from Ohio; like its parent; very good; promising for wine.

Hero. (Lab.) A bud variation of Concord; introduced by Ludwig Hencke, Collinsville, Illinois; exhibited at World's Fair in 1893. Moderate in growth; apt to overbear; foliage healthy; bunch large, showy; berry very large, black; in flavor similar to Concord.

Hertia. (Lab.) A seedling from C. Engle, Paw Paw, Michigan; brought to notice in 1890. Bunch medium, compact; berry large, round, purple; juicy, sweet, slightly foxy; good; mid-season.

Hettie, Husmann in the Grape Culturist for 1869 describes this variety as much like Isabella, but not better. This may be the grape which Downing in 1869 describes as"bunch small; berry black; flesh somewhat pulpy; a poor grower and bearer; ripens early."

Heunis. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) A seedling of Delaware; from W. W. Jones, Douglas County, Illinois, about 1870. Hardy, productive; bunch resembles Clinton in shape; berry medium, white; good.


Hexamer, (Line. Lab. Vin.) Dr. Hexamer. A seedling of a wild Post-oak crossed with Triumph; from Munson, introduced in 1893. Vigorous, hardy, productive, similar to America in foliage and fruit characters; tendrils intermittent; stamens reflexed; clusters medium, often shouldered, variable in compactness; berries medium to below, slightly oblate, black with heavy bloom, persistent; tender, spicy, nearly sweet, with Post-oak flavor.

Hiawasse. Discarded by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1863.

Hine. (Lab. Vin.) Hine Seedling. Raised by Jason Brown (son of the patriot, John Brown), at Put-in-Bay, Ohio, in 1851, from seed of Catawba and Isabella grapes growing close together. Hardy, productive; bunch and berry much like Catawba in size and form, but darker; tender, sprightly, sweet, rich; ripens earlier than Catawba.

Hock. (Bourq. Aest. Lab.) A seedling of Herbemont crossed with Norton; from Munson about 1890.

Hofer Seedling No. 2. (Lab.) A volunteer grape from the Concord vineyard of A. F. Hofer, Iowa, in 1876. Described as an improved Concord; berries larger and the clusters more compact; ripens with Worden.

Holmes. (Bourq. Lab.) A chance seedling believed to be a cross between a variety of the Herbemont group and a Labrusca; from Galveston, Texas. Onderdonk states that it combines, in its growth and apperance, both Aestivalis and Labrusca blood. Very productive; fruit about the size and color of Lindley.

Honey. Given in Prince's Treatise on the Vine as a native variety, grown near Philadelphia about 1827. Leaves deeply five-lobed, indentures irregular, under surface covered with down; clusters medium, compact; sweet.

Honey. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Salem; from C. Engle, Paw Paw, Michigan, about 1890. Vigorous, hardy, very productive; bunch medium, compact, shouldered; berry medium to large, white, almost translucent; of honeyed sweetness; ripens with Worden.

Honey Dew. (Lab.) Yonker's Honey Dew; Youngken's Honey Dew; Yunker's Honey Dew. A seedling of Concord which was thought to have been fertilized by Delaware; from David Youngken, Richlandtown, Pennsylvania. Lacks vigor; fairly productive, foliage healthy; bunch medium, long, compact; berry large, round, black with blue bloom; pulpy, very foxy, sweet; ripens after Hartford.

Hooker. Given in the United States Department of Agriculture Report for 1869 as a Labrusca.

Hopeon. (Line. Lab. Vin. Bourq.?) A seedling of Big Hope crossed with Carman; from Munson in 1899. Stamens erect; cluster large; berry large, white; ripens late.

Hopherbe. (Line. Bourq.) A seedling of Post-oak crossed with Herbemont; from Munson. Very vigorous, productive; stamens upright; bunch large, very compact; berry medium, of dark copper color; quality fair; ripens late.


Hopican. (Lab. Vin. Aest. Rip.) A seedling of Eumelan fertilized by Elvira; from D. S. Marvin, Watertown, New York, about 1889. Vigorous, not always hardy, productive; stamens upright; clusters large, sometimes shouldered, compact; berries medium, roundish, unattractive yellowish-green, persistent, moderately juicy, tender; fair in quality; skin thin, adheres to pulp; ripens with Concord.

Hopkins. (Line. Aest. Lab.) A seedling of Post-oak crossed with Cynthiana; from Munson. Vigorous, not always hardy, variable in productiveness, susceptible to mildew; stamens upright; clusters small, frequently shouldered, very compact; berries small, oblate, black with heavy bloom, persistent; soft, juicy, tough, spicy, vinous; fair in flavor; ripens after Catawba.

Horner. (Lab.) A seedling of Concord; from Joel Horner, Delair, New Jersey; received at this Station in 1894. Moderately vigorous; bunch large; berries small, round, black with blue bloom; sweet, slightly foxy; skin thick, tough; ripens early.

Hoskins Seedling. A seedling which came up between an Alvey and a Delaware; from A. Hoskins, Toronto, Ontario, in 1886. Bunches large, compact; berries similar to Clinton in size and color but inferior in quality; ripens unevenly and late.

Howell. From Edward Tatnall, Wilmington, Delaware, about 1860. Bunch large; berries medium, black; pulp firm; skin thick; good; ripens early.

Hubbard Seedless. (Lab.) Grown by the T. S. Hubbard Company, Fredonia, New York, but has not been disseminated. Vigorous, very hardy, somewhat unproductive, of Labrusca type; quality equal to Delaware; berries the size of Delaware but darker in color.

Huber. (Rip. Lab.) A seedling of Taylor; from Jacob Rommel, Morrison, Missouri. Vigorous, healthy; bunch smaller than Concord; color of Catawba; late.

Huber's Seedlings. Theophile Huber of Illinois City, Illinois, something over twenty years ago originated a large number of seedlings which he sent out for testing. He writes that, with the exception of Huber No. 12, which is from Hartford, his seedlings are from mixed seed of Concord, Clinton, Marion, Rebecca, Isabella, Delaware, Catawba and Creveling. Of his named sorts there are: Albert, Alphonse, Bertha, Braendly, Doctor Warder, Edward, Emma, Illinois City, Marguerite, Marie Louise, and Theophile. Most of Huber's grapes were named before disseminating but a few, as follows, have gone out with numbers.

No. 11. As tested by the Virginia Experiment Station, weak, unproductive; stamens upright; bunch small, loose; berries large, black; poor quality; ripens between Concord and Catawba.

No. 12. Described by Illinois Experiment Station as very vigorous, healthy, promising; bunch medium, oblong, sometimes shouldered, compact; berry small to large, round, black with heavy bloom; juicy, tender, sweet, very rich; skin tender; about a week later than Concord.


No. 15. Described by the Virginia Experiment Station as weak; stamens upright; bunch small, compact; berry medium, coppery in color; ripens late.

Hudson. (Lab.) Given by Downing in 1857 as from Mr. Calkins, Hudson, New York. Growth similar to Isabella; two or three weeks earlier; bunch and berry much the same, but less sprightly and not quite so rich.

Hudson. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Rebecca; from A. J. Caywood, Marlboro, New York, about 1870. According to Caywood and several prominent horticulturists, this variety is identical with Prentiss. Caywood says he refrained from introducing this grape on the advice of several grape experts but sent it out for testing to several persons amongst whom was J. W. Prentiss, introducer of the Prentiss.

Hulkerson's Seedlings. (Lab. Vin.) Twenty-one seedlings from a single bunch of Wilder, from W. G. Hulkerson and Company, Oriel, Michigan, were shown before the American Pomological Society in 1879. None was better than the parent, but all were interesting as they showed much variation in size of berries and in color, the latter ranging from black to red.

Humboldt. (Rip. Bourq. ?) A seedling of Louisiana, probably crossed with Riparia; from Frederick Muench, Marthasville, Warren County, Missouri. Vigorous vine of Riparia character, hardy, healthy; stamens upright; cluster medium, sometimes shouldered, compact; berries medium, oblate, dull golden green with thick bloom, amber when fully ripe; sweet, of Elvira flavor; ripens with Catawba.

Hunterville. Mentioned by Sidney Weller, in the United States Patent Office Report for 1845, as a native variety, subject to rot, grown in North Carolina.

Huntingdon. (Rip.) Australian. Vigorous, hardy, productive, subject to mildew; resembles Clinton; bunch small, shouldered, compact; berry small, round, black; juicy, vinous; drops badly; ripens unevenly.

Husmann. (Line. Vin. Lab.) A seedling of Armlong crossed with Perry; from Munson, introduced in 1900. Vigorous, prolific, subject to mildew; clusters very large, long, cylindrical, compact; berries medium, globular, black, with tendency to drop; juicy, tender, more vinous than Black Eagle but less sweet; skin thin, tough; ripens with Herbemont.

Hutchinson. (Long.) A wild variety of Vitis longii; secured from Hutchinson County, Texas, by Munson, Stamens reflexed; cluster small; berry small, black; ripens mid-season.

Hutporup. (Long. Line. Rup.) A seedling of Hutchinson fertilized by Porup; from Munson. Stamens reflexed; cluster small; berry small, black; ripens early.

Hyde Black. (Lab.) Given in Prince's Treatise on the Vine, 1830, as a native variety found on the farm of Wilkes Hyde, near Catskill, New York. Very vigorous and productive; berries medium, black; juicy, tender, rather astringent, foxy.

Hyde Eliza. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling from Wilkes Hyde, about 1828. This variety so closely resembles York Madeira that it has caused much confusion. Charles Downing in the Horticulturist for 1860 says that it is more vigorous; bunch and berry larger, somewhat like the Isabella, but a week or two earlier.

Icterida. (Aest. Lab. Line. Bourq.) A cross of Gold Coin with Bull; from Munson, about 1899. Vigorous, healthy; cluster medium, well-formed; berry large, light yellow, persistent; skin thin, tough; pulp of medium tenderness, juicy, sweet; good; ripens about with Gold Coin.

Ida. (Lab.) A white seedling produced by T. B. Miner, from seed of Concord. Vigorous, hardy but not productive; cluster large; berry large and of light green color; late.

Iden. Lake. Noted in the American Pomological Society Report for 1858 as worthless.

Illinois City. (Lab.) A seedling of Concord; from Theophile Huber, about thirty years ago. Vigorous, not always hardy, unproductive; cluster small; berries medium, dull yellowish-green; skin thin and tender; foxy, mild, sweet; good. The flowers are sterile and the fruit ripens with Concord.

Illinois Early. From G. A. Ensenberger, Bloomington, Illinois, about 1897. Vigorous; clusters small; berries medium, black; ripens a few days later than Moore Early.

Illinois Prolific. Noted as worthless in Gardener's Monthly for 1863.

Improved Purple Fox. (Lab.) Buchanan mentions this variety as having been raised and exhibited by Longworth in 1846.

Indiana. Mentioned by Buchanan in 1852 as having been tested by Warder in 1846 and found worthless.

Indian Field. A staminate vine mentioned in Gardener's Monthly for 1863.

International. (Vin. Rip. Lab.) A seedling of Marion fertilized by White Frontignan; from N. B. White, Norwood, Massachusetts, about 1888. Vigorous, not always hardy, very productive; clusters large; berries large, light red; flavor resembles Delaware but with an Aestivalis taste; very good.

Iola. (Rip.) Originated by John Burr. Described by Stayman:"bunch medium, compact; berry medium, white; skin thin, tough; pulp tender, juicy, sprightly, rich, sweet, best; vigorous, hardy, healthy and productive, free from rot and mildew; ripe before Concord. * * * of the Riparia class."

Iowa. Mentioned about forty years ago as being of very high quality.

Iowa Excelsior. (Lab. Vin.) Originated by Professor Mathews, of Iowa, about 1880. Clusters medium; berries large, red; high quality; ripens early; self-sterile.

Iris. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of one of Rogers' hybrids; from C. Engle, Paw Paw, Michigan, about 1888. Vigorous; cluster large, long, compact; berry large, round, dark amber, thin bluish bloom; skin thin; pulp tough, slightly astringent, sweet, vinous, foxy; good.

Irvin October. (Bourq.) Originated on the Irvin farm in Guilford County, North Carolina, about 1885. Vigorous but inclined to mildew; cluster large, long, tapering; berries medium in size, of dingy red color; sweet; good; very late.

Irving. (Vin. Lab.) A seedling of Catawba fertilized by Chasselas de Fontain-bleau; from S. W. Underhill in 1868. Vigorous canes, short-jointed; clusters large, long, shouldered, not well filled; berry large, round, yellowish-green, thick bloom; skin thick, tough; flesh tender, melting; flavor vinous, sweet; very good; rots and mildews badly.

Ithaca. (Vin. Bourq. Lab.) Parker; Tucker's Parker. A seedling of Delaware fertilized by Chasselas Musque; from a Mr. Tucker, of Ithaca, New York, about 1868. Of moderate vigor; cluster large; berry large, pale green with amber tinge; skin thick; pulp tender, juicy, sweet; high quality.

Jacent. (Rip. Lab.) Noted by T. V. Munson in Gardener's Monthly for 1884, as undistinguishable from Bacchus, except that the saccharometer shows less sugar.

Jaeger's Seedlings. About forty years ago Hermann Jaeger, of Neosho, Missouri, became interested in the horticultural possibilities of the wild grapes of his neighborhood. He corresponded with Frederick Muench, of Marthasville, who encouraged him in his efforts. Beside selecting various vines from the woods he made crosses of species. His object was to secure more vigorous, productive and disease-resistant sorts than any of our standard varieties. He was particularly impressed with the Lincecumii or so-called Summer grapes of his section. His selections of this species are notable for their extreme vigor but many of them are susceptible to fungi and as they are all self-sterile they are uncertain bearers when removed from the wild male vines. His most promising seedlings are as follows:

No. 9. Productive; subject to black-rot; cluster large; berry below medium; juicy, sweet; good.

No. 12. Cluster and berry medium; sweet.

No. 13. Hardy, prolific; as large as Ives and of no better quality.

No. 17. Cluster large; berries medium; sweet; good.

No. 42. Cluster very large; berry medium; very sweet and juicy; good.

No. 43. (Line.) One of Jaeger's selections from the woods. Rank grower; canes thick,, numerous, glaucous; diaphragm thick; shoots glabrous, spiny; tendrils intermittent; leaves large, thick, glossy green, glaucous below, not lobed; cluster large; berry medium, oblate, black; ripens too late for this section. Does not ripen its wood well and is slightly tender and very susceptible to leaf-hopper here. Self-sterile.

No. 50. See Longworth.

No. 56. See Dufour.

No. 70. See Munson.

No. 72. (Line. Rup.) A seedling of No. 43 crossed with a male vine of Vitis rupestris. Bunch medium, very compact; berry size of Concord, black with pale bloom; sweet, of pure flavor; ripens with Norton.

No. 100. (Rip. Lab.) A seedling of Elvira. Vine shows Labrusca characters, very hardy, productive; bunch and berry as large as Concord, yellowish with reddish tinge; quality and flavor similar to Catawba; cracks when ripe; season with Delaware.

James Seedling. (Lab. Vin.) From J. H. James, Urbana, Ohio. Resembles Catawba but is hardier and healthier.

Jane Wylie. (Rip. Vin. Lab.) Janie Wylie. A hybrid between Clinton and' a foreign grape; from Dr. A. P. Wylie, Chester, South Carolina, about 1870. Vigorous, productive; bunch large, shouldered; berry large, globular to oval, dark red with thick bloom; pulp firm, meaty, juicy, sweet, rich, vinous; skin thick, tender; early.

Jelly. Exhibited before the American Pomological Society in 1856 and described by William G. Waring of Pennsylvania as "extremely productive, good; especially valuable for culinary use. Very good when dried."

Jemina. (Rip. Lab.) A seedling of Elvira crossed with an unknown variety; from D. S. Marvin, Watertown, New York, about 1891. Vigorous, hardy, healthy; bunch short, compact; berry medium, black, delicious; skin thin, liable to crack; much earlier than Elvira.

Jennie May. (Lab.) Mitzky, in 1893, states that this variety is a Concord seedling grown by John Laws, Geneva, New York. Apparently identical with Concord.

Jennings. (Lab.) A native grape from Lexington, Massachusetts, noted in Magazine of Horticulture for 1860. Hardy, productive, free from mildew; bunch medium; berries black; pulpy, foxy; ripens very early.

Jessie. (Lab. Bourq, Vin.) A seedling of a cross between Delaware and Diana; received by the Gardener's Monthly in 1879, from F. W. Loudon, Janesville, Wisconsin. Described as looking like Diana but of better flavor.

Jeter. (Rot.) Described in South Carolina Station Bulletin No. 132. Vigorous, very productive; bunches contain three to eight large, brownish-black berries; skin thick, very tough; pulp tender, juicy; quality good; ripens about August 25th.

Joen. Noted by Prince in Gardener's Monthly for 1863 as a worthless variety.

John Burr. (Lab.) Noted by Mitzky, in 1893, as"a Concord seedling grown by the late John Burr, of Leavenworth, Kansas."

Johnson. A South Carolina seedling. Mentioned in the American Pomological Society catalogs for 1875 and 1881.

Jolly. A Pennsylvania grape noted by Waring in 1851.

Joly. (Champ.) A wild vine of Vitis champini secured by Munson from Lampasas County, Texas. Stamens reflexed; cluster small; berry medium, black; ripens early.

Jonathan. Noted by S. J. Parker of Ithaca, New York, in the United States Patent Office Report for 1861 as a grape that "grew well and ripened its wood"

Joplin's Peaks of Otter. A native grape of the Blue Ridge Mountains, Virginia, from J. Joplin. Noted in Gardener's Monthly for 1869 as having been in cultivation for thirty-five years. Very vigorous, very productive, healthy; fine wine grape.


Jordan Large Blue. Jordan's Blue. Prince in 1830 states that this grape is an exotic but that a Mr. Smith of New Jersey believed it to be a native of New England. Bunches large; berries large, blue; flesh pulpy.

Joseph Henry. A seedling from D. J. Piper, Illinois; received first premium at the State Fair in Freeport, Illinois, in 1877, as the best new grape. Said to be very early and as of high quality as Delaware.

Judd. Noted in the American Horticultural Annual for 1871, as a seedling raised by P. Stewart of Mt. Lebanon, New York.

Judge. (Doan.) A wild male vine of Vitis doaniana secured by Munson from Greer County, Oklahoma.

Judge Miller. (Bourq. Lab.) A seedling of Herbemont crossed with Martha; from Munson. Described by the Georgia Experiment Station as moderately vigorous; stamens upright; bunch large, moderately compact; berries medium, greenish-yellow, of good quality; ripens a little earlier than Catawba.

July. C. E. Goodrich of Utica, New York, mentions this variety, in the United States Patent Office Report for 1853, as valuable because of ripening early.

July Twenty-fifth. (Rip. Lab.) According to Mitzky, 1893, tn^s *s an Elvira seedling; from Jacob Rommel, Morrison, Missouri.

Jumbo. (Lab.) Big Concord, Probably a Concord seedling; from Reuben Rose, Marlboro, New York. Vigorous, hardy, productive; bunches and berries vary in size from year to year; ripens a week earlier than Concord.

Juno. (Bourq. Lab.) A seedling of Delaware; from G. A. Ensenberger, Bloomington, Illinois, 1882. Vigorous and productive; cluster medium, sometimes shouldered; berry white, translucent with yellow tinge, round, medium; pulp tender; good.

Juno. (Vin. Lab.) Uno. A cross between Muscat Hamburg and Belvidere; from G. W. Campbell, Delaware, Ohio, about 1882. Rich and sweet.

Juno's Sister. (Vin. Lab.) The same origin and parentage as the preceding. Berry black, blue bloom; flesh meaty; seeds part readily; no acidity.

Kalamazoo. (Lab. Vin.) From a Mr. Dixon of Steubenville, Jefferson County, Ohio, about 1860, from seed of Catawba. Resembles Catawba closely but is larger in bunch and berry; not of as high quality and ripens ten days earlier.

Kalista. (Bourq. Lab.) A white-fruited seedling of Delaware produced by J. Sacksteder of Louisville, Kentucky. Resembles the parent except for the color of fruit and greater vigor of vine.

Kansas July. (Rip.?) A variety mentioned by Mead forty years ago as an early grape from Kansas with small bunches of very small sweet berries. Vine vigorous.

Kay Seedling. (Bourq.) A seedling of Herbemont from Kentucky.

Keller. Dr. Keller. Noted in Gardener's Monthly in 1863.

Keller White. (Lab. Vin.) Noted by Mitzky in 1893 as a seedling of Catawba inferior to the parent.

Kellog. (Lab.) A wild Labrusca from New Canaan, Connecticut, and described by Prince in 1830 as having large, purple, foxy fruit of oblate form.

Kemp. (Line. Bourq.) A seedling of Post-oak crossed with Herbemont; from Munson in 1885. Stamens erect; cluster large; berry medium, dark red; ripens very late.

Kendall. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Isabella; from Brooklyn, New York, about 1865. Resembles Isabella very closely but larger in bunch and berry.

Kenena. (Line. Rup.) A cross between Munson of America and a Post-oak hybrid, about 1898. Very vigorous; canes smooth, much branched; leaves rather small, deeply four-to seven-lobed; cluster above medium; berries small, purple, round, persistent; skin thin, tough; flesh tender, juicy; good; seeds small; ripens just before Herbemont.

