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THE GRAPES OF NEW YORK

CHAPTER V

THE LEADING VARIETIES OF AMERICAN GRAPES

ADIRONDAC

(Labrusca, Vinifera?)

1. Mag. Hort., 27:490. 1861. 2. Horticulturist, 17:94, 132, 518. 1862. fig. 3. Mag. Hort., 28:447, 540. 1862. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1862:160. 5. U.S.D.A. Rpt.r 1863:127. 6. Mag. Hort., 30:25, 62, 140, 150, 208. 1864. 7. Mead, 1867:164. 8. Fuller, 1867:216. 9. Thomas, 1867: 399. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1867:44. 11. Grape Cult., 1:115. 1869. 12. Gar. Mon.t 16:2.49. 1874. 13. Bush. Cat., 1883:67. 14. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1883:56. 15. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1885:82. 16. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 10:493. 1891.

Adirondac is an old variety now nearly or quite obsolete. It is probably a seedling of Isabella which it greatly resembles in vine and fruit characters. It is of the Labrusca type, belonging to the southern group of this species, and like most of the southern Labruscas lacks in hardiness and vigor though it surpasses its parent in the first quality. The vine makes a slow, weak growth and is particularly susceptible to fungi. The quality of the fruit is very good, juicy and vinous, with the slight foxy flavor peculiar to Isabella. Its earliness, a week or ten days earlier than Concord, is one of its chief points of merit. The Adirondac did not attain favor because of the many faults of the vine and in the time of its cultivation was seldom found except in the vineyard of the amateur. The claim is often made for this variety that it is nearer the Black Hamburg in quality than any other American grape.

Adirondac was first exhibited by J. W. Bailey of Plattsburg, New York, at the Montreal Horticultural Society Exhibition in Montreal in 1861. The original vine was found in 1852 by J. G. Witherbee in his garden a short distance from the shore of Lake Champlain in the town of Port Henry, Essex County, New York. The variety was introduced by Bailey. On account of its resemblance in vine to Isabella it is supposed by many to be a seedling of that variety. Adirondac was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society in 1867 and was dropped from it in 1883.

Vine variable in vigor and productiveness, injured in severe winters, subject to attacks of mildew in unfavorable seasons. Foliage dark green, thick. Flowers semi-fertile, open in mid-season or earlier; stamens upright. Fruit variable in season of ripening, usually in edible condition about ten days before Delaware, does not always keep well. Clusters above medium to small, usually rather compact, seldom shouldered. Berries not uniform in size averaging below Concord, roundish to slightly oval on account of compactness of cluster, dark purplish-black, persistent. Skin intermediate in thickness. Flesh unusually tender and melting, sweet, mild, good to very good but with an after flavor which is not altogether agreeable. Seeds rather large, few in number. Must

ADVANCE.

(Riparia, Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1872:94. 2. U.S.D.A. Rpt., 1875:386. 3. N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt, 1881:11. 4. Bush. Cat., 1883:67, 152. 5. Va. Sta. Bul., 30:108. 1893.

Advance is an unimportant variety now to be found only in the vineyards of experimenters. At the time of its introduction (1872) it was of much interest as a hybrid between Riparia, Labrusca and Vinifera, Clinton being one parent and Duke of Magenta, a grape resembling Black Hamburg, the other. In quality of fruit it is an improvement over Clinton but unfortunately, as with so many primary hybrids of our native species with Vitis vinifera, the vine is tender and susceptible to fungi.

This variety was produced by J. H. Ricketts of Newburgh, New York, and was first exhibited at the grape show in New York City in 1870.

Vine vigorous, productive, not very hardy, subject to attacks of mildew. Canes long, covered with considerable blue bloom. Leaves rather large, thin, dark green. Fruit ripens in mid-season, appears to keep well. Clusters above medium size, usually single-shouldered, the shoulder being connected to the cluster by a rather long stem, medium in compactness and with many abortive fruits. Berries medium to large, oval, dark purplish-black, covered with heavy blue bloom, persistent. Flesh somewhat tender, flavor sweet and spicy with considerable resemblance to that of Clinton, quality good.

AGAWAMagawam small

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Mag. Hort., 23:86. 1857. (Rogers' hybrids.) 2. Ib., 27:104, 489, 533. 1861. 3. Horticulturist, 17:26, 510. 1862. fig. 4. U.S.D.A. Rpt., 1863:130, 549. fig. 5. Horticulturist, 20:81. 1865. 6. Mag. Hort., 31:68, 106, 333. 1865. 7. Husmann, 1866:124. 8. Fuller, 1867:230. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1867:44. 10. Horticulturist, 24:126. 1869. 11. Grape Cult., 1:43, J53] I8i, 262, 325. 1869. 12. Am. Jour. Hort., 5:263. 1869. fig. 13. Barry, 1872:421. 14. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt,, 1875:387. fig. 15. Bush. Cat., 1883:69. fig. 16. Gar. and For., 3:490. 1890. 17. Can. Hort., 17:191. 1894. col. pi. 18. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt, 15:433- 1896. 19. 76., 17:526, 548, 552, 553. 1898. 20. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1899:91. 21. Mo. Sta. Bui, 46:37, 43, 44, 46, 47, 55. 1899.

Randall (20). Rogers' No. 15 (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). Rogers' No. 15 (10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15).  Numbers in parentheses designate authors or publications cited in the list of references.

Agawam is the most largely grown of Rogers' hybrids both in the United States and in New York, the qualities commending it being large size of bunch and berry, rich, sweet, aromatic flavor, attractive appearance, excellent keeping qualities, vigor of vine, and capacity for self-fertilization. It has the distinction of being the only self-fertile variety among Rogers' named hybrids. For a grape having its proportion of European parentage the vine is vigorous, hardy and productive, though not equal to many pure-bred American sorts in these respects. In severe winters it is precariously hardy in New York. Its chief defects in fruit are a somewhat thick and tough skin, coarse solid texture of pulp, and, for the European palate, its decidedly foxy flavor. The vine is susceptible to the mildews and in many localities does not yield well. In some markets Agawam is highly esteemed and in making certain wines it is much sought for in blending because of the flavor it imparts. Although it ripens soon after Concord it can be kept much longer and really improves in flavor the first few weeks after picking. It may be kept in good condition in common storage until January. Not uncommonly it shrivels on the stem making a raisin. It seems to prefer somewhat heavy soils, doing better on clay than on sand or gravel. The Agawam is often sold in the markets as Salem which it resembles and by which it is surpassed in quality.

For an account of the parentage and origin of Agawam see "Rogers' Hybrids " of which this is No. 15. It was first mentioned as a variety about 1861. In 1869 Rogers gave the fruit the name Agawam from the Indian name of a town in Hampden County, Massachusetts. It has become one of the most, if not the most, popular of Rogers' hybrids and is in some sections raised to a considerable extent as a market sort. It is propagated and sold to-day by practically all nurserymen. It was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1867 and is still retained there.

Vine vigorous, usually hardy, medium to productive, subject to mildew. Canes of average length, medium in number, rather thick, moderately dark brown; nodes enlarged, somewhat flattened; internodes short to medium; diaphragm nearly thick; pith of average size; shoots tinged with green, glabrous; tendrils intermittent to continuous, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds open in mid-season, of average size, long, somewhat thick, conical to nearly obtuse. Young leaves tinged with carmine on lower side and along margin of upper side, prevailing color pale green. Leaves of average size, thick; upper surface light green, dull, moderately smooth; lower surface pale green, slightly pubescent, flocculent; leaf not lobed, terminus somewhat acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, often overlapping; lateral sinus very shallow when present; teeth shallow, wide. Flowers occasionally on plan of six, nearly self-fertile, open medium late; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens soon after Concord, keeps until mid-winter. Clusters variable averaging medium to large, short, rather broad, tapering to somewhat cylindrical, sometimes single-shouldered, somewhat loose; peduncle medium to short, nearly thick; pedicel of average length, usually thick, covered with few warts, much enlarged at point of attachment; brush very short, pale green. Berries nearly large, roundish to slightly oval, dark and dull purplish-red somewhat resembling Catawba, covered with lilac bloom, very persistent. Skin thick, tough, adheres slightly to the pulp, contains no pigment, somewhat astringent. Flesh pale green, translucent, tough, slightly stringy, rather solid, foxy, good in quality. Seeds somewhat adherent, two to five averaging four, large, rather narrow, long, often with slightly enlarged neck, blunt, brownish; raphe usually distinct, shows as a ridge in the bottom of a broad groove; chalaza rather large, distinctly above center, not obscure.

ALEXANDER.

(Labrusca, Vinifera?)

1.Dom. Enc.t 1804:291. 2. McMahon, 1806:235. 3. Johnson, 1806:164. 4. Adlum, 1823:139. 5. Ib., 1823:140. 6. Dufour, 1826:5, 9; 24; 55* Il6] 207, 247, 255. 7. Adlum, 1828:173. 8. Ib., 1828:174. 9. Prince, 1830:173, 216, 219. 10. Ib., 1830:174. 11. Ib., 1830:200. 12. Downing. 1845:253. 13. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt., 1847:462. 14. 76., 1847:468. 15. Ib., 1856:434. 16. Bush. Cat., 1883:68.

Alexander's (7, 15). Alexandria (15). Black Grape (16). Buck Grape (11). Cape (6, 15). Cape grape (12, 13, 16). Cape of Good Hope grape (9, 10). Clifton's Constantia (4, 8, 10). Clifton's Constantia (12, 16). Columbian (11). Constantia (6, 16). Madeira of York, Pa. (12). Roth-rock of Prince (16). Schuylkill Muscadel (5, 7, 13). Schuylkill Muscadel (9, 12, 14, 15, 16). Schuylkill Muscadine (12). Spring Mill Constantia (9, 12, 16). Tasker's grape (1, 2, 3, 7, 9, 12, 16). Vevay (13, 15, 16). Winne (ii). Winne (12, 16). York Lisbon (16).

Alexander is now a grape of the past but no other of our American varieties better deserves historical record. We have seen in the preceding chapters how important a part it had in the evolution of our native grapes, being one of the first wild grapes to be domesticated. The Alexander was a coarse grape with so much foxiness of flavor that it did not please the early growers, who had been accustomed to European sorts, as a table-grape, but it made a very good wine of the claret type and was grown for this purpose until displaced by the Catawba. It was wine made from this variety that Thomas Jefferson (48) pronounced '' worthy of the best vineyards of France." The early writers differ so in their estimates of the good and bad qualities of this grape that it is hard to give its true characters at this late date.

The early history of Alexander is really the history of two varieties: the Schuylkill Muscadel and the Clifton Constantia. The first of these varieties was, according to Bartram, found growing in the vicinity of Philadelphia on the hills bordering the Schuylkill River in the neighborhood of an old vineyard of European grapes. The finder, John Alexander, was gardener to Governor Penn of Pennsylvania, into whose garden he introduced it a few years before the American Revolution. It was later known as Tasker's grape from a Mr. Tasker of Maryland who cultivated it largely. The Clifton Constantia, according to Adlum, originated with William Clifton of Southwark, Philadelphia, who states that it was a chance seedling in his garden. Adlum says that the two varieties had been confused, that " they are much alike in the growth of the vine and the color of the grape but the Schuylkill has rather the largest berries and is sweeter, and generally has a small shoulder or branch with four or five grapes on it growing out from the top of the bunch." Prince also describes the varieties as separate, but he says " they are generally cultivated and considered as synonymous." Later writers consider the two grapes identical.

Peter Legaux, the promoter of a vineyard company at Spring Mill, about fourteen miles from Philadelphia, secured some vines of the Clifton Constantia from Clifton and later introduced it under the name of Cape grape stating that he had secured it from the Cape of Good Hope. Whether he did this purposely and with intent to defraud or whether he had accidentally mixed the cuttings secured from Clifton with some of a large number of cuttings which had come from abroad will never be known. When reproached for his deception he denied that this variety was a native and continued to assert that he had secured it from the Cape of Good Hope. In this he was strongly supported by Dufour who says: "I will also try to save the character of our Cape grapes from being merely wild grapes, because some are now found in the woods." Legaux's advertisement of this variety had the effect of making it known at least and it is the opinion of writers of that day that many were induced to try this grape under the supposition that it was from the Cape of Good Hope who would have scorned it had they supposed it to be a native. It came to be considerably planted in all parts of the United States; was early introduced into the West and preceded the Catawba as the popular grape around Cincinnati. It was found worthless in New England and New York, the season not being long enough to mature the fruit. With the introduction and dissemination of Catawba it was gradually dropped from cultivation, the Catawba being superior in quality, more resistant to rot and mildew and slightly earlier. It is now unknown and it is doubtful if there are any living vines in cultivation.

Alexander is generally considered a variety of Labrusca but there is much evidence to show that it is a hybrid of Labrusca and Vinifera, This was the opinion of some of the earlier writers but later it was discredited. Bartram gives as one of the distinguishing characters of Vinifera and American vines that the first show oval berries while the latter do not, but he makes an exception of Alexander. Why this should be an exception does not seem apparent unless it be credited to hybridity. Furthermore, the season of Alexander, which is very late, would also indicate foreign blood; a grape native of the vicinity of Philadelphia would supposedly be able to ripen itself in that locality, a thing that the Alexander seldom did perfectly, and it is spoken of in southern Indiana as being very late. Its place of origin ("in the vicinity of an old vineyard of European kinds ") would indicate that there was an opportunity for hybridization to take place. The descriptions strongly suggest some of the coarser-textured of Rogers' hybrids.

This solution, if it be accepted, would account for the difference of opinion as to its origin. Bartram and Prince could see enough of the characters of the native in a hybrid so that they could be deceived into claiming it as a native, and Dufour on the other hand could see enough of the Vinifera characters so that he felt there was no question as to its being of foreign origin.

Downing gives what is probably the most complete description of this variety we now have, although it was made from fruit raised some distance farther north than where the variety matures properly. He says: " It is quite sweet when ripe and makes a very fair wine but it is quite too pulpy and coarse for table use. The bunches are more compact and the leaves much more downy than those of the Isabella. Bunches rather compact, not shouldered. Berries of medium size, oval. Skin thick, quite black. Flesh with a very firm pulp, but juicy, and quite sweet and musky, when fully ripe, which is not till the last of October/' Dufour speaks of the berries ripening unevenly, requiring the green ones to be picked out before sending to the wine press.

ALEXANDER WINTER

(Labrusca, Vinifera?) 1. N. Y.Sta. An. Rpt., 11:613. 1892. 2.1b., 14:275. 1895. 3. 76., 17:526, 548, 553. 1898.

Alexander Winter is chiefly valuable because of the length of time it will keep. As its name implies it is a winter grape. The flavor is most excellent and when well grown the appearance of bunch and grape is attractive. Another desirable quality is that the average number of seeds to the berry is small, being only two. The great defect of the variety is that, even with cross-pollinization, perfect clusters do not form. There are many green berries, and when ripe there are always some small seedless berries indicating imperfect fertilization. Vine and foliage indicate Labrusca parentage but the fruit suggests an admixture of Vinifera. Although rarely found in the gardens and vineyards of New York, Alexander Winter is well worth a place in the garden of the amateur and of the grape-breeder because of its excellent keeping qualities.

Alexander Winter was originated by S. R. Alexander, Bellefontaine, Ohio, from a lot of mixed seed planted in 1884. It was received at this Station in 1892. It seems not to have been tested elsewhere and is not generally handled by nurserymen.

Vine vigorous, injured in severe winters, productive. Foliage irregularly roundish, dark green. Flowers open in mid-season or earlier; stamens reflexed. It cannot be relied upon to set perfect clusters when standing alone and even when growing in a mixed vineyard fails to set fruit well. Fruit ripens about with Salem, keeps a long time in edible condition. Clusters above medium to small, very heavily shouldered, loose, contain many small seedless fruits. Berries variable in size, the fully developed fruits averaging medium to large, roundish, dull, light and dark red, covered with thin lilac bloom or at times with faint tinge of grayish-blue, persistent. Skin covered with scattering dark-colored dots, rather thick but tender. Flesh tender, vinous, with indications of Vinifera parentage, sweetish to agreeably tart, flavor pleasing, good to very good in quality. Seeds large, few in number; raphe sometimes shows as a raised cord.

(I) ALICE.

(Labrusca.) 1.  Bush. Cat., 1894:84.

Alice is one of two New York seedlings of this name offered grape-growers, neither of which is worth a permanent place in viticulture. This grape is a white seedling of Martha, and much resembles that variety. It was originated by J. A. Putnam, Fredonia, New York, who writes that the vine was first fruited in 1890. On account of its close resemblance to Martha it was generally considered unworthy of perpetuation and is now practically obsolete.

(II) ALICE.

(Labrusca, Aestivalis?, Vinifera?)

1. Rural N. Y.t 46:36. 1887. fig. 2. 76., 47:161. 1888. 3. Atner. Gard.y 9:7. 1888. fig. 4. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:613. 1892. 5. Amer. Card., 16:423. 1895. fig. 6. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1895:233. 7. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt.t 14:275. 1895. 8. Minn. Hort. Soc. Rpt.t 1896:134. fig. 9. Rural N. Y., 56:662, 679. 1897. 10. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:526, 548, 553. 1898.

A brief record of the origin, history and gross characters of Alice is herewith given. The grape is of little value in New York.

This variety was found growing near an old stone wall by Ward D. Gunn of Clintondale, Ulster County, New York, and was transplanted into his vineyard in the spring of 1884. It was introduced by F. E. Young of Rochester. This is a Labrusca, with a few characters that indicate Aestivalis and Vinifera blood. ;

Vine vigorous to medium, hardy, produces fair crops. Leaves medium to large, sometimes strongly rugose, with lower surface heavily pubescent. Flowers self-fertile or nearly so, open in mid-season; stamens upright. Fruit ripens with Concord or slightly earlier, the different clusters varying in season of ripening, ships well and keeps in good condition far into the winter. Clusters intermediate in size, usually with a small single shoulder, medium to compact. Berries above medium to small, roundish although frequently strongly compressed on account of compactness of cluster, rather dull, pale red, somewhat lighter than Catawba, covered with thin lilac bloom, persistent. Skin very thick. Flesh tender, vinous, somewhat foxy, sweet at skin to agreeably tart at center, good in quality, resembling Diana or Catawba. The seeds, which are few in number, often show a rough granular, warty surface around the chalaza.

ALLEN'S HYBRID.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Mag. Hort., 20:474. 1854. 2. Ib., 21:182. 1855. 3. Essex Inst. Proc, 1:195. 1856. 4. Mag. Hort., 26:66. 1860. 5. Am. Pont. Soc. Cat., 1862:90. 6. Strong, 1866:330. 7. Mead, 1867: 176, 187, 194. fig. 8. Ga. Sta, An. Rpt., 13:320. 1900. 9. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:40. 1901.

A half century ago Allen's Hybrid was the vine of promise in America. It was the first named hybrid between Vitis labrusca and Vitis vinifera to be disseminated and as such awakened the slumbering hopes of the horticulturists of a continent. American grape-growers had all but given up the expectation of ever growing the European grape in the New World when Allen announced this hybrid. Auspicious hope! Grape-growers everywhere hybridized grapes and the growing of the vine received an impetus surpassed only by that of the introduction of the Concord. Botanists and horticulturists had doubted the possibility and the practicability of crossing the Old World grape with the New World species, when this variety removed the doubt and led them to hope that we were to have varieties of grapes in America possessing many of the coveted characters of the grapes of Europe.

After its introduction the variety was tested wherever grapes were: grown in the United States and Canada, and for a generation. Its high quality, entirely free from what was then considered objectionable foxiness, handsome appearance, with some other qualities of its Vinifera parent, at first indicated that it was a most valuable acquisition; but it soon developed the tenderness of vine and susceptibility to fungi and insects which have come to be the distinguishing marks of the primary hybrids of native species and the European grape. Its cultivation has long since ceased and it has now a place only in the history of American grape-growing. It has been one of the parents of a number of other grapes, chief of which is Lady Washington, produced from a cross between Allen's Hybrid and Concord. The grape is lost to cultivation but the name should be perpetuated as commemorating one of the great events in American viticulture.

Allen's Hybrid was originated by John Fiske Allen of Salem, Massachusetts. In the winter of 1843-44 he fertilized the blossoms of an Isabella vine growing in a greenhouse with pollen from Chasselas de Fontainbleau. Seeds were produced and planted the next year the vines of which began to fruit in 1853 and 1854.  One of these seedlings of greater merit than the others was saved and named Allen's Hybrid; the others were destroyed.

"The vine is not hardy, and requires winter protection, but is vigorous and productive, ripening quite early, and in sheltered situations is a desirable variety. Bunch medium to large, shouldered, compact; berry medium to large, round, sometimes depressed; skin thin, white, changing to pale yellow when fully ripe; flesh tender, juicy, sweet, rich, with a delicate slightly vinous flavor, and one of the best in quality." (65)
[more information in 1862 U.S. Ag Report. -ASC]

AMBER QUEEN.

(Vinifera, Riparia, Labrusca.)

1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1870:33, 2. Ib., 1873:101. 3. Bush. Cat., 1883:70. 4. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 8:342. 1889. 5. Ib., 17:548, 552. 1898. 6. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:42, 44, 46, 76. 1899. 7. Ga. Sta. But., 53:40, 1901.

Amber Queen is interesting chiefly as having sprung from three species, Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca and Vitis riparia, and as showing the characters of all in some degree. The fruit strongly indicates the Vinifera parentage, the continuous tendrils Labrusca, and the vine, in vigor of growth and several botanical characters, shows its descent from Riparia. The variety has never been much grown, and when cultivated could be best characterized by its faultsof not setting fruit well, susceptibility to mildew and black-rot and of unproductiveness. It is, however, reasonably successful in especially favorable localities.

The variety was first exhibited at a meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1870. It was originated by N. B. White, Norwood, Massachusetts, from seed of Marion fertilized with Black Hamburg. Bush questions this parentage owing to the fact that Amber Queen frequently shows continuous tendrils. In the vineyard of this Station, however, Marion shows continuous as well as intermittent tendrils, indicating that it would be quite possible for the Amber Queen to have inherited its aberrant tendrils from that source.

Vine a strong grower, usually hardy, produces light crops except in favored locations, both leaves and fruit subject to attacks of fungal diseases. Leaves above medium size, roundish, rather thick. Flowers sterile or nearly so, practically incapable of setting fruit when self-fertilized, open about in mid-season and bloom a long time; stamens reflexed. Fruit variable in season of ripening, sometimes before, at other times after Concord, usually requires more than one picking to secure the fruit at its best, does not keep well as the berries soon wither. Clusters variable in size but not large, usually loose and open but sometimes compact. Berries not uniform in size, roundish to oval, dark red covered with more or less lilac bloom, somewhat resembling Catawba in color, not very firm as the berries soon shrivel, persistent. Flesh very juicy, soft and tender, mildly sweet at skin to acid at center, good to very good in quality. Seeds variable in size, frequently with enlarged neck; chalaza distinctly above center.

AMBROSIA.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.) 1. N. Y.Sta. An. Rpt., 10:494. 1891. 2.1b., 11:614. 1892. 3.1b., 17:526, 545, 547, 553. 1898.

Ambrosia is a New York seedling which, though introduced nearly twenty years ago, has not found favor with grape-growers. In quality, while hardly worthy of its name, it ranks high and for this reason may be worth a place in the vineyard of the amateur. On the Station grounds it shells badly, differing in this respect from its supposed parent Salem.

The variety was originated by Alfred Rose of Penn Yan, New York, from seed of Salem, planted in 1884. It was received for testing by this Station in 1888. There are no records of its having been tested elsewhere.

Vine vigorous, healthy, usually hardy, moderate^ productive. Leaves intermediate in vsize; lower surface heavily tinged with bronze. Flowers occasionally on plan of six, fertile, open in mid-season or earlier; stamens upright. Fruit ripens about with Concord or Delaware, appears to keep well. Clusters large to medium, broadly and irregularly tapering, sometimes blunt at ends, usually not shouldered or shoulder when present small and short, compact to medium. Berries large to above medium, slightly oblate, attractive green changing to a yellow tinge, covered with a more or less gray bloom, drop from clusters easily. Flesh rather transparent and tender, mild, sweetish from skin to center, pleasant-flavored but somewhat variable in flavor and quality, ranking from medium to very good. Seeds separate readily from the pulp, quite large; raphe often shows as a partly submerged cord.

AMERICA

(Lincecumii, Rupestris.)

I. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:614. 1892. 2. An. Hort., 1892:176. 3. Husmann, 1895:116, 125. 4. iV. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:276. 1895. 5. 76., 17:526, 548, 553, 1898. 6. Tex. Sta. Bul., 48:1149, 1152. 1898. fig. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:29. 8. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:43, 45, 46, 47. 1899. 9. Ga. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:320. 1900. 10, Tex. Sta. Bul., 56:263, 274. 1900. fig. 11. Rural N. Y., 60:614. 1901. 12. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1904:305.

America is illustrated and described in The Grapes of New York chiefly because of its possible value in breeding work. It may also be worth growing in a limited way in this State for wine-making as it is reputed by all who have tried it to be one of the best native grapes for a dark red wine and to make a very good port. The notable qualities of the variety as it grows at Geneva are: Vigor of growth, health of foliage, persistence of berries, high sugar content and the peculiar flavor of the fruit, liked by some and not by others. At least it can be said that the taste of America is new to northern grape-growers; and, since it wholly lacks the foxy taste and aroma of Labrusca, it offers possibilities for breeding varieties lacking the distinguishing flavor of Concord and Niagara. This variety would probably be somewhat objectionable in northern markets as a table fruit because of the highly colored juice, which stains the hands and the lips. The flavor is decidedly that of Vitis rupestris.

Its originator claims for America great resistance to heat and cold; and our experience, though limited, confirms the claim. So, too, it is said to be a suitable stock upon which to graft Vinifera varieties to resist phylloxera, a matter concerning which our experience in this region offers nothing, though the parentage strongly suggests such resistance to be the case. The vigor of the vine and the luxuriance of the foliage, probably still more marked farther south, cannot but make it an excellent sort for arbors. But the fact must be emphasized that America is preeminently of interest to the northern grape-grower because it gives him an opportunity to make use in breeding work, of the qualities of Rupestris and Lincecumii, southern species combined in this variety and thriving in the combination in northern conditions.

The grape described here was originated by Munson from seed of Jaeger No. 4J pollinated by a male Rupestris. It was received at this Station in 1892 which was practically the date of its introduction. America has been widely tested by experiment stations and the reports of its behavior are generally favorable.

Vine vigorous to very vigorous, usually hardy, produces heavy crops. Canes long, numerous, of medium size, dark reddish-brown, covered with heavy blue bloom; nodes enlarged, strongly flattened; internodes of average length; diaphragm medium in thickness; pith rather large; shoots glabrous, covered with blue bloom; tendrils intermittent; long, bifid.

Leaf-buds open in mid-season, medium to small, of average length, rather thick, conical to obtuse. Young leaves tinged on both sides, making the prevailing color rose-carmine. Leaves healthy, inferior in size, rather thin; upper surface attractive medium green, glossy, smooth; lower surface light green, hairy; veins indistinct; lobes lacking or faintly showing, terminal lobe acute; petiolar sinus moderately deep and wide; teeth of average depth and width. Flowers sterile, usually on plan of six, open late; stamens reflexed.

Fruit ripens with Concord or later, keeps well. Clusters nearly large, above medium length, broad, tapering, somewhat cylindrical, irregular, usually single-shouldered, averaging two or three bunches per shoot, usually compact; peduncle of medium length, rather thick; pedicel short, slender, covered with few, small, inconspicuous warts; brush short, thick, with reddish tinge. Berries medium to small, variable in size, roundish, attractive black or purplish-black, glossy, covered with heavy blue bloom, persistent, somewhat soft. Skin thin, very tender, adheres slightly to the pulp, contains an unusually large amount of purplish-red pigment, slightly astringent. Flesh dull white with faint reddish tinge, translucent, not very juicy, tender, not stringy, melting, spicy, vinous, sweet, good in quality. Seeds separate easily, two to five, average four, above medium size, long, of moderate width, pointed, yellowish-brown; raphe prominent, cord-like; chalaza large, slightly above center, irregularly circular, distinct.

There is a second variety under the name America, as Ricketts years ago introduced an America which has probably passed from cultivation.

AMETHYST.

(Labrusca, Vinifera, Bourquiniana.) 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt.y 1903:82.

Amethyst is one of Munson's hybrids as yet unknown to the grape-growers of New York. It is a most excellent table grape, coming after the Delaware which it much resembles in habit of growth and in fruit.

It is a stronger grower than Delaware, has proved to be as hardy, is seemingly not attacked readily by black-rot, but like the Delaware is susceptible to mildew. In quality it ranks with Delago, Brilliant, Goethe, Lindley and Delaware, all parents one or two generations removed. According to Munson it makes a good white wine. It is at least an amateur's grape, to be sought because of high quality. It was originated by T. V. Munson of Denison, Texas, being first fruited in 1898. It is a cross of Delago and Brilliant and was introduced in 1902.

Vine moderately vigorous, hardy, medium to productive, susceptible to attacks of mildew. Canes intermediate in length, number and thickness, light and dark brown deepening in color at the nodes. Leaves medium to nearly large, light green; lower surface pale green, pubescent. Flowers nearly fertile to slightly sterile, open rather late; stamens upright. Fruit ripens after Delaware, keeps well. Clusters medium to large, intermediate in length and width, usually single-shouldered, compact. Berries above medium to small, roundish to oval, strongly narrowing toward the pedicel on account of compactness of cluster, rather attractive dark red, covered with lilac bloom, usually persistent. Skin thick, of average toughness. Flesh rather tough, solid, vinous, sweetish at skin to agreeably tart at center somewhat resembling Brilliant, good to very good in quality. Seeds intermediate in size and length, often with enlarged neck.

AMINIA

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Mag. Hort.t 31:333. 1865. 2. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1865:40. 3. N. Y. Agr. Soc. Rpt., 1870:276. 4. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875:341. 5. Bush. Cat., 1883:70. 6. 111. Sta. Bul., 28:252. 1893. 7. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:526, 548, 553. 1898. 8. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:42, 44, 46, 48, 54. 1899. 9. Ga. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:320. 1900.

Rogers' No. 39 (1, 2, 3, 4). Rogers' No. 39 (5).

Aminia is deserving the recognition of a color-plate and a full description in this work because in quality it is one of the best early grapes for New York. Besides being early and of good quality it keeps well. It ripens with or a little after Moore Early and Hartford, producing berries of high quality and attractive appearance but the bunches are small, variable in size, not well formed as a rule, and the berries ripen unevenly. The vine is vigorous, not as hardy as might be wished for in New York, nor as productive as a commercial variety must be, and shows the weaknesses characteristic of all of Rogers' hybrids.

For an account of the origin of the Aminia see page 390 under " Rogers' Hybrids." In 1867 Bush secured vines of Rogers' No. jp from several different sources. When these came into bearing he found he had three different varieties. The original vine of Rogers' No. jp having been destroyed it was impossible to determine which was the correct one. Bush selected the best of these and to avoid further confusion, with the consent of Rogers, named it Aminia. But in spite of Bush's care there are still at least two different varieties cultivated under this name. Although the Aminia is found in many varietal vineyards, an examination of over forty of the leading grape nurserymen's catalogs shows only three who offer vines for sale.

Vine vigorous, not always hardy, lacking somewhat in productiveness. Canes slightly rough, long, medium in number, thickish, dark brown to reddish tinge; nodes enlarged, usually not flattened; internodes medium to long; diaphragm somewhat thick; pith large; shoots pubescent; tendrils intermittent, long to medium, trifid to bifid, persistent.

Leaf-buds open in mid-season, about medium in size and length, above average thickness, prominent, obtuse to conical. Young leaves colored on both sides, prevailing color rather bright carmine. Leaves large, of average thickness; upper surface medium green, rather dull, nearly smooth; lower surface light green, slightly pubescent; veins distinct; lobes usually three, terminal lobe acute; petiolar sinus rather deep, narrow, often closed and overlapping; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus nearly shallow, narrow; teeth somewhat shallow, inclined to wide. Flowers open in mid-season, sterile; stamens reflexed.

Fruit ripens early, just after Hartford, keeps well. Clusters medium to small, of average length, broad, irregular, somewhat conical, sometimes with a long shoulder, rather loose; peduncle long, thick; pedicel longish, not slender, broad at point of attachment, covered with few warts; brush short, thick, brownish-red. Berries range from large to small, decidedly variable, roundish, dull black, covered with blue bloom, persistent, firm. Skin rather thick, somewhat tender, adheres considerably to the pulp, contains a large amount of purplish-red pigment, slightly astringent. Flesh greenish, translucent, moderately tender, rather solid and coarse, foxy, sweet at skin but somewhat acid at center; quality good. Seeds adherent, one to six, average three and four, very large, long, fair width, sharply pointed, light brown with yellow tinge; raphe obscure; chalaza large, above center, irregularly circular to oval, distinct.

ANTOINETTE.

(Labrusca.)

I, N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt.} 1881:10. 2. Rural N. Y., 48:801. 1889. fig. 3. Bush. Cat., 1894:86. 4. TV. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 15:294. 1896. 5. Ib., 17:526, 545, 547, 553. 1898. 6. Kan. Sta. Bul.. 110:235. 1902.

Antoinette is a white seedling of Concord which, on the Station grounds, and in the State at large, has not shown sufficient merit to warrant its recommendation. It is very similar to the several other white seedlings of Concord, all of which have a decided varietal resemblance and which, except in color of fruit, have the general characters of Concord.

T. B. Miner, of New Jersey, produced Antoinette from Concord seed over thirty years ago.

Vine medium to vigorous, usually hardy, fairly productive. Canes medium to short, usually roughened. Leaves of average size and thickness with lower surface heavily pubescent. Flowers open in mid-season or earlier, fertile; stamens upright. Fruit ripens with Concord or slightly earlier, keeps well. Clusters medium to small, cylindrical to tapering, usually not shouldered, variable in compactness. Berries large to below medium, roundish, dark dull green or whitish, often with a tinge of yellow, covered with heavy gray bloom, inclined to drop from pedicel, not firm. Skin usually covered with small scattering dark dots, thin, variable in toughness. Flesh rather tough, sweetish next the skin, tart at center, slightly foxy, good to very good in quality. Seeds separate from the pulp with difficulty, not numerous, rather large, dark brown.

AUGUST GIANT

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt.f 1872:95. 2. Bush. Cat., 1883:72. 3. III. Sta. Bul., 28:252. 1893. 4. Col. Sta. Bui, 29:18. 1894. 5. Bush. Cat., 1894:86. 6. Del. Sta. An. Rpt., 7:134, 136. 1895.

The originator of August Giant has managed to secure a hybrid of Vitis labrusca and Vitis vinifera in which the fruit characters are decidedly those of the latter species. In appearance of berry and in taste, when well grown, August Giant greatly resembles Black Hamburg. The vine is unusually vigorous and, considering its parentage, is quite hardy. The foliage is thick and luxuriant, though somewhat subject to mildew. The vigor of vine, beauty of foliage, and the high quality of the fruit make the variety a desirable one for the amateur, especially where an ornamental vine is wanted. The variety needs to be grown where the fruit can have a long and favorable maturing season.

August Giant was originated by N. B. White of Norwood, Massachusetts, in 1861 from seed of an early, large-berried red grape of the Labrusca type, pollinated by Black Hamburg.


Vine very vigorous, usually hardy, not a heavy bearer, somewhat subject to mildew. Canes medium to long, numerous, thick, light to dark brown; nodes enlarged, slightly flattened; internodes below average length; diaphragm rather thick; pith large to medium; shoots slightly pubescent; tendrils continuous, medium to long, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds open in mid-season, of average size, short, rather thick, conical to obtuse. Young leaves tinged with carmine on lower side extending beyond border of upper side. Leaves medium to very large, thick; upper surface dark green, glossy, smooth, slightly rugose on older leaves; lower surface pale green to indistinct bronze, pubescent; veins rather indistinct; lobes usually three, terminal lobe acute; petiolar sinus medium to deep, narrow, frequently closed and overlapping; lateral sinus shallow to a mere notch; teeth shallow, narrow. Flowers open in mid-season, sterile; stamens reflexed.

Fruit ripens about a week later than Moore Early, keeps well. Clusters of average size or sometimes larger, medium to short, rather broad, irregularly tapering, not uniform, usually single-shouldered, loose to nearly compact; peduncle long to medium in length, somewhat thick; pedicel longish, thick, wide at attachment to berry, covered with numerous large warts; brush short, thick, greenish or with brown tinge. Berries resemble Black Hamburg in general appearance but somewhat variable, averaging large, oval to roundish, dark purplish-red or black, dull, covered with thick blue bloom, hang well to pedicel, firm. Skin of average thickness, tough, adheres slightly to pulp, contains a small amount of bright red pigment, strongly astringent. Flesh greenish, translucent, somewhat tough, stringy, agreeably tart at skin but acid at center, good in quality, resembling Black Hamburg. Seeds adherent, one to four, averaging three, large, rather broad, long, plump, somewhat blunt, light brown; raphe usually obscure; chalaza somewhat large, above center, irregularly circular, distinct.

AUTUCHON

(Riparia, Labrusca, Vinifera.)

I. Downing, 1869:530. 2. Grape Cult., 1:325, 334, 368. 1869. fig, 3. Horticulturist, 24:19 1869. 4. Ib., 25:74. 1870. 5. Grape Cult., 2:265. 1870. 6. Barry, 1872:424. 7. Horticulturist, 27:14. 1872. 8. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1881:159. 9. Bush. Cat., 1883:71. fig. 10. Minn. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1884:249. 11. Can. Cen. Exp. Farms Rpt., 1891:134. 12. Traite gen. de vit., 5:200. 1903.

Arnold's No. 5 (3). Arnold's No. 5 (1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12).

Autuchon was introduced about 1870 with great 6clat. It was heralded as the "best white grape in America, a veritable treasure." (66) Later it was grown and somewhat widely tested in France. But in neither country has it come up to expectations. In America it has proved to be somewhat tender to cold, an unreliable bearer and subject to rot and mildew. In France it shows the same weaknesses and is not as resistant to phylloxera as are other and better American sorts. The quality of Autuchon is excellent, being that of its European parent with the agreeable sprightliness of its American ancestor. According to the reports regarding it from France it makes a "wine remarkably white, vinous and fresh, slightly musky and agreeable, and of a beautiful yellow color." (66)

Autuchon was originated by Charles Arnold of Paris, Canada, from seed planted in 1859. The parents are Clinton pollinated by Golden Chasselas. It is not in the Station collection, and the following description is taken from the Bushberg Catalogue.

"Leaves dark green, very deep lobed and sharp pointed serratures; the unripe wood is very dark purple, nearly black. Bunches very long, not heavily shouldered, rather loose; berries medium size, round, white (green), with a moderately firm, but readily melting flesh, and an agreeable sprightly flavor, resembling the White Chasselas. Skin thin, without astringency. Ripens with the Delaware."

BACCHUS

(Riparia, Labrusca.)

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1879 (cited by 2). 2. Gar. Mott., 22:176. 1880. 3. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1880:238. 4. Bush. Cat., 1883:72. fig. 5. Ar. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 9:326. 1890. 6. III. Sta. Bid., 28:252. 1893. 7. Tenn. Sta. Bul., Vol. 9:167. 1896. 8. Rural N. Y., 59:7. 1900.

Bacchus is a wine grape deemed worthy by its originator to bear the name of the god of wine. It is an offspring of Clinton which it much resembles in vine and leaf characters but surpasses in quality of fruit and in productiveness. In New York Bacchus has very generally superseded Clinton though neither is extensively grown. It is vigorous, productive, hardy, free from mildew and adapted to a variety of soils; it requires a long season for full maturity and cannot therefore be well grown in northern locations though the seasons in the grape regions of New York are usually sufficiently long. The wine-makers of the State mention it as one of the most desirable grapes for a dark red wine. While it is generally too tart for a dessert grape, yet if left on the vine until frost, as late as it can hang, it becomes a good late table grape. Bacchus is one of the best, if not the best, cultivated types of Riparia, or of the Clinton group of Riparia. Its special points of merit from a broad standpoint are: Resistance to cold, resistance to phylloxera, value for wine-making, freedom from fungi and insects, productiveness, ease of multiplication, and capacity to bear grafts. For the above qualities it offers exceptional opportunities to the plant-breeder. Its most prominent limitations are: Poor quality for table use, inability to withstand dry soils or droughts and non-adaptability to soils containing much lime.

There is no question about the origin of Bacchus. It is a seedling of Clinton which, as mentioned above, it greatly resembles in every character. The variety was originated by J. H. Ricketts of Newburgh, New York, and was first exhibited by him before the American Pomological Society in 1879. It is well known in eastern United States and, as in New York, is highly thought of as a wine grape.

Vine very vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive. Canes average in length, numerous, of medium size, rather light to dark brown with some bloom at nodes which are somewhat enlarged and flattened; internodes intermediate in length; diaphragm below average thickness; pith large to medium; shoots nearly glabrous; tendrils continuous, of mean length, bifid.

Leaf-buds open early, of average size, rather short, thick, obtuse to conical. Young leaves faintly tinged with carmine on lower side only, prevailing color pale green with faint carmine tinge. Leaves medium to small, thin; upper surface dark green, glossy, smooth; lower surface dull green, not pubescent; veins indistinct; lobes three in number, terminal lobe acuminate; petiolar sinus medium to shallow, narrow sometimes nearly overlapping; basal sinus lacking; lateral sinus shallow, wide; teeth of average depth and width. Flowers open early, sterile; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens late and keeps well, hanging a long time on the vine. Clusters small to medium, below average length, rather slender, uniform,, cylindrical, often single-shouldered, compact; peduncle almost short, intermediate in size; pedicel short to medium, slender, covered with a few small warts; brush short, wine-colored. Berries variable in size, below medium to small, roundish, black, glossy, covered with a moderate amount of blue bloom, hang well to pedicels, firm. Skin thin, of average toughness, adheres only slightly to the pulp, contains much wine-colored pigment, slightly astringent. Flesh dark green, translucent, fine-grained, somewhat tough, vinous, sweet at skin to tart near seeds, with slight Riparia spiciness, of medium quality, improving as the season advances. Seeds cling to pulp, one to four, average two, often many abortive, above medium size, rather short and wide, usually plump, sharply pointed, brownish; raphe obscure; chalaza above center, pear-shaped, distinct. Must registers 950-no0.


BAILEY.

(Lincecumii, Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Rural N. Y., 50:221, 222. 1891. fig. 2. Bush. Cat., 1894:159. 3. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 142 276. 1895. 4. N. Y.Sta. An. Rpt., 17:526, 548, 553. 1898. 5. Tex. Sta. Bul., 48:1149, 1153. 1898. fig. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:29. 7. Tex. Sta. Bul., 56:275. 1900. 8. Rural N. Y., 60:614. 1901.

In the Bailey are combined characters of three species, Vinifera, Labrusca and Lincecumii characters attained in three widely separated regions, Europe, Massachusetts, and Texas. Moreover the characters of Vinifera and Labrusca have been transmitted to Bailey through Triumph, in which variety they are as well combined as in any other hybrid of the two species. The Lincecumii parent, Big Berry, is at the head of Munson's " Big Berry Family " of hybrids; brought in from the wild, it is one of the best representatives of its species. Bailey, therefore, has royal blood and if parentage counts in grapes, it should prove valuable. Unfortunately New York, at least the Station vineyard, is a little too far north for the fruit to mature well. In cold winters the vine is liable to winter injury. In seasons when the grapes have matured the appearance and quality of the fruit have been such as to recommend it. Its vigor of vine and productiveness give it additional value, and if not to be recommended for commercial plantings in this State, it can surely be named as valuable for breeding purposes. The name of the variety was bestowed upon it by its originator in honor of L. H. Bailey, known by all grape-growers for his services to viticulture.

Bailey was originated by Munson from seeds of a wild Post-oak grape called Big Berry, fertilized with pollen of Triumph. The seed was planted in 1887 and the original vine came into fruiting in 1889-90. The variety is now very generally disseminated throughout the East, and the reports of its behavior, in the North at least, generally accord with that from this Station given above.

Vine vigorous, injured in severe winters, produces good crops of fruit. Canes dark reddish-brown, of good length, of medium size and number. Leaves average in size, light green, dull to slightly glossy, with very distinct veins on lower surface which is cobwebby. Flowers open late, fertile; upright stamens.

Fruit ripens unevenly almost as late as Catawba, keeps well. Clusters rather large and long, not very broad, often blunt at ends, cylindrical to irregularly tapering, usually not shouldered but sometimes with a small, short shoulder, compact. Berries persistent, medium to large, vary in shape from roundish to ovate on account of compactness of clusters, change in color from purplish-black to black, covered with a heavy blue bloom. Skin medium to thin, strongly astringent, tough, adheres somewhat to the pulp, contains a large amount of purplish-red pigment. Flesh moderately juicy and tender, coarse, vinous, good in quality, releases the seeds rather easily. Seeds numerous, medium to above in size, moderately broad, above medium to medium length, blunt, brownish; raphe buried in a shallow, narrow groove; chalaza large, above center, circular to oval, distinct.

BANNER.

(Labrusca, Vinifera, Bourquiniana ?) 1. U.S.D.A. Yr. Bk., 1906:361. col. pi.

Banner is one of the newer offerings for pomological honors. The Station was not able to secure vines until 1906 and these have not yet fruited. So far as is known it is not grown elsewhere in the State. .Since the variety has been well spoken of by horticulturists who have seen it, and since it has been deemed worthy a place among the promising new fruits illustrated and described in the Year Book of the United States Department of Agriculture for 1906, the variety is discussed here. The technical description of it is quoted from the above reference.

The variety was originated by Joseph Bachman of Altus, Arkansas, from seed of Lindley pollinated by Delaware. The seed was planted in 1898. The originator states that he suspects a Stark-Star vine growing alongside also furnished pollen as the Lindley blossoms were unprotected.

"Cluster large, broad conical, heavily shouldered, very compact; stem short; berries globular, of medium size, adhering tenaciously to the small green peduncles; skin moderately thick, and rather tough; amber red and glossy, but covered with a profuse bloom; flesh translucent, juicy, and rather meaty; seeds few, very small, brown; flavor refreshing subacid to sweet and aromatic; quality good to very good. Season late August and early September in Franklin county, Arkansas, ten days or two weeks later than Delaware."

BARRY

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. U.S.D.A. Rpt., 1864:136. 2. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1865:40. 3. Mag. Hort., 34:345- 1868. 4. Am. Jour. Hort., 5:11. 1869- fig. 5. Horticulturist, 24:126. 1869. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 12

1869:42. 7. Grape Cult., 1:182, 326. 1869. 8. Bush. Cat., 1883:74. fig. 9. Mich. Bd. Agr. Rpt., 24:133. 1885. 10. III. Sta. Bul., 28:252. 1893. 11. Rural N. Y., 52:671. 1893. 12. Tenn. Sta. Bul.. Vol. 9:191. 1896. 13. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:526, 548, 549, 552, 553. 1898. 14. Tex. Sta. Bui, 48:1149, 1153. 1898. 15. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:370, 395. 1899. Rogers' No. 43 (1, 2, 3, 4). Rogers' No. 43 (5, 6, 7, 8, n, 12).

Barry, first known as Rogers' No. 43, was dedicated in 1869, by Rogers, to Patrick Barry, distinguished nurseryman, pomologist and viticulturist. Happily the variety is such that it should long honor the name it bears. The Barry is one of our best black grapes, resembling in berry and somewhat in flavor and keeping quality its European parent, Black Hamburg. The flavor is delicate and sweet, the flesh tender, with thin skin and unobjectionable seeds. The appearance of berry and bunch is attractive. The fruit keeps splendidly, and as this is written, on the twenty-ninth of February, leap-year, there are before the writer bunches of the Barry, kept in common storage without wrapping or other special care, which are in perfect condition. The vine is vigorous, hardy, and productive, but susceptible to mildew. The ripening season is usually said to be that of the Concord but, while it may color with the Concord it requires a longer time to ripen thoroughly and it is not at its best, or even good, unless properly matured. For the table, for winter keeping, and for an amateur grape in general the Barry may be highly recommended.

For an account of the origin of Barry see page 390 under "Rogers' Hybrids." It is first mentioned separately from the rest of Rogers' hybrids in 1864, though not named until 1869. Barry was placed on the list of the American Pomological Society in 1869 where it is still retained. It is known and grown in the garden throughout the grape regions of eastern America.

Vine vigorous, usually hardy, productive, somewhat susceptible to mildew. Canes long to very long, numerous, usually thick, dark brown to slightly reddish-brown covered with a small amount of blue bloom; nodes not enlarged, very slightly flattened; internodes intermediate in length; diaphragm of average thickness; pith medium to above in size; shoots nearly glabrous; tendrils intermittent, fair length, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds open early, of average size, short, of medium thickness, obtuse to conical. Young leaves heavily tinged with carmine on lower surface, faintly tinged along margin of upper surface, prevailing color bright carmine. Leaves large to medium, of average thickness; upper surface light green, slightly glossy, nearly smooth; lower surface pale green, somewhat pubescent; veins rather indistinct; lobes vary from none to three, terminus acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, sometimes closed and overlapping; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow and narrow; teeth shallow to medium, of average width. Flowers open in mid-season, sterile; stamens reflexed. Fruit ripens with Concord or later, keeps very late. Clusters variable in size, medium to short, very broad, slightly tapering to nearly cylindrical, upper part of cluster often subdivides into several parts making compound clusters, frequently double-shouldered, usually compact; peduncle short, medium to rather stout; pedicel above average length, moderately thick, covered with few small warts, enlarged at point of attachment with fruit. Berries large, oval to spherical, dark purplish-black to black, glossy, covered with heavy blue bloom, adhere well to pedicel. Skin rather thin, tough, adheres strongly to pulp, contains but little pigment, not very astringent. Flesh pale green, translucent, tender when ripened under favorable conditions, stringy, vinous, pleasant-flavored, sweet next the skin, agreeably tart at center, above average quality. Seeds slightly adherent, one to five, average three, nearly large to medium, usually long, of mean breadth, deeply notched, rather blunt but often with slightly enlarged neck, brownish; raphe usually obscure, sometimes showing as a faint ridge in a broad groove; chalaza nearly small, pear-shaped or circular, above center, distinct.

BEACON.

(Lincecumii, Labrusca.)

1.Ga. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:312, 321. 1890. 2. An. Hort.y 1892:176. 3. Bush. Cat., 1894:159. 4. Husmann, 1895:126. 5. Rural N. Y., 55:592. 1896. 6. Tex. Sta. Bul., 48:1149, 1153. 1898. fig. 7. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:526, 548. 1898. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:29. 9. Mo. Sta. Bid., ^6:48, 76. 1899. io. Tex. Sta. Bid., 56:275. 1900. fig. 11. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:40] 51? 53- 1901. fig.

Big B Con (7).

Beacon is another of Munson's hybrids, a cross between Labrusca and Lincecumii. It was received at this Station in 1892 and has borne fruit many times since so that there has been abundant opportunity to see grapes and vine. The variety is not especially well adapted to New York as the fruit is dull in color, lacking in quality, and shells somewhat badly. The vine is very vigorous, bearing a handsome, compact mass of foliage which retains its color and freshness throughout drouths and the heat of summer. In New York it must compete with Concord in commercial vineyards and since it does not equal that variety, taking its character as a whole, it cannot be recommended as a market grape. Its quality and appearance are such that it will never be largely grown by the amateur in the North. The variety, however, is of much interest and of possible value to the grape-breeder.

Munson produced Beacon in 1887 from seed of Big Berry (a variety of Lincecumii) pollinated by Concord, securing the first fruit in 1889. The variety has been generally disseminated among grape specialists and experiment stations and is now well known by grape-growers in general.

Vine a medium to very strong grower, not always hardy, productive. Canes short, medium to rather slender, light brown. Leaves healthy, variable in size, rather thick, inclined to dark green, sometimes rugose, with veins showing indistinctly through the slight pubescence of the lower surface. Flowers open in mid-season, on plan of five or six, nearly fertile.

Fruit ripens with Concord or later and keeps fairly well. Clusters are attractive in general appearance, of good size, rather long, medium to slightly slender, cylindrical to somewhat tapering, usually single-shouldered, compact to medium. Berries medium but variable in size, roundish, purplish-black to black, dull in appearance, covered with heavy blue bloom, inclined to shell in some localities, moderately firm. Skin medium to thin, tough, adheres strongly to pulp, contains a large amount of purplish-red pigment, astringent. Flesh moderately tender, slightly aromatic, spicy, vinous, mildly subacid to agreeably tart, often with a noticeable Concord flavor, about as good as Concord in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, large to above medium, of average length, broad, blunt to medium, slightly notched; raphe obscure; chalaza above center, irregularly circular to slightly oval.

BEAUTY. (Labrusca, Vinifera, Bourquiniana?)

1. Downing, 1881:165 app. 2. III. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1881:163. 3. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:43. 4. Kan. Sta. Bul., 14:85. 1890. 5. Bush. Cat., 1894:89. 6. Tex. Sta. Bul., 48:1149, 1153. 1898.

The grape which bears the name Beauty is an Aestivalis hybrid with Labrusca, one of Jacob Rommel's seedlings. It had the honor, according to the Bushberg Catalogue, of receiving at the Exposition at Bordeaux, France, in 1880, the praise of having produced "the best American white wine on exhibition" According to the above authority Rommel stopped its propagation and dissemination because of its susceptibility to fungi. The variety is now practically lost to cultivation and was never largely grown in New York.

Beauty is a cross between Delaware and Maxatawney originated by Jacob Rommel of Morrison, Missouri, over thirty years ago. Bush questions the parentage as given by Rommel and thinks it more likely Catawba and Maxatawney. Rommel's Beauty should not be confused with the Beauty of Minnesota, a grape from the State for which it was named, which has been discarded because of poor quality.

Vine fairly vigorous, usually healthy and hardy, produces medium to good crops. Canes long to medium, numerous, dark reddish-brown often with a strong ashy-gray tinge, surface covered with slight blue bloom. Leaves medium to rather large, dark green; lower surface covered with considerable pubescence. Stamens upright. Fruit ripens between Delaware and Catawba, keeps and ships well. Clusters intermediate in size, strongly tapering, often not shouldered, rather compact. Berries small to medium roundish to slightly oval, dull dark red somewhat darker than Catawba, covered with a large amount of dark lilac bloom, persistent, firm. Flesh tender, slightly foxy, sweet, good to very good in quality. Chalaza very distinct.

BELL.

(Riparia, Labrusca, Bourquiniana, Vinifera.)

I. Rural N. Y., 45:733. 1886. fig. 2. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1893:118. 3. III. Sta. Bui, 28:263. 1893. 4. Va. Sta. Bul., 30:106. 1893. 5. Ga. Sta. Bui, 28:290. 1895. 6. Tenn. Sta. Bul., Vol. 9:168. 1896. 7. Kan. Sta. Bui, 73:181, 182. 1897. 8. Tex. Sta. Bul., 48:1149, 1153. 1898. 9. Va. Sta. Bul., 94:142. 1898. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:31. 11. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:40, 52, 53. 1901.
Munson's No. 21 (1, 2, 4). Willie Bell (4, 9).

Bell is still another of Munson's hybrids, its parents being Elvira crossed with Delaware. Its characters are chiefly those of Elvira and in particular it has the Elvira flavor, which is somewhat against it for a table grape. As to its value for wine-making there are no records though it may be assumed that it has the same value for this purpose as the Elvira, which it so greatly resembles in flavor. From its behavior here, this Station does not recommend Bell for New York.

Munson produced Bell in 1881 from seed of Elvira pollinated by Delaware. After having tested it thoroughly the originator disseminated it and continues to offer it in his catalog; proof of its value for some of the grape regions.

Vine a strong grower, hardy, usually produces full crops although a shy bearer in some localities. Leaves vigorous, healthy, medium to very large. Flowers open before mid-season, nearly fertile; stamens upright.. Fruit ripens in mid-season or later, keeps well. Clusters intermediate in size and length, frequently shouldered, compact to medium. Berries medium to small, roundish, dull green sometimes with yellow tinge, covered with rather heavy gray bloom, persistent. Skin thin, very tender, adheres considerably to the pulp. Flesh moderately juicy and tender, sweetish at skin to tart at center, ranks about the same as Elvira in quality.

BERCKMANS

(Riparia, Labrusca, Bourquiniana.)

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1871:114. 2. 16., 1877:43. 3. Gar. Mon., 23:308. 1881. 4, Bush. Cat., 1883:75. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1889:24. 6. Ala. Sta. Bui, 10:8. 1890. 7. Ark. Sta. Bui, 39:27. 1S96. 8. Rural N. Y., 56:823. 1897. 9* N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:526, 545, 547, 553. 1898. 10. Tex. Sta. Bul., 48:1149, 1153. 1898. 11. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:37, 43, 44, 46, 48. 1899. 12. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:245. 1902.

Delaware and Clinton No. i (i).

In Berckmans, generally speaking, we have the fruit of Delaware on the vine of Clinton. Berckmans was disseminated nearly forty years ago and though the fruit is seemingly better adapted for the market than Delaware, and the vine much more vigorous, as hardy and as productive as its better known parent, yet the variety is seldom grown other than as an amateur grape. The berry and bunch resemble Delaware in shape; the fruit is of the same color; bunch and berry are larger, but the vine is not quite as productive; the flesh is firmer, making it a better shipper and it keeps better; the quality is not so good, the flesh lacking tenderness, sweetness and richness in comparison with Delaware. The vine of Berckmans is much more vigorous and is less subject to mildew than that of Delaware, but there are many reports that it suffers from leaf-hoppers and the rose bug, insects which seem inordinately fond of its foliage. The vine characters are not as good as those of Clinton. The variety seems illy adapted to some soils and in particular does not color well if not suited in this respect. In spite of its many good qualities, popular verdict has decreed that Berckmans is but an amateur's grape. The name commemorates the viticultural labors of P. J. Berckmans, a contemporary and friend of Dr. A. P. Wylie of Chester, South Carolina, who originated the variety and christened it Berckmans.