Kenrick's Native. (Lab.) Noted by Prince in 1830 as a wild Labrusca found near Newton, Massachusetts. Fruit light green, oval.

Kentucky. (Aest. Lab.) A supposed seedling of Norton; found by James Childers of Auburn, Kentucky, in 1887. Very vigorous, hardy, healthy and productive; canes rather slender; tendrils continuous; leaves large; flowers self-sterile; clusters large, shouldered, tapering; berries small, oblate, purplish-black, persistent; moderately juicy, tough, mild, somewhat insipid, hardly fair in quality; seeds numerous, medium size to above; raphe a cord; ripens late.

Kentucky Wine. Mentioned by Prince in Gardener's Monthly for 1863.

Ketchum. Received by the United States Department of Agriculture about 1860 from an unknown source. Fruit described as black, sweet, pulpy, of medium size.

Keystone. (Lab.) A seedling of Concord; from John Kready, Mount Joy, Pennsylvania. Resembles Concord very closely but considered by some as of better quality and as a better keeper.

Kiamichi. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) Parents, Delago crossed with Brilliant; from Munson, in 1899. Stamens reflexed; cluster medium; berry large, purple; ripens mid-season.

Kilvington. (Lab. Vin.) Bought by a Mr. Cassady of Philadelphia for an Isabella, in 1847. Grant considers it a seedling of Catawba which it resembles in every respect except that the berries are smaller, rounder and of a duller red.

King Philip. (Vin. Lab. Rip.) A second generation Vinifera-Labrusca-Riparia hybrid; produced by N. B. White of Norwood, Massachusetts, about ten years ago. Vine vigorous, resembling Labrusca; cluster large; berry large, roundish or slightly oval, purple; flesh solid, tender; flavor vinous, sweet; very good.

Kingsessing. (Lab. Vin. ?) Of unknown origin, mentioned in 1866 by Husmann. Vine tender, subject to mildew and rot; cluster large, loose, shouldered; berries medium, round, pale red with lilac bloom; fair quality.

King William. One of Marine's seedlings, not disseminated.

Kinney's Seedlings. According to Mitzky, I. Kinney of Zanesville, Ohio, has produced two seedlings as follows:
Kinney No. 1. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Vergennes."Bunch medium to large, compact; berries large, round; skin tough; very fine flavor; good keeper; ripens early."
Kinney No. 2. (Lab.) A seedling of Concord."Bunch medium, compact; berries small, round, white, transparent, but few seeds, very sweet, without any disagreeable taste; leaf similar to Concord; healthy; good grower."

Kiowa. (Line. Bourq.) A seedling of Jaeger No. 43 crossed with Herbemont; from Munson, in 1898. Described by him as follows: "Growth very strong and healthy, much branched, leaves small to medium, 5 to 7 lobed; cluster medium to large, with long peduncle; berry small to medium, nearly black, round; skin thin, tough; flesh tender, juicy, sprightly, agreeable quality; ripens just before Herbemont."

Kitchen. (Rip.) A seedling of Franklin, about 1865. Cluster medium; berry medium to small, round, black; skin thin, tough; flesh tender; very late.

Knob Mountain. A variety mentioned in 1869 by the United States Department of Agriculture as under trial.

Kosomo. (Lab. Line. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Delago crossed with Beacon; from Munson in 1899. Stamens reflexed; cluster large; berry large, purple; ripens mid-season.

Kramer Seedling. (Lab.) A seedling of Concord; from J. C. Kramer, of La Crescent, Minnesota. Vine resembles Concord but not thrifty; fruit resembles Concord but is sweet and with a spicy flavor.

Krause. (Bourq. Lab. Vin.) A second generation -Niagara cross; from Munson, in 1908. Munson says, "Vine vigorous, usually healthy, very prolific; clusters large, handsome; berries medium size, pearly white, fine quality; promising for Southwest."

Kruger. (Line. Rup. Lab. Vin.) Parents, America by R. W. Munson; from Munson, in 1899. Stamens erect; cluster very large; berry medium, black; ripens late.

Labe. An accidental seedling from Lebanon, Pennsylvania, about 1850. Vigorous, hardy; bunch small, short, loose; berry black; flesh tender, sweet.

Lacon. (Lab.) A seedling of Concord from D. H. Wier, Lacon, Illinois, about 1862. Medium in vigor, hardy; bunch small; berry medium, black; Concord flavor.

Laconia. (Lab. Vin.) From Jos. N. Sanborn, Laconia, New Hampshire. Received at this Station in 1903 for testing but has not fruited. Rather weak grower; self-sterile.

La Crissa. (Bourq. Lab.) Sacrissa; Saccharissa. A Delaware seedling; from J. Sacksteder, Louisville, Kentucky. Vigorous; berry small, white; good.

Ladies. (Lab.) Mentioned by Downing in 1845 as a fox grape with a strong scent, harsh flavor and of no value for dessert.

Lady Charlotte. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) A seedling of Delaware crossed with Iona; from C. G. Pringle of Vermont, 1869. Vigorous; bunch large, shouldered, compact; berry medium, round, light green to golden; juicy, sweet; good.

Lady Dunlap. (Lab. Vin.) Dunlapf From J. H. Ricketts, about 1875. Bunch medium, compact; berry medium, amber; vinous; good.

Lady Helene. From Fred Roenbeck, Bergen, New Jersey. Vigorous; cluster large, shouldered, compact; berry large, white; good.

Lady Younglove. (Lab. Rip.) A cross between Missouri Riesling and Perkins; from John Sacksteder, Leavenworth, Indiana. Vigorous, hardy; cluster medium, generally shouldered; berry large, oval, light red.

Lake. Iden. Exhibited by Nicholas Longworth in 1852. Bunch and berry small, black; acid, harsh; early.

La Marie. (Lab.) A seedling of Willie; from L. C. Chisholm. Vigorous, hardy; bunch large, shouldered; berry large, very foxy, color "ashes of roses."

La Reine. (Line. Rup. Lab.) A seedling of America by Beacon; from Munson in 1899. Stamens erect; cluster large; berry large, black; ripens mid-season.

Large Berry. (Long.) A wild vine of Vitis longii secured by Munson from Motley County, Texas. Stamens reflexed; cluster small; berry medium, black; ripens early.

Large Leaf. (Long.) Like the preceding, this is one of Munson's varieties, a wild form of Vitis longii from Motley County, Texas. Stamens depressed; cluster small; berry small, black; ripens early.

La Salle. (Rip. Line. Rot.) A Scuppernong crossed with a Post-oak hybrid; from Munson. Vigorous and comparatively hardy; stamens depressed; cluster medium, ovate, short; berries large to very large, black with white specks; juicy;"better than Scuppernong."

Laughlin. (Lab.? Bourq. ? Vin.?) A chance seedling, probably of Concord crossed with Delaware; from W. R. Laughlin, College Springs, Iowa. Hardy; cluster large, compact, shouldered; berries medium, white; skin tender; sweet, vinous, high quality; early.

Laura. (Lab.) From H. B. Lum, Sandusky, Ohio, 1867. Hardy, productive; berry large, pale red; sweet, somewhat foxy.

Laura. (Bourq. Lab. Aest. Vin.) Lama; Watertown. A cross of Eumelan with Delaware; from D. S. Marvin, Watertown, New York, about 1880. Medium in vigor; bunch small, shouldered; berry small, dark purple; skin thin, tough; pulp tender, juicy; hardly good.

Laussel. (Line. Lab. Aest.) A seedling of a Post-oak crossed by Gold Coin; from Munson. Vigorous, hardy; cluster medium, moderately compact; berry medium, round, dark purple or black; skin thin; pulp firm; good.

Lavega. (Lab. Vin.) A hybrid seedling; from W. H. Mills, Hamilton, Ontario. Hardy; bunch medium; berry large, reddish; vinous; very good.

Lawrence. (Lab.) Found growing wild by Dr. R. B. Black, Fay, Pennsylvania, about 1880. Very vigorous; cluster large, conical, compact; berry medium to large, round, dark purple to black; sub-acid; quality poor.


Lawson. (Lab.) From E. W. Bull, Massachusetts; first exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1874. Bunch large; berry large, white.

Leader. (Lab. Vin. ?) A chance seedling of unknown parentage; from the Storrs and Harrison Company, Painesville, Ohio, about 1893. Variable in vigor and productiveness; flowers semi-fertile; tendrils continuous; clusters not uniform, medium to short, shouldered; berries medium, roundish, light green changing to yellowish; skin thin, tender; flesh tender, vinous; good to very good.

Leavenworth, (Lab. Vin.) Burr No. 4.7. A seedling of Concord; from Francis Godard of Leavenworth, Kansas, about 1888. Weak, hardy, medium in productiveness; tendrils continuous; flowers fertile or nearly so; cluster small, short, moderately compact; berries small, slightly oval, dull green; flesh tender and soft; fair in quality.

Lehman. (Lab. Vin.) From William Lehman, New Lebanon, Pennsylvania; parentage, Bland crossed with Isabella. Bunch and berry large, nearly white; late.

Lenori. Alvey's Lenori. Noted in the United States Patent Office Report of 1861.

Leon. (Vin. Lab.?) From William H. Marine. Bunch medium; berry large, oval, pale red.

Letovey. (Line. Lab.? Vin.) From Munson. Very vigorous; shybearer; stamens reflexed; cluster large, compact; berry small, round, deep purple to black; pleasant flavor; quality medium.

Lewis. Noted in the Illinois Horticultural Society Report for 1881 as productive, healthy, early; berry black; fair quality.

Lexington. (Lab.) A Concord seedling; from T. B. Miner, New Jersey. Hardy, not productive; bunch large; berry medium to large, black; quality medium.

Lida. A chance seedling from Ludwig Hencke, Collinsville, Illinois. Bunch and berry medium, red; sweet, not foxy; mid-season.

Lightfoot's Seedlings. W. H. Lightfoot, of Springfield, Illinois, has raised a large number of seedlings from standard varieties, such as Concord, Northern Muscadine, Goethe and others. Of his named seedlings there are Alice Lee, Amy, Benjamin, Capital, Lightfoot, Miriam, Sangamon and Springfield.

Lightfoot. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Niagara; from W. H. Lightfoot, Springfield, Illinois. Vigorous, healthy; stamens upright; leaves three- to five-lobed; cluster medium, shouldered, loose; berry medium, round, light green to yellowish; flesh melting, juicy, sweet; good; keeps well; ripens after Concord.

Lightfoot Seedling No. SJ^. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Lady Washington; from W. H. Lightfoot, Springfield, Illinois. Vigorous and healthy; bunch large, compact; berries large, round, black; juicy and sweet.

Limington White. (Lab.) Described by Cole in 1849. Hardy; bunch and berry large; good.

Linceola. (Line. Rip. Lab.) A cross between a Lincecumii and Elvira credited to Munson but not cataloged by him. Vigorous, shy bearer.

Lincoln. Hart; McLean. A southern grape found growing in the Catawba River in North Carolina, by Dr. Wm. McLean, about 1800. Vigorous, hardy, early; berry small, round; skin thin, dark purple with light bloom; flesh tender, juicy, sweet, rich, vinous. Resembles Devereaux, and by some considered identical.

Lincoln. (Lab. Vin.) Lincoln County; Read's Hybrid. A seedling of Concord crossed with Black Hamburg; from Wm. H. Read, Port Dalhousie, Ontario. Vigorous, hardy, productive; cluster below medium, compact, cylindrical, shouldered; berry below medium, round, black; skin thick, tough; pulp firm but breaking, sweet, sprightly, slightly foxy; good; ripens with Concord.

Lincoln Downer. (Lab.) Listed in the United States Patent Office Reports of 1859-61 as being under test. Vigorous.

Lincrup. (Line. Rup.) From Texas. Vigorous; productive; stamens reflexed; bunch large, medium in compactness; berry small, black; medium in quality.

Lincy. (Line.) From Texas. Vigorous; stamens upright; cluster large, compact; berry medium, black; quality medium.

Lindell. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Lindley crossed with Delaware; from T. V. Munson.

Linden. (Lab.) A Concord seedling; from T. B. Miner, Linden, New Jersey. Hardy; bunch and berry large, black, firm.

Linherbe. (Bourq. Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Lindley crossed with Herbemont; from Munson. Vigorous; cluster medium, conical; berry small, red, translucent; flavor sweet; quality medium.

Lindmar. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Lindley crossed with Martha; from Munson. Vigorous, not always hardy, variable in productiveness; tendrils continuous; flowers partly fertile; stamens upright; cluster small, compact; berries small, oval, dull, pale green, thin gray bloom; flesh pale green, slightly vinous, foxy; good.

Linelvi. (Rip. Lab. Vin.) Munson No. J+5. From Munson; parentage given as Lindley by Humboldt, or Lindley by Elvira. So lacking in vigor as to be unpromising.

Linley. (Lab. Rip. Vin. Bourq.) Parentage, Rommel crossed with Delaware; from Munson in 1897. Stamens erect; cluster medium; berry medium, yellow; ripens early.

Linn. (Lab.) From P. B. Crandall, Ithaca, New York, about 1890. Vigorous; tendrils continuous; cluster medium, compact, shouldered; berry medium, round, yellowish-green with reddish dots; pulp fibrous, foxy and acid; good.

Linn Queen. (Lab.) Vigorous; cluster medium, compact; berry large, black, poor; stamens upright.

Little Blue. (Lab. Vin. Aest.) From A. J. Caywood, Marlboro, New York, about 1888. Vigorous, medium in productiveness; tendrils intermittent to rarely continuous; diaphragm thick; flowers partly fertile; stamens upright; cluster medium, shouldered; berry medium, oblong, black; pulp juicy, sweet, good; ripens after Concord.

Little Giant. (Lab. Vin.) Noted as under test in the vineyards of the United States Department of Agriculture from 1863 to 1866. Resembles Isabella very closely.

Little Ozark. Hardy; bunch long, loose; berry medium, black; juicy; good.

Livingston. (Lab. Vin.) From John C. Wheaton, Dansville, Livingston County, New York; believed to be a seedling of Wilder or Aminia. Vigorous, not always hardy, productive; tendrils continuous; leaves large, dull green; flowers nearly self-fertile; stamens upright; cluster large, long, frequently loosely single-shouldered, very compact; berries medium, roundish, black with blue bloom, persistent; skin thin, tender; flesh tender, faintly spicy; good; characters of vine and fruit indicate Labrusca and Vinifera.

Lizzie. (Lab.) A seedling from E. W. Bull, exhibited by him before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1874. Bunch and berry large, white.

Lobata. (Line. Lab.) A seedling of Munson crossed with Profusion; from Munson in 1897. Stamens depressed; cluster large; berry medium, black; ripens late.

Logan. (Lab. Vin.) David Hall Grape; Purple Urbana; Urbana. A seedling of unknown parentage, brought to notice by Dr. Thompson; supposed to have come from Logan County, Ohio. Medium in vigor, usually hardy; cluster medium, compact, shouldered; berries large, oval, dark purple to black; sweet, juicy; good.
[Unclear from Campbell's description which Logan he refers to. -ASC]

Logan. Alvey's Logan. Mentioned by Dr. G. P. Morris, Wilmington, Delaware, in United States Patent Office Report, 1861, as a hardy grape.

Long. (Bourq.) Madison County. Found by Col. James Long on his plantation near Danielsville, Madison County, Georgia, about 1827. Vigorous; cluster medium to large, compact, shouldered; berries small, dark purple with thin bloom; pulp tender, sweet, vinous; good; ripens late. Considered by some synonymous with Cunningham.

Long John. (Line. Lab. Vin.) Parents, Big Berry crossed with Triumph; from Munson. Vigorous, not hardy here; cluster large, long, cylindrical to tapering, compact; berry large, roundish, black; skin thin, tough; texture tough and coarse; flavor tart, slightly acid at center; good; ripens very late.

Longworth. (Bourq.) Longworth No. 20. Found in the garden of Nicholas Longworth, Cincinnati, Ohio, about 1867. Healthy, vigorous, productive; clusters large, shouldered; berry small, round, black, juicy, refreshing; of the Herbemont type but ripens earlier.

Longworth. (Line. Bourq.) Jaeger No. 50. A seedling of Jaeger No. 43 crossed with Herbemont; from Hermann Jaeger, Neosho, Missouri, about 1880. Susceptible to mildew; bunches large; berries medium, blue-black; good; very late.

Longworth Monster. From Ohio. Vigorous, healthy, productive; bunch medium; berry large, round, blue.

Loomis* Honey. (Lab.) Exhibited in 1863 by Peter Raabe of Philadelphia, in New York at the New York Fruit Growers' meeting. Hardy; clusters large; berries large, black; sweet.

Looney Seedling. (Lab.) From C. S. Looney, Cowan, Tennessee, about 1902. Cluster small, shouldered, blunt at end, loose; berry large, round, thick blue bloom over black; skin thin, tender; sweet, slightly foxy; good; ripens early. Resembles Concord.

Lorain. From Lorain, Ohio, about 1865. Cluster medium; berry large, amber-yellow; sweet; good.

Loretto. (Lab.) Queen Loretto. From Tennessee. Berry medium, round, white; good; mid-season.

Loudon Seedling. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Delaware and Diana; from F. W. Loudon, Janesville, Wisconsin. Resembles Diana in bunch, berry and flavor.

Louisa. (Lab. Vin.) Grown by Samuel Miller, Calmdale, Pennsylvania. Vigorous, hardy; cluster compact, occasionally shouldered; berry round, oval, black with blue bloom; flavor resembles Isabella; ripens early.

Louise. (Lab. Vin.) Given by Mitzky as a seedling from New Jersey. Vigorous; bunch large, compact; berries large, white; juicy, sweet; very good.

Louisville. Noted in a list of supposed hardy grapes in United States Department of Agriculture Report for 1863.

Lowell Globe. Noted in a list of worthless varieties in Gardener's Monthly in 1863.

Lucky. (Line.) An undescribed variety used by Munson as a parent in a number of crosses.

Lucy Winton. Noted in the Gardener's Monthly for 1861 as being equal in quality to Isabella and four weeks earlier.

Luders. (Rip.) A wild male vine of Vitis riparia secured from near Madison, Wisconsin, by Munson.

Luffborough. (Lab. Vin.?) Found near Georgetown, District of Columbia, before 1828. Berries large, deep purple; juice sweet, foxy. Recommended by John Adlum for wine and cited in a list of worthless varieties in Gardener's Monthly, 1863.

Lugawana. Noted in the Ontario Fruit Growers' Association Report for 1887 in a list of varieties ripening late.

Lukfata. (Champ. Lab.) A seedling of Moore Early crossed with Vitis champini; from Munson. Vigorous, hardy; cluster medium, ovate, compact; berries globular, large, black, persistent; juicy, very sweet and agreeable; good; early; stamens reflexed.

Luckyne. (Line. Bourq.) Parents, Lucky crossed with Sweety; from Munson in 1897. Stamens erect; cluster large; berry medium, black; ripens late.

Lulie. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Telegraph crossed with Black Hamburg; from C. J. Copley, Stapleton, New York. Hardy, healthy and productive; cluster large; berry very large, black with a fine bloom; good. Awarded a medal at the World's Fair, Chicago, 1893.

Luna. (Lab.) From William M. Marine. A large, hardy, white grape.

Lycoming. (Lab. Vin.) From a Mr. Evenden, Williamsport, Lycoming County, Pennsylvania, about 1860. Hardy; canes short-jointed; cluster large; berry large, oval, light red.

Lydia. (Lab. Vin.) A chance seedling from Charles Carpenter, Kelley's Island, Ohio. Cluster short, compact; berries large, oval, greenish-white; skin thick;. pulp tender, sweet, slightly vinous; good; ripens with Delaware.
More information in 1862 U.S. Agriculture Report. -ASC]

Lyman. (Rip.) A northern variety said to have been brought from Quebec more than fifty years ago. Hardy; productive, vigorous; cluster large, handsome, compact; berry medium, round, black with thick bloom; juicy; good.

Lyon. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) Chidester No. 1; Pres. Lyon. A seedling of Concord crossed with Delaware; from C. P. Chidester, Battle Creek, Michigan, named in honor of T. T. Lyon of Michigan about 1890. Vigorous, productive; cluster medium to large, cylindrical, shouldered, medium compact; berries large, round, white, whitish bloom; pulp tender, sweet, rich, vinous; very good.

Mabel. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) Originated by A. J. Caywood of Marlboro, New York, from seed of Walter. Moderately vigorous, not always hardy, inclined to mildew, productive ; canes medium size with thin blue bloom; tendrils intermittent; leaves medium size, thin, slightly pubescent; flowers fertile; clusters large, usually shouldered; berries large, round, black; skin thin, rather tough, inclined to crack, purplish pigment; flesh tender, juicy, sweet, vinous; good; ripens before Concord but not a good keeper.

McDonald's Ann Arbor. (Lab.) Noted in the American Pomological Society Report for 1881. Berry very large, black with blue bloom; quality of Concord; ripens with Worden.

Macedonia. (Lab.) Miller's No. 3. An early white seedling of Concord; raised by Samuel Miller of Calmdale, Pennsylvania, over fifty years ago. Said to resemble Martha but not so vigorous.