Berckmans was produced by Dr. A. P. Wylie of Chester, South Carolina, from Delaware seed fertilized by Clinton. The seed was planted in 1868 and the plant bore its first fruit in 1870, the variety being introduced some years later.

Vine similar to Clinton in growth and foliage, vigorous to very vigorous, hardy, produces average to good crops. Canes long, numerous, rather slender, light to dark brown; nodes prominent, flattened; internodes short; diaphragm below medium thickness; pith medium to above in size; shoots not pubescent; tendrils intermittent, long, bifid.

Leaf-buds intermediate in size, short, of average thickness, conical to nearly obtuse, open very early. Young leaves decidedly pale green with faintest trace of carmine, prevailing color green on both sides. Leaves medium to small, thin; upper surface light green, smooth; lower surface pale green, not pubescent; veins inconspicuous; lobes vary from none to three, terminal lobe acute; petiolar sinus medium to shallow, wide; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow; teeth intermediate in depth and width. Flowers open rather early, fertile; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens with Delaware and keeps unusually well. Clusters attractive, much like Delaware in shape and size but slightly longer and more often shouldered, compact to medium, averaging slightly looser than either parent; peduncle rather short, slender; pedicel longish, slender, covered with but few warts; brush short, light green. Berries intermediate in size, slightly larger than Delaware, roundish to slightly oval, resemble Delaware in color but somewhat darker when well ripened, covered with lilac bloom, persistent, of average firmness. Skin thin, somewhat tough, slightly adhering to pulp, contains no pigment, nearly astringent. Flesh pale yellowish-green, translucent, finegrained, tender, inclined to melting, vinous, sweet to agreeably tart, sprightly, very good in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, one to four, average three, slightly below medium in size, rather broad and blunt, brownish; raphe obscure; chalaza of average size, slightly above center, irregularly oval, distinct.

BERTRAND.

(Bourquiniana.)

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:17. 2. Rural N. Y.t 45:653, 660. 1886. fig. 3. Gar. Mon., 28:305. 1886. -fig. 4. Bush. Cat., 1894:90. fig. 5. Texas Farm and Ranch, Feb. 8, 1896:11. 6. Ala. Sta. Bul., 110:78. 1900.

Blue Seedling (i, 3). Blue Seedling (4, 5).


Bertrand is a southern variety, almost without question an offspring of Herbemont, and so far as can be judged from the descriptions of others, we not having seen the fruit, not nearly equal to its parent. The variety is hardy only as far north as Maryland and even in that State must be planted in sheltered situations.

Judge J. B. Jones, Herndon, Burke County, Georgia, found Bertrand as an accidental seedling, which had germinated in the spring of 1878. Judge Jones gives the species as being Cordifolia but Berckmans says it looks like an Aestivalis; it is now generally classed in the Bourquiniana group. The following description of this variety is compiled from various sources: Vine vigorous. Cluster above medium to rather large, usually conical, most often shouldered, moderately compact; peduncle long. Berries below medium in size, round, black with blue bloom; flesh melting, juicy, very high flavored. Skin thin, tough. Ripens late. Seeds few. Very productive in the South. Of value only for wine.

BLACK DEFIANCE.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

I. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1868:io. (No name given.) 2. Bush. Cat., 1883:75. 3. Okla. Sta, Bul., 14:6. 1895. 4. Husmann, 1895:31. 5. Mo. Sta. Bui, 46:37, 43, 76. 1899. 6. Ga. Sta. Bul.t 53:41. 1901.

Underhill's 8-8 Hybrid (2).

Black Defiance is one of Stephen Underhill's Vinifera-Labrusca hybrids, at one time quite popular as a late table grape, but now superseded by thriftier varieties. It ripens too late to be of much value in New York. When phylloxera had driven French grape-growers to look to America for varieties of grapes, and before grafting on resistant stocks was practiced in that country, Black Defiance was looked upon with much favor in France where it succeeded very well. The fruit is distinguished by the size, lustrous blackness and handsome bloom of the berry. It is now rarely cultivated in New York having been replaced by varieties more certain to mature in this State.

Stephen Underhill of Croton-on-Hudson, New York, produced Black Defiance from seed of Concord fertilized by Black Prince. It first fruited in 1866. The variety was introduced without the originator's consent.

Black Defiance is described as follows:

"Growth medium, shoots smooth; leaves large, more or less three-lobed, with uneven margin; bunches large, oblong with large base, frequently branched; berries black, decidedly acid, pulp rather firm, ripe July 22nd; defoliated on October 6, 1896. Not good for table use."

BLACK EAGLE.little pic

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1868:10. (No name given.) 2. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt.f 1875-6:22. 3. Ib.t 1876-7:32. 4. Bush. Cat., 1883:75. fig. 5. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 12:618. 1893. 6. Tenn. Sta. Bui, Vol. 9:168. 1896. 7. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:527, 548, 553, 559. 1898. 8. Tex. Sta. Bui, 48:1:149, 1153. 1898. 9. Mo. Sta. Bul.} 46:37, 42, 44, 46, 48, 76. 1899. 10. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt.} 18:370, 386, 396. 1899. 11. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:240. 1902. UnderhilVs 8-12 (4).

Black Eagle is a full brother of Black Defiance which it much resembles but surpasses for New York because it is fully three weeks earlier in ripening. On our grounds its season is about with Concord. The quality of Black Eagle is of the best, but the vine lacks in vigor, hardiness and productiveness and the fruit is susceptible to black-rot. As the color-plate shows, bunch and berry are large and attractive; bunches weighing nearly two pounds have been grown for exhibition purposes and probably there are few if any showier hybrid grapes than this when at its best. The leaf is that of Vitis vinifera, deeply lobed, of a beautiful green, and with firm texture, making with thrifty vines one of the most attractive grape plants to be found in our vineyards. The variety is self-sterile. Black Eagle has wholly failed as a commercial variety and its several weaknesses will prevent amateurs from growing it largely, yet it is far too good a grape to give up altogether and lovers of grapes should keep it in cultivation.

The variety originated with Stephen W. Underhill, Croton-on-Hudson, New York, from seed of Concord pollinated by Black Prince. It first fruited in 1866. The variety was sent out by Underhill for testing and was introduced without the originator's consent.

Vine medium to vigorous, not always hardy, not productive. Canes rather rough, medium to long, of average number, thick, approaching dark reddish-brown, covered with slight blue bloom; nodes strongly enlarged, slightly flattened; internodes above medium length; diaphragm thick; pith of average size; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, long, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds intermediate in size, short, rather thick, pointed to conical, open very late. Young leaves tinged with carmine on the under surface and along margin of upper surface making the prevailing color a light rose-carmine. Leaves of average size, medium to thick; upper surface dark green, slightly glossy, smooth to rugose; lower surface pale grayish-green, somewhat pubescent; veins not distinct; lobes five in number, terminal lobe acute; petiolar sinus deep to narrow, often closed and overlapping; basal sinus very wide and deep; lateral sinus wide at bottom narrowing towards top, deep; teeth intermediate in depth and width, Flowers open in mid-season or later, fully self-sterile; stamens reflexed.

Fruit ripens in mid-season, keeps well if picked before overripe. Clusters of large to average size, rather long, tapering, varying from single- to double-shouldered, loose to compact; peduncle longish, rather thick; pedicel long to medium, somewhat slender, covered with very few warts, enlarged at point of attachment to fruit; brush short, pale green. Berries variable in size averaging large, slightly oval, black, glossy, covered with a moderate amount of blue bloom, do not shatter, somewhat soft. Skin thin, rather tender, adheres strongly to pulp, with slight amount of wine-colored pigment, not astringent. Flesh pale green, translucent, somewhat tender, vinous, not foxy, sweet at skin to agreeably tart at center, quality good. Seeds separate easily, one to four, average two or three, rather large and broad, nearly long.

BLACK HAMBURG.Black Hamburg pic

(Vinifera.)

1. Speechly, 1791:11,179. 2. London Hort. Soc. Cat., 1830:75. 3. Hoare, 1840:142. 4. Mag. Hort., 9:245. 1843. 5. Ib., 13:43. 1847. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852:54. (For culture under glass.) 7. Horticulturist, 15:125. 1860. 8. Mag. Hort., 26:110. 1860. 9. Can. Hort., 11:59. 1888. Admiral (4). Black Gibralter (4). Black Hamburgh (2). Black Portugal of some (4). Black Teneriffe (4). Blue Trollinger (4). Bocksaugen (4). Bommerer (4). Brown Hamburgh (4). Dutch Hamburgh (4). Fleish Traube (4). Frakenthaler (4). Frankendale (4). Frankenthaler gros noir (4). Gelbholziger Trollinger (4). Gibralter (4). Hampton Court Vine (4, 8). Hudler (4). Languedoc (4). Lugiana nera (4). Malvasier of some (4). Mohrendutte (4). Pale Wooded Trollinger (4). Purple Hamburgh (4). Red Hamburgh (4, of some 2). Richmond Villa Hamburgh (8). Salisbury Violet (4). Schwarzeblauer Trollinger (4). Schwarzer Gutedel of some (4). Schwarzwelscher (4). Troller (4). Trollinger (4). Valentines (4). Victoria (4). Warner's (2, 4). Warner's Black Hamburgh (2). Warner's Black Hamburgh (4), Warner's Hamburgh (8). Weissholziger Trollinger (4). Welscher (4).

Black Hamburg is a variety of Vitis vinifera, impossible to grow out of doors in eastern America, but illustrated and described here because it is one of the parents of many hybrids with American species and because it represents, in fruit characters at least, about all that is desirable in a good grape. Since it is a standard of excellence which American breeders of table grapes have long sought to attain, we may name its points of superiority over the table grapes now grown in our vineyards. 1st. Bunch and berry are large, well-formed, and uniform. 2nd. The fruits have a higher sugar and solid content than most American grapes and keep better, ship better, make better wine and will make raisins. 3rd. The flavor, to most palates, is richer, more delicate, and lacks the acidity of some American grapes and the foxiness of others. 4th. The pulp and skin of Black Hamburg are more tender than the varieties of the species of this country and the seeds are readily separated from the pulp. 5th. The berries do not shell from the stem readily. 6th. The vines are more compact in habit, make a shorter and stouter annual growth, and hence require less pruning and training. 7th. The fruit is borne in greater quantity, vine for vine or acre for acre. Added to the above qualities which make it desirable as a parent when crosses are made between the grapes of this country and Vitis vinifera, are comparative hardiness among its kind, a short seasonal cycle of vegetation giving early maturity to fruit, ability to stand more hardships than most of its species, and especially ability to mature its fruit with as small amount of solar heat as any of its species. Its weaknesses when planted out of doors in eastern America are those of its species, which wholly prevent its successful cultivation in the vineyards of this region and make it of interest and value only in breeding and as an ideal toward which to breed.

The origin of Black Hamburg is apparently unknown. It was sent from Hamburg, Germany, to England sometime in the early part of the eighteenth century and it was in the latter country that it was given the several variations of the name Hamburg. In the north of Europe it is known as Frankendale or Frankenthal. Black Hamburg is grown in Europe chiefly as a forcing grape. It is doubtful if all the synonyms refer to one seed variety, but if not the same, they are so similar as to be difficult if not impossible to distinguish from each other.

Vine vigorous, tender, productive. Canes long, numerous, rather thick to medium, light brown but darker at nodes, covered with faint pubescence; nodes enlarged, slightly flattened; internodes short to medium; diaphragm thick; pith large; shoots slightly pubescent; tendrils intermittent, frequently several nodes with no tendrils, long, bifid to trifid, dehisce early.

Leaf-buds large to medium, rather long, somewhat thick, conical to obtuse. Leaves good size, thin; upper surface light green, rather dull, of average smoothness; lower surface slightly lighter than upper surface, with small amount of pubescence, hairy; veins moderately distinct; lobes vary from none to five, terminal lobe nearly acute; petiolar sinus often strongly urn-shaped, of average depth, nearly narrow, sometimes closed and overlapping; basal sinus shallow to narrow; lateral sinus rather deep to narrow, often notched; teeth very irregular in depth and width.

Fruit ripens early in October, keeps well. Clusters large, long to medium, rather broad, cylindrical to tapering, inclined to irregular, usually single-shouldered, nearly compact; peduncle medium to short, somewhat thick; pedicel long, slender, covered with small, numerous, prominent warts; brush short, thick, tinged with red. Berries rather large, oval to nearly roundish, dark purple to nearly black, slightly glossy, covered with faint blue or lilac bloom, do not drop from pedicel, moderate in firmness. Skin thin, tender, adheres to the pulp, contains no pigment, not astringent. Flesh pale green, tender, fine-grained, vinous, sprightly, rather sweet and refreshing, very good to best. Seeds separate easily, one to four averaging two or three, above medium size, long, rather narrow, sharply pointed, brownish; raphe obscure; chalaza intermediate in size, decidedly above center, distinct, circular to oval.

BLACK HAWK.

(Labrusca.)

1.U.S.D.A. Rpt., 1865:197. 2. Fuller, 1867:236. 3. Gar. Mon., 9:147, 214. 1867. 4. III. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1868:175. 5. Downing, 1869:531. 6. Grape Cult., 1:14, 15. 1869. 7* Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1878:482. 8. Bush. Cat., 1883:75. 9. Mo. Sta. Bui, 46:37, 42, 44, 46. 1899.

Miller's No. 4 (1, 6).

Black Hawk is a seedling of Concord which it greatly resembles but all in all does not nearly equal. It is chiefly remarkable because of its very dark green foliage which at a little distance seems almost black. It is rarely or almost never cultivated in New York.

Samuel Miller of Calmdale, Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, in the fifties produced Black Hawk from Concord seed sent to him by E. W. Bull. The stock was bought and the variety introduced by a Mr. Knox of Pittsburg.

The following description was compiled from various sources:

Vine hardy, resembles Concord except for foliage being much darker. Bunch medium to sometimes large; berry medium to above, nearly round, black, of tender flesh but hardly good in quality; sometimes shatters. Ripens with Concord or slightly before. Self-sterile. Rather late in blooming.

BLACK IMPERIAL.

(Labrusca, Bourquiniana, Vinifera.) I. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1891:127. 2. Bush. Cat., 1894:93. 3. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:41. 1901.

Black Imperial is one of Dr. J. Stayman's grapes. It has high quality and is handsome in appearance but is so susceptible to fungi as to be almost worthless and has now passed from cultivation.

Dr. J. Stayman of Leavenworth, Kansas, produced Black Imperial from seed of Dutchess some time in the eighties. The variety was first called Black's Imperial. There was another variety preceding this which is mentioned by Prince (70) and Fuller (71) in the sixties by the name of Black Imperial.

The following description is taken largely from that of the originator:

Vine usually moderately vigorous and productive. Cluster large, shouldered, compact. Berries of medium size, black, tender, juicy; flavor sweet, vinous; quality good to very good. Flowers self-fertile. Quite subject to mildew and black-rot.

BLACK PEARL.

(Riparia, Labrusca?)

1. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875:459. 2. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1876-7:90. 3. Ib.t 1882-3:49. 4. Bush. Cat., 1883:75. 5. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1884:215. 6. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:37, 43, 45, 46. 1899. Schraidt's Seedling (i, 2). Schraidf s Seedling (3, 4).

Viticulturists agree that Black Pearl is but an improved Clinton, notwithstanding the originator's statement that it came from seed of Delaware. Unfortunately the vine is not in the Station vineyard and our estimate of its vine characters is taken from the descriptions of others. According to the Bushberg Catalogue, "The vine is a vigorous healthy grower similar in appearance of growth and foliage to Elvira and Noah" The bunches and berries, as they have been sent to this Station, are larger than Clinton and of better quality though of small value as a table fruit. It seems well agreed among wine-makers that Black Pearl makes an exceptionally good red wine equalling or surpassing any other of our northern varieties for this purpose. Without doubt, from the many testimonials as to its value for wine-making, it can be highly recommended for this purpose and as a good starting point from which to breed wine grapes. So far, though grown for more than thirty years, its culture is confined to the islands in Lake Erie devoted to grape-growing and the variety can hardly be said to be known in New York. It is probably too late for most parts of New York as it ripens with Catawba.

Black Pearl was originated by Casper Schraidt of Put-in-bay, Ohio, over thirty years ago. The originator states that it is a seedling of Delaware but this has generally been discredited, as the vine is evidently of the Riparia type. Bush says it is probably a seedling of Clinton or Taylor.

Vine a strong grower, does not winter-kill, usually a good yielder, susceptible to attacks of mildew. Canes are long, numerous, and of average thickness. Leaves are intermediate in size. Flowers open in mid-season or before, sterile or nearly so; stamens reflexed.

Fruit ripens with Catawba, keeps fairly well. Clusters small to medium, larger than Clinton, medium to rather slender, tapering to cylindrical, often single-shouldered, intermediate to compact. Berries below medium to very small, roundish, oblate or frequently compressed on account of compactness of cluster, black, glossy, covered with a moderate amount of blue bloom, persistent, firm. Skin thin, tender, adheres strongly to the pulp, contains an unusually large amount of purplish-red pigment, astringent. Flesh moderately juicy, usually with a decided red tinge, nearly tender, slightly spicy, tart, medium to below in flavor and quality. Seeds, which adhere but little to the pulp, are medium to below in size, short to medium, broad, slightly notched, blunt, dark brown; raphe obscure; chalaza central, oval to circular, distinct.

BRANT.

(Riparia, Labrusca, Vinifera.)

I. Downing, 1869:532. 2. Am. Jour. Hort.t 6:91. 1869. fig. 3. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1872:553. 4. Bush. Cat., 1883:77. fig. 5. Kan. Sta. Bul.. 44:119. 1893. 6. Tex. Sta. Bui, 48:1149, 1154. 1898. Arnold's No. 8. (1, 2, 4).

Brant and Canada are full brothers and so near alike that the two are often confounded with each other. Neither has ever become popular in North America because of their susceptibility to fungi. As Riparia and Vinifera hybrids, the best of Arnold's seedlings from crosses of these two species, they are of interest and of possible value in grape-breeding. Since Brant and Canada are so nearly alike a discussion of one will suffice for both and this is reserved for Canada, the better known and more valuable of the two varieties.

Charles Arnold of Paris, Canada, produced this variety sometime in the sixties. It is a seedling of Clinton pollinated by Black St. Peters. The following description of it is taken from Downing's Fruits and Fruit-Trees of America:

"Vine strong, healthy grower. Foliage of a dark reddish green, deeply lobed. Smooth on both sides. Bunch and berry medium, black. Flesh free from pulp, very juicy, sweet, and, when perfectly ripe, rich and aromatic. Ripens early." (73)

BRIGHTON.Brighton pic

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1872:548. 2. Gar. Mon., 16:344. 1874, 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1881:24. 4. Downing, 1881:165 app. 5. Bush. Cat., 1883:78. fig. 6. Rural N. Y., 45:622. 1886, 7. I'll. Sta. Bul., 28:258. 1893. 8. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt.t 17:527, 540, 543, 545, 546, 548, 549, 552, 553, 559. 1898. 9. Ib., 18:367, 371, 386, 396. 1899. 10. Mo. Sta. Bui, 46:37- 42, 44, 45; 4et. 54-1899. 11. Mich. Sta. Bui, 169:164. 1899. I2* W- N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1899:91. 13. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1900:364. 14. Can. Hort., 27:345, 392. 1904.
Trash (12).

Brighton is one of the few Labrusca-Vinifera hybrids which have attained prominence in commercial vineyards. It has the distinction, too, of being one of the first, if not the first, secondary or attenuated hybrid of Labrusca with Vinifera, i. e., the offspring of a hybrid crossed with one of the original parents or with a variety of the same species. The parents of Brighton were Diana Hamburg, a hybrid of Vinifera crossed with Labrusca, and Concord, a pure-bred Labrusca. As we have seen, the first or primary hybrids of Vinifera with Labrusca have given grapes of high quality, but lacking in vigor, in resistance to fungi and phylloxera, and for most part infertile in bloom. The secondary hybrids have not shown the weaknesses of the primary hybrids in nearly so marked a degree but have given, in many instances, as in Brighton, Diamond and probably Delaware, varieties of nearly as high quality. It is now generally recognized by viticulturists that the secondary hybrids with Vinifera promise much more than do the primary ones and it is no mean distinction that Brighton has of being the first secondary hybrid brought about by the hand of man.

Brighton ranks as one of the leading amateur grapes in New York and is among the ten or twelve chief commercial sorts of the State. Its good points are: High quality, handsome appearance, certainty of ripening, being earlier than Concord, vigorous growth, productiveness, adaptability to various soils, and, for a hybrid, ability to withstand fungi. It is thus seen that the infusion of foreign blood has given the fruit of Brighton some of the excellencies of Vitis vinifera while the preponderance of Vitis labrusca blood has preserved the vigor and hardiness of the native species. Brighton has two serious defects which no doubt have kept it from taking higher rank as a commercial variety: It deteriorates in quality very quickly after maturity so that it cannot be kept for more than a few days at its best, hence cannot be well shipped to distant markets; and it is self-sterile to a more marked degree than any other of our commonly grown grapes. To have it at its best the fruit should be thinned.

This grape is a signal example of a variety resulting from careful and skilful work in grape-breeding. Its originator, Jacob Moore, possessed of a high degree of intelligence and an unusually keen sense of the latent possibilities in plants, with unwearied perseverance spent years in the attempt to produce grapes combining the good characters of the Old and the New World grapes. As a result of his zeal and patience we have Brighton and Diamond, the most valuable grapes of their class. Jacob Moore's demonstration of the value of the secondary hybrid, and these two grapes, must serve to commemorate a life spent in self denial, imposed poverty and comparative obscurity that horticulture might be enriched.

Brighton is a seedling of Diana Hamburg pollinated by Concord, raised by the late Jacob Moore at Brighton, New York. The original vine fruited for the first time in 1870 and fruit was first exhibited at the meeting of the New York Horticultural Society in 1872.

Vine vigorous and hardy, producing average to good crops, often subject to mildew. Canes long, numerous, thick, rather light brown; nodes slightly enlarged, usually flattened; internodes long to medium; diaphragm thick; pith nearly large; shoots glabrous, slightly pubescent; tendrils continuous, long, bifid.

Leaf-buds of average size, short, stout, conical to pointed, sometimes slightly compressed, open moderately early. Young leaves lightly tinged with rose-carmine on lower surface, strongly tinged along margin of upper surface. Leaves medium to large, thick; upper surface dark green, dull, moderately smooth; lower surface pale green, slightly pubescent; veins not distinct; lobes three when present, terminal lobe acute to acuminate ; petiolar sinus nearly intermediate in depth and width; lateral sinus shallow to medium in depth and width; teeth of average depth, narrow. Flowers open somewhat late, sometimes on plan of six, sterile; stamens reflexed.

Fruit ripens somewhat unevenly about mid-season, keeps fairly well for a short time but deteriorates rapidly after ripening. Clusters very large to medium, usually long, broadish, tapering, often heavily shouldered, loose to compact; peduncle quite long; pedicel of average length, somewhat thick, covered with few indistinct warts, broad at point of attachment to berry; brush pale green with brown tinge, thick, short. Berries irregular, medium to rather large in size, roundish to slightly oval, light and dark red, somewhat glossy, covered with dark lilac bloom, handsome, persistent, not firm. Skin thickish, very tender, adheres considerably to the pulp, contains no pigment, astringent. Flesh greenish, rather transparent, tender, slightly stringy, melting, aromatic, vinous, sweet or agreeably tart to center of berry, very good in quality. Seeds separate easily, number one to five, average three or four, above mean size, rather broad and sharply pointed, light brown with yellow tinge; raphe shows as a narrow obscure groove; chalaza large, above center, irregularly circular, distinct.

BRILLIANT. Brilliant!

(Labrusca, Vinifera, Bourquiniana.)

1. An. Hort., 1889:101. 2. Rural N. Y., 49:602. 1890. fig. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1891:151, 159. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1891:32. 5. Kan. Sta. Bul., 28:162. 1891. 6. 111. Sta. Bul., 28:259. 1893. 7. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 12:618. 1893. 8. Bush. Cat., 1894:96. fig. 9. Husmann, 1895:124. 10. Can. Hort., 18:3, 4, 58. 1895. fig. 11. Ga. Sta. Bul., 28:290. 1895. 12. Tenn. Sta. Bul., Vol. 9:170, 171, fig., 195. 1896. 13. Kan. Sta. Bul., 73:183. 1897. 14. Rural N. Y., 58:22. 1899. 15. Mo .Sta. Bul., 46:43, .48.- 1899. 16. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:396. 1899. 17. Tex. Sta. Bui, 56:275. 1900.

In Brilliant, one of Munson's grapes, from Lindley crossed with Delaware, we have a fine red grape in which the characters of the two parents are so nearly equally combined that it cannot be said which it most resembles. In cluster and size of berry, Brilliant resembles Lindley; in color and quality of fruit it is about the same as Delaware, differing from it chiefly in having more astringency in the skin and therefore not quite equal to Delaware as a table grape. The vine is strong and hardy; season about with Delaware. Brilliant does not crack or shell and therefore ships well, and has very good keeping qualities, especially on the vine, where it will often hang for weeks. The defects which have kept it from becoming one of the standard commercial sorts in New York are: Marked susceptibility to fungi but not more susceptible than Delaware; variable in size of cluster; uneven in ripening; and lack of productiveness. Brilliant is well known by amateur grape-growers in New York and is grown somewhat for the market. All in all it is probably the best known and most widely grown of Munson's varieties in this State. In favorable situations, this variety may always be expected to please the amateur, and the commercial grower will often find it a profitable sort.

The seed which produced Brilliant was planted by Munson in 1883 and the variety was introduced by him in 1887. It has been widely tested by experimenters and grape-growers and is highly spoken of, whether in the East, West, North or South.

Vine variable in growth averaging vigorous, usually hardy, not always productive. Canes long, numerous, thick, darkish-brown; nodes enlarged, usually flattened; inter-nodes long to medium; diaphragm thick; pith large, shoots pubescent; tendrils intermittent, long, bifid.

Leaf-buds somewhat large, short, thick, obtuse to conical, open late. Young leaves heavily tinged on both sides with mahogany-red changing to light carmine. Leaves medium to large, thick; upper surface dark green, dull, rugose; lower surface grayish-green, downy; veins well defined; entire or obscurely three-lobed with terminal lobe blunt to acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, V-shaped; basal and lateral sinuses obscure and shallow when present; teeth intermediate in depth and width. Flowers open medium late, fertile; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens unevenly, in season about with Delaware, keeps a long time. Clusters average larger than Delaware, intermediate in length and breadth, often blunt, cylindrical to somewhat conical, usually slightly shouldered, medium to compact; peduncle rather thick; pedicel medium to short, thick, covered with few small warts, wide at point of attachment to berry; brush short, thick, pale green with reddish-brown tinge. Berries average larger than Delaware, roundish to very slightly oval, attractive dark red, not so brilliant as Delaware but more so than Brighton, rather glossy, covered with abundant lilac bloom, adhere strongly to pedicel, firm. Skin rather thin and tough, adheres considerably to pulp, contains no pigment, slightly astringent. Flesh pale green, rather transparent, juicy, slightly stringy, inclined to tenderness when fully ripe, fine-grained, vinous, sweetish at skin but tart next the seeds, good but not equal to Delaware. Seeds cling somewhat to pulp, one to four in number, average three, rather large and broad, slightly elongated, plump, light brown; raphe obscure; chalaza large, slightly above center, irregularly circular to slightly oval, distinct.

BROWN.

(Labrusca, Vinifera?)

1. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 12:619. 1893. 2. Bush. Cat., 1894:96. 3. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:277. 1895. 4. Ib., 17:527, 548, 554. 1898. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt.t 1899:90. 6. Rural N. Y., 59:722. 1900. 7. Ib., 65:914. 1906. 8. Ib., 65:937. 1906. 9. Ib., 66:24. 1907.

Brown's Early (7, 9). Brown Seedling (5, 6, 8).

Wm. B. Brown of Newburgh gives the history of the grape bearing his name as follows: "Brown's seedling came up in my yard at Newburgh, New York, about fifteen years ago [this statement was made in 1899] near an Isabella vine. There was not and never had been any other vine in the yard at that time." The statement is further made that Charles Downing examined the vine several times and said " there was no doubt but that it was a seedling of the Isabella." Brown was exhibited at the New York State Fair in 1892 and was given a first prize. It was again exhibited at the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893 and was awarded a diploma and honorable mention. The originator states that the variety "has been exhibited in at least twenty-five fairs and has always received first prize." Since 1892 Brown has been several times described with favorable mention in the horticultural press. This variety was distributed in 1907 -to the subscribers of the Rural New Yorker as Brown's Early. In spite of the encomiums of fairs and newspapers during the past fifteen or twenty years, Brown has not received favorable recognition from the grape-growers of New York. As the variety grows on the Station grounds the quality is only good, not high, and the berries shatter badly.

Vine vigorous to medium, hardy, very productive. Canes medium to short, intermediate in number, medium to slender, moderately dark brown. Leaves of average size and thickness, healthy, rather light green, slightly glossy; veins well defined, distinctly showing through the thick bronze pubescence of the lower surface Flowers open medium early, nearly fertile; stamens upright. Tendrils continuous; diaphragm below medium to thin.

Fruit ripens about with Hartford or a little earlier, appears to keep fairly well, inclined to shatter. Clusters variable in size, averaging medium to small, of mean length, slender to medium, cylindrical to slightly tapering, usually single-shouldered, loose to medium in compactness. Berries intermediate in size, roundish to slightly oval, black, covered with rather thick blue bloom, inclined to shatter from cluster soon after ripening, of average firmness. Skin intermediate in thickness and toughness, adheres slightly to the pulp, contains a small amount of wine-colored pigment, astringent. Flesh juicy, rather tough, fine-grained, foxy, mild next the skin to slightly tart at center, good in quality but not equal to the best varieties. Seeds intermediate in size, medium to short, rather blunt, light brown; raphe buried in a shallow groove; chalaza small, central to slightly above center, circular, moderately distinct.

CAMPBELL EARLY.Campbell Early pic

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1892-3:48. 2. Rural N. Y., 52:829. 1893. fig. 3. Ib., 53:666. 1894. 4. Bush. Cat., 1894:98. fig. (Frontispiece). 5. Rural N. Y., 55:419, 658. 1896. fig. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt.t 1897:11, 48. 7. Rural N. Y., 57:182, 642. 1898. 8. Ib., 58:546, 786. 1899. 9. Mich. Sta. Sp. Bui, 27:9. 1904.

Campbell (9).

Probably no American grape has ever been more favorably received than Campbell Early, or after introduction has been disseminated more rapidly. The fact that it came from a grape-breeder who had already given viticulture several valuable varieties, with the statement that this was the result of years of experimenting and the greatest triumph of a life devoted to improving grapes, gave warrant for the enthusiasm with which it was received. Nor did first impressions belie the oft-made statement that Campbell Early represented a phenomenal advancement in grape culture. Bunch, berry and vine seemed to indicate that this was the best black American grape under cultivation. Nearly two decades have passed since Campbell Early was introduced, and though admitted by all to be a good grape, yet it has hardly met the expectations of the grape-growers who from almost every state and territory welcomed the newcomer.

The preeminently meritorious qualities of Campbell Early are: High quality when mature; freedom from foxiness and from acidity about the seeds; small seeds which easily part from the flesh; earliness of maturity, ripening nearly a fortnight before Concord; large size and attractive appearance of bunch and berry (the color-plate does not do the Campbell Early justice as to size of berry and bunch); comparative hardiness of the vine; and good shipping and keeping qualities. Campbell Early falls short chiefly in not being adapted to as many soils and conditions as are some of the varieties with which it must compete and in all but localities well adapted to it the variety lacks productiveness. In other words it is somewhat lacking in that elasticity of constitution so characteristic of Concord. Its reputation for quality has suffered, and to the detriment of the variety, because it attains its full color before it is ripe and is therefore often marketed in an unripe condition. The fruit is quite variable in size as grown under different conditions and somewhat so as grown in the same vineyard, ranging in size of bunch from very large to small, differing somewhat in shape and with some compact and with some loose clusters. The color of the berry is not as attractive as that of Concord as it has less of the waxy bloom which makes the last named sort so handsome.

But the weaknesses attributed to Campbell Early do not wholly explain why so good a variety has seemingly failed to meet expectations. Can it be that the fault is with the American grape-grower more than with the grape? American growers are not yet willing to give varieties of grapes the particular care that each may need for its best development, but seemingly prefer to grow those sorts which are cosmopolitan as to environment and which will thrive under a general treatment. It cannot be that the consumers of this fruit care for less than a dozen of the several hundred American grapes; or that under the varied conditions of half a continent over which grow a score of species of wild grapes but a meager half dozen varieties can be grown for commercial purposes. If our grape-growers were willing to give the Campbell Early, and a score of other sorts of superior merit, the special care that European vineyardists give the hundreds of varieties they successfully grow, our viticulture would not long remain confined to the culture of a few grapes of mediocre quality.

The name commemorates the services to viticulture of the originator of the variety, Geo. W. Campbell of Delaware, Ohio, who devoted a long and active life to the improvement of the grape. The variety is a seedling of Moore Early pollinated by another production of Campbell's, which was a seedling of Belvidere pollinated by Muscat Hamburg. Campbell Early bore for the first time in 1892, and was soon after introduced by George S. Josselyn of Fredonia, New York. It is now known and grown throughout the grape regions of eastern America.

Vine vigorous to medium, hardy, productive to very productive. Canes of average length and number, somewhat thick, dark reddish-brown, surface often roughened with small warts; nodes intermediate in size, flattened; internodes medium to short; diaphragm of mean thickness; pith of average size; shoots pubescent; tendrils intermittent, rather short, trifid to bifid.

Leaf-buds intermediate in size, inclined to long, slender to medium, pointed to conical, open early, young leaves heavily tinged on lower surface and along margin of upper surface with bright carmine. Leaves medium to large, thick to medium; upper surface green, slightly glossy, intermediate in smoothness; lower surface bronze to pale green, heavily pubescent; veins distinct; lobes often three in number but usually entire, terminal lobe acute; petiolar sinus rather shallow, medium to wide; basal sinus usually pubescent; lateral sinus varying from medium wide to a mere notch, frequently dentate; teeth shallow to medium, narrow. Flowers fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit variable in season, extending through a long period, becomes marketable somewhat earlier than Worden, keeps and ships unusually well. Clusters variable in size ranging from very large to medium, rather long and broad, tapering to cylindrical, frequently single-shouldered, usually two bunches per shoot, compact to slightly loose; peduncle short to medium, thick; pedicel below average in length and thickness, covered with small numerous warts; brush long, light wine color. Berries somewhat variable in size, usually large, roundish to slightly oval, dark purplish-black, rather dull as the season advances, covered with heavy blue bloom, persistent, moderately firm. Skin medium to thin, tough, does not crack, adheres slightly to the pulp, contains a small amount of dark red pigment, somewhat astringent. Flesh greenish, translucent, juicy, varying from rather tough to nearly soft, slightly coarse, not foxy, somewhat vinous, nearly sweet from skin to center, quality good and improves by hanging on the vines, superior to Concord. Seeds separate readily from the flesh, one to four, average three, of medium size and length, rather broad, light brown, often with yellowish tips; raphe obscure; chalaza intermediate in size, slightly above center, oval, obscure.

CANADA.Canada pic

(Riparia, Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Horticulturist, 22:363, 365. 1867. fig. 2. Rec. of Hort., 1868:44. 3+ Downing, 1869:533. 4. Bush. Cat., 1883:79. fig. 5. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 10:494. 1891. 6. Ib., 17:527, 548, 554, 559. 1898. 7. Traite gen. de vit., 5:182. 1903.

Arnold's No. 16 (1, 2, 5). Arnold's No. 16 (3, 4, 7).

Canada is justly considered the most desirable of Arnold's several hybrids of Riparia and Vinifera and is well known in Europe as well as in America. In France when American varieties were being largely used in the reconstruction of the vineyards destroyed by phylloxera, Canada was one of the prime favorites, because of its short period for fruit development and maturity and the comparatively high quality of the wine which could be made from it. In America it has never gained great popularity on account of its susceptibility to fungal diseases. In this respect as in some others, it shows Vinifera more than Riparia parentage; thus in shape, color and texture of foliage, in the flavor of the fruit, and in the seeds there are decided indications of Vinifera while the vine, especially in the slenderness of the shoots, and the bunch and berry, shows Riparia. If, as is surmised, there is some Labrusca in Clinton, the Riparia parent of Canada, there are no discernible traces of the first named species in this variety. Canada and Brant, its full brother, are often confused with each other but there are numerous minor differences in buds, foliage, canes, in the shape of the bunch, in the seeds and in the time of ripening which a reading of the descriptions of the two varieties will reveal. Canada has little value as a dessert fruit but makes a very good red wine, having, according to the French, a most agreeable bouquet, but in America it is surpassed by other wine grapes in so many characters that it can probably never attain a place in this country for other than breeding purposes.
The grape to which Arnold gave the name 'Canada' is a seedling of 'Clinton', a Labrusca-Riparia hybrid, fertilized by Black St. Peters, a variety of Vitis vinifera. Arnold planted the seed which produced Canada and its brother Brant about 1860. During the decade that followed the variety was sent out as Arnold No. 16, but as it became more widely distributed the name was changed to Canada.
Vine medium to very vigorous, hardy, not always healthy, usually productive. Canes long, numerous, variable in size but averaging slender, nearly ash-gray at inter-nodes to reddish-brown at nodes, covered with a slight blue bloom; nodes enlarged, not flattened; internodes above medium to short; diaphragm of average thickness, rather large; shoots strongly pubescent; tendrils intermittent, nearly short, trifid to bifid.

Leaf-buds intermediate in size, short, of average thickness, conical to obtuse, open rather late. Young leaves pale green with faintest trace of carmine, prevailing color green on upper and lower sides. Leaves intermediate in size, medium to thin; upper surface light green, nearly smooth; lower surface pale green, hairy; veins obscure; lobes five in number, often obscure, terminal lobe acute to acuminate; petiolar sinus deep, medium to narrow; basal sinus variable in depth and width; lateral sinus usually deep and narrow when well defined; teeth deep, wide. Flowers occasionally on plan of six, somewhat fertile to partly sterile, open moderately early; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens in mid-season or later, keeps fairly well. Clusters intermediate in size, long to medium, rather slender, uniform, often strongly cylindrical, sometimes single-shouldered, very compact; peduncle short, slender; pedicel long, slender, nearly smooth; brush short, light brown. Berries not uniform, average medium to small, roundish when not compressed by compactness of cluster, attractive purplish-black to black, glossy, covered with heavy dark blue bloom, persistent, firm. Skin thin, does not crack, rather tough, adheres but slightly to the pulp, contains a slight amount of pigment, not astringent. Flesh rather dark green, very juicy, fine-grained, somewhat tender when fully ripe, spicy, pleasant vinous flavor, nearly sweet to agreeably tart, ranking medium to above in quality. Seeds separate readily from pulp, one to three, average two, intermediate in size and breadth, of average length, blunt, light brown; raphe completely obscure; chalaza intermediate in size, slightly above center, oval, distinct, somewhat obscure.

CANANDAIGUA.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

Canandaigua has not been generally distributed and would not be mentioned here were it not for its exceptional keeping qualities. To test the keeping qualities of grapes in common storage, 265 varieties were put in the fruit house at this Station in the fall of 1907. The test ended April 16, 1908, when it was found that Canandaigua was in the best condition of all varieties. Its quality is very good at picking time but seems, if anything, to improve in storage, and it was as good at the end of the test as at the beginning. Its vine characters are those of Labrusca-Vinifera hybrids and such, as the variety grows on the Station grounds, as make it the equal of the average cultivated hybrid of these two species. The characters of the fruit, too, show plainly an admixture of Vinifera and Labrusca so combined as to make the grapes very similar to the best of such hybrids. The variety is quite worthy of trial.

Canandaigua is a chance seedling found by E. L. Van Wormer of Canandaigua, New York, growing among wild grapes. Its high quality and handsome appearance attracted his attention and the vine was put under cultivation, after which its long-keeping qualities were discovered. Vines were sent to this Station for testing in 1897. All of its characters indicate that it is a hybrid between Labrusca and Vinifera.

Vine vigorous, doubtfully hardy, medium to productive. Tendrils semi-continuous to semi-intermittent, bifid, dehisce early. Leaves large to medium, thin. Flowers sterile or sometimes partly fertile, open in mid-season; stamens reflexed. Fruit ripens after mid-season, keeps unusually well. Clusters variable in size, usually heavily single-shouldered, loose to medium. Berries large to medium, slightly oval to roundish, black, covered with a fair amount of blue bloom, persistent. Flesh firm, sweet and rich, good in quality, improving as the season advances. Seeds often long, with enlarged neck; raphe shows as a partially obscured cord in a medium deep groove; chalaza above center, distinctly pear-shaped.

CAPTAIN.

(Lincecumii, Rupestris, Labrusca, Vinifera.) 1. Rural N. Y., 60:637. 1901. 2. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1904:306. 3. Munson Cat., 1906-7:16.

Captain has not made a good showing in the Station vineyard and we have no reports of it from other parts of the State. The clusters are large and long but very loose and unattractive in appearance, and the fruit ranks low in quality. We are forced to conclude, judging from the several seasons the variety has fruited on these grounds, that it is of little value in New York. The breeding of Captain is such that it could hardly be expected to thrive in this latitude.

Captain was produced by T. V. Munson from seed of America fertilized with R. W. Munson.

Vine vigorous, hardy, moderately productive. Canes long to medium, numerous, covered with rather thick blue bloom; tendrils intermittent, bifid and trind. Leaves very large to medium, thick, not pubescent but very hairy along ribs. Flowers semi-fertile, open rather late; stamens upright. Fruit ripens later than Concord, does not keep long although it ships well. Clusters large to above medium, long, slender, sometimes double-shouldered, very loose. Berries very large to below medium, inclined to roundish, black, covered with heavy blue bloom, persistent. Skin contains a large amount of purplish-red pigment. Flesh medium juicy, coarse, tender, lacks character, tart from skin to center, fair in quality. Seeds numerous, separate easily from the pulp.

CARMAN.Carman pic

Lincecumii, Vinifera, Labrusca, Bourquiniana?

1.Gar. Mon.y 28:304. 1886. 2. Rural N. Y., 50:221, fig., 643, 690. 1891. 3. Ib., 51:147, 607, 774. 1892. fig. 4. Husmann, 1895:127. 5, Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1897:20. 6. N. Y. Sta. An. Rptn 17:548, 554. 1898. 7. Tex. Sta. Bul., 48:1149, 1154. 1898. fig. 8. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:38, 43, 45, 49. 1899. 9. Rural N. Y., 59:674, 690, 752, 770, 802, 819. 1900. 10. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:41, 51, 52, 54. 1901.

The Carman is another grape having the characters of three species et Vitis lincecumii, V. labrusca and V. vinifera and hence of interest to grape improvers at least. In the twenty-three years it has been known in New York it has not become popular with grape-growers chiefly because it ripens too late for this region and when ripe does not attain the high quality ascribed to it elsewhere. Its most valuable character is that of long keeping, whether while hanging on the vine or after harvesting.

T. V. Munson of Denison, Texas, raised Carman from seed of a wild Post-oak grape taken from the woods, pollinated with mixed pollen of Triumph and Herbemont. It was introduced in 1892 and placed on the American Pomological Society fruit catalog list in 1897. The variety was named in honor of E. S. Carman, for many years editor of the Rural New Yorker, and a plant-breeder of note.

Vine very vigorous to medium, hardy, lacking in productiveness. Canes long, numerous, thick, brown to reddish-brown; nodes but slightly enlarged, flattened; inter-nodes long to medium; diaphragm somewhat thick; pith above medium size; shoots very pubescent; tendrils intermittent, long, trifid.

Leaf-buds rather large, nearly short, thick, conical to obtuse, open rather late. Young leaves slightly tinged with rose on upper and lower sides. Leaves in good condition until injured by frost, large, thick; upper surface light to dark green, somewhat glossy, older leaves rugose; lower surface pale green, pubescent; veins indistinct; terminal lobe acute to obtuse; petiolar sinus deep to narrow; basal sinus often absent or shallow; lateral sinus medium to shallow when present; teeth intermediate in depth and width. Flowers on plan of five or six, fertile or nearly so, open very late; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens just before Catawba, an excellent keeper. Clusters variable in size, of average length and breadth, tapering to cylindrical, frequently single-shouldered, usually compact; peduncle above medium length and thickness; pedicel short, slender, smooth with very slight swelling at point of attachment to berry; brush short, slender, wine-colored. Berries inferior in size, roundish to slightly oblate, dark purplish-black to black, glossy, covered with a fair amount of blue bloom, persistent, firm. Skin rather thin, tough, nearly free from pulp, contains little or no pigment, not astringent. Flesh yellowish-green, not juicy, somewhat tender when fully ripe, has some Post-oak flavor, vinous, spicy, sweetish at skin to tart next the seeds, good to very good. Seeds separate easily from pulp, one to four, average two or three, small, of mean length and breadth, blunt, brownish; raphe sometimes cord-like; chalaza intermediate in size, slightly above center, oval to pear-shaped, distinct.

CATAWBA.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Adlum, 1823:109, 139. 2. Ib., 1828:173. 3. Ib., 1828:176. 4. Prince, 1830:175. 5. Ib., 1830:180. 6. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt., 1845:312, 938, 939. 7. Ib., 1847:462, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 469. 8. Mag. Hort., 15:513. 1849. 9. West. Hort. Rev., 1:15. 1850. 10. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt., 1851:48, 49, 51. 11. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852:54. 12. Buchanan, 1852:23, 71, 96, 106. 13. Elliott, 1854:244. 14. Hooper, 1857:274. 15. Horticulturist, 16:120. 1861. 16. Mag. Hort., 28:506. 1862. 17. Ib., 29:73. 1863. i3. Gar. Mon., 5:73, 74, 184. 1863. 19. N. Y. Ag. Soc. Rpt., 1864:42. 20. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1867:43. 21. Fuller, 1867:220, 241, 248. 22. Gar, Mon., 9:214. 1867. 23. Horticulturist, 23:298. 1868. fig. of leaf. 24. Downing, 1869:533. 25. Barry, 1872:421. 26. Gar. Mon., 14:167. 1872. 27. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1875-6:72, 73. 28. Bush. Cat., 1883:80. -fig. 29. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt.t 1883:118. 30. Am. Gard., 12:581. 1891. 31. Gar. and For., 8:487. 1895. 32. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 15:432. 1896. 33. Ib., I7:527] 54o, 543; 544, 54$, 552. 1898. 34. Ev. Nat. Fruits, 1898:53. 35. V. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:367, 374, 386, 396. 1899. 36. Mo. Sta. Bui, 46:38, 43, 44, 45. 1899. 37. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:235. 1902. 38. Rural N. Y., 61:722. 1902. 39. Traite gen. de vit., 6:282. 1903.

Arkansas (13). Catawba Tokay (4, 13, 18, 24, 39). Cherokee (15). Fancher (?24, 39). Keller* s White (39). Lebanon Seedling (13, 18). Lincoln (9). Mammoth Catawba (39). Mead's Seedling (39). Merceron (39). Michigan (16, 17). Michigan (24, 39). Muncy (3). Muncy Pale Red (5). Muncy, pale red? (4). Omega (39). Red Muncy (4?, 13, 18, 24, 28, 39). Rose of Tennessee (18). Saratoga (?24, 39). Singleton (13, 18, 28, ?39). Tekomah (39). Tokay (i). Tokay (4, 28, 39). Virginia Amber (18). White Catawba (39).

From many points of view the Catawba is the most interesting of our American grapes. The elasticity of constitution which enables it to adapt itself to many environments and therefore to succeed in a vast region; its possible existence for centuries in the wild state, for the records of a century have not divulged the secret of its origin, of its ancestry, or of its introduction; its high quality and attractive appearance which give it intrinsic value as a table grape and for making wine; the fact that it was our first great American grape and that after a century it is still one of the four leading varieties of grapes cultivated in eastern America and that after this lapse of time it is the chief of all northern varieties for wine-making; all these make Catawba of prime interest to the grower of American grapes. The Catawba, too, has had the rare distinction of having a poet, Longfellow, sing its praises:

"Very good in its way is the Verzenay

Or the Sillery, soft and creamy, But Catawba wine has a taste more divine,

More dulcet, delicious and dreamy. There grows no vine, by the haunted Rhine,

By the Danube or Guadalquiver, Nor island or cape, that bears such a grape

As grows by the beautiful River."

In Chapter II, American Grapes, we have seen how important a part the Catawba played in the first grape regions of this country. It is still the leading grape along the shores of Lake Erie in northern Ohio, and about the Central Lakes of New York. In the latter region immense areas are devoted to this variety, the product going to the general market and to the wine-cellars where it is the chief sort used in the making of champagne. Its characters are such that it is not too much to say that did it but ripen two weeks earlier in the other grape regions of New York, the Chautauqua, Hudson and Ontario regions, the Catawba would rival the Concord. Because of late ripening in New York this variety is at its best only about the Central Lakes and on land extending back from the water to an altitude of one hundred feet above the lake surface; here as fine Catawbas are grown as anywhere in the world. As to soil, it thrives in sand, gravel or clay provided there be an abundance of food and humus, good drainage and plenty of bottom heat.

Of all the commercial grapes grown in New York Catawba is the best keeper, lasting until March or later. Because of its fine quality it often brings a higher price than other varieties and its reputation as a dessert grape would be still better were it not too often picked before fully ripe and therefore sour and unpalatable. The Catawba is the standard red grape in the markets, and other red varieties are often sold under its name. It makes a good light-colored wine, which as has been said, is largely used as a base for champagne. The vine is vigorous, hardy and productive but the foliage and fruit are susceptible to fungi and this constitutes the chief defect of the variety and accounts for the decline and the passing out of Catawba in many of the grape regions of the past in the United States and its unpopularity in some of the grape regions of the present. In its botanical characters, in its adaptation, and in its susceptibilities it suggests Vitis vinifera crossed with Vitis labrusca, a possibility to be discussed in a later paragraph.

The characters of Catawba seem readily transmissible to its offspring and, beside having a number of pure-bred descendants which more or less resemble it, it is one of the parents of a still greater number of crossbreeds which, as a rule, inherit many of its characters. As with Catawba, most of its progeny show Vinifera characters; as intermittent tendrils, the Vinifera color of foliage, a vinous flavor wholly or nearly free from foxiness, and the susceptibilities of Labrusca-Vinifera hybrids to certain insects, fungi, and environmental conditions.

Catawba was introduced by John Adlum of the District of Columbia about 1823. Adlum secured cuttings of this variety from a Mrs. Scholl of Clarksburgh, Montgomery County, Maryland, in the spring of 1819. This vine had been planted by Mrs. Scholl's husband, who had since died. He had always called it Catawba, but the family did not know from what source it had been secured. Owing to the statement of a German priest that it was the same as the Tokay of Hungary, Mr. Adlum called it by that name. Some years later, when he found this to be a mistake, he changed the name back to Catawba. Adlum found the same variety on a trellis on land belonging to a Mr. J. Johnston, near Fredericktown, Maryland. He also found a similar variety on a farm of his in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania, which he introduced under the name of Muncy. Later these two varieties were judged to be identical. Neither Adlum nor Prince was able to trace the origin of Catawba, though both were among the chief viticulturists of their day, were instrumental in distributing this variety, and had correspondents in all parts of the Union.

In 1850, S. Mosher of Saloma Springs, Kentucky, wrote an article in the Western Horticultural Review, giving an account of the finding of the original vine by Dr. Solomon Beach, in 1821, on the farm of William Murry, about ten miles from Asheville, Buncombe County, North Carolina. The Murrys informed Beach that the grape was an old variety in the neighborhood and that cuttings and roots had been sent to various places. This story was later confirmed by Ravenel, who talked with a son of the original Murry and was told that General Davy, in 1807, then United States Senator from South Carolina, had secured some of the vines and had carried some of them to Washington. This would account for its falling into the hands of Adlum. It must be said, however, that it appears strange that none of the many correspondents of Adlum or Prince, some of whom lived not very far from where the Catawba was supposed to have been found, had heard of this variety. That the Murrys had a vine growing on their farm of peculiar excellence, is probable; that it was Catawba is by no means certain. All that can be said is that the origin of Catawba is not positively known.

Catawba was introduced into the grape region around Cincinnati by Longworth in 1825. The favorable reports of tide variety from this region undoubtedly did much to secure its early and wide distribution. In most sections it was compared with the Alexander or Cape grape, and proved itself easily the superior in both vine and fruit characters. Up to the time of the introduction of Concord, Catawba was the most popular American grape cultivated. After that time, the earlier season and superior vine of the former variety enabled it to supplant Catawba in many sections. The Catawba was placed on the grape list in the first American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1852.

The species to which Catawba belongs is uncertain. It is generally classed as Labrusca, but practically all of those who have raised large numbers of seedlings of the variety are of the opinion that it has some Vinifera blood in its composition. The general appearance of the vine would indicate Labrusca, but the vinous flavor of the fruit, the susceptibility to mildew, the appearance of occasional seeds, and the character of the seedlings, many of which resemble Vinifera more than the parent, all indicate that there is a strain of Vinifera present.

Vine vigorous to medium, hardy, productive, subject to mildew in unfavorable seasons. Canes of average length, numerous, rather thick, moderately dark brown with slight ash-gray tinge; nodes enlarged, sometimes slightly flattened; internodes of mean length; diaphragm rather thin; pith rather large; shoots slightly pubescent; tendrils continuous, of fair length, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds intermediate in size and thickness, short, conical to nearly obtuse, open moderately late. Young leaves tinged rose carmine on upper and lower sides. Leaves large, of average thickness; upper surface rather light green, dull, moderately smooth; lower surface grayish-white, heavily pubescent; veins well defined; lobes sometimes three, terminal lobe acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow to medium; basal sinus often lacking; lateral sinus of average depth, narrow; teeth rather shallow, narrow. Flowers fertile, open rather late; stamens upright.

Fruit late, one of the best keepers, lasting until March or later. Clusters large to medium, rather long, usually broad, nearly cylindrical to tapering, single-shouldered to sometimes double-shouldered, rather loose to compact; peduncle of average length, rather slender; pedicel variable in length, intermediate in thickness, covered with but few small, inconspicuous warts, considerably swollen at point of attachment to berry; brush short, pale green. Berries intermediate in size, oval to roundish, dull purplish-red, covered with a moderate amount of lilac bloom, not inclined to drop from pedicel, firm. Skin rather thick, variable in toughness, slightly adheres to pulp, with no pigment, somewhat astringent. Flesh green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, slightly tough to soft, depending upon age, vinous, often sprightly with some foxiness, sweet and rich, very good in quality. Seeds separate easily from flesh, frequently abortive, average two, medium size, broad, often with a short prominent neck, distinctly notched, blunt, brownish; raphe obscure; chalaza large, above center, oval to nearly roundish, rather distinct.


CAYUGA.

(Labrusca, Vinifera?)

1.Rural N. Y., 45:265. 1886. fig. 2. Ar. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:617. 1892. 3. Bush. Cat., 1894:100. 4. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:41, 54. 1901. fig. Sharon (3).

Cayuga is probably a descendant of Isabella through Adirondac. It resembles its parent in both its good qualities and its faults. The first are beauty, quality and earliness of fruit; the second lack of vigor, susceptibility to fungi and lack of hardiness. Although known since 1886, the Cayuga was never widely distributed in New York and is now rarely found.

The variety was originated by D. S. Marvin, Watertown, New York, from seed of Adirondac. Marvin, in a personal letter, says that the usually imputed parentage of Eumelan crossed with Adirondac is a mistake, and refers to another variety. Bush gives Sharon as a synonym of Cayuga but this appears to be an error.

Vine not vigorous, lacks in hardiness, an uncertain bearer, unproductive. Tendrils continuous, bifid. Leaves medium to small, inclined to dark green, thick. Flowers vary from nearly fertile to almost sterile, open in mid-season; stamens upright. Fruit ripens as early as Champion. Clusters variable in size, usually short and not shouldered, not uniform in compactness. Berries medium to large but some years often small and seedless, much like Isabella in shape, unattractive in color, ranging from dull reddish-purple to blackish, covered with blue bloom. Flesh tender, vinous, mild from skin to center, variable in flavor and quality, ranking from fair to very good. The seed-coat is often rough and warty.

[Not to be confused with the modern wine cultivar 'Cayuga White' developed by Cornell University.-ASC]

CENTENNIAL.

(Labrusca, Aestivalis, Vinifera.)

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:66. 2. Bush. Cat., 1883:81. 3. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 9:330. 1890. 4. III. Sta. Bui, 28:263. 1893. 5. Bush. Cat., 1894:101. fig. 6. Mass. Hatch. Sta. Bul., 37:12, 15. 1896. 7. Ark. Sta. Bul., 39:28. 1896. 8. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:527, 548, 552. 1898. 9. Tex. Sta. Bul., 48:1149, 1154. 1898. 10. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:38, 45, 46. 1899. n. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:41. 1901. 12. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:247. 1902.

Continental (i) but incorrectly.

Centennial is now scarcely heard of though at the time of its introduction, shortly after the Centennial of 1876, it was looked upon as a valuable acquisition. Its chief meritorious attributes are high quality and attractive appearance; while its faults, which greatly outweigh its merits, are lack of vigor, susceptibility to fungi, and lack of hardiness. Centennial is much like Delaware and is surpassed by it in nearly all respects.

The variety was originated by D. S. Marvin, of Watertown, New York. It is a cross between a Labrusca seedling of Marvin's and a seedling of Eumelan. It was first fruited in 1875, and was introduced in 1882 by the originator. Vines were received by this Station in 1883. The tenderness and lateness of ripening of Centennial, as well as its botanical characters, indicate Vinifera blood.

The following description is a compilation from several sources:

Vine vigorous, somewhat tender, fairly productive. Leaves rounded, slightly three-lobed, smooth. Clusters medium to small, compact, tapering or cylindrical, sometimes slightly shouldered. Berries medium to small, pale red or amber color with thin white bloom, adhere firmly to pedicel. Skin rather thick, tough. Flesh tender, juicy, sweet, resembling Delaware in flavor, good to very good. About the same season as Concord.