McKinley. (Lab. Vin.) Originated by Frank L. Young, Lockport, New York, from seed of Niagara pollinated by Moore Early, planted in 1891. Not vigorous, usually hardy, moderately productive; tendrils continuous; leaves of medium size; clusters medium to large, usually single-shouldered, compact; berries large, oval, light green; skin tender; flesh tender, juicy, sweet; good; resembles Niagara but about ten days earlier.

McNeil. (Lab. ? Rip. ?) A variety resembling Clinton, cultivated in the Champlain region from fifty to seventy-five years ago.

Madeira. The name Madeira is common in the early grape literature of the country. Its use was begun at the time when many of the cultivated sorts were supposed to be of foreign origin. The significance of the word when found unqualified depends somewhat on the time and place. Thus, in the South, Madeira usually means Herbemont's Madeira; in Ohio, Ives Madeira and in Pennsylvania, York Madeira.

Madeline. (Lab.) Given by Mitzky, in 1893, as a chance seedling grown by G. Henderson, Eddyville, New York. Bunch medium to large, compact, often shouldered; berry large, round, greenish-white with a white bloom; skin medium thin but tough, translucent; sweet, juicy, with a pleasant flavor; ripens early.

Magee. Given by Mitzky as the name of the variety described in this work as Glenfeld.

Magnificent. (Lab.? Vin.?) From A. F. Rice, Griswoldville, Georgia, about twenty-five years ago. Cluster large, broad, shouldered, loose; berries large; skin thin, tender; flesh tender, juicy, sweet; very good.

Maguire. (Lab.) This variety was known about fifty years ago as a very early black sweet grape of fair quality which originated at Lansingburg, New York. Similar to Hartford but more foxy.

Mahogany Colored. (Lab.) Mahogany. A wild Labrusca introduced over fifty years ago by G. W. Clark, of Maiden, Massachusetts. Fruit of the Labrusca type; mahogany-red.

Main. (Lab.) Mentioned in the horticultural periodicals of fifty years ago as a variety very similar to Concord and thought by many to be the same; from a Mr. Main, of Concord, New Hampshire, about 1854. Said to be about ten days earlier than Concord.

Malinda. An early white variety mentioned in Gardener's Monthly in 1869.

Malvin. One of Marine's seedlings, described as black, of good quality and with cluster and berry of medium size.

Manhattan. An amber-green seedling of Isabella which originated on Long Island about 1850. Unproductive; cluster small, compact; berry medium; flesh tough, foxy; good; ripens late; shatters.

Manockanock. Listed by Prince in Gardener's Monthly in 1863 as worthless.

Mansfield. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Concord fertilized by Iona; raised in 1869 by C. G. Pringle of Charlotte, Vermont. Very vigorous; leaves large, thick, very pubescent below; cluster large, shouldered, compact; berry large, slightly oval, black; flesh tender; very good; ripens before Concord.

Manson. A cross between R. W. Munson and Gold Coin; produced by Munson in 1899 and introduced in 1906. Munson says:"Vigorous and productive; clusters large; berry above medium,.of yellow color; skin thin and tough; pulp tender; quality excellent; ripens late, with Triumph."

Marguerite. (Lab. Vin.) A Labrusca-Vinifera variety; from Theophile Huber, Illinois City, Illinois. Vigorous, not productive; stamens upright; cluster small, loose; berries medium, light amber; tender, sweet, vinous; good; ripens a week after Concord.

Marguerite. (Line. Bourq.) Originated by Munson; from Post-oak No. 2 fertilized by Herbemont. Very vigorous, very productive; shoots spiny, not downy; leaves medium to large, three-to five-lobed; stamens upright; clusters medium, cylindrical, shouldered, compact; berries large, round, dark purple; skin thin, tough; flesh tender; good; ripens ten days later than Catawba.


Marine's Seedlings. A number of varieties were produced by Wm. M. Marine about 1870. They were all crosses of native sorts produced by putting the pollen in water and then applying the water to the stigma of the sort to be fertilized. Of the varieties thus produced are Nerluton, Greencastle, Leon, Lucas, Mianna, Malvin, Olympia, King William, Minnie, Harriet Beecher, U. B., Uncle Tom, Red Jacket, and many others.

Mariole. Joe's Mariole. Mentioned by R. O. Thompson, of Nursery Hill, Nebraska, in the United States Department of Agriculture Report for 1866.

Marique. Warder, in 1867, says, "Ohio. Healthy, vigorous, very productive; bunch full medium, compact; berry oval, large, blue; spicy; very good."

Marker. Listed by the Superintendent of the Experimental Garden of the United States Department of Agriculture in the report for 1863.

Marsala. (Lab.) A dark red grape introduced about thirty years ago by Dr. Stayman. Cluster large; berry large; foxy, somewhat solid, tough; good; very resistant to rot.

Marvin's Seedlings. D. S. Marvin, Watertown, New York, grew many crosses of American varieties, few if any having been made by him with Vinifera. His best known grapes are Cayuga, Centennial, Hopican, Rutland and Shelby. Besides these he produced others, many of which were never named nor disseminated. One of these which was received at this Station in 1892 was described in the Thirteenth Annual Report under the name Marvin's Seedling. Clusters medium, compact; berry small, pale green or yellow; flesh firm, sweet, vinous; good; season last of September.

Marvina. (Lab. Vin. Bourq. Aest.) A seedling of Laura by Brilliant; from Munson in 1897. Stamens erect; cluster large; berry medium, white; ripens early.

Mary. (Lab. Vin.) A chance seedling of Catawba found in 1849 in the garden of Datus Kelley, Kelleys Island, Ohio. Vigorous, hardy; leaf medium, light-colored, downy beneath; cluster large, loose; berry medium, round, greenish-white, gray bloom, translucent; flesh tender, juicy, sweet, sprightly; very good; ripens with Catawba; mildews badly.

Mary. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Catawba introduced by a Mr. Hasselkus, of Griffin, Georgia, about 1885. Resembles Lindley very closely but is said to be more vigorous with larger and rounder berries of a lighter red and shorter, more compact clusters; ripens with Concord.

Mary Ann. (Lab. Vin.) North Carolina Muscadine. Originated by J. B. Garber, Columbia, Pennsylvania, about 1850. Vigorous and productive; cluster medium, compact, shouldered; berry medium, oval, black, foxy, poor; resembles Isabella; ripens with Hartford.

Mary Favorite. From J. T. Coffin, of Westland, Hancock County, Indiana, in 1889; a chance seedling found growing near a trellis on which Delaware and one of Rogers' hybrids were growing. Vigorous, usually hardy, variable in productiveness; canes long; tendrils continuous; leaves large, lower surface grayish -white, pubescent; flowers fertile, open early; clusters medium to small, usually shouldered, very compact; berries small, roundish, purplish-black, persistent; skin thin, tough; flesh tough, slightly vinous, sweet, tart at center; good to best.

Mary Mark. (Bourq. Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Delaware; from Dr. Stayman. Lacks vigor, hardy, apparently healthy, productive; berry medium, red; flesh tender, juicy, vinous, sweet; very good; ripens with its parent which it closely resembles.

Mary Wylie. (Vin. Rip. Lab.) A hybrid of Clinton and Red Frontignan; from Dr. A. P. Wylie, Chester, South Carolina. Cluster large, loose; berry above medium, yellowish-green; flesh tender, juicy, vinous, delicate; very good; ripens late.

Maryland Purple. Mentioned by Prince in 1830 as a seedling from the woods of Maryland. Berries medium, purple, sweet and juicy; ripens very late.

Mason. A chance seedling of 1881; from Mrs. E. Mason, Lamont, Ottawa County, Michigan. Vigorous; clusters medium, sometimes shouldered, compact; berries large, round, reddish-amber; flesh tender, sweet, vinous, sprightly, slightly foxy; good; ripens just before Worden.

Mason. (Lab.) Mason's Seedling. A white Concord seedling raised by B. Mason, of Mascoutah, Illinois, about thirty years ago. Moderately vigorous, unproductive; cluster small, compact; berry large, round, light yellowish-green; skin thin; flesh tender, juicy, sweet, sprightly, slightly foxy; ripens a few days before Concord; very persistent; self-fertile.

Mason Renting. (Lab.) Described in Bulletin 10, 1890, Alabama Experiment Station. Vigorous, productive; clusters small, compact; berries small, greenish-yellow; good; ripens with Catawba.

Massachusetts White. (Lab.) A red foxy Labrusca, apparently a wild grape sent out by B. M. Watson, of Plymouth, Massachusetts, about 1860. Utterly worthless and name a misnomer.

Matchless. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.?) Originated by John Burr, of Leavenworth, Kansas, about 1887. Vigorous, hardy; black with heavy bloom; skin thin, tough; flesh tender, sprightly, vinous; very good; ripens with Brighton and hangs well for some time.

Mathilde. (Bourq. Lab. Vin.) Originated by G. A. Ensenberger, Bloomington, Illinois, from seed of Delaware. Vigorous, productive, not quite hardy; cluster large, very compact; berry small to large, round, dark red with lilac bloom; small ones seedless; flesh tender, juicy, vinous; good; very late.

Mauston. (Rip.) A wild vine of Vitis riparia secured by Munson from near Mauston, Wisconsin. Stamens reflexed; cluster small; berry small, black; ripens early.

May Red. Mentioned in the Report of the Ontario Fruit Growers' Association for 1887 as ripening with Janesville.

Mead Seedling. (Lab. Vin.) Found in 1847 m the garden of John Mead, Lowell Massachusetts. A supposed seedling of Catawba which it strongly resembles but darker and with round berries.


Meanko. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) Parentage, Delago crossed with Brilliant, from Munson, in 1899. Stamens erect; cluster medium; berry large, red; ripens mid-season.

Medora. (Bourq. Vin. ? Lab. ?) A seedling of Lenoir, probably pollinated by Croton; raised by Dr. Thos. R. Cooke, Victoria, Texas. Moderately vigorous; leaf resembles Lenoir; clusters large; berries pale green, medium, round, very translucent; sprightly, vinous; good.

Melasko. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Delago by Governor Ireland; from Munson in 1899. Stamens erect; cluster large; berry large, black; ripens mid-season.

Memory. (Rot.) Vigorous, very productive, tender; cluster small, containing four to twelve large, round, brownish-black berries; skin thick; flesh tender, juicy, sweet; good to best; ripens early for a Rotundifolia.

Mendota, (Lab. Vin.) Originated about 1883 by John Burr, of Leavenworth, Kansas, from mixed seed. Not vigorous nor productive; leaves round, pale green; stamens upright; cluster small, very compact; berry above medium, round, black; skin tender; flesh tender, melting, sprightly, sweet; good; ripens just before Brighton.

Meno. (Lab. Vin.) Mentioned in Bulletin 10, 1890, Alabama Experiment Station. Clusters small and compact; berries medium size, amber; good; ripens with Catawba; rots and mildews.

Merceron. (Lab. Vin.) A somewhat recent seedling of Catawba and so similar as to be difficult to distinguish from it.

Merceron. (Lab. Vin.) From F. E. Merceron, Catawissa, Pennsylvania, about 1893; said t0 be a cross of Wilder and Concord. Cluster large, heavily shouldered; berries large, black; sweet, sprightly; very late.

Mericadel. (Line. Rup. Lab. Bourq. Vin.) A seedling of America crossed with Delaware; from Munson, in 1898. Very vigorous, very productive; cluster large; berry medium, purple, very persistent; skin thin and tough; flesh tender, sweet; very good; ripens just after Concord.

Meta. According to Mitzky, a seedling of Jewel produced by Mr. L. Hencke, of Illinois. Bunch large, compact, shouldered; berry large, red; sweet and juicy; good; ripens before Concord.

Metis. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Salem; from C. Engle, of Paw Paw, Michigan. Cluster small, not compact, sometimes shouldered; berry large, dark red, gray bloom; skin thick; flesh rather tough, juicy, vinous; good.

Metternich. (Rip. Lab. Vin. Bourq.) Metterny. A seedling of Clinton fertilized by Poughkeepsie; from A. J. Caywood, Marlboro, New York. Moderately vigorous; cluster medium, long, cylindrical, sometimes shouldered, compact; berry small, roundish or slightly oval; skin thin, tough, light green to medium dark red; flesh tender, not very sweet, fine flavor; good; ripens late.

Mianna or Mienna. One of Marine's seedlings which some call a white grape and others black.


Michigan. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Salem from C. Engle, Paw Paw, Michigan. Vigorous, hardy and productive; cluster large, compact, usually shouldered; berry above medium, light green; good; ripens with Concord. There was another sort named Michigan or Michigan Seedling about fifty years ago which was said to resemble Catawba but about two weeks earlier.

Middlesex. (Lab.) One of E. W. Bull's seedlings. Apparently never disseminated.

Miland. Described in Alabama Station Bulletin No. 29, 1891, as a vigorous, not very healthy vine with medium-sized amber berries.

Miles. (Rip. Lab.) Matlock. From West Goshen Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania, over sixty years ago. Vigorous, productive, very early but does not keep; better than Hartford.

Millardet. (Berland.) From Llano County, Texas. Moderately vigorous, productive ; stamens reflexed; cluster large; berry small, black; good; ripens late.

Miller. (Cord. Vin.) Mentioned by John Craig in the Canadian Horticulturist as a new grape, "a very happy combination of the European V. vinifera and the American V. cordifolia. It also keeps excellently."

Miller. (Bourq. Lab.) A seedling of Herbemont by Martha; from Munson. Stamens erect; cluster large; berry medium, white; ripens late.

Miller's Seedlings. Samuel Miller, during his early life a resident of Calmdale, Pennsylvania, later of Bluffton, Missouri, was one of the well known grape-breeders of the last century. He started this work about the time of the introduction of Concord and continued it until his death in 1901. Miller was an advocate of close breeding rather than cross-breeding as a means of improving fruit. His best known grape productions are: Black Hawk, Eva, Macedonia, Martha and Young America. Martha is the best known of these and this has been superseded. At the time of Miller's death he was engaged in improving the native persimmon.

Millington. (Lab.) Tested by the Michigan Experiment Station and reported in 1899 as being fairly vigorous, variable in productiveness; clusters large, roundish, moderately compact; berries large, round, black with blue bloom; flesh tender, very light green, sprightly, sweet, vinous, with a perceptible aroma; fair to good; ripens mid-season.

Millington White. (Rip.) Mentioned by Prince in 1830 as having been found growing north of the Missouri River, in Missouri, by Dr. Millington of that state."Fruit of good size, very juicy, rather tart, the skin is thin and each berry generally contains three seeds."

Mineola. (Lab. Vin.) A cross between a seedling of Telegraph and Chasselas Musque; from C. J. Copley, Stapleton, New York. Of medium vigor, healthy, hardy and productive; bunches medium, cylindrical, compact, seldom shouldered; berries large, roundish, white or pale yellow, transparent, no pulp; very rich, pure, Muscat flavor; ripens very early.


Miner's Seedlings. About forty years ago, T. B. Miner, of Linden, Union County, New Jersey, raised 1500 seedlings of Concord in central New York. In 1879 after Miner's death, twelve of these seedlings were named and sent out for testing. They are Adeline, Antoinette, Augusta, Belinda, Boadicea, Carlotta, Eugenia, Ida, Lexington, Linden, Rockingham and Victoria. None of these is of great value and they are chiefly of interest as indicating what may be expected from Concord seedlings.

Mingo. Mentioned by Samuel Miller in 1895 as being among the newer varieties; bunch and berry small, black; ripens before any other; makes a heavy dark wine.

Minnehaha. (Vin. Lab.) Said to be a cross between Muscat of Alexandria and Massasoit; from Marshall P. Wilder. Vigorous, productive, not hardy; bunch large, very long, variable in compactness, shouldered; berry medium, very sweet, vinous, "of the most delicious quality."Said by some to be Croton.

Minnesota. (Rip.) A wild vine of Vitis riparia, secured by Munson from near Carver, Minnesota. Stamens reflexed; cluster small; berry very small, white; ripens very early.

Minnesota Mammoth. (Lab.) Introduced by L. W. Stratton, Excelsior, Minnesota, about 1879. Vigorous, hardy and productive; bunch and berry large, dark red; skin thick; characteristic spicy flavor, sweet; poor.

Minnie. From William M. Marine. Bunch small; berry medium, dark red; sweet; nearly equal to Delaware.

Miriam. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Lady Washington; from W. H. Lightfoot, Springfield, Illinois. Very vigorous, hardy, healthy; bunch large, compact, shouldered; berries large, black, juicy and sweet; of superior quality; ripens two weeks later than Concord.

Mish. (Rot.) Meisch. Origin in North Carolina. Vine vigorous, very productive; bunches contain from six to fifteen medium-sized, reddish-black oval berries with thin skin; tender and sweet; very good; self-sterile.

Mission. (Vin. Gird. ?) El Paso. The exact origin of Mission is unknown but it is believed to have originated in the remote Missions of northern Mexico at a time when grape-growing was forbidden by Spain. The variety was introduced into California at a very early day and was raised by the Mission fathers, hence the name. Mission is believed by some to be a hybrid between Vinifera and Girdiana. Vigorous; canes short-jointed, dull dark brown to grayish; leaf above medium size, slightly oblong, five-lobed; stamens erect; clusters slightly shouldered, loose, distinctly compound; berries medium, round; skin thin, purplish-black with heavy bloom; flesh tender, vinous, sweet; very good; ripens with Concord in Texas; said to be imperfectly self-fertile.

Missouri. Missouri Seedling. Mentioned by Prince in 1830 as a native grape. Vine weak, not very productive; bunches medium size, loose; berries small, round, bluish-black with little bloom; tender with little pulp, sweet and pleasant.


Missouri Bird Eye. Mentioned in the United States Patent Office Report for 1859 as being free from rot in the vicinity of Hermann, Missouri.

Missouri Muscadine. Mentioned in the Illinois Horticultural Society Report for 1877 as being very hardy and very productive.

Modena. (Lab.) A Concord seedling; from Caywood, about 1867. Vigorous and hardy; bunch and berry medium, roundish, black; similar to Concord in flavor and ripens about with that variety.

Moffats. Mentioned in the Minnesota Horticultural Society Report, 1877, as being a large, hardy grape.

Moltke. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Salem; from F. E. L. Rautenberg, of Lincoln, Illinois. Very productive and vigorous, resembles Agawam; cluster medium, sometimes shouldered; berries very large, oblong, dark red; skin thick; sweet and aromatic; ripens ten days earlier than Agawam.

Monarch. (Lab.?) Tested by the Alabama Experiment Station and reported as"vigorous and a strong grower. Clusters large, compact; berries large, round, black with blue bloom; skin thick; pulp half tender, pleasant, quality good; season last of August; productive. A promising market grape."

Monard. Vine weak; stamens reflexed; bunch small to medium; berry medium, light red; very good; a few days later than Concord.

Monlintawba. (Mon. Line. Vin. Lab.) A seedling of Vitis monticola by Fern Munson; from Munson. Stamens depressed; cluster large; berry small, purple; ripens very late.

Montclair. (Lab. Vin.) From C. C. Corby, of Montclair, New Jersey. Moderately vigorous, not fully hardy, productive; stamens upright; clusters above medium, long and broad, tapering, shouldered; variable in compactness; berries large to medium, slightly oval, dark red with lilac bloom, unusually persistent; skin thin, tough; pulp greenish, somewhat tough and solid, slightly vinous, sweet; good to very good; late in ripening.

Montisella. (Mon. Line. Lab. Aest.) A seedling of Vitis monticola crossed with Laussel; from Munson. Stamens reflexed; cluster medium; berry medium, purple; ripens very late.

Montour. (Lab.) Mentioned by the United States Department of Agriculture in their report for 1869 in a list of varieties of Labrusca.

Montreal. Noted in the Rural New Yorker for 1886 as being a new black grape, superior to Concord; from Wm. E. Green of Vermont.

Morin. Noted by Prince in Gardener's Monthly, 1863, in a list of worthless varieties.

Morrell Seedling. Raised by a Mr. Morrell of Germantown, New York; noted in Gardener's Monthly for 1871. A medium-sized blue grape with a sharp and pleasant flavor. Said to be a"better grape than Hartford Prolific or Concord, but not equal to them in earliness."


Morse. Noted by Prince in 1863 in a list of worthless varieties.

Mottled. (Lab. Vin.) Carpenter's Seedling. An offspring of Catawba grown by Chas. Carpenter, Kelleys Island, Ohio, about 1860. Vigorous, hardy and prolific; bunch medium, shouldered, compact; berries medium, round, like Catawba in color and mottled with darker shades; skin thick; pulp tender, sweet, juicy, brisk and sprightly, rather pulpy and acid at center.

Mountain. One of a list of worthless varieties mentioned by Prince in Gardener's Monthly, 1863.

Mount Lebanon. (Lab. Vin.) From George Curtis of the United Society of Shakers, Mount Lebanon, Columbia County, New York; supposed to be a cross of Spanish Amber and Isabella. Bunch medium; berry round, reddish; flesh pulpy, tough, sweet.

Mrs. McLure. (Rip. Lab. Vin. Bourq.) McLure. One of Dr. Wylie's hybrids from a cross between Clinton and Peter Wylie; noted by the American Pomological Society in 1875. Vigorous, productive; foliage resembles Clinton; stamens upright; bunch medium, shouldered, not very compact; berries medium, round, white; good; ripens before Catawba.