CHALLENGE.

(Labrusca, Vinifera?)

1. Am. Jour. Hort., 4:72. 1868. 2. Ib., 7:102. 1870. 3. Bush. Cat., 1883:82. 4. III. Sta. Bul.t 28:259. 1893. 5. Mo. Sta. Bui, 46:38, 43, 45, 46. 1899. 6. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:41. 1901. 7. Kan. Sta. Bul.y 110:238. 1902.

Some years ago Challenge was considered an excellent dessert grape, being of good quality, hardy, and fairly healthy. Small plantations of it still exist in New York, but it is rapidly passing out of cultivation.

Challenge was originated about 1860 by Archer Moore, of Hammonton, New Jersey. He supposed it to have come from seed of Concord fertilized by Royal Muscadine. The variety was introduced by William F. Bassett of the same place. We do not have a vine of Challenge growing on the Station grounds, and the description written below is compiled from various sources.

Vine very vigorous; shoots slender, long. Leaf of medium size, dark green. Clusters rather large, compact, tapering, usually shouldered. Berries medium in size, round, pale red to reddish-purple in color with very thin bloom and inconspicuous dots, juicy, slightly acid; quality medium to good; not separating readily from the seeds. Season shortly after Concord.

CHAMPION.

(Labrusca.)

1.Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt.t 1871:69. 2. Am. Hort. An., 1871:83. 3. Horticulturist, 30:151. 1875, 4. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875:88, 295. 5. Gar. Mon., 20:47. 1878. 6. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1879:93. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1879. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt.t 1881:36. 9. Bush. Cat., 1883:82. 10. 76., 1883:138. 11. Term. Sta. Bul., Vol. 9:172. 1896. 12. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:527, 528, 548, 552, 554. 1898. 13. Miss. Sta. Bul., 56:11. 1899. 14. Budd-Hansen, 2:374. 1902.

Beaconsfield (6, 8, 9, 11). Champion (10). Early Champion (5). Early Champion (9, 11). Tollman? (5). Tallman Seedling (i, 2). Talman's Seedling (10). Talman's Seedling (9, 11). Tolman's Seedling (4). Tolman (10).

Champion is still a favorite early grape with some commercial growers after having been grown for a generation, though its poor quality should have driven it from cultivation years ago. Champion and Hartford are rivals as early market grapes and for the distinction of being the poorest in quality of all commonly cultivated grapes. The variety under consideration is sourer and less agreeable to the taste than many wild grapes. The characters which have kept it in cultivation are earliness, good shipping qualities, though it does not keep well, productiveness, attractive appearance, and a vigorous hardy vine. The hardiness of the vine and its short season of fruit development and maturity make it a good variety for northern and cold climates. This grape is best, in appearance of fruit, in quality, and in the quantity produced, on a comparatively light sandy soil. As grape consumers become more appreciative of quality, Champion will be grown less and less.

The origin of Champion is unknown. It was first grown about 1870 in New York. In 1871 Elliott acknowledged receipt of specimens of this variety from William Chorlton of Staten Island. It was at that time generally known as Tallman or Tallman's Seedling. At about the same time it was being propagated and sold by R. J. Donnelly and J. I. Stone of Charlotte, Monroe County, as Champion. Although many efforts have been made, no one has succeeded in tracing the variety to the original vine. At one time it was stated to have originated in the vicinity of New Orleans, Louisiana, but later the southern Champion was found to be a different variety. This variety was early introduced into Canada where it was known as Beaconsfield, owing to its being first planted in that country in a large vineyard owned by a gentleman of that name.

Vine vigorous to very vigorous, hardy, productive to very productive. Canes intermediate in length and number, of average size, rather dark brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes medium to below in length; diaphragm thick; pith nearly large; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, inclined to long, bifid.

Leaf-buds of medium size, short, rather thick, obtuse to conical, open in mid-season. Young leaves strongly tinged on lower side and along margin of upper side with carmine, making the prevailing color rose carmine. Leaves medium to large, intermediate in thickness; upper surface dark green, dull, rugose; lower surface dull gray often with trace of bronze, slightly downy; veins indistinct; lobes usually three, often obscurely five, terminal lobe acute; petiolar sinus deep to medium, of average width; teeth of fair depth, shallow. Flowers fertile, open medium early; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens early, three weeks or more before Concord and about a week before Hartford, ships well but does not keep well, as its season is very short. Clusters medium to small, of mean length and breadth, blunt, cylindrical to slightly tapering, usually not shouldered, medium to compact; peduncle short, rather thick; pedicel inclined to short, covered with small inconspicuous warts; brush whitish tinged with brown. Berries medium to above in size, roundish, dull black covered with a moderate amount of blue bloom, not always persistent, somewhat soft. Skin thick, tender, adheres considerably to the pulp, contains a fair amount of light purplish pigment, astringent. Flesh light green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tender, foxy, rather sweet next the skin, agreeably tart at center, poor in quality. Seeds slightly adherent, one to five, average three, large, somewhat broad and long, blunt, light brown; raphe obscure; chalaza of fair size, slightly above center, circular, obscure.

CHAUTAUQUA.

(Labrusca.)

1.N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:618. 1892. 2. 76., 13:602. 1894. 3. Bush. Cat., 1894:102. 4. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:528, 548, 554. 1898.

In appearance Chautauqua is very similar to Concord, its parent, but it ripens a few days earlier and is of slightly better quality though it does not differ in these respects sufficiently to make it more than an easily recognized strain of Concord. Inasmuch as it originated, and for fifteen years has been known, in the region where the Concord reigns supreme, and has not yet come into prominence, it is fair to assume that it has some weakness and that the parent will remain dominant.

Chautauqua is a volunteer seedling of Concord found in a Concord vineyard near Brocton, Chautauqua County, New York, by H. T. Bashtite who sent vines of it to this Station in 1892.

Vine medium to vigorous, not always hardy, not productive. Tendrils continuous, mostly trifid. Leaves large, irregularly roundish, dark green; lower surface tinged with bronze. Flowers semi-fertile to nearly fertile, open in mid-season or earlier; stamens upright. Fruit ripens in mid-season or a few days earlier. Clusters medium to large, rather broad, sometimes single-shouldered, intermediate in compactness. Berries unusually large, roundish to slightly oval, dark purplish-black, covered with abundant blue bloom, shatter badly. Skin thin, very astringent. Flesh rather tough, vinous, sweet at skin to acid at center, good to very good in quality. The pulp separates readily from the few broad and plump seeds.

CLEVENER.

(Labrusca, Riparia, Aestivalis?)

1.N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt.y 10:494. 1891. 2. 76., 11:618. 1892. 3. Rural N] Y., 52:381. 1893. 4. Bush. Cat., 1894:103. 5. Ar. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:528, 548, 554. 1898.

There are two Cleveners discussed in American viticultural literature, the origin and history of both of which are briefly set forth below. In these general observations we need to consider but the northern one of the two grapes. This variety has long been grown in New Jersey and in New York and in both States is highly esteemed as a wine grape, the resulting wine being well flavored and of a dark inky-red color. The fruit is remarkable in coloring very early and in ripening very late. The vine is hardy, very vigorous, succeeds in various soils and since it bears grafts well it seems an excellent sort upon which to graft varieties which do not thrive on their own roots. It is self-sterile and must be planted with some other variety to set fruit well. Clinton makes an excellent pollenizer because it blooms at the same time, and because two wine grapes may be thus grown together. In spite of its good qualities, Clevener is hardly holding its own in the commercial vineyards of the State and it is not a desirable fruit for the amateur who wants a table grape.

The Clevener here described has been raised in the vicinity of Egg Harbor, New Jersey, for about forty years, but its place and time of origin are unknown. It is generally considered to be a Riparia but the continuous tendrils and other botanical characters indicate a strong admixture of Labrusca blood and possibly Aestivalis or Bicolor as the shoots and canes show considerable bloom.

The other variety under the name Clevener is a southern grape strongly resembling Rulander or Louisiana. Opinions differ as to whether it be of Aestivalis or Bourquiniana blood. This variety is unknown in New York and of its origin and history there is no information.

Vine a rampant grower, hardy, medium to productive, somewhat subject to attacks of leaf-hoppers. Canes long, numerous, rather thick, dark reddish-brown, covered with a slight amount of bloom; tendrils continuous, bifid. Foliage very healthy; leaves unusually large, intermediate in thickness, dark green with well defined ribs showing through the thin pubescence of the under surface. Flowers sterile, open very early; stamens reflexed.

Fruit ripens late, and appears to keep well. Clusters do not always fill well, small to medium, rather short and slender, irregularly tapering, often with a medium-sized single shoulder, variable in compactness. Berries small to medium, roundish to slightly flattened, black, rather glossy, covered with blue bloom, persistent, firm. Skin rather tough, thinnish and inclined to crack, adheres slightly to the pulp, contains an unusually large amount of dark purplish-red pigment. Flesh reddish-green, moderately juicy, rather tender and soft, fine-grained, very slightly aromatic, spicy, neither so sprightly nor so high-flavored as other varieties of the same season, not good enough in flavor and quality in general for dessert purposes. Seeds separate rather easily from the pulp, intermediate in size and length, medium to above in width, notched, nearly sharp-pointed, dark brown; raphe shows as a very small cord; chalaza large, at center or slightly above, irregularly oval, distinct.

CLINTON.Clinton pic

(Riparia, Labrusca.)

1. Adlum, 1823:140. 2. Ib., 1828:176. 3. Prince, 1830:179. 4. Rafinesque, 1830:11. 5. N. Y. Ag. Soc. Rpt., 1841:388. 6. Horticulturist, 2:121, 341. 1847. 7+ Ib., 8:120. 1853. fig- 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt.t 1860:82. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862:90. 10. Gar. Mon., 5:335. 1863. 11. Strong, 1866:332. 12. Husmann, 1866:50, 102. 13. Fuller, 1867:219. 14. U.S.D.A. Rpt., 1869:85. fig. 15. Bush. Cat., 1883:82. 16. Can. Hort., 11:43. 1888. 17. Bush. Cat., 1894:103, 104. fig. 18. Ev. Nat. Fruits, 1898:75. 19. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:528, 540, 544, 548, 554, 559. 1898. 20. Rural N. Y., 59:7, 306. 1900.

Worthington (i, 2, 3, 4). Worthington (15, 17).

Clinton is now but little grown, its place having been taken by better varieties of its type. It has historical interest if not intrinsic value, for it played an important part in the beginning of American viticulture. Most viticulturists have ascribed to Clinton the distinction of being the first cultivated "variety of Vitis riparia" but without question this honor belongs to the Worthington of Adlum and Prince, with a strong probability that Clinton may be Worthington renamed. But it was as Clinton that Vitis riparia was disseminated for general culture and it is the name Clinton that stands at the parental head of the long list of grapes now under cultivation from this species; and so, in spite of its being the usurper of Worthington's honor, and whether or not it be the older variety under an assumed name, it is probably best that Clinton continue to be considered the first of its race.

Clinton came into prominence, and brought the species to which it belongs to the notice of grape-growers, because of its vigor, hardiness and fruitfulness; and, later, its popularity was added to because of its immunity to phylloxera. The vine is so vigorous that its growth is rank and because of this and the straggling habit of growth it is very difficult to keep under control on trellises and in most situations needs a great deal of room. It can be grown in as high a latitude as any of our native grapes but it blooms so early in the spring that the blossoms are often caught by late frosts in northern climates. The immunity of Clinton to phylloxera led to its being planted very largely in France some years ago but it has now been discarded for better direct producers in that country. The defects of the variety are: The fruit is too small and sour and the seeds and skins too prominent for a market grape and the wine is not of high quality, being too raucous, though the harshness disappears somewhat with age. The fruit colors early in the season but does not ripen until late and therefore suffers greatly from birds. A slight touch of frost is supposed to improve its flavor. This variety is so sensitive to calcareous soils that where lime or chalk abounds the vines often die out after a few years. Clinton bears grafts well, making a quick and firm union with Labruscas and Viniferas, and roots very freely from cuttings.

This variety has been much used in grape-breeding and its blood can be traced in many valuable varieties, among which are most of the desirable wine grapes for the North. The offspring of Clinton are usually very hardy and this, taken with other desirable characters, makes it an exceptionally good starting-point for breeding grapes for northern latitudes. Its seedlings often show intermittent characters and otherwise indicate a strong strain of Labrusca.

Clinton began to attract attention in New York about 1840. J. W. Bissell, of Rochester, in the Horticulturist of January, 1848, writes that the vine from which cuttings were taken was found by L B. Langworthy, in the garden of a Mr. Peebles above Waterford on the Hudson. The name Clinton was given by Langworthy, who introduced it to the trade around Rochester about 1835. There were other cultivated varieties growing in the Peebles garden and the Clinton was not supposed to be a seedling. Although this account of the origin of the Clinton was published in the then most popular horticultural publication in the United States, there were no denials nor corrections made in any of the succeeding numbers. In 1863 there appeared in the Elmira Advertiser an account of the origin of this variety in which it was stated that the seed from which this variety had sprung was planted by Hugh White, then a member of Congress, in his father's garden in Whitesboro, in 1819. Two years later, so the story runs, when he was a junior in Hamilton College, Clinton, New York, White transplanted the vine east of the house of Dr. Noyes, with whom he then boarded. There were no denials of this report, probably on account of the fact that the introducer at Rochester was dead; and the account and Whitesboro as the place of origin were later generally accepted by horticultural writers. In 1852 the Ohio Pomological Society determined that the Worthington and the Clinton grapes were identical. Later this was generally accepted by viticulturists as being correct. The Worthington is an old sort known to Adlum and Prince, and was said by the latter to have originated in the vicinity of Annapolis, Maryland.

Clinton was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1862, where it has since been retained.

Clinton is usually considered a Riparia, as most of the botanical characters indicate this species. However, occasional canes with continuous tendrils are characteristic of Labrusca.

Vine a rank grower, healthy, hardy, productive. Canes long, numerous, slender to medium, brown to reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, slightly flattened; internodes of average length; diaphragm thick to medium; pith large; shoots smooth; tendrils usually intermittent but sometimes continuous, bifid.

Leaf-buds rather large and short, thick, obtuse to conical, open early. Young leaves very faintly tinged with carmine on lower side only. Leaves hang until very late in the season, medium to small, thin; upper surface dark green, smooth; lower surface pale green, not pubescent; veins indistinct; petiolar sinus deep, medium to narrow, often urn-shaped; basal and lateral sinuses shallow to medium when present; teeth of average depth, rather wide. Flowers fertile, open early; stamens upright.

Fruit colors early but is not edible until after mid-season. Clusters medium to small, of fair length, slender, cylindrical, uniform, usually single-shouldered, compact; peduncle medium to short, intermediate in thickness; pedicel nearly short, very slender, almost smooth; brush tinged with red. Berries small to medium, roundish to slightly oval, dark purplish-black to black, glossy, covered with rather thick blue bloom, adhere well to pedicel, firm. Skin very thin, tough, nearly free from pulp, contains considerable wine-colored pigment, somewhat astringent. Flesh darkish green, very juicy, finegrained, slightly tough and solid, with some Riparia flavor, spicy, vinous, too tart for dessert use. Seeds adherent, average two in number, intermediate in size, short, blunt, brownish; raphe obscure; chalaza of average size, above center, pear-shaped to long oval, distinct. Must, 930-980.

CLOETA.

(Lincecumii, Rupestris, Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1.Rural N. Y., 60:637. 1901. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1903:83. 3. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt.t 1904:306.

Cloeta comes from T. V. Munson and is of the same parentage as Captain. Munson says of it: "Probably the best of all American black grapes." But it does not sustain this high standard on the Station grounds nor would it do so, we think, in other parts of the North. Munson further states that it "requires hot, dry weather to acquire high quality" and this explains why it does not succeed in this latitude as it does in Texas.

The variety was produced from seed of America pollinated by R. W. Munson and was introduced by the originator in 1902.

Vine very vigorous, hardy, produces fair to good crops, suceptible to attacks of mildew. Canes long, numerous, covered with considerable blue bloom; tendrils intermittent, bifid. Leaves small to above medium, rather thick. Flowers bloom in mid-season; stamens upright. Fruit ripens after mid-season, does not keep well. Clusters medium to small, not uniform, frequently single-shouldered, intermediate in compactness. Berries medium to small, oval to roundish, black, covered with a fair amount of blue bloom, very persistent, not firm. Skin very thin and tender, contains a large amount of wine-colored pigment. Flesh somewhat tough and solid, sweet at skin to acid at center, spicy, medium to above in quality. The numerous small seeds are usually not notched.


COLERAIN.Colerain pic

(Labrusca.)

1. Rural N. Y.t 47^759. 1888. fig. 2. Bush. Cat., 1894:105. 3. Rural N. Y., 53:616. 1894. 4. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:278. 1895. 5. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:528, 548, 554. 1898. 6. Rural N. V., 58:23. 1899. 7. Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:165. 1899.

Colerain is one of the numerous white seedlings of Concord and one of the few of these seedlings of sufficient merit to be kept in cultivation. It has the characteristic foliage and habit of growth of its parent but is earlier by at least a week, is of much higher quality and lacks somewhat the foxiness of most Labruscas. Colerain is sprightly and vinous and neither seeds nor skins are as objectionable as in the parent variety; the fruit hangs well to the vine and keeps as well as most of the varieties of its class but owing to its tender pulp does not ship well. It is reported to be more or less unproductive in some localities. While Colerain has not attained commercial importance, it is recognized as well worthy a place in home vineyards, and for this reason and because it is one of the best if not the best of the white seedlings of Concord it is given the honor of a color-plate and full description in The Grapes of New York.

David Bundy of Colerain, Belmont County, Ohio, produced Colerain from seed of Concord planted in 1880. The variety was soon after introduced by the Colerain Grape Company of Colerain, Ohio.

Vine medium to vigorous, usually hardy, healthy, not always productive. Canes intermediate in length and number, slender, dark reddish-brown; nodes of average size, flattened; internodes medium to below; diaphragm thick; pith rather large; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, rather short, bifid.

Leaf-buds small, short, slender, pointed to nearly conical, open moderately late. Young leaves lightly tinged on lower side and along margin of upper side with a faint trace of carmine. Leaves of average size, nearly thick; upper surface light green, dull, moderately smooth; lower surface slightly bronze, downy; veins rather distinct; leaf not lobed, terminus acute; petiolar sinus shallow to medium, usually wide; basal and lateral sinuses very shallow when present; teeth shallow, of average width. Flowers fertile, opening in mid-season or earlier; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens a week or more earlier than Concord, keeps fairly well but does not ship well. Clusters attractive, averaging medium in size and length, somewhat slender, blunt, tapering to nearly cylindrical, irregular, usually strongly shouldered, moderately compact; peduncle medium in length and thickness; pedicel intermediate in length, inclined to slender, nearly smooth; brush of average length, green. Berries usually below Niagara in size but somewhat variable, roundish to slightly oval, light green, slightly glossy, covered with thin gray bloom, usually rather persistent. Skin unusually thin, tender, adheres to pulp, contains no pigment, slightly astringent. Flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tender and soft when fully ripe, somewhat foxy, vinous, sweet, good in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, few in number, usually one to three, averaging two, rather small and broad, notched, short to medium, nearly plump, brownish; raphe obscure; chalaza of average size, slightly above center, circular to nearly oval, showing only as a depression.

COLUMBIAN IMPERIAL.

(Labrusca, Riparia.)

1.Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1893-4:30. 2. Bush. Cat., 1894:105. 3. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1894-5: 67, 70. 4. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:374, 387, 395. 1899. 5. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:38, 43, 44, 45, 49. 1899. 6. Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:166, 169. 1899. 7. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1899:57. 8. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:42. 1901.

Columbian (3, 6). Imperial (3). Jumbo (i). Jumbo (2, 3).

Columbian Imperial is a showy, reddish-black, Labrusca-Riparia hybrid chiefly remarkable for the great size of its berries; though the vine is so exceptionally healthy and vigorous as to give it prominence for these characters. The variety has remarkably thick, leathery leaves which seem almost proof against either insects or fungi. The quality of the fruit, however, is very inferior and the clusters are uneven as to the number of berries and these shell off readily. The only possible value of the variety is for exhibition purposes and for breeding to secure the desirable characters named above. Columbian Imperial is a frequent adornment of the salesbook of the fruit tree agents and the panegyrics heaped upon it by misinformed or unscrupulous salesmen have given it a rather wide distribution in the gardens of the amateur where it has no place whatever.

The parentage of Columbian Imperial is unknown. The fruit was originated by J. S. McKinley, Morgan, Orient P. O., Ohio, in 1885. It was introduced by the Columbian Grape Company, of Kingston, Ohio, under the name Columbian, also by J. R. Johnson of Dallas, Texas, under the name Columbian Imperial. Supposed by many to be of Labrusca-Riparia blood. The Labrusca shows plainly; the Riparia little, if at all.

Vine vigorous to very vigorous, healthy, hardy, variable in productiveness. Canes long, numerous, thick to medium, dark reddish-brown, unusually heavily pubescent and spiny; tendrils continuous, long, bifid.

Leaves healthy, variable in size, green, very thick; lower surface of young leaves pale green shading into bronze on older leaves with little, if any, pubescence. Flowers, strongly self-fertile; upright stamens. Fruit ripens late. Clusters medium in size, sometimes shouldered, and of average compactness. Berries large, roundish to slightly oval, dull reddish-black covered with thin lilac or faint blue bloom, not very persistent, firm. Skin thick, tough, contains no pigment. Flesh moderately juicy, tough, nearly sweet at skin to decidedly acid at center, with no pronounced aroma, fair to good in quality. Seeds adhere to the pulp, large to medium, plump, broad to medium, intermediate in length, rather blunt.

CONCORD.

(Labrusca.)

1.Mag. Hort., 18:490, 522. 1852. 2. Ib., 19:524, 542. 1853. 3. Horticulturist, 9:124, 188, 236. 399, 515. 1854. 4. Mag. Hort., 20:63, fe] 431, 553- 1854. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1854. 6. Ib., 1858:233. 7. Grant, 1864:7, 12. 8. Gar. Mon., 11:39- 1869. 9. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1872:47. 10. Bush. Cat., 1883:83, 84, fig., 147. 11. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1891:335. 12. Meehan's Mon., 4:47. 1894. 13. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:528, 540, 543, 544, 548, 552. 1898. 14. Ev. Nat. Fruits, 1898:72. 15. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1900:360. 16. Traite gen. de vit., 6:178. 1903.

Bull's Seedling (i).

The Concord is known by all. The most widely grown of the grapes of this continent, it also represents the dominant type of our native species and with its offspring, pure-bred and cross-bred, furnishes seventy-five per ct. or more of the grapes of eastern America. In New York, approximately seventy-five per ct. of all the grapes grown are Concords alone. The preeminently meritorious character of Concord, which has enabled it to take first place in American viticulture, is the elasticity of its constitution whereby it adapts itself to varying conditions; thus the Concord is grown with more or less profit in every grape-growing State in the Union and to an extent not possible with any other grape. It succeeds on a greater number of soils than any other variety. In the Chautauqua grape region there are six distinct types of soil upon which grapes are grown and the Concord is the leading grape on each of them.

A second character which commends Concord as a commercial variety is its high degree of fruitfulness, as it gives large crops year in and year out. Added to the above points of superiority are hardiness; ability to withstand the ravages of both diseases and insects; comparative earliness and therefore certainty of maturity in northern regions; fair size of bunch and berry, good color, and an abundance of bloom, making a most handsome grape. The Concord leaves out and blossoms somewhat late in the spring and does not therefore often suffer from spring frosts and the fruit is not easily injured by late frosts and hangs well on the vine.

The Concord is not, however, without faults. Its quality is not high, the grapes lack richness, delicacy of flavor and aroma, and have a foxy taste disagreeable to many; on the other hand, the fruit is sprightly and refreshing and does not cloy the appetite as do richer grapes. The seeds and skin of Concord are objectionable, the seeds being large and abundant and difficult to separate from the flesh and the skin is tough and unpleasantly astringent. The Concord does not keep nor ship well as compared with grapes having Vinifera blood and it rapidly loses flavor after ripening; the skin is inclined to crack and the berries to shell from the stems after picking. Concord is but slightly resistant to phylloxera and in calcareous soils is subject to chlorosis. It requires a rich soil and thrives best on a virgin soil; thus, in the Chautauqua region of this State, much concern is now felt because of the failing vineyards, most of which should not as yet have reached their prime. While Concord is grown in the South, it is essentially a northern grape, becoming susceptible to fungi in southern climates and suffering from phylloxera in dry, warm soils.

Concord is a table grape and, to use an oft quoted expression coined by Horace Greeley, it is "the grape for the millions." It can be produced so cheaply that no other grape can compete with it in the markets. The dominance of Concord is not wholly desirable for viticulture, as by keeping out better varieties, the consumer is prevented from obtaining grapes high in quality; and by giving the grower a feeling of sufficiency in having this sort, other varieties do not receive the consideration they deserve. The variety is used somewhat for making red wines and a white wine as a base for champagne but it is a poor wine grape, as much sugar must be added to attain the amount of alcohol necessary for a good wine and the foxy taste is not a pleasant flavor. Grape juice is made almost entirely from Concords and during the past few years many carloads of grapes have been used in the Chautauqua region for this purpose.

The botanical characters of Concord indicate that it is a pure-bred Labrusca; thus the seed with obscure raphe and chalaza, the pubescence on the under surface of the leaf, the flesh characters of the fruit, the continuous tendrils, the diaphragm, all belong to Vitis labrusca. There are those, however, who maintain that it is possibly a Labrusca-Vinifera hybrid, basing their claim upon the upright stamens, the characters of some of the seedlings, and the opinion expressed by Bull that a Catawba vine growing near by had fertilized the seed from which Concord was raised.

Concord is a virile variety, having begotten a great number of valuable offspring, both as pure-breeds and as cross-breeds. To these it has seemingly transmitted its characters to a high degree. The reader who takes the pains to look them up will find that many of these, even of the pure-breeds, are white and that they are usually of higher quality than the parent, indicating a white ancestor of Concord in which high quality was possibly correlated with the light color.

The seed of a wild grape was planted in the fall of 1843 by E. W. Bull of Concord, Massachusetts, from which fruit was borne in 1849. The wild grape from which the seed came had been transplanted from beside a field fence to the garden in which there was at least another grape, the Catawba, and the wild vine was open to cross-pollination. One of these seedlings was named Concord and the variety was exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in the fall of 1852. The new grape was introduced in the spring of 1854 by Hovey et Co., of Boston. From the time of its introduction the growth of this variety in popularity was phenomenal. In 1854, the year of its introduction, it was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog as one of the "new varieties which promise well." In 1858 it was placed on the regular list of recommended sorts where it has since been retained. Husmann states, in the winter of 1855, that he secured buds at Hermann, Missouri, from Soulard of Galena, Illinois. In other words, its culture had spread halfway across the continent in the brief period of a year. Before 1860, vineyards of Concord had been planted in Chautauqua County, this State. In 1865 it was awarded a prize by the American Institute known as the Greeley prize, from its donor, Horace Greeley, as the best grape for general cultivation.

Vine vigorous to very vigorous, hardy, healthy, usually productive of heavy crops. Canes above medium length, of average number, above mean thickness, rather dark reddish-brown to brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes medium to long; diaphragm rather thick; pith large to medium; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, long, bifid, sometimes trifid.

Leaf-buds medium to nearly large, short, below average thickness, conical to pointed, open in mid-season. Young leaves lightly tinged on lower side and along margin of upper side, prevailing color rose-carmine. Leaves large to medium, thick; upper surface dark green, slightly glossy, rather smooth; lower surface light bronze, heavily pubescent; veins distinct; lobes three when present, terminal lobe acute; petiolar sinus variable averaging medium in depth and width; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus obscure and frequently notched; teeth shallow, medium to narrow. Flowers fertile, open in mid-season or earlier; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens about mid-season, keeps from one to two months. Clusters rather uniform, large to medium, intermediate in length, wide, broadly tapering, usually single-shouldered, sometimes double-shouldered, medium to rather compact; peduncle short to medium, thick; pedicel of average length, thick, nearly smooth; brush intermediate in length, pale green. Berries medium to large, roundish, slightly glossy, black covered with abundant blue bloom, not always persistent, firm. Skin of average thickness, moderately tough, slightly adherent to pulp, contains a small amount of wine-colored pigment, somewhat astringent. Flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, rather fine-grained, somewhat tough and solid, slightly foxy, sweet at skin, inclined to tartness next the seeds, good in quality. Seeds rather adherent, one to four in number, average three, nearly large, broad, distinctly notched, plump, blunt, brownish; raphe obscure; chalaza of fair size, slightly above center, oval, nearly obscure. Must 700-800.

COTTAGE.Cottage, yo

(Labrusca.)

1. Am. Jour. Hort., 4:327, 334. 1868. 2. Hortictdturist, 26:22. 1871. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1879. 4- A-m' Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:36. 5. Rural N. Y., 52:655. 1893. 6. III. Sta. Bui, 28:253. 1893. 7. Bush. Cat., 1894:108. 8. III. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1895:131. 9. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:528, 545, 547, 554. 1898. 10. Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:169. 1899.

In vine and fruit Cottage greatly resembles its parent, Concord, having, however, remarkably large, thick, leathery leaves well shown in the color-plate. It is noted, too, for its strong, branching root system. With good foliage and good roots it is not surprising that it is a vigorous, thrifty grower if anything surpassing its parent in vigor of growth. The canes are so rough as to be almost spiny indicating, seemingly, outbursts of growth-force. The Cottage is of better quality than its parent having far less foxiness and a richer, more delicate flavor. It is given credit, too, of being a better shipper and a better keeper and is from one to two weeks earlier. Its good qualities are offset, however, by the fact that it lacks in soil adaptability, is comparatively unproductive, and ripens unevenly. It blooms much earlier than Concord. Cottage is recommended as an early grape of the Concord type for the garden and a standard variety for northern localities. The variety is widely distributed in varietal vineyards.

Cottage is another of E. W. Bull's seedlings, having been produced by him from seed of Concord. It was introduced in 1869 and in 1879 it wTas placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog, where it has since been retained.

Vine vigorous, healthy, hardy, produces average crops. Canes often rough and hairy, long to medium, numerous, of fair thickness, rather dark brown, nodes slightly enlarged, not usually flattened; internodes intermediate in length; diaphragm thinnish; pith of average size; shoots very pubescent; tendrils continuous, of mean length, usually bifid.

Leaf-buds small to medium, short, of fair thickness, conical to pointed, open moderately early. Young leaves tinged on lower side and faintly at the margin with red, making the prevailing color pale green with light carmine tinge. Leaves large, thick; upper surface dark green, glossy, smooth to slightly rugose; lower surface tinged with heavy bronze, with some pubescence; veins distinct; leaf usually not lobed, with terminus acute to acuminate; petiolar sinus usually deep and wide; teeth shallow, wide. Flowers fertile, open medium early; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens one or two weeks earlier than Concord, does not keep well. Clusters above medium to small, below average length, moderately broad, cylindrical to slightly tapering, sometimes single-shouldered, rather compact; peduncle somewhat long, intermediate in size; pedicel short, thick, covered with few, inconspicuous, small warts, wide at point of attachment to berry; brush dark red. Berries of average size, roundish, dull black, not glossy, covered with heavy blue bloom, drop badly from pedicel, firm. Skin rather thick, somewhat tender, slightly adherent to pulp, contains considerable dark purplish-red pigment, slightly astringent. Flesh juicy, tough, rather solid, foxy, agreeably sweet next the skin, tart at seeds, good to medium. Seeds separate somewhat readily from pulp, numerous, one to four, often four, above medium in size, rather broad, intermediate in length, blunt, light brown; raphe does not show; chalaza rather large, usually at center, irregularly circular, obscure.

CREVELING.

(Labrusca, Vinifera?)

1.Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1858:225. 2. Ib., 1860:79. 3. Horticulturist, 15:538. 1860. fig. 4. Mag. Hort., 27:103. 1861. 5. Horticulturist, 17:141. 1862, 6. Mag. Hort., 29:72. 1863. 7. Mead, 1867:163. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1867:45. 9. Am. Jour. Hort., 4:60. 1868. 10. Downing, 1869: 536. 11. Am. Jour. Hort., 8:143. 1870. 12. Gar. Mon., 13:214, 279. 1871. 13. Bush. Cat., 1883:90. 14. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:528, 540, 544, 548, 554. 1898. 15. Ib., 18:374, 387, 395. 1899. 16. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:240. 1902.

Bloom (2, 3, 5, 13). Bloomburg (10). Catawissa (5). Catawissa (2, 6, 13). Catawissa Bloom (10). Columbia Bloom (2, 4). Columbia County (10). Laura Beverly (9, 12). Laura Beverly? (10).

Creveling was long a favorite early black grape for the garden, where, if planted in good soil and kept well trained, it produces fine clusters of large, handsome, very good grapes of the Isabella type. Under any but the best of care, however, it is unproductive and sets loose, straggling bunches. The wood is soft, long-jointed, reddish in color, with a large pith and producing but few laterals. It is markedly self-sterile.

The origin of the Creveling is uncertain. It was first introduced to the public about 1857 by F. F. Merceron of Catawissa, Pennsylvania. It is said to have been in cultivation in Columbia County, Pennsylvania, some years previous to the date given. The name Creveling came from a family of that name, who cultivated the variety and may possibly have originated it. It was placed upon the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1867 and dropped from their list in 1899. It is still widely cultivated in varietal vineyards.

Vine vigorous, not quite hardy, usually not very productive. Canes long, above medium in number, rather thick, dark reddish-brown; nodes slightly enlarged, flattened; internodes medium to long; diaphragm thick; pith large; shoots glabrous; tendrils usually continuous, long, trifid to bifid.

Leaf-buds rather large, short, thick, obtuse, open in mid-season. Young leaves tinged on upper and lower sides with rose-carmine. Leaves below medium to large, thick; upper surface dark green, dull, slightly rugose; lower surface pale green, rather pubescent; veins somewhat prominent; lobes usually three, sometimes obscurely five, terminal lobe acute to blunt; petiolar sinus deep to narrow, closed and sometimes overlapping; basal sinus very shallow when present; lateral sinus rather shallow, narrow; teeth shallow, of average width. Flowers sometimes on plan of six, sterile, open in mid-season or earlier; stamens reflexed.

Fruit ripens a few days later than Hartford, does not keep well. Clusters resemble Isabella in general appearance, good size, medium to long, rather broad, irregularly tapering, usually single-shouldered the shoulder often being connected to the cluster by a long stem, loose; peduncle long, rather slender, often with a distinct reddish tinge; pedicel variable in length, thick, usually with no warts, wide at point of attachment to berry; brush intermediate in length, thick, dark wine-color. Berries medium to large, oval, dull black, covered with heavy blue bloom, persistent, rather firm. Skin thick, tough, adheres considerably to the pulp, with a moderate amount of wine-colored pigment, astringent. Flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, very stringy, tender, coarse, somewhat foxy, sweet at skin to tart at center, good in quality. Seeds separate rather easily, one to five in number, average two or three, above medium in size, broad, slightly notched, intermediate in length, blunt, light brown; raphe shows as a narrow groove; chalaza of fair size, at center or slightly above, oval, obscure.

CROTON.

(Vinifera, Labrusca, Bourquiniana.)

1.Am. Jour. Hort., 5:223, 224. 1869. fig. 2. Am. Hort. An., 1870:91, 92. fig. 3. Horticulturist, 25:275. 1870. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871:16. 5. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1872:546. fig, 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1883:57. 7. Bush. Cat., 1883:87. fig. 8. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:528, 545, 547, 554. 1898. 9. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:42, 51. 1901.

The Croton is a feast both to the eye and the palate. The accompanying color-plate does not do it justice as grown at its best, as it shows a loose, straggling bunch, a characteristic of the variety only when poorly grown. Unfortunately it has the fault of being difficult to grow well, being adapted to but few soils and proving unfruitful, weak in growth, precariously tender, and somewhat subject to mildew and rot in unfavorable situations. But when well grown the consensus of opinion among viticulturists is that it has few superiors among white grapes. It has a sweet, delicate Vinifera flavor, with melting flesh which readily separates from the few seeds. The fruit hangs on the vines until frost, and keeps well into the winter. The Croton is among green grapes what its parent, the Delaware, is among red grapes. In spite of its high quality it has never become widely distributed, failing utterly as a commercial variety, quality counting for but little in grape markets. If this delicious fruit is to be saved to cultivation it must be by the hands of the amateur.

Croton came from Stephen W. Underhill of Croton Point, New York, from seed of Delaware pollinated by Chasselas de Fontainbleau. The seed was planted in the spring of 1863 and the vine fruited for the first time in 1865. The grape was first exhibited at the Massachusetts Horticultural Society meeting in 1868. It was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1871 but was dropped in 1883, chiefly on account of its susceptibility to fungal diseases.

Vine medium to vigorous, often somewhat tender, usually productive, subject to disease in unfavorable locations. Canes long, numerous, thick, rather dark reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, usually not flattened; internodes medium to short; diaphragm very thick; pith large; shoots glabrous; tendrils intermittent, long, bifid.



Leaf-buds large, prominent, long, of average thickness, conical, open late. Young leaves tinged on lower side and at margin of upper side with faint carmine. Foliage remains until late in the season; leaves of medium size, intermediate in thickness; upper surface light green, dull, nearly smooth to rugose; lower surface pale green, slightly cobwebby or hairy; veins indistinct; lobes five in number, terminal lobe blunt to acute; basal sinus of average depth, rather narrow; lateral sinus inclined to deep and nearly narrow; petiolar sinus medium deep, narrow, often closed and overlapping; teeth inclined to shallow, wide. Flowers fertile, open late; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens in mid-season or later, keeps fairly well. Clusters not uniform, very large to medium, longish, rather slender, irregularly tapering, often with an unusually heavy single shoulder, very loose to medium; peduncle long, thick; pedicel somewhat long, thick, covered with few, small, inconspicuous warts; brush intermediate in length, greenish. Berries irregular in size averaging about medium, roundish to slightly elongated, light green, changing to yellowish-green, covered with thin gray bloom, persistent, slightly soft. Skin thin, rather tough, adheres very slightly to the pulp, contains no pigment. Flesh green, somewhat transparent, very juicy, melting, vinous, pleasant flavor, agreeably sweet, good to very good in quality. Seeds separate very easily from the flesh, one to three, above medium in size, slightly elongated, fair breadth, notched, rather sharply pointed, light brown; raphe obscure; chalaza small, above center, irregul ~ly circular to oval, indistinct.

CUNNINGHAM.

(Bourquiniana.)

1. Prince, 1830:191. 2. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt., 1845:939. 3. Gar. Mon., 3:83. 1861. 4. Am. Jour. Hort., 3:301. 1868. 5. Grape Cult., 1:34, 75. 1869. 6. Bush. Cat., 1883:87, 88. fig. 7. Texas Farm and Ranch, Feb. 8, 1896:11. 8. Tex. Sta. Bui, 48:1149* i*55- 1898. 9* Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:38, 43, 45, 46, 50, 54. 1899. 10. Traite gen. de vit., 6:268. 1903.

Long (4, 6, 7, 9). Long No. 2 (9). Prince Edward (1).

The Cunningham is not known in New York and in fact has been cultivated but little in America, but in France at one time it was one of the best known American grapes, both as a direct producer and as a stock for European varieties. It is not now largely grown in France, however, having been superseded by better American varieties for the uses for which it was formerly cultivated. It was much sought for by the French as a stock for large Vinifera cions, the size of the vine giving an opportunity for making a good graft. In the South, Cunningham is not largely grown as there are several other varieties of its class superior to it in quality of fruit and in vine characters as well. It seems everywhere to have been an exceedingly capricious grower and very particular as to soil and climate.

It is said to make a deep yellow wine of very good quality. It has little or no value as a table grape.

Cunningham originated in the garden of Jacob Cunningham of Prince Edward County, Virginia, about the year 1812. Cuttings of this vine were sent by Dr. D. N. Norton of Richmond to Prince in 1829. Prince introduced it to the public. Its botanical characters mark it as an offshoot of the Herbemont group of Bourquiniana.

The following description is a compilation from several sources:

Vine very vigorous, spreading, rather productive, somewhat suceptible to mildew. Canes large and long, with stiff reddish hairs at base; shoots showing considerable bloom; tendrils intermittent, usually trifid. Leaves large, rather thick, roundish, entire or slightly lobed; smooth and dark green above, yellowish-green below and slightly pubescent; petiolar sinus narrow, frequently overlapping. Clusters of medium size, long, sometimes shouldered, very compact; peduncle short, strong; pedicel long, slender. Berries small, purplish-black with thin, grayish bloom. Skin thin, tough with considerable underlying pigment. Flesh tender, juicy, sprightly or somewhat acidly sweet. Seeds two to five, rather oval; beak short; chalaza distinct; raphe showing as a ridge.

CYNTHIANA.

(Aestivalis, Labrusca.)

1. U.S.D.A. Rpt, 1863:548. 2. Husmann, 1866:103. 3. Ib., 1866:104. 4. Gar. Mon., 11:149. 1869. 5. Grape Cult., 1:20, 239. 1869. 6. Ib., 3:2. 1871. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1881:24. 8. Bush. Cat., 1883:88. fig, 9. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1891:127, 131. 10. III. Sta. Bul., 28:253. 1893. 11. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:38, 43, 45, 46, 50. 1899. 12. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:246. 1902. 13. Traite gen. de vit., 6:274. 1903.

Arkansas (3). Arkansas (8). Norton (13). Norton Virginia (13). Norton's Virginia Seedling (13). Red River (2, 5, 6, 8, 13). Vitis Nortoni (13).

Cynthiana is another southern grape impossible to grow in the North and therefore of but general interest for this work. There has long been a heated controversy as to whether this variety differs from Norton. The botanical differences between the two varieties are not greater than might be attributed to environment, soil, climate and culture; but side by side the two grapes ripen at different times, and the quality of the fruit, and more particularly of the wine, is such that the varieties must be considered as distinct. The distinction should be maintained for Cynthiana is the better grape of the two. It has been much grown in France for its intrinsic value and in the reconstruction of vineyards destroyed by phylloxera.

As the history given below shows, the variety is an old one but it, with Norton, was condemned by the early vineyardists because it could be propagated from cuttings only with the greatest difficulty. Like most of its species, Cynthiana is somewhat particular as to soil and location, preferring sandy or gravelly loams and not thriving on clays or limestones. While very resistant to phylloxera, it is not now much used as a resistant stock because of the superiority of varieties of Rupestris and because it is not easily propagated. It is very resistant to cryptogamic diseases, mildew, black-rot and anthracnose, and is a strong, vigorous grower. Its cycle of vegetation is long, the buds bursting forth early and the fruit maturing very late. It has no value as a table grape but according to the Bushberg Catalogue (76) it is the best American grape for red wine. So, too, according to Viala, the wine from Cynthiana is the best of all the red wines produced from American vines. It is said by French wine-makers to contain "an excess of all the elements which constitute the best ordinary wines, color, tannin, acidity, and bouquet," and therefore to make a splendid base for blending with wine from varieties lacking in the above elements.

Cynthiana was received, some time in the fifties by Prince of Flushing, Long Island, from Arkansas where it is said to have been found growing in the woods. It was sent by Prince to Husmann at Hermann, Missouri, where it did so well and was so highly spoken of by Husmann and his neighbors that it soon became known to grape-growers. It was placed upon the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1881, where it still remains. Like Norton, Cynthiana is often considered pure Aestivalis, although a strain of some other blood, probably Labrusca, is apparent. Because of the similarity of this variety and Norton the one is often grown as the other.

Vine vigorous, healthy, hardy, usually a good yielder. Canes medium to nearly long, numerous, of average size, dark brown to reddish-brown, sometimes with faint ash-gray tinge, surface covered with thick blue bloom; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short to medium; diaphragm rather thin; pith of medium size; shoots slightly glabrous; tendrils intermittent to continuous, above medium in length, bifid.


Leaf-buds small, short, slender, pointed to conical. Leaves variable in size, thick, firm; upper surface dark green, dull, rugose; lower surface slightly tinged with blue, faintly pubescent, cobwebby; veins distinct; lobes variable in number, terminal lobe acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, closed and sometimes overlapping; basal sinus shallow; lateral sinus rather shallow and narrow; teeth shallow, of average width; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens very late and keeps well. Clusters medium to small, rather long, intermediate in breadth, tapering to cylindrical, not very uniform, often single-shouldered, compact; peduncle above medium length, small; pedicel rather short and slender, covered with numerous warts, enlarged at point of attachment to berry; brush shorty thick, wine-colored. Berries small, roundish, black, covered with a moderate amount of blue bloom, persistent, firm. Skin thin, tough, rather adherent to the pulp, contains a slight amount of purple pigment, astringent. Flesh darkish green, translucent, juicy, tough and solid, spicy, rather tart, poor in quality as a dessert grape. Seeds separate with difficulty from the pulp, one to six, average three, small, of mean breadth, short, blunt, dark brown; raphe distinct, cord-like; chalaza small, slightly above center, circular, distinct. Must 980-n80

DAISY.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886:187. 2. N. Y. Sia. An. Rpt., 10:495. 1891. 3. Ib., 13:602. 1894. 4. Bush. Cat.i 1894:111. 5. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:528, 548, 554. 1898.

Daisy is an unimportant seedling of Goethe. The only reason for its distribution was its delicate, spicy, pleasant flavor. It is probably not worth perpetuating.

Dr. J. Stayman, Leavenworth, Kansas, is supposed to have originated Daisy from seed of Goethe. On account of the fruit characters, Bush questions the parentage but as it grows at this Station the reputed parentage appears to be quite probably correct.

Vine intermediate in vigor, not hardy nor productive, an uncertain bearer. Tendrils continuous, bifid to sometimes trifid. Leaves small to medium, light green; lower surface slightly pubescent. Flowers nearly self-sterile, open in mid-season; stamens upright. Fruit ripens with Concord or soon after, does not keep well. Clusters of medium size, rather loose. Berries medium to small, distinctly oval, somewhat darker red than Agawam, covered with thin lilac bloom, persistent, not firm. Flesh soft and tender, vinous, sweet, of pleasant flavor, good in quality. Seeds few, medium in length, usually with a slightly enlarged neck; chalaza above center, often with radiating ridges.

DELAWARE.

(Labrusca, Bourquiniana, Vinifera.)

Horticulturist, 8:492. 1853. -fig. 2. Ib., 9:98. 1854. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1856:214. 4. Horticulturist, 12:562. 1857. 5. Downing, 1857:336. fig. 6. Horticulturist, 13:58, 179. 1858. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1858:233. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1858:65. 9. Gar. Mon., 1:75, 164. 1859. 10. Ib., 2:13, 26, 117, 176. 1860. 11. Horticulturist, 16:16, 21, ^^, 119. 1861. 12. Fuller, 1867:221. 13. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1872:48. 14. Ib., 1873:64. 15. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1882-3:28. 16. Bush. Cat., 1883:91. -fig. 17. Am. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1885:139. 18. Amer. Gard., 12:584. 1891. 19. III. Sta. Bul., 28:259. 1893. 20. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 15:430, 431, 432, 433- 1896. 21. Ib., 17:528, 540, 543, 544, 545, 547, 554. 1898. 22. Amer. Gard., 20:622. 1899. 23. Mich. Sta. Bul., 169: 169. 1899. 24. Amer. Gard., 22:481. 1901. 25. Traite gen. de vit., 6:186. 1903.

French Grape (10, 14). Gray Delaware (25). Heath (5). Italian wine grape (5, 8, 13, 14, 16). Ladies Choice (8, 11). Powell (1, 14). Red Riesling, incorr. (5). Rose Colored Delaware (25). Ruff (9, 14). Traminer, incorr. (5). Wine Grape (11).

Delaware is the American grape par excellence. Its introduction raised the standard of quality in our viticulture to that of the Old World, for there is no variety of Vitis vinifera more richly or more delicately flavored or with a more agreeable aroma than the Delaware. This variety is rightly used wherever American grapes are grown as the standard whereby to gauge the quality of other grapes. Added to high quality it is endowed with a constitution which enables it to withstand climatic conditions to which all but the most hardy varieties will succumb, and so elastic as to adapt it to many soils and conditions, and to bear under most situations an abundant crop. All of this makes it, next to the Concord, the most popular grape for garden, vineyard and wine-press, now grown in the United States. As with the Concord, its introduction gave American grape-growing a great impetus and it is a question whether or not, with its high quality, it has not had a more beneficial effect on the viticulture of the country than the Concord.

Beside the qualities named above for the Delaware, it matures sufficiently early to make its crops certain, is attractive in appearance, keeps well on the vine and in the package, ships well and is more immune than other commercial varieties to black-rot. Its faults are: The small size of the vine, slowness of growth, susceptibility of the foliage to mildew, its capriciousness in certain soils, and the small size of the berries. The first two faults make it necessary to plant the vines more closely than other commercial varieties stand. It succeeds best in deep, rich, well-drained, warm soils but even on these it must receive good cultivation, close pruning? and in some cases the fruit must be thinned. It is, too, a necessity, where mildew is abundant, to spray with bordeaux mixture which keeps the disease well in check. Birds are very fond of this variety and it suffers in particular from the depredations of robins.

Delaware is the best American table grape and as such commands a premium in all of the markets, selling oftentimes for double the price of Concord. It is also much sought for by wine-makers both for Delaware wine and for blending in making champagne or other wines of high quality. It is grown North and South and westward to the Rocky Mountains, and is now proving especially profitable in many southern locations as an early grape to ship to northern markets. The Delaware is an especially desirable grape to cultivate in small gardens because of its delicious and handsome fruit, its compact habit of growth, and when in health, its ample and lustrous green, delicately formed leaves which make it one of the most ornamental of the grapes.

Delaware is the parent of an interesting but not particularly valuable progeny; none of the pure-bred offspring nearly equal the parent though many of them inherit its fine color and high quality. Among its cross-bred offspring are some notable varieties, all of which are described in their proper places in this work. An interesting fact regarding the purebred progeny of Delaware is that, so far as we have records, it seems to have given very few black grapes though there are often white or rose-colored seedlings among them. Even in its cross-bred offspring, red, or some tint of it greatly predominates, indicating power in the transmission of color and suggesting the value of this variety in breeding red grapes.

The Delaware grape was first brought to notice by Abram Thompson, editor of the Delaware Gazette of Delaware, Ohio. In the summer of 1849 he saw fruit of this variety which had been brought into town from one of the neighboring farms. An investigation disclosed that the variety was being raised on the farms of a Mr. Warford and of a Mr. Heath, near the banks of the Scioto River, a few miles from the town of Delaware, and that Warford had brought the variety from the State of New Jersey more than twenty years before. It was known in this neighborhood under the name of Heath, or Powell. Thompson sent fruit of the variety to A. J. Downing who gave it the name Delaware, after the town from which the samples had been sent. Thompson also brought it to the notice of the Ohio Pomological Society in the autumn of 1851. It was found that the Delaware vines secured by Warford could be traced back to the garden of Paul H. Provost, a Swiss of Frenchtown, Kingswood Township, Hunterdon County, New Jersey. Provost, at this time, was dead, and definite information was very difficult to secure as to where he had obtained his vines. One account was that they had been received from a brother residing in Italy, and in deference to this story, the variety was locally known as the Italian wine grape. Another story was to the effect that they had been brought to Provost's place by a German who had been in this country only a short time but who had spent this interval with Hare Powell of Philadelphia. Whether the German secured the vines from the Old Country or from Powell is uncertain. There was a report that they had been secured from Powell and that he in turn had received them from Bland of Virginia. All of the stories as to how the vines came into Provost's garden lack supporting evidence and some were of the opinion that it had grown in the garden as a seedling.

The Delaware at once attracted great attention and the horticultural journals were full of conflicting accounts of its history and of warm discussions as to its botany. In 1856 it was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog as "a new variety which promises well;" two years later it was placed on the list of recommended sorts.

There is still a difference of opinion as to the botany of this variety. The theory advanced by many when it was first introduced, that it is a pure Vinifera, has been abandoned. Millardet and others considered the Delaware a hybrid between Vinifera, Labrusca, Cinerea and Aestivalis. Munson holds that it is of Labrusca-Bourquiniana origin with a probable slight admixture of Vinifera. He further states that he considers Elsinburgh probably one of the parents. Historically this is corroborated by the fact that Elsingburgh originated in New Jersey not far from where Provost lived.

Vine not a strong grower, hardy except in unfavorable locations, fairly productive, somewhat subject to leaf-hoppers and mildew. Canes medium to below in length, numerous, slender, rather light to medium dark brown; nodes slightly enlarged, not flattened; internodes rather short; diaphragm intermediate in thickness; pith small; shoots glabrous; tendrils intermittent, somewhat short, bifid.

Leaf-buds rather small, of average length, slender, pointed to conical, prominent, open early. Young leaves tinged on lower side and along margin of upper side with a faint golden hue but the prevailing color is light rose-carmine. Foliage not always healthy; leaves medium to small, intermediate in thickness; upper surface dark green, dull, smoothish; lower surface pale green, slightly pubescent; veins inconspicuous; lobes three to five in number, terminal lobe acute to acuminate; petiolar sinus of average depth, narrow to medium; basal sinus shallow and narrow when present; lateral sinus moderately deep, narrow; teeth shallow, of fair width. Flowers fertile, open somewhat late; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens a few days earlier than Concord, keeps well. Clusters medium to small, of average length, slender, rather blunt, often cylindrical, regular, usually shouldered, compact; peduncle medium to short, slender; pedicel short, slender, smooth; brush intermediate in size, light brown. Berries uniform in size and shape, small to medium, roundish, light red, covered with thin lilac bloom, persistent, firm. Skin thin, moderately tough, adheres somewhat to the pulp, contains no pigment, slightly astringent. Flesh light green, translucent, juicy, tender, aromatic, vinous, sprightly and refreshing, sweet to agreeably tart from skin to center, best in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, one to four, average two, intermediate in size, rather broad, notched, short, blunt, light brownish; raphe obscure; chalaza of medium size, above center, circular. Must 1000-1180.xxx

DELAWBA.

(Labrusca, Vinifera, Bourquiniana.)

z. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1891:126. 2. U.S.D.A. Rpt., 1891:393. 3. Bush. Cat., 1894:114, 115. fig. 4. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:42. 1901.

Of Delawba we can say but little, not having vines of it on the Station grounds. It is an offspring of Delaware crossed with Catawba, as the name indicates, and was introduced with the expectation that it would take the place of one or the other or both of its parents. However, it has made no impress upon the viticulture of this State though it has been tested here and there in the several grape regions during the past ten years. The fruit resembles Catawba, though not as attractive, the berries averaging smaller, but it ripens almost as early as Delaware, a great point in its favor. The vine, too, is more like Catawba than the Delaware, being more vigorous and productive than the latter. The reports of this variety indicate that it is very promising but it seems not to be making headway as either a fancy or a commercial fruit probably because of characters lacking in the fruit.

Dr. L. C. Chisholm of Spring Hill, Tennessee, produced the Delawba some time about 1880 from seed of Delaware fertilized by Catawba. The variety was introduced in 1895, after having received high encomiums from various horticultural authorities. The following is a compiled description:

Vine usually vigorous and productive, resembling Catawba very closely, blooming with Concord. Cluster above medium to large, moderately compact, cylindrical or slightly tapering, sometimes slightly shouldered. Berries variable in size, ranging from above medium to below, of amber color with lilac bloom; skin quite tough. Not attractive in appearance. It is self-fertile and ripens its berries evenly. Quality good to very good. Ripens shortly after Delaware.

DEVEREAUX. (Often incorrectly spelled Devereux.)

(Bourquiniana.)

1. Mag. Hort., 9:373- 1843- 2. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt., 1853:299. 3. Horticulturist, 12:458. 1857. 4. Gar. Mon.t 2:265. 1860. 5. Downing, 1869:531. 6. Grape Cult., 1:17, 326. 1869. 7. (?) Bush. Cat., 1883:118. 8. Ib., 1894:116. 9. (?) Texas Farm and Ranch, Feb. 8, 1896:11.

Black July (5). Black July (8, 9). Blue Grape (5, 8, 9). Devereux (5). Hart (4, 5, 8). Husson (5, 8, 9). Lenoir (9, incorr. 5, 8). Lincoln (4, 7). Lincoln (5, ? 8, 9). McLean (4, 5, 8, 9). Sherry (5, 8, 9). Sumpter (5, 9). Thurmond (5, 8, 9). Tuley (5, 8, 9).

The Devereaux is an old southern grape now nearly obsolete because of its capriciousness as to location. When it can be grown it is of high quality and makes a very good wine. The variety is of only historical and botanical interest. In France the Devereaux was at one time considered a valuable wine grape.

An article in the Horticulturist for 1857 states that the Devereaux was found in the woods over forty years before that date by Samuel M. Devereaux, who lived near Sparta, Georgia. It has been considerably confused with varieties which resemble it. The name Lincoln, in particular, is a questionable synonym which Dr. Curtis of Hillsboro, North Carolina, in a letter to the Gardener's Monthly for 1860, states was found near the junction of the South Fork and Catawba Rivers by Dr. William McLean. It was known locally under the names of McLean and Hart. Later it was sent to Longworth, who gave it the name Lincoln.

The descriptions of this variety from various sources are conflicting. That given below is copied from the Bushberg Catalogue.

"Bunch long, loose, slightly shouldered; berry black, below medium, round; skin fine, tender; flesh meaty, juicy without pulp, and vinous; quality best. Vine a strong grower, and, when free from mildew, moderately productive; wood long-jointed, purplish brown at first, of deeper purplish red when ripe; with bi-forked, intermittent tendrils these, as also the leaf stalk, are tinged on their base with a purplish brown hue, like the young canes; the buds are covered with a russet down, unfolding with that rosy complexion peculiar to the young, downy leaves of most Aestivalis. The developed foliage is of medium size, entire (not lobed), considerably wrinkled, turgid, with somewhat abundant hair tufts on the lower veins."

DIAMOND.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Gar. Mon.y 26:336. 1884. 2. 76., 28:333. 1886. 3. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1887-8:85. 4. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1889:328. 5. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 91332. 1890. 6. Kan. Sta. Bul., 28:161. 1891. 7. Rural N. Y., 50:691, 787. 1891. 8. Kan. Sta. Bul., 44:118, 127. 1893. 9. Rural N. Y'., 53:616, 645, fig., 646. 1894. 10. Gar. and For., 8:96, 377, 487. 1895. 11. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 15:432, 433. 1896. 12. Tenn. Sta. Bul., Vol. 9:175, 176. 1896. fig. 13. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1897:19. 14. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., i7:529] 538] 54o, 543] 544, 547] 549. 554-1898. 15. Va. Sta. Bul., 94:139. 1898. 16. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:38, 44, 45, 50. 1899. 17. Can. Hort., 25:125, 190. 1902. -fig.

Diamond, Moore (13). Moore's Diamond (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9,) Moore's Diamond (15, 17).

Diamond is surpassed in quality and beauty by few other grapes. When to its desirable fruit characters are added its earliness, hardiness, productiveness and vigor it is surpassed by no other green grape. Niagara is more productive and therefore more profitable in most localities but in many essential characters it falls short of Diamond and the difference in productiveness is not marked. We usually accord Niagara first place among green grapes but Diamond rivals it for the honor. The former attained high rank not only through merit but by much advertisement while Diamond has made its way by merit alone. If we consider the wants of the amateur and of the wine-maker as well as those of the commercial vineyardist, unquestionably Diamond must be accorded a high place among the best all-around grapes.

Diamond is a diluted hybrid between Vitis labrusca and Vitis vinifera; the touch of the exotic grape given by the Vinifera parents has been just sufficient to give it the richness in flavor of the Old World grape and not overcome the refreshing sprightliness of our native fox grapes. It is without the insipid sweetness of the first or the foxiness of the latter. The Vinifera characters are wholly recessive in vine and foliage, the plant resembling very closely its American parent, Concord. Diamond is not as highly esteemed as a commercial variety as it deserves to be, for beside being of high quality the fruit packs, carries and keeps well. Were it known by consumers the demand for it would be such that it would command a fancy price and thereby more than make up for its lack in fruitfulness, but through the unfortunate condition of American fruit markets it is, more often than not, sold as Niagara and has not therefore established the reputation it should have in the markets. Diamond is in demand among wine-makers and especially for the making of champagnes. For the amateur it has few superiors, the chief drawback for the small garden being that robins prefer it to most other varieties and greatly reduce the crop. Diamond is well established in Canada and can be grown in as great a range of latitude as the Concord. The vine is as free from the attacks of fungi as the Concord but the fruit is a little more susceptible to cryptogamic diseases and especially to black-rot, though not attacked by fungi so much as Niagara.

The late Jacob Moore of Brighton, New York, originated Diamond about 1870 from Concord seed fertilized by Iona. It was introduced about 1885. It has gained in favor somewhat slowly, and was not placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog until 1897.

Vine medium to vigorous, hardy, productive in most locations. Canes medium to short, not very numerous, of average thickness, brownish or with a slight reddish tinge; nodes slightly enlarged, not flattened; internodes medium to short; diaphragm intermediate in thickness; pith of medium size; shoots pubescent; tendrils intermittent, bifid.

Leaf-buds small, short, pointed to conical, open in mid-season. Young leaves tinged on lower side and along the edges with red. Leaves of average size, thick; upper surface light green, dull, nearly smooth; lower surface light bronze, downy; veins distinct; lobes usually three in number, indistinct; petiolar sinus very shallow; teeth shallow, of mean width. Flowers fertile, open early to somewhat late; stamens upright.

Fruit usually ripens slightly earlier than Niagara, keeps well. Clusters variable in size, medium to short, rather broad, somewhat blunt, cylindrical to slightly tapering, often single-shouldered, compact; peduncle short to medium, moderately thick; pedicel short and thick, covered with a few, inconspicuous warts, wide at point of attachment to berry; brush slender, of average length, pale green. Berries above medium to medium size, roundish to strongly ovate on account of compactness, green with tinge of yellow on riper berries but less yellow than Niagara, glossy, covered with thin gray bloom, persistent, rather firm. Skin thin, toughish, adheres somewhat to the pulp, contains no pigment, astringent. Flesh pale green, rather transparent, juicy, tender, inclined to melting, fine-grained, slightly aromatic, sprightly, nearly sweet next the skin to agreeably tart at center, quality very good. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, one to four, average two or three, intermediate in size, rather broad and long, moderately sharp-pointed, yellowish-brown; raphe shows as a narrow obscure groove; chalaza small, slightly above center, oval, rather obscure.

DIANA.

(Labrusca, Vinifera, Aestivalis?)

1. Mag. Hort., 10:242. 1844. 2. Horticulturist, 4:224, 535. 1849. 3+ Mag. Hort., 16:28, 306, 546. 1850. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1854. 5. Mag. Hort., 27:6, 262, 490, 523, 531. 1861. 6. My Vineyard at Lakeview, 1866:78. 7. N. Y. Ag. Soc. Rpt., 1866:803, 881. 8. Horticulturist, 22:356. 1867. 9. Am. Jour. Hort., 5:15, 297. 1869. 10. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1873:60. 11. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:37, 119, 123, 136, 153. 12. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., Pt. 1:96. 1883. 13. Busk. Cat., 1883:93. -fig. 14. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:540, 543] 544, 54$, 547] 554- 189s- 15- Va. Sta. Bui, 94:137. 1898. 16. Mo. Sta. Bui, 46:38, 43, 45. 1899. 17. Rural N. Y., 61:719, fig., 722. 1902.

When introduced Diana promised to be the popular grape of the North and especially of New England. Its many good qualities warranted the high hopes of those who first grew it but time revealed so many defects that the variety never became widely distributed although few grapes surpass it, or even equal it, in high quality and handsome appearance when at its best. Diana is a seedling of Catawba and was hailed as superior to its parent in quality, appearance and earliness. It was the last named character that especially commended it to northern grape-growers. Catawba can be grown in New York only in the most favored locations and hardly at all in New England even in its southern parts. It fails in the North because the seasons are too short for the fruit to mature. Diana is about two weeks earlier than Catawba and it was therefore thought that the offspring, lacking the defect of the parent, would take the rank in the North that the older variety held in the South.

Diana bears a strong resemblance to Catawba, differing chiefly in having a lighter color, a delicate pale red or rose, and in being less pulpy and more juicy. Usually the bunches, too, are more compact, those of Catawba as grown in the North being as a rule loose and sometimes straggling. The flavor resembles that of Catawba but when well grown and fully ripe it is more delicate and has less of the wild taste. The grapes keep exceptionally well. But its great point of superiority over Catawba is its earliness; it ripens from ten days to a fortnight earlier, making possible, as said above, its culture far to the north. The defects of Diana are as marked as its good qualities. It is precariously tender in cold winters and in regions where Concord goes without protection Diana must be favored. The grapes ripen unevenly, many being green when others are mature, and berries and foliage are both susceptible to fungi. Lastly it is in many localities a shy bearer and is almost always capricious. During the first few years in bearing, the fruit of Diana is very imperfect in flavor and deficient in size, true of many grapes but particularly so of this one. The best qualities of Diana are not brought out until the vines are seven or eight years of age.

Perhaps no grape better illustrates the importance of local influences and of knowledge of the peculiarities of varieties than Diana. All grapes have their likes and dislikes but this one is capricious beyond most others. It wants, for instance, comparatively poor, dry, gravelly soil without any considerable amount of humus or nitrogen. On clays, loams, or rich soils, the vines make a rank growth and the fruits are few, late and of poor quality. So, too, it needs to be long pruned, and to have all surplus bunches removed leaving a comparatively small crop to mature, and these should hang until frost. To the fact that Diana is so easily influenced must be attributed the great diversity of opinion as to its worth, some holding it to be a most excellent variety while in a nearby vineyard it is considered worthless.

In favorable situations Diana may be expected to make a most satisfactory grape for the amateur and where it does especially well it will prove a profitable variety for the local market. Its splendid keeping qualities make it a very desirable grape for late winter. It is even better in this respect than Catawba, one of the best keepers. While the pulp of Diana has the meaty structure which adapts it for long keeping its pulpiness is not objectionable as in some grapes and its thick skin has a rich, spicy flavor. Wine made from Diana is said to be second to none from our native grapes, equalling or surpassing that made from Catawba.

To Mrs. Diana Crehore of Milton, Massachusetts, is due the honor of having originated Diana. The variety was produced from seed of the Catawba open to cross-pollination, planted about 1834. It was exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1843. The Pomological Congress at their second meeting in 1850 placed Diana on their list as a "new variety which promises well," and in 1854 it was included in the American Pomological Society list of sorts recommended for general cultivation. The demand for this grape was so keen that in 1850 it was sold for $15 a vine. [that's $454.55 in 2017 dollars! -ASC]

The species of Diana is usually given as Labrusca but the Vinifera-like berries and the intermittent tendrils indicate Vinifera and the bloom on the shoots suggests a strain of either Bicolor or Aestivalis.

Vine vigorous, not always hardy, produces light to medium crops, somewhat susceptible to attacks of leaf-hoppers and fungi. Canes pubescent, long, of average number, thick to medium, light brown to reddish-brown, covered with thin blue bloom; nodes enlarged, slightly flattened; internodes medium to long; diaphragm thick; pith medium to large; shoots pubescent; tendrils intermittent, long, bifid.

Leaf-buds large, of average length, thickish, obtuse to conical, open in mid-season. Young leaves colored on lower side and along margin of upper side with faint carmine, the smaller leaves usually heavily coated with thick silvery down. Leaves medium to large, inclined to thick; upper surface variable in color ranging from light to dark green, usually rather dull, nearly smooth to slightly rugose; lower surface pale green, heavily pubescent; lobes vary from three to five, terminal lobe acute; petiolar sinus moderately deep, wide to medium, often closed and overlapping; basal sinus shallow, not wide; lateral sinus not deep, medium to narrow; teeth shallow, intermediate in width. Flowers fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens earlier than Catawba, keeps unusually well. Clusters medium to large, intermediate in length, rather broad, tapering to slightly cylindrical, occasionally shouldered, the shoulder being attached to the cluster by a rather long stem, compact to medium; peduncle short to medium, slender; pedicel above average length, covered with small scattering warts; brush of fair length, rather slender, pale green. Berries somewhat irregular in size, above medium to small, roundish to slightly ovate in compact clusters, rather light red covered with thin lilac bloom, persistent, firm. Skin very thick, tough, adheres slightly to the pulp, contains no pigment, with but little astringency. Flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, tough, fine-grained, vinous, with a little foxiness, sweet at skin to agreeably tart at center, good in quality. Seeds do not separate readily from the pulp unless fruit is fully ripe, one to three, average two, intermediate in size, breadth and length, light brown; raphe buried in a rather wide, shallow groove; chalaza large, above center, circular, distinct. Must 880-900

DIANA HAMBURG.

(Vinifera, Labrusca, Aestivalis?)

1 N. Y. Ag. Soc. RpU 1864:38. 2. Mag. Hort.y 31:105, 331, 364. 1865. 3- Thomas, 1867:403. 4. Am. Jour. Hort., 2:328, 329. 1867. fig. 5. N. Y. Ag. Soc. Rpt., 1868:224. 6. Bush. Cat., 1883:90.

Diana Hamburg has long since passed from cultivation and was never widely grown. Its parentage is indicated in its name. It is worth discussion here only because it is an illustration of what can be done in grape-breeding and because it was one of the parents of several better known sorts chief of which is Brighton. The fruit of Diana Hamburg is that of the European parent, while the vine is more nearly that of Diana in appearance but quite that of Black Hamburg in constitution, being very susceptible to disease, somewhat tender, unproductive in our climate and ripening its fruit late.

Diana Hamburg was the first of Jacob Moore's productions, having been raised from seed of Diana fertilized by pollen of Black Hamburg about 1860. It was first exhibited at the New York Agricultural Society meeting in September, 1864. For a few years it attracted some attention but soon passed from cultivation. The following description is compiled from various sources:

Vine vigorous when not diseased; canes short-jointed. Leaves of medium size, somewhat concave. Fruit-clusters large, compact, shouldered. Berries above medium, slightly oval, dark red, tender, free from pulp. Except in color, which shows a more reddish tinge, it very closely resembles Black Hamburg. The vine is tender and very susceptible to mildew.

DON JUAN.

(Vinifera, Labrusca.)

1. Horticulturist, 29:329. 1874. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875:114. 3. U. S. D. A. Rpt.f 1875:386. 4. Bush. Cat., 1883:92. 5. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 36:45. 1891.

In spite of many good characters, as high quality, attractive appearance, and a vine above the average in vigor and hardiness, Don Juan has not become established in American viticulture. It has been tested by grape collectors for forty years and is now passing from even the collections. Its chief fault in this State is that it ripens too late.

Don Juan was originated by J. H. Ricketts of Newburgh, New York, over thirty years ago from seed of Iona pollinated by General Marmora. The originator claimed that Don Juan was a better grape than its parent, Iona, but it has fallen far short of this in the vineyards of the State. The connection of the name with the grape is not apparent.

Vine intermediate in vigor, appears hardy and productive. Canes short, rather brittle, slightly roughened; tendrils intermittent, bifid. Leaves medium to thin, not very large, light green. Fruit ripens rather late, keeps well. Clusters medium to large, rather broad, shouldered, strongly tapering, very loose. Berries large to medium, distinctly oval, dark red, covered with dark lilac or slightly blue bloom, strongly persistent, somewhat soft. Flesh tender and nearly melting, vinous, resembles Black Hamburg somewhat in flavor, good in quality.

DOWNING.

(Vinifera, Aestivalis, Labrusca.)

1. Am. Hort. An., 1871:79. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875:113. 3. Bush. Cat., 1883:92. 4. Gar. Mon., 26:366. 1884. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:17. 6. Kan. Sta. Bui, 28:160. 1891. 7. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:619. 1892. 8. Tenn. Sta. Bul., Vol. 9:176. 1896. 9. Mich. Sta, Bul., 169:169. E899. 10. U.S.D.A. Yr. Bk., 1901:388. col. pi.

Chas. Downing (i). Charles Downing (3, 10). Ricketts' No. i (2). Ricketts1 No. 1 (10).

Little known in cultivation, although it has been grown since 1870 and has had the recommendations of our most expert horticulturists, Downing is well worthy a place in the garden of grape-growers at least.

Its high quality, handsome appearance, and excellence as a keeper, make it desirable in all regions where the climate is sufficiently temperate to allow it to withstand the winter and to develop in full its admirable fruit characters. Added to the above qualities are fair vigor and health of vine, while with its defects must be mentioned late ripening and susceptibility to mildew in unfavorable seasons. When grown in most parts of New York the vine of Downing should be laid down in the winter or receive other protection. In most seasons, too, unremitting warfare must be kept up with bordeaux mixture to check mildew. In appearance of bunch and berry Downing is one of the most distinct of our varieties, the clusters being large and well formed and the berries having the long oval shape of a Malaga with a delicate light bloom. The flesh, too, shows Vitis vinifera in texture as well as quality while neither seeds nor skins are as objectionable as in the best of our pure-bred American varieties. Few amateurs realize the richness of our cultivated grape-flora or the garden would be supplied by other varieties than Concord, Niagara and Delaware and of these Downing would be one.

J. H. Ricketts of Newburgh, New York, originated Downing some time about 1865. It is one of the first of Ricketts' hybrids and was first known as Ricketts No. 1. The parentage is variously given as Isabella fertilized by Muscat Hamburg, Croton fertilized by Black Hamburg, and Israella fertilized by Muscat Hamburg. [After the above was in type we received a communication from Ricketts stating that Downing came from seed of Concord fertilized by Muscat Hamburg.]  If this is true it is difficult to account for the apparent Aestivalis characters.The last combination is that given by J. G. Burrows of Fishkill, New York, who was connected with J. H. Ricketts in his work and who introduced Downing in 1883; hence it is probably correct. Ricketts thought highly of this variety and gave it the name of America's great pomologist, Charles Downing.

Vine variable in vigor, usually winter-kills somewhat, not very productive, especially where it winter-kills. Canes short, few, rather slender, nearly dark green to slightly ash-gray tinge, surface covered with thin blue bloom, often roughened with few small warts; nodes much enlarged, strongly flattened; internodes medium to short; diaphragm rather thick; pith large to medium; shoots glabrous; tendrils intermittent, of average length, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds intermediate in size and thickness, short, obtuse to nearly conical, open very late. Leaves medium to small, roundish, thick; upper surface dark green, slightly glossy, rugose; lower surface rather deep green with almost no pubescence; veins somewhat distinct; lobes none to five, terminal lobe acute; petiolar sinus of medium depth, very narrow, closed and overlapping; basal sinus usually lacking but shallow and narrow when present; lateral sinus shallow to medium, narrow; teeth above average in width and depth. Flowers open late; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens a little later than Concord, often keeps until spring. Clusters large, long, rather slender, cylindrical to slightly tapering, uniform, sometimes loosely shouldered, variable in compactness; peduncle short to medium, inclined to thick; pedicel intermediate in length, slender, covered with numerous warts; brush long, slender, greenish. Berries large to medium, distinctly oval, dark purplish-black, glossy, covered with light blue bloom, strongly persistent, almost firm. Skin very thick, tender, adheres considerably to the pulp, contains almost no pigment, without astringency. Flesh greenish or with slight yellow tinge, translucent, very juicy, tender, fine-grained, vinous, mild, very good in quality. The few seeds separate easily from the pulp, one to three, average two, intermediate in size and breadth, strongly notched, rather long, brownish; raphe obscure; chalaza of mean size, surface frequently roughened, above center, circular to oval, variable in distinctness.

DRACUT AMBER.

(Labrusca.)

1. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt., 1859:48, 66. 2. Gar. Mon.7 3:26. 1861. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1883:26. 4. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:620. 1892. 5. Iowa Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1893:161. 6. Bush. Cat., 1894:117. 7. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:548, 554. 1898. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:28.

Early Amber (6).

Dracut Amber receives the attention given it here chiefly because it is a representative variety of the northern Labrusca and of the red type of Labrusca. The fruit has no particular merit, its thick skin, coarse pulp, seeds and rank foxy taste all being objectionable. But the vine is very hardy and productive, and the fruit ripens early making it valuable in the northern limits of viticulture and in other locations where a vigorous, hardy early grape is wanted. It is of no value for the market or for wine-making and therefore of use only for the home in the far North, though the fact that it does not keep well is still further against it for this purpose. The variety is of interest to the breeder who desires a red Labrusca of the northern type.

Asa Clement of Dracut, Massachusetts, originated Dracut Amber from seed of a native reddish Labrusca that grew near a Catawba vine. The seed was planted about 1855 and Mr. Clement called the resulting vine the Amber grape. Later the new variety was introduced by Jacob W. Manning under the name Dracut Amber. Catawba is supposed by Clement to have been the male parent, but this is wholly conjectural and doubtful as the botanical and horticultural characters are those of a northern Labrusca. It was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1883 and was dropped, probably inadvertently, in 1897, as it was replaced in 1899 and has since remained.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive, somewhat susceptible to attacks of leaf-hoppers. Canes long, rather numerous, medium to below in size, darkish-brown; nodes slightly enlarged, usually flattened; internodes medium to below in length; diaphragm of average thickness; pith above medium size; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, long, bifid to sometimes trifid.

Leaf-buds decidedly variable in size, length, and thickness, prominent, obtuse to conical. Young leaves tinged on lower side with bright carmine and very strongly colored along margin of upper side with carmine. Leaves large to medium, rather thick; upper surface dark green, dull, smoothish; lower surface pale green or grayish, faintly cobwebby; veins indistinct; lobes three or sometimes five in number with terminal lobe obtuse to acute; petiolar sinus moderately deep, rather narrow to medium; basal sinus shallow to narrow; lateral sinus usually shallow, medium to rather wide; teeth shallow, of average width. Flowers sometimes on plan of six, slightly sterile to fertile, open in mid-season; stamens variable in length.

Fruit ripens earlier than Concord, does not keep well, as the berries soon shrivel. Clusters not especially satisfactory in general appearance, variable in size, short to medium, rather broad, somewhat cylindrical, irregular, rarely shouldered, compact to medium; peduncle short, slender; pedicel nearly short, of average thickness, covered with numerous warts, enlarged at point of attachment to berry; brush rather long, light yellowish-green. Berries medium to large, variable in shape ranging from oval to roundish, dull pale red or dark amber, covered with thin lilac or faint blue bloom, often inclined to drop when overripe, soft. Skin unusually thick, somewhat tender, adheres slightly to pulp, contains no pigment, slightly astringent. Flesh greenish, translucent, juicy, rather fine-grained and tough, very foxy, moderately sweet to decidedly acid at center, inferior in quality. Seeds adherent, two to five in number averaging three, large to below medium, broad to medium, light brown; raphe shows only as a groove; chalaza intermediate in size, oval, above center, rather distinct and in a depression.

DUTCHESS

(Vinifera, Labrusca, Bourquiniana? Aestivalis?)

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1877:36. 2. Gar. Mon., 22:176. 1880. 3- Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt.t 1880:239. 4. Downing, 1881:166 app. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1881:24. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1883:124. 7. Ib., 1885:103, 107. 8. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1891:126. 9. Kan. Sta. Bui, 14:87. 1890. 10. Ala. Sta. Bui, 10:9. 1890. n. Gar. and For,, 5:512. 1892. 12. Can. Hort,, 17:253, 267. 1894. 13. Bush. Cat., 1894:117, 118. fig. 14. Husmann, 1895:32, 95, 102. 15. Tenn. Sta. Bui, Vol. 9:176, 195. 1896. 16. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 15:432. 1896. 17. N. Y.Sta. An. Rpt., i7'-529] 538] 54i] 544, 548, 549, 552. 1898. 18. Miss. Sta. Bui, 56:12. 1899. 19. Mo. Sta. Bui, 46:38, 43, 45, 46, 76. 1899. 20. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 44:91. 1899. 21. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1900:365.

*This variety was named after Dutchess County, New York, and the spelling is as given in this text and not "Duchess" as usually spelled.

Dutchess is a variety for the amateur, always to be sought for because of its delicious flavor, its handsome appearance, and its long-keeping qualities. It has never been largely grown in commercial vineyards because the vine is tender to cold and capricious as to soil and other conditions. Moreover the berries do not ripen quite evenly and berries and foliage are very susceptible to fungi. In soils to which it is not adapted berries and bunches are small and the latter are loose and straggling. But in spite of its defects Dutchess should not be discarded by the grape-lover for there are few grapes better for the table and that will take its place as a pure-flavored, refreshing, juicy grape. It is sweet and rich and yet does not cloy the appetite; the flesh is translucent, sparkling, fine-grained and tender; the seeds are small, few and part readily from the pulp; the skin is thin yet tough enough for good keeping but not so much so as to be objectionable in eating. The bunches are large and compact when well grown and the berries, though but medium sized, are attractive because of their translucency, the touch of amber when fully ripe, and the distinctive dots so well shown in the color-plate, Dutchess does not want an extremely rich soil nor close pruning and the bunches should be thinned and as soon as ripe ought to be picked as there is a tendency to crack when overripe or exposed to the wet. Dutchess is self-fertile and therefore desirable where only a few vines are wanted, obviating the trouble of mixed planting for cross-pollination. The clusters are especially fine when bagged.

Dutchess is another variety from A. J. Caywood of Marlboro, New York, from seed of a white Concord seedling pollinated by mixed pollen of Delaware and Walter planted in 1868. The white fruited maternal vine was an offspring of Concord pollinated by Montgomery. Dutchess was introduced by its originator about 1880. The variety was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1881 where it has since been retained.

Vine vigorous to weak, depending upon amount of winter injury, often not hardy, an uncertain bearer, susceptible to mildew in some localities. Canes intermediate in length and number, medium to below in size, moderately dark brown, covered with a slight amount of bloom, surface usually somewhat roughened; nodes slightly enlarged and flattened; internodes short to very short; diaphragm unusually thick; pith below average size; shoots slightly pubescent; tendrils intermittent, short, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds large to medium, short, thick to medium, conical to obtuse. Young leaves faintly tinged on lower side and along margin of upper side with light rose-carmine. Leaves above medium to below, irregular in outline, of average thickness; upper surface light green, slightly glossy, moderately smooth; lower surface pale green, pubescent; veins not distinct; leaf usually not lobed, with terminus slightly acute; petiolar sinus of average depth, medium to narrow; basal sinus shallow when present; lateral sinus varies from medium in depth to a mere notch; teeth intermediate in depth and width. Flowers fertile or nearly so, open somewhat late; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens in mid-season, keeps and ships well. Clusters large to medium, long, rather slender, below average width, not very uniform, slightly tapering to cylindrical, with prominent single shoulder, medium to compact; peduncle short to medium, not very thick; pedicel inferior in length, quite slender, nearly smooth, enlarged at point of attachment to fruit; brush amber-colored. Berries of medium size, roundish to oval, pale yellowish-green verging on amber, some berries showing a decided bronze tinge, covered with thin gray bloom, persistent, firm. Skin sprinkled with small dark dots, rather thin, tough, adheres to the pulp, contains no pigment, without astringency. Flesh very pale green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tender, vinous, sweet, of pleasant flavor, quality high; on heavy clay soils the quality is not fully developed. The seeds, which are tender and easily crushed, separate readily from the pulp, one to two or occasionally three, rather small, wide, short to medium, plump, moderately sharp-pointed, brownish; raphe obscure; chalaza of average size, roundish, above center, distinct.

EARLY DAISY.

(Labrusca.)

1. Pa, Sta. Rpt.} 1892:121. 2. Bush. Cat., 1894:119. 3. Amer. Gard., 15:392, 445. 1894. 4. III. Hort. Soc. Rpt.y 1904:228. 5. Can. Cen. Exp, Farms Rpt., 1905:107, 108.

The variety has been tried thoroughly in various grape regions and though it seemingly has no serious faults, on the other hand its good qualities are not such as to make it more than commonplace. Its earliness ought to commend it somewhat as the ripening period is eight or ten days earlier than Champion or Moore Early, making it one of the very earliest varieties. For a grape maturing at its season it both keeps and ships well. It would seem to be as desirable, or more so, than Hartford or Champion.

Early Daisy was originated by Mr. John Kready of Mount Joy, Pennsylvania, in 1874, as a chance seedling in his garden. It is supposed by many, from its general characters, to be a seedling of Hartford.

Vine vigorous, hardy, produces fair crops. Tendrils continuous, bifid. Leaves medium to small, light green; lower surface slightly pubescent, cobwebby. Flowers nearly sterile. Fruit ripens as early or earlier than Hartford and is a good shipper and keeper for an early grape. Clusters small to medium, often blunt at ends, slightly cylindrical, sometimes single-shouldered, compact. Berries of medium size, roundish, rather dull black, covered with abundant blue bloom, persistent. Skin tough, contains a large amount of purplish-red pigment. Flesh tough, solid, slightly aromatic, rather tart at skin to acid at center, inferior in flavor and quality. Seeds numerous, of average size. Not good enough for dessert purposes.

EARLY DAWN.

(Labrusca, Vinifera, Aestivalis.)

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt.y 1875:67. 2. lb., 1881:43. 3- Downing, 1881:166, app. 4. Bush. Cat., 1883:94. 5. Va. Sta. Bul., 30:108. 1893.

Early Dawn is a black Labrusca-Vinifera hybrid of fine quality and attractive appearance but so lacking in necessary vine characters in New York as to be practically worthless. Although it originated in New York it was never widely grown in this State. It is now, so far as records show, nearly obsolete.

Dr. Wm. A. M. Culbert of Newburgh, New York, is the originator of Early Dawn, the date of its origin being some time about 1870. It is reported to have come from seed of Israella fertilized by Black Hamburg.

Vine a fair to strong grower, not very hardy, medium to very productive. Canes rather long, covered with thin blue bloom; tendrils intermittent, bifid to trifid. Leaves medium to small; lower surface very pubescent and slightly hairy. Flowers sterile or nearly so, open in mid-season; stamens reflexed. Fruit ripens about two weeks earlier than Concord, keeps and ships well. Clusters medium to large, nearly cylindrical, irregular in outline, vary from not shouldered to a heavy single shoulder or sometimes with a double shoulder, medium in compactness. Berries rather small, roundish, attractive purplish-black, covered with heavy blue bloom, persistent. Flesh very juicy, tender, slightly vinous, sprightly, agreeably tart, variable in flavor and quality, ranging from fair to very good. Seeds not numerous, broad, plump.

EARLY OHIO.

(Labrusca.)

1. An. Hort.t 1892:176. 2. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 12:619. 1893. 3. Rural N. Y.r 53:645. 1894. fig. 4. Bush. Cat., 1894:119, 120. fig. 5. Wis. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:226. 1896. fig. 6. Rural N. Y., 56:627, fig., 630, 823. 1897. 7. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:529, 548, 554. 1898.

Early Ohio is remarkable, chiefly, in being one of the earliest commercial grapes. The fruit resembles that of Concord, of which it is probably a seedling. The claims made for this variety that it is hardy, vigorous and productive, have not been borne out on the Station grounds; but on the contrary the vine is somewhat tender, is not a strong grower, and does not bear large crops. The quality is very poor. Now that the South is sending many grapes of high quality to northern markets at the time Early Ohio and other grapes of its season are ripening it is doubtful if a grape having only earliness to commend it should have a place in our viticulture. Notwithstanding its defects Early Ohio is grown somewhat commonly in New York though its culture is on the wane.

The original seedling of Early Ohio was found in the year 1882 in the vineyard of R. A. Hunt, at Euclid, Ohio, between rows of Delaware and Concord. It was introduced in 1892 by the C. S. Curtice Company, of Portland, New York.

Vine medium to weak, often tender, usually produces medium crops. Canes short to very short, few in number, rather slender, brownish with a slight reddish tinge; nodes somewhat enlarged, flattened; internodes short; diaphragm thick; pith intermediate in size; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, usually short, bifid.

Leaf-buds rather small and short, inclined to slender, pointed to conical, open in mid-season. Young leaves lightly tinged on under side and along margin of upper side with rose-carmine. Leaves intermediate in size, of average thickness; upper surface light green, dull, smoothish; lower surface varies from pale green to slight bronze, pubescent; veins fairly distinct; lobes vary from none to three, with terminal lobe acute; petiolar sinus medium to shallow, rather wide; basal sinus usually absent; lateral sinus nearly shallow, wide to rather narrow; teeth shallow to sometimes medium, somewhat narrow. Flowers fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens two or three weeks earlier than Concord, some seasons a few days earlier than Moore Early, does not keep well. Clusters medium in size, intermediate to long, below average in thickness, tapering, frequently not shouldered, moderately compact; peduncle short to medium, of fair thickness; pedicel intermediate in length, medium to rather slender, covered with few, small warts; brush above average length, slender, tinged with red. Berries not very uniform in size, averaging medium, roundish, purplish-black, slightly glossy, covered with rather heavy blue bloom, persistent, firm. Skin intermediate in thickness and toughness, adheres slightly to the pulp, contains a moderate amount of reddish pigment, astringent. Flesh greenish, translucent, juicy, somewhat tough, slightly aromatic, sweet at skin but slightly acid at center, inferior in quality. Seeds do not separate easily unless fully ripe, one to four, average three, intermediate in size, length, and breadth, notched, light brown with yellowish-brown tips; raphe obscure; chalaza of fair size, slightly above center, circular to oval, rather obscure.

EARLY VICTOR.

(Labrusca, Bourquiniana ?)

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1877:44. 2. Downing, 1881:166, app. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:34-4. N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1881:13. 5. Bush. Cat., 1883:96. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1883:26. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:103, 105. 8. Rural N. Y., 45:622, 653. 1886. 9. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886:187. 10. Can. Hort., 11:287. 1888. 11. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1889:361, 373. 12. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 36:40. 1891. 13. Bush. Cat., 1894:121. 14. Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:170. 1899. 15* N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:395. 1899. 16. Can. Hort., 23:217. 1900.


Early Victor is especially worthy of notice because it is highest in quality of the very early black grapes. When one tastes this variety at the beginning of the grape season, he has no palate for Hartford, Champion, Ives, Janesville, or even Moore Early, and he will be conscious of defects in the flavor of many of the later grapes which are supposed to have high quality. Early Victor is especially pleasing to those who want a pure-flavored grape and object to the foxiness of our native varieties so marked in Hartford and Champion but almost wholly lacking in this variety. Were it but a few days earlier and bunch and berry a little larger and more attractive, Early Victor might be the grape par excellence for home and market to begin the grape season. The vines are hardy, healthy, vigorous, and productive, with growth and foliage greatly resembling Hartford, which is probably one of its parents, Delaware being the other. The bunches are small and compact and somewhat variable in shape; the berries are about the size and shape of those of Delaware. Its season is that of Moore Early and Hartford, or a little later, though, like many black grapes, it colors before it is ripe and is often picked much too green. Unfortunately the fruit is susceptible to black-rot and a little inclined to shrivel after ripening. Although introduced into American viticulture in 1881, Early Victor is still little known and deserves far more general recognition both by the amateur and the commercial grape-grower.

John Burr, of Leavenworth, Kansas, originated Early Victor about 1871 and sent it out for testing in 1881. It was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1883 and is still retained.

Early Victor is said to be a seedling of Delaware pollinated by Hartford. This, however, is mere surmise, as nothing is known positively as to its parentage, and the statement was made frequently by the Kansas Horticultural Society, of which Burr was a member, that it was a seedling of Concord. It was introduced, probably about 1887, by Stayman et Black of Leavenworth.

Vine vigorous, healthy, hardy, productive. Canes long, numerous, rather slender, dark brown to slightly reddish-brown, surface pubescent; nodes enlarged, usually not flattened; internodes long to medium; diaphragm nearly thin; pith intermediate in size; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, of average length, bifid to sometimes trifid.

Leaf-buds of average size, short to medium, rather thick, often strongly compressed, nearly obtuse to conical, open in mid-season. Young leaves tinged lightly on upper and lower sides with rose-carmine. Leaves medium to above in size, rather thick; upper surface dark green, moderately smooth; lower surface nearly whitish, heavily pubescent; veins well defined; lobes three to five in number, terminal lobe acute; petiolar sinus intermediate in depth and width; basal sinus shallow and moderately wide when present; lateral sinus medium to above in depth, narrow to medium in width; teeth of average depth and width. Flowers nearly fertile to somewhat sterile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens with Moore Early or a little later, does not keep well. Clusters medium to small, below average length, variable in shape, cylindrical to tapering, frequently single-shouldered, compact; peduncle intermediate in length and thickness; pedicel medium to short, covered with numerous small warts; brush wine-colored or pinkish-red. Berries small to medium, roundish to slightly oblate, dark purplish-black, rather dull, covered with heavy blue bloom, persistent, not very firm. Skin rather thin, medium to tough, adheres but slightly to the pulp, contains much red pigment, astringent. Flesh greenish-white, nearly opaque, fine-grained, of medium toughness, aromatic, slightly vinous, not foxy, sweet at skin but slightly acid at center, good in quality. Seeds do not separate easily from the pulp unless the fruit is thoroughly ripe, one to four, average three, of medium size, broad, notched, below mean length, usually somewhat blunt, dark brown; raphe obscure; chalaza of fair size, slightly above center, circular, somewhat obscure.

EATON.

(Labrusca.)

1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1879:161. 2. Ib.t 1880:231. 3. Gar. Mon., 27:335. 1885. 4. U.S.D.A. Rpt., 1887:633. 5. Rural N. Y., 48:639, 641. 1889. fig. 6. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 9:326. 1890. 7. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt, 36:42. 1891. 8. III. Sta. Bul., 28:254. 1893. 9. Bush. Cat., 1894:123. 10. Mass. Hatch Sta. Bul., 37:11, 14. 1896. 11. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:529, 548, 552, 559. 1898. 12. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:391 42, 44, 45; 50; 54, 76- l899-

Eaton's Seedling (i, 2).


Eaton is a pure-bred seedling of Concord which it surpasses in appearance but does not equal in flavor. In appearance of bunch it is one of the handsomest of our native grapes but as a table grape it ranks low. Its flesh is tough and stringy and, though sweet at the skin, is acid at the seeds. It has the same foxiness that characterizes Concord but with more juice and less richness than its parent so that it is well described as a " diluted Concord ". The skin is very similar to that of Concord, neither thicker nor thinner, and the fruit packs, ships and keeps about the same, though if any thing less well because of the greater amount of juice. The season is a few days earlier than Concord. The vine is healthy, vigorous, hardy and productive and very similar in all botanical characters to its parent. The grapes ripen unevenly, the flowers are self-sterile and in some locations it is a shy bearer. Eaton has been grown for nearly forty years and has not found favor with either the grower or the consumer and is being less and less grown, remaining in our viticulture only as a handsome exhibition grape and an interesting seedling of Concord.

This mammoth Concord, the Eaton, originated with Calvin Eaton of Concord, New Hampshire, about 1868 from seed of Concord. Mr. Eaton states that this was the best vine out of a lot of two thousand seedlings. The new variety was purchased by John B. Moore et Son of Concord, Massachusetts, in 1882, and was introduced by them in 1885. Owing to Mr. Moore's death it soon passed into the hands of the T. S. Hubbard Company, of Fredonia, New York. It at once attracted much attention on account of its fine appearance and for a time was very popular, its popularity declining chiefly because of the poor quality of the fruit.

Vine vigorous, healthy, hardy, usually productive. Canes intermediate in length and number, thick to medium, light brown changing to darker brown at the nodes, covered with a small amount of blue bloom; nodes enlarged, slightly flattened; inter-nodes short to medium; diaphragm of average thickness; pith large to medium; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, rather long, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds medium to below in size, short, of nearly mean thickness, conical to pointed, open in mid-season. Young leaves lightly tinged on under side and along margin of upper side with carmine. Leaves healthy, large, often roundish, thick; upper surface dark green, of average smoothness; lower surface tinged with bronze, heavily pubescent; veins distinct; lobes three when present, with terminal lobe acute; petiolar sinus medium to shallow, rather wide; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow, narrow, often notched; teeth shallow to medium, not very wide. Flowers partly fertile to somewhat sterile, open early; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens slightly before Concord, keeps and ships only fairly well. Clusters large to medium, short to above medium, often very broad, blunt, slightly tapering, usually single-shouldered but sometimes double-shouldered, compact to medium; peduncle short to medium, thick; pedicel medium to rather long, thick, nearly smooth, wide at point of attachment to berry; brush slender, pale green. Berries rather uniform in size, averaging large, roundish, black, not glossy, covered with heavy blue bloom, persistent, firm. Skin intermediate in thickness, rather tough, adheres considerably to the pulp, contains much purplish-red pigment, slightly astringent. Flesh greenish, translucent, juicy, rather tough, slightly stringy and foxy, nearly sweet at skin but quite acid at center, fair in quality, ranking below Concord. Seeds rather adherent, one to four in number, average two or three, above mean size, inclined to broad, notched, intermediate in length, plump, somewhat blunt, light brown; raphe buried in a rather wide, shallow groove; chalaza nearly large, slightly above center, irregularly circular to oval, obscure.

(I) ECLIPSE.

(Labrusca.)

1. Ill Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1899:216. 2. Ib.} 1904:228. 3. Rural N. Y., 65:852. 1906. 4. /et., 66:24, 344, 412, 1907.

Riehl's New Early Grape (3). Riehl's No. 10 (i, 2). RiekVs No. 10 (4).

There are two grapes bearing the name Eclipse, the origin and history of both of which are briefly set forth below. Of the two, Riehl's Eclipse alone is deemed worthy of general discussion, the other, a green variety of this name, having passed out of cultivation if it were ever grown in New York.

The grape under consideration, known for some years as Ricketts No. 10, is a comparatively new candidate for pomological honors, not having been named and introduced as Eclipse until 1906. It has not been grown largely in New York and the East and we can therefore say but little of it other than to describe it as it grows on the Station grounds and to state that in the West, Illinois in particular, it is most highly recommended. At Geneva the Eclipse is very like the Concord, one of its grandparents, it being a seedling of Niagara, differing chiefly in being earlier and of better quality. Bunches and berries are a little smaller than Concord. The vines are hardy, healthy and productive, promising well for commercial plantations. In Illinois it is said to hang on the vines long after it is ripe without deterioration and not to crack in wet weather. The color-plate and the description given below show the Eclipse as it grows at this Station and if the grape-grower wishes a variety answering to the general characters so depicted, the Eclipse is certainly worthy a trial in New York.

E. A. Riehl of Alton, Illinois, is the originator of Eclipse, the date of its origin being about 1890. He states that this is one of the seedlings from a lot of Niagara seed which was probably cross-pollinated by other varieties. The variety was introduced in 1906 by the Stark Brothers Nurseries and Orchards Company, Louisiana, Missouri.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes medium to above in length and number, intermediate in size, rather dark reddish-brown; nodes slightly enlarged; internodes of average length; diaphragm thick; pith large to medium; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, somewhat long, bifid.

Leaf-buds medium to nearly small, short, inclined to slender, pointed to conical, open in mid-season. Young leaves colored on lower side only, prevailing color pale green with slight rose-carmine tinge. Leaves medium to large, of average thickness; upper surface dark green, intermediate in smoothness; lower surface whitish with slight bronze tinge, heavily pubescent, veins well defined; lobes none to three with terminal lobe acute to acuminate; petiolar sinus deep, medium to narrow; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus of average depth, rather narrow, often notched; teeth medium to shallow, nearly narrow. Flowers sterile, open in mid-season; stamens reflexed.

Fruit ripens slightly earlier than Concord, keeps fairly well. Clusters intermediate in size, below average length, medium to rather broad, tapering to cylindrical, frequently single-shouldered, moderately compact; peduncle nearly short, thick to medium; pedicel short, somewhat thick, covered with numerous small warts; brush long, pale green. Berries large to medium, slightly oval, rather dull black, covered with abundant blue bloom, persistent, firm. Skin intermediate in thickness, tender, adheres but slightly to the pulp, contains a small amount of wine-colored pigment, somewhat astringent. Flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, tender, rather fine-grained, foxy, sweet next the skin to agreeably tart at center, resembles Concord very closely in flavor, good in quality. Seeds separate very easily from the pulp, one to four, average two or three, of mean size, somewhat short, broad to medium, distinctly notched, rather blunt, brownish; raphe buried in a deep groove; chalaza of average size, slightly above center to nearly central, circular to nearly pear-shaped, distinct.

(II) ECLIPSE. (Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1889:372. 2. Ib., 1892:269. 3. Bush. Cat., 1894:123. 4. Va. Sta. Bul. 94:139. 1898. 5. Mo. Sta. Bui, 46:39. 1899.

This Eclipse was produced by John Burr of Leavenworth, Kansas, about 1880, from mixed seed. It attracted some attention in the Middle West, where the fruit was exhibited at various meetings but failed to attain favor in the vineyard. It is now practically obsolete.

Vine vigorous, injured in severe winters, variable in productiveness, somewhat susceptible to mildew. Canes long to medium, of average number, thick; internodes long; tendrils continuous to intermittent, bifid to sometimes trifid. Leaves not healthy, large to medium, of average greenness; lower surface grayish-white. Flowers partly sterile; stamens upright. Fruit ripens a little later than Diamond, keeps well. Clusters medium to small, of average length, frequently single-shouldered, medium to broad, compact to medium. Berries large to medium, roundish to oblate, light green often with tinge of yellow, covered with thin gray bloom, persistent. Skin thin, of average toughness, covered with scattering, small, reddish-brown dots. Flesh tender, vinous, sprightly, less sweet than Niagara, good to very good in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, one to four, average three, above medium in size, intermediate in length and width; raphe obscure.

ELDORADO.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:33. 2. Rural N. Y., 45:622. 1886. 3. Ib., 51:681, 726. 1892. 4. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:621. 1892. 5. Bush. Cat., 1894:123. 6. Col. Sta. Bul., 29:22. 1894. 7. Rural N. Y., 56:822. 1897. 8. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:530, 541, 544, 54$, 554- 1898. 9. Ib.t 18:375, 387, 396. 1899. 10. III. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1902:224.

Eldorado is one of the best flavored of all early green grapes but unfortunately it has defects which have kept it from becoming popular and it is now rapidly passing from cultivation. It is delicately flavored, with a very distinct aroma and taste; the flesh is tender, melting and sweet from skin to seeds, all qualities rarely found in an early grape. The season is about that of Moore Early, a time when there are few other really good white grapes. Eldorado is a full sister of Lady Washington and is if anything better flavored than that most excellent variety. These two grapes are secondary hybrids of Labrusca and Vinifera, Concord being the native parent. The vines inherit most of the good qualities of Concord but Eldorado does not inherit Concord's ability to set fruit well; even with cross-pollination it sometimes fails to bear and is not worth growing unless planted in a mixed vineyard. The clusters are so often small and straggling under the best possible conditions that the variety cannot be highly recommended to the amateur yet its delightful flavor and its earli-ness may commend it to some.

J. H. Ricketts of Newburgh, New York, produced Eldorado some time about 1870 from seed of Concord fertilized by Allen's Hybrid. It was introduced by the originator about 1881 and is still offered for sale by a few nurserymen. Eldorado has been somewhat commonly grown in gardens and collections in the East but does not succeed in the West.

Vine usually a strong grower, hardy except in severe winters, an uncertain bearer. Canes long, not very numerous; tendrils intermittent to rarely continuous, bifid to trifid. Leaves below medium to large, irregularly roundish, dark green, rugose on older leaves; lower surface tinged with bronze, pubescent. Flowers sterile, open medium late; stamens reflexed. Fruit ripens earlier than Concord, keeps well. Clusters do not always set perfectly and are quit} variable in size, frequently single-shouldered, not uniform in compactness. Berries large to medium, roundish, yellowish-green changing to a golden yellow, covered with thin gray bloom. Flesh tender, slightly foxy, sweet from skin to center, mild, high flavored, good to very good in quality. Seeds intermediate in size and length, blunt.

ELSINBURGH.

(Vinifera, Aestivalis.)

1. Amer. Farmer, 9:221. 1827. 2. Prince, 1830:176. 3. Downing, 1845:255. 4. Elliott, 1854:245. 5. Horticulturist, 12:458. 1857. 6. Phin, 1862:254. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862:90. 8. Husmann, 1866:120. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:38. 10. Bush. Cat., 1883:94. 11. N. Y. Sta.

An. Rpt., 13:603. 1894. 12. Ib., 17:530, 548, 554. 1898.

Blue Elsingburg (2). Elsenburgh (2). Elsinboro (4, 10, 11). Elsingburg (7). Elsinburg (6). Elsinborough 6). Elsinborough (2, 3, 4). Missouri Bird's Eye (8). Smart's Elsinburgh (3, 4). Smart1 s Elsingborotigh (2, 10, 11).

Elsinburgh dates back nearly a century and is now rarely cultivated, having long since been replaced by better varieties. It is certainly not known in New York now and it is doubtful if it was ever much grown as it fruits very sparingly in the North and is but half hardy in the latitude of this State. In quality it is one of the best of the Aestivalis grapes, having a pure, rich, vinous, spicy flavor without a trace of foxiness. It would undoubtedly add variety to any amateur's vineyard and might prove of value in grape-breeding, otherwise it is not worth growing; it undoubtedly makes a very good red wine.

The origin of Elsinburgh is very uncertain. It was named after the township, Elsinborough, Salem County, New Jersey. In this neighborhood it was much raised at an early day. From here it was sent to various parts of the country. Whether it originated in this section or whether it was introduced at a still earlier date from elsewhere is unknown. It was brought into notice by a Dr. Hulings. Although Elsinburgh has long since ceased to be of importance, it is still offered for sale by an occasional nurseryman. It was placed on the grape list in the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1862 and removed in 1891. Elsinburgh is of especial interest as being the probable parent of Delaware. The variety shows Bourquiniana or Aestivalis in flavor and texture of fruit, in texture and pubescence of leaf, and the bloom on young canes; its tenderness and susceptibility to mildew suggest Vinifera.

Vine weak to moderately vigorous, not very hardy, produces light crops. Canes short to medium, slender, covered with thin blue bloom; tendrils intermittent, bifid to trifid. Leaves small to medium, variable in color; lower surface hairy and slightly pubescent. Flowers nearly fertile, open very late; stamens upright. Fruit ripens early in October. Clusters medium to large, usually single-shouldered, loose to medium. Berries small, roundish, black, covered with blue bloom, contain but little pulp. Flesh vinous, sweet, quality good. Seeds few, small.

ELVICAND.

(Candicans, Riparia, Labrusca.)

1. An. Hort.y 1892:176. 2. Bush. Cat., 1894:123. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1897:19. 4. Tex, Sta. Bul., 48:1149, 1156. 1898. 5. Ib., 56:276. 1900.

Introduced some twenty years ago, Elvicand has not found a place in the viticulture of the North. It is interesting because of its parentage, having in it the blood of three species: Riparia, Labrusca and Candicans, and might prove valuable in breeding work, as starting a new and somewhat distinct group of grapes. There has been much complaint of this variety being unproductive but Munson states that this is due to short pruning and that it will bear heavily with very long pruning. It is too late in season for New York.

The variety was originated by T. V. Munson of Denison, Texas, from seed of Elvira accidentally fertilized by pollen of Vitis candicans. It was introduced by the originator in 1893, and was placed on the grape list in the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1897, where it has since been retained. It was dropped from the originator's catalog eight years ago.

Vine vigorous and hardy. Shoots and under side of leaves showing much white cottony pubescence. Leaves large to medium, shallowly three-lobed. Flowers self-fertile. Clusters small, rather open. Berries of medium size, round, dark purple, somewhat sweet to subacid with slight Candicans flavor. Seeds large. Season late. Not a table grape.

ELVIRA.

(Riparia, Labrusca.)

1. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1873:53. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875:40, 67. 3. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1880:237. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:38. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1881:24. 6. III. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:75. 7. Bush. Cat., 1883:97. col. pi. and fig. 8. Husmann, 1895:83, 93, 175. 9. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:530, 548, 555, 559. 1898. 10. Tex. Sta. Bul., 56:270. 1900. 11. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1902:82. 12. Ib., 1906:65, 66, 67.

Though it has never attained great popularity in New York or in the North, Elvira, soon after its introduction in Missouri about thirty-five years ago, was carried to the very pinnacle of popularity as a wine grape. The qualities which commended it were its great productiveness, in which character it is hardly surpassed in favorable locations by any other of our native grapes; its earliness, ripening in the North with Concord; its exceedingly good health, being almost free from cryptogamic diseases and having almost no touch of black-rot in the average season even in the Southwest; its great vigor as shown by a strong stocky growth and ample foliage; and, lastly, almost perfect hardiness even as far north as Canada. Its good qualities are offset by one or two defects which have caused it to lose in popularity as time has gone by until now it is not as widely grown as some of its seedlings. The most noticeable of its defects is its thin skin which bursts easily, thus wholly debarring it from distant markets. Beside this, its flavor and appearance, as it grows here, are not sufficiently good to make it a table grape and it can be used only for wine for which purpose it is much valued, though its habit of cracking in the bunch is sometimes much against it as a wine grape. The wine made from Elvira is light, containing comparatively little alcohol, and by those wine-makers who do not dislike a slight foxiness in flavor, it is considered very good, improving with age and being well adapted for blending with more highly flavored wines.

At the beginning of the reconstruction period in France, Elvira was used more or less as a resistant stock and somewhat as a direct producer but within a few years it was condemned and abandoned for either purpose and is now known in France only in varietal vineyards.

Elvira is a seedling of Taylor, a Riparia-Labrusca hybrid, and shows well the peculiarities and general characters of the group of which Taylor is supposed to be the parent. Of the numerous hybrid Riparia grapes, Elvira seems to have given the best coign of vantage for breeding work and is the parent of a number of worthy pure-bred and cross-bred varieties. While it is to the species to which Elvira belongs that we must look for our hardiest grapes, this variety and most of its progeny are not suited to northern conditions, not because of tenderness to cold, but because they must have a long season for maturity and to attain their best quality. Riparia is largely used as a resistant stock in combating phylloxera, and Elvira and other similar hybrid offspring are almost proof against this pest.

Elvira was originated by Jacob Rommel of Morrison, Missouri, from seed of Taylor which some say was pollinated by Martha. It was planted in 1863 and fruited for the first time in 1869. Bush et Son et Meissner introduced the variety in 1874. It was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1881 where it is still retained. Its great popularity in Missouri was largely due to the energy with which it was advertised by certain prominent viticulturists, they having been most favorably impressed with it because of its withstanding the severe cold of the winter of 1873 without protection. Husmann, in particular, spoke of Elvira in the highest terms and recommended its cultivation. Its popularity spread from Missouri to the islands and the Ohio shore of Lake Erie but scarcely reached New York. In all of these regions its culture is now on the wane.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, produces very heavy crops, more productive than Concord. Canes of average length, numerous, medium to below in thickness, rather dark brown, deepening in color at the enlarged and flattened nodes; internodes short to medium; diaphragm rather thin; pith intermediate in thickness; shoots slightly pubescent; tendrils continuous, of average length, trifid to bifid.

Leaf-buds nearly medium in size, short to medium in length, thick, conical to nearly obtuse, open in mid-season. Young leaves tinged faintly with carmine on the lower side only. Leaves rather large, medium to somewhat thin; upper surface light green, older leaves dull but younger leaves glossy, smooth to medium; lower surface pale green, slightly pubescent, hairy. Veins rather distinct; lobes none to three with terminus acute to acuminate; petiolar sinus deep to medium, inclined to narrow, sometimes closed and overlapping; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow, often notched; teeth medium to rather deep, somewhat wide. Flowers fertile or nearly so, open moderately early; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens about with Concord, does not keep well. Clusters intermediate in size, above medium to short, of average breadth, cylindrical, usually single-shouldered, compact; peduncle short to medium, rather thick; pedicel not long, of average thickness, nearly smooth; brush short, greenish-yellow with brownish tinge. Berries average medium in size, roundish to slightly oblate, often misshapen on account of compactness, greenish with yellow tinge, rather dull, covered with a fair amount of gray bloom, not always persistent, rather firm. Skin very thin, tender, adheres slightly to the pulp, contains no pigment, somewhat astringent. Flesh greenish, juicy, fine-grained, tender, slightly foxy, sweet, not acid at the center, somewhat flat in flavor, of fair quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, one to four, average three, medium to nearly large, medium to broad, intermediate in length, blunt, often plump, medium to dark brown; raphe obscure or nearly so; chalaza of average size, slightly above center, pear-shaped, rather distinct. Must 8et8.

EMPIRE STATE 

(Riparia, Labrusca, Vinifera?)

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:66. 2. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1882:227. 3. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1882:46. 4. Bush. Cat., 1883:99. 5. Gar. Mon., 26:272, 364. 1884. 6. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 31:110. 1886. 7. Rural N. Y., 46:20, 495. 1887. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887:97, 125. 9. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1887-8:85, 169. 10. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1889:370. 11. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1889:24. 12. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:603. 1894. 13. Bush. Cat., 1894:125. 14. Col. Sta. Bul., 29:22. 1894. 15. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1894-5:11. 16. Tenn. Sta. Bul., Vol. 9:180. 1896. 17. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:530, 54i] 544, 548, 552. 1898.

Empire State competes with Niagara, Diamond and Pocklington for supremacy among green grapes in commercial vineyards, probably taking fourth place the country over. The variety is equally vigorous in growth, just as free from predaceous parasites, whether fungi or insects, and upon vines of the same age it is as productive but is a little less hardy and the grapes are not as attractive in appearance as the other varieties named.


In particular the clusters are small in some localities, a defect which can be overcome only by severe pruning or by thinning. The quality is very good, much better than Niagara, somewhat better than Pocklington and nearly as good as Diamond. It approaches the flavor of the Old World grapes, its slight wild taste suggesting one of the Muscats rather than the foxiness of the Niagara. Empire State is esteemed for the table wherever known and is in demand for wine-making, the wine from it being most excellent for champagne according to reports from the Keuka champagne-makers. Empire State ripens a little earlier than Niagara, hangs long upon the vine and keeps well after picking and without losing flavor. The variety is quite distinct in its horticultural as well as its botanical characters. This somewhat remarkable white grape was originated by James H. Ricketts of Newburgh, New York. The variety was fruited for the first time in 1879. The originator says that it came from seed of Hartford pollinated by Clinton but this parentage has been questioned by many viticulturists as it does not show characters of either of the reputed parents. A very general supposition is that the variety is a hybrid between Clinton and some variety of Vinifera, the characters of the fruit in particular indicating such breeding. Empire State was bought from the originator by George A. Stone of Rochester for $4,000, a record price for an American grape. It was introduced about 1884 and was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1889, where it still remains.

Vine a fair to good grower, usually healthy, in some locations appears somewhat tender, moderately productive to productive. Canes short, medium to few, nearly slender, brownish; nodes slightly enlarged, not flattened; internodes short to medium; diaphragm of average thickness; pith of medium size; shoots pubescent; tendrils intermittent, intermediate in length, bifid.

Leaf-buds small to medium, of average length, rather slender, pointed to conical, open moderately late. Young leaves tinged with faint trace of red on under side, prevailing color greenish. Leaves small to medium, of fair thickness; upper surface light green, slightly glossy, smooth to somewhat rugose; lower surface tinged with bronze, heavily pubescent; veins distinct; lobes three to five when present, with terminal lobe acuminate; petiolar sinus medium to deep, narrow, often closed and overlapping; basal sinus variable in depth and width; lateral sinus deep, narrow to medium, often distinctly enlarged at base; teeth medium to deep, above average width. Flowers fertile, open moderately late; stamens upright.


Fruit somewhat variable in season of ripening averaging a few days earlier than Niagara, keeps well. Clusters large to below medium, long, rather slender, cylindrical to slightly tapering, frequently single-shouldered, medium to compact; peduncle variable, often characteristically long, rather thick; pedicel not uniform in length, slender, covered with numerous small warts; brush short, light green. Berries variable in size averaging medium to below, inclined to roundish, pale yellowish-green, covered with some gray bloom, persistent, moderately firm. Skin medium to thick, variable in toughness, adheres but slightly to the pulp, contains no pigment, with slight astringency. Flesh pale yellowish-green, translucent, very juicy, fine-grained, rather tender, sweet next the skin but somewhat acid at center, agreeably flavored, good to very good in quality. Seeds adhere slightly to the pulp, one to four, average two, small, broad, notched, rather short, blunt, plump, brownish; raphe obscure; chalaza small, roundish to ovate, slightly above center, distinct.