Mrs. Munson. (Line. Bourq.) From Munson; a cross between Neosho and Herbemont. Vigorous, hardy, very productive; clusters large, conical; shouldered, compact; berry small, purple with a thin, tough skin; pulp melting, juicy, sprightly; very good; ripens late.

Mrs. Stayman. (Bourq. Lab. Vin.) A Delaware seedling; from Dr. J. Stayman. Very vigorous, hardy, healthy and productive: free from rot and mildew; bunch large, compact; berry above medium, red with light bloom; skin thick, tough; pulp tender, juicy, sprightly, rich, sweet; very good; ripens about with Concord.

Muench. (Line. Bourq.) Parentage, Neosho crossed with Herbemont; from Munson, in 1887. Very vigorous, hardy; cluster large, usually shouldered; berry below medium, round; skin thin, tough, dark purple; flesh tender, juicy.

Multiple. (Bourq. Lab. Vin.) Munson's No. 107. A seedling of Herbemont pollinated by Triumph; produced by Munson. Vigorous, self-fertile; cluster large; berries medium, purple; ripens very late.

Muncie. (Rip. Lab.) Said to be a seedling of Elvira; from Leavenworth, Kansas. Described by Stayman in Missouri Horticultural Society Report, 1892, as follows:"Bunch medium, compact, handsome; berry medium, white; skin thin, rather tough; pulp tender, juicy, sprightly, rich, sweet, very good; vigorous, hardy, healthy and productive; free from rot and mildew; ripe about with Concord."

Muncy Black. (Lab.) Mentioned by Prince in 1830 as having been found on the same farm as the Pale Red Muncy. Very productive, with harsh and unpleasant fruit.

Munier. Noted in Gardener's Monthly, 1863, as coming from a German near Massillon, Ohio. Early, of excellent quality as a table grape, productive and as hardy as the Isabella or Concord.


Munson. (Line. Rup.) Jaeger No. 70. A seedling of Jaeger No. 43 crossed with a male Rupestris. Very vigorous, productive; clusters medium, shouldered, moderately compact; berries large, black; slight Post-oak flavor; ripens before Norton.

Murdock. A grape grown by Judge Murdock at Elkader, Clayton County, Iowa. Hardy and free from mildew; very sweet.

Muscadine Superior. A seedling exhibited by John Hopkins, of Wilmington, North Carolina, before the American Pomological Society in 1871.

Muscat. The name of a group of Vinifera grapes the best known variety of which is Muscat of Alexandria.

Muscat Catawba. Listed by Prince in 1863 as a worthless sort.

Mylitta. (Lin. Rup. Lab.) From Munson; a cross between America and Beacon. Cluster large; berry large, black; ripens late; self-fertile.

Nahab. (Lab.) Described in Alabama Station Bulletin AJo. 87 for 1900 as follows:"Vines lacking in vigor; clusters medium in size, compact; berries medium, round, white; skin thin; pulp tender, juicy, slightly acid; season middle of August; not productive."

Nashua. Mentioned by Prince in 1830 as originating in Maine.

Nashua. A variety under this name was exhibited at the Massachusetts Horticultural Society meeting in 1869 by Allen Putnam. Described as"between the Hartford and Concord, but sweeter than either and does not drop."

Naumkeag. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Isabella raised by a Mr. Bowker of Salem, Massachusetts, which fruited in 1848. Bunches resemble the parent; berries above medium, round, red with slight bloom; pulpy, with Isabella flavor; a little earlier than its parent.

Nazro. (Lab. Vin.) Prince, in 1830, states that this variety was originated. from seed of the Troy grape planted in 1825 by Henry Nazro of this state; fruited in 1828. Berries medium in size, oval; sweet, of pleasant flavor, slightly foxy; ripens early.

Nebraska. Noted by Fuller in 1867 as"a beautiful ornamental vine, but the fruit of no value."

Neff. (Lab.) Keuka. From a Mr. Neff, near Keuka, New York. Bunch and berry medium, dark red; foxy; good; early.

Nell. (Bourq. Aest. Lab.) A seedling of Herbemont crossed with Norton; from Munson. A very late, large-clustered, small-berried, white grape; self-fertile.

Nelson. A chance seedling from Roger Nelson, Ilion, New York, about 1896; undescribed.

Neosho. (Line.) Found growing wild on the farm of E. Schoenborn, Neosho, Missouri, by H. Jaeger. Very vigorous, hardy, not productive; large, glossy, beautiful dark green foliage; stamens reflexed; bunches medium to large, long, shouldered; berries small, black with blue bloom; skin thin; pulp firm, sweet, spicy; produces a light wine with a peculiar aroma.


Neponset. Noted as a worthless sort by Prince in 1863.

Nerluton. One of Marine's seedlings. Vigorous; leaf large, leathery; cluster large; berries medium, black.

Neva Munson. (Line. Bourq.) Neva. One of Munson' scrosses between Neosho and Herbemont; originated about 1885. Very vigorous, hardy and productive; stamens upright; clusters large, cylindrical, shouldered, compact; berries small, purple with thin, tough skin; pulp tender, juicy, sprightly, sweet flavor; too late for the North.

Neverfail. Mitzky in 1893 says:"This variety was found in Roanoke County, Virginia. Feeble at first but grows rapidly when older; free from rot; bunch and berry medium, black, juicy and vinous; too late for the North."

Newark. (Vin. Rip. Lab.) A hybrid between Clinton and a Vinifera; from Newark, New Jersey. Vigorous, hardy and very productive; bunches long, loose, shouldered; berries medium, dark, almost black; sweet, juicy and vinous, of pleasant taste.

New Buda. (Lab.) Tested by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1863 and thought to be Concord.

Newburgh. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Concord crossed with Trentham Black; from Ricketts. Mitzky in 1893 says:"Bunch and berry of the largest size, bunch heavily shouldered; berries large, black, with bluish-gray bloom; flesh tender, juicy with peculiar flavor; very vigorous, a fine amateur grape."

Newburgh Muscat. (Lab. Vin.) Culberfs No. 3; White Moline; White Muscat of Newburgh. From Dr. W. A. M. Culbert of Newburgh, New York, in 1877; a seedling of Hartford crossed with Iona; exhibited before the American Pomological Society in 1877. Vigorous and hardy, unproductive; flowers sterile; stamens reflexed; clusters medium, short, often single-shouldered, loose; berries medium, roundish, pale yellowish-green, gray bloom, shatter badly; skin thick, tender; flesh soft and tender, musky, sweet, mild; good.

New Haven. (Lab.) New Haven Red. A seedling of Concord; from J. Valle of New Haven, Missouri. Vigorous, thrifty, hardy, productive; stamens upright; bunches medium, variable in compactness, sometimes shouldered; berries large, black with blue bloom; skin thin and tender; pulp tender, juicy, good; ripens about a week before Concord.

Newman. (Line. Vin. Lab.) A cross between Big Berry and Triumph; from Munson, introduced in 1894. Vigorous, hardy, productive; stamens erect; bunches large, loose; berry large, black, with thin tough skin; pulp tender, juicy, nearly sweet; good; late.

New Mary. (Lab. Vin.) Mitzky, 1893, savs tm*s *s"Lindley under a new name."

Newport. (Bourq.) A seedling of Herbemont; resembles its parent.

Newton. A large, showy grape bought from an agent by Stephen H. Shallcross, Louisville, Kentucky, and exhibited at the Mississippi Valley Horticultural Society meeting at St. Louis in 1881.


Newtonia. (Line. Rup. Lab. Vin.) A seedling of America pollinated by R. W. Munson; from Munson, in 1897. Cluster large; berry medium, black; self-fertile; ripens early.

Nimalba. (Line. Bourq.) From Texas. Tested by Georgia Experiment Station and described as follows: Very weak, light yielder; stamens upright; bunch small, compact; berry small, white; good; ripens with Catawba.

Nina. (Lab. Vin.) Mitzky, 1893, savs this is"a seedling of Diana, raised by C. H. Woodruff, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Vine very hardy and productive; bunch medium to large; berries medium, dark red, very sweet and good quality; ripens early with Champion and Moore Early, in quality better than either."

Ninekah. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Delago crossed with Brilliant; from Munson, in 1899. Cluster medium; berry large, red; self-fertile; ripens mid-season.

Nizola. Noted by Cole in 1849. From Col. L. Chase, Cornish, New Hampshire; medium bunch and berry; vinous and excellent.

Nonantum. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling raised by Francis Dana near Boston, Massachusetts; exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1864. Vigorous; bunch small, shouldered; berries medium, oval, entirely free from pulp; good; in appearance very much like Isabella and probably a seedling of that variety.

Nonpareil. (Line. Vin. Lab. Bourq.) A seedling of Early Purple crossed with Brilliant; from Munson, in 1896. Cluster medium; berry large, red; self-fertile; ripens early.

Nora. (Bicolor, Vin.?) Received for testing at this Station in 1902 from Dr. G. L. Tinker, New Philadelphia, Ohio. Lacks vigor; tendrils intermittent; buds apparently tender. Has not fruited.

North America. (Lab. Rip.?) Noted frequently since 1860; said to be a seedling of Franklin. Vigorous, hardy, healthy, unproductive; bunch small, shouldered; berries round, black; juicy, sweet, foxy; early.

North Carolina. (Lab. Vin.) North Carolina Seedling. From J. B. Garber, Columbia, Pennsylvania. Very vigorous, hardy, healthy, very productive; stamens erect; bunches medium to large, generally shouldered, compact; berries large, oblong, black with slight blue bloom; skin very thick; pulpy, sweet; good; ripens a few days after Hartford.

North Carolina White. Noted by Prince in 1830. From North Carolina and different from Scuppernong; white berries of good flavor.

Northern Light. (Lab.) A chance seedling from John D. Cameron, L'Original, Ontario, about 1880. Vigorous, hardy, productive; leaf thick, leathery; bunch long, cylindrical, compact, sometimes shouldered; berries large, round, greenish-white with thin whitish bloom; pulp juicy, melting, sweet, vinous; good; ripens a little later than Champion.


Northern Muscat. Mentioned in Rhode Island Station Bulletin No. 6, 1890, as being a new variety received from Ohio for testing; bunch medium or above; berry medium, amber color; good.

North Star. Noted in the Wisconsin Horticultural Society Report, 1886, as a seedling from Waupaca County, Wisconsin. A black grape with long clusters; poor quality.

Obed. Noted by Mitzky, 1893, as"a chance seedling grown by Obed Harrell, Chrisman, Illinois. Cluster medium to large, moderately compact; berry medium, round, whitish-green with delicate bloom; vigorous and productive.'*

Oberon. (Vin. Lab.) From G. W. Campbell about 1880; a cross between Concord and Muscat Hamburg. Moderately vigorous, productive, not hardy; bunch large; berry large, black, resembles Muscat Hamburg; good.

Occidental. (Lab. Vin.) Produced by N. B. White from a cross between a wild Labrusca and Black Hamburg. Clusters compact with dark red berries.

Octavia. (Line. Vin. Lab. Bourq.) A seedling of Early Purple crossed with Brilliant; from Munson, in 1896. Cluster large; berry large, red; self-sterile; ripens mid-season.

Offer. (Lab.) Warder in 1867, says of this variety:"Bunch large; berry large, dark red, sweet, musky; not approved."

Ohio Claret. A native variety under test by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1863.

Oktaha. (Champ. Vin. Lab. Bourq. ?) A seedling of Vitis champini pollinated with Brilliant or Delaware; from Munson and introduced in 1898. Moderately vigorous, healthy, productive; cluster medium, cylindrical, shouldered, compact; berries medium, round, black with little bloom; skin thin, tough; pulp melting, juicy, sprightly, good; early.

Old Ford. (Lab.) Noted by Mitzky in 1893 as a wild grape from the mountains of North Carolina. Remarkably healthy and vigorous, productive; bunches medium; berries large, round, dark wine color; pulpy, juicy, sweet; very early.

Old Gold. (Rip. Lab. Vin.) Munson's No. 29. Elvira crossed with Brighton; from Munson. Tested by Virginia Experiment Station and discarded; not introduced by the originator.

Old Hundred. (Cin. Aest.?) Mitzky, in 1893, says of this variety:"Introduced by J. A. Francis, Salem, Virginia. Bunch medium, not very compact; about the size of Clinton; black; very prolific; good table and wine grape; contains Cinerea blood in large quantity with probably Aestivalis."

Olita. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Delaware fertilized by Irving; from Munson in 1898. Moderately vigorous, not hardy, moderately productive, somewhat subject to attacks of mildew; flowers semi-fertile; stamens upright; clusters variable in size, long, nearly cylindrical, single-shouldered, variable in compactness; berries medium, round, yellowish-green, often with slight amber tinge, gray bloom; skin thin; somewhat tough; flesh tender and melting; mild, slightly vinous, nearly sweet; fair; ripens about with Concord; of the Delaware type but inferior to that variety in both fruit and vine characters.

Olitatoo. (Vin. Lab. Line.) A seedling of Armlong crossed with Excelsior; from Munson in 1896. Cluster very large; berry medium, white; self-fertile; ripens very late.

Olmstead. (Lab.) A fox grape mentioned by Nicholas Longworth in Buchanan's Culture of the Grape, 1852.

Olympia. From William M. Marine about 1870. Bunch and berry medium, round, black.

Omega. (Lab. Vin.?) From John Burr, Leavenworth, Kansas. Moderately vigorous, hardy, healthy, not productive; clusters medium to small, short, usually shouldered, compact; berries medium, oblate to roundish, dull red with thin gray bloom, persistent, soft; flesh green, tender, juicy, sweet, sprightly; good; ripens about with Concord; self-sterile.

Omega. Noted in the Record of Horticulture, 1868, as"a new variety from the West, resembling Catawba but said to be better."Possibly the same as the preceding.

Onderdonk. (Bourq. Lab.? Vin.?) Said to be a pure seedling of Herbemont but also given as Herbemont crossed with Irving; from Munson, about 1890. Very vigorous, hardy, very productive; affected some with soft rot; stamens upright; clusters large, conical, compact; berries small, white, translucent, with scattering dots; skin thin, tough; pulp juicy, sweet, sprightly; very good; makes excellent white wine.

Oneovem. (Rip. Bourq. Lab.) A seedling from Munson in 1897; from One Seed fertilized by Rommel. Cluster medium; berry large, white; stamens reflexed; ripens late.

One Seed. (Rip. Bourq. Lab.) A variety produced by Munson from Elvira crossed with Humboldt; used by him as a parent in some of his breeding work.

Onondaga. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of a cross between Diana and Delaware; from Lewis Hueber, Fayetteville, Onondaga County, New York; exhibited at the American Institute Fair in 1865. Hardy, vigorous and prolific; bunches large, compact; berries medium, amber color wTith thick skin; pulp sweet, rich, fine flavored; ripens with Delaware.

Ontario. (Lab.) A very large black grape, probably identical with Union Village.

Onyx. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) Parentage, Delago crossed with Golden Gem; from Munson in 1899. Cluster medium; berry medium, dark red; stamens erect; ripens early.

Opal. (Lab. Vin.) A white seedling of Lindley crossed with Martha; from Munson, introduced about 1892. Lacks vigor; hardy, not productive at this Station; self-fertile; bunch medium to large, shouldered, compact; berries medium, nearly round, yellowish-white with thin white bloom; skin thin, tough; pulp tough, not readily releasing seed, juicy, sweet, sprightly, vinous with little or no foxy flavor; good; ripens with Niagara.


Oriole. (Line. Bourq.) A seedling of Post-oak crossed with Devereaux; from Munson. Vigorous and productive; stamens erect; bunch medium to large, cylindrical, shouldered, moderately compact; berries small, black, with thin, tough skin; pulp tender, sweet; best quality; very late.

Orphan Boy. (Vin. Lab. Bourq.) Noted by Mitzky, 1893, as from J. H. Dawson, Weatherford, Texas, and as a cross between Delaware and Wilder. Bunch medium, shouldered; berry large, black with fine bloorn; quality much like Delaware; ripens a little after Delaware.

Orwigsburg. (Lab. Vin.) Black Palestine; Schuylkill. Found growing near Orwigsburg, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, by Dr. W. E. Hulings of Philadelphia. Generally supposed to be a hybrid between a Vinifera and some native species, probably Labrusca; said to be productive, hardy, subject to mildew; berries round, small, white; juicy, sweet; good.

Osage. (Lab. Vin.) A black seedling of Concord; from John Burr, of Kansas. Vigorous, usually hardy and healthy, medium to very productive; flowers sterile; stamens reflexed; tendrils continuous; clusters variable in size, usually short, shouldered, compact; berries large, distinctly flattened to sometimes roundish; dull black with blue bloom, shatter badly, not firm; flesh tough, foxy, sweet, good; of Concord type but less foxy; a week earlier than its parent.

Osceola. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Standard; from Dr. J. Stayman. Vigorous, very hardy, healthy and productive; stamens upright; bunch medium to large, compact; berry large, white; skin thin, tough; pulp tender, sweet, rich, sprightly, vinous; very good; ripens with Jewel.

Osee. (Rip. Lab.) A white Riparia from John Burr, Leavenworth, Kansas; said to be a seedling of Grein Golden. Variable in vigor, very productive, hardy; bunch medium, short and thick, compact; berry white, very large; tender, very juicy, sprightly, sweet with a peculiar flavor; good only for wine; ripens before Concord.

Oskaloosa. (Bourq. Lab.) A Delaware seedling; from Dr. J. Stayman. Vigorous, hardy, healthy and productive; bunch medium, compact; berry large, black with bloom; skin thick, tough; pulp tender, rich, sweet, sprightly, juicy, vinous; very good; very late.

Osmond. (Rip.) Noted by Downing, 1869, as a seedling of Franklin from O. T. Hobbs, Randolph, Pennsylvania. Bunch small; berry small, round, black, blue bloom; flesh vinous, harsh.

Oswego. (Lab.) Noted in Bushberg Catalogue, 1894; origin unknown, from Dr. J. Stayman of Leavenworth, Kansas. Vigorous, hardy and productive; bunch and berry very large, handsome, resembling Concord in color; little pulp and with native aroma; ripens with Concord.

Otoe. Mentioned in the United States Department of Agriculture Report, 1863, as one of the varieties under trial in the government experimental garden.

Ouachita. (Aest.) A wild grape found on the plantation of Dr. G. W. Lawrence near Midland on the Ouachita River, Hot Springs County, Arkansas. Hardy and productive with long, compact bunches; one time popular in France for wine-making.

Owego. From John Burr. Vigorous, hardy, healthy and productive; bunches medium, compact; berry very large, red; tender, juicy, sprightly and vinous; best quality.

Owens White. (Lab.) Noted by Prince in 1830 as from Wm. Owens of Virginia. A large-fruited, white Labrusca.

Owosso. (Lab. Vin.) A chance seedling from C. H. Goodhue, Owosso, Michigan; supposed to be from Catawba. Very vigorous, hardy, productive; self-sterile; bunches medium to large, round, shouldered, compact; berries large, round, dark amber with slight lilac bloom; pulp tough, sweet, vinous; quality not high; ripens with Delaware.

Ozark Seedling. Among the worthless sorts listed by Prince in Gardener's Monthly, 1863.

Pagan. Noted by Mitzky, in 1893, as on trial.

Palermo. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Delago crossed with Brilliant; from Munson, fruited in 1899. Intermediate in vigor, hardy, not a heavy bearer; tendrils usually intermittent; foliage medium to large, light green, pubescent; flowers semi-fertile; stamens upright; clusters medium to below in size and length, often single-shouldered, compact; berries average size, roundish, yellowish-green with tinge of amber, covered with thin gray bloom, adherent, firm; skin thick, tough; flesh green with tinge of yellow, tender and nearly melting, vinous, sweet from skin to center, agreeable flavor; very good.

Palmer. (Lab.) From a Mrs. Millington, of New York, about 1890. Vigorous, hardy; cluster large; berry large, round, black; pulp soft, sweet; very good.

Palmetto. (Bourq.) From David Johnson, Union, South Carolina. Resembles Herbemont very closely in form, size of cluster and berry but is distinct. Berry dark red, heavy light blue bloom; flesh soft, juicy, sweet, aromatic, vinous.

Pamlico. (Rot.) Noted in the United States Department of Agriculture Report in 1871 as a Rotundifolia with must having a saccharine strength of 8o0.

Paradox. (Lab. Vin.) Seedling No. 502. A seedling of Hartford crossed with Iona; from Ricketts. Vine variable in vigor, not always hardy, an uncertain bearer; tendrils continuous; foliage healthy, large to medium; flowers semi-fertile, bloom medium late; stamens upright; fruit ripens about with Concord or earlier, does not keep well; clusters large, of medium length, broad, compact; berries medium, roundish, purplish-black, glossy, covered with heavy blue bloom, drop considerably from pedicel, firm; skin thin to medium, often rather tender, astringent; flesh nearly tough, stringy, somewhat vinous; good in quality.

Paragon. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Telegraph crossed with Black Hamburg; from Chas. J. Copley, Stapleton, New York, years ago. Moderate vigor; leaves dark green, three-to five-lobed; cluster large, compact; berries large, black; quality very good; good keeper; rots some.