ESSEX.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. U.S.D.A. Rpt., 1864:127, 136. 2. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1865:40. 3. Strong, 1866:341. 4. Am. Jour. Hort., 3:146. 1868. 5. Horticulturist, 24:126. 1869. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1869:42. 7. Grape Cult., 1:181. 1869. 8. III. Sta. Bui, 28:254. 1893. 9. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:530, 548, 555- 1898.

Rogers' No. 41 (1, 2, 3, 4). Rogers* No. 1^1 (5] 6, 7).

When well grown Essex is so similar to Barry, Wilder and Herbert, all being Rogers' hybrids, that it is doubtful if it is worth cultivation more especially as it is not as easily grown as the above sorts. Its fruit is almost identical with Barry, though the bunches do not equal that variety in size, but the vine is not as desirable, being only half-hardy, not productive, with sterile flowers and not setting fruit well even in mixed vineyards.

For an account of the origin and parentage of Essex see "Rogers' Hybrids." Essex, then known as Rogers' No. 41, is first mentioned separately from the other hybrids about 1865. There appears to have been some confusion in the numbers, as some of the early describers speak of the grape as red, others black. The name Essex was given by Mr. Rogers in 1869, in honor of Essex County, Massachusetts. The same year it was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog, where it was retained until 1895, when it was dropped. It is still to be found in many varietal vineyards but is now offered for sale by but few nurserymen.

Vine vigorous, not always hardy, produces good crops. Canes vigorous, intermediate in number and thickness; tendrils continuous to intermittent, trifid to bifid. Leaves medium to above in size, irregularly roundish; lower surface thinly pubescent. Flowers sterile or nearly so, open in mid-season or slightly later; stamens reflexed. Fruit ripens about with Concord or slightly later, an excellent keeper, in good condition some seasons until February. Clusters medium to nearly large, broad with a rather small, short, single shoulder, usually compact. Berries large to above medium, roundish to oval, frequently compressed, dark purplish-black, covered with abundant blue bloom, not firm. Flesh moderately tender and soft, vinous, sweet next the skin to acid at center, agreeable in flavor, good to very good in quality. Seeds large, long, often with enlarged neck; chalaza small, frequently with shallow, radiating furrows, strongly above center.

ESTER.

(Labrusca.)

1. An. Hort.f 1889:101. 2. Rural N. Y., 51:686, 863. 1892. 3. Bush. Cat., 1894:125. 4. iV. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:279. 1895. 5. 76., 17:530, 548, 555. 1898. 6. Mich. Sta. Bul., 194:57. 1901. 7. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:239. 1902.

Ester is a white seedling of Concord, whether pure-bred or cross-bred is not known, which resembles its parent in vine and in flavor of fruit. It has several defects which make it less valuable than many other better known white grapes and is therefore not recommended for New York, Its defects appear in the description given below.

The variety was originated by E. W. Bull of Concord, Massachusetts, from seed of Concord. It was introduced by George S. Josselyn of Fredonia, New York, in 1889. Bull named this variety in honor of his mother who spelled her name Ester, in the old New England way, and not " Esther " as commonly found in grape literature.

Vine variable in vigor and productiveness, usually hardy. Canes short to medium, slender, covered with considerable pubescence; tendrils continuous, rarely intermittent, bifid to trifid. Leaves small, light green; lower surface tinged with bronze, pubescent. Flowers nearly fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright. Fruit ripens about with Concord, not a good keeper. Clusters medium to above in size and compactness. Berries medium to large, roundish, pale yellowish-white, covered with thin gray bloom, inclined to drop considerably from pedicel. Skin covered with scattering brown dots, thin, somewhat tender, inclined to crack. Flesh moderately tender and vinous, sweet, variable in flavor and quality ranging from fair to very good.


ETTA.

(Riparia, Labrusca.)

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:33. 2. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:43. 3. Bush. Cat., 1883:98. fig. 4. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:23, app. 5. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 10:496. 1891. 6. III. Sta. Bul., 28:263. l893- 7* Ark. Sta. Bul., 39:30. 1896. 8. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:530. 545, 547] 555] 559-1898. 9. Tex. Sta. Bul., 48:1149, 1156. 1898. 10. Mich. Sta. Bul., 177:44. 1899. 11. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:43. 1901. 12. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:244. 1902.

Elvira Seedling No. 3 (3). Rommel's Etta (4, 12). Rommel's No. 8 (1).

In appearance, taste and texture of flesh Etta is very similar to Elvira of which it is a seedling. The small yellowish clusters which characterize Elvira are almost exactly reproduced in Etta differing chiefly in often having a shoulder quite as large as the main bunch itself, and in having, for most palates, a better flavor, lacking the slight foxiness of Elvira. The vine is very vigorous, hardy, and productive to a fault. The fruit ripens late, at the time of Catawba, and too late to make the variety of value for New York. Etta is not a good table grape and, as with its parent, makes only a fair grade of white wine but this can be produced in such quantity as to give the variety value in producing a wine for blending with more highly flavored products.

The tendency of Elvira to crack and overbear caused the originator of that variety, Jacob Rommel of Morrison, Missouri, to try for a grape without these faults and the result was Etta from seed of Elvira. It was first exhibited in 1879 as Elvira Seedling No. 3 and was awarded the premium as a seedling wine grape at the Mississippi Valley Horticultural Society meeting in St. Louis in 1880. It has never become popular in the East, probably on account of its late ripening. In Missouri Etta is generally considered to be, all characters taken into account, a better grape than Elvira, falling below it in but one particular, resistance to black-rot.

Vine vigorous to very vigorous, hardy except in severe winters, productive. Canes long, rather numerous, about average size, nearly light to medium dark brown; tendrils continuous, bifid. Leaves healthy, above medium to large, thickish; upper surface dark green, slightly glossy, nearly smooth; lower surface pale green, somewhat cobwebby; veins rather distinct. Flowers fertile or nearly so, open medium early; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens late, two or three weeks after Concord, keeps fairly well. Clusters medium to small, rather short and broad, irregularly cylindrical, usually with a short, medium-sized single shoulder but sometimes so heavily shouldered as to form a double bunch, very compact. Berries medium to small, roundish to frequently compressed on account of compactness of cluster, rather pale green, sometimes with a faint yellow tinge, dull, covered with thin gray bloom, shatter considerably when overripe, firm. Skin thin, tender, contains no pigment. Flesh juicy, fine-grained, somewhat tough and stringy, slightly foxy, neither rich nor high-flavored, sweet at skin to tart at center, mild, intermediate in flavor and quality. Seeds separate from the pulp quite easily, medium to above in size and width, long to medium, somewhat plump and blunt, brownish; raphe buried in a broad, shallow groove; chalaza of medium size, oval, nearly central, moderately distinct.

EUMELAN.

(Labrusca, Vinifera, Aestivalis.)

1. Rec. of Hort., 1866:38. 2. Mead, 1867:220. 3. Fuller, 1867:241. 4. Am. Jour. Hort., 8:144, 299. 1870. 5. Barry, 1872:418. 6. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1872:543, 555. 7. III. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1875:393. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1875:24. 9. Bush. Cat., 1883:99. fig. 10. Wis. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1885:174. 11. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 36:43. 1891. 12. Va. Sta. Bul., 94:134. 1898. 13. Ar. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:530, 545, 546, 548, 549, 552. 1898. 14. Tex. Sta. Bul., 56:271. 1900.

Washington (i). Washington (3).

Eumelan was introduced about forty years ago, with the general opinion among the leading viticulturists of the time that it was one of the best black grapes that had been brought to the notice of grape-growers. It seems now, as one studies its characters, to show an association of as great a number of valuable good qualities and as few objectionable ones as almost any other of our black grapes, yet the variety is now but little grown. Briefly summarized, its good qualities are: Vines above the average in vigor, hardiness and productiveness, remarkable for their short-jointed wood; clusters and berries well-formed, of good size and the latter a handsome black with fine bloom, making a very attractive cluster of grapes; flesh tender, seemingly dissolving into wine-like juice under slight pressure; the flavor is pure without a trace of foxiness, rich, sweet, and vinous, making a very delicious and refreshing fruit, though the large seeds are somewhat objectionable. Eumelan makes a very good red wine. The season of ripening is such that the variety may be called early, yet it keeps much better than most of the other grapes maturing with it and becomes, therefore, a mid-season and late grape as well as an early one. It neither cracks nor shells badly, and ships very well.

It is more difficult to name its defects. So far as we can discover, these are susceptibility to mildew, sterile flowers, and difficulty in propagation. Unquestionably the latter character has greatly hindered its culture, as the vines can be had only at extra expense and nurserymen are loath to grow it at all. Eumelan can at least be recommended to amateur growers and for the garden and it is well worth further trial by grape-growers.

Eumelan is a chance seedling which grew from seed about 1847 in the yard of a Mr. Thorne at Fishkill Landing, New York. About 1860 it fell into the hands of Dr. C. W. Grant of Iona Island and was introduced by him in 1867. By some it is supposed to be a seedling of Isabella. Bush gives the species as Aestivalis. Munson states, however, that he can see nothing in it but Labrusca and Vinifera. Labrusca seems to be indicated very plainly by the texture of the fruit and by the seeds, Vinifera possibly by a general appearance of the vine difficult to define and also by the tendency to mildew. Besides this, however, there are the bluish bloom on shoots and canes, the pigment beneath the skin, the spicy taste in the berries, and the difficulty of propagation from cuttings, all of which are difficult to account for except by recognizing the presence of Aestivalis or Bicolor blood.

Vine vigorous to medium, hardy, medium to productive, inclined to mildew. Canes intermediate in length, numerous, of average thickness, covered with considerable blue bloom; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short to medium; diaphragm thick; pith about medium size; shoots glabrous; tendrils intermittent, rather long, trifid to bifid.

Leaf-buds large, long, rather thick, conspicuous, obtuse to conical, open in mid-season. Young leaves heavily tinged on under side and lightly tinged along margin of upper side with bright carmine. Leaves medium to large, of average thickness; upper surface rather dark green, glossy, smooth to medium; lower surface pale green, not pubescent; veins distinct; lobes usually three in number with terminal lobe acute to acuminate; petiolar sinus medium to deep, variable in width; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow to medium, rather narrow or often a mere notch; teeth inclined to shallow, usually above medium in width. Flowers sterile, open in mid-season; stamens reflexed.

Fruit ripens before mid-season, keeps frequently until late winter. Clusters of average size, long to medium, rather slender, slightly tapering to cylindrical, often with a long, loose, single shoulder, variable in compactness; peduncle medium to long, of average size; pedicel somewhat short, rather slender, covered with few small warts, wide at point of attachment to fruit; brush short, stubby, pale green. Berries medium in size, roundish to frequently compressed, black, glossy, covered with abundant blue bloom, persistent, firm. Skin intermediate in thickness, tough, rather adherent to the pulp, contains a moderate amount of wine-colored pigment, slightly astringent. Flesh somewhat dark green, juicy, fine-grained, nearly tender, stringy, not foxy, rather spicy and aromatic with Aestivalis flavor, sweet, ranks good or higher in quality. Seeds adhere slightly to the pulp, one to four, average three, above medium to large, rather wide, intermediate in length, somewhat blunt, plump, brownish; raphe obscure; chalaza oval to circular, slightly above center, rather distinct. Must 930--iooo.

(I) EUREKA.

(Labrusca.)

1. Mag. Hort., 27:6. 1861. 2. Gar. Mon., 6:371. 1864. 3. Mag. Hort., 33:205. 1867. 4. Ant. Hort. An., 1871:80. 5. Bush. Cat., 1883:98. Bogue's Eureka (2).

No good descriptions of this variety are extant, and it does not appear to have been widely tested. Eureka resembles the Isabella very closely in both fruit and vine. The fruit ripens about two weeks earlier, is somewhat more tender in pulp, more compact in the bunch, and with the vine of greater vigor.

Eureka was originated by S. Folsom of Attica, Wyoming County, New York, some time in the fifties, and was introduced a few years later by Bogue et Son, nurserymen, of Genesee County. It is said to be a seedling of Isabella, resembling the parent very closely, except for being earlier in ripening. It is now practically out of cultivation, and was never superior to its reputed parent in desirable characters.

(II) EUREKA. (Bourquiniana, Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1889:372. 2. Ib., 1890:156. 3. Ib., 1891:128. 4. Ib., 1892:268. 5. Am. Gard., 13:85. 1892. 6. Husmann, 1895:33.

The second variety to receive the name Eureka is said to be a seedling of Delaware raised by Dr. Stayman some time about 1880. It does not appear ever to have been disseminated except to a few of Dr. Stayman's personal friends. It is very rare in varietal vineyards and hardly known to nurserymen. The variety as it grows in New York is surpassed by its parent in practically all desirable horticultural characters.

Vine a strong grower, usually rather tender, produces medium to good crops. Canes long, numerous, slender; tendrils intermittent, bifid to trifid. Leaves medium to above in size, variable in color; lower surface pale green; pubescence often distributed in flecks. Fruit ripens soon after Concord, does not keep well. Clusters above medium to medium in size and length, single-shouldered to sometimes double-shouldered, of average compactness. Berries intermediate in size, roundish, attractive dark red, covered with heavy lilac or slightly blue bloom, inclined to shell somewhat from pedicel. Skin thin, rather tender, inclined to crack. Flesh moderately juicy and tough, aromatic, nearly sweet next the skin to acid at center, vinous, desirable in flavor, good in quality. Seeds small to medium, of average width and length, nearly sharp-pointed.

EXCELSIOR.

(Vinifera, Labrusca.)

1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1880:237. 2. Bush. Cat., 1883:100. 3. Miss. Sta. An. Rpt.f 3:36. 1890. 4. Tex. Sta. Bul., 48:1150, 1156. 1898.

According to the originator, James H. Ricketts, Excelsior was "the finest grape in his collection." The grapes are delicious, having the flavor of Black Hamburg; the flesh characters are good, the pulp being melting and juicy yet holding together and having sugar enough to give keeping quality; neither seeds nor skins are objectionable; the grapes are handsome in appearance; but unfortunately the variety ripens too late to make it of much value in New York. At best it is suitable only for the amateur and, as with all of the varieties which Ricketts sent out, it is adapted to few localities and must have the best care in all respects.

Excelsior came from seed of Iona fertilized with pollen of some unknown Vinifera. The variety was introduced in the autumn of 1882. Excelsior is to-day rather rare in varietal vineyards and is apparently not offered for sale by any nurserymen.

Vine moderately vigorous, not always hardy, medium to productive. Canes long, numerous, rather thick; tendrils intermittent, bifid. Leaves large to below medium, sometimes rugose; lower surface pubescent. Fruit ripens later than Concord, keeps well. Clusters unusually large, long, broad, frequently with a heavy double shoulder, loose. Berries large to medium, oval to nearly roundish, dark red covered with thin lilac bloom, very persistent, rather soft. Skin thick, tough, adheres considerably to the pulp. Flesh very juicy, rather soft, granular, sweet and sprightly, high in flavor, good to best in quality, closely resembling Black Hamburg in many characters. Seeds medium in size, rather blunt, sometimes with a short enlarged neck.


FAITH.

(Riparia, Labrusca.)

1. III. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1881:164. 2. Bush. Cat., 1883:100. 3. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:43. 4. Rural N. Y., 45:622, 640. 1886. 5. Ind. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1889:85. 6. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:623. 1892. 7. III. Sta. Bul., 28:263. 1893. 8. Tenn. Sta. Bul., Vol. 9:180. 1896. 9. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:530, 548, 555- 189S.

Though spoken of as a desirable grape in many other regions Faith is of little or no value in New York. It is very unattractive in appearance as it grows in this State, both in cluster and in berry, the clusters being small and variable and the berries small and of unattractive color. The quality of the fruit is not high and there are many other white sorts which surpass it as a table grape, more especially Diamond which ripens at the same time. If it has any preeminently good character for this region it is productiveness but this cannot offset its mediocre characters. Another fault is that the blossoms put forth so early that they often suffer from spring frosts.

Faith is of the same breeding and from the same originator, Jacob Rommel of Morrison, Missouri, as Etta, both having come from seed of Elvira. This seedling was introduced to the public about 1881 and though an excellent grape it is hardly the equal of Etta and has never been able to compete with that variety. It was named in honor of Jacob Faith, a prominent Missouri viticulturist.

Vine medium to vigorous, hardy except in severe winters, usually healthy, variable in productiveness. Canes long to medium, numerous; tendrils continuous, bifid. Leaves large to medium, dark green; lower surface grayish-green, thinly pubescent. Flowers sterile to partly fertile, open medium early; stamens upright. Fruit ripens about with Diamond or slightly earlier, does not keep well. Clusters above medium to small, variable in length, usually slender, often heavily single-shouldered, loose. Berries quite small, roundish, dull green, frequently with yellow tinge changing to pale amber, covered with abundant gray bloom, persistent, rather soft. Flesh moderately juicy, nearly tender, agreeably flavored, sweet next the skin to somewhat tart at center, fair to good in quality. Seeds numerous, of average size, broad.


FERN MUNSON.

(Lincecumii, Vinifera, Labrusca.)

1. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:623. 1892. 2. Bush. Cat., 1894:127. 3. Husmann, 1895:130. 4. Kan. Sta. Bul., 73:182, 184. 1897. 5. III. Hort, Soc. Rpt., 1897:206. 6. Va. Sta. Bul., 94:134. 1898. 7. Tex. Sta. Bul., 48:1150, 1157. 1898. 8. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:530, 548, 555. 1898. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:29. 10. Tex. Sta. Bul., 56:277. 1900 11. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:247. 1902. 12. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1904:302, 305.

Admirable (11). Fern (2, 5). Fern Munson (2). Hilgarde (4). Munson's No. 76 (4).

Fern Munson is not adapted to northern regions, forty degrees north latitude being its limit of adaptation according to Munson, its originator. Nevertheless when it has ripened in New York the fruit has shown some very good characters, as attractive appearance, agreeable quality, and unobjectionable seeds and skin. The vines are vigorous and productive but the foliage is not remarkably healthy in the Station vineyard though it has been very abundant.

This variety was originated by T. V. Munson of Denison, Texas, from seed of Post-oak which has been variously stated to have been pollinated by Triumph, mixed pollen of Triumph and Herbemont, and by Catawba. Which of these is correct we cannot say. The seed was planted in 1885 and the variety was introduced by the originator in 1893. It was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1899, where it still remains. Dickens, of Kansas, states that this variety was formerly disseminated under the name of Admirable but this appears to be a mistake as Admirable is invariably given as having recurved stamens while the stamens of Fern Munson are erect.

Vine vigorous, not always hardy, usually produces as good or sometimes better crops than Concord. Canes long, medium or above in number, medium to thick, rather dark brown with faint red tinge; tendrils intermittent, bifid. Leaves large and thick; upper surface rugose and often heavily wrinkled; lower surface dull, pale green with slight bronze tinge, faintly pubescent; veins quite obscure. Flowers semi-fertile, open very late; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens later than Concord, appears to keep well. Clusters medium to large, not very long, variable in width, irregularly tapering to rather cylindrical, usually single-shouldered, variable in compactness, often with many abortive fruits. Berries medium to large, roundish to slightly flattened, dark purplish-black, rather glossy, covered with thin blue bloom, strongly persistent, firm. Skin thin, tough, contains a small amount of wine-colored pigment, rather astringent. Flesh juicy, tough and solid, becoming tender as it reaches maturity, fine-grained, vinous, briskly sub-acid to acid, ranking good in quality when properly ripened. Seeds adhere somewhat to the pulp, medium in size, rather broad, of average length; raphe shows as a small cord; chalaza central to slightly above center, obscure.

FLORENCE.

(Labrusca, Vinifera, Bourquiniana?) 1. Bush. Cat., 1894:127.

The fact that the Florence here described has been discarded by all vineyardists is presumptive evidence that the variety has little intrinsic value and this proves to be the case in New York. Neither fruit nor vine characters are such that the Station can recommend it. It is doubtful if the variety is longer worthy of preservation.

Florence is one of the productions of A. J. Caywood of Marlboro, New York, from seed of Niagara pollinated by Dutchess. But little is known of its time of origin or of its introduction. It is very rare in varietal vineyards and not known to nurserymen.

Canes medium to above in length, often somewhat slender, slightly roughened and pubescent; tendrils intermittent, bifid. Stamens upright. Fruit ripens slightly earlier than Niagara, does not keep well. Clusters above medium in size, rather long to medium, sometimes slightly single-shouldered, loose. Berries large to above medium, roundish, green often with tinge of yellow, covered with thin gray bloom, nearly persistent. Flesh slightly tough and solid, aromatic, agreeably sweet next the skin to rather tart at center, good to very good in quality. Seeds few, intermediate in size and length, plump.

GAERTNER.

(Vinifera, Labrusca.)

1. U.S.D.A. Rpt., 1863:548. 2. Horticulturist, 24:126. 1869. 3. Ant. Jour. Hort. 5:263. 1869. 4. Bush. Cat., 1894:127. 5. Tenn. Sta. Bui, Vol. 9:180. 1896. 6. Va. Sta. Bul., 94:137. 1898. 7. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:530, 548, 555, 559. 1898.

Rogers' No. 14 (1). Rogers' No. 14 (2, 3, 4, 5).

When at its best Gaertner is probably surpassed in appearance and in quality by no other one of Rogers' hybrids. Fruit and clusters are large and handsomely colored making a showy grape which attracts attention wherever shown and which sells in fancy fruit stores at the highest price. The plant is vigorous, productive, and as hardy as any of the primary hybrids between Labrusca and Vinifera. In view of its good qualities Gaertner has not received the attention it deserves from either the amateur or the commercial grape-grower, probably because it is more capricious as to soils than some others of its related hybrids and that to have it in perfection it must have the very best care. As a market grape it has the faults of ripening somewhat unevenly and of shipping rather poorly because of a thin tender skin. As with nearly all of the hybrids of its kind it keeps well and this, with the desirable qualities above noted, makes it a splendid grape for the home vineyard where in favorable situations it may be expected to bear annual crops of most excellent grapes. Gaertner is often compared with Massasoit, the two varieties being very similar in fruit characters, but Gaertner is of distinctly better quality than Massasoit.

Gaertner was originated by E. S. Rogers of Salem, Massachusetts, and the early history of the variety will be found under " Rogers' Hybrids." It was first mentioned separately from the other seedlings of Rogers about 1865 under the name Rogers' No. 14. In 1869, at the request of the Lake Shore Grape Association, Rogers gave names to certain of his productions which had previously been known by numbers only. One of the varieties then named was Gaertner, in honor of the German botanist of this name. It has never been as popular as some of the other Rogers' hybrids and is to-day offered for sale by but few nurserymen.

Vine medium to vigorous, usually hardy except in severe winters, produces fair to good crops. Canes rather long; intermediate in number, medium to below in size, vary in color from dark reddish-brown to ash-gray tinge, surface covered with thin blue bloom; tendrils continuous, bifid to trifid. Leaves medium to above in size, often rather roundish; upper surface moderately dark green, intermediate in thickness; lower surface pale green, pubescent; veins distinct. Flowers sterile, open moderately late; stamens reflexed.

Fruit ripens about with Concord, matures unevenly, keeps only fairly well. Clusters above medium to medium in size, short to medium, cylindrical to slightly tapering, usually with a fair-sized single shoulder but sometimes double-shouldered, rather loose, with many abortive fruits. Berries large to below medium, roundish to sometimes slightly oval, light to dark red, rather glossy, covered with a moderate amount of lilac bloom, persistent, intermediate in firmness. Skin medium to thin, inclined to tender, contains no pigment. Flesh very pale green, juicy, fine-grained, somewhat tough, slightly stringy, agreeably vinous, sweet at skin to tart at center, good to very good in quality. Seeds separate from the pulp rather easily, large to above medium, intermediate in length, broad to medium, distinctly notched, sometimes with a very short enlarged neck, brownish; raphe obscured in a deep groove; chalaza of average size, above center to nearly central, oval to roundish, somewhat obscure.

GENEVA.

(Vinifera, Labrusca,)

1. An. Hort., 1889:101. 2. Rural N. Y.t 48:49, 50, fig., 165. 1889. 3. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. RpU 35:i8o. 1890. 4. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 9:330. 1890. 5. Rural N. Y., 50:691. 1891. 6. Ib., 51:607, 655. 1892. 7. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:623. 1892. 8. Rural N. Y.f 52:71, 122, 655. 1893. 9. Bush. Cat., 1894:128. 10. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:530, 548, 555. 1898. in. Mich. Sta. But., 169:170. 1899.

Jacob Moore's Geneva is another secondary hybrid between Labrusca and Vinifera in which the Labrusca blood predominates. In quality it is somewhat below any of the other grapes put out by Moore and is surpassed by so many other grapes of its season that it has never become popular though it has much to recommend it. Thus it is vigorous, though not quite hardy, only fairly productive, with ample foliage which is very healthy. The berries and clusters are attractive. The color is more nearly transparent than any other of our grapes and there is so little bloom that the grapes are a beautiful lustrous green often becoming iridescent in sunlight. It is pure in flavor but somewhat insipid. The berries cling well to the stem and the fruit keeps exceptionally well.

Geneva was originated by Jacob Moore, Brighton, Monroe County, New York, from seed planted in 1874 of a hybrid vine fertilized by Iona. The maternal vine was from seed of a wild Labrusca fertilized with Muscat Alexandria. The variety was introduced by the R. G. Chase Company, of Geneva. It is still quite commonly found in varietal vineyards and is listed by a few grape nurserymen. Geneva seems to have succeeded somewhat better to the south of New York and is notably better in quality when grown in lower latitudes.

Vine moderately vigorous to vigorous, not very hardy, healthy, produces smaller crops than Concord. Canes intermediate in length and number, covered with slight blue bloom; tendrils intermittent to continuous, bifid to trifid. Leaves medium in size, light green; lower surface grayish-white, pubescent. Flowers nearly sterile to partly fertile, open medium late; stamens upright. Fruit ripens soon after Niagara, ships well and keeps into the winter. Clusters medium to above in size, of average width, often blunt at ends, usually not shouldered, intermediate in compactness, with many abortive fruits. Berries medium to large, slightly oval or obovate, dull green changing to a faint yellow tinge, covered with thin gray bloom. Flesh pale green, tender and soft, vinous, nearly sweet at skin to tart at center, fair to good in quality but not equal to some other white grapes of the same season. Seeds intermediate in size and length.

GLENFELD  
[This variety was named Glenfeld by Mr. Magee, its originator, not Glenfield as it is frequently spelled.]

(Labrusca.)

1. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:624. 1892. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1897:19. 3. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:530, 548, 555- 1898.

Grown in the Station vineyard since 1889, Glenfeld has made a somewhat favorable impression because of its excellent quality but it seems not to have been well received throughout the State and it is doubtful if it has more than a local reputation about the place of its origin. It is equaled or surpassed, however, by many other varieties of its season in vine characters and there is therefore little need that it should be longer perpetuated, though it may be worthy a place in the garden.

Glenfeld was found on the place of George J. Magee of Watkins, New York. Mr. Magee reports that the vine was on the place when he purchased it and the former owner knew nothing of it. The variety was locally supposed to be a seedling of Concord. It was sent to this Station for testing in 1889. For some reason it was placed upon the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog for 1897. Such action was hardly justified, as the variety had never been tested except in one or two neighborhoods, and it was taken off at the next meeting.

Vine vigorous, hardy except in severe winters, produces good crops. Canes long, numerous to medium, intermediate in thickness; tendrils continuous to intermittent, bifid to trifid. Leaves often very large, variable in color, medium to thick; lower surface tinged with bronze, strongly pubescent. Flowers nearly fertile, open in mid-season or earlier; stamens upright. Fruit ripens early in October, keeps fairly well. Clusters large to below medium, variable in shape, usually with a medium-sized single shoulder, not uniform in compactness. Berries nearly large to below medium, roundish, unique in color being a rather dull olive green covered with ash-gray bloom, somewhat inclined to shatter. Flesh tender, vinous, with an agreeable flavor, sweet at skin to tart at center, good in quality. Seeds medium to below in size, broad,

GOETHE.

(Vinifera, Labrusca.)

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1860:86. 2. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1861:68. 3. Horticulturist, 18:98, 99. 1863. 4. U.S.D.A. Rpt., 1867:160. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1867:44. 6. Horticulturist, 24:126. 1869. 7. Am. Jour. Hort., 5:261. 1869. 8. Grape Cult., 1:43, I50] 1et0] 239' 24X] fig-] 242] 296. 1869. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:38, 162. 10. Bush. Cat., 1883:101, fig., 102. 11. Tex.Sta. Bul., 48:1150, 1157. 1898. 12. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:39, 43, 44, 45, 50, 54. 1899. 13. Miss. Sta. Bul., 56:14. 1899.

Rogers' No. 1 (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Rogers' No. 1 (6, 7, 8, 10).

Of all Rogers' hybrids Goethe shows most of the Vinifera characters, resembling in appearance to a marked degree the White Malaga of European fame and not falling far short of the best Old World grape in quality. This is when it is well grown; but here lies the fault with Goethe, for it is most difficult to grow well especially in the North where the seasons are usually not long enough for its full maturity. When it does ripen in northern latitudes it is unsurpassed in flavor by any other of the grapes of its class. The vine is hardy in New York; vigorous to a fault, for in very rich soils it makes too great a growth; it does best in sands or gravels; it is fairly immune to mildew, rot and other diseases; and where it succeeds often bears so freely that thinning becomes a necessity. Added to its high quality, which makes it a splendid table grape, Goethe keeps well, lasting long into the winter. It is excellent for wine though it is too difficult to grow to make it profitable for this purpose. Unfortunately this variety ripens so late that it cannot be recommended for New York. The accompanying color-plate does not do the variety full justice as good specimens could not be obtained for illustration in the unfavorable season of 1907. Neither size, nor shape of cluster, nor color of fruit are quite as we should like to have them shown.

E. S. Rogers of Salem, Massachusetts, produced Goethe as one of his famous Labrusca-Vinifera hybrids and for its early history the reader is referred to "Rogers' Hybrids." It is first mentioned separately from others of these productions in 1858 under the name Rogers' No. 1. It was placed upon the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1867, where it still remains. In 1869 Mr. Rogers named the grape Goethe after the great German poet and naturalist. While highly esteemed in the North, it succeeds better and is therefore more commonly grown in the Middle and South Atlantic States and in the valleys of the Ohio and of the lower Missouri.

Vine vigorous to medium, hardy, variable in productiveness, somewhat subject to mildew in unfavorable locations. Canes above medium to short, of average number and thickness, rather dark brown; nodes enlarged, slightly flattened; internodes very short; diaphragm thick; pith below medium in size; shoots strongly pubescent; tendrils continuous with tendency to intermittent, rather long, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds intermediate in size, length and thickness, conical to nearly obtuse, open very late. Young leaves tinged lightly on under side and along margin of upper side with rose-carmine. Leaves variable in size, irregularly roundish, medium to somewhat thin; upper surface light green, glossy, of average smoothness; lower surface pale green to bronze, pubescent, veins very distinct; leaf usually not lobed, with terminus broadly acute; petiolar sinus of average depth, narrow, closed and frequently overlapping; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow, often a mere notch; teeth shallow to medium, rather narrow. Flowers partly fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens considerably later than Concord, keeps unusually well. Clusters intermediate in size, short to medium, rather broad, widely tapering, frequently single-shouldered, usually two bunches to a shoot, intermediate in compactness; peduncle short to medium, of average thickness; pedicel nearly long, thick, covered with numerous^ conspicuous warts, wide at point of attachment to berry; brush long, slender to stout,, pale green to yellowish-brown. Berries very large to above medium, oval to nearly roundish, pale red, covered with thin gray or slightly lilac bloom, persistent, of average firmness. Skin thin, tender to medium, adheres slightly to the pulp, contains no pigment, faintly astringent. Flesh pale green, translucent, inclined to tenderness, rather coarse, nearly sweet at skin but decidedly tart at center, with some Vinifera sprightlinessj ranking good to very good in quality, does not reach its best flavor in many localities in this State. Seeds separate from the pulp with difficulty unless fully ripe, one to three, average two, large, long, of average thickness, very slightly notched, inclined to blunt-ness, brownish; raphe obscure; chalaza of fair size, decidedly above center, pear-shaped, distinct. Must 780.

GOFF.

(Labrusca, Vinifera, Aestivalis.)

During the quarter century the New York Agricultural Experiment Station has been in existence, the breeding of grapes has been one of the chief lines of horticultural work. Professor E. S. Goff, the first Station horticulturist, began this work as early as 1885 and produced a number of seedling grapes which were numbered but not named. In continuing this work, Professor S. A. Beach, successor to Professor Goff, planted seed from some of the original seedlings and from one of these came a somewhat remarkable grape to which we have given the name Goff. This new variety first bore fruit in 1898 and at once attracted attention. In 1901 it was awarded a silver medal as a meritorious seedling at the Pan-American Exposition. Specimens of it sent to several viticultural experts were highly spoken of and in the years it has been in fruit on the Station grounds it has made a most excellent record.

Unfortunately the pedigree of this grape can never be known. Not only were the parents of the original seedling unknown, but the immediate parent was open to cross-pollination in a vineyard of many varieties. All who have examined the fruit and vines of Goff are well agreed that the variety shows very distinctly Labrusca and Vinifera characters and some maintain that there are indications of Aestivalis as well. As to the proportion of these three species, if all be present, no one would care to hazard a guess.

The general appearance of Goff is well shown in the accompanying color-plate though the cylindrical shape and enlarged lower end of the bunch are more pronounced than in typical specimens. Because of the peculiar shape of both bunch and berry the fruit cannot be called handsome though the color is sufficiently attractive. The quality of Goff is of the highest, being hardly surpassed by any of the commonly grown grapes of this country. The flavor is sweet, rich and vinous and the pulp, while firm, is tender and readily parts from the seeds. In general the flavor is that of a Labrusca-Vinifera hybrid though there is a spiciness in it that suggests an admixture of Aestivalis; the flesh characters are better than those of the average hybrid of the two first named species, being less pulpy and coarse. Probably the most valuable character of Goff is the long keeping quality of the fruit in which respect it far surpasses the several commercial varieties of this State and equals the best keeping American grapes known. In a test during the winter of 1907-08 of the keeping qualities of 255 varieties of grapes from the Station vineyards, kept in eight-pound baskets in common storage, unwrapped, Goff was one of the four best keepers, Canandaigua, Wilder and Vergennes being the other three. These four varieties kept in very good condition until April 16, and under circumstances not altogether favorable.

The vine characters of Goff are exceptionally good on the Station grounds. The vines are vigorous, hardy, very productive, and the foliage is healthy. All of the above characters are developed to an extent seldom found in a variety showing the specific blood indicated in the Goff. In these respects, taking all of them, this variety surpasses any of Rogers' hybrids, grapes with which it can be best compared. The variety is now distributed for testing in the various grape regions of the State and if the reports of its behavior are satisfactory, it will be generally distributed within a few years.

Vine vigorous to very vigorous, hardy, very productive. Canes medium to long, numerous, often rather thick, dark brown with slight reddish tinge; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes intermediate in length; diaphragm thick to medium; pith of average size; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, sometimes intermittent, long, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds intermediate in size and thickness, short to medium, plump, conical to roundly obtuse, open in mid-season. Young leaves tinged on lower side and along margin of upper side with light rose-carmine. Leaves healthy, medium to large, of average thickness; upper surface light green; smooth to rugose, dull; lower surface pale green, slightly cobwebby; veins fairly distinct; lobes three to five in number with terminal lobe obtuse to acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow; basal sinus medium to shallow, rather wide; lateral sinus deep, wide; teeth shallow, of average width. Flowers fertile, open in mid-season or later, sometimes on plan of six; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens a little later than Concord, keeps unusually well. Clusters variable in size, long to medium, frequently very slender, cylindrical, surface of cluster often irregular with blunt end larger than the part above, usually not shouldered, or with a small single shoulder, compact; peduncle usually short, intermediate in thickness; pedicel rather short, of average thickness, covered with few, if any warts, wide at point of attachment to fruit; brush short, slender, pale green with faint brown tinge. Berries variable in size, averaging about the size of Concord, frequently misshapen, strongly flattened, not uniform, dark reddish-purple, covered with heavy lilac or bluish bloom, persistent, firm. Skin thick, intermediate in toughness, adheres slightly to the pulp, with bright red pigment, slightly astringent. Flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, tender, a little coarse, somewhat vinous, sweet from skin to center, very good in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, one to five, average three, intermediate in size, variable in breadth, of medium length, rather sharp-pointed, light brownish; raphe obscure; chalaza of fair size, above center, distinct.

GOLD COIN.

(Aestivalis, Labrusca.)

1. Kan. Sta. Bul., 28:162. 1891. 2. II1. Sta. Bul., 28:264. 1893. 3. Bush. Cat., 1894:128. 4. Husmann, 1895:129. 5. Kan. Sta. Bul., 73:183. 1897. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:28. 7. Tex. Sta. Bul., 56:267, 277. 1900. 8. Rural N. Y., 61:722. 1902.

Gold Coin is at the head of Munson's "Gold Coin Family" having been produced by crossing Norton and Martha. Unfortunately the variety is only of general interest in New York as it does not succeed so far north, the summer seasons being too short. Where it succeeds it is a handsome market variety of very good quality and makes an excellent white wine. The vines are productive and are reported to be unusually free from attacks of fungal diseases.

As indicated in the preceding paragraph, this variety was originated by T. V. Munson of Denison, Texas. It sprung from seed of Cynthiana or Norton pollinated by Martha which was planted in 1883 and was introduced by the originator in 1894. Gold Coin was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1899.

Vine medium to vigorous, hardy, produces heavy crops. Canes intermediate in length and number, rather slender; tendrils continuous and sometimes intermittent, trifid to bifid. Leaves medium to above in size, moderately light green, slightly rugose; lower surface pale green, tinged with bronze, heavily pubescent. Flowers nearly fertile; stamens upright. Fruit ripens after mid-season, keeps long in good condition. Clusters medium to small, not very long, usually single-shouldered, variable in compactness. Berries large to below medium, roundish to slightly oval, yellowish-green with a distinct trace of reddish-amber, covered with a medium amount of gray bloom, usually persistent. Skin covered with small scattering brown dots, thin, inclined to toughness. Flesh somewhat tough, faintly aromatic, tart from skin to center, good in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, somewhat numerous, above medium to medium in size, not notched; raphe shows as a distinct cord.


GOLDEN DROP.

(Labrusca, Vinifera, Bourquiniana.)

1. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1880:112. 2. Bush. Cat., 1883:102. fig. 3. Barry, 1883:447. 4. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 28:17. 1883. 5. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53*44, 51. 1901.

Golden Drop is an early white grape now nearly lost to cultivation but once somewhat popular because of its high quality. Its hardiness and earliness might make it a valuable grape for northern latitudes where more commonly cultivated varieties do not mature with certainty. It is somewhat susceptible to fungal diseases, mildew especially, and needs more than ordinary care.

This variety was originated by C. G. Pringle of Charlotte, Vermont, from seed of Adirondac fertilized with Delaware, planted in 1869 and introduced by B. K. Bliss of New York, about 1880. It has never been popular but is still sold by an occasional nurseryman.

Vine vigorous to weak, not productive, inclined to mildew. Canes long to medium, numerous, dark brown; tendrils continuous to intermittent, bifid. Leaves intermediate in size, light green; lower surface pale green, very slightly pubescent. Flowers sterile or nearly so, open in mid-season; stamens upright. Fruit ripens shortly before Niagara, keeps well. Clusters small, of medium length, slender, rather cylindrical, loose. Berries medium to small, roundish to slightly oval, light green with dull yellowish-red tinge in the sun, covered with thin gray bloom, persistent. Flesh tender and soft, not foxy, sweet, very mild, good in quality. Seeds medium to small, short.

GREEN EARLY.

(Labrusca, Vinifera?) 1. II1. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1902:223. 2.1b,, 1905:296.

Green Early is a white grape coming in season with Winchell which surpasses it in most characters, quality in particular. This variety is not to be confused with "Chas. A. Green" also a white grape, which was originated by F. W. Loudon of Janesville, Wisconsin, and was introduced by Chas. A. Green of Rochester. We have not been able to get a complete description of the latter variety.

Green Early was found growing by the side of a ditch near a Concord vineyard, on land belonging to O. J. Greene of Portland, Chautauqua County, New York. The vine was transplanted into a nursery in 1887.

The parentage of the variety is unknown but it is credited to Concord owing to its resemblance to that variety. It was introduced in the late nineties by J. H. Greene of Portland, New York, and H. W. Blowers of Westfield, New York.

Vine medium to very vigorous, usually hardy, productive. Canes variable in length and thickness, dark-reddish brown; tendrils continuous, sometimes intermittent, bifid to trifid. Leaves variable in size, medium green; lower surface pale green, pubescent; stamens upright. Fruit ripens about with Moore Early or with Concord in some locations, does not keep long and is only a fair shipper. Clusters variable in size, length and breadth, sometimes single-shouldered, variable in compactness. Berries above medium to nearly small, oval to slightly roundish, light green tinged with yellow, covered with thin gray bloom, moderately persistent, rather soft. Skin nearly thin, tender, inclined to crack. Flesh slightly tough and aromatic, almost sweet at skin to acid at center, fair flavor and quality. Seeds medium to below in size, intermediate in length and breadth, sharp-pointed.

GREIN GOLDEN.

(Riparia, Labrusca.)

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:33. 2. II1. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1881:162, 164. 3. Bush. Cat., 1883:103. 4. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 188990:20. apt). 5. Gar. and For., 3:290, 490, 599. 1890. 6. Ala. Sta. Bul.% 10:10. 1890. 7. II1. Sta. Bul., 28:264. 1893. 8. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 15:294. 1896. 9. /et., 17:53^ 548, 555- 1898.

Grein's No. 2 (3).

Grein Golden ranks with Missouri Riesling as the best of Nicholas Grein's several seedlings of Taylor, both being improvements over the parent variety. It is very similar to Missouri Riesling but is, on the Station grounds, and in general, a much stronger grower. For a variety of the Taylor group, both cluster and berry are large and uniform, which, with the attractive golden color of the berries, make it a most handsome fruit. But as the variety grows in New York the flavor is not at all pleasing, being an unusual commingling of sweetness and acidity quite disagreeable to most palates; and so while its habit of growth, hardiness, health of vine and productiveness are such as would make the variety acceptable the quality of the fruit condemns it for table use. In fact the last remark applies in a greater or less degree to all of the varieties of the Taylor group for this State they fall so far short in quality that they can never be of value as market or table grapes. All are suitable for wine and Grein Golden in particular is said to make a very good white wine. The fruit of this variety cracks badly in wet weather and does not keep nor ship well, skin and flesh being very tender.

Nicholas Grein of Hermann, Missouri, produced Grein Golden over thirty years ago. It is generally supposed to be from seed of Taylor. Grein states that he planted seed of the European Riesling and of Taylor at the same time, and that the Taylor did not germinate but that the European Riesling did, one of the seedlings being Grein Golden. As the Grein Golden shows Riparia very plainly, with no trace of Vinifera, it is generally supposed that the seeds were mixed and that Grein Golden is a Taylor seedling. The variety has been and still is a commercial sort in the wine districts of the middle West.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes long to medium, numerous, somewhat slender, rather dark reddish-brown; nodes slightly enlarged, usually flattened; inter-nodes long to medium; diaphragm of average thickness; pith intermediate in size; shoots pubescent; tendrils intermittent, of fair length, trifid to sometimes bifid.

Leaf-buds of average size, short to medium, intermediate in thickness, conical to pointed, open in mid-season. Young leaves faintly tinged on lower side only with faintest rose carmine. Leaves large to medium, thick; upper surface dark green, dull, moderately smooth; lower surface pale green, slightly pubescent; veins not conspicuous; lobes none to three with terminus acute; petiolar sinus deep, medium to narrow; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow, wide, frequently obscure; teeth medium to deep, of average width. Flowers sterile, open in mid-season; stamens rerlexed.

Fruit ripens about with Niagara, does not keep nor ship well. Clusters large, long to medium, somewhat broad, tapering, irregular, often heavily single-shouldered, loose to moderately compact; peduncle above average length, thickish; pedicel intermediate in length and thickness, covered with few, inconspicuous warts; brush slender, medium in length, pale green. Berries uniform in size, rather large, roundish, attractive light green often with tinge of golden yellow or pinkish-yellow, glossy, covered with thin gray bloom, persistent, intermediate in firmness. Skin very thin, tender, often inclined to crack, does not adhere to the pulp, contains no pigment. Flesh greenish, translucent, very juicy, tender, vinous, slightly sweet next the skin but decidedly acid at center, medium to good in quality, better than Elvira. Seeds separate easily from the pulp when mature, two to four in number, average two and three, above medium in size, broad, intermediate in length, plump, light to dark brown; raphe shows as a small but prominent cord; chalaza rather large, at center or slightly above, oval, usually distinct.

HARTFORD.

(Labrusca, Vinifera?)

1. Mag. Hort.y 18:114. 1852. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1856:36, 165. 3. Mag. Hort., 24:131. 1858. 4. Horticulturist, 13:122, 166. 1858. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862:90. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1862:136, 140. 7. Ib.y 1881:117, 119, 123, 136, 138, 153, 154, 158, 162, 168. 8. Bush. Cat., 1883:103. 9. N. Y. Sia. An. Rpt., 9:327. 1890. 10. Va. Sta. Bui, 94:135. 1898. 11. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:5s1. 54i, 544, 548, 552, 555. 1898. 12. Mo. Sta. Bui, 46:39, 42, 44, 46. 1899.

Hartford Prolific (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8). Steele's Seedling (4).

For many years Hartford was looked upon as one of the standard early black grapes, if not the standard. It is now being very largely superseded, and greatly to the betterment of viticulture, by other grapes of its season of better quality, though it is still quite commonly grown in New York at least. It is probable that for many years there will be locations in which Hartford may be profitably cultivated (some in which it alone will be worth growing), and purposes for which it may be recommended. The many good characters of the vine make it a desirable grape for breeding work.

The vine of Hartford can be well characterized by its good qualities but the fruit is best described through its faults. The plants are vigorous, prolific, healthy, and the fruit is borne early in the season, ripening from a week to two weeks in advance of the Concord. After Concord the Hartford is one of the most fruitful of American grapes. The canes are remarkable for their stoutness and for the crooks at the joints. The bunches are not unattractive (the color-plate fails to do them justice as to size and color), but the quality of the fruit is low, even for an early grape where the highest quality is hardly expected. The flesh is pulpy and unpleasant to eat while the flavor is both too insipid and too foxy to be good. Because of its poor quality, now that there are so many really good early grapes, Hartford should be discarded. But there is another reason for ceasing its culture. The berries shell badly either on the vine or when packed for shipping, so that the fruit neither ships, packs, nor keeps well. The competition of the southern states from which later and better varieties can be shipped to northern cities to compete with Hartford is still another reason for the passing of this variety from commercial cultivation. Still other faults are that it colors a long while before it is ripe; and it is only partly self-fertile so that in seasons when there is bad weather during blooming time the clusters are usually loose and straggling.

The original vine of Hartford was a chance seedling in the garden of Paphro Steele of West Hartford, Connecticut. It fruited for the first time in 1849. This seedling was supposed by those familiar with the surroundings at the time to be a cross of Isabella and the wild fox grape. It was named Hartford Prolific by the Hartford County Horticultural Society. The American Pomological Society placed it in their fruit catalog in 1862 and it has never been removed. The word "Prolific" appears to have been dropped from this name by common consent about 1890.

Vine medium to vigorous, injured in severe winters, very productive as an early grape. Does not require as close pruning as many other varieties. Canes above medium in length, intermediate in number, not thick, dark brown, covered with considerable pubescence; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes medium to short; diaphragm medium to below in thickness; pith of average size; shoots very pubescent; tendrils continuous, long, bifid.

Leaf-buds of average size, short, thick to medium, obtuse to conical. Leaves nearly large, thick; upper surface dark green, dull, rugose; lower surface pale green, often with trace of bronze, thinly pubescent; veins indistinct; lobes variable with terminus blunt to acute; petiolar sinus medium to deep, narrow; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow, narrow, often a mere notch; teeth shallow, of average width. Flowers fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens early, does not keep well. Clusters above average size, nearly long, slender except when shouldered, slightly tapering, irregular, often with a long, large, single shoulder, loose; peduncle long to medium, of fair size; pedicel short, intermediate in thickness, covered with few small warts; brush greenish with dull tinge of reddish-brown. Berries regular in size averaging above medium, roundish to oval, black, not glossy, covered with blue bloom, drop badly from pedicel, of average firmness. Skin thick, tough, adheres considerably to the pulp, contains much purplish-red pigment, somewhat astringent. Flesh greenish, translucent, juicy, toughish, stringy and foxy, rather sweet at skin but somewhat tart at center, resembles Concord but ranks below that variety in flavor and quality. Seeds separate rather easily, one to four, average three or four, intermediate in size, almost broad, of fair length, dark brown; raphe obscure; chalaza intermediate in size, at center or slightly above, irregularly circular, rather distinct. Must 710.


HAYES.

(Labrusca, Vinifera?)

1. Gar. Mon., 21:340. 1880. 2. Bush. Cat., 1883:106. fig. 3. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., Pt. 1, 1884:22, 23. 4. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1885-6:169. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1889:24. 6. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 9:331. 1890. 7. Rural N. Y., 53:616, 645. 1894. 8. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:531, 541, 548, 552. 1898.

F. B. Hayes (7). Francis B. Hayes (3, 4). Francis B. Hayes (2, 6). Moore's No. 31 (2).

In 1880 the Massachusetts Horticultural Society awarded a first class certificate of merit to Hayes and it was very favorably spoken of by many expert grape-growers in New England and the East. These recommendations brought it prominently before grape-growers and for a time it was a somewhat popular variety, but as it became better known several defects became apparent and its popularity waned. The vine is hardy and vigorous but the growth is slow and in New York at least the variety is a shy or precarious bearer and both bunches and berries are too small and variable to make it an attractive grape. Besides it comes at a time, a week or ten days earlier than Concord, when there are many other really good green grapes. Excellent though it is in quality, it is hardly worth giving a place in this State for any purpose. The foliage is tender to the heat of summer and the variety is not therefore adapted to southern or western localities.

John B. Moore of Concord, Massachusetts, is the originator of Hayes. It is said to be a seedling of Concord and one of the same lot of seedlings as Moore Early. It was first fruited in 1872 and was exhibited at Boston two years later. The variety was not introduced, however, until the fall of 1884. It is a somewhat remarkable seedling of Concord for it shows no foxiness of flavor and has tender, delicate flesh, which taken together make it of high quality. Hayes illustrates well the fact mentioned under Concord that the light colored seedlings of that variety are usually of high quality. The intermittent tendrils and certain characters of the seeds indicate that there is some species present besides Labrusca, probably Vinifera.

Vine variable in vigor and productiveness, usually hardy and healthy. Canes intermediate in length, numerous, rather slender; tendrils intermittent, bifid to trifid. Leaves not uniform in size, nearly dark green; lower surface considerably pubescent. Flowers almost sterile, open medium late; stamens upright. Fruit ripens from a week to ten days earlier than Concord, keeps well. Clusters variable in size and length, often single-shouldered, not uniform in compactness. Berries above medium to small, roundish, greenish-yellow to slightly golden yellow, covered with thin gray bloom, persistent. Skin thin, tender, covered with few small reddish-brown dots. Flesh fine-grained, tender, vinous, sweet at skin to agreeably tart at center, rather mild, good in quality. Seeds few, of average size, medium to short, often plump.

HEADLIGHT.

(Vinifera, Labrusca, Bourquiniana.)

1. Rural N. Y., 60:637. 1901. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1903:82. 3. U. S. D. A. Yr. Bk., 1903:276. col. p1. 4. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1904:301, 306.

Headlight is one of the most promising of Munson's many valuable grapes. Possibly it is more valuable for southern vineyards than for northern ones, yet it is worthy of trial in the North. Its meritorious characters are: Productiveness, outyielding Delaware with which it would compete in New York; disease-resistant foliage and vines little affected by mildew and rarely attacked by black-rot even in the South; more than average vigor of vine, though it has fallen short of expectations in this respect in the Station vineyard; high quality of the fruit, being almost the equal of Delaware in flavor and having tender melting pulp which readily parts from the seeds; and earliness, ripening before Delaware and hanging on the vines or keeping after being picked for some time without deterioration in either quality or appearance. Though a southern grape it has proved perfectly hardy here and were it not that it must compete in the North with many other good grapes, Delaware in particular, it might take high place in northern viticulture. Even with such competition it is well worth a trial in either the amateur or commercial vineyards of New York. It would seem that for the South its resistance to disease should make it a valuable commercial variety.

The originator of Headlight, T. V. Munson, states in a personal letter that it came from Moyer seed fertilized by Brilliant. The seed from which the variety came wa,s planted in 1895 and the new grape was introduced in 1901 by the producer. While Headlight is as yet comparatively little known, it is being tested in many of the grape regions of the country and its value should soon be known. Such reports of its behavior as have been made are in the main very favorable.


Vine at this Station medium to weak, hardy, very productive. Canes short to medium, few in number, slender, dark brown to reddish-brown with small amount of bloom at nodes, which are enlarged and usually not flattened; internodes short; diaphragm thick; pith below medium to nearly small; shoots more or less pubescent; tendrils continuous, short, bifid, very persistent.

Leaf-buds small and short, inclined to slender, pointed to conical, open late. Young leaves heavily tinged on under side and lightly on the upper side with bright carmine. Leaves medium to small, thick; upper surface light green, dull, smoothish; lower surface pale green, with some pubescence; veins obscure; lobes none to three with terminus obtuse to acute; petiolar sinus intermediate in depth and width; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow, narrow; teeth shallow, of average width. Flowers sterile, open in mid-season; stamens reflexed.

Fruit ripens before Delaware, keeps well. Clusters small, short, of average breadth, tapering, frequently single-shouldered, compact; peduncle short to medium, slender; pedicel short, slender, covered with a few small, inconspicuous warts; brush yellowish-brown. Berries medium to very small, roundish, dark red to almost purplish-black, not glossy, covered lightly with blue bloom, persistent, very firm. Skin of average thickness, tough, adheres slightly to the pulp, contains more or less ligh^ red pigment, astringent. Flesh greenish, translucent, very juicy, tender, fine-grained, vinous, sweet from skin to center, good to very good in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, one to three, average two, below medium in size, intermediate in length, light brown; raphe obscure; chalaza above center, circular, distinct.

HERBEMONT.

(Bourquiniana.)

1. Amer. Farmer, 6:369. 1825. 2. Ib.f 10:211, 324. 1828. 3. Prince, 1830:154. 4. Ib., 1830:154, 339. 5. Mag. Hort., 9:373- 1843. 6. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt., 1845:937, 940. 7. Downing, 1845:258 8. Horticulturist, 1:98. 1846. 9. U. 5. Pat. Off. Rpt., 1847:464, 465, 469. 10. Horticulturist, 12:459. 1857. 11. Downing, 1857:339. 12. Horticulturist, 20:40. 1865. 13. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1867:44. 14. Grape Cult., 1:17, 59, 69, 98, 173, 179, 257, fig., 258, 260, 296, 302. 1869. 15. Ib., 2:76, 181, 195, 266. 1870. 16. Am, Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:39. 17. Bush. Cat., 1883:104, 105. fig. 18. Husmann, 1895:183. 19. Tenn. Sta. Bui, Vol. 9:181, fig., 182, 195. 1896. 20. Tex. Farm and Ranch, Feb. 8, 1896:11. 21. Tex. Sta. Bul., 48:1150, n57, 1898. 22. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:39, 43, 45, 46, 50. 1899. 23. Traite gen. de vit., 6:256. 1903.

Bottsi (20, ?23). Brown French (20, 23). Dunn (20). Herbemont Madeira (4, 5, 6). Herbemont's Madeira (10, 11, 14, 17, 19, 20, 23). Hunt (1). Kay's Seedling (20). McK.ee (20, 23). Neal grape (11, 23). Neil grape (17, 19, 23). Warren (2, 7, 10). Warren (2, 4, 6, 11, 14, 17, 19, 20, 23). Warrenden (6). Warrenton (i, 2, 3, 5). Warrenton (4, 10, 11, 14, 17, 19, 20, 23). White Herbemont (20).

In the South Herbemont has the same relative rank among cultivated grapes that the Concord holds in the North. The variety is injured by cold below zero or thereabouts and cannot be grown north of the Ohio River and fails somewhat in Missouri and Arkansas because of its tenderness. It requires, too, a long season for perfect maturity. Herbemont is also fastidious as to soil and its cultivation is somewhat limited by this factor. It requires a well-drained warm soil and one which is abundantly supplied with humus; though the variety often thrives on the comparatively poor hill-land of the South. Despite these limitations, this variety is grown in an immense territory, extending from Virginia and Tennessee to the Gulf and westward through Texas. The synonyms given above are many of them allusions to the localities in which it has been grown, while most of the others pertain to its origin, but all show to some extent the wide dissemination of this grape and indicate in a measure its merit.

Herbemont is known and widely grown in Europe as well as in the southern United States. In southwestern France where the demands of the variety seem to be particularly well fulfilled, it is firmly established and is highly regarded as a direct producer. In northern and central France, however, the winters are too cold and the seasons too short for its profitable culture. Its use as a stock in France is limited for it has been found to be but medium in its resistance to phylloxera; does not grow well from cuttings and is therefore propagated with difficulty; the wood does not bear grafts well and is worked with difficulty in either field or bench grafting; and lastly the French find it very subject to chlorosis, especially in calcareous soils.

The vine is, according to all accounts, a remarkably vigorous, rapid and healthy grower, being hardly surpassed in these characters by any of our native grapes. The wood is strong, abundant and very hard, the latter a serious difficulty in grafting. The fruits are attractive because of the size of the bunch and the glossy black of the berries, which are small as compared with northern grapes. Fruit is borne abundantly and with certainty year in and year out in suitable localities. The flesh characters of the fruit are good for a small grape, neither flesh, skin nor seeds being especially objectionable in eating; the pulp is tender and juicy; rich, sweet and highly flavored, the combination of flesh and flavor characters giving a grape of high quality. Herbemont is greatly esteemed as a table grape and is said to make a very good light red wine. The ample, lustrous green foliage makes the variety one of the attractive ornamental plants of the South.

Herbemont has been much used in grape-breeding and to advantage, for probably no other species offers as many desirable characters for the South and Southwest as the one to which this variety belongs and best represents. There are now several pure-bred seedlings of Herbemont under cultivation and a greater number in which it is one of the parents. Of the former Black Herbemont and the Onderdonk are good representatives and Jaeger, Delicious, Muench, Vinita, Perry, Mrs. Munson and Neva Munson, all from Munson of Texas, are Herbemont cross-breeds.

The history of Herbemont, as it must be written from such information as can now be obtained, is scarcely more than a collection of mythical stories The variety is known to have been in cultivation in Georgia before the Revolutionary War, when it was generally known under the name of Warrenton or Warren. In the early part of the last century it came to the hands of Nicholas Herbemont of Columbia, South Carolina, who gave it the name Madeira under a temporary supposition that it came from the island of that name. This name was generally changed to Herbemont's Madeira. Herbemont made the variety known to the public, sending it to William R. Prince of Flushing, Long Island, and Nicholas Longworth of Cincinnati, the two most prominent viticulturists of that time who, in turn, aided in its distribution.

There have been many contradictory accounts of the origin of the grape, crediting it to Georgia, the Carolinas, or Europe. None is supported by sufficient evidence to make it creditable and most of them arose at so late a date that it was impossible for the writers to know anything about the facts of the case except by hearsay evidence. The early idea of many that it is a Vinifera was soon dropped. Later this variety and others of its class were known as southern Aestivalis; however, it was admitted that they were unlike other southern Aestivalis. Munson gave these grapes the name Bourquiniana, a name that has been accepted as a convenient designation for the group by some who do not accept his account of its origin. The Herbemont and Lenoir are the two varieties commonly referred to as typical of this so-called species.

The history of the culture of Herbemont in the North has been the same everywhere. It was early introduced around Cincinnati, Ohio, and Hermann, Missouri, and for a time the growers had high hopes of its value. It winter-killed slightly but they overcame this by covering the vines; then the variety showed itself susceptible to rot and its culture was soon dropped. In 1867 the Herbemont was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog and it has never been removed. We have no vines of Herbemont growing in the Station vineyard and the following description has been collected from a variety of sources.

Vine vigorous to very vigorous. Canes rather, long and strong, bright green, with more or less purple, with considerable bluish-white bloom; internodes short; tendrils intermittent, of medium size, bifid or trifid. Leaves large, roundish, sometimes entire, or three-to seven-lobed, nearly glabrous above and below; upper surface clear green; lower surface lighter green, slightly glaucous; veins prominent and covered with rather abundant hair. Flowers self-fertile. Fruit ripens very late. Clusters large, long, tapering to cylindrical, prominently shouldered, compact; peduncle long and strong; pedicels somewhat short with few rather large warts; brush pinkish. Berries round, below medium in size, uniform, reddish-black or brown with abundant blue bloom. Skin thin, rather tough, with considerable pigment below. Flesh tender, very juicy; juice colorless or slightly pink; rather sweet, sprightly to slightly acid. Seeds two to four, usually two, small, reddish-brown, slightly glossy; chalaza round, prominent; raphe distinct.

HERBERT.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Mag. Hort., 31:106. 1865. 2. Horticulturist, 24:126. 1869. 3. Grape Cult., 1:180, 182. 1869. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1869:42. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt, 1881:32, 43, 121, 123, 136. 6. Bush. Cat., 1883:109. 7. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:625. 1892. 8. II1. Sta. Bui, 28:260. 1893. 9. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 1*7:531, 548, 549] 555- l898-

Rogers' No. 44 (r). Rogers* No. 44 (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7).

Although Rogers' hybrids have not made a great impression upon the commercial grape culture of the country, all will agree that they are hardly surpassed for the home vineyard and, among them, at least none of the black varieties is superior for this purpose to Herbert. Barry equals it and possibly surpasses it to the taste of most grape connoisseurs in delicacy of flavor but Herbert is the handsomer fruit, is a little earlier and if anything its vine characters are somewhat better. When at its best, Herbert, and Barry too, nearly equal Black Hamburg in the characters that constitute high quality. They lack the richness of the Old World variety but they are more sprightly and refreshing and do not cloy the appetite as does the Vinifera variety. In all that constitutes a fine table grape Herbert is about as near perfection as we have yet reached in the evolution of American grapes. As is the case with most black grapes the fruit colors long before it is ripe and when thus picked there is an astringency in its taste that wholly disappears when the fruit is fully ripe. For a Vinifera-Labrusca hybrid the Herbert is vigorous, hardy and fruitful ranking in these respects above many pure-bred Labruscas. While the fruit ripens with Concord it keeps long after and is a very good winter grape. It keeps, packs and ships well. It is unable to fertilize itself and must be set near other varieties. Herbert is well deserving attention from commercial growers who supply a discriminating market and its many good qualities will give it a high place in the esteem of grape connoisseurs.

For an account of the origin and early history of Herbert the reader is referred to " Rogers' Hybrids." The Herbert is first mentioned separately from the rest of Rogers' seedlings in 1865, under the designation Rogers' No. 44, In 1869 Rogers gave names to several of his seedlings and the Rogers' No. 44 received the name Herbert. The same year it was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog. It has never been cultivated extensively but has always been a favorite with amateur growers. The differences in the descriptions furnished by different growers leads one to suspect that there are two or more varieties passing under this name.

Vine medium to very vigorous, injured in severe winters, productive. Canes very long, numerous, unusually thick, dark brown; nodes enlarged, somewhat flattened; internodes long to medium; diaphragm thick; pith medium to large; shoots pubescent; tendrils intermittent, long, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds above medium in size, shortish, plump, obtuse, open early. Young leaves strongly tinged on under side and along margin of upper side with bright carmine. Leaves very large to medium, roundish, of average thickness; upper surface dark green, dull, smooth; lower surface pale green with some pubescence; veins numerous and quite prominent; leaf not lobed, with terminus obtuse; petiolar sinus very deep, narrow, closed and overlapping; basal and lateral sinuses lacking; teeth shallow to medium. Flowers sterile, open in mid-season; stamens reflexed.

Fruit comes in season with Concord, keeps unusually well. Clusters medium to large, variable in length, rather broad, slightly tapering, two or three clusters per shoot, often heavily single-shouldered, loose to medium; peduncle of average length, thick; pedicel intermediate in length, thick, covered with small russet warts; brush yellowish-green. Berries irregular in size but usually above medium, roundish to slightly flattened, rather dull black, covered with thick blue bloom, persistent, moderately firm. Skin variable in thickness and toughness, adheres somewhat to the pulp, contains a small amount of wine-colored pigment, astringent. Flesh light green, translucent, juicy, tender, fine-grained, with a little foxiness or muskiness, nearly sweet at skin but quite acid at center, quality good to very good. Seeds separate from the pulp with difficulty, three to six in number, average three, large, broadish, notched, quite long, with swollen neck, blunt, light brown with yellowish tips; raphe obscure; chalaza intermediate in size, decidedly above center, circular to pear-shaped, distinct.

HERCULES.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:625. 1892. 2. II1. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1893:89. 3. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 12:620. 1893. 4. Bush. Cat., 1894:135. 5. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt, 17:531, 548, 555. 1898.

Hercules is characterized by its extremely large berries, the size being as great, if not greater, than that of any of our native grapes, and approaching that of the largest Old World grapes. The fruit is handsomely colored and the cluster, when at its best, is large and well-formed with a striking resemblance to Black Hamburg. The flavor, while not of the best, is good. But large size, handsome appearance, and good flavor cannot make up for the several defects of the variety. The fruit drops and cracks badly and the pulp is too tough and adheres too firmly to the seed for a dessert grape. These faults are so marked as to make Hercules almost worthless except for breeding purposes. Added to the desirable characters of the fruit given above, the vines are hardy, vigorous and productive so that this variety offers an unusual array of valuable qualities for the grape-breeder.

At one time it was claimed that Hercules was a seedling of a California grape but later it was said to have come from seed of one of Rogers' hybrids. This opinion was based solely upon the characters of the plant, as the originator, the late G. A. Ensenberger of Bloomington, Illinois, gave no satisfactory account of the parentage of the grape. Hercules was exhibited at the Columbian Exposition at Chicago, where, on account of its large size and showy appearance, it attracted much attention. It is unfortunate that the parentage of this grape is not known as it is likely to be used not a little in the grape-breeding of the future in producing large-fruited varieties.

Vine vigorous to very vigorous, hardy except in extreme winters, very productive. Canes long to medium, intermediate in number and thickness, brown or dark reddish-brown; nodes slightly enlarged, flattened; internodes medium to long; diaphragm thick; pith large to medium; shoots slightly pubescent; tendrils continuous, of average length, bifid.

Leaf-buds medium in size, short, thickish, pointed to conical, open in mid-season. Young leaves lightly tinged on lower side and along margin of upper side with rose carmine. Leaves large, intermediate in thickness; upper surface light green, slightly glossy, smoothish; lower surface grayish-green, pubescent; veins distinct; lobes none to three, with terminus acute; petiolar sinus deep to medium, intermediate to narrow; basal sinus usually absent; lateral sinus shallow to a mere notch; teeth medium to shallow, intermediate in width. Flowers sterile, open in mid-season; stamens reflexed.

Fruit comes in season about with Concord, somewhat subject to rot, keeps fairly well. Clusters attractive, somewhat resembling Black Hamburg, very large to medium, of average length, broad to medium, slightly tapering to nearly cylindrical below the single shoulder, one to three clusters per shoot, medium to rather compact; peduncle short and thick; pedicel inclined to shortness, thickish, much enlarged at point of attachment to the fruit; brush of average length, pale green. Berries unusually large but somewhat variable, roundish, black, glossy, covered with more or less blue bloom, not persistent, firm. Skin cracks badly in some seasons, intermediate in thickness and toughness, adheres slightly to the pulp, contains some wine-colored pigment, astringent. Flesh decided green, slightly translucent, juicy, very tough, coarse, stringy, somewhat foxy, sweet near skin but acid at center, fair to good in quality. Seeds very adherent to the pulp, one to five in number, average three, large to medium, above usual length, broad to medium, deeply notched, blunt, brownish; raphe buried in a broad, deep groove; chalaza small, plainly above center, circular to oval, distinct.

HERMANN.

(Aestivalis, Labrusca.)

1. II1. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1868:168. 2. Grape Cult., 1:17, 104, fig., 105, 239, 260, 326, 330. 1869. 3. Busk. Cat., 1883:107. -fig. 4. Mo. Hort.Soc, Rpt., 1883:41 5. Ib., 1891:128. 6. Husmann, 1895: 174. 7. Tex. Sta. Bul., 48:1150, 1157. 189et. 8. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:39, 43, 45. 1899. 9. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:246. 1902.

Hermann is a southern grape, a true Aestivalis in all characters, and is not adapted to the North. When the variety was introduced, fifty or more years ago, it was considered a valuable addition to the list of wine grapes but it has not grown in favor nor popularity nor been extensively planted in any of the grape regions of the South It is said to be vigorous, hardy and productive; to defy all attacks of phylloxera; and to make a very superior wine. But the berries are very small, ripen very late, in some localities crack badly and in others rot.

The variety was originated by P. Langendoerfer of Hermann, Missouri, from seed of Norton planted in 1860. The first fruit was borne in 1863. At one time it was considerably planted in Missouri as a wine grape but it did not become popular nor spread from varietal vineyards to any extent on account of its lack of quality for either the table or wine. It is of interest chiefly as a seedling of Norton and for its very good vine characters. The following description has been taken from a number of sources, chiefly from the Bushberg Catalogue:

Vine vigorous, somewhat tender, resembling Norton in foliage except that the leaves are of a lighter color and somewhat more deeply lobed. Stamens erect. Clusters long and narrow, rather compact, rarely shouldered. Berries small, round, black with blue bloom; pulp tender, juicy, and of the characteristic spicy Aestivalis flavor. Must heavy and very fragrant, brownish-yellow making a wine the color of Brown Sherry or Madeira, of great body and fine flavor; registers 940-1050.

HICKS.

(Labrusca.)

1. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt.y 1898:46. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1899:89. 3. II1. Hort. Soc, Rpt., 1904:228. 4. Iowa Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1904.228. 240, 241. 5. Mich. Sta. Sp. Bul., 30:11. 1905.

Hicks has proved itself a remarkably good grape in the vineyard of this Station, and were it not for the fact that the fruit is almost identical with that of Concord, ripening with it or but a little earlier, there certainly would be a place for it in the viticulture of the State. The fact that it was introduced some years ago and has not found great favor with growers is assumptive evidence that it cannot make headway against Concord with which it must compete. On the Station grounds it is more prolific than Concord and its vines are of stronger growth. The variety is well worthy a trial.

The origin of the Hicks is apparently unknown. It was introduced in 1898 by Henry Wallis of Wellston, Missouri, who states that it is a chance seedling sent from California about 1870 to Richard Berry, a well-known nurseryman of St. Louis County, Missouri. After Berry's death it passed into the hands of Wallis, who named it Hicks. It is supposed from its characters to be of Concord parentage.

Vine vigorous to very vigorous, hardy, very productive. Canes medium to long, numerous, of average thickness, moderately dark brown to reddish-brown, surface covered with thin blue bloom; tendrils continuous, bifid to trifid. Leaves large, medium to thick; upper surface dark green, slightly glossy, of average smoothness; lower surface whitish, changing to a rather heavy bronze, strongly pubescent; veins well defined. Flowers fertile or nearly so, open early; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens with Concord or slightly earlier, keeps fairly well. Clusters large to medium, long to medium, broad, tapering, often single-shouldered, medium in compactness. Berries large, roundish, dark purplish-black to black, covered with heavy blue bloom, inclined to shatter somewhat when overripe, firm. Skin intermediate in thickness, tender, contains a small amount of very dark wine-colored pigment. Flesh greenish, juicy, rather tough, fine-grained, faintly foxy, sweet at skin to acid at center, mild when fully ripe, good in quality. Seeds somewhat adherent, above medium in size, short, broad, blunt, brownish; raphe buried in a rather broad groove; chalaza of average size, slightly above center, oval to circular.

HIDALGO.

(Vinifera, Labrusca, Bourquiniana.) 1. Rural AT. Y., 60:637. 1901. 2. Mo. Hort, Soc. Rpt., 1904:306.

Hidalgo is a comparatively recent addition to the list of grapes for table use. While it has not been tried generally, and is not widely known as yet, it is accorded a color-plate and a full description in this work chiefly because of its remarkably fine quality. It is rich and sweet, delicately flavored, yet sprightly, and with color, size and form of berry and bunch so well combined as to make it a singularly handsome fruit. The skin is thin but firm and the variety keeps well and ships well. The vine characters for this State are not well known. On the grounds of this Station it is doubtfully hardy, variable in vigor, and not always fruitful. While Hidalgo may not prove of value for the commercial vineyard, in favorable situations it may be expected to give a supply of choice fruit for the amateur.

The parentage of Hidalgo as given by its originator, T. V. Munson, is Delaware, Goethe and Lindley. The variety was introduced by the originator in 1902 and is now being tested in various parts of the country. The reports that come from those who have seen or grown Hidalgo agree in the main with the characterization given above and bespeak for it a high degree of popularity, at least as a table grape for the garden and possibly for the vineyard.


Vine variable in vigor, not always hardy, somewhat uncertain in bearing. Canes intermediate in length and number, above average thickness, dark reddish-brown; nodes enlarged and flattened; internodes of fair length; diaphragm thick; pith medium to below in size; shoots slightly pubescent to nearly glabrous; tendrils intermittent to continuous, intermediate in length, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds rather small and short, medium to slender, conical to pointed, open late. Young leaves faintly tinged on the under side only with rose-carmine. Leaves medium to large, often irregularly roundish, thick; upper surface light green, dull, medium to slightly rugose; lower surface pale green to bronze, heavily pubescent; veins distinct; lobes three when present with angle at terminus variable; petiolar sinus not uniform in depth, narrow, sometimes closed and overlapping; basal sinus usually none; lateral sinus shallow, narrow, often a mere notch; teeth very shallow, narrow to medium. Flowers semi-fertile, open after mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens about with Concord, keeps and ships well. Clusters large but smaller than Niagara, long to medium, inclined to slender, cylindrical to slightly tapering, often blunt, usually not shouldered, one to two bunches per shoot, medium to compact; peduncle long and slender; pedicel long, moderately slender, covered with numerous small warts; brush of average size, not thick, yellowish-green with brown tinge. Berries above medium in size, inclined to oval, attractive greenish-yellow, rather glossy, covered with thin gray bloom, persistent, firm. Skin thin to medium, tough, adheres slightly to the pulp, contains no pigment, astringent. Flesh greenish-white, somewhat transparent, juicy, tender and melting, aromatic, sweet from skin to center, very good to best. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, two to four in number, average two, above medium in size, intermediate in length and breadth, plump, light brown; raphe obscure; chalaza large, slightly above center, irregularly circular, distinct.

HIGHLAND.

(Vinifera, Labrusca.)

1. Gar, Mon., 16:375. 1874. 2. Horticulturist, 29:329. 1874. 3. Gar. Mon., 21:149. 1879. 4, W. N. Y. Hort. Soc, Rpt., 27:29. 1882. 5. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1882-3:46. 6. Bush. Cat., 1883:109. 7. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:626. 1892. 8. Ib., 17:531, 548, 552. 1898. 9. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:241. 1902.

Ricketts' No. 37 (2). Ricketts' No. 87 (1, 6).

Highland has been on trial in New York for at least thirty years but has not become widely distributed, though few varieties of black grapes surpass it or equal it in appearance or in quality. The chief trouble has been that the variety is too late for New York, ripening with, or a little later than Catawba. When given good care and under favorable conditions the bunches are unusually large and handsome in appearance, sometimes attaining a weight of two pounds and having beautiful bluish-black berries with something of the fine flavor and tender texture of the Jura Muscat, one of its parents. The flesh is solid, and while the skin is thin, yet it is firm and the fruit keeps and ships well. The vine is fairly vigorous but doubtfully hardy and productive to a fault. In all localities where the climate is sufficiently temperate and the season sufficiently long for vine and fruit of Highland to develop perfectly, it is one of the choicest of grapes for the amateur.

This fine grape was originated at about the close of the Civil War by James H. Ricketts of Newburgh, New York, from seed of Concord fertilized by Jura Muscat. It was introduced by Messrs. Asher Hance et Sons, who bought it of the originator. It is very common in varietal vineyards but it has not become popular as a commercial sort; it is a popular grape for exhibitions where, when well grown, it is hardly surpassed in appearance by any other American grape.

Vine variable in vigor, productive, healthy, often inclined to overbear. Canes long, numerous, medium to thick, light and dark brown, often with a dull, ash-gray tinge, covered with thin bloom; nodes strongly enlarged, not flattened; internodes medium to very long; diaphragm thick; pith large to medium; shoots usually pubescent; tendrils intermittent, of average length, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds large to medium, rather short and thick, obtuse to conical. Leaves large, intermediate in thickness, upper surface often dark green, dull, medium to rugose; lower surface grayish-green, pubescent; veins rather indistinct; lobes none to five, with terminal lobe acute to obtuse; petiolar sinus rather deep, variable in width; basal sinus shallow, narrow; lateral sinus of average depth and width, sometimes a mere notch; teeth rather deep and wide. Flowers fertile or nearly so, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens with Catawba or after, keeps fairly well. Clusters large, rather long and broad, tapering, usually single-shouldered but sometimes with a double shoulder, usually two bunches per shoot, intermediate in compactness; peduncle of average length and thickness; pedicel long to medium, moderately thick, nearly smooth; brush below average length, green with yellowish-brown tinge. Berries large, roundish-oval, dark purplish-black to bluish-black, rather dull, covered with dark lilac or slightly blue bloom, persistent, moderately firm. Skin intermediate in thickness, tough, nearly free from the pulp, contains little, if any, pigment, not astringent. Flesh greenish, translucent, juicy, somewhat tender, slightly vinous, good in quality. Seeds separate rather easily from the pulp, one to six, average three, above medium to large, nearly long, intermediate in breadth, slightly notched with a one-sided tendency, riper seeds brownish; raphe obscure; chalaza of average size, above center, variable in shape, not distinct.


HOSFORD.

(Labrusca.)

1. Can. Hort., 11:287. l888+ 2+ Rural N. Y., 49:737, fig., 739, 856. 1890. 3. U.S.D.A. Rpt., 1892:264. 4. Bush. Cat., 1894:138. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1894:75. 6. Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:171. 1899. 7. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:45. 1901.

Hosford's Mammoth Seedling (2). Hosford's Seedling (i).

Hosford is an offspring of Concord, differing from the parent chiefly in the greater size of bunch and berry and in being less fruitful. The variety is surpassed by Worden and Eaton, of the same type, and is probably not worth cultivation. It is claimed by some that this variety is identical with Eaton. It is true that Hosford has a marked resemblance to Eaton but there are noticeable differences in both vine and fruit characters and the pure seedlings of the two varieties are entirely different, those of Eaton being much darker in color and more vigorous. Hosford was sent out several years before Eaton. The vine of this variety looks very much like Concord except that the indentations along the margins of the leaves are deeper.

As a rule the black seedlings of Concord which have been introduced are larger in cluster and berry than the parent and either not as high in quality or no higher, differing materially from Concord's light-colored seedlings, which are usually smaller in bunch and berry, or at least not larger, and of distinctly better quality. Hosford is a typical black seedling in the above respects.

This variety originated in the garden of George Hosford of Ionia, Michigan. It was found by the owner about 1876 as a chance seedling growing between two Concord vines.

Vine not very vigorous, nearly hardy, unproductive. Canes short, few in number, rather slender; tendrils continuous, bifid to trifid. Leaves medium to below in size, intermediate in thickness; lower surface grayish-white to bronze, heavily pubescent. Flowers semi-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright. Fruit ripens shortly before Concord, does not keep very well. Clusters medium to large, tapering, slightly shouldered, moderately compact. Berries large to medium, roundish to slightly oval, dull black covered with abundant blue bloom, persistent. Skin medium to thick, tender. Flesh very pale green, unusually juicy, fine-grained, rather tender, vinous, sweet, good in quality. Seeds not numerous, nearly large, very broad, blunt, plump.


1. Am. Vines, 1903:190. Franc's Hybrid (i).

HYBRID FRANC.

(Vinifera, Rupestris.)

Hybrid Franc is illustrated and described in full in The Grapes of New York because it is the best known cross between Rupestris and Vinifera. It is one of the few varieties used in Europe as a resistant stock now recommended for a direct producer. The vine characters are seemingly all good, hardy, vigorous and very productive. The fruit is fit only for wine being too acid for a table grape. The coloring matter in the fruit is very intense and it might be used for giving color to wines. Hybrid Franc is of much interest to the grape-breeder, and experiments with it as a parent are desirable for New York. The variety is of French origin.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes variable in length, numerous, thick to medium, light brown, covered with slight blue bloom; nodes enlarged, roundish; inter-nodes very short; diaphragm thin; pith unusually large; shoots glabrous; tendrils intermittent, often rather long, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds large to medium, short, above average thickness, obtuse to conical, open moderately late. Young leaves tinged on upper and lower sides with carmine; the tips of the buds in opening show strongly the leaf serrations. Leaves very small to medium, rather thin; upper surface light green, decidedly glossy, smooth; lower surface greenish, showing Riparia characters, quite hairy along ribs and larger veins; lobes usually three to five with terminal lobe acute to acuminate; petiolar sinus intermediate in depth, narrow to medium, sometimes closed and overlapping; basal sinus of average depth and width; lateral sinus medium in depth to a mere notch; teeth intermediate in depth and width. Flowers semi-fertile, open early; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens before mid-season, does not always keep well. Clusters medium to below in size, short, intermediate in breadth, tapering to cylindrical, usually single-shouldered, average three bunches per shoot, medium to compact; peduncle below medium length, rather slender; pedicel long, slender, covered with few, small, inconspicuous warts; brush short, wine-colored. Berries below medium to small, uniform, slightly oblate to roundish, black, glossy, covered with thick, blue bloom, persistent, firm. Skin thin, tender, does not adhere to the pulp, contains a very dark wine-colored pigment, not astringent. Flesh pale green, often with a slight reddish tinge, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, somewhat tender, spicy, tart to acid, fair in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, one to five, average three and four, medium to small, rather short, intermediate in breadth, light brown; raphe obscure; chalaza of average size, slightly above center, oval to pear-shaped, distinct.

IDEAL.

(Labrusca, Vinifera, Bourquiniana.)

1. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt.t 1886:187. 2. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt.% 1890:155. 3. Ib., 1891:128. 4. Bush. Cat., 1894:140. 5. II1. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1897:16. 6. Va. Sta. Bul., 94:137. 1898. 7. Mo, Sta. Bul., 46:39, 42, 44, 46, 55. 1899. 8. Budd-Hansen, 2:380. 1902.

Burr No. 9 (1).

Ideal is a handsome seedling of the Delaware, from which it differs chiefly in being much larger in bunch and berry, attaining in both of these characters nearly the size of Catawba. In Kansas and Missouri it is most highly recommended, not only for the high quality of the fruit, ranking with Delaware in quality, but because of vigorous, healthy, productive vines. But in New York, on the Station grounds at least, the vines are precariously hardy and not sufficiently fruitful, healthy nor vigorous to warrant a very high recommendation for the variety. Were the variety of recent introduction it might be recommended for trial but it has been grown for more than twenty years and has, therefore, been well tried and has not proved of general value. It may be worth planting for home use.

Originated by John Burr of Leavenworth, Kansas, over thirty years ago from seed of Delaware, the attention of the public was attracted to Ideal about 1890, first by glowing descriptions of the variety from the originator and his friend and co-worker, Dr. Stayman, and later by reports from various persons who had tested the variety. It does not appear to have ever been regularly introduced but was sent to various persons for testing by whom it was distributed. It is now found only in the occasional variety vineyard and apparently not offered for sale by any nurserymen. Ideal is better known, and possibly succeeds better in the West than in the East.

Vine medium to vigorous, not always hardy, productive, but yielding smaller crops than Concord; tendrils intermittent, bifid to trifid. Canes long, numerous, rather slender. Leaves medium to large, variable in color; lower surface pale green, slightly pubescent and cobwebby. Fruit ripens about with Delaware, keeps only fairly well. Clusters large to above medium, long to medium, often rather broad and heavily shouldered, intermediate in compactness. Berries large, roundish, attractive dark red, covered with abundant lilac bloom, often with tinge of blue, usually persistent, firm. Flesh greenish, moderately tender, aromatic, nearly sweet next the skin to acid at center, good to very good in quality. Seeds adherent, large, plump.

IMPERIAL.

(Vinifera, Labrusca.)

1. Horticulturist, 29:328. 1874. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875:114. 3. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1891:45. 4. Bush. Cat., 1894:140. No. 93 A (1).

Although introduced nearly forty years ago, Imperial is still little known and does not appear to have especial value. Perhaps its most valuable character is hardiness as it is reputed to be as hardy as Concord which, for a grape having its proportion of Vinifera blood, is the exception. In appearance and quality Imperial is very good and were its vine characters better, and were there not so many excellent green grapes of its season with which it must compete, the variety would be more generally cultivated.

Imperial is a seedling of Iona fertilized by Sarbelle Muscat and was raised by J. H. Ricketts of Newburgh, New York, over thirty years ago. The following description has been compiled from various sources:

Vine vigorous, healthy, hardy. Leaves large, attractive green. Fruit ripens late. Clusters large, symmetrical, slightly shouldered, rather compact. Berries large, greenish-white, covered with considerable bloom. Flesh tender, juicy, vinous, sprightly, not high in flavor but agreeable, good to very good in quality. Seeds small, not numerous.

IONA.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Horticulturist, 18:313. 1863. 2. Mag. Hort., 2914.20. 1863. 3. Grant, Descript. Cat., 1864:8, 9, 18, 19, 21, 32. 4. Grant, Grape Vines, 1864:1, 2, 3, 5, 11, 12. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1867:44. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1867:105. 7. Iowa Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1867:108. 8. Ant. Jour. Hort., 5:15, 187, 298, 299. 1869. 9. Horticulturist, 25:186. 1870. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1871:69. 11. Horticulturist, 29:20, 245. 1874. 12. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875:355. 13. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:39. 14. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:222. 15. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 31:120. 1886. 16. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 9:328. 1890. 17. Col. Sta. Bul., 29:21. 1894. 18. Bush. Cat., 1894:140. 19. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:531, 548, 552, 555. 559- 1898. 20. Va. Sta. Bui, 94-*37- l898- 21. Miss. Sta. Bul., 56:15. 1899. 22. Mo. Sta. Bui, 46:39, 43, 44, 45, 51, 76. 1899.

Iona is probably surpassed in delicacy and sprightliness of flavor, in keeping quality, and for making certain wines, as champagne, by few, if any, other American grapes. In spite of these several good qualities it has never been very generally grown, chiefly for the reason that it requires more care than commercial grape-growers are willing to give grapes, though, beside requiring the best of care, its cultivation is hindered by several serious faults. Iona rivals Delaware as the standard in quality of American grapes, though if flavor alone be considered, grape connoisseurs generally agree that it surpasses Delaware and is the finest flavored of all our grapes.

In flavor Iona has a rare combination of sweetness and acidity, pure, delicate and vinous. The flesh is transparent, melting, tender, juicy, and of uniform consistence quite to the center. The seeds are few and small and part readily from the flesh. The color is a peculiar dark-red wine with a tint of amethyst, somewhat variable and not always attractive. The bunch, at its best, is large but rather loose with berries varying somewhat in size and ripening unevenly. It cannot be called a particularly handsome grape. The fruit does not decay readily and may be kept in a good fruit room until late winter without loss of flavor and with the berries adhering to the bunch. Beside being a most excellent table grape, it is much sought for by wine-makers for champagne and for making finely-flavored white wines.

The vine characters of Iona are not nearly as good as those of the fruit. To do well it must have a soil exactly suited to its wants. Seemingly it does best in deep, dry, sandy or gravelly clays and cannot be grown in damp, rich, black soils on the one hand nor poor sands or gravels on the other. Vergil's lines as to the treatment of soils for vines are especially applicable to the Iona.

"A free loose earth is what the vines demand, Where wind and frost have help'd the lab'rer's hand, And sturdy peasants deep have stirr'd the land."

This variety does especially well when trained against walls or buildings, attaining under such conditions rare perfection. It is not hardy in any but favored localities in New York and in many parts of the State must have careful winter protection. The vines are not vigorous and are inclined to overbear, to remedy which it must have close pruning, or be grafted on a strong growing stock. In localities where mildew and rot thrive Iona is badly attacked by these diseases. The vines bear early and the fruit ripens at mid-season or shortly after. Iona is a grape for the amateur and for the careful vineyardist. Few varieties are more desirable or satisfactory for the garden when planted in soils to which it is adapted, when given good care, properly protected from cold, and the vines restrained from overbearing.

Iona was originated by Dr. C. W. Grant of Iona Island, Westchester County, New York, and the name commemorates the scene of the viticultural labors of one of the founders of American viticulture. Grant states that Iona is from seed of Diana planted in 1855, the plant from which fruited for the first time four years later. Caywood, however, says that Grant informed him that it was found growing as a chance seedling under a Catawba vine. Since Diana is a seedling of Catawba there is too little difference in the character of the older varieties to enable one to tell from which Iona came. This variety was awarded the Greeley prize of $100, offered by Horace Greeley during the Civil War for a grape adapted to general cultivation in the Eastern and Middle States. The requirements which a variety had to possess to secure this prize were certainly sufficiently high; it was asked that the vine should be as hardy, healthy and vigorous as the strongest American vine and the fruit of a quality equal to the best European. Such a grape would be a boon to European as well as to American grape-growers. Though the prize went to Iona it must not be thought that it meets these requirements.

Iona was introduced by the originator in 1864. It was overpraised, extensively advertised, and for some time the prices of vines were kept at an exorbitant figure from which there was a reaction detrimental to the variety. It was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1867. Probably no American variety has been the subject of more caustic discussions than this one and it is only within the last few years that its merits could be impartially estimated. Iona was extensively tried in all the grape regions of America but has been generally dropped as a commercial grape. It is still to be found in all varietal vineyards, in occasional commercial plantings and somewhat commonly in gardens.

Vine medium to weak, precariously hardy, unproductive, often susceptible to attacks of mildew. Canes short to medium, of average number and size, light brown; nodes enlarged, roundish; internodes short; diaphragm thick; pith nearly intermediate in size; shoots show some pubescence; tendrils intermittent, of average length, bifid.

Leaf-buds about medium in size, short to medium, thick, conical to pointed, open very late. Young leaves tinged on under side and along margin of upper side with carmine; often heavily coated with thick, whitish pubescence. Leaves of average size, thick; upper surface light green, dull, smooth to medium; lower surface grayish-green, heavily pubescent, somewhat cobwebby; veins indistinct; lobes three to five with terminal lobe acute; petiolar sinus intermediate in depth and width; basal sinus shallow, medium to wide; lateral sinus shallow, wide; teeth not deep, of average width. Flowers nearly fertile, open late; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens later than Concord, keeps well. Clusters above medium to small, sometimes double-shouldered, intermediate in length, somewhat slender,' slightly tapering to conical, medium to loose; peduncle short and slender; pedicel intermediate in length, slender, nearly smooth, enlarged at point of attachment to fruit; brush of average length, not thick, pale green. Berries intermediate in size, uniform, oval to nearly roundish, dull, light and dark red, covered with thin lilac bloom, persistent, firm. Skin of medium thickness, tough, adheres considerably to the pulp, contains no pigment, slightly astringent. Flesh greenish, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tender and melting, vinous, very good in quality. Seeds separate easily, one to four in number, average three, small and broad, plump, brownish; raphe usually obscure but sometimes distinct; chalaza small, nearly central, circular, distinct. Must 8801000.


IRONCLAD.

(Riparia, Labrusca.)

1. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1882-3:131. 2. Gar. and For., 5:597. 1892. 3. II1. Sta. Bul., 28:254. 1893. 4. Gar. and For., 7:509. 1894. 5. Bush. Cat., 1894:140.

Ash (1, 4, 5). Diogenes (5). Pearson's Ironclad (4). Pearson's Ironclad (5). Scott (4, 5).

Ironclad is of interest because of its history, and because of its possible value for breeding purposes. If the history given below is correct, this variety is one of the oldest of our cultivated grapes. From the accounts of those who have grown it, Ironclad is as free from mildew and rot, in fruit at least, as any of our cultivated native grapes. It is also very resistant to phylloxera and has been used somewhat in Prance and Spain as a resistant stock for Vinifera. It is also extremely vigorous and hardy and is very productive. The fruit is not of sufficiently high quality nor attractive enough in appearance to make a good table grape but it is said to make very excellent wine, the juice having color and body enough to make it of value for adding color to lighter colored musts. Ironclad is a very capricious bearer and especially so on rampant growing vines, one of the faults of the variety being that it makes too rank a growth.

The history of this grape, as given by A. W. Pearson of Vineland, New Jerse}^, is as follows: In 1873 Pearson secured from Colonel Scott, then president of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, cuttings of a vine growing on the latter's grounds, near Darby about seven miles west of Philadelphia. Scott's gardener reported the vine to be free from rot and Pearson, who had named the variety Scott, changed the name to Ironclad when he found the gardener's report as to rot verified. On investigation Pearson found that the variety was over two hundred years old, and that it had been cultivated locally under the name of Ash, from a former owner of the Scott place and an ancestor of Pearson. This account is not fully corroborated by early horticultural writers but appears to be sufficiently accurate to give the variety historical interest. Ironclad is said to be a hybrid between Labrusca and Riparia and its botanical characters justify such a supposition.

Vine a rank grower, hardy, productive. Canes long, numerous, thick to slender, dark reddish-brown; nodes of average size, flattened; internodes medium to long; diaphragm thin; pith large to medium; shoots glabrous; tendrils continuous, of fair length, bifid to sometimes trifid.

Leaf-buds small, short, slender to medium, conical to pointed. Leaves of medium size, intermediate in thickness; upper surface dark green, somewhat glossy, smoothish; lower surface pale green, slightly pubescent; veins rather distinct; lobes none to three with terminal lobe acute to acuminate; petiolar sinus intermediate in depth and width; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow, usually wide; teeth intermediate in depth and width. Flowers open early; stamens reflexed.

Fruit ripens about with Concord but colors early, appears to keep well. Clusters small and short, slightly tapering, sometimes single-shouldered, variable in compactness; peduncle short, inclined to slender; pedicel short, slender to medium, covered with numerous inconspicuous warts; brush short, of average thickness, dark wine color. Berries irregular in size, averaging small, roundish to slightly oblate, jet-black, glossy, covered slightly with blue bloom, usually persistent, firm. Skin intermediate in thickness, tough, adheres slightly to the pulp, contains a large amount of dark purplish-red pigment, not astringent. Flesh greenish, with distinct tinge of red, rather transparent, moderately juicy, somewhat tender, fine-grained, spicy, sweet to agreeably tart at center, not good enough in quality for dessert purposes. Seeds separate from the pulp somewhat easily, one to four in number, average two, intermediate in size and breadth, short to medium, sharp-pointed, dark brownish; raphe buried in a shallow, narrow groove; chalaza large with surface roughened and warty, central to slightly above, irregularly pear-shaped, distinct.

ISABELLA.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Amer. Farmer, 5:241. 1823. 2. Ib., 9:221, 294, 309, 325, 1827. 3. Sou. Agr., 2:552. 1829. 4. Prince, 1830:165. 5. Spooner, 1846:13, 29, 49. 6. Horticulturist, 6:410, 412. 1851. 7. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt., 1851:48-51. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852:54. 9. Horticulturist, 15:73. 1860. 10. Gar. Mon., 2:156, 265. 1860. 11. Ib., 5:73, 74- 1863. 12. N. Y. Agr. Soc. Rpt., 1864:42, 45, 141. 13. Mag. Hort., 31:107, 157. 1865. 14. Husmann, 1866:18, 79, 122. 15. Downing, 1869:542. 16. Grape Cult., 2:76. 1870. 17. Ib., 3:67, 103. 1871. 18. Gar. Mon., 14:105, 167, 296. 1872. 19. Horticulturist, 29:20, 245. 1874. 20. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1883:57, 124, 128. 21. Bush. Cat., 1883:110. 22. Rural N. Y., 50:418, 482. 1891. 23. II1. Sta. Bul., 28:255. 1893. 24* Kan. Sta. Bul., 44:116. 1893. 25. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 15:432, 433- 1896. 26. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:531, 541, 544, 548, 552. 1898. 27. Ala. Sta. Bul., 110:83. 1900. 28. Rural N. Y., 59:719, 722. 1900. fig. 29. Traite gen. de vit., 5:203. 1903.

Alexander (29). Black Cape (29). Cape (29). Captraube (29). Champania (29). Cherokee? (11). Christie's Improved Isabella (15, 21, 29). Conckling's Wilding (11). Constantia (29). Dorchester (r). Framboisier (29). Garber's Red-Fox (29). Gibb's grape (4, 11, 18). Hanover (southern) (11). HenselVs Long Island (11). Isabella (1). Isabelle d'Amerique (29). Lespeyre (2, 10, 11, 18). New Hanover (n). Paign's Isabella (15, 21, 29). Payne's Early (n, 15, 21, 29). Raisin de Cassis (29). Raisin du Cap (29). Raisin Fraise (29). Raisin Framboise (29). Sainte-Helene (29). Saluda (n). Sanborntonf (15, 21, 29). Schuylkillf (29). Uva Fragola (29). Vernet (6, 11, 18). Woodward (15, 21, 29).

Isabella is now of little more than historical interest yet for a half century after its introduction, about 1816, it and Catawba were the mainstays of American viticulture. In the early days of grape-growing in this country Isabella was the grape of the North Atlantic and New England States while the vineyards of the South were planted with Catawba, the latter requiring too long a season and being too susceptible to fungal diseases for a northern grape. Isabella has been almost wholly replaced in the North by Concord, because the latter is earlier, hardier and more productive, and the older variety can now hardly be found except in the collections of experimenters and amateurs.

In appearance Isabella is quite as attractive as any of the black grapes, having large, well-formed clusters and a deep black color with thick bloom. The flavor is good but the thick skin and muskiness in taste are objectionable. The fruit keeps and ships well and seldom rattles or cracks but the variety is surpassed in vine characters by many other standard kinds, notably Concord, which, as stated above, has taken its place. The lustrous green, ample foliage which remains late in the season, and the vigor of Isabella, make it an attractive ornamental, well adapted for growing on arbors, porches and trellises. Individual vines of this variety growing in New York, the Middle States, and New England, realize more than any other grape that ideal of peace and plenty for which the grape has been the symbol since the vines of Judah and of Israel. While it is of small commercial importance, Isabella is still worthy a place in the garden and as an ornamental.

The origin of Isabella is not certainly known. It was secured by William Prince of Flushing, Long Island, from Mrs. Isabella Gibbs, the wife of Geo. Gibbs, a merchant then living in Brooklyn, New York. Prince states that he first saw this grape in 1816 and was so struck with its appearance that he considered it worthy of a name and introduction to the public. It was consequently named in honor of Mrs. Gibbs and introduced shortly after 1816. In answer to a request from Prince as to the place of its origin. Mrs. Gibbs reported that it had come originally from the vicinity of Dorchester, South Carolina. This account of its origin was published at the time in several agricultural periodicals and later in Prince's Treatise on the Vine. The whole question was thoroughly discussed in the agricultural press of that day but without a satisfactory solution of the place of its nativity.

Nicholas Herbemont who sought the history of the variety in the neighborhood of Dorchester, South Carolina, doubted its having originated there, as he found it known only as a cultivated sort with a tradition of its having been introduced years before by a gentleman then dead. There were various accounts published of its having originated in North Carolina, Virginia, Delaware and Europe, none of which are worthy of any credence. All that can be said is that it originated some time in the eighteenth century, probably in one of the Carolinas and that it was cultivated in many widely separated neighborhoods prior to 1800.

In 1852 Isabella was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog, for general cultivation. In 1864, on account of its susceptibility to mildew it was transferred to a list for cultivation in special localities. It was soon, however, restored to the original list where it still remains. After the introduction of Concord, as noted above, the popularity of Isabella waned but it is still to be found in many sections as one of the less planted of the market sorts and is in practically all varietal vineyards. It was introduced into Europe before 1830 where it was quite extensively cultivated for the manufacture of a low grade wine, and it is quite probable that the phylloxera, which later became such a pest, was introduced on roots of the Isabella.

Isabella is generally classed as a pure Labrusca but there are many who think there is a strain of Vinifera present. This is indicated by the shape of the berries, certain characters of the seeds, the susceptibility of the vine to mildew and of the fruit to black-rot. The characters of Isabella can be traced in a great number of offspring though comparatively few of them have outlived the parent in usefulness. Pure-bred progeny of the Isabella differ but little from the parent and are classed as strains of the original rather than as new varieties. Hybrids of it with pure Vinifera are usually worthless, lacking in vigor and hardiness, and so much more so than in the case of hybrids of Vinifera and known pure American grapes as to further suggest Vinifera blood in Isabella. Such hybrids, too, usually bear a stronger resemblance to the Old World grape than offspring of purebred parents of the two species.

Vine vigorous to medium, usually hardy, variable in productiveness, but sometimes producing heavy crops, somewhat subject to mildew in certain locations. Canes short to above medium, numerous, covered with heavy pubescence, thick, light to dark brown; nodes enlarged, strongly flattened; internodes short to medium; diaphragm thick; pith intermediate to below in size; shoots covered with heavy pubescence; tendrils continuous, long, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds small, short, thickish, conical, open very late. Young leaves tinged on lower side and along margin of upper side with light rose carmine. Leaves intermediate in size, often roundish, thick; upper surface dark green, smooth to medium, glossy; lower surface whitish-green, heavily pubescent; veins distinct; lobes three when present with terminal lobe obtuse to acute; petiolar sinus shallow to medium, narrow, often closed and overlapping; basal sinus usually none; lateral sinus shallow, narrow, frequently notched; teeth shallow, medium to wide. Flowers usually strongly self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit usually ripens with Catawba or earlier, keeps and ships well. Clusters large to medium, intermediate in length, nearly cylindrical to conical, frequently single-shouldered, variable in compactness; peduncle short to medium, thick; pedicel variable in length, slender, almost smooth, much enlarged at point of attachment to fruit; brush long, yellowish-green. Berries variable in size, medium to large, oval, deep black, color long before ripe, covered with considerable blue bloom, usually persistent, soft. Skin thick to medium, very tough, adheres considerably to the pulp, contains no pigment, astringent. Flesh pale green, sometimes with yellowish tinge, translucent, juicy, finegrained, tender but meaty, somewhat stringy, inclined to foxiness, sweet to agreeably tart at center, slightly astringent when not mature, ranks good in quality. Seeds separate from the pulp with some difficulty unless fully ripe, one to three in number, average two, large to medium, broad, distinctly notched, above medium to short, brownish with yellow tips; raphe obscure; chalaza small, above center, circular, rather distinct. Must 600-790.

ISABELLA SEEDLING.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. A7". Y. Sta. An. Rpt.y 11:636. 1892. 2. Ib., 131604. 1894. 3. Bush. Cat., 1894:141. 4. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt, i7:S3x; 548, 555, 559. 1898.

Isabella Seedling is an early, vigorous, productive offspring of Isabella. In fruit characters it greatly resembles its parent but is much earlier, ripening shortly after Moore Early, and has a more compact bunch. Like its parent, the fruit is of good quality and keeps remarkably well for so early a grape. It is now grown in New York more than Isabella and while not of any considerable commercial importance, is far more deserving attention as a market grape than some of the poorly flavored kinds more generally grown.

There are several varieties under this name. Two are mentioned by Warder; one of Ohio and one of New York origin. The Isabella Seedling here described was originated by G. A. Ensenberger, Sr., of Bloomington, Illinois, who sent it to this Station for testing in 1889. Full details of the origin and history of this grape are not known, Mr. Ensenberger having died soon after its dissemination, without leaving a record of his work.

Vine vigorous to very vigorous, usually hardy, healthy, productive. Canes long to medium, intermediate in number, thickish, dark brown, often with a tinge of red, surface covered with thin bloom; tendrils intermittent to continuous, bifid. Leaves healthy, medium to large, rather thick; upper surface medium green, dull, of average smoothness; lower surface pale green or grayish-green, occasionally with tinge of bronze, pubescent; veins distinct. Flowers nearly fertile; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens early but later than Moore Early, keeps well. Clusters large to medium, long, slender to medium, cylindrical to slightly tapering, usually single-shouldered, loose to medium but more compact than Isabella. Berries large to medium, distinctly oval, often pear-shaped, dull black, covered with a moderate amount of blue bloom, persistent, rather soft. Skin medium to thick, intermediate in toughness, contains some red pigment. Flesh pale green, juicy, somewhat tender, slightly coarse, vinous, sweet next the skin to acid at center, good in quality. Seeds numerous, separate rather easily from the pulp, inclined to large, of medium length, broad, notched, plump, dark brown; raphe buried in a groove of average width; chalaza large, above center, circular to slightly oval, somewhat obscure.

ISRAELLA.

(Labrusca, Vinifera?)

1. Horticulturist, 18:313, 314. 1863. 2. Grant, Descript. Cat., 1864:5, 8, 18, 19, 21, 32. 3. Grant, Grape Vines, 1864: 1, 2, 13. 4. Mag. Hort., 33:70, 148, 337. 1867. 5. Fuller, 1867:225. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1867:44. 7. Mag. Hort., 34:6, 103, 138, 140, 309, 350. 1868. 8. Grape Cult., 1:42, 116, 262, 302, 326. 1869. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:40. 10. Bush. Cat., 1883:111. 11. Tex. Sta. Bul., 48:1150, 1158. 1898. 12. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:45. 1901.

Israella came from Dr. C. W. Grant contemporaneously with Iona, and was heralded far and wide as the earliest good grape in cultivation. For several years after its introduction it was widely tried and almost everywhere discarded because of the poor quality and unattractive appearance of the fruit and lack of vigor, hardiness and productiveness of the vine.

Dr. Grant grew the Israella from seed of Isabella planted in 1855. In 1859 or 1860, Peter B. Mead, then editor of the Horticulturist, selected this variety from several thousand seedlings of the same parentage and named it in honor of Dr. Grant's wife. The first fruit was borne in 1859. ^ was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1867 and was dropped from their list in 1881. It has been gradually dropped from cultivation although it is still to be found in many varietal vineyards and is listed for sale by an occasional nurseryman.

Vine intermediate in vigor, usually hardy, hardly productive. Canes of average length, not numerous, slender, medium to dark brown; tendrils continuous, bifid. Leaves large to medium, intermediate in thickness; upper surface light green, dull, medium to rugose; lower surface pale green to grayish-green, faintly pubescent. Stamens upright.

Fruit ripens a little later than Concord, appears to keep well. Clusters above average size, intermediate in length and breadth, strongly tapering, often single-shouldered, usualfy compact, frequently with many abortive fruits. Berries small to medium, roundish to oval, black or purplish-black, not glossy, covered with a fair amount of bloom, inclined to drop somewhat from the pedicel, not firm. Skin thick, tough, contains a large amount of purplish-red pigment. Flesh pale green, juicy, tender, stringy, mild, sweet from skin to center, appears to lack character, not so good in flavor or quality as Concord, ranks no more than fair in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, medium to below in size, intermediate in length, broad to medium, decidedly notched, blunt, light brown, seed-coat often covered with numerous grayish warts; raphe buried in a shallow, wide groove; chalaza small, at center or above, irregularly circular, obscure.

IVES.

(Labrusca, Aestivalis?)

1. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt., 1856:433. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1858:176. 3. Horticulturist, 21:327. 1866. 4. Grape Cult., 1:10, 12, 42, 80, 116. 1869. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1869:42. 6. Grape Cult., 2:171, fig., 172, 297. 1870. 7. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875:403. fig. 8. Bush. Cat., 1883:111, 112. fig. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 22:166. 1889. 10. Ala. Sta. Bul., 10:10. 1890. n. Va. Sta. Bul., 30:100, 108. 1893. 12. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:39, 42, 45, 46, 54, 76. 1899. 13. Ga. Sta. Bul., 28:289, 291. 1895. 14. Tenn. Sta. Bul., Vol. 9:182. 1896. 15. Traite gen. de vit., 6:183. 1903.

Ives' Madeira (6, 8, 15). Ives' Madeira Seedling (3). Ives' Seedling (1, 3, 4, 7). Ives' Seedling (6, 8, 14, 15). Ives1 Seedling Madeira (15). Kittredge (3, 6, 8, 15).

A number of years ago Ives attained a high reputation as a grape for the making of red wines and was held to be surpassed only by Norton for this purpose. It is hardy, healthy, vigorous, and fruitful, but poor in quality as a table grape, not ranking above Hartford, with which it sometimes competes in the market though wrongfully, as it is a much later grape. Ives colors long before it is ripe and is often sent to market before sufficiently matured, at which stage of development it is barely edible. Even when ripe it has a foxy odor objectionable to nearly all; moreover, its flesh is tough and pulpy. The bunches are compact with well-formed, jet-black grapes, which make it an attractive fruit. It is easily propagated and is adapted to any good grape soil. It is so rampant in growth that it is difficult to manage in the vineyard. The good characters of the vine, as well as one or two of the fruit, indicate that Ives might be desirable for breeding purposes, but its special value is for the making of red wines of the claret type, in which it is said to have a fine red color but a foxy taste and odor which, however, improve with age. Ives is hardly as widely grown as formerly, having been most popular at the time when the Catawba along the Ohio River was succumbing to fungal diseases and a more healthy and productive grape was wanted. It has never been very largely grown elsewhere.

Ives was grown by Henry Ives from seed planted in 1840 in his garden in Cincinnati, Ohio. It was exhibited in 1844 before the Cincinnati Horticultural Society. Ives insisted that it came from seed of Madeira grapes which had been sent him from abroad. As the variety is evidently largely, if not .wholly Labrusca, it has always been supposed that his Madeira seedlings became accidentally mixed with a chance seedling. Because of some of its characters the parentage of Ives has been variously credited to Isabella, Alexander, Hartford and others, but nothing is positively known as to this phase of its origin. It was placed on the grape list in the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1869 where it is still retained. Ives was awarded in 1868 the premium offered by the Longworth Wine House of Cincinnati for the best wine grape for the United States. It is still cultivated to a considerable extent although not nearly so popular as forty years ago.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive to very productive. Canes long to medium, of average number, thick, dark brown to reddish-brown, surface covered with thin blue bloom; nodes enlarged, slightly flattened; internodes short; diaphragm thick;

pith medium to below in size; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, of average length, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds medium to large, short, thick, obtuse to conical, sometimes strongly compressed. Leaves large to medium, of average thickness; upper surface dark green, dull, medium to slightly rugose; lower surface very pale green, pubescent; veins distinct; lobes three to five when present, with terminal lobe acute to acuminate; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, sometimes closed and overlapping; basal sinus shallow, medium in width; lateral sinus of average depth, rather narrow; teeth shallow to medium, intermediate in width. Stamens upright.

Fruit ripens about with Concord or slightly later, keeps well. Clusters of fair size, intermediate in length and breadth, tapering to nearly cylindrical, three or four bunches per shoot, frequently single-shouldered, compact to medium, often with numerous abortive berries; peduncle long to medium, of average thickness; pedicel above medium in length, slender, covered with numerous, small warts; brush short, slender, pale green with reddish-brown tinge. Berries intermediate in size, oval to roundish, jet-black, covered with a moderate amount of blue bloom, very persistent, firm. Skin of medium thickness, tough, adheres slightly to the pulp, contains a fair amount of wine-colored pigment, slightly astringent. Flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, very tough, foxy, sweet at skin to tart at center, hardly good in quality. Seeds separate with difficulty from the pulp, one to four, average three, below medium to small, often abortive, medium to broad, rather short, usually blunt and plump, brownish; raphe obscure; chalaza a small circular depression, nearly central, usually obscure. Must 808.

JAEGER.

(Lincecumii, Bourquiniana.)

1. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:117. 2. Va. Sta. BuL, 30:107. 1893. 3. Bush. Cat., 1894:137, fig., 138. 4. Rural N. Y., 55:591. 1896. 5. Ark. Sta. Bul., 39:31. 1896. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1897:20. 7. Tex. Sta. BuL, 48:1150, 1158. 1898. 8. Mo. Sta. BuL, 46:39, 43, 45, 76. 1899. 9. Tex. Sta. BuL, 56:277. 1899. 10. Ala. Sta. BuL, 110:83. 1900.

Hermann Jaeger (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10). Jaeger (3). Jaeger, Hermann (6). Munson No. 81 (2).
(In 1889 Munson sent out a grape under the name Jaeger and in 1890 he introduced the variety here described under the name Hermann Jaeger, at the same time withdrawing the former variety from further dissemination. As the first named Jaeger is apparently obsolete there seems to be no objection to shortening the name so as to conform in nomenclature with the recommendations of the American Pomological Society.)

Jaeger is a large-clustered, small-berried grape from Munson of Texas.  It is said to be very successful in the South and Southwest both as a table and a wine grape. Its meritorious qualities are vigorous, productive vines with foliage free from mildew and rot, and well-flavored, tender-fleshed berries with thin tough skins. It requires too long a season for maturity for successful cultivation in New York.

Munson grew Jaeger from seed of a selected wild Post-oak vine pollinated by Herbemont. The seed was planted in 1885 and the variety was introduced by the originator in 1890. The culture of Jaeger seems to be slowly spreading. It was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1897 and is still retained there.

Vine vigorous, doubtfully hardy, an uncertain bearer in New York on account of winter injury but yielding good crops farther south. Canes variable in length, intermediate in number and thickness, covered with considerable blue bloom; tendrils intermittent, bifid to trifid. Leaves large, not uniform in color; lower surface grayish-green, slightly pubescent; stamens upright. Fruit ripens soon after Concord, matures evenly, keeps and ships well. Clusters medium to large, frequently single-shouldered, strongly compact. Berries below medium to small, roundish, frequently compressed on account of compactness of cluster, attractive black, covered with abundant blue bloom, persistent. Skin thin, tough. Flesh medium juicy, fine-grained, tender, spicy, somewhat tart from skin to center, good in quality. Seeds separate very easily from the pulp, not numerous, long, intermediate in size, sometimes with enlarged neck.

JAMES.

(Rotundifolia.)

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1889:136. 2. Bush. Cat., 1894:178. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:30. 4. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:45. 1901. 5. N. C. Sta. Bul., 187:61. 1903. 6. S. C. Sta. Bul., 132:16, 18. 1907.

James is the only variety of Rotundifolia possible to illustrate in this work. The accompanying color-plate, while not wholly satisfactory, yet shows characteristic fruit and foliage somewhat reduced in size. James is one of the largest of the Rotundifolia grapes and probably the best general purpose variety of this species. It cannot be grown north of Maryland.

The variety was originated by J. Van Lindley of Pitt County, North Carolina. It was introduced about 1890 and was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1899. It is not known in the North but is cultivated more or less throughout the habitat of Vitis rotundifolia in the South.

The following description of the variety is a compilation:

Vine vigorous, healthy, productive. Flowers open very late; stamens reflexed. Fruit ripens late, hangs on the vines for three weeks, keeps well. Clusters small, containing from four to twelve berries, irregular, loose. Berries large, three-fourths to one and one-quarter inches in diameter, roundish, black or blue-black. Skin very thin. Pulp juicy, sweet, good to best in quality.

JANESVILLE.

(Labrusca, Riparia.)