Paragon. (Lab.) Burr's No. 15. From John Burr, Leavenworth, Kansas. Lacks vigor; tendrils intermittent; flowers nearly fertile; stamens upright; season between Worden and Concord; keeps well; clusters not uniform, short, compact; berries medium, roundish, black, glossy, covered with abundant blue bloom, persistent; skin varies in toughness, tender, not astringent; flesh moderately tender, stringy and foxy, nearly sweet at skin to acid at center; good, equal to Concord.

Parker Rocky Mountain Seedling, Noted in a list of native grapes under test in the experimental vineyards of the Department of Agriculture in 1860.

Pattison. (Lab. ?) Given in a list of earliest ripening varieties in the report of the Canada Central Experimental Farms for 1905.

Pauline. (Bourq.) Burgundy of Georgia; Red Lenoir. A Southern grape valuable only for wine; grown rather extensively fifty years ago. Not vigorous; leaves more downy than Devereaux; cluster large, long, tapering, shouldered, compact; berries below medium, copper color or violet, lilac bloom; brisk, sweet, vinous.

Paultne. Described by Wm. Falconer, Glen Cove, New York, in Country Gentleman in 1884. Cluster medium, loose; berries greenish, unequal, not over medium; foliage healthy.

Pawnee. (Aest. Lab.) From Dr. J. Stayman, Leavenworth, Kansas. Medium in vigor, productive; stamens upright; cluster large, double-shouldered, compact; berry above medium; skin thin, tough, black; pulp tender, meaty, not juicy, sprightly, rich, vinous, sweet, peculiar flavor resembling Ozark; quality medium.

Paxton. (Lab.) A Concord seedling; from F. F. Merceron, Catawissa, Pennsylvania; fruited in 1863. Said to be as hardy and productive as the Concord, which it much resembles; large bunch and berry; quality given ^by originator as better than Concord.

Pearl. (Rip. Lab.) Rommel's Taylor Seedling No. 10. From Jacob Rommel, of Morrison, Missouri. Very vigorous, hardy, variable in productiveness; tendrils continuous, bifid to trifid; leaves large, light green; lower surface pale green, pubescent; flowers semi-fertile, open early; stamens upright; fruit ripens with Concord or later; clusters intermediate in size, short, slender, usually with a small single shoulder, compact; berries small, roundish, very light green, often with amber or yellow tinge, covered with thin gray bloom, shatter badly; skin variable in thickness and toughness; flesh moderately juicy, tender and vinous, sweet from skin to center; fair in quality. The vine is peculiar in having very hairy petioles and nearly glabrous shoots.

Pedee. (Rot.) Discovered on Pedee River, South Carolina, over thirty years ago. Vigorous; stamens reflexed; cluster very small, loose, irregular; berry very large, black; medium in quality; ripens a month after Scuppernong.

Peerless. (Lab. Vin.) A hybrid between Hartford and Muscat Hamburg; from Geo. W. Campbell, Delaware, Ohio. Productive; cluster long, slightly shouldered, rather loose; berry green, large, adherent; skin thin, tough; seeds two to four; pulp quite large, firm, separating easily from seeds, juicy; excellent quality.

Peggy. (Lab.) In 1869, R. W. Gandy, Troy, Iowa, described Peggy as hardy and healthy; berry size of Isabella and equal to Delaware in flavor; ripens five days before Hartford. In 1876, John Balsiger, of Highland, Madison County, Illinois, said of it:"A very foxy, small and valueless grape."

Pell's Illinois. (Rip.?) Found wild in prairies of Illinois and sent to Prince by G. T. Pell, of Illinois, about 1830.

Peola. (Lab. Vin.) From John Burr, Leavenworth, Kansas, about 1890. Vigorous, hardy, healthy and productive; free from rot and mildew; berry medium, black, with some bloom; skin thin, tough; pulp tender, juicy, sweet, sprightly, vinous; very good; ripens about with Concord.

Perfume. Named by a General Jones previous to 1830. The original vine grew on a small island in the Roanoke River a few miles above the Great Falls, in North Carolina. A. J. Davie, describing it in the American Farmer gives the color as purple; berry one-third larger than common grape of woods, slightly enlongated; fine flavor.

Perry. (Line. Bourq.) Parentage, Post-oak No. 2 fertilized with Herbemont; from Munson. Very vigorous, healthy, very productive; cluster large, slender, compact; berry small to medium, purple; skin thin, tough; pulp melting, juicy, good; season two weeks later than Concord.

Peter Wylie. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) Peter Wylie No. 1. Parents, Halifax crossed with a Vinifera, fertilized with Delaware crossed with a Vinifera; from Dr. A. P. Wylie, of Chester, South Carolina. Vigor and hardiness medium, inclined to rot in some places, not productive; shoots smooth; leaves medium to small, shallow three-lobed, glabrous underneath; stamens upright; cluster medium to large, compact, often shouldered; berry medium, greenish to greenish-yellow; skin thin, tender; flesh tender, sweet, vinous, Muscat flavor; quality good; ripens soon after Concord.

Pierce. (Lab. Vin.) Isabella Regia; Royal Isabella, A bud-sport from Isabella, originating about 1882 with Mr. J. P. Pierce, of Santa Clara, California. Very vigorous, large leaves, prolific; cluster large; berries very large, black, light bloom, not firm; pulp tender, sweet, strongly aromatic; good; a valuable grape west of Rocky Mountains.

Pioneer. (Lab, Vin.) A seedling of Isabella and very similar to it.

Piqua. Mentioned by Buchanan as raised and exhibited by Longworth in 1846.

Pittsburg Seedling. (Lab. Vin.) Found growing wild in 1851, by J. S. Arthur, of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. Does not yield as well as Delaware, but earlier, more sprightly and vinous and with less pulp; ripens in August.

Pizarro. (Vin. Rip. Lab.) Parents, a Clinton seedling crossed with a Vinifera; from J. H. Ricketts, Newburgh, New York. Medium in vigor, productive; stamens upright; cluster large, loose; berry medium, black, oblong; juicy, sweet, aromatic; good quality; ripens mid-season.

Planchette. (Bourq. Lab. Vin.) Herbemont fertilized by Triumph; from Munson. Self-fertile; cluster medium; berry white; season late.

Planet. (Lab. Vin.) From Ricketts; parents, Concord crossed by Black Muscat of Alexandria. Healthy and productive; cluster large, loose, shouldered; berries large, intermixed with smaller ones which have no seeds, oblong; pulp tender, juicy, sweet; good flavor with slight taste of Muscat.

Plymouth. (Lab.) Plymouth White, Noted in the United States Patent Office Report of 1860 as a native white grape, suitable for culture in the Northern and Middle States.

Pocohontas Red. (Lab.) A worthless variety noted in Gardener's Monthly for 1863.

Poeschel Mammoth. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Mammoth Catawba; from Michael Poeschel, Hermann, Missouri. Healthy; cluster medium, compact, sometimes shouldered; berry very large, round, red; pulpy, deficient in flavor; season a week later than Catawba.

Pollock. (Lab. Vin.) From a Mr. Pollock, of Tremont, New York, previous to 1862. A free grower; foliage thick and leathery; free from mildew; cluster compact, long, large; berry dark purple or black; flesh tender, vinous, not too sweet.

Pond's Seedling. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling grown by Samuel Pond of Massachusetts, previous to 1830. Very vigorous, short-jointed; shy bearer; cluster long, large; berry round, purple; juicy; good quality.

Ponroy. (Doan.) A named wild variety found by Munson in Wilbarger County, Texas. Stamens reflexed; cluster medium; berry medium, black; season early.

Pontotoc. (Vin. Bourq. Lab.) A cross of Delago fertilized with Brilliant; from Munson. Stamens reflexed; cluster and berry large, red; quality as good or better than Brighton; season early.

Porup. (Line. Rup.) A seedling of Post-oak by Rupestris; from Munson. Mississippi Station Bulletin No. 56 says: A late ripening variety; shatters badly; yield and quality poor.

Post-oak No. 1. (Line.) From Munson, found in 1881. Stamens reflexed; cluster large; berry medium to small; black; season late.

Post-oak No. 2. (Line.) From Munson, found in 1883. Stamens reflexed; cluster and berry medium; black; season very late.

Post-oak No. 3. (Line.) Found by Munson in 1883. Stamens reflexed; cluster and berry black; season very late.

Potter. (Lab.) Potter's Early; Potter's Seedling; Potter's Sweet. Originated in Providence, Rhode Island about 1881. Vigorous; cluster compact, medium size, not shouldered; berry large; skin thick, black; pulp rather tough; season earlier than Concord.

Prairie State. (Lab.) From Jacob Christian, Mount Carroll, Illinois, before 1892. Hardy, productive; cluster large, compact; berries large, white, fine bloom; skin thin; no pulp, sweet, pleasant flavor; good; ripens ten days before Concord.

President. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Herbert; from Munson. Strong, healthy, prolific; flower perfect; cluster medium, compact; berry large, black, persistent, does not crack; quality better than Concord; ripens with Moore Early.

Presly. (Lab. Rip.) Lyon; President Lyon. A seedling of Elvira crossed"with Champion; from Munson, the name changed by him from President Lyon to Presly. Vigorous, hardy, produces good crops; tendrils continuous; flowTers nearly fertile; stamens upright; fruit ripens the last of August; clusters medium, slender, cylindrical, frequently single-shouldered, loose; berries small, roundish, purplish-red, heavy blue bloom, persistent; skin medium, tender, adheres strongly to pulp; flesh dull green, juicy, tender, foxy, mild, sweet from skin to center; good quality.

Primate. (Lab. Bourq. ?) Originated by John Burr, Leavenworth, Kansas, from mixed seed. Vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive; cluster long, compact, handsome; berry medium or above, red, firm; pulp tender, juicy, rich, vinous; quality very good; season a little after Concord.

Professor Brunk. Vigorous, healthy; cluster medium size, ragged; ripens unevenly; very late. Reported upon at Mississippi Experiment Station in 1899.

Professor Gulley. According to Mississippi Station Bulletin No. 56, 1899, vine and fruit resemble those of Concord and fruit ripens irregularly about the same time. Yield not so large, more subject to rot.

Professor Hilgard. (Line. Bourq.) Parents, Post-oak crossed with Herbemont; from Munson. Cluster large, shouldered, compact; berry medium, purple; juicy, sweet and sprightly; medium to late.

Profitable. (Lab. Rip.) A seedling of Elvira fertilized by Perkins; from Munson. Vigorous and productive, hardy; stamens upright, perfectly self-fertile; cluster medium to large, long, medium compact, shouldered; berry medium size, round, inclined to oblong, pale greenish-red; skin rather thin, tender; pulp tender, sweet, juicy; flavor pleasant and agreeable; season about with Concord.

Profusion. (Line. Lab.) Ten-Dollar-Prize fertilized by Worden; from Munson, 1889. Very vigorous; stamens upright; cluster large, compact; berry small, black, adheres well; quality good; later than Concord in Texas.

Progress. (Lab. Vin.) Thought to be a hardy native Labrusca by Black Hamburg cross; from A. F. Rice, of South Weymouth, Massachusetts, previous to 1883. Good grower; cluster medium size, shouldered; berries large, dark red; skin thick, rather tender; quite pulpy, juicy, not high flavored; quality fair.

Progress. (Lab. Vin.) From John Burr, Leavenworth, Kansas, previous to 1885. Very vigorous, healthy, hardy; cluster large, compact, shouldered; berry large, medium, black, fine bloom; pulp tender, juicy, rich, vinous; quality best; season a little later than Concord.

Prolific. (Lab.) From Dr. Stayman about 1880. Vigorous, productive; clusters large, double-shouldered, compact, hang well on vine; berry large, black; season soon after Jewel.

Prolific Chicken Grape. (Rip.?) A wild grape from Goochland County, Virginia; mentioned by Prince in 1830. Very productive; flavor pleasant; ripens in August in Virginia.

Provost White. (Lab.) Noted by Strong in 1866 as a common wild variety of little value.

Prunella. (Vin. Lab.) A seedling from M. Vibert, of France, produced by crossing a Vinifera with Isabella, about 1842. Resembles Wilder very closely.

Pukwana. (Mont. Rup.) A seedling of Vitis monticola crossed with Rupestris; from Munson. Stamens reflexed; blooms mid-season; cluster small; berry small, black.

Pulaski. (Lab. Vin. Aest.?) From John Burr, Leavenworth, Kansas. Vine vigorous, hardy, medium to productive; canes long; tendrils continuous to sometimes intermittent; foliage large to medium; flowers nearly fertile; stamens reflexed; keeps well; clusters small, inclined to short, often with a small single shoulder, compact; berries intermediate in size, roundish, dark purplish-black covered with blue bloom; skin thin, tender, adheres to pulp; flesh greenish, tender, sweet; good to very good in quality.

Pulliat. (Bourq. Vin.) A seedling of Herbemont; from M. Pulliat, of France; received at this Station in 1896. Vigorous, not hardy, very productive; foliage shows Vinifera, mildews; tendrils intermittent; stamens upright; clusters large, compact, shouldered; berries small, round, black; pulp tender, moderately juicy, of good flavor; ripens about ten days later than Herbemont.

Pulpless. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Salem; from C. Engle, Paw Paw, Michigan. Vigorous, productive; stamens upright; cluster large, shouldered, medium in compactness; berry large, black, oval; vinous, rich; quality very good; ripens with Concord.

Purity. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) A cross between Delaware and some native variety; from G. W. Campbell, about 1870. A white grape of the Delaware type but a stronger, healthier grower; foliage larger and thicker; bunches smaller than Delaware; berries larger; sweet, of very fine quality; ripens very early; difficult to propagate.

Purple Bloom. (Lab. Vin.) Culberfs Seedling No. 6. A seedling of Hartford and General Marmora; from Dr. W. A. M. Culbert, Newburgh, New York, exhibited before the American Pomological Society in 1877. Vigorous, hardy, productive; bunches large, showy; berries above medium, purple, of good quality.

Purple Favorite. (Aest.) Discarded as a worthless variety by United States Department of Agriculture in 1864.

Purple Marion. Mottier. Noted by W. R. Prince in Gardener's Monthly for 1863.

Putnam. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) Ricketts' Delaware Seedling No. 2. A cross between Delaware and Concord; from J. H. Ricketts, Newburgh, New York, previous to 1871. Vine resembles Concord more than Delaware; tendrils intermittent; clusters medium, moderately compact, usually single-shouldered; berries medium, oval, black, persistent; pulp tender, sweet, good; ripens early.

Quassaic. (Vin. Rip. Lab.) A cross between Clinton and Muscat Hamburg; from Ricketts of Newburgh, about 1870. Usually vigorous, productive; stamens upright; bunch large, shouldered, sometimes double-shouldered, moderately compact; berries large, roundish-oval, black with heavy blue bloom; skin thin, tough; pulp tender, juicy, sweet, slightly vinous, rich, aromatic; good; ripens soon after Concord.

Queen of Sheba. Sent out from Connecticut about 1869 as a promising variety but proved to be Diana.

Quinnebang. Pronounced worthless by Prince in 1863.

Quintina. (Line. Bourq.) A seedling of Early Purple crossed with Jaeger; from Munson in 1897. Cluster large; berry medium, black; stamens erect; ripens late.

Raabe. (Lab. Vin.) Honey; Raabe's Honey; Raabe's No. 3. Raised by Peter Raabe of Philadelphia about 1850; supposed to be a Catawba seedling but some say it is a cross between Elsinburgh and Bland. Vigorous, hardy, healthy, prolific; foliage much like Catawba; bunches small, compact, rarely shouldered; berries small, round, dark purplish-red, heavy bloom; pulp sugary, very juicy, vinous with Catawba aroma; very good; early.

Raabe's Seedlings. Peter Raabe, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, years ago originated several varieties of pure Vinifera seedlings. The best known of these were Brincklé and Emily. They were unfit for outdoor culture and are now long obsolete. Raabe originated native varieties as well as the above mentioned Vinifera sorts.

Rachel. Exhibited at the grape show in New York in 1867 from the vineyard of Rev. J. Knox, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. Healthy and vigorous; bunch and berry medium, white; early.

Racine. (Line.) According to Bushberg Catalogue, 1883, "of similar origin as Neosho and at first supposed to be the same grape but afterwards recognized as distinct".   Hardy, healthy, not very productive; small pulpy berries of poor quality.

Ragan. (Line. Lab. Vin.) Reagan. A seedling of Post-oak crossed with Triumph; from Munson about 1892. Vigorous and fairly productive; stamens upright; clusters large, conical, sometimes shouldered, compact; berries medium, roundish, a little flattened; skin moderately thick, tough, shiny black with blue bloom; pulp rather tender, juicy, some trace of Post-oak flavor; fair to good.

Raisin. Noted in the Illinois Horticultural Society Report for 1897. Very productive; a medium-sized bunch with small, black berries of fair quality.

Raisin de Cote. According to Prince 1830, this is a native of Louisiana of which there are two varieties, the more common one being dark blue, round with thick skin, somewhat pulpy, extremely sweet and not musky.

Ramsey. (Champ.) One of Munson's, a variety of Vitis champini found in San Saba County, Texas. Cluster small; berry medium, black; ripens early; self-sterile.

Randall. Received at this Station in 1893 fr0m Peter Henderson and Company, New York, as a cutting of a seed sport originating in the garden of a Mr. Randall, Bayonne, New Jersey. It proved to be very similar if not identical with Agawam.

Raritan. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) Ricketts' Delaware Seedling No. 1. A seedling of Delaware crossed with Concord, from J. H. Ricketts. Moderately vigorous, doubtfully hardy; foliage much like Delaware; quite productive; bunch medium, shouldered, resembles Delaware; berry medium, round, black; flesh juicy, sweet, vinous; ripens about with Delaware.

Rautenberg's Seedlings. F. E. L. Rautenberg, of Lincoln, Illinois, has originated many varieties of grapes. His varieties were raised from seed of various standard varieties and are most of them second generation hybrids. His best known sorts are: Amalia, Black Rose, Bismarck, Chicago, Clarissa, Cleopatra, Hatton and Moltke.

Read Seedling. From M. A. Read, Port Dalhousie, Ontario; awarded the first premium at the Industrial Fair, Toronto, 1895, as the best seedling grape. Described by the originator as vigorous with heavy foliage similar to Concord, very productive; bunch large, well shouldered, very compact; berry of fair size, firm, black; good; early.

Red Bird. (Lab. Vin.) Munson's No. 33. A cross between Lindley and Champion; from Munson, about 1888. Vigorous, hardy except in severe winters, variable in productiveness; tendrils continuous; flowers sterile; stamens reflexed; clusters medium, usually shouldered, variable in compactness; berries medium, roundish, dull dark red with heavy blue bloom; skin thick, tough; pulp tough, sweet, juicy, decidedly foxy; good.

Red Giant. (Lab.) From Pennsylvania, about 1898. Vigorous, healthy, prolific; sterile; bunch medium, compact; berry very large; skin thick and tough, dark red; pulp tender, sweet, foxy; similar to Columbian Imperial.

Red Jacket. From William M. Marine. A medium-sized bunch with large oval berries of the Isabella type.

Red Juice. Mentioned by Adlum in 1823. Said to make a claret wine.

Red Leaf, (Rup.) A wild Rupestris found in Missouri and used by Munson. Cluster very small; berry small, black; stamens reflexed; ripens early.

Red Riesling. Introduced by the Hermann Grape Nurseries, Hermann, Missouri. Described as being hardy and free from rot; bunches medium; berries dark red, large.

Red Rover. (Lab. Vin.) Found growing in the vineyard of C. W. Seelye at Vine Valley, on Canandaigua Lake, New York. Vigorous, healthy, fairly productive; clusters large, shouldered, moderately compact; berries medium, round, resemble Brighton in size and color; skin moderately thick and tough; pulp tender, sweet, vinous, juicy, agreeable flavor; good; ripens two weeks later than Brighton and is a better keeper but not so high in quality.

Red Sheperd. (Rip. Lab.) Disseminated by a Mr. Estell of Rush County, Indiana. Very vigorous, resembles Taylor; bunches small and compact; berries small, round, red; sweet, very foxy.

Red Sweet Water. (Vin. Lab.) A seedling exhibited at the Ohio State Fair, 1876, from Dr. Clark of Lebanon; said to be of southern origin and of the Catawba type.

Regina. Listed among the grapes on trial in the government experimental garden in 1863.

Reinecke. (Lab.) From F. E. L. Rautenberg of Lincoln, Illinois. A seedling of Woodruff and, according to Bushberg Catalogue, 1894, not sufficiently distinct to be disseminated as a different variety.

Reinike. (Rip. Lab.) Noted in the Wisconsin Horticultural Society Report, 1871, as a vigorous, hardy grape resembling Clinton but with a less compact bunch.

Reliance. (Vin. Bourq. Lab.) Exhibited by J. G. Burrows, Fishkill, New York, before the American Pomological Society in 1881; a probable cross between Delaware and Iona. Vigorous, hardy and very productive; bunch resembles Delaware in size but not so compact; berry medium, light red; tender, juicy, sweet; ripens with Delaware.

Rentz. (Lab. Vin.) Rentz Seedling; Riatz. A Catawba seedling; from Sebastion Rentz, of Cincinnati. Vigorous, healthy, hardy, very productive; stamens upright; bunch medium, compact, usually shouldered; berries large, round, black, shatter badly; pulp firm, sweet, juicy, foxy; early.

Rhenish. Noted in the United States Patent Office Report, 1849-50, as being"an excellent variety", grown in Illinois; supposed to be of European origin, though doubtful.