1. Rec. of Hort., 1868:45. 2. Horticulturist, 24:52, 203. 1869. fig. 3. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt.t 1879:65. 4. Wis. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1881-2:141. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1883:26. 6. Rural N. Y., 45:622. 1886. 7. Wis. Sta. An. Rpt.t 5:161. 1888. 8. Mass. Hatch Sta. Bui, 2:20. 1888. 9. Wis. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1889:117. 10. AT. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 10:496. 1891. 11. Bush. Cat., 1894:143. 12. Del. Sta. An, Rpt., 7:135, 138. 1895. 13. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., I7-531* 545. 547] 555- l898-

Endowed with a constitution which enables it to withstand a degree of cold to which most other varieties of grapes would succumb, Janesville has made a place for itself in far northern localities. Moreover, it ripens very early, being one of the first to color though not ripe until some time after fully colored; and earliness is another requisite for a northern location. The vine, too, is generally healthy, vigorous and productive. But the fruit is worthless where better sorts can be grown. The clusters and berries are small, or of only medium size, while the grapes are pulpy, tough, seedy, with a thick skin and a disagreeable acid taste. Janesville has so many good vine characters that it may be of value for breeding purposes. It is fit for cultivation only in northern localities where better grapes cannot be grown or where fruit for a cheap red wine is wanted.

Janesville was grown by F. W. Loudon, of Janesville, Wisconsin, from seed secured at the Rock County Fair in 1858. It fruited for the first time in 1861 and was introduced several years later by C. H. Greenman of Milton, Wisconsin, who had bought the variety from the originator for $1000. It was named by the Wisconsin Horticultural Society in 1868. Janesville was placed on the grape list in the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1883 and is still retained. It is said by many to be a cross of Hartford and Clinton but this is a surmise and nothing is positively known as to its parentage. Its botanical characters are plainly those of a Labrusca-Riparia cross but with what admixture of the two species cannot be told. The early blooming season, and sometimes intermittent tendrils, indicate Vitis riparia, while foliage and fruit show both this species and Vitis labrusca.

Vine vigorous to very vigorous, healthy, hardy, productive to very productive. Canes spiny, intermediate in length, numerous, medium to below in size, dark brown; nodes flattened; internodes long to medium; diaphragm thick; pith intermediate in size; shoots thinly pubescent; tendrils intermittent to continuous, long, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds medium to below in size, short, thick, conical, prominent, open early. Young leaves tinged on under side and faintly along margin of upper side with rose carmine. Leaves small to medium, somewhat thin; upper surface variable in color, glossy and smooth; lower surface pale green, slightly pubescent; veins indistinct; leaf usually not lobed with terminus acute; petiolar sinus intermediate in depth, narrow, often closed and overlapping; basal and lateral sinuses lacking; teeth shallow, of average width. Flowers fertile, open very early; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens slightly earlier than Concord although it colors much earlier, keeps well. Clusters medium to small, short, of average breadth, cylindrical to tapering, usually single-shouldered, compact; peduncle short, slender; pedicel short, slender, covered with small scattering warts; brush dark wine color. Berries intermediate in size, roundish to slightly oval, dull black, covered with rather heavy blue bloom, usually persistent, firm. Skin thick, medium to nearly tough, adheres slightly to the pulp, contains considerable dark wine-colored pigment, astringent. Flesh pale reddish-green, translucent, juicy, very tough, rather coarse, vinous, sweet next the skin but quite acid at the center, fair in quality. Seeds adhere to the pulp, one to six, average three, above medium in size, broad, often angular, rather blunt, dark brown; raphe obscure; chalaza large, ovate, moderately distinct.

JEFFERSON.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Gar. Mon., 21:362. 1879. 2. Ib.y 22:142, 176, 191. 1880. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt.f 1881:33 44. 4. Downing, 1881:167 app. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1881:24. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:83, 103, 105. 7. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1885-6:171. 8. Gar. and For., 3:178, 290. 1890. 9. Bush. Cat., 1894:143. fig. 10, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:531, 548, 552. 1898. 11. Va. Sta. Bul., 94:137. 1898. 12. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:239. 1902.

Jefferson is the offspring of Concord crossed with Iona, resembling in vigor, productiveness and healthiness the Concord, though not equal to it; and in color and quality of fruit the Iona. It falls considerably short of being an Iona fruit on a Concord vine, however, which would have made it one of the most valuable of American grapes. The vine produces its fruit two weeks later than Concord and is not nearly as hardy, faults that debar it from taking high rank as a commercial grape in New York. In its botanical characters and in immunity from diseases it is almost identical with Concord. Fortunately the vines yield readily to "laying down" for winter protection so that even in commercial plantations it is not difficult to cover the vines and so prevent winter injury.

The fruit of Jefferson is handsomer than that of Iona and of almost equal quality. The accompanying color-plate shows the large, well-formed, compact bunch, with berries of uniform size and color, which, taken together, make it one of the most attractive of red grapes. The flesh is firm, yet tender and juicy with a rich, vinous flavor and a delicate aroma which persists even after the berries have dried into raisins. The fruit ships and keeps well, the berries adhering to the cluster and the fruit retaining its freshness into late winter. The vine characters, with the exceptions of late bearing and tenderness to cold, are in the main good.

Jefferson is widely distributed and is well known by viticulturists in eastern America. It is not particular as to localities, if the season be long and the climate temperate, and thrives in nearly all grape soils though it does not flourish in a soil strongly impregnated with lime. This variety is deserving greater recognition as a commercial grape than it now receives. In a discriminating market it should command a sufficiently high price to make it a profitable variety to grow in this State despite its need of protection. Few grapes, and probably no red grape, are more desirable inhabitants of the garden than Jefferson; it not only furnishes an abundance of the best long-keeping fruit, but is also very ornamental throughout the season.

This variety is one of J. H. Ricketts' grapes from seed of Concord pollinated with Iona. It fruited for the first time in 1874 and was introduced about 1880. In 1881 it was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog and has never been removed. Of all the remarkable seedlings raised by Ricketts the Jefferson is best known and most widely disseminated. The variety won for its originator the Wilder silver medal and as grown by him seldom failed to take premiums at exhibitions where shown. It is greatly to be regretted that the variety does not have all of the characters requisite to adapt it to culture in commercial vineyards.

Vine normally vigorous, healthy, not always hardy, medium in productiveness. Canes short, numerous, about medium in thickness, light to dark brown; nodes enlarged, roundish; internodes short; diaphragm thick; pith medium to below in size; shoots heavily pubescent; tendrils intermittent, medium to short, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds small, short, slender, pointed to conical, open very late. Young leaves tinged on under side and along margin of upper side with rose carmine. Leaves healthy, above medium to small, of average thickness; upper surface light green, medium to rugose on older leaves; lower surface very pale green, strongly pubescent; veins distinct; leaf usually not lobed with terminus acute; petiolar sinus of mean depth, narrow to wide, sometimes closed and overlapping; basal sinus usually absent; lateral sinus shallow, often a mere notch; teeth regular, shallow, of average width. Flowers nearly fully self-fertile, open late; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens late, usually about with Catawba, keeps and ships well. Clusters large to medium, intermediate in length and width, cylindrical to slightly tapering, usually single-shouldered, but sometimes double-shouldered, medium to compact; peduncle short, slender; pedicel medium to short, slender, covered with a few, small, inconspicuous warts, enlarged at point of attachment to fruit; brush rather long, slender, pale yellowish-green. Berries medium in size, oval to nearly roundish, light and dark red, glossy, covered with a moderate amount of lilac bloom, persistent, very firm. Skin somewhat thick, tough, nearly free from pulp, contains no pigment, slightly astringent. Flesh light yellowish-green, translucent, very juicy, coarse-grained, tender, vinous, sweet at skin to agreeably tart at center, good to best in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, one to four, average three, intermediate in size, broad, medium to short, blunt, usually plump, brownish; raphe obscure; chalaza of medium size, slightly above center, circular to pear-shaped, distinct.

JESSICA.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Gar. Mon., 24:339. 1882. 2. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 29:19. 1884. 3+ Can. Cen. Exp. Farms Rpt. 1891:135. 4. Col. Sta. Bul., 29:22. 1894. 5. Bush. Cat., 1894:144. 6. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:531, 548, 552. 1898. 7. Mick. Sta. Bul., 169:171. 1899. 8. Ont. Fr. Exp. Stas. Rpt., 8:10, fig., 48. 1901. 9. Can. Hort., 24:447. 1901. fig.

Jessica is an early, hardy green grape from Canada. In flavor it is very good for so early a variety, being sweet, rich yet sprightly and almost free from foxiness. , But the fruit lacks in attractiveness and keeping quality, and .shells badly when overripe. The clusters and berries are small, and the color is too green and the cluster too loose for a good grape. Jessica may be commended for earliness and hardiness and is therefore desirable, if at all, in northern regions.

William H. Read of Port Dalhousie, Ontario, grew Jessica from seed planted some time between 1870 and 1880. It was introduced in 1884 by D. W. Beadle of St. Catharines, Ontario. Jessica has been quite thoroughly tested in different parts of the United States but has never become popular and is to be found only in varietal vineyards. The parentage of the variety is unknown but it is generally considered to be of mixed Labrusca and Vinifera blood, the tendrils, foliage, fruit characters and the weaknesses of the grape all showing a Vinifera hybrid.

Vine medium in vigor, usually healthy, hardy, variable in productiveness. Canes medium to long, numerous, thickish, moderately dark brown with red tinge changing to ash-gray on some canes; tendrils continuous to intermittent, bifid or trifid. Leaves small to medium, intermediate in thickness; upper surface medium to dark green, glossy, often somewhat rugose; lower surface pale green, very pubescent; veins indistinct. Flowers nearly fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens among the earliest of the white grapes, keeps only fairly well. Clusters medium to small, not long, slender, tapering, usually single-shouldered, intermediate in compactness. Berries small to medium, roundish, light green, often tinged with yellow, covered with thin grayish-white bloom, rather persistent unless overripe, moderately soft. Skin rather thin, of average toughness, adheres but slightly to the pulp, contains no pigment, faintly astringent. Flesh pale green, almost transparent, juicy, tender, soft, sprightly, sweet, good to above in flavor and quality. Seeds adhere somewhat to the pulp, about average in size and length, medium to broad, notched, brownish; raphe buried in a narrow groove; chalaza small, above center, circular, nearly distinct.

JEWEL.

(Labrusca, Bourquiniana, Vinifera.)

1. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:78. 2. II1. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1885:280. 3. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt.y 1885-6:128. 4. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886:187. 5- Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-7:205. 6. Rural N. I7., 46:607. 1887. fig. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887:98. 8. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1888-9:107. 9. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1889:373. 10. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:627. 1893. 11. Bush Cat., 1894:144. 12. N. V. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:531, 548, 555. 1898. 13. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:39, 42, 46, 51, 76. 1899.

Burr's Early (i, 2). Burr No. 1 (4). Jewell (2)

Jewel has much to recommend it, yet it has been grown since 1874 without having become widely distributed or well known. Its strong characters are earliness and high quality, though as compared with Delaware, its parent, it is not lacking in vigor, health, or hardiness, the vine characters that contribute most to a desirable variety. For a grape of this parentage, it is remarkably free from fungal diseases. In form and size of bunch and berry it closely resembles Delaware but is a deep black in color. The flesh characters and flavor are much like those of Delaware, the pulp being tender, yet firm, and the flavor having the same rich, sprightly, vinous taste found in the parent, though it can hardly be said to equal the Delaware in the characters which make high quality. The seeds are few and small. The skin is thin but tough, and the fruit, considering the tenderness of the flesh, ships remarkably well. It keeps long and does not shell, and though an early grape, will hang until frost if the robins, one of the worst pests of the grape-grower, can be kept from them.

Jewel is a most excellent little grape, almost worthy the place among black grapes that Delaware has among red ones. In particular it is recommended for its earliness and for those localities to the North where standard varieties, as Concord, do not ripen. Our list of early grapes is large, but most of them are poor in quality, while Jewel is deserving in this respect to stand well toward the head of the list.

John Burr of Leavenworth, Kansas, grew Jewel from seed of Delaware planted about 1874. The blossoms being open to cross-pollination, the male parent is unknown. It was introduced in 1887 by Stayman et Black of Leavenworth. Jewel has been quite widely tested in varietal vineyards but has never become popular and in the East, in particular, is hardly known.

Vine medium to vigorous, healthy, hardy except in exposed locations, medium to productive. Canes intermediate in length and number, slender, light to dark reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes medium to short; diaphragm thickish; pith medium to below in size; shoots thinly pubescent; tendrils continuous, of average length, bifid.

Leaf-buds of medium size, short, thick, conical, open early. Young leaves heavily tinged on under side and along margin of upper side with rose-carmine. Leaves scant, intermediate in size, thick; upper surface light green, dull, medium to rugose; lower surface tinged with bronze, heavily pubescent; veins well defined; lobes three when present, with terminus acute; petiolar sinus of average depth, narrow to medium; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow, wide; teeth shallow, of ordinary width. Flowers sterile, open in mid-season or somewhat earlier; stamens reflexed.

Fruit ripens about with Moore Early, keeps and ships well. Clusters medium to small, slender to medium, tapering to cylindrical, single-shouldered, medium to compact; peduncle inferior in length, of average size; pedicel short to medium, slender; brush short, wine-colored. Berries medium in size, roundish to oval, dark purplish-black, dull, covered with heavy, blue bloom, persistent, moderately firm. Skin inclined to thin, tough, adheres to the pulp, contains dark, wine-colored pigment, not astringent. Flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, usually tender, sprightly, vinous, sweet from skin to center, not foxy, good to very good in quality. Seeds do not separate readily from the pulp, one to four, average two, intermediate in size and breadth, frequently one-sided, blunt, light brown; raphe hidden in a deep groove; chalaza small, above center, circular to oval, distinct.

KENSINGTON.

(Vinifera, Riparia, Labrusca.)

1. Can. Cen. Exp. Farms Rpt.} 1891:135. 2. Bush. Cat., 1894:144. 3. Can. Cen. Exp. Farms Rpt., 1897:63. 4. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:395. 1899.

Kensington is chiefly interesting as a cross between Riparia and Vinifera, though it has several very meritorious fruit and vine characters.


It resembles Clinton, its Riparia parent, in vigor, hardiness, growth, and productiveness of vine and in the botanical characters of vine and foliage; but the fruit has many of the characters of the European parent, Buckland Sweetwater. The grape is a handsome yellowish-green with large oval berries in a somewhat loose cluster of medium size. As it grows on the grounds of this Station, the clusters contain many undeveloped berries and are not as uniform in size and shape as might be desirable. While the quality is not equal to that of Buckland Sweetwater, it is much better than Clinton, ranking among good to best grapes. The flesh is tender and juicy, though slightly stringy, with a rich, sweet, vinous flavor. The seeds are markedly those of Vinifera. The hardiness of the vine and the high quality of the fruit should make Kensington a favorite green grape in northern gardens. It is doubtful if its good characters are sufficient in number or degree to make it of value for commercial vineyards.

This variety was produced by William Saunders of London, Ontario, from seed of Clinton pollinated by Buckland Sweetwater. It was sent out for testing sometime between 1870 and 1880 and since that time has been carefully tried at the Canadian Experiment Station and this Station, and with very favorable results. For some reason it seems not to have been very generally introduced into cultivation and nurserymen scarcely handle it though it ought to be found in gardens and in northern vineyards at least.

Vine vigorous, hardy, usually productive but sometimes an uncertain bearer, somewhat susceptible to attacks of mildew and leaf-hoppers. Canes medium to long, of average number, somewhat slender, light brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short to medium; diaphragm intermediate in thickness; pith of medium size; shoots thinly pubescent; tendrils persistent, intermittent to continuous, rather long, bifid to sometimes trifid.

Leaf-buds medium to below in size, variable in length, slender, conical to pointed, open very late. Young leaves tinged with faint rose-carmine on lower side only; upper side heavily pubescent, prevailing color pale green with faintest trace of carmine. Leaves small to medium, thin; upper surface light green, glossy, smooth to medium; lower surface pale green, pubescent, somewhat hairy; lobes none to three with terminus obtuse to acute; petiolar sinus of average depth, moderately narrow; basal sinus shallow when present; lateral sinus shallow, usually a notch; teeth deep and wide. Flowers strongly self-fertile, open medium early; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens about with Concord, does not keep very long in good condition. Clusters medium to large, intermediate in length and breadth, cylindrical to tapering, often heavily single-shouldered, sometimes double-shouldered, loose to medium, frequently with many undeveloped berries; peduncle long to medium, slender; pedicel long and slender, covered with numerous small, inconspicuous warts, wide at point of attachment to fruit; brush short, pale green. Berries variable in size, distinctly oval, attractive green changing to yellowish-green as the fruit matures, glossy, covered with thin gray bloom, persistent, moderately firm. Skin thin, somewhat tough, adheres to the pulp, contains no pigment, faintly astringent. Flesh greenish, transparent, juicy, tender, stringy, vinous, sweet, good in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp when fully ripe but frequently leave some flesh attached to the seed, two to four, average three, heavily wrinkled, large and long, broad to medium, somewhat sharp pointed, yellowish-brown; raphe buried in a shallow groove; chalaza of average size, above center, very irregular in shape, rather distinct.

KING.

(Labrusca?) 1. II1. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1905:602. 2. 76., 1906:215.

King has not fruited on the grounds of this Station, but one of the authors of this work was a committeeman from the Michigan Horticultural Society to name and describe the variety as it grew on the grounds of the originator. The following was the estimate of it made at that time:

"The King is more vigorous and prolific than the Concord, time of ripening and length of season the same, clusters are one-fourth larger, grapes are more persistent in pedicels, pulp is more tender, flavor nearly the same, but more sprightly, seeds fewer in number, wood harder and of shorter joints and the pedicels are larger."

This variety was found growing in the Concord vineyard of W. K. Munson, Grand Rapids, Michigan, in 1892. The vine was set for a Concord, and is either a bud-sport of that variety or is some other sort that became accidentally mixed with the Concord vines. Mr. Munson believes it to be the former. King is thought by some to be Eaton on account of its close resemblance to that variety but the grape-growers who have examined it, generally hold it to be distinct. It is in all respects a typical black offspring of Concord, whether superior remains to be determined. It has been widely disseminated and its place in viticulture should soon be known. In seeking the origin of the grapes described in this work, an effort has been made to determine whether any could be said with certainty to have arisen from bud-sports. King is the best authenticated bud-sport among the grapes here listed and yet there is, as the above history shows, some doubt as to its having originated in this way.

The description of King given below was made from vines and fruit from Ellwanger et Barry's vineyards, Rochester, New York.

Vine vigorous to very vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes medium to above in length, intermediate in number and thickness, medium to dark reddish -brown; tendrils continuous to intermittent, trifid to bifid. Leaves unusually large, thick; upper surface medium green, dull, of average smoothness; lower surface grayish-white changing to slight bronze, considerably pubescent; veins fairly distinct.

Fruit ripens between Worden and Concord, appears to keep well. Clusters large to above medium, above average length, broad to medium, irregularly tapering to slightly cylindrical, usually single-shouldered, compact to medium. Berries unusually large averaging slightly below McPike in size, roundish, reddish-black to black as the fruit fully matures, covered with heavy blue bloom, persistent, firm. Skin medium to thick, tough, adheres considerably to the pulp, contains a moderate amount of reddish pigment, astringent. Flesh pale green, very juicy, somewhat tough, stringy and with some foxiness, sweet at skin to agreeably tart at center, good in quality. Seeds adherent, not numerous, above average in size, short, broad, slightly notched if at all, blunt to medium, plump, light brown; raphe hidden in a shallow groove; chalaza large, at center or above, obscure.

LADY.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Horticulturist, 29:48. 1874. 2. Ib., 30:84, fig., 367. 1875. 3. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875:295, 411. fig. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 18:40, 135, 136, 143, 162. 1881. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1881:24. 6. N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1881:12. 7. Bush. Cat., 1883:114. 8. II1. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:81. 10. Rural N. Y., 45:234, 622. 1886. 12. Gar. and For., 3:178, 214, 490, 599. 1890. 13. II1. Sta. Bul., 28:264. 1893. 14. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:532, 548, 552.

Lady is generally accredited with being the highest in quality of all the seedlings of Concord and, added to its high quality, it is early, fairly vigorous, hardy, and nearly as free from fungal diseases as its parent. It is not, however, without faults, one of which, a thin, tender skin which cracks badly, wholly debars it from ever making a commercial variety for other than nearby markets. The vine is much like that of Concord, though not as vigorous nor as productive, but ripening its fruit fully two weeks earlier. The fruit is much superior to Concord in quality, being richer, sweeter, and having less foxiness. It hangs on the vines well but deteriorates rapidly after picking. The term " ironclad'1 used by grape-growers to express hardiness and freedom from diseases, is probably as applicable to Lady as to any other of our Labrusca grapes. The foliage is dense and of a deep glossy green color, neither scalding under a hot sun, nor freezing until heavy frosts, making it an attractive ornament in the garden. It is deservedly popular as an amateur grape and should be planted more for nearby markets. It may be expected to succeed wherever Concord is grown, and because of its early ripening is especially adapted to northern latitudes where Concord does not always mature. Though it ripens early it starts its buds late and blossoms late, thereby often escaping late spring frosts.

When Lady was first heard of, it was in the hands of a Mr. Imlay of Muskingum County, Ohio. He had received it as a premium from an agricultural paper with others, all represented to be pure Concord seedlings. This was during the Civil War. Later the variety was sold to George W. Campbell of Delaware, Ohio, who introduced it in 1874. Lady was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1881 where it is still retained. The Lady is another example of a green seedling of Concord which excels its parent in quality. Among several of such seedlings, this variety is one of the highest in quality.

Vine weak to moderately vigorous, hardy, medium in productiveness, healthy. Canes short, medium in number, slender, dark reddish-brown; nodes of fair size, flattened; internodes short; diaphragm thick; pith intermediate in size; shoots pubescent; tendrils intermittent, of average length, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds small, short, pointed to conical. Leaves medium to below in size, of average thickness; upper surface light green, glossy, medium to somewhat rugose; lower surface pale green; pubescent; veins rather indistinct; lobes none to five, with terminal lobe acuminate; petiolar sinus shallow to medium, wide; basal sinus of average width; lateral sinus variable in depth and width; teeth medium to shallow, intermediate in width. Flowers fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens with Winchell, does not keep well. Clusters not uniform, small to above medium, short, slender, cylindrical, sometimes single-shouldered, compact to straggling; peduncle medium to short, of average size; pedicel intermediate in length, thick and smooth, wide at point of attachment to fruit; brush slender, long, greenish-white. Berries variable in size, large to below medium, roundish, light green, often with tinge of yellow, glossy, covered with thin gray bloom, persistent, firm. Skin covered with small, scattering, dark dots, inclined to crack, thin, tender, adheres slightly to the pulp, contains no pigment, slightly astringent. Flesh greenish-white, translucent, juicy, tender, aromatic, agreeably sweet from skin to center, very good in quality. Seeds separate from the pulp rather easily, few in number, intermediate in size and length, medium to broad, blunt, light brown; raphe obscure; chalaza large, above center, circular to oval, not distinct.

LADY WASHINGTON.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Gar. Mon.j 19:336. 1877. 2. 76., 20:47. 1878. 3. 76., 21:147. 1879. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:33, 46. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1881:24. 6. Gar. Mon., 26:14, 334. 1884. 7. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 5:167. 168. 1886. 8. 76., 9:331. 1890. 9. Ala. Sta. Bul., 10:11. 1890. 10. Kan. Sta. Bul., 28:164. 1891. 11. Col. Sta. Bid., 29:22. 1894. 12. Bush. Cat., 1894:147. 13. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., i7'-532] 54i, 544, 545. 547] 552- 1898.

Were there not so many really fine green grapes, and were they sought for by grape-buyers, more might be said commendatory of Lady Washington. It is in many respects a most excellent grape but it falls short in quality for a green grape and does not excel greatly in vine characters; it cannot therefore be highly recommended to grape-growers except to give variety in the vineyard and for locations where it does preeminently well. The fruit makes an excellent appearance, keeps well and ships well, and is fairly tender, juicy and sweet, with a delicate aroma. The vine is very luxuriant,too much so,-hardy for a grape with Vinifera blood, and healthy, though slightly susceptible to mildew. As an exhibition grape few green varieties show better when grown with all possible care and in a favorable location, for the variety is somewhat capricious as to soils and locations. It appears to be a desirable variety for home use. In the West and Southwest it is said to succeed better than most others of Ricketts' grapes.

Lady Washington is another of J. H. Ricketts fine seedlings, this variety having come from seed of Concord fertilized by Allen's Hybrid. It was introduced in 1878, placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1881, and is still retained there. The vine characters of Lady Washington are mostly those of Vitis labrusca but the fruit plainly shows the admixture of Vinifera.

Vine usually more vigorous than Concord, sometimes sustains winter injury, productive, susceptible to mildew. Canes long, few, thick, moderately dark brown; nodes greatly enlarged, variable in shape; internodes medium to long; diaphragm thick; pith large to medium; shoots strongly pubescent; tendrils continuous, long, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds large to medium, short, thick, open late. Young leaves lightly tinged on under side and along margin of upper side with light rose-carmine. Leaves medium to large, rather thick; upper surface dark green, older leaves strongly rugose, glossy; lower surface pale green, strongly pubescent; veins distinct; leaf not lobed, with terminus acute; petiolar sinus medium to deep, narrow, frequently closed and overlapping; basal sinus usually none; lateral sinus shallow, often a mere notch; teeth shallow to medium, rather narrow. Flowers fully self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens after mid-season, keeps and ships well. Clusters large to medium, broad to medium, irregularly cylindrical, single-shouldered to frequently double-shouldered, loose to medium; peduncle long, slender to medium; pedicel inclined to short, not thick, covered with numerous conspicuous warts, distinctly enlarged at point of attachment to fruit; brush very short, greenish. Berries variable in size, roundish to oblate, dark green changing to yellowish-amber, glossy, covered with thin gray bloom, persistent, of medium firmness. Skin thin, tender, adheres considerably to the pulp, contains no pigment, not astringent. Flesh pale green, transparent, juicy and tender, somewhat stringy, aromatic, sweet, ranks above Concord in quality. Seeds separate fairly well from the pulp, one to four, average three, intermediate in size and length, broad to medium, brown with yellowish tinge; raphe obscure; chalaza intermediate in size, above center, irregularly circular, obscure.

LENOIR.

(Bourquiniana.)

1. Amer. Farmer, 11:237, 412. 1829-30. 2. Downing, 1845:256. 3. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt.y 1847:469. 4. Horticulturist, 12:460. 1857. 5. Ib., 14:487. 1859. 6. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt., 1859:35. 7. Gar. Mon., 5:74. 1863. 8. 76., 5:73. 1863. 9. Fuller, 1867:226. 10. U.S.D.A. Rpt., 1887:652. 11. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1889:24. 12. Bush. Cat., 1894:148. fig. 13. Husmann, 1895:83, 183. 14. Ib., 1895:121, 122. 15. Tex. Farm and Ranch, Feb. 8, 1896:10, 11. 16. Tex. Sta. Bid., 48: 1150, 1159. 1898. 17. U.S.D.A. Yr. Bk.} 1898:557. 18. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:246. 1902. 19. Traite gen. de vit., 6:374. 1903.

Alabama (19). Archer? (8). Black Souvignon (7) but incorr. Black El Paso (15). Black July (7). Black Lenoir (19). Black Spanish (14). Black Spanish (8, 12, 15, 19). Blue French (15, 19). Blue Grape of the South (7). Burgundy (12, 15, 19). Cigar Box Grape (19). Clarence (?2, 7). Devereaux of "Gardening for the South" (4). Devereaux (19). Devereux (5, 7, ?9). Early Black (4). El Paso (6). El Paso (12, 19). Harris? (7, 9). Jack (8). Jack (12, 15, 19). Jacques (12, 15, 16, 19). Jacquez (19). Jacquez (15). Jac (19). Jacquet (19). July Sherry (4). Lenoir (14, 19). Long? (9). LongwortKs Ohio (19). Louisville Seedling? (9). MacCandless (19). Ohio (8, 19). Ohio Cigar Box? (9). Oldhouse? (7). Pungo of N. C? (7). Segar Box (8, 19). Sherry of the South (7). Springstein (7). St. Genevieve? (9). Sumpter (?2, 4, 7). Thurmond (4, 5, 7, ?9). Warren (8). Wylie? (9).

Lenoir is a southern grape, too tender and too late in ripening for even the Middle States. This variety has been largely used in France, both as a resistant stock and as a direct producer, but for some years has been losing favor for either purpose. It has also been grown more or less in California as a resistant stock. It is highly valued for its dark red wine, is considered a very good table grape, is very resistant to phylloxera, and withstands drouths well.

The origin of Lenoir is unknown. It was in cultivation in the South as long ago as the early part of the last century. Nicholas Herbemont states in 1829 "that its name was given it from a man named Lenoir who cultivated it near Stateburg, South Carolina, in the vicinity of the Santee River. There are traditions of its being imported from Europe, of its being found by Lenoir alongside a hedge, and so on, but none of them seem in any way authoritative. All that can be said is that Lenoir originated probably in one of the Carolinas or Georgia some time in the Eighteenth Century. This variety was tried at an early day in the northern and middle states, by Longworth at Cincinnati, by the Germans in Missouri, and in other places. On account of its being only semi-hardy and somewhat susceptible to rot, its cultivation was soon abandoned. It was early introduced into Texas and cultivated in the vicinity of El Paso, from which it derived one of its synonyms. It was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1889 and it still retained. Lenoir differs from Herbemont, with which it is often confused, in having wood of a darker color, larger and darker leaves and slight differences in the fruit.

The following description is taken from various accounts of the variety:

Vine vigorous, thrifty, semi-hardy, usually quite productive. Canes rather numerous with some bloom at the nodes; tendrils intermittent. Leaves from two to seven-lobed, usually five, and of a characteristic bluish-green color above and a more pale green below. Clusters quite variable, medium to very large, tapering, usually shouldered. Berries small to medium, round, of a dark bluish-purple, nearly black, with lilac bloom. Skin rather thick, tough. Flesh slightly juicy, tender, subacidly sweet, very rich in coloring matter.

LINDLEY.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. U.S.D.A. Rpt., 1862:215. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1867:44. 3. Horticulturist, 24:126, 312. 1869. 4. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1881:221. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:40. 6. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1882:75. 7. Bush. Cat., 1883:117. fig. 8. Gar. and For., 5:547. 1892. 9. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 9:329. 1890. 10. II1. Sta. Bul., 28:260. 1893. 11. Can. Hort., 17:254, 405. 1894. 12. Va. Sta. Bul., 94:137. 1898. 13. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:532, 541, 543, 545, 546, 548, 552, 558. 1898. 14. Miss. Sta. Bul., 56:15. 1899. 15. Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:172. 1899. 16. Tex. Sta. Bul., 56:223, 271. 1900. 17. Can. Hort., 26:51, 96, 298, fig., 299. 1903.

Rogers' No. 9 (1, 2). Rogers' No. 9 (3, 7, 9, 11, 17).

To Lindley, less productive than several others of its class, but when cross-fertilized usually bearing a crop of excellent grapes, is due much of the popularity of Rogers' hybrids. By common consent it is the best of the red grapes originated by Rogers in his crosses between Labrusca and Vinifera. Unfortunately the color-plate does not do the variety justice. Both berry and bunch should be shown a little larger, even for average-sized specimens.

When well grown Lindley is a very handsome grape. The bunches are of only medium size and are somewhat loose but the berries are well-formed, of uniform size, and of an attractive dark red color. The flesh is firm, fine-grained, juicy and tender without pulpiness and with a peculiarly rich aromatic flavor. The skin is thick and rather tough but is not objectionable in fully ripe fruit. The fruit keeps well and ships well and the berries neither crack nor shatter. The vine is vigorous, comparatively hardy for a Vinifera hybrid, fairly healthy, but as with most of its kind, susceptible to mildew. The chief defects of Lindley are its self-sterility and precariousness in bearing, and its lack of adaptation to many soils. Lindley has long been a favorite grape in the garden and should continue to be such, and might well be grown in commercial plantations as a fancy product.

For an account of the origin and parentage of Lindley see "Rogers' Hybrids", Rogers' No. p, or Lindley, is first mentioned separately from the others of Rogers' hybrids about 1862. In 1869 Rogers gave this grape the name Lindley in honor of John Lindley, the English botanist. The variety has been used by a number of breeders, Munson in particular, as a parent for improved pure-bred or cross-bred offspring. Lindley was placed on the American Pomological Society fruit catalog list in 1867 and has not been removed.

Vine vigorous to rank, usually hardy but sometimes injured in exposed locations, not a heavy yielder, somewhat susceptible to mildew, often subject to attacks of leaf-hoppers. Canes very long, intermediate in number, of medium thickness, dark reddish-brown, covered with thin blue bloom; nodes enlarged, usually flattened; internodes medium to long, thick; pith of medium size; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, medium to long, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds large, of average length, above medium in thickness, obtuse to conical, open in mid-season. Young leaves heavily tinged on upper and under sides with mahogany-red. Leaves medium to large, thickish; upper surface light green, dull, slightly rugose; lower surface grayish-white, pubescent; obscurely three-lobed with terminus acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, often closed and overlapping; teeth shallow, intermediate in width. Flowers sterile, open in mid-season; stamens reflexed.

Fruit ripens in mid-season, keeps and ships well. Clusters medium in size, long, inclined to broad, tapering to nearly cylindrical, frequently single-shouldered, the shoulder being connected to the bunch by a rather long stem, somewhat loose; peduncle medium to long, thick; pedicel short to medium, slender, nearly smooth, strongly enlarged at point of attachment to fruit; brush short, stubby, pale green. Berries large to medium, roundish to slightly oval, dark brick-red, covered with lilac or faint blue bloom, do not usually drop from the pedicel, of average firmness. Skin variable in thickness, tough, adheres considerably to the pulp, contains no pigment, strongly astringent. Flesh very pale green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, nearly tender, vinous, sweet at skin to tart at center, good to best in quality. Seeds do not separate easily from the pulp unless fully ripe, two to five, average three, intermediate in size and length, distinctly notched, brownish; raphe buried in a deep, broad groove; chalaza small, nearly central, oval to pear-shaped. Must 800.

LOUISIANA.

(Bourquiniana.)

1. Husmann, 1866:110. 2. Am. Jour. Hort., 3:301. 1868. 3. Grape Cult., 1:22, 42, 100, 244, 326. 1869. 4. Bush. Cat., 1883:118. 5. Husmann, 1895:183. 6. Texas Farm and Ranch, Feb. 8, 1896:10, 11. 7. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:46. 1901.

Amoreaux (6). Burgunder (1). Clevener? (6). Red Elben (6). Rulander (6). St. Genevieve (6). (N. B. Reference number 6 is to a red grape. Louisiana is black.)

The grape here discussed is of cultural value in the South and is of interest from the standpoint of grape-breeding and, historically, to northern grape-growers. Louisiana first came to notice in Missour1. It was received about 1860 or before by Frederick Muench of Marthasville, Warren County, Missouri, from a Mr. Theard of New Orleans, Louisiana, under the name White and Red Burgundy. Both supposed varieties proved to be alike. Theard informed Muench that the varieties had been imported from France about the first of the century by his (Theard's) father. There has been much difference of opinion as to whether this imputed origin is correct or not. Munson classes it with the Devereaux section of the Bourquiniana. It is undoubtedly closely related to Herbemont, Lenoir, and others of that class.

The variety has been much confused with Rulander and some are of the opinion that the two varieties are identical. Those who cultivated it earliest and most extensively were, however, of the opinion that they were very similar but distinct. The vine is too tender in the North for cultivation and there are complaints from some sections in the South of the fruit rotting badly.

The following description is taken from various sources:

Vine very vigorous, stocky, short-jointed; leaves cordate, not lobed. Cluster medium to small, shouldered, compact. Berry small, round, black with blue bloom, without pulp, juicy, spicy, sweet.

LUCILE.

(Labrusca.)

1. N. Y. Sta. An. Rptt 18:395. 1899. 2. Rural N. Y., 60:167. 1901. 3. Ga. Sta. Bui, 53:46. 1901. 4. Budd-Hansen, 2:384. 1902.

Lucile is of interest and of value because of its truly remarkable vine characters. In vigor, health, hardiness and productiveness it is not surpassed by any of the cultivated native grapes. It is probably a seedling of Wyoming but the vine is much more vigorous than even that variety, which is considered a very strong grower. Yet with all of its great growth Lucile ripens its wood almost perfectly. It is very productive, as much so as any other of our native grapes, often bearing four bunches to the shoot, its crops exceeding those of Concord. It has never been known to winterkill in the grape regions of New York and is probably as hardy as any other of our Labruscas. Its fruit and foliage are very nearly immune to the fungal diseases of the grape.

Unfortunately the fruit characters of Lucile are not as desirable as the vine characters. The size, form, and color of bunches and berries are all good, making a very attractive fruit, but it has an obnoxious, foxy taste and odor objectionable to those who know good grapes though even in flavor it is better than its supposed parent and is on a par with some of the other varieties of its season. A further objection to the berries is that they are both pulpy and seedy. It is earlier than Concord, coming about with Worden or preceding it a few days. For so early a variety the fruit keeps very well and in spite of its somewhat thin skin ships very well. It is not at all capricious as to soils, seemingly thriving in all good grape soils.


Lucile may be recommended where an extra hardy grape is desired, for localities where the season is short, and as a variety for breeding purposes, should it prove capable of transmitting its vine characters, and for those who do not object to foxiness of taste and aroma in grapes.

J. A. Putnam of Fredonia, Chautauqua County, New York, is the producer of Lucile. The vine fruited for the first time in 1890, it being then two years old, and was introduced by Lewis Roesch of Fredonia in 1899. It is supposed to be a seedling of Wyoming which it resembles very much in both fruit and vine characters and surpasses in both. It is a typical red Labrusca in all of its characters.

Vine vigorous, hardy, very productive, yielding as good or better crops than Concord. Canes medium to long, rather numerous, intermediate in thickness, light brown; nodes strongly enlarged, usually flattened; internodes medium to short; diaphragm moderately thick; pith about medium in size; shoots slightly pubescent; tendrils continuous, of average length, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds below medium to small, short, moderately thick, pointed to conical, open in mid-season. Young leaves heavily tinged on lower side and along margin of upper side with bright carmine. Leaves healthy, medium to large, of average thickness, firm; upper surface light green, glossy, moderately smooth; lower surface pale green or with tinge of bronze, pubescent; veins distinct; leaf usually not lobed, with terminus acute; petiolar sinus shallow, narrow to medium, sometimes closed and overlapping; basal sinus usually absent; lateral sinus a mere notch when present; teeth very shallow, of average width. Flowers fertile, open early; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens earlier than Concord or in some seasons about with Worden, keeps fairly well. Clusters medium to large, above average length, slender, cylindrical to tapering, usually single-shouldered, very compact; peduncle intermediate in length, large; pedicel short, thick, covered with few, small, inconspicuous warts; brush light brown. Berries large to medium, roundish to somewhat oval when strongly compacted, dark red, duller than Wyoming, covered with thin lilac bloom, persistent, firm. Skin medium to thin, somewhat tender, contains a small amount of light red pigment and some astringency. Flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, rather tough, sometimes stringy, foxy, sweet next the skin to slightly tart at center, fair to good in quality, not equal to Concord but superior to Wyoming. Seeds separate with difficulty from the pulp, one to four, average three, small, broad, short to medium, blunt, dark brown; raphe obscure; chalaza intermediate in size, slightly above center, oval, distinct.

LUTIE.

(Labrusca.)

1. Gar. Mon., 26:307. 1884. 2. Ib., 27:304. 1885. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt.t 1885:85. 4. Ib., 1889:120, 136. 5. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:605. 1894. 6. Bush. Cat., 1894:150. 7. Tenn. Sta. Bul., Vol. 9:192. 1896. 8. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:532, 545, 547, 555. 1898. 9. Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:172. 1899. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:29. 11. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:236. 1902.

As with the preceding variety, Lutie is chiefly valuable for its vine characters. It is vigorous, hardy, healthy, and fruitful, though scarcely equaling Lucile in any of these characters. Pomologists differ widely as to the merits of the fruit, some claiming high qualities for it and others declaring that it is no better than the average wild Labrusca. The difference in opinion is partly due to a peculiarity of the fruit. If eaten fresh from the vines, the quality, while far from being of the best, is not wholly bad, but after being picked for several days it develops so much foxiness of flavor and aroma that it is scarcely edible. As Lutie grows on the Station grounds its fruit has little merit, though somewhat attractive in appearance, and the variety can be recommended only for vigor, hardiness, resistance to disease and fruitfulness. It is given the prominence of an illustration in The Grapes of New York out of respect for the opinions of others rather than for its merits as it grows here. It makes a better showing in other grape regions.

Lutie is a chance seedling found on the grounds of Dr. L. C. Chisholm of Spring Hill, near Nashville, Davidson County, Tennessee. It was introduced in 1885 by Messrs. Coleman, Webber and Newson of Nashville. Lutie was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1899 where it has since been retained. Its gross characters are much the same as those of Dracut Amber, Lucile, Wyoming, and Woodruff, all typical red Labruscas and worthy of cultivation only where better-flavored varieties cannot be grown.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive. Canes short, of average number, slender, dark reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, roundish; internodes short; diaphragm thin; pith inclined to small; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, short to medium, bifid.

Leaf-buds small, short to medium, slender, open in mid-season. Young leaves tinged on lower side and along margin of upper side with bright carmine. Leaves medium to small, of average thickness; upper surface dark green, often rugose; lower surface bronze to whitish-green, pubescent; veins somewhat distinct; leaf usually not lobed, with terminus acute to acuminate; petiolar sinus moderately deep, medium to sometimes wide; basal sinus lacking; lateral sinus rather shallow and narrow when present; teeth shallow, narrow. Flowers fertile, open somewhat early; stamens upright. Fruit ripens earlier than Concord, some seasons about with Worden, does not keep nor ship well. Clusters medium to small, short and broad, blunt at end, cylindrical to sometimes conical, usually not shouldered, compact; peduncle intermediate in length, rather thick; pedicel short, of average thickness, covered with small, scattering, inconspicuous warts; brush slender, of average length, pale green. Berries large to below medium, roundish, light to dark red, dull, covered with thin, whitish or lilac bloom, drop badly from pedicel, nearly firm. Skin intermediate in thickness somewhat tender, adheres to the pulp, contains no pigment, astringent. Flesh pale green, translucent, moderately juicy, somewhat tough, strongly foxy, sweet next the skin to slightly tart at center, fair to possibly good in quality. Seeds adhere to the pulp unless the fruit is fully ripe, one to four, average two, usually above medium size, broad, often rather short and blunt, dark brown; raphe buried in a small, rather indistinct groove; chalaza large, at center or slightly above, irregularly circular, rather distinct.

McPIKE.McPike pic

(Labrusca.)

1. Rural N. Y.t 55:622, fig., 627. 1896. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1897:13. 3. Nat. Nurs., 7:119. 1899. 4. Ib., 8:93. 1900. 5* Rural N. Y., 60:170, 226, 290, 614, 710. 1901.

McPike is noteworthy chiefly because of the large size of the berries, though the bunches, too, average large. The accompanying illustration shows the size of the berry accurately but the bunch, as shown here, is too small.

McPike in vine and fruit characters is very similar to its parent, Worden, differing in having fewer but larger berries per bunch, grapes not as high in flavor, and fewer and smaller seeds. Because of a thin, tender skin the berries crack somewhat, shell more or less, and the vines are less productive than those of Worden. The faults just named seem to debar it pretty effectually from becoming a commercial grape in New York and it is not high enough in quality and is lacking in too many other fruit characters to make it of value for the amateur. It should be said, however, that the variety has not been largely tested in New York and fur ther experience with it is needed to fully determine its value in this State. This variety was originated by H. G. McPike of Mount Lookout Park, Alton, Illinois, from seed of Worden planted in 1890. It was introduced in 1897 by Silas Wilson of Atlantic, Iowa. McPike is a typical black descendant of Concord, bearing a strong resemblance in its gross characters to Eaton, Hosford, Chautauqua, King, and its parent, Worden.

Vine vigorous to medium, hardy, productive to very productive. Canes intermediate in length, number and thickness, dull dark reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes very short; diaphragm thick to medium; pith large; shoots thinly pubescent; tendrils continuous, of average length, bifid to trifld.

Leaf-buds about average size, short, thick to medium, obtuse to conical, compressed. Leaves large, thick; upper surface light green, dull, medium to slightly rugose; lower surface grayish-white to bronze, heavily pubescent; veins fairly distinct; leaf not lobed, with terminus acute to obtuse; petiolar sinus deep to medium, rather wide; basal and lateral sinuses lacking; teeth intermediate in depth and width. Flowers fertile or nearly so.

Fruit ripens about with Concord or earlier, appears to keep well. Clusters variable in size, medium to short, rather broad, irregularly tapering with slight tendency to cylindrical, often blunt at ends, usually not shouldered, two to three bunches per shoot, of average compactness; peduncle medium to above in length, thick; pedicel long to medium, thick, quite brittle, nearly smooth; brush long, slender, greenish with brown tinge. Berries unusually large, roundish, purplish-black to black, covered with blue bloom, firm. Skin of medium thickness, variable in toughness, sometimes cracks, adheres considerably to the pulp, contains a large amount of purplish-red pigment, astringent. Flesh pale green, translucent, very juicy, rather tender, stringy, vinous, nearly sweet at skin to rather acid at center, fair to good in quality. Seeds moderately adherent to the pulp, one to four, average two, medium to below in size, short, broad, blunt, rather plump, light brown; raphe buried in a wide, shallow groove; chalaza rather large, at center or slightly above, somewhat obscure.

MAGNATE.

(Labrusca, Vinifera?)

1. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt.y 1891:130. 2. Ib., 1892:270. 3. Bush. Cat, 1894:151. 4. Va. Sta. Bul., 94:141. 1898. 5. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:46. 1901.

Magnate is a green seedling of Concord and, like several others of Concord's light-colored offspring, as Lady and Martha, it is better in quality than the parent though the flesh characters are not as good. It does not compare favorably with the best green grapes of its season, either in appearance or quality and is not recommended for New York.

The variety was originated by either John Burr, or Dr. Stayman of Leavenworth, Kansas, from seed of Concord. It was introduced by Stayman et Black in 1891 but has not been widely grown. It is better known in the West than in the East.

Vine medium to vigorous, hardy except in severe winters, medium to productive. Canes intermediate in length, number and size; tendrils continuous, bifid to trifid. Leaves not always healthy, large to medium, variable in color; lower surface grayish-white, pubescent. Flowers nearly fertile, open in mid-season or earlier; stamens upright. Fruit ripens about with Concord, keeps well. Clusters medium to large, sometimes rather broad, occasionally with a medium-sized single shoulder, usually compact and with many abortive fruits. Berries variable in size, roundish, pale green with trace of yellow, covered with a medium amount of gray bloom, persistent. Flesh pale green, slightly tough, vinous, somewhat musky, nearly sweet at skin to acid at center, fair to good in quality. Seeds below medium to small, short, broad, plump.

MANITO.

(Labrusca, Vinifera, Bourquiniana, Lincecumii, Rupestris.)

1. Tex. Sta. Bul., 56:279. 1900. 2. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:46. 1901. 3. Rural N. Y.f 60:614. 1901. 4. Ib., 62:790. 1903. 5. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1904:305. 6. Can. Cen. Exp. Farms Rpt., 1905:107.

Manito is one of Munson's grapes recommended for both the North and the South. It is remarkable in having for its immediate ancestors five species, Lincecumii, Rupestris, Labrusca, Vinifera, and Bourquiniana. As Manito grows at this Station, its vine characters are all good and the fruit is passably so. According to the originator, the variety endures extremes of climate very well and has stood the cold of the New York winter and the heat of summer without any perceptible injury. The fruit is not sufficiently handsome nor of high enough quality to recommend the variety highly for this State, but it keeps well, ships well, is said to make good wine, and is worthy a trial in experimental vineyards at least. A point of merit is earliness, as it ripens just before Moore Early.

The variety was produced from seed of America pollinated by Brilliant. 22

The seed of Manito was planted in 1895 and the variety was introduced by the originator in 1899.

Vine medium to vigorous, hardy, medium to productive. Canes long, rather numerous and thick, dark reddish-brown, surface covered with blue bloom, nodes enlarged, often flattened; internodes intermediate in length; diaphragm thick; pith large to medium; shoots thinly pubescent; tendrils medium to above in length, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds large, of average length, thickish, conical to obtuse, open very late. Young leaves tinged on under side and along margin of upper side with rose-carmine. Leaves medium to below, of average thickness; upper surface dark green, glossy, smooth to medium; lower surface duller than upper surface, thinly pubescent; veins moderately distinct; lobes usually three in number, with terminal lobe variable; petiolar sinus medium to deep, inclined to narrow; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow, narrow, often a mere notch; teeth of average depth, wide. Flowers semi-fertile, open in mid-season or later; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens about with Moore Early, keeps and ships well. Clusters large to below medium, often quite long, slender to medium, cylindrical, sometimes with enlarged end, usually not shouldered, loose; peduncle intermediate in length, slender; pedicel short, slender, nearly smooth; brush light green with faint reddish tinge. Berries intermediate in size, roundish to slightly oval, dull purplish-black, covered with a medium amount of blue bloom, persistent, moderately firm. Skin thin, tender, adheres considerably to the pulp, contains a large amount of wine-colored pigment, slightly astringent. Flesh pale green, with slight pink tinge, translucent, moderately juicy, tender and almost melting, not very aromatic, sweet next the skin to agreeably tart at center, good in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, one to four, average two, surface often rough and warty, intermediate in size, length and breadth, darkish brown; raphe obscure; chalaza of fair size, oval to rather pear-shaped, often indistinct.

MARIE LOUISE.

(Labrusca, Vinifera?)

1. U.S.D.A. Rpt., 1887:634. 2. Bush. Cat., 1894:151. 3. N. Y. Sta. An, Rpt., 15:295. 1896. 4. Ib.y 17:532, 548, 555. 1898. 5. Va. Sta. Bul., 94:141. 1898. 6. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:46. 1901.

The parentage of Marie Louise is unknown but it seems to be a typical green seedling of Concord and, as tested at this Station, is of no especial merit. It is surpassed by Diamond, Lady, Martha, and nearly a score of other green grapes.

The vine characters here are not satisfactory. It is only moderately productive and for some years has been affected with chlorosis.

Marie Louise was originated by Theophile Huber of Illinois City, Illinois, about 1880. Besides the characters of the variety, the work of the originator would indicate that it is a Concord seedling. There are no records of its ever having been widely disseminated.

Vine intermediate in vigor, not hardy nor productive. Canes short, not numerous, dark brown; tendrils continuous, bifid. Leaves small to medium, intermediate in thickness and smoothness; lower surface tinged with bronze, heavily pubescent. Flowers nearly fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright. Fruit ripens about with Worden, does not keep well. Clusters small to medium, short, slender, cylindrical, usually with a small single shoulder, rather loose. Berries small to medium, roundish to oval, pale green with tinge of yellow, covered with thin gray bloom, shatter badly, not very firm. Skin thin, of medium toughness. Flesh pale green, tender, sprightly, somewhat vinous, sweet at skin to tart at center, good to very good in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, not numerous, small, short and broad, plump.

(I) MARION.

(Riparia, Labrusca.)

1. Horticulturist, 13:13. 1858. 2. Mag. Hort., 26:100. 1860. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1860:83. 4. Fuller, 1867:244. 5. Bush. Cat., 1883:120. 6. Kan. Sta. Bul., 14:89. 1890. 7. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt.t 10:497. 1891. 8. II1. Sta. Bui, 28:255. 1893. 9. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:532, 545, 546, 548, 555, 559- 1898.

Black German (2). Marion Port (2, 4).

Marion is an old variety of unknown parentage but so closely resembling Clinton in both botanical and horticultural characters as to be clearly of the type of that variety. In many grape regions it is held that this variety surpasses Clinton as both a table and a wine grape. The growth of Marion is vigorous, the vine is hardy but hardly sufficiently productive, and is susceptible to mildew and to leaf-hoppers. The fruit is pleasantly sweet and spicy though not of high enough quality for a table grape, but making, according to the following, from a French authority, a very good dark red wine.

" With regard to intense coloring, without any foxy taste, nothing equals the wine made of the Marion grape; one-twentieth part is sufficient to give to water even a superior wine color; the somewhat violet shade is easily transformed into a lively red by adding some acid wine or a very small quantity of tartaric acid."

The fruit colors early in the season but ripens very late, hanging well on the vines and improving with a light touch of frost. Marion is not much grown in New York as a wine grape, though it might prove of value because of its coloring properties for the making of some wines.

This variety was brought to notice by a Mr. Shepherd of Marion, Ohio, over fifty years ago. It was first known as Black German but this name was changed to Marion Port. At about the same time, Nicholas Longworth received a variety resembling the Isabella from Marion, Ohio, probably also from Shepherd, which he disseminated under the name Marion. Owing to the similarity of the names, the two varieties became badly confused. The true Marion, which many believed to be identical with York Madeira, was soon dropped from cultivation and the Marion Port assumed the name of Marion. Shepherd did not know where the Marion Port had originated but stated that it had come originally from Pennsylvania. It is quite possible that it is some old variety reintroduced under this name. The species of the variety is usually given as Riparia but as the tendrils are often continuous, there is evidently an admixture of Labrusca blood.

Vine vigorous, usually hardy, medium to productive, susceptible to injury from leaf-hoppers. Canes very long, intermediate in number and thickness, dark reddish-brown, surface covered with blue bloom; nodes slightly enlarged, flattened; internodes very long to medium; diaphragm thin; pith of average size; shoots glabrous, younger shoots tinged with reddish-purple; tendrils continuous, sometimes intermittent, long, bifid.

Leaf-buds nearly medium in size and thickness, short, conical, often strongly compressed, open early; young leaves tinged on under side and along margin of upper side with carmine. Leaves unusually large, of average thickness; upper surface dark green, glossy; lower surface pale green, somewhat cobwebby to nearly smooth; veins well defined; leaf not lobed with terminus acuminate; petiolar sinus very deep, narrow, often closed and overlapping; basal and lateral sinuses lacking; teeth shallow, rather wide. Flowers sterile, open very early; stamens reflexed.

Fruit ripens in mid-season, keeps fairly well. Clusters medium to below, short and slender, cylindrical to tapering, single-shouldered, compact; peduncle short, intermediate in thickness; pedicel short, slender, covered with few, inconspicuous warts; brush very short, wine-colored. Berries medium to small, roundish, black, slightly glossy, covered with abundant blue bloom, persistent, firm. Skin medium to thin, rather tough, adheres slightly to the pulp, contains much dark wine-colored pigment, slightly astringent. Flesh dark green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tough, sprightly, spicy, agreeably tart but free from astringency, no more than fair in quality. Seeds adhere somewhat to the pulp, one to five, average four, above medium in size, broad, short, usually not notched, very plump, brownish; raphe buried in a narrow, shallow groove; chalaza small, nearly central, oval, obscure.

(II) MARION.

(Labrusca, Vinifera?)

1. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt., 1856:433. 2. Downing, 1857:341. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1860:83. 4. Mag. Hort., 26:100. 1860. 5. (?) Gar. Mon., 3:52. 1861. 6. Fuller, 1867:244. 7. Rural N. Y., 53:793. 1894.
German Grape (7).

This variety much resembles Isabella and was said by some to be identical with it. It is probably the same as York Maderia. Downing discusses it as follows:

"Origin unknown. Sent to Mr. Longworth from Marion, Ohio, and by him disseminated. It much resembles the Isabella in shape and size of berry and form of bunch, but more uniform in its ripening and more delicate in flavor, ripening about the same time. Growth healthy, making firm and short-jointed wood, with strong, red tendrils; a good bearer.

"Bunches large, regular, seldom shouldered. Berries large, round, inclining to oval, dark purple with a bloom, juice abundant, pulp thin, not sufficiently tested for wine, a promising variety."

MARTHA.

(Labrusca, Vinifera?)
1. Mag. Hort., 30:26. 1864. 2. U.S.D.A. Rpt., 1865:196. 3. Fuller, 1867:227. 4. Mag, Hort., 34:236. 1868. 5. Grape Cult., 1:10, 14, 15, 42, 129, fig., 130. 1869. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1869:42. 7. Bush. Cat., 1883:119. fig. 8. Kan. Sta. Bul., 14:89. 1890. 9. II1. .Sta. Bul., 28:265. 1893. 10. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:40, 42, 44, 46. 1899. 11. N.Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:396. 1899.
Miller No. 1 (2, 5).

Martha was at one time the most popular of the green grapes but the introduction of many other green varieties of superior fruit and vine characters has gradually reduced its popularity until it is now but little grown.

It is a seedling of Concord and resembles its parent greatlyT differing from it chiefly in the following particulars: Fruit green, a week or more earlier, bunch and berries smaller, quality far better, being sweeter, more delicate, and with less foxiness and less pulp. About the only difference in the vines is a lighter shade of green in Martha and less robustness, with blossoms opening a few days earlier than Concord. Martha is often sold in the markets as Niagara, though the resemblance between the two is not strong, the Niagara being larger in bunch and berry and not as high in quality. One of the defects of Martha, and the chief cause of its going out of favor, is that it does not keep nor ship well. A very good white wine is made from Martha. The variety is still being planted in some parts of the South, but is generally abandoned in the North.

Samuel Miller, then of Calmdale, Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, grew Martha from seed of Concord sent him by E. W. Bull. The variety was introduced about 1868 by J. Knox of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. It was placed on the American Pomological Society fruit catalog list in 1869 and dropped from that list in 1899.