Richmond. Mentioned in the United States Department of Agriculture Report, 1875, as being a very early southern grape.

Riehl's Seedlings. Seedlings originated by E. H. Riehl, of Alton, Illinois. Those tested at this Station all show unmistakable traces of Concord blood and are presumably seedlings of that variety. The most promising of these is Eclipse, for a description of which see page 254. With the exception of Eclipse, none of his seedlings has been named or introduced.

Riesenblatt. (Aest.) Giant Leaf. A chance seedling found growing in the vineyard of M. Poeschel at Hermann, Missouri. Hardy, healthy, productive; with a very large leaf; bunch and berries small.

Roanoke Red. (Cord. Lab. Vin.) From Texas, previous to 1900. Very vigorous; stamens upright; bunch medium, moderately compact; berry medium, reddish-purple; fair to good; ripens with Pocklington.

Robert Wylie. Produced by Dr. A. P. Wylie, Chester, South Carolina. Described in Bushberg Catalogue, 1883, as a great bearer but not quite hardy; bunch large and long; berry large, blue; skin thin; rich and juicy; ripens as late as Catawba.

Robeson. From a Mr. Robeson, of South Texas. Resembles Devereaux; probably a seedling of that variety but inferior to it in every respect.

Robeson Seedling. According to the Bushberg Catalogue, 1894, identical with Louisiana. Probably the same as Robeson.

Robinson Unnamed Seedling. (Lab.) Given in Bushberg Catalogue, 1894, as an accidental seedling found by Mrs. E. Mason, Lamont, Michigan, in 1881. Moderate grower with Labrusca foliage; bunch medium, round, reddish-amber with thin whitish bloom; pulp tender, juicy, vinous, sprightly, a little foxy, "very good"; ripens with Delaware.

Robusta. (Long.) A variety of Vitis longii found in Motley County, Texas, and used by Munson. Cluster small; berry small; self-sterile; ripens early.

Rockingham. (Lab.) A seedling of Concord; from T. B. Miner, of New Jersey. Described by Mitzky, 1893, as"hardy, vigorous, productive; bunch and berry medium, black; quality like Concord."

Rockland Favorite. (Lab.) A Concord seedling from Rockland, Massachusetts, introduced by Ellwanger et Barry as earlier, hardier and better than its parent. Bunch and berry large, black; sweet, juicy.

Roenbeck. (Vin. ?) A chance seedling originated on the grounds of Jas. W. Trask, Bergen Point, New Jersey; first fruited in 1870. Fairly vigorous, hardy, very productive, with tendency to overbear; clusters medium, compact, shouldered; berries medium, roundish, slightly flattened; skin thin, tough, greenish with yellowish tinge, white bloom; pulp nearly transparent, melting, juicy, sweet, vinous; fair to good.

Rogers' No. 5. (Lab. Vin.) One of Rogers' unnamed hybrids; 4 a seedling of Mammoth Globe crossed with Black Hamburg. [The 1862 U.S. Agriculture Report states that 'White Chasselas' was the vinifera parent. -ASC] Vigorous, not always hardy, moderately productive; tendrils continuous to intermittent; leaves large; stamens reflexed; self-sterile; cluster medium size, rather loose, frequently shouldered; berries large, roundish to oval; skin thin, tough, dark red to purplish-black; slightly foxy and vinous; good; ripens with Concord.

Rogers' No. 13. (Lab. Vin.) Parentage, Mammoth Globe crossed with "White Chasselas. Vigorous, not always hardy, uncertainly productive; tendrils continuous to intermittent; stamens upright; self-fertile or nearly so; clusters medium, rather loose; berries large, roundish to oblate; skin medium thick, rather tender, dark red to almost black; flesh tender, foxy, rather sweet, vinous; good; ripens with Concord; not a good keeper.
[More information in 1862 U.S. Agriculture Report. -ASC]

Rogers' No. 211. (Lab. Vin.) Parents, Mammoth Globe crossed with Black Hamburg. Vigorous, productive, not always hardy; tendrils continuous to intermittent; stamens upright; flowers nearly self-fertile; clusters large, attractive, short, father broad, variably compact; berries rather large, roundish to slightly oval, persistent; skin rather thin, rather tough, medium to light red; flesh somewhat tough, stringy, sweet, vinous; good; resembles Goethe and of about the same season.

Rogers' No. 32. (Lab. Vin.) A cross of Mammoth Globe and Black Hamburg. Moderately vigorous, usually hardy; tendrils continuous, sometimes intermittent; stamens upright; flowers partly self-fertile; cluster medium size, usually shouldered; berries large to medium, roundish to slightly oblate; skin rather thick and tough, dark red; flesh slightly tough, sweet, vinous, musky; very good; ripens after Concord and sometimes unevenly.

Rombrill. (Lab. Rip. Vin. Bourq.) A cross of Rommel and Brilliant; from Munson in 1897. Cluster large; berry large, yellow; medium early; self-fertile.

Rosalie. (Lab.) One of E. W. Bull's seedlings, exhibited by him before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1874. Bunch large; berry red; very foxy; shatters.

Roscoe. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) A seedling of Delaware crossed with Martha; from Munson, about 1888. Vigorous, healthy, moderately productive; clusters resemble Delaware in size and shape; berries medium, nearly round, white or pale green with white bloom; skin thin, tough; pulp tough, nearly sweet, sprightly; good; ripens with Delaware; self-sterile.

Rose. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Delaware fertilized with lona; from J. H. Ricketts, about 1873."Bunch four inches long, compact; berries three-fourths of an inch in diameter, reddish purple; skin thick; pulp very tender, sprightly; very good; one of the earliest."

Roslyn. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Diana crossed with Hartford; from C.J. Copley, Stapleton, New York, about 1880. Bunch large, shouldered, very compact; berry large, round, sometimes compressed, purplish with thin bloom; skin thick; pulp firm, sweet with a strong musky flavor.

Roswither. (Lab. Bourq.) A seedling of Jewel; from L. Hencke, Collinsville, Illinois. Described by Mitzky, in 1893, as veiT productive and hardy; bunch and berry medium to large; dark purplish, nearly black; quality fine; ripens about ten days before Concord.

Ruby. (Lab.) A seedling from Geo. Haskell, Ipswich, Massachusetts. Hardy, variable in vigor; somewhat subject to rot; bunch medium, loose; berry above medium, round, dark ruby red; very good quality; ripens about with Hartford; stamens reflexed.

Ruby. (Lab. Vin. Rip.) A seedling of Elvira crossed with Brighton; from Munson, about 1890. Vigorous, healthy, not very hardy; bunches imperfectly filled, small, shouldered; berry medium, round, dull red with stripes, resembling Elvira in flavor and texture; ripens about with Concord.

Ruckland. (Lab. Vin.) Grown in Louisiana and said to have been brought from England. Munson pronounced it a Labrusca-Vinifera hybrid. Very late; red.

Rulander. (Bourq.) Amoreux; Red Elben; St. Genevieve. A southern grape, by some claimed to be a foreign seedling brought to this country by the early French settlers; probably native. Vigorous, short-jointed, healthy, not productive nor hardy; stamens upright; bunch medium, shouldered, very compact; berry small, roundish-oval, purplish-black; without pulp, juicy, sweet and rich; makes an excellent pale red wine closely resembling sherry; ripens last of July in the South.

Rupel. (Rup. Rip. Lab.) A seedling of Rupestris pollinated by July Twenty-fifth; from Munson. Cluster small; berry small, black; ripens early; stamens upright.

Rupert. (Line. Rup. Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A cross between America and Brilliant; from Munson. Vigorous, not very hardy, variable in productiveness; stamens upright; clusters medium, slender, usually shouldered, moderately compact; berries medium, nearly round, dark dull reddish-black with blue bloom; skin thin, tough; flesh pale green, tender, melting, somewhat musky, with Post-oak flavor; fair; ripens with Worden.

Rustler. (Lab. Vin.) From Munson, about 1888; a seedling of Lindley crossed with Martha. Vine vigorous, not always hardy, variable in productiveness; stamens reflexed; clusters medium, cylindrical, compact, sometimes shouldered; berries medium, roundish; skin medium thick, tough, dull light green with gray bloom, covered with scattering russet dots; pulp pale green, tough, stringy, foxy, sweet, somewhat musky; fair to good; ripens about with Concord.

Rusty Coat. Described by Mississippi Station Bulletin No. 56 as healthy, fair yielder; bunches long, loose and irregular; berries medium, black; good.

Rutland. (Lab. Vin. Aest.) From D. S. Marvin, Watertown, New York, about thirty years ago; a seedling of Eumelan pollinated by Concord. Of medium vigor, not very hardy or productive; stamens upright; clusters medium, shouldered, usually compact; berries small, roundish, inclined to shatter; skin thin, somewhat tough, dark reddish-black with blue bloom; flesh tender and nearly melting, vinous, sweet; very good; ripens about with Worden.

Saginaw. Noted in Michigan Pomological Society Report, 1880, as a seedling from G. Wingworth, Saginaw City, Michigan. Vigorous, hardy, early.

St. Albans. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Ives crossed wTith Niagara; from Jacob P. Bossung, Jefferson County, Kentucky, about 1889. Fair grower, hardy, healthy; described as a "Black Niagara".

St. Augustine. (Aest.?) Noted in American Pomological Society Report for 1877, as a native variety from Florida.

St. Catherine. (Lab.) From James W. Clark, Framingham, Massachusetts, about 1860. Vigorous, hardy, productive; bunches large, rather compact; berries large, round, red; pulpy, sweet, foxy.

St. Hilaire. (Rip.?) From Alexis Dery, St. Hilaire, Quebec, before 1892. Hardy, vigorous; cluster small, rather loose; berry small, black; pulp tough with a marked acidity.

St. John. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Brighton pollinated by Delaware; from Henry B. Spencer, Rocky River, Ohio, about 1890. Vigorous, healthy, productive; foliage like Delaware; short-jointed; fruit resembles Brighton; pulp sweet, meaty, tender, vinous; ripens about with Delaware.


Salabra. Described by Georgia Experiment Station in 1901 as weak in vigor, unproductive; stamens reflexed; bunches irregular, very loose; berries small, black, of fair quality; ripens with Delaware; perhaps same as Salado.

Salado. (Champ. Lab. Vin.) Seedling of De Grasset crossed with Brilliant; from Munson. Resistant to drought, vigorous, prolific; pistillate; adapted to limy and black soils of the South.

Sally. (Bourq. Vin. Rip.) A cross between Delaware and Sherman; from D. S. Marvin, Watertown, New York. Vigorous, healthy; bunch smaller than Delaware; berry same size, sweeter, white; very early.

Salt Creek. (Doan.) A variety of Vitis doaniana found by Munson in Greer County, Oklahoma; stamens reflexed; small bunch with medium-sized black berry; early; an excellent graft stock.

Saluda. Noted in United States Patent Office Report for 1860 as very vigorous; blue, large; juicy, somewhat pulpy.

Salzer Earliest. (Lab.) From John A. Salzer, La Crosse, Wisconsin, in 1892. Very hardy, prolific; resembles Concord in type but of better quality; early.

Samuels. (Vin.?) A cross between a Vinifera and a native Texas species; exhibited by Bruni et Brother, Laredo, Texas, at the Columbian Exposition in 1893. Bunch large, compact, much compounded; berries medium, white; skin adherent; flavor not high.

Sanalba. (Rot. Line. Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A cross of San Jacinto and Brilliant; from Munson, about 1906. Said to be very vigorous, prolific; cluster larger than Scuppernong; berry large, white, rich in sugar, tender, of good quality; skin thin.

Sanbornton. (Lab. Vin.) Sanborton. Purchased for an Isabella by Dr. Carr, of Sanbornton, New Hampshire, in 1826. Said to resemble Isabella except that it has rounder berries and ripens earlier.

San Jacinto. (Rot. Line.) A seedling of Scuppernong crossed with a Lincecumii hybrid; from Munson, about 1898. Medium in vigor, prolific, healthy; stamens reflexed; bunch small, irregular, very loose; berry large, black, of fair quality; ripens two to three weeks after Scuppernong.

Sanmelaska. (Rot. Line. Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A hybrid of San Jacinto and Brilliant; from Munson,about 1906. Said to be very vigorous, prolific; bunch three times as large as Scuppernong; berry about same size, sweeter, black.

Sanmonta. (Bourq. Rip. Line.) A seedling of San Jacinto crossed with Herbemont; from Munson, about 1906. Vigorous, very prolific; bunch above medium; berry black; very juicy, melting, sprightly; skin thin; seeds small.

Sanrubra. (Rot. Line. Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A cross between San Jacinto and Brilliant; from Munson, about 1906. Very vigorous, productive; cluster medium; berry not quite as large as Scuppernong but more persistent; melting, sweet, of good quality; skin thin, tough.

Santa Clara. (Vin. Lab. Bourq.) A seedling of unknown parentage, probably Delaware; from J. B. Tuckerman, Cassville, New York, first fruited in 1900. Lacks vigor; strongly Vinifera in vine characters; tendrils intermittent; stamens upright; flowers sterile; clusters usually single-shouldered; berries small, roundish, light green with thin gray bloom, persistent, rather soft; fair in flavor and quality; skin nearly thin, tender.

Saxe White Seedling. Found in Catskill Mountains by W. H. Saxe, Palenville, New York, about 1900. Vigorous, hardy, productive; ripens a little before Early Ohio.

Schenck White. Noted in Grape Culturist, 1871, as.  "supposed to have come from Germany about 1790"

Schiller. (Bourq.) A seedling of Louisiana; from Frederick Muench, Marthasville, Missouri. Vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive; bunch below medium; berries medium, purplish-blue.

Schmitz Seedling. (Lab. Vin.) Noted in Magazine of Horticulture for 1853 as a seedling grape from Gerhard Schmitz, Pennsylvania. Resembles Isabella closely but may be a little earlier.

Schoonemunk. (Lab.) Skunnymunk. A native seedling found by W. A. Woodward, Mortonville, Orange County, New York, about 1860, named after a neighboring mountain. Said to be hardy, productive; fruit equal in size and flavor to the Concord; earlier in ripening.

Scott. Noted by Prince in 1830 as a native North Carolina grape found by Gen. John Scott of the same state. Berries medium, round, white, amber when ripe; juicy, of good flavor; ripen late.

Secunda. (Line. Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Early Purple crossed with Brilliant; from Munson, about 1896. Stamens reflexed; bunch medium; berry large, red; early.

Seedlin. (Rot.) Noted in South Carolina Station Bulletin No. 132, 1907, as medium in vigor, very productive; flowers perfect; bunches contain three to six reddish-black berries; pulp tender, juicy, slightly acid, of good quality; skin thick.

Selma. (Rip. Lab.) A seedling of Elvira probably crossed with Concord; from G. Segessman, Amazonia, Missouri; first mentioned about 1890. Hardy, productive, healthy; bunches large, perfect, shouldered; berry medium, round, black, adherent; juicy, sprightly, pleasant flavored; skin thick; ripens a few days after Moore Early.

Seneca. (Lab.) A seedling of Hartford; first exhibited at Hammondsport, New York, in 1867 by R. Simpson, Geneva, New York. Similar to its parent.

Seneca. (Lab. Vin.) From John Burr, Leavenworth, Kansas; mentioned in Missouri Horticultural Society Report in 1892. Very vigorous, not quite hardy, healthy, productive; bunch large, compact; berry large, red, with slight bloom; tender, juicy, Sprightly, sweet, of Catawba flavor; skin thin, tough; ripens after Concord.

[Seems like 'Seneca' is a popular name for a grape because another grape with this name is now on the market and it is distinct from the two above.  http://www.bunchgrapes.com/seneca_grapes.html & -ASC]


Septimia. (Line. Vin. Lab. Bourq. ?) From Munson, in 1897; a cross between Early Purple and Carman. Stamens erect; bunch large with medium-sized, black berries; late.

Seward. A seedling from S. V. Smith, Syracuse, New York; exhibited as a new variety before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1880. Bunch medium, compact, frequently shouldered; berry large, round, color of Catawba; sweet, juicy, rich, not adherent; skin medium thick.

Shala. (Line. Rup. Lab.) A seedling of America crossed with Beacon; from Munson, in 1899. Vigorous, prolific; stamens upright; clusters large; berry large, black, tender, juicy, delicious; skin thin, tough; ripens about with Concord.

Sharon. (Lab. Vin. ?) A seedling of Adirondac; introduced by D. S. Marvin, Watertown, New York. Resembles its parent but is sweeter, hardier, more reliable; ripens at the same time.

Sharp Beak. (Rup. Rip. Lab.) From Munson; parents, Vitis rupestris crossed with Elvira. Stamens reflexed; cluster and berry small, black; early.

Shelley Seedling. A seedling from Daniel Shelley, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, exhibited in 1879. Fruit medium in size, of Catawba color and of very good flavor.

Sheppard Delaware. (Lab. Vin.) Noted by Downing in 1869 as a seedling of Catawba from J. N. Sheppard, in 1853. The vine and fruit are similar in all respects to Delaware.

Shepperd. (Lab.) A seedling from E. W. Bull, Concord, Massachusetts; exhibited in 1874 before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. Bunch and berry medium, black, not adherent.

Sherman. (Rip.) Resembles Lyman in most characters and by some considered synonymous. Poor bearer; stamens imperfect; ripens earlier than Hartford.

Sheruah. (Line. Rup. Lab. Vin.) A seedling of America fertilized by R. W. Munson; from Munson, in 1899. Described by originator as"vigorous and prolific; cluster very large; berry large, black and handsome; skin thin and tough; pulp tender, juicy, delicious; medium late season."Resembles Concord in type of cluster and general appearance but is superior in the texture and flavor of the pulp.

Skull No. 2. (Lab. Vin.) A chance seedling of unknown parentage; from J. Shull, Ilion, New York, about 1892. Very vigorous, healthy, productive; stamens long; clusters medium to large, compact, cylindrical; berry medium, roundish-oblong; skin thin, tender, pale green covered with thin bloom; pulp tender, releases seeds readily, sweet; good but not equal to Winchell; early.

Shurtleff Seedling. Lilac. A chance seedling, probably from a foreign grape, found in the garden of Dr. S. A. Shurtleff, of Pemberton Hill, near Boston, in 1822. Bunches large, shouldered; berries nearly large, oval; skin thick, light purple or lilac, with a spotted appearance, grayish bloom; pulp firm, sweet, rich; very good; ripens early in September.

Siglar. Mentioned in the Gardener's Monthly, 1869, as a new variety resembling Delaware but with fruit twice as large. Comparatively hardy, productive; rich and sweet.

Silkyfine. (Lab. Rip. Vin.) A cross of One Seed with Rommel; from Munson, in 1898. Stamens erect; bunch medium; berry large, white; late.

Silvain. (Doan.) A wild staminate variety of Vitis doaniana found in Greer County, Oklahoma, by Munson. It furnishes an excellent graft stock.

Silver Dawn. (Vin. Lab.) A seedling of Israella fertilized with Muscat Hamburg, of the same lot of seed as Early Dawn; from Dr. Wm. A. M. Culbert, Newburgh, New York, about 1877. Vigorous, hardy; white; best.

Sinawissa. Noted in the Wisconsin Horticultural Society Report, 1876, as a grape of delicious flavor but not to be recommended for general cultivation.

Sloe. (Rot.) A variety of Vitis rotundifolia which, according to Prince, 1830, "is probably the original vine whence the improved varieties of its race have emanated, but inferior to all the others. The fruit is sour and scarcely eatable, and of a dark purple or black color."

Small Leaf. (Rup.) A wild variety of Vitis rupestris found by Munson in Texas. Stamens reflexed; cluster very small; berry small, black; very early.

Smallwood. A native of North Carolina; from E. Smallwood. According to Prince, 1830, the fruit is about half the size of the Muscatel, and is much esteemed for making wine.

Snelter. Mentioned by Mitzky, 1893, as a seedling of Riparia crossed with Concord; from L. Snelter, Carver, Minnesota.

Snowflake. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) According to Bushberg Catalogue, 1894, a seedling of Jewel, from Dr. J. K. Stayman. Vigorous, hardy and productive; bunch medium, compact; berry large, white; tender but firm, juicy, sprightly, vinous, sweet; of very good quality; ripens about with Concord.

Solander Large Purple. According to Prince, 1830, a variety highly esteemed in Missouri, from which place it was received by him.

Solrupo. (Long. Line. Rup.) A cross between Vitis longii and a seedling of Lincecumii crossed with Rupestris; from Munson. Stamens reflexed; bunch and berry small, black; early.

Somerville. A large-berried variety, growing in the vineyard of Sidney Weller, Brinkleyville, North Carolina, in 1845.

Sophia. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Concord fertilized with Iona; from D. J. Piper, Forreston, Ogle County, Illinois, about 1880. Equal to Concord in hardiness, very productive; clusters compact; berries having the rich vinous nature of the Iona and the sweetness of the Concord; ripens with Concord and is a good keeper.

Souland. (Rip.) Mentioned in the Illinois Horticultural Society Report, 1868, as a good winter grape, resembling Clinton; exhibited by John H. Tice before the Mississippi Valley Grape Growers' Association in that year.

South Carolina. According to Warder, 1867, from Ohio. Vigorous; bunch large; berry small, black; juicy, spicy; very promising.

Southern Champion. Exhibited by Stephen H. Shallcross of Louisville, Kentucky, at the fruit show of the Southern Exposition in Louisville.

Spencer, (Vin. Lab.) Wells; Wells White. Noted in the United States Patent Office Report, 1861, as an accidental cross between Sweetwater and Isabella.

Spinosa. (Lab.) A wild variety of Vitis labrusca from North Carolina; collected by Munson. Stamens refiexed; bunch very small; berries large, black; mid-season.

Spotted Globe. According to Fuller, 1867, a hybrid from Jacob Moore, Rochester, New York. Very feeble; flesh sweet, very tender; good.

Springfield. (Lab.) According to Bushberg Catalogue, 1894, a seedling of Northern Muscadine; from W. H. Lightfoot, Springfield, Illinois. Strong, healthy and hardy; bunch medium to large, very compact; berries large, reddish-brown becoming dark brown when fully ripe; pulpy yet juicy and very sweet; ripens about a week before Concord.

Stace White. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) An unnamed seedling from S. Stace, Barnard Crossing, Monroe County, New York. A cross between Delaware and Isabella; the vine closely resembles Rebecca in foliage, habit and fruit.

Stelton. (Lab. Vin.) From W. Thompson, of New Brunswick, about 1882. Bunch large, shouldered, rather loose; berries medium, greenish-white with white bloom; pulp juicy, sweet; ripens with Concord.

Sterling. (Lab. Vin.) From E. P. Fisher, Sterling, Kansas, about 1904. Moderate grower, healthy and hardy; bunch small to medium, irregular in shape; berry large, round; ripens with Concord; good keeper.

Stetson's Seedlings. From Amos Stetson, of East Braintree, Massachusetts, about sixty years ago.

No. 1. See Cabot.

No. 2. (Lab. Vin.) A red native Labrusca crossed with Grizzly Frontignan. Berries nearly white, with a little tinge of blush.

No. 3. (Lab. Vin.) A native red Labrusca fertilized by Grizzly Frontignan. Resembles No. 2 but has larger berries.

No. 4- (Lab. Vin.) A red native Labrusca crossed with Black Hamburg. Ripens early in September, fourteen days sooner than Isabella.

No. 5. (Lab. Vin.) A cross between a native red Labrusca and Sweetwater. Resembles Sweetwater very closely; color dark blue.

Storm King, (Lab.) A sport of Concord; from E. P. Roe, Cornwall-on-Hudson, New York. Resembles its parent in all respects except that the berries are about twice as large and are less foxy.

Strawberry. According to Cole, 1849, from Col. L. Chase, Cornish, New Hampshire. Bunch and berry small; pleasant, sub-acid flavor.

Striped Ruby. Munson's No,. 13. One of Munson's seedlings on trial at the Virginia Experiment Station in 1893.

Success. (Line. Rup. Bourq.) Parentage, Post-oak, Rupestris and Bourquiniana; from Munson. Noted in the Rural New Yorker for 1901. Very vigorous and highly prolific; cluster size of Concord, compact; berries variable in size from small to above medium; skin thin, tough; very sweet and rich, of the best quality.

Sugar Grape. (Lab.) A wild variety of Vitis labrusca; grows in great abundance near Plymouth, Massachusetts. Growth moderate, short-jointed; healthy; bunches and berries of medium size, round and flat; very sweet.

Sugar Grape. (Rot.) A variety of the Scuppernong family, cultivated by L. Froelich, of Enfield, Halifax County, North Carolina. Mentioned in the United States Department of Agriculture Report, 1871, as having a saccharine strength of 8o0.

Summer White. (Lab.) Mentioned in the Magazine of Horticulture, 1854, as having been found wild; ripens the last of July and in August and September; decidedly superior to Isabella.

Sumner. Noted in the American Horticultural Annual for 1871 as a seedling raised by P. Stewart, of Mt. Lebanon, New York.

Sunrise. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) From Jos. Bachman, Altus, Arkansas, about 1897; seedling of Brilliant. Described by the originator as a strong grower; bunches rather open; berries red; skin tender; best; ten days to two weeks earlier than Delaware.

Superior. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Jewel; from John Burr of Leavenworth, Kansas, about 1890. Vigorous, hardy, healthy and productive; stamens upright; bunch medium, moderately compact; berry medium, black with heavy bloom; skin thin, tough; pulp tender, rich, sweet, vinous, sprightly; very good; ripens a few days later than Jewel.

Supreme. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A Delaware seedling; from John Burr, of Leavenworth, Kansas, about 1890. Variable in vigor and productiveness, hardy, healthy; stamens upright; cluster medium, usually compact; berry medium, black; tender, sweet, sprightly, vinous; quality better than Jewel and about a week earlier. [Not to be confused with a recently-introduced muscadine cultivar by the same name and protected by Plant Patent 7267.  -ASC]

Swatara. From Pennsylvania; according to Horticulturist, 1858, this variety was discovered many years ago in a ravine through which the Swatara River flowed. Bunch and berry below medium size, compact; sweet; early.

Sweetey. (Line. Bourq.) Munson's No. 111. A seedling of Lincecumii fertilized with Herbemont; from Munson. Very vigorous, tender, a shy bearer; stamens upright; bunch medium, compact, shouldered; berry small, round, dark purple or black with heavy bloom; skin thin, tender; pulp large and tough; rather poor quality; a few days earlier than Concord.

Taft. Given by Prince in a list of worthless varieties in Gardener's Monthly, 1863.


Talala. (Lab. Rip. Cand. Vin. Bourq.) A cross between Elvicand and Brilliant; from Munson. An attractive compact bunch with large red berries of rather tough pulp; not high quality.

Talequah. (Bourq. Rup. Line.) A seedling of America crossed with Herbemont; from Munson, about 1895. Clusters large, conical; berries medium, dark red; skin thin, tough; without pulp, melting, juicy; nearly as good as Delaware; late.

Tamala. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Delago crossed with Governor Ross; from Munson; first fruited in 1899. Moderately vigorous; stamens erect; bunch and berry medium, yellowish-white; good; ripens mid-season in Texas.

Tekoma. (Lab. Vin.) Noted in the American Horticultural Annual, 1870, as a Missouri seedling of Catawba, more healthy than that variety.

Tenderpulp. (Rot.) A Rotundifolia, originated about 1870. Vigorous, very productive; stamens reflexed; berries medium, black, in clusters of four to twelve; skin tough; pulp tender, juicy, sweet; poor; ripens about a month after Scuppernong.

Ten-Dollar-Prize. (Line.) A wild Post-oak grape found by a Mr. Hopkins, of Texas, about 1883. Used by Munson as one of the parents in a number of his crosses.

Tennessee. Noted as on trial in the government experimental garden in 1860.

Tennessee Island. A wild grape growing in great abundance on the islands in the Tennessee River. Very similar to Scuppernong and Prince says, "it is quite probable it may be the genuine Scuppernong."

Texas. (Line.) Diverse Leaved. A variety of grape received by Prince about 1830 from the border of Texas with leaves very variable in form; produces a great abundance of very good grapes.

Texas. (Line.) According to Prince, 1830, "a large, slightly reddish fruit, very juicy, sweet, with little or no pulpy coherence."

Texas. (Bourq.) Munson}s No. 181. A Herbemont seedling; from Munson of Texas. Variable in vigor; stamens upright; bunches small, compact; berries small, black; good; ripens with Herbemont.

Texas Highland. (Line. Vin. Lab.) Munsoris No. 130. A seedling of Post-oak crossed with Agawam; from Munson, about 1885. Vigorous, not very productive; stamens erect; bunch medium, loose; berries medium to large, black; juicy, rich and pleasant; late.

Themis. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Salem; from C. Engle, Paw Paw, Michigan. According to Bushberg Catalogue, 1894, a strong grower, hardy, productive; bunch medium, short, compact, sometimes shouldered; berries large, Catawba-colored; meaty, firm; good; ripens with Worden. Considered by some same as Metis.

Theodosia. (Lab.? Rip.?) A chance seedling originating on the grounds of E. S. Salisbury, Adams, New York, in 1862.  Hardy and productive; bunch medium, very compact, usually shouldered; berries medium, black; juicy, quite tart; very early.


Theophile (Lab.) From Theophile Huber, Illinois City, Illinois. Bunch medium, compact, sometimes shouldered; berry large, yellowish-white; pulp tender, juicy, sweet vinous; very good; ripens before Concord.

Thomas. (Rot.) A variety of Rotundifolia discovered in the woods near Marion, South Carolina, by Drury Thomas, about 1845. Vigorous, very productive; stamens erect; berries growing in clusters of from four to ten; very large; skin thin, varies in color from a reddish-purple to a deep black; pulp tender, sweet, vinous; good to very good; ripens about with Scuppernong or a little earlier. One of the best of this species for wine.

Thompson's Seedlings. The following seedlings were originated about twenty years ago by Jos. T. Thompson of Oneida, New York:
No. 2. (Lab.) A seedling of Brighton, resembling it very closely, fully equal in quality and, so far as tested, earlier and a better keeper.

No. 3. A white grape of unknown parentage.

No. If. A chance seedling; early, black and large.

No. 5. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Worden and fruit somewhat of the same type. Clusters medium, loose; berries nearly large, roundish, reddish-purple with thin bloom; skin thin, tough; pulp rather tough, juicy, sweet, not foxy; good; stamens reflexed; shows Vinifera; late.

No. 7. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Agawam. Vigorous, healthy; clusters nearly large, compact; berries medium to large, round; skin thick, tough, dull dark red with blue bloom; pulp sweet, rather tough, vinous; good; late.

Thompson's Seedlings. A large number of seedlings were raised by David Thompson, of Green Island, in the Hudson River, near Troy, about forty years ago. Nearly all are of Vinifera parentage and consequently of little value for open vineyard culture. Among his named seedlings are: David Thompson, General Grant, L. H. Tupper, Nathan C. Ely, A. B. Crandall, Bonticue, Early August, William Tell, Lavina, Elenor, Jas. M. Ketchum.

Thompson Red Seedling. . According to Grape Culturist, 1869, from a Mr. Thompson, originator of the Missouri Mammoth blackberry, said to be a Concord seedling but bears a strong resemblance to some of Rogers' hybrids.

Thompson Wine. (Lab. Vin.?) Received by the Magazine of Horticulture in 1865 from Mr. R. O. Thompson, of Nebraska. Bunch and berry resembling Isabella in shape; black.

Tishomingo. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Delago crossed with Governor Ireland; from Munson, about 1899. Stamens erect; bunch medium with large black berry; ripens mid-season.

Togni. (Aest.) A seedling of St. Augustine cultivated in Florida about thirty years ago.

518 THE GRAPES OF NEW YORK.

Tonkawa. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Delago crossed with Brilliant; from Munson, of Texas, about 1899. Vigorous, nearly hardy, productive; stamens upright; clusters medium, rather slender, shouldered, variable in compactness; berries not uniform in size, oval, dull dark red with lilac bloom; skin moderately thick and tough; pulp slightly tough, vinous, sweet; good; ripens with Concord.

Transparent. (Rip. Lab.) A Taylor seedling; from Jacob Rommel, of Missouri, about 1880. Vine vigorous, healthy, moderately productive; stamens upright; bunch small, compact, shouldered; berry very juicy, sweet; good; ripens a few days before Concord.

Trask. (Lab. Vin.) The Bushberg Catalogue says, "a chance seedling that first fruited in 1875. Introduced by Peter Henderson and Company. Healthy; leaves smooth; bunches large, long, often shouldered; berries medium to large, brown or bluish-black; tender, melting, very sweet, vinous; ripens before Concord.

Triumphant. A failure at the Ontario Experimental Farm where it was tested in 1886.  [irony?  overconfidence?  I just couldn't resist a comment ;) -ASC]

Trollinger. Mentioned in United States Patent Office Report for 1859 as being on trial in the government experimental garden.

Trowbridge. (Lab. Vin.) According to American Horticultural Annual, 1870, a sport from the Isabella with much larger bunches and berries than those of its parent.

Troy. (Lab. Vin.) Purple Hamburgh of Troy; Troy Hamburg. Described by Prince in 1830 as hardy, vigorous, productive; beiries large, oval, a little foxy, pleasant; very good; similar to Isabella.

Tryone. (Lab. Rip. Vin. Bourq.) From a cross by Munson between One Seed and Rommel, about 1897. Stamens erect; bunch and berry large, white; very late.

Tuckerman. From J. B. Tuckerman, Cassville, Oneida County, New York, about 1870. A white grape.

Tuskahoma. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A member of Munson's Delago family, the male parent being Brilliant; first fruited in 1899. Stamens erect; bunch and berry large, translucent red; equal to Brighton in quality; early.

U. B. One of Marine's seedlings; a black grape, of Labrusca type.

Uhland. (Rip. Lab.) A seedling of Taylor; from Wm. Weidmeyer, Hermann, Missouri. Vigorous, hardy, healthy, usually a shy bearer; stamens erect; bunch medium, nearly cylindrical, compact, sometimes shouldered; berry medium, slightly oblong, greenish-yellow with thin bloom; skin thin, tender, cracks; pulp tender, juicy, sweet, pleasant; good; ripens a few days later than Concord; subject to rot in some sections; makes a very good wine.

Uller Mammoth. Reported by the Tennessee Experiment Station in 1894 as an exceedingly large grape of inferior quality; a vigorous vine.


Ulrey. Mentioned by Warder in 1867. From Indiana; medium bunch with large white berry; sweet, rich.

Una. (Lab.) A White Concord seedling; from E. W. Bull, about 1867. Healthy and vigorous; bunch and berries medium; resembles Martha but not so sweet and more foxy; ripens a week before Concord.

Underhill. (Lab.) Underhilll's Celestial; Underbill's Seedling. A variety of the wild Fox grape; from Dr. A. K. Underhill, Charlton, Saratoga County, New York, about 1863. Of medium vigor, hardy, healthy and productive; stamens reflexed; bunches medium to large, cylindrical, frequently shouldered, moderately compact; berries large, usually roundish, dark dull red with lilac bloom, inclined to drop when ripe; skin thick, tough, very astringent; pulp tough, sweet, foxy, moderately juicy, fair; ripens about with Concord; of the Wyoming type but inferior to that variety.

Undine. (Lab. Rip.) From J. H. Ricketts; a seedling of Concord and Clinton; vigorous and healthy; bunch large, shouldered; berries large, yellowish-white when fully ripe; sprightly, very good.

Universal. (Line. Lab. Rup.) A seedling of America crossed with Profusion; from Munson, about 1897. Stamens erect; bunch large with medium-sized black berry; equal to Concord in quality; very late.

Urbana. (Lab.) A seedling of Concord; from Indiana. Bunch medium, shouldered; berry large, white; juicy, vinous, not very sweet; ripens about with Isabella.

Ursula. (Lab.) According to Mitzky, 1893, "produced by T. Huber, Sr., Illinois. Bunch small, compact; berries small, white; flesh melting, juicy and sweet; fine quality; vigorous grower; ripens with Concord."

Valencia. Grown by Munson from seed secured in South Spain, near Valencia. Described by the originator as vigorous, short-jointed; healthy, a light cropper; cluster small, shouldered, very compact; berry small, brownish-red; pulp melting, juicy, very sweet and fine. Munson gives the species as Bourquiniana.

Valentine. August Isabella. Mentioned by Prince in Gardener's Monthly for 1863.

Valhallah. (Lab. Cand. Rip. Vin. Bourq.) From Munson, about 1902; a hybrid of Elvicand and Brilliant. Described by the originator as a very vigorous, drouth-enduring, prolific vine; cluster medium; berry large, bright clear red; skin thin, tough; pulp juicy, tender, nearly equaling Brilliant in quality; ripens about with Concord.

Valverde. (Champ. Lab. Vin. Bourq.) From Munson; a seedling of De Grasset, fertilized with Brilliant. Stamens erect; bunch and berry large; ripens mid-season in-Texas.

Van Deman. (Line. Lab. Vin.) From Texas; a cross of Lincecumii and Triumph. Vigorous; stamens erect; bunch medium, compact; berry medium, black; poor to good; ripens about two weeks after Catawba.

Vanderburgh. Noted in Record of Horticulture for 1868 as a new and promising variety from Lansingburg, New York; not yet sent out.


Venango. (Lab.) Minor's Seedling. According to Buchanan (Mss.), an old variety, said to have been cultivated by the French at Fort Venango, on Allegheny River, over a century ago. Very vigorous, hardy, healthy and usually productive; stamens erect; bunch medium, compact; sometimes shouldered; berries medium, round or sometimes flattened by compactness; skin thick and tough, pale red with white bloom; flesh sweet, aromatic; pulpy and foxy; ripens about with Concord.

Vermont. Listed by Prince in Gardener's Monthly, 1863, as a worthless sort.

Vermont Giant. (Lab.) From C. G. Pringle of Charlotte, Vermont. Noted in the Western New York Horticultural Society Report, 1882, as a black, very pulpy grape with poor flavor.

Vermorel. (Champ.) A wild variety of Vitis champini from Williamson County, Texas; collected by Munson. Stamens reflexed; bunch small with medium-sized black berry; early.

Vesta. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Salem; from C. Engle, Paw Paw, Michigan. Vigorous, hardy, productive; stamens upright; bunches medium to large, long, shouldered, moderately compact; berries large, round, greenish-white; skin thin, tough; pulp tender, juicy, vinous, rich; very good; about a week later than Concord.

Viala. (Champ.) A wild variety of Vitis champini, from Coryell County, Texas; collected by Munson. Stamens reflexed; bunch small; berry medium, black; early.

Vialla. (Rip.) According to Bushberg Catalogue, 1883, "a Franco-American variety, recommended as a grafting stock; resembles the Franklin and is by some supposed to be the same variety; others contend that it is distinct from and superior to Franklin."

Victoria. Origin unknown. Moderately vigorous, open, healthy; bunch very small, short and thick; berry large, round, dark purple, scarcely black, with thin bloom; skin tender; pulp tender but stringy, juicy, mild acid, without decided character; poor; about a week later than Concord.

Victoria. (Lab.) Ray's Victoria. Introduced in 1872 by M. M. Samuels, of Clinton, Kentucky. Vigorous, healthy, and productive; bunch medium; berry medium, round, amber color; skin thin; pulp tender, sweet and of high flavor; very good; resembles Venango.

Vine Arbor. Mentioned in the United States Patent Office Report, 1845, as being grown at Brinkleyville, Halifax County, North Carolina, at that time. So called on account of its very large leaf and extended growth, consequently adapted for arbors.

Vinita. (Line. Bourq.) A seedling of Post-oak crossed with Herbemont; from Munson, about 1885. Very vigorous, productive; stamens erect; bunch large, conical, shouldered, compact; berries small to medium, purple; skin thin, tough; pulp juicy, melting;"best"; very late.

Vinrouge. (Lab. Aest. Vin. Bourq. Rup. Line.) From a cross between America and Laura; by Munson about 1894. Vigorous, healthy; stamens erect; bunch large; berry medium; black; early.


Virginia. Noted by Buchanan, 1852, as a grape raised and exhibited by N. Longworth in 1846.

Vivie Hybrid. Vivie's Hartford. According to Bushberg Catalogue, 1883, "produced by M. Vivie in France, and by some called Vivie's Hartford. Of very vigorous growth, very productive and its grape of good quality making a very good wine."

Waddel. (Lab.) Noted in the United States Department of Agriculture Report for 1893. Found in the woods of Highland County, Ohio, about 1863, by John F. Waddel. Productive and hardy; cluster medium, heavily shouldered, moderately compact; berry oval, medium to large, persistent; skin thick, tender, dark purple or black with heavy blue bloom; pulp translucent, tender, melting, very juicy, mildly sweet, rich, pleasant with slightly musky aroma; good to very good; season September 2o-3oth in Ohio.

Waldo Seedling. (Lab.) A chance seedling found on the farm of J. B. Waldo, Johnsville, Dutchess County, New York, about 1881. Of medium vigor, healthy, hardy, productive; clusters as large or larger than Concord, often nearly double, somewhat loose; berries large, black with abundant blue bloom; skin variable in thickness, tender; pulp moderately sweet, juicy, slightly foxy with Concord flavor; good; ripens a little before Moore Early. Resembles Concord closely.

Wales. (Lab.) A seedling having a medium-sized bunch, exhibited by E. W. Bull at the meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1874.

Waneta. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Delago crossed with Brilliant; from Munson, about 1896. Stamens erect; bunch medium with large red berry; equal to Brighton in flavor; late.

Warmita. (Line. Rup. Lab.) From a cross between America and Beacon; by Munson, about 1896. Healthy and vigorous; stamens erect; bunch and berry large, black; ripens mid-season.

Warren. Supposed by some to be identical with Herbemont but claimed to be distinct by others. The original vine grew near Warrenton in Warren County, Georgia.

Washington. Noted by Warder in 1867. From New York. Early, black.

Washita. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Delago crossed with Governor Ireland; from Munson, about 1896. Stamens erect; bunch medium with large, black berry, equal to Concord in flavor; early.

Washita. A white grape from Arkansas; on trial in the goverment experimental gardens in 1859.

Waterloo. Rock House Indian. A native grape from Illinois, grown by F. Muench. Vigorous and a good bearer; cluster and berry small.