Vine variable in vigor, hardy, intermediate in productiveness, somewhat susceptible to attacks of mildew in unfavorable seasons. Canes medium to long, of average number and size, rather dark reddish-brown, surface covered with thin bloom, slightly roughened; tendrils continuous to intermittent, bifid. Leaves large to medium, rather thick; upper surface light green, intermediate in smoothness; lower surface light bronze, heavily pubescent; veins well denned. Flowers self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens somewhat earlier than Concord, does not keep nor ship well. Clusters medium in size, often below average length, intermediate in width, tapering to cylindrical, usually single-shouldered, inclined to be loose. Berries medium in size, roundish, light green with tinge of yellow, covered with thin gray bloom, persistent, medium in firmness. Skin thin, very tender, does not usually crack, adheres considerably to the pulp, contains no pigment, with scarcely any astringency. Flesh pale yellowish-green, juicy, moderately tough, fine-grained, slightly foxy, sweet at skin to somewhat tart at center, mild, good to very good in quality but not as good as Lady. Seeds few in number, rather adherent, intermediate in size and length, broad, rather blunt, dark brown; raphe obscure; chalaza small, slightly above center, oval, frequently shows as a mere depression. Must 850-900.

MASSASOIT.Massasoit pic

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1862:148, 152. 2. Horticulturist, 18:99. 1863. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1867:44. 4. Horticulturist, 24:126. 1869. 5. Grape Cult., 1:180, 326. 1869. 6. Ind. Sta. Bul., 33:34. 1890. 7. Gar. and For., 3:214,255,490. 1890. 8. Kan. Sta. Bul., 28:164. 1891. 9. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 10:497. 1891. 10. Bush. Cat., 1894:154. 11. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., I7o33. 548, 555- 1898.

Rogers' No. 3 (1, 2, 3). Rogers1 No. 8 (4, 5, 6, 10).

Massasoit is distinguished as being the earliest of Rogers' hybrids though it is not, as some viticulturists say, as early as Hartford, ripening rather with Delaware or a little later. It has the peculiarity or defect of being at its best before full maturity, and of developing after ripening a degree of foxiness which impairs its quality. In shape and size of berry, and sometimes in bunch, there is a striking resemblance to Isabella, another suggestion of Vinifera in the latter sort, but the color is that of Catawba. The texture of the fruit is especially good, firm but tender and juicy, while the flavor, as with all of Rogers' grapes, is rich and sweet, though in the case of Massasoit, hardly as good as others of these hybrids. The vine is vigorous, hardy and productive but very subject to mildew and rot. Massasoit is well worth a place in the home vineyard, and as an early grape, of fine quality for the local market.

For an account of the early history and parentage of Massasoit the reader is referred to Rogers' Hybrids. The variety attracted considerable attention even while it was known only as Rogers' No. j and was placed on the American Pomological Society's list of recommended sorts as early as 1867. In 1869 it was named by Rogers after Massasoit, the Indian chief who was so intimately connected with the early history of Massachusetts.

Vine vigorous to very vigorous, hardy in all but unusually cold winters, often very productive, very subject to rot and mildew. Canes long, intermediate in number, thick, inclined to dark brown with slight reddish tinge; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes long to medium; diaphragm of average thickness; pith large; shoots thinly pubescent; tendrils continuous, long, trifid to bifid.

Leaf-buds large to medium, long, unusually thick, obtuse to conical, heavily coated with brownish pubescence. Young leaves tinged on upper and under sides with rose-carmine. Leaves variable in size, medium to thin, upper surface light green, dull, smooth to medium; lower surface pale green, slightly pubescent; veins well denned; lobes three to sometimes obscurely five with terminus acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow to medium; basal sinus shallow, narrow, often obscure; teeth very shallow, of average width. Flowers sterile, open moderately late; stamens reflexed.

Fruit ripens about with Delaware, keeps well. Clusters variable in size, of medium length, often rather broad, cylindrical to tapering, frequently single-shouldered, variable in compactness; peduncle short to medium, thick; pedicel of average length, slender to medium, covered with few, indistinct warts, enlarged at point of attachment to fruit; brush of fair length, pale green. Berries large to medium, roundish to oval, dark brownish-red, dull, covered with lilac bloom, very persistent, moderately firm. Skin thin, tender, adheres considerably to the pulp, contains no pigment, astringent. Flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, somewhat soft, stringy, foxy, sweet next the skin but acid at center, good to very good in quality, somewhat resembling Salem. Seeds slightly adherent, one to five, average three, large to medium, somewhat broad, distinctly notched, above medium in length, plump, blunt; raphe buried in a deep, broad groove; chalaza small, slightly above center, circular to nearly oval, often showing only as a depression.

MAXATAWNEY.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Horticulturist, 15:134, 191, 538. 1860. 2. Gar. Mon., 3 1341. 1861. col.pl. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1862:135, 152. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862:90. 5. Grape Cult., 1:10, 42, 141, 149, 296, 368. 1869. 6. Ib., 2:76, 85, fig., 86, 297. 1870. 7. Bush Cat., 1883:120, 121. fig. 8. Ala. Sta. Bui, 10:11. 1890. 9. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:630. 1892. 10. Tenn. Sta. Bul., Vol. 9:184. 1896. 11. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:533, 548, 556. 1898.

At one time very popular, grape-growers now seldom hear of Maxatawney. At best it is not a northern grape, ripening its fruit in New York only occasionally, and is much subject to fungal diseases. It is an interesting variety historically as being one of the first good green grapes and as showing almost unmistakable Vinifera characters, probably another example of the fortuitous hybridization which gave us so many valuable varieties before artificial hybridization of Vinifera with native grapes had been tried.

In 1843, a man living in Eagleville, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, received several bunches of grapes from a friend in Maxatawney, Berks County, Pennsylvania. The seeds of these grapes were planted and the following spring one seed grew. This was the original vine of what was later named Maxatawney. It attracted no more than local attention until about 1860 when, through the efforts of Peter Crans of Philadelphia, it received several favorable notices in the horticultural press and cuttings were disseminated for testing. The man who had originated the variety, for fear of being besieged by amateur grape cultivators, never allowed his name to become known. Maxatawney was placed on the American Pomological Society. list of sorts recommended for cultivation in 1862, but was dropped in 1897. From the first it has been recognized that Maxatawney shows Vinifera blood. Some have even gone so far as to say that it is a derivative, in part, from Malaga. It does not appear, however, that such preciseness is justified. The vine shows the continuous tendrils and the thick, pubescent leaf of Labrusca. In the lobing of the leaves, the susceptibility to mildew, the oval berries, the vinous flavor, and the appearance of occasional seeds, one can detect the characters of Vinifera.

Vine medium to vigorous, not always hardy, variable in productiveness. Canes medium to above in length, of average number, slender to medium; tendrils continuous, bifid. Leaves medium to large, dark green, thick; lower surface grayish-white with tinge of bronze, heavily pubescent. Flowers sterile or nearly so, some blossoms imperfectly self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright. Fruit ripens after Concord, in some seasons fully as late as Catawba, keeps fairly well. Clusters small to above medium, often short and slender, cylindrical, occasionally with a small single shoulder, rather open to fairly compact. Berries variable in size, oval, not uniform in color, pale red or dull greenish with amber tinge, covered with thin gray bloom, persistent. Skin medium in thickness, often very tough, astringent. Flesh slightly tender, foxy, sweet at skin to tart at center, good to very good in quality. Seeds few, separate easily from the pulp, large, of medium length, very broad, blunt. Must 760.

MERRIMAC.Merrimac pic

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1860:86. 2. Gar. Mon., 6:23, 140, 276, 277. fig. 1864. 3- Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1865:40. 4. N. Y. Ag. Soc. Rpt., 1865:339. fig. 5. Am, Pom. Soc. Cat., 1867: 44. 6. Fuller, 1867:229, 230. 7. Horticulturist, 24:126. 1869. 8. Am. Jour. Hort., 5:263. 1869. 9. Grap Cult., 1:181, 239, 327. 1869. 10. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875:397. fig. 11. Bush. Cat., 1883:121. 12. Mich. Sta. Bui, 7:133. 1885. 13. Ark. Sta. Bul., 39:32. 1896. 14. Tenn. Sta. Bul., Vol. 9:184. 1896. 15. Tex. Sta. Bul., 48:1150, 1159. 1898. 16. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17'533] 54i, 544, 54$, 556- l898-

Rogers' No. 19 (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6). Rogers' No. 19 (7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13).

Merrimac is accredited by some grape-growers as the best black grape among Rogers' hybrids, but an analysis of the characters of the several black varieties produced by Rogers seems to show that it is surpassed at least by Wilder and Herbert and possibly by Barry. The attributes of Merrimac are so nearly those given for the several others of these grapes hitherto described, that there need be no general discussion of it here other than to state its chief points of difference. It is stronger in growth, slightly more productive, possiby hardier, and more exempt from fungal diseases than the average of Rogers' hybrids. Its season is about that of Concord, a little earlier than that of most of its kindred hybrids. It is not as high in quality, and its flesh, skin and seed characters are such that it is not as pleasant to eat as the black varieties named above. Merrimac is worthy a place in collections and in the gardens for the sake of variety.

For a full account of the parentage and details of the origin of the variety see "Rogers' Hybrids." Merrimac was first known as No. 19, and was considered by those to whom Rogers sent his grapes of peculiar excellence, and was granted a premium by the Essex Agricultural Society in 1859. In 1867, Merrimac, with five others of Rogers' numbered varieties, was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog, where it is still retained. In 1869, Rogers gave this variety the name Merrimac after the historic New England river.

Vine vigorous, usually hardy but subject to injury in severe seasons, moderately productive to productive. Canes intermediate in length and number, medium to slender, dark brown, surface slightly roughened; nodes somewhat enlarged, usually flattened; internodes medium to short; diaphragm thick; pith of average thickness; shoots nearly glabrous; tendrils intermittent, short, bifid.

Leaf-buds intermediate in size, short to medium, thick, obtuse to conical, open In mid-season. Young leaves tinged on lower side and along margin of upper side with rose-carmine. Leaves large to medium, thin; upper surface very light green, glossy, nearly smooth; lower surface pale green, slightly pubescent and cobwebby; veins distinct; lobes usually three with terminal lobe obtuse; petiolar sinus medium to deep, narrow, sometimes closed and overlapping; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow, narrow; teeth shallow to medium, of average width. Flowers sterile, open in mid-season; stamens reflexed.

Fruit ripens with or later than Concord, ships and keeps well. Clusters variable in size, intermediate in length, often broad, tapering to cylindrical, variable in compactness; peduncle short to medium, of average thickness; pedicel intermediate in length, slender, covered with numerous, small, inconspicuous warts; brush wine-colored. Berries large to medium, roundish, black, glossy, covered with abundant blue bloom, persistent, firm. Skin thick, tough, adheres slightly to the pulp, contains a small amount of wine-colored pigment, astringent. Flesh light green, translucent, juicy, moderately fine-grained, medium tender, stringy, with little or no aroma, good in quality. Seeds rather adherent, one to five, average four, somewhat large and broad, long to medium, frequently with enlarged neck, brownish; raphe sometimes shows as a narrow cord; chalaza of average size, plainly above center, distinct.

MILLS.Mills pic

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Horticulturist, 30:93. 1875. 2. Rural N. Y., 47:144, 146. fig. 1888. 3. Can. Hort.f 11:102, 103. fig. 1888. 4. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1888-9:107. 5. Kan. Sta. Bul., 14:89. 1890. 6. Ib., 28:160. 1891. 7. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 12:621. 1893. 8. Rural N. Y.t 53:6. 1894. 9. Bush. Cat., 1894:155. 10. Rural N. Y., 54:715, 779, 795. 1895. 11. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1897:19. 12. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:533, 548, 556, 559. 1898. 13. Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:173. 1899. 14. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:46, 51. 1901.

Probably none of the commonly cultivated grapes varies more under different cultural conditions than Mills. It is chiefly from this fact that viticulturists are so diverse in their opinions of it, some claiming that it is among our best grapes and others pronouncing it almost worthless. Mills grown in the vineyards of this Station is one of the half dozen best out of 270 varieties in its fruit characters. The bunches and berries are large and well-formed, the berries being a handsome black with bluish bloom and adhering so firmly to the stem that the fruit may be left until April without shelling. The berries are firm and solid,with the skin adherent to the pulp almost as in the Viniferas, and with the same texture of flesh as in Black Hamburg. The flesh, despite the solidity, is juicy and parts readily from the seeds. Its flavor is rich, sweet, vinous, with a trace of muskiness. The grapes are hardly surpassed in keeping quality and seldom if ever crack or shatter. The season is a little earlier than Concord.

But when we have described its fruit characters, practically all that can be is said in its favor. The vines are of only medium vigor, are not hardy, are fruitful only under the most favorable conditions, and are very subject to mildew. In New York neither wood nor roots ripen well in the average season and the variety is a most difficult one for nurserymen to handle. That it succeeds only on certain soils is known but data are not at hand to determine what conditions of soil suit it best. The soil on which the vines of this Station are growing is a rather heavy, rich clay and Mills makes a very fair growth here. The variety is of doubtful commercial value, unless it be for a special market, but for the garden or the amateur viticulturist it is undoubtedly one of the best if adapted to the soil and location. It is possible that the commercial grower may be able to graft it to advantage on some variety with better vine characters.

William H. Mills of Hamilton, Ontario, produced the Mills grape about 1870 from seed of Muscat Hamburg fertilized by Creveling. It was not introduced to the public, however, until 1888, when it was offered for sale by Ellwanger et Barry of Rochester, New York. Mills was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1897 but was dropped from the list two years later. The variety has been widely tested but as yet has not become of commercial importance in any of the grape regions of the country.

Vine medium to above in vigor, not hardy, productive unless injured by the winter, somewhat subject to mildew. Canes long, of medium size, rather thick, light brown; nodes slightly enlarged and flattened, internodes medium to large; diaphragm rather thick; pith quite large; shoots slightly pubescent; tendrils intermittent, of average length, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds small to medium, short, somewhat slender, conical to pointed, open very late. Young leaves tinged with carmine slightly on under side and along margin of upper side, which is heavily coated with whitish pubescence. Leaves medium to large, thick; upper surface dark green, dull, medium to rugose; lower surface pale green, cobwebby ; lobes three to five with terminus acute to acuminate; petiolar sinus intermediate in depth and width; basal and lateral sinuses quite deep and wide; teeth deep, of average width. Flowers nearly fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens somewhat later than Concord, an unusually good shipper and keeper. Clusters large to medium, long, slender to medium, cylindrical to slightly tapering, often single-shouldered but sometimes double-shouldered, compact; peduncle short, thick; pedicel intermediate in length, medium to slender, covered with numerous, small warts, much enlarged at point of attachment to fruit; brush moderately long, wine-colored. Berries large, oval to roundish, very dark red to jet-black when fully ripe, covered with abundant blue bloom, very persistent, firm. Skin thick and somewhat tough, strongly adherent to the pulp, not astringent. Flesh light green, translucent, juicy, not tough but meaty, with a rich, sprightly flavor, vinous, sweet, very good to best. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, one to three, average two, medium to large, variable in length and bluntness, brownish, frequently with enlarged neck; raphe obscure; chalaza small, above center, irregularly oval to pear-shaped, distinct.


MISSOURI RIESLING  Missouri Riesling pic

[ Pronounced Reezling.]
(Riparia, Labrusca.)

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:33, 149. 2. II1. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:76. 3. Bush. Cat., 1883: 103, 132. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1889:24. 5. Gar. and For., 3:290, 599. 1890. 6. Kan. Sta. Bui, 14:89. 1890. 7. Ill Sta. Bui, 28:265. 1893. 8. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:605. 1894. 9. Bush. Cat., 1894:5, 156. 10. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:533, 548, 556. 1898. n. Ala. Sta. Bui, 110:86. 1900.

Riesling (3). Grain's No. 1 (3, 9).

Unfortunately the Southern Riparia seedlings, Missouri Riesling, Elvira, Noah, Grein Golden, and others, do not attain perfection in New York. The vines are sufficiently hardy, vigorous, productive, and healthy, as a rule, but the fruit is lacking in quality and not acceptable for table use nor wholly desirable in wine-making. It is only in the long seasons and under the sunny skies of the South that the varieties of this group of Riparias are well grown. As one of these grapes, Missouri Riesling is not adapted to New York; as it grows here it is not of high quality and does not mature. The variety is illustrated and described not because of intrinsic value in this region but as of interest as representing a somewhat distinct and important group of native grapes. It is a beautiful fruit when well grown and has many good qualities as a wine grape, and should it prove adapted to some favored nook or corner of the State, its culture would probably prove profitable.

Missouri Riesling was originated by Nicholas Grein about 1870, probably from seed of Taylor. Grein planted seeds of the European Riesling and of Taylor at the same time and he always supposed that none of the Taylor seeds grew and that the Missouri Riesling was a seedling of the Riesling of Germany. Since the Missouri Riesling is evidently of Riparia-Labrusca lineage and shows no Vinifera whatever, it is to be presumed that Grein's labels were confused. It was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1889 and is still retained there.

Vine variable in vigor, usually hardy, medium to productive. Canes very long, numerous, thick, dark brown; nodes enlarged, not flattened; internodes long; diaphragm below average thickness; pith medium to above in size; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, long, trifid to bifid.

Leaf-buds medium in size, short, thick, obtuse to conical, open in mid-season. Young leaves slightly tinged on under side only with faint brownish-carmine. Leaves large, thick to medium; upper surface dark green, glossy, nearly smooth; lower surface pale green, thinly pubescent; veins distinct; lobes usually five with terminal lobe acuminate; petiolar sinus deep, narrow to medium; basal sinus shallow and wide; lateral sinus deep, above average width; teeth deep to medium, wide. Flowers fertile to semi-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit usually ripens later than Concord and a little before Catawba, does not keep nor ship well. Clusters variable in size, medium to short, of average width, sometimes cylindrical, frequently single-shouldered, variable in compactness; peduncle medium to long, slender; pedicel above average length, covered with few small warts; brush green with tinge of yellow. Berries intermediate in size, roundish to oval, pale or yellowish-green changing to light red or with tinge of pink when fully ripe, not glossy, covered with thin gray bloom, persistent, firm. Skin sprinkled with small brown dots, thin, tough, adheres to the pulp, contains no pigment, slightly astringent. Flesh pale green, translucent, moderately juicy, tender, fine-grained, lacking somewhat in aroma, sweet at skin to agreeably tart at center, mild, of fair quality. Seeds adherent, one to four, average two, with surface somewhat roughened, intermediate in size and breadth, medium to long, not blunt, dark brown; raphe obscure; chalaza of fair size, above center, ovate, very distinct.

MONROE.

(Labrusca, Bourquiniana ?)

1. Gar. Mon., 22:176. 1880. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:40, 43. 3. Bush. Cat., 1883:122. 4. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 9:327. 1890. 5. Bush. Cat., 1894:156. 6. Va. Sta. Bul., 94:135. 1898. 7. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:533, 546, 547, 552. 1898. 8. Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:173. 1899.

It is now about thirty years since Monroe was offered to the grape-growers of this State, and as a New York seedling, yet it can now scarcely be found under cultivation. It has failed because it is lacking in quality and because its vine characters are not sufficiently good to attract either the commercial or the amateur grape-grower.

This variety was raised by Ellwanger et Barry of Rochester, New York, from mixed seed of Delaware, Diana, Concord, and Rebecca, and was first fruited in 1867. Patrick Barry at one time stated that it was a cross of Delaware and Concord. This, while evidently a surmise, appears quite probable. It was tested by the originators for many years and was finally introduced in 1880 but was dropped some years ago from the list of recommended sorts in Ellwanger et Barry's catalog.

Vine vigorous to medium, hardy, variable in productiveness, somewhat susceptible to attacks of mildew and rot. Canes medium to long, often numerous, medium to slender, covered with considerable blue bloom; tendrils continuous, bifid. Leaves intermediate in size and color; lower surface pale green, thinly pubescent. Flowers fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright. Fruit ripens soon after Hartford, keeps well. Clusters above medium to medium in size and length, often broad and cylindrical, rather blunt at ends, usually single-shouldered, the shoulder being attached to the bunch by a long stem, nearly compact, sometimes with a number of abortive fruits. Berries medium to above in size, roundish, black or purplish-black, covered with heavy blue bloom, persistent Skin thick, tough, adheres considerably to the pulp, contains a large amount of purplish-red pigment, not astringent. Flesh pale green with a tinge of yellow, rather transparent, tender and almost melting, nearly sweet, lacks character, no more than fair in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, intermediate in length, size, and width.

MONTEFIORE.

(Riparia, Labrusca.)

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:44. 2. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:44, 182. 3. Ib.t 1884:216. 4. Kan. Sta. Bul., 14:89. 1890. 5. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:630. 1892. 6. II1. Sta. Bul., 28:256. 1893. 7. Col. Sta. Bul., 29:19. 1894. 8. Bush. Cat., 1894:156. fig. 9. Husmann, 1895:36. 10. TV. V. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:533, 548, 556. 1898.

Rommel's Taylor Seedling No. 14 (8). Taylor's Seedling No. 14 (1).

Montefiore, named in honor of the Jewish philanthropist, Moses Montefiore, is one of Rommel's seedlings of Taylor. The variety has been largely grown in Missouri and the Southwest as a claret wine grape but is almost unknown in New York and the East. Montefiore is reported as succeeding in the Lake District of Ohio and, with the exception that it is somewhat uncertain in bearing and not always productive on the grounds of this Station, it has grown well in this section of New York. While Montefiore is essentially a wine grape, yet it is pleasing in taste and texture of fruit and is far better in quality than many of the coarser Labruscas so commonly cultivated. It keeps and ships well and presents an attractive appearance as a table grape. Were it not that the variety has been under cultivation for thirty years or more and therefore probably tested and discarded in New York, we should recommend it for extensive trial, especially as a red wine grape.

Jacob Rommel of Morrison, Missouri, produced this variety from seed of Taylor said to have been fertilized with Ives. It was exhibited by Rommel at the American Pomological Society meeting in 1879, where it attracted the attention of Isadore Bush, of Bush et Son et Meissner, who named it Montefiore and introduced it the following year

Vine medium to vigorous, hardy, an uncertain bearer. Canes long, of average number, thick, dark brown with slight reddish tinge, surface covered with thin blue bloom; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes long to medium; diaphragm thick; pith medium to above in size; shoots thinly pubescent; tendrils continuous, long, bifid.

Leaf-buds of average size, short, thick, conical to obtuse, open in mid-season. Young leaves tinged on under side and along margin of upper side with light brownish-carmine. Leaves intermediate in size, thick to medium; upper surface light green, dull, smooth to medium; lower surface grayish-white, pubescent; veins well defined; lobes three when present with terminus acute to acuminate; petiolar sinus of average depth, medium to wide; basal sinus lacking; lateral sinus very shallow and narrow when present; teeth deep to medium, intermediate in width. Flowers self-sterile to imperfectly self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens about with Concord or later, keeps well. Clusters medium to small, rather short, of average width, tapering to cylindrical, frequently single-shouldered, the shoulder being connected to the bunch by a long stem, compact; peduncle medium to short, intermediate in size; pedicel short, slender, nearly smooth; brush of fair length, tinged with red. Berries medium to small, oval to roundish, often compressed, black, glossy, covered with abundant blue bloom, persistent, firm. Skin medium to thin, tough, adheres slightly to the pulp, with wine-colored pigment, astringent. Flesh medium green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tender and melting, vinous, sweet to agreeably tart, fair to good in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, one to five, average three, small, broad, faintly notched, short, plump, brownish; raphe obscure; chalaza intermediate in size, slightly above center to central, oval to nearly circular, somewhat obscure. Must 900.

MOORE EARLY.Moore Early pic

(Labrusca.)

1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1871:43. 2. Ib., 1872:94. 3.1b., 1873:101. 4. Ib., Pt. 2:81, 82, 109. 1877. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:32, 40, 41. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1881:24. 7. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1886:225. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887:97. 9. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 9:327. 1890. 10. Can. Hort., 15:95. 1892. col.pl. 11. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1893:161. 12. Bush. Cat., 1894:158. fig. 13. Col. Sta. Bul., 29:19. 1894. 14. Tenn. Sta. Bui, Vol. 9:184, 195. 1896. 15. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 15:430, 431, 432, 433- 1896. 16. Vt. Sta. Bui, 62:41. 1898. 17. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:533- 54i, 543, 544, 545, 547, 552. 1898. 18. Mich. Sta. Bui, 169:173. 1899. 19. Rural N. Y., 66:173. 1907.

Moore Early is the standard grape of its season in New Yoik. It cannot be better described than as an early Concord. It conies in season from two to three weeks earlier than Concord and the last fruits of it are sent to market before those of the later grape are picked. The vines are readily recognizable from those of Concord, differing chiefly in being less productive and more precarious bearers. To grow the variety satisfactorily the soil must be rich, well drained and loose, must be frequently cultivated and the vines should be carefully pruned and cared for in every way. The bunches of Moore Early are not as large as those of Concord and are more inclined to looseness, and the berries sometimes shell rather badly. The berries are larger and, as with Concord, crack under unfavorable conditions. The flesh characters and the flavor are essentially those of Concord, though the quality, representing all of the characters which make a fruit pleasant to the palate, is not as high as in the older variety; it is however much higher than that of Champion and Hartford, its chief competitors in this State and varieties which it should replace. Moore Early is by no means an ideal grape for its season but until something better is introduced it will probably remain the best early commercial grape for New York.

Captain John B. Moore of Concord, Massachusetts, is said to have originated this variety from seed of Concord. In 1871 it was exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society with fifty other seedlings of the same parentage. It was awarded a first class certificate of merit by this Society in 1877, and was introduced by the originator the same year. In 1881 Moore Early was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog where it still remains.

Vine medium to vigorous, hardy, not a heavy yielder. Canes medium to short, of average number, medium to below in thickness, rather dark reddish-brown, surface slightly roughened; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short to medium; diaphragm thinnish; pith intermediate in size; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, of fair length, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds small and slender, short, pointed to conical, open medium early. Young leaves tinged on lower side and along margin of upper side with rose-carmine. Leaves large to medium, thick; upper surface medium dark green, dull, of average smoothness; lower surface tinged with bronze, heavily pubescent; veins distinct; leaf usually not lobed, with terminus acute; petiolar sinus of average depth, wide to medium; basal sinus lacking; lateral sinus a notch when present; teeth shallow, narrow to medium. Flowers fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens from two to three weeks earlier than Concord, does not keep well. Clusters intermediate in size, length, and breadth, irregularly cylindrical to tapering, sometimes single-shouldered, inclined to looseness; peduncle short to medium, thick; pedicel short, thick, nearly smooth; brush short, pale green. Berries large to above medium, roundish, dark purplish-black to black, covered with abundant blue bloom, not very persistent, nearly firm. Skin intermediate in thickness, tender, adherent to the pulp, contains dark purplish-red pigment, not astringent. Flesh greenish, translucent, juicy, fine-grained and tough, with slight foxiness, sweet next the skin but somewhat acid at center, fair to good in quality. Seeds adherent, one to four, average two and three, large, often irregular in shape, broad and plump, blunt, brown with yellow tinge at tips; raphe buried in a small and indistinct groove; chalaza of average size, obscure, often showing as a faint, irregular depression.

MOYER.Moyer pic

(Labrusca, Bourquiniana.)

1. Columbus Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1887:218. 2. Ib., 1887:218. 3. Can. Hort., 11:265. 1888. col. p1. 4. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 35:176. 1890. 5. Ib., 36:42. 1891. 6. II1. Sta. Bul.. 28:261. 1893. 7. Bush. Cat., 1894:159. 8. Can. Hort., 22:386. 1899. fig. 9. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:40, 42. 1899. 10. Ont. Fr. Exp. Stas. Rpt., 6:20. 1899. fig. 11. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:29.

Jordan (2). Jordan (5, 7). Moyer's Early Red (i).

Moyer at its best is almost a counterpart of its parent Delaware. It has all of the faults of Delaware and some added ones. Were it not for the fact that the variety is from one to two weeks earlier than its parent, and somewhat hardier, hence better adapted for colder regions, it could not have received the recognition given it by viticulturists. As compared with Delaware, it is hardly as vigorous and is less productive. It is reputed to be more free from rot and mildew, the latter especially. The bunches are much like those of Delaware but with the fault of setting fruit imperfectly oftentimes even when cross-pollination is insured. The berries are a little larger but of much the same color and of like flavor, rich, sweet, and with pure vinousness without a trace of foxiness but withal not of so high quality as Delaware. The fruit keeps well, ships well, and does not crack nor shell in New York. Moyer is well established in Canada, where it originated, and is highly thought of, proving perfectly hardy wherever the Concord is grown and possibly standing even more cold. Its place is as an early Delaware for northern regions.

W. H. Read of Port Dalhousie, Lincoln County, Ontario, raised the original vine of Moyer about 1880, from seed of Delaware fertilized by Miller's Burgundy. It was named after Allan Moyer of St. Catharines, Ontario, who introduced the variety in 1888. Moyer was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1899.

Vine vigorous to medium, hardy, healthy, not productive. Canes intermediate in length, numerous, medium to slender, rather dull dark reddish-brown; nodes slightly enlarged, flattened; internodes short to medium; diaphragm thin; pith medium to below in size; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, medium to rather long, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds of about average size and thickness, short, conical to rather obtuse, open very late. Young leaves tinged on under side and along margin of upper side with rose-carmine. Leaves small to medium, of average thickness; upper surface dark green, dull and smooth; lower surface very pale green or with faint blue tinge, heavily pubescent ; lobes two to five with terminus acute; petiolar sinus shallow to medium, not narrow; basal sinus usually lacking, but shallow when present; lateral sinus shallow, narrow; teeth very shallow, medium to narrow. Flowers sterile, open early; stamens reflexed.

Fruit ripens from one to two weeks earlier than Delaware, keeps well but loses its color if kept too long. Clusters medium to small, short and slender, irregularly tapering, sometimes single-shouldered, medium in compactness; peduncle intermediate in length, somewhat slender; pedicel inclined to short, of average thickness, covered with very small warts; brush yellowish-green. Berries medium to small, oblate, dark red covered with dark lilac to faint blue bloom, persistent, rather firm. Skin intermediate in thickness, not tender, does not adhere to the pulp, astringent. Flesh light green, translucent, juicy, rather tender, fine-grained, somewhat vinous, good to very good. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, one to four, average two or three, intermediate in size, broad, short, very blunt, brown with yellow tinge at tips; raphe obscure; chalaza of fair size, slightly above center, irregularly circular, obscure.

MUSCAT HAMBURG.Muscat Hamburg pic

(Vinifera.)

1. Gar. Chron., 1857:645. 2. Horticulturist, 13:167. 1858. 3. Ib., 14:95. 1859. 4. Am, Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1862:92. 5. Gar. Mon., 9:285. 1867.

As one of the parents of a number of valuable hybrids cultivated in American vineyards, Muscat Hamburg is illustrated and described in The Grapes of New York. It is described below in detail that grape-breeders may detect any of its characters transmitted to its offspring. The grapes and vines described here were grown under glass, as the variety cannot be grown out of doors in eastern America.

Muscat Hamburg is a forcing grape only and is apparently unknown in the grape-growing districts of Europe. It is said to grow better grafted, on Black Hamburg than on its own roots.

Seward Snow of Wrest Park, Bedfordshire, England, originated Muscat Hamburg more than a half century ago from seed of Black Hamburg fertilized by White Muscat of Alexandria. It was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog for 1862 as an exotic recommended for growing under glass.

Vine very vigorous, tender, productive. Canes long, numerous, slender to medium, light brown, slightly darker at nodes which are enlarged and somewhat flattened; inter-nodes short io medium; diaphragm thick; pith nearly large; shoots glabrous; tendrils inclined to dehisce early, intermittent or frequently with only one tendril present with vacancy on either side, long, bind to trifid.

Leaf-buds large, long to medium, inclined to thick. Leaves medium to large, intermediate in thickness; upper surface light green, dull, somewhat smooth; lower surface slightly lighter green than upper surface, faintly pubescent, densely hairy; lobes usually five with terminus acute to acuminate; petiolar sinus of average depth, medium to narrow, rarely closed or overlapping; basal sinus intermediate in depth; lateral sinus deep; teeth very irregular in depth and width, some teeth approaching a tendency to lobing.

Fruit ripens the latter part of October under glass, keeps unusually well. Clusters very large to medium, long, broad, tapering, frequently single-shouldered but sometimes double-shouldered, rather loose; peduncle intermediate in length, medium to rather thick; pedicel of average length and thickness, very much enlarged at point of attachment to fruit. Berries large to below medium, oval, dark red, rather dull, covered with lilac bloom, very persistent, of average firmness. Skin medium to thick, adheres strongly to the pulp, contains no pigment, not astringent. Flesh pale green, translucent, very juicy, fine-grained, tender, vinous, sweet, very good to best in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, one to four, average two, large to medium, long and broad, sharply pointed, brownish; raphe hidden in a shallow, broad groove; chalaza intermediate in size, decidedly above center, pear-shaped, distinct.

NAOMI.

(Vinifera, Riparia, Labrusca.)

1. Gar. Mon., 22:176. 1880. 2. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1882-3:46. 3. Bush. Cat., 1883:124. fig. 4. Can. Hort., 11:287. 1888. 5. Kan. Sta. Bul., 14:90. 3890. 6. Tex. Sta. Bul., 48:1151, 1160. 1898.

Naomi is one of Ricketts' seedlings and, according to the originator, one of the finest of all his score or more of worthy grapes. But viticulturists have never agreed with the producer of Naomi in his estimate of it and the variety is now scarcely known. So far as New York is concerned, Naomi has been discarded because it ripens too late for this latitude and is very subject to mildew. Moreover, grapes of its color are not as highly esteemed as red or black grapes and the demand for green grapes does not sustain the varieties we have of this color.

This variety was originated by J. H. Ricketts of Newburgh, New York, from seed of Clinton fertilized with Muscat Hamburg. It was first exhibited before the American Pomological Society in 1879. It has not been widely disseminated.

Vine vigorous, hardy, variable in productiveness. Canes very long to medium, numerous, not uniform in size, medium dark brown deepening in color at the nodes; tendrils intermittent, bifid. Leaves large to below medium, thin, frequently inclined to be torn by heavy winds, medium green; lower surface pale green, slightly pubescent. Stamens upright. Fruit ripens late. Clusters large to above medium, above average in length, broad to medium, single-shouldered to sometimes double-shouldered, compact. Berries intermediate in size, roundish to oval, light green, occasionally with reddish-yellow tinge, glossy, covered with thin gray bloom, persistent. Skin moderately thick, tough, not astringent. Flesh greenish, juicy, slightly tough and solid, aromatic, sweet at skin to tart at center, good in quality when fully ripened. Seeds medium to below in size, elongated, sharp-pointed.


NECTAR.Nectar pic

(Labrusca, Bourquiniana, Vinifera?)

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1883:92. 2. Ib.y 1885:108. 3. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1888-9:107. 4. Ohio Hort. Soc. Adv. Rpt., 1890:22. 5. Bush. Cat., 1894:160. 6. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1894-5:12.

7. Del. Sta. An. Rpt., 7:134, 136. 1895. 8. Husmann, 1895:94. 9. Mass. Hatch Sta. Bul., 37:11,

14. 1896. 10. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:533, 548, 556, 559. 1898. 11. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:29.

12. Miss. Sta. Bul., 56:16. 1899. 13. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:242. 1902. 14. Rural N. Y., 61:685, fig., 690. 1902.

Black Delaware (i, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9).

There are either two varieties under the supposedly synonymous names, Nectar and Black Delaware, or else this variety varies greatly in different localities. Reports from different sources give the vigor as from weak to vigorous, the hardiness from hardy to tender, the season from earlier than Moore Early to later than Concord, the size of berry from small to large, the productiveness from unproductive to productive to a fault.

The Nectar vines at this Station were secured from Cay wood, the originator, in 1888, and from the T. S. Hubbard Company, in 1883. Vines from both sources are vigorous, small-leaved, bearing medium-sized black berries of good but not high quality. These vines are nearly worthless on account of their susceptibility to mildew. The resemblance to Delaware is not apparent.

We have received from Massachusetts, under the name Black Delaware, and there is described in several publications, a grape which is strikingly like Delaware except that the color is black. It is a grape of high quality, and the vine is described as being resistant to mildew. This variety may be worth something. The Nectar on the Station grounds is not. Possibly Nectar and Rommel's Black Delaware have been confused.

The variety here described was originated by Caywood. It is said to be from seed of Concord fertilized by Delaware. Nectar first became known to the public about 1880 under the name Black Delaware, which was afterward changed by Caywood to Nectar. It was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1899, as a recommended variety.

Vine medium to vigorous, not always hardy, usually produces light crops, very susceptible to attacks of mildew. Canes long, of average number, thick, surface roughened, dark reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes variable in length, of medium thickness; pith intermediate in size; shoots pubescent; tendrils intermittent to continuous, long, trifid.

Leaf-buds medium to above in size, short and thick, open in mid-season. Young leaves faintly tinged on under side and along margin of upper side with rose-carmine. Leaves small to medium, thick; upper surface dark green, rugose, often heavily wrinkled; lower surface dull whitish or light gray, strongly pubescent; veins distinct; lobes three to five with terminus obtuse to acute; petiolar sinus medium in depth, wide; basal sinus shallow and open when present; lateral sinus medium to deep, often wide; teeth very shallow, medium to narrow. Flowers partly self-fertile, open moderately late; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens about with Concord, does not keep long in good condition. Clusters intermediate in size, length, and thickness, irregularly cylindrical to tapering, often single-shouldered but sometimes double-shouldered, medium to compact; peduncle variable in length, slender to medium; pedicel medium to short, slender, smooth; brush yellowish-green. Berries intermediate in size, roundish, dark purplish-black, dull, covered with heavy blue bloom, not very persistent, soft. Skin of average thickness, medium to somewhat thin, adheres considerably to the pulp, with wine-colored pigment, slightly astringent. Flesh pale yellowish-green, translucent, juicy, tough, fine-grained, vinous, sweet next the skin but quite acid at the center, good to very good in quality. Seeds rather adherent, one to four, usually three, intermediate in size, medium to long, brownish; raphe obscure; chalaza of average size, much depressed, strongly above center, circular, obscure.

NIAGARA.Niagara pic

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1879:161. 2. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1879:194, 323. fig. 3. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1880:240, 254. 4. N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1881:9. 5- Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:46. 6. Bush. Cat., 1883:124. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1885:26. 8. Minn. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886:134, 136. 9. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1889:370. 10. Rural N. Y., 48:18, 19. 1889. figs. 11. Kan. Sta. Bul., 14:90. 1890. 12. Minn. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1891:220. 13. Rural N. Y., 50:66, 230. 1891. 14. II1. Sta. Bul., 28:265. 1893. 15. Bush. Cat., 1894:161. 16. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 15:430, 431, 432, 433. 1896. 17. Ib., I7:S33] 547. 552- 1898. 18. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:40, 44, 45. 1899. 19. Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:173. 1899. 20. Ala. Sta. Bul., 110:70, 87. 1900. 21. N. C. Sta. Bul., 187:60. 1903. 22. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1903:30.

Niagara is the leading American green grape, holding the rank among grapes of this color that Concord does among the black varieties. It is, however, a less valuable grape than Concord, and all in all, it is doubtful if it should be ranked much if any higher than several others of the green grapes with which it must compete. Much of the popularity of Niagara is due to the novel way in which the variety was sold to the public. For many years after its origin, the entire stock of this grape was owned by the Niagara Grape Company, who retained all of the propagating wood, and in many instances well guarded interests in the vineyards of this variety. The advantages gained by this method of distribution enabled the promoters of the variety to advertise it to an extent not equaled in the dissemination of any other grape. As is likely to be the case with new fruits, Niagara was overpraised by the company selling it and for a time by the horticultural press and viticulturists as well. When vineyards of the variety came into bearing, a reaction set in, and Niagara lost in popularity; many who had planted it condemned it and oftentimes unjustly. For years the reports for and against it were more or less colored by personalities and it has not been until a comparatively recent day that a just estimate of the variety could be obtained from grape-growers.

Since one of the parents of Niagara is Concord, and since the two grapes are largely grown in the same regions and for the same general markets, and chiefly as table grapes, we may best arrive at the status of Niagara by comparing it with Concord.

In vigor and productiveness, where the two grapes are upon equal footing as to adaptability, Niagara and Concord rank the same. In these respects both are standards scarcely surpassed among our cultivated native grapes. In hardiness of root and vine Niagara falls somewhat short of Concord; practically all grape-growers who have tested the two varieties in cold climates agree as to the greater hardiness of Concord. In some of the grape regions of New York Niagara is not grown profitably because of its susceptibility to cold. The variety cannot be relied upon without winter protection where the thermometer falls much below zero. Like Concord the Niagara has much of the foxiness of the wild Labrusca, distasteful to many palates. On the other hand there are many Americans who really like the foxy taste and aroma and count it an asset in these varieties. The foxiness of Niagara is most marked just after the fruit is picked, and it is usually better flavored after having stood for a few days. The flavor is not at its best unless the grapes be fully ripe. Both bunches and berries of Niagara are larger than those of Concord and are better formed, making a handsomer fruit if the colors are liked equally well. The skin of Niagara does not crack as easily as that of Concord. The fruit shells as badly and does not keep much, if any, longer. Both vines and fruits of Niagara are more susceptible to fungal diseases than are those of Concord and especially to black-rot, which proves a veritable scourge with this variety in unfavorable seasons and localities.

It is likely that Niagara will continue for some time to be the leading green grape for the market. As long as grape consumers demand a showy grape to be had at a low price, and without much regard as to quality, if the grape be passably good, Niagara will be popular. For those who rank quality first, with appearance and reasonable cost as secondary consideration, there are other green grapes superior.

Niagara was produced by C. L. Hoag and B. W. Clark of Lockport, Niagara County, New York. The originators state that the variety was grown from seed of Concord fertilized by Cassady, planted in 1868, and that it fruited for the first time in 1872. It was introduced about 1882 by the Niagara Grape Company. In 1885 it was placed on the grape list of the fruit catalog of the American Pomological Society. Niagara has attained its greatest popularity and is most grown in New York and in the North. In the grape regions of the South and Southwest, it is too susceptible to fungi especially the mildews and black-rot. It is said that the quality of the variety, however, is improved as grown to the southward and that where comparatively free from diseases, or when they are controlled by spraying, it becomes a profitable early market grape. In Ohio, Niagara is grown more or less for wine. This variety is a typical white seedling of Concord showing little trace of any other variety.

Vine vigorous to medium, less hardy than Concord, productive to very productive, somewhat subject to mildew and black-rot in unfavorable locations. Canes medium to long, of average number, thick, dark reddish-brown deepening in color at the nodes which are strongly enlarged and slightly flattened; internodes medium to long, thick; pith large to medium; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, long, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds medium in size and thickness, short, slightly compressed, conical to pointed, open in mid-season. Young leaves lightly tinged on under side and along margin of upper side with rose-carmine. Leaves medium to large, thick; upper surface glossy, medium dark green, rather smooth; lower surface pale green, pubescent; veins distinct; lobes three to five with terminus acute to acuminate; petiolar sinus intermediate in depth and width; basal sinus shallow, wide, often toothed; lateral sinus of mean depth, wide, frequently toothed; teeth shallow, variable in width. Flowers fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens about with Concord, keeps fairly well Clusters large to medium, long to medium, somewhat broad, tapering to often cylindrical, frequently single-shouldered, moderately compact; peduncle short to medium, thick; pedicel intermediate in length, thick, covered with few, small, inconspicuous warts; brush pale green, medium to long. Berries above medium to large, slightly oval, light green changing to a pale yellowish-green tinge as the ripening season advances, covered with thin gray bloom, persistent, firm. Skin thin, tender, adheres somewhat to the pulp, contains no pigment, slightly astringent. Flesh light green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, moderately tender, foxy, sweet next the skin to agreeably tart at center, as good or better than Concord in quality. Seeds separate rather easily from the pulp, one to six, average three, intermediate in size, length and breadth, deeply notched, brownish; raphe buried in a deep groove; chalaza of fair size, above center, circular to oval, moderately distinct.

NOAH.Noah pic

(Riparia, Labrusca.)

1. Gar. Mon.y 22:176. 1880. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1881:24. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1883:58. 4. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:40, 185. 5. Ib., 1884:217. 6. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:631. 1892. 7. II1. Sta. Bui, 28:265. 1893. 8. Bush. Cat., 1894:162. fig. 9. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:548, 556, 559- 1898. 10. Tex. Sta. Bul., 48:1151, 1160. 1898. 11. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:40, 43, 44, 45. 1899. 12. Traite gen. de vit., 5:171'. 1903.

For some years after its introduction in 1876, Noah was quite popular on account of its vigor, supposed health, productiveness, and the high alcoholic content of its wine. It is now, however, but little grown outside of Missouri where it is still used somewhat in wine-making. In France Noah was largely grown for a time both as a stock for grafting and as a direct producer for the making of wine and brandy. Probably no other American grape has caused more general discussion, or received more praise and more condemnation in France, with the result that it is now but little grown. The name was given the variety on account of the alcoholic strength of its wine, the originator holding that the lamentable accident which befell the patriarch Noah could easily have happened had he partaken of the wine of this grape.

Noah is so like Elvira that the two are often confused. There are, however, very marked differences in the vine characters; and the clusters of Elvira are smaller, the berries more foxy in taste and the skins more tender and crack much more than do those of Noah. The large, dark, glossy green leaves make the vines of this variety very handsome and a vineyard of them is a pleasing sight. As with Elvira, Othello, Rommel, and other varieties of this group of grapes, Noah is of little value in New York. These grapes are fit only for wine but the wine-makers in this State seem not to have found them desirable for their wants. Noah shatters badly and does not keep nor ship at all well, and buyers therefore do not care for it.

Noah was originated by Otto Wasserzieher of Nauvoo, Illinois, from seed of Taylor planted in 1869, and fruited for the first time in 1873. It was exhibited before the American Pomological Society in 1879. It was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1881. Noah shows, like its parent, characters of both Riparia and Labrusca. The vine characters are markedly those of Riparia and, among others of these, the healthiness of the foliage is an asset of the variety; the Labrusca shows more plainly in the fruit of Noah than in that of Taylor, the berries being larger and having more of the foxiness than the last named variety.

Vine medium to sometimes vigorous, not hardy in severe winters, productive, susceptible to attacks of mildew. Canes long, of average number, thick to medium, dark brown, surface roughened; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes intermediate in length; diaphragm of mean thickness; pith medium in size; shoots slightly pubescent; tendrils usually continuous, of average length, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds medium to small, very short, thick to medium, somewhat compressed, obtuse, open very late. Young leaves faintly tinged on under side and along margin of upper side with rose-carmine. Leaves large to medium, of average thickness; upper surface dark green, glossy, smooth; lower surface pale green, thinly pubescent; veins distinct; leaf usually not lobed, with terminus acuminate; petiolar sinus deep to medium, rather wide; basal sinus lacking; lateral sinus very shallow when present; teeth somewhat shallow, moderately wide. Flowers sterile to semi-fertile, open early; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens with Concord or later, does not ship nor keep well. Clusters variable in size and length, above average breadth, cylindrical to nearly tapering, usually single-shouldered, medium to compact; peduncle intermediate in length, thick; pedicel short to medium, covered with few, small warts; brush medium to short, brownish. Berries small, usually roundish, light green tinged with yellow, somewhat dull, covered with thin gray bloom, not persistent, nearly firm. Skin variable in thickness and tenderness, adheres to the pulp, contains no pigment, not astringent. Flesh yellowish-green, translucent, juicy, tough, fine-grained, vinous, tart at skin to acid at center, sprightly, good in quality. Seeds separate with difficulty from the pulp, one to four, average two or three, intermediate in size and breadth, rather dark brown; raphe buried in a shallow groove; chalaza of average size, slightly above center, oval, obscure. Must 1000.

NORFOLK.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.

1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1872:95. 2. 76., Pt. 2:120. 1875. 3. Kan. Sta. Bui, 28:164. 1891. 4. II1. Sta. Bui, 28:261. 1893. 5. Bush. Cat., 1894:163, 186. 6. Del. Sta. An. Rpt., 7:135, 139. 1895. 7. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:533, 548. 1898. 8. Va. Sta. Bul., 94:138. 1898. 9. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46: 40, 42, 44, 46, 51. 1899.

Norfolk Muscat (i, 2).

Norfolk was disseminated as an early Catawba and it resembles that variety very much in appearance and somewhat in flavor, but ripens much earlier. Unlike the Catawba too, the fruit does not keep well, nor is the flavor quite up to the high quality of the older variety, more nearly resembling, as it grows here, that of Agawam. It is not, however, the fruit characters so much as those of the vine that have kept Norfolk from becoming popular. It falls short in several vine characters, chiefly in productiveness, and after having been known for many years is now scarcely cultivated.

N. B. White of Norwood, Massachusetts, originated this variety some time in the sixties from seed of a native Labrusca fertilized with Black Hamburg.

Vine medium to vigorous, usually hardy, variable in productiveness. Canes long, numerous, thick; tendrils usually intermittent, bifid to trifid. Leaves large to medium, moderately light green, thick; lower surface grayish-white with tinge of bronze, pubescent. Flowers nearly fertile, open early; stamens upright. Fruit ripens earlier than Concord, does not keep very well. Clusters medium to small, often broad, tapering, usually with a long single shoulder, loose. Berries large to medium, oval to roundish, dark purplish-red somewhat resembling Catawba, covered with a fair amount of dark lilac or faint blue bloom, shatter, rather soft. Skin thin, inclined to tender, astringent. Flesh somewhat tough, stringy, rather coarse, vinous, sweet at skin to acid at center, fair in quality. Seeds adhere to the pulp, numerous, quite large, long to medium, distinctly notched.

NORTHERN MUSCADINE.

(Labrusca.)

1. Horticulturist, 9:518. 1854. 2. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt., 1854:315. 3. Mag. Hort., 22:25. 1856. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1856:166. 5. Ib., 1862:143. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862:90. 7. Phin, 1862:259. 8. Minn. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1877:59. 9. Bush. Cat., 1883:126. 10. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:533, 548, 556. 1898. 11. Tex. Sta. Bul., 48:1151, 1160. 1898. 12. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:40, 42, 44, 46. 1899.

Early Northern Muscadine (2, 7).

To those who profess to like a foxy grape, the Northern Muscadine should be the grape par excellence. Many of the differences in opinion to be found in grape literature regarding the quality of grapes have hinged upon whether foxiness in taste and aroma is liked or not. Thus some horticulturists put Northern Muscadine, both for the table and for wine, well toward the head of the list of American grapes, while others condemn it as unfit to eat. The fact that this variety, with Lucile, Lutie, and others with the foxy taste strongly marked, has not become popular, in spite of particularly good vine characters, is presumptive evidence that the American public do not want such grapes. In appearance of fruit Northern Muscadine is much like Lutie, and much like it in quality, the two being distinguished from most other grapes by an unmistakable odor. A serious defect of the fruit is that the berries shatter badly as soon as the grape reaches maturity. Taken as a whole, the vine characters of this variety are very good and it offers possibilities for the grape-breeder because of them. It cannot be recommended for either the vineyard or the garden.

This variety originated at New Lebanon, Columbia County, New York. It was first brought to notice by D. J. Hawkins and Philemon Stewart of the United Society of Shakers at that place about 1852. It was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1862 and dropped in 1871. It is a typical red Labrusca in all of its characters.


Vine variable in vigor and productiveness, healthy, not always hardy. Canes intermediate in length and number, medium to slender, dark brown, sometimes with a a slight red tinge, heavily pubescent; tendrils continuous, bifid, dehisce early. Leaves medium to very large and of distinct Labrusca type, inclined to roundish, thick; upper surface of medium greenness, dull, medium to rugose; lower surface dark bronze, heavily pubescent; veins well defined. Flowers fertile to sterile, open in mid-season or earlier; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens about with Worden, does not keep well. Clusters medium to small, short, of average width, frequently oval but sometimes roundish, occasionally single-shouldered, medium to compact. Berries medium to large, roundish to oval, dark amber to dull brownish-red, covered with thin gray bloom, drop badly from pedicel. Skin variable in thickness, medium to tough, adheres considerably to the pulp, contains little or no pigment, slightly astringent. Flesh very pale green, juicy, fine-grained, tender and soft, unusually foxy, sweet, poor in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, often numerous, large, broad, faintly notched, long, not blunt, brownish; raphe obscure; chalaza of average size, slightly above center, variable in shape, often showing as an obscure depression.

NORTON.Norton pic

(Aestivalis, Labrusca.)

1. Prince, 1830:186. 2. U. S, Pat. Off. Rpt., 1845:939. 3. Horticulturist, 12:461. 1857. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1858:68. 5. 76., 1860:88. 6. Horticulturist, 16:16, 286. 1861. 7. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt., 1865:197. 8. Horticulturist, 20:39. 1865. 9. Husmann, 1866:19, 48, 85, 87, fig., 98. 10. Horticulturist, 22:355. 1867. 11. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1867:44. 12. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1867:111. 13. Grape Cult., 1:5, 74, 98, 122, 138, 150, 212, 296. 1869. J4* Bush. Cat., 1883:126. 15. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:100. 16. Ib., 1889:109. 17. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1891: 131. 18. Am. Gard.t 20:688. 1899. 19. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:40, 43, 45, 51, 54. 1899. 20. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:397. 1899. 21. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1905:59.

Norton's Seedling (9). Norton's Virginia (3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 21). Norton's Virginia (14, 18). Norton's Virginia Seedling (i, 2, 4). Virginia Seedling (9, 13).

Norton is the leading wine grape in eastern America, and, if we except Cynthiana, which can hardly be told from it, the wine made from it is the best of its class made in the regions in which the variety will grow. The fruit is of small value for any other purpose than wine. Norton is fairly hardy but requires a long warm season to reach maturity. While it is said that it may be grown wherever Catawba thrives, this has not proved to be the case in New York; Norton in this State is far more precarious than Catawba in maturity, so much so that it is now scarcely grown even in the most favored parts of New York. It has great adaptability to soils and thrives in rich alluvials or clays, gravels or sands, the only requisite seemingly being a fair amount of fertility and soil warmth. The vines are robust, very productive, especially on fertile soils, as free, or more so, from fungal diseases than any others of our native grapes, and very resistant to phylloxera.

The bunches of Norton are of medium size, not averaging nearly as large as the one shown in the illustration, and the berries are small; the fruit is not at all attractive in appearance. The grapes are pleasant eating when fully ripe, rich and spicy, and pure-flavored but tart if not quite ripe; but still are in no sense table grapes. The fruit keeps well. The cluster usually ripens evenly and the berries neither shatter nor crack. The variety is difficult to propagate from cuttings and to transplant, and the vines do not bear grafts readily.

Norton has been used to quite an extent in breeding work and the blood may be found in a number of desirable grapes but it is not a prolific parent of worthy grapes as has been the case with so many of its contemporary varieties. Like Concord, Norton gives, in experimental work, many white seedlings.

The origin of Norton is rather uncertain. In 1830 Prince writes that he received the grape from Dr. D. N. Norton, one of the pioneer grape-growers of Richmond, Virginia, who had originated it from the seed of Bland with Miller's Burgundy growing nearby. This parentage, it appeared later, was undoubtedly an error as the Norton shows none of the characters of either Bland or Miller's Burgundy. Prince's description leaves little doubt but that his Norton was the Norton of today. In 1861 there was an article published in the Horticulturist by a Mr. Lemosy saying that the original Norton vine had been discovered in 1835 by his father, Dr. F. A. Lemosy of Richmond, Virginia, on an island -in the James River and that Dr. Norton secured the variety from this source. Since Norton had sent this variety to Prince prior to 1830, this story is evidently wrong as to dates and is suspicious as to facts. It is probable that the true history of the variety will never be known. Many grapes of the Norton class have been found at the South, a fact which has led to much confusion as to the origin of varieties as well as in the varieties themselves. Grapes of the Norton type were not looked upon with favor by the early viticulturists and it was not until some years after its introduction that the variety was widely planted and then in Missouri and not in the region of its origin. The Norton was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1867, an(3- is yet retained.

This variety has been usually classed as Aestivalis, which is approximately correct although most viticulturists agree that there is a strain of Labrusca present as indicated by the occasional continuity of tendrils. Millardet, of France, believes that the variety may contain a strain of Cinerea as well. But in fruit at least, Norton is essentially a variety of Aestivalis.

Vine very vigorous, healthy, usually hardy but sometimes half-hardy, an uncertain bearer at this Station but producing heavy crops in more southern localities. Canes long, of average number, thick to medium, dark brown to reddish-brown, surface covered with considerable blue bloom; nodes much enlarged; internodes medium to long; diaphragm thick; pith large to medium; shoots pubescent; tendrils intermittent, occasionally continuous, long, bifid to sometimes trifid.

Leaf-buds above average size and thickness, short to medium, often compressed, obtuse to conical, open late. Young leaves considerably tinged on upper and under sides with bright carmine. Leaves medium to large, irregularly roundish, of average thickness; upper surface green, dull, rugose on older leaves; lower surface pale green, slightly pubescent; veins indistinct; leaf usually not lobed with terminus acute to sometimes obtuse; petiolar sinus deep to medium, narrow, sometimes closed and overlapping; basal sinus usually absent; lateral sinus shallow to a mere notch when present; teeth variable in depth and width. Flowers self-fertile, open late; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens too late for this locality, keeps well when properly matured. Clusters medium to small, inclined to short, moderately broad, tapering, usually single-shouldered, medium to compact; peduncle short to medium, thick, sometimes flattened; pedicel intermediate in length, slender, covered with few warts; brush dull, wine-colored. Berries medium to small, roundish to oblate, black, somewhat glossy, covered with heavy blue bloom, persistent, soft. Skin thin, of average toughness, does not adhere to the pulp, contains a large amount of dark red pigment, no astringency. Flesh greenish, translucent, juicy, tender, spicy, tart and somewhat astringent. Seeds separate fairly easily from the pulp, two to six, average three, numerous, medium to small, intermediate in breadth and length, not notched, brownish; raphe distinct; chalaza small, above center, circular, obscure. Must io50-iio0.


NORWOOD.

(Vinifera, Labrusca.)

1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1880:231. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:43. 3- HI- Sta- Bul., 28:256.

1893. 4. Busk. Cat., 1894:164. 5. N. Y.Sta. An. Rpt., 13:605. 1894. 6. Col. Sta. Bul., 29:19.

1894. 