Watertown. From D. S. Marvin, Watertown, New York. According to Mitzky, 1893, a good grower; bunch medium, sometimes shouldered; berry medium, slightly oblong, white; sweet; fine quality.

Watova. (Lab. Rip. Vin. Aest.) A cross between Gold Coin and Rommel; from Munson, in 1899. Stamens erect; bunch and berry large, yellow; late.

Waubeck. (Line. Lab. Aest.) A seedling of Jaeger No. 43 fertilized with Laussel; from Munson, about 1893. Stamens erect; bunch large; berry medium, black, equal to Concord in flavor; very late.

Waverly. (Vin. Rip. Lab.) A seedling of Clinton and one of the Muscats; from Jas. H. Ricketts, about 1870. Usually vigorous and productive, hardy, healthy; bunch medium, shouldered, compact; berry medium, round to oval, black with blue bloom; pulp tender, juicy, sweet, vinous; good; ripens with Brighton.

W. B. Munson. (Line. Vin. Lab.) A seedling of Post-oak No. 3, crossed with Triumph; from Munson, about 1887. Vigorous, very productive, subject to mildew in the South; stamens erect; bunch medium or sometimes large, cylindrical, compact, sometimes shouldered; berry medium, round, black, persistent; pulp juicy, melting, sprightly; very good; late.

Webb Grape. Mentioned by Prince in 1830. Discovered by Samuel Webb, of Philadelphia, near Woodbury, Pennsylvania. Berries large, black.

Weeks Seedling. Mentioned in the American Horticultural Annual, 1871. Raised by Dr. Cyrus Weeks, of Bellville, New Jersey. Medium bunch and berry; very sweet; pleasant flavor.

Wells. (Lab.) Wells7 Seedling. Originated in Ohio where it was discovered by a Mr. Wells about 1882. Vigorous, healthy, very productive; clusters large, cylindrical, shouldered, moderately compact; berries large, bronze or wine-colored, oval; pulp tender, mild, very juicy with a peculiar musky flavor and foxy aroma; fair quality; ripens about two weeks after Concord.

Western Beauty. Grown from mixed seed by E. P. Fisher, Sterling, Kansas, about 1904. Described by the originator as a black or purple grape of superior quality, better than Concord, a stronger grower than that variety and perfectly hardy; ripens about writh Catawba.

Wetumka. (Lab. Aest. Rip. Bourq.) From a cross by Munson between One Seed and Gold Coin, about 1893. Of medium vigor, healthy, productive; stamens erect; clusters medium, ovate, moderately compact, sometimes shouldered; berries large, globular, yellowish-green; pulp juicy, tender; good; ripens after Concord.

Wewoka. (Line. Rup. Lab.) Produced b}/T Munson, about 1893, by crossing America with Beacon. Stamens reflexed; bunch very large; berry large, black; late.

Wheaton. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) A seedling of Delaware; from John C. Wheaton, of Dansville, New York, in 1873. Rather weak grower, hardy, variable in productiveness; tendrils irregularly continuous; foliage not very healthy; stamens upright; flowers nearly fertile; clusters medium to small, much like Delaware, cylindrical, nearly compact, sometimes shouldered; berries small, roundish, light green with yellow tinge, with thin gray bloom; pulp tender, nearly sweet; good; ripens about with Delaware.


White Ann Arbor. (Lab.) Ann Arbor. A seedling of Concord; raised by Chas. H. Woodruff, of Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1870. Of medium vigor, very hardy, moderately productive; bunch and berry large, white with white bloom; pulp tough, sweet; good; ripens about two weeks before Concord.

White Beauty. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Dutchess; from Stayman of Kansas. Very vigorous, hardy, healthy and very productive; bunch large, long, shouldered, compact; berries medium size, white; pulp tender, sprightly, rich, vinous, sweet; best; ripens with Concord and will hang until frost.

White Cape. (Lab. Vin.) According to Mitzky, 1893, similar to Alexander except that it is greenish-white in color.

White Catawba. (Lab. Vin.) A seedling of Catawba; raised by John E. Mottier, of Ohio, about 1849. Bunch medium, shouldered; berry large, round, greenish; pulpy, foxy.

White Clinton. White Delaware. Mentioned in the United States Department of Agriculture Report for 1864, as being a hardy and vigorous vine with a small white grape, insipid and worthless.

White Cloud. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A seedling of Dutchess; from Stayman, of Kansas. Vigorous, hardy, healthy and productive; clusters large, long, compact; berries large, white; skin thin, tough; pulp tender, juicy, rich, sprightly, vinous, sweet; best; ripens with Concord.

White Delaware. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) From Geo. W. Campbell, of Delaware, Ohio. Lacking in size and productiveness as compared with its parent; resembles Delaware in form of bunch and berry, compact and shouldered; greenish-white with thin white bloom; early.

White Delaware. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) According to Bushberg Catalogue, 1894, from Hermann Jaeger, of Neosho, Missouri; bunch and berries closely resemble the Delaware in shape and size but it has some Labrusca characteristics.

White Delaware. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) Produced by Jacob Rommel of Morrison, Missouri. Described by Mitzky, 1893, as healthy, moderate grower, very productive; bunch medium, compact, shouldered; berry medium, white with white bloom; skin tough; without pulp, very sweet, pure flavor, delicious; ripens with Concord.

White  ***. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) From C. J. Copley, Stapleton, New York. Described in Massachusetts Horticultural Society Report, 1880, as having a small bunch, exceedingly compact; berries very small, round, green with an amber tint in the sun, thin bloom; skin very thick; sweet with not much pulp but pretty hard.

White Delaware seedlings have also been produced by John Burr, J. Sacksteder, Dr. J. Stayman, D. B. Woodbury and others.

White Elizabeth. Hart's White; White Isabella. Listed by Prince in Gardener's Monthly for 1863.


White English. Mentioned in the United States Patent Office Report for 1845 as being grown by Sidney Weller, Brinkleyville, North Carolina.

Whitehall. (Lab.) Supposed to be a chance seedling from Geo. Goodale, of Whitehall, Washington County, New York; first fruited in 1870. Of medium vigor, not very productive, comparatively healthy; stamens reflexed; clusters large, moderately compact, shouldered; berry medium, dark purple or nearly black with thin bloom; pulp tender, melting and sweet; ripens about with Hartford.

White Jewel. (Rip. Lab.) Burr's No. 19. A seedling of Elvira; supposed to be from John Burr, of Leavenworth, Kansas. Vigorous, hardy and very productive; stamens upright; bunch medium, long, compact; berry medium, round, white with abundant bloom; skin thin, rather tender; pulp very juicy, tender, sweet, sprightly, very good; ripens about with Moore Early.

White Mountain. From Connecticut; very early.

White Muscadine.
Mentioned in the United States Patent Office Report, 1862, in a list of grapes that do well as far north as Burlington, Vermont.

White Musk. (Lab. Vin.) According to Fuller, 1867, a hybrid from Jacob Moore, of Rochester, NewT York. Vine resembles Sweetwater but does not require protection; of medium size with insipid flavor.

White Northern Muscato (Vin. Lab.) Culinary Grape; White's Northern Muscadine. A seedling of Brighton fertilized writh Muscat; from W. T. White, Troy, Ohio, about 1889. Vigorous, tender, moderately productive; stamens upright; bunch medium size, compact; berries large, nearly round, brownish-green or amber color; skin thick, tough; pulp large, tender, juicy, sweet; high flavor; about ten days earlier than Concord  [not to be confused with 'Northern Muscadine' -ASC].

White Norton. (Aest. Lab.) A seedling of Norton; from F. Langendoerfer, Hermann, Missouri. Noted in Missouri Horticultural Society Report, 1883, as a slow grower, moderately productive, very hardy; smaller than its parent, of a golden yellow color and a few days earlier.

White Norton. (Aest. Lab.) White Virginia Seedling. Another Norton seedling, probably crossed with some Labrusca; produced by J. Balziger, Highland, Illinois. Strong, hardy; healthy and vigorous; fruit similar to Elvira but better in quality; very late; shows some Labrusca blood.

White Rose. Received at this Station for testing in 1906 from Miss R. R. Short, Clifton Springs, New York.

White Sugar. W. R. Prince in Gardener's Monthly for 1863, mentions this variety as a worthless Labrusca.

White Tennessee. According to Grape Culturist, 1871, grown by W. Valiant, of Clarksville, Tennessee, and known by him for about fifty years. Hardy, productive and free from disease.

White Ulster. (Lab. Vin.) According to Bushberg Catalogue, 1894, an amateur variety, raised by A. J. Caywood from a seedling of Ulster crossed with White Concord.


Wilcox.  Mentioned in the United States Patent Office Report, 1845, as being grown by Sidney Weller, Brinkleyville, North Carolina.

Wilding. (Rip. Lab.) A seedling found by Jacob Rommel, Morrison, Missouri Vigorous, hardy and healthy, moderately productive; stamens reflexed; bunch medium, loose, shouldered; berry medium, round, pale green, almost transparent; skin very thin, and tender; no pulp, juicy, very sweet; very good; ripens with Concord.

Wilkins Seedling. (Lab.) From O. Fitzalwyn Wilkins, Bridgeburgh, Ontario, about 1895. Described in the Canadian Horticulturist, 1898, as follows: Bunch of good size and form; berries white, round, of medium size; skin thin and tender; pulp tender and separates readily from the seeds; flavor agreeable, somewhat foxy, but much sweeter and pleasanter than Concord; early.

Willard. (Lab.) From E. P. Fisher, Sterling, Kansas; received at this Station for testing in 1905. Described by originator as a vigorous, short-jointed grower, perfectly hardy, sometimes mildews; bunch a little smaller than Concord, compact; berry nearly large, round, red; sweet, without any foxiness; lacks vigor here; tendrils continuous or sometimes intermittent.

Williamson. (Cand.) A wild variety of Candicans from Williamson County, Texas; collected by T. V. Munson. Stamens reflexed; small bunch with very large, black berry; early.

Williamsport. Noted in the Magazine of Horticulture, 1860, as a new variety originated on the mountain near Williamsport, Pennsylvania. Perfectly hardy, and very prolific.

William Wine. (Lab. Aest.) Mentioned by S. J. Parker in the United States Department of Agriculture Report for 1864. Cluster small with long peduncle; berry large, round, having"the fox grape perfume mingled with that of a rose."

Willie. (Lab.) Said to be a seedling of Northern Muscadine crossed with Concord; from L. C. Chisholm, Spring Hill, Tennessee. Vigorous, rampant grower, healthy and very productive; fruit larger than Concord, shouldered, very showy; black with white bloom; pulp vinous and sprightly, no foxiness; excellent wine grape; ripens with or a few days later than Concord.

Willis. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) A seedling of Delaware; from Willis W. Jones, Camargo, Illinois, about 1865. Usually vigorous, as hardy as Concord, healthy, generally quite productive; bunch medium, compact, shouldered, in shape like the Delaware; berry medium, round, pale green or amber-yellow with a slight bloom; pulp tender, very juicy, slightly vinous, sweet, foxy; good; early.

Willis Fredonia. Guernsey Grape; Jersey Grape. Origin unknown; grown by John Willis, of Maryland. According to Prince, 1830, a vigorous rampant grower, healthy, very productive; fruit black and pleasant for the table.

Willis Large Black. Great Black Muscadine. An old variety mentioned by Prince in 1830, who says, "according to a traditional account of the Southern Indians, this vine and the White Scuppernong have been in bearing among them for more than five hundred years.  "Very vigorous; berries very large; foxy.

Wilmington. (Lab. Vin.) Wilmington White. Originated with a Mr. Jeffries, near Wilmington, Delaware, about 1856. Very vigorous, hardy, productive; bunches large, loose, shouldered; berries large, roundish or inclining to oval, greenish-white; tender and not pulpy, sweet and pleasant when properly ripened but requires a long southern season; late.

Winchester. (Lab. Vin.) Bracket's Seedling; Bracket's Winchester. A seedling of Union Village; from E. A. Brackett, Winchester, Massachusetts, first fruited in 1858. Vigorous, hardy; bunch large; berry large, round, black, heavy bloom; juicy, sweet, vinous; resembles parent but ripens a week earlier.

Windsor. Noted by Prince in 1830. Found growing wild twelve miles north of Baltimore, at Windsor, on the plantation of George Fitzhugh. Very luxuriant and productive; clusters large and long; berries round, blue, juicy.

Winedrop. (Line. Bourq.) A cross between Post-oak No. 1 and Herbemont by Munson, in 1884. Stamens reflexed; bunch large with small, dark red berry; late.

Wine House. Noted in United States Patent Office Report, 1854. Found growing spontaneously in the vineyard of Frederick Muench. Sweet and aromatic; not very juicy.

Wine King. (Aest. Line. Rup. Lab.) A seedling of Winona crossed with America; from Munson, in 1898. Very vigorous, prolific, healthy; stamens erect; cluster large, compact; berry medium, black with blue bloom; very little pulp, tender, very juicy, vinous, rich and sprightly; good.

Winona. (Aest. Lab.) A seedling of Norton; from Munson, about 1895. Vigorous, productive; stamens upright; cluster large, loose, conical; berries small to medium, black; skin thin, tough; pulp juicy, tender, good; about a week earlier than Norton.

Winslow. (Rip.?) A seedling raised by Charles Winslow, of Cleveland, Ohio, about 1857. Hardy and productive; bunch medium, long, compact; berries small, round, black; pulp vinous and juicy; resembles Clinton but is less acid; very early.

Winter Wine. (Simp. Line. Bourq.) A cross between Vitis simpsoni and Marguerite by Munson in 1898. Stamens reflexed; bunch large with medium-sized black berry; "extra late."

Witt. (Lab.) A white seedling of Concord; from Michael Witt, of Columbus, Ohio, about 1880. Not very vigorous, hardy, moderately healthy, very productive; clusters medium to large, conical, moderately compact, sometimes shouldered; berries variable in size, usually large, roundish, greenish-white or pale yellow with thin whitish bloom; pulp tender, juicy, vinous, sweet; good; ripens with Concord or a little before.

Woodbury. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) Woodbury White. A seedling of Delaware from D. B. Woodbury, Paris, Maine, about 1891. Described in Bushberg Catalogue, 1894, as resembling Delaware in growth and foliage; bunch medium, compact; berry larger than Delaware, slightly oblong, greenish-white with fine bloom; skin thin, yet tough, almost transparent; juicy, sweet, good; ripens two weeks before Concord; a very good keeper.

Woodbury. Mentioned in the United States Department of Agriculture Report for 1863, as being on trial in the government experimental garden.

Woodcock Seedling. Exhibited by H. Woodcock at the Western New York Horticultural Society meeting in 1887. A large red grape, of very good quality; ripens with Delaware.

Woodford. On trial in the United States Department of Agriculture experimental vineyard in 1860. Vigorous; purple; pulpy, juicy, sweet.

Woodriver. According to Bushberg Catalogue, 1883, originated near Woodriver, Washington County, Rhode Island, by a Mr. Brown. White, very early, fine quality.

Woodson. From Prince Edward County, Virginia, previous to 1830. Bunch medium, very compact; berry medium red; no pulp, rich; good for table and wine; later than Cunningham.

Wyman, (Lab. Vin.) Wyman's Seedling. Exhibited by Joseph Breck in 1854 at a session of the fruit committee of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. Said to be a seedling of Catawba; berries large, sweet and free of pulp; ripens with or before Isabella.

Wynant. (Lab. Vin.) According to Mitzky, 1893, a chance seedling grown by D. W. Babcock, Dansville, New York; almost identical with Dutchess.

Wyoming. Noted in the United States Patent Office Report, 1860. Vigorous; black; juicy, somewhat pulpy.  [presumably distinct from 'Wyoming' described elsewhere in this book.  -ASC]

Wylie's Seedlings. Unnamed seedlings of Dr. A. P. Wylie, of Chester, South Carolina:
No. 4- A cross between two hybrids. Described by originator in Bushberg Catalogue, 1883, as bunch somewhat larger than Lenoir; berry medium, of a clear transparent golden color; finest texture and flavor, resembles White Frontignan; ripens as early as Concord.

Concord and Foreign No. 8. (Vin. Lab.) Seedling of Concord and Bowood Muscat. Strong grower; foliage Labrusca; cluster very large, loose; berry very large, black, of foreign texture; skin thick; ripens with Catawba.

Delaware and Concord No. 1. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) Very hardy with Labrusca foliage; a great bearer; bunch and berry medium; skin thick, dark red; juicy, rich and sweet, slightly musky.

Halifax and Delaware No. 30. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) The same color as Delaware with bunch of same size and berries one half larger; texture and flavor also much like Delaware; generally more healthy than that variety; a great bearer.

Halifax and Delaware No. 38. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) Hardy and healthy with Labrusca foliage, not so strong a grower as No. 30; dark red in color with purple bloom and superior to No. 30 in flavor.


Halifax and Delaware No, 49. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) A black grape of high vinous flavor.

Halifax and Delaware No. 55. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) Bunch medium, long, shouldered ; berries large, dark blue or purple with a purple bloom; flesh tender, juicy, very sweet, sprightly, high flavored; best.

Halifax and Hamburg No. 11. (Vin. Lab.) Very productive and healthy; bunch medium; berry medium, black, with thick skin.

Hybrid Scuppernong No. 4. (Rot.) Exhibited at the American Pomological Society in 1877. Healthy, very productive; bunches medium, compact; berry round, greenish-white; pulp nearly melting, very juicy, sprightly, vinous, with a musky aroma; good.

Hybrid Scuppernong No. 5. (Rot. Vin.) Parentage, Bland Madeira and Foreign No. 1, crossed with a staminate hybrid Scuppernong produced by impregnating Black Hamburg with Scuppernong. Healthy and hardy; bunch medium; berries large, white, transparent with thin tough skin; almost pulpless, rich, sweet, with a peculiar flavor; as early as Concord.

Xenia. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) Parentage, Delaware, Goethe and Triumph; from Munson. Vigorous; cluster medium, compact; berry very large, white; skin thin and tough; pulp meaty, tender, sprightly, high flavor; best; very late, with Fern Munson or just before.

Xlnta. (Line. Rup. Vin. Lab.) . One of Munson's seedlings; America fertilized with R. W. Munson. Vigorous, hardy in Southern States; stamens reflexed; cluster large, cylindrical, shouldered, fairly compact; berries medium to large, globular, black, with little bloom; skin thin; pulp meaty, tender, sprightly; season with or later than Concord.

Yoakum. (Bourq.) According to Bushberg Catalogue, 1894, "resembling the Herbemont, its juice is of deeper color, its foliage is more deeply lobed, but otherwise much inferior; ripening unevenly and being less productive.  "

Yomago. (Lab. Vin. Bourq.) A cross between Delago and Brilliant, by Munson, about 1894. As grown at this Station, a weak grower, not hardy, variable in productiveness; flowers fertile, bloom late; stamens upright; clusters large, usually single-shouldered, compact; berries large, roundish, black, glossy, covered with heavy blue bloom; skin thin and tender; flesh pale green, tender, spicy, sweet with Post-oak flavor; fair to good; it is doubtful if it will ripen in this locality.

Yonkers. (Lab.) A Concord seedling; from J. W. Gray, Atwood, Illinois. Hardy, not a strong grower; bunch medium, shouldered, compact; berries large, round, light green; sweet; good; ripens a little before Concord.

York Claret. (Lab.) According to Prince, 1830, a native cultivated near York, Pennsylvania, where it is much esteemed for wine. Bunches and berries smaller than those of Alexander; without pulp, very juicy, sweet.


York Lisbon. (Lab. Vin.) Noted by Prince in 1830. Grown around York, Pennsylvania. Resembles Alexander but larger and a little elongated and the pulp is more acid; coarse, pulpy and foxy; some consider it identical with Alexander.

York Madeira. (Lab. Vin.?) Baldwin's Early;' Black German; Canby's August; German Wine; Large German; Marion Port; Monteith; Shepherd's Port Wine; Small German; Tryon; Wolfe. An old variety of Isabella type, originated at York, Pennsylvania. Vigorous, generally hardy, productive; cluster medium, compact, shouldered; berries medium, roundish, inclining to oval, black; pulp juicy, sweet, somewhat vinous, pleasant; ripens with Isabella or before. Some consider Marion (II) identical with this variety.

Young America. (Lab.) Raised by Samuel Miller, of Calmdale, Pennsylvania, about 1860. A seedling of Concord and resembling its parent in color and shape but three weeks later.

Zane. From a Mr. Zane, Wheeling, West Virginia; found by him growing wild on Wheeling Island. Berry medium, red.

Zelia. (Lab. Vin.) Parentage, Telegraph crossed with Black Hamburg; from C. J. Copley, Stapleton, New York. Medium in vigor, productive, quite hardy; leaves five-lobed, some indistinctly so, dull green; cluster large, compact; berry very large, black; skin thin, fine bloom; pulp tender, rich, sweet, aromatic; season earlier than Concord.

Zinnia. (Lab.) Origin unknown. Cluster large, loose, shouldered; berry medium, round, black with a rich bloom.

Zita. (Lab. Bourq. Vin.) A seedling of Delaware; from John Sacksteder, Leavenworth, Crawford County, Indiana. Vigorous, productive, healthy; cluster above medium; berry medium, round, yellow.

Zoe. Mentioned by Campbell in Garden and Forest, 1890, as a northern grape attaining its best quality in long seasons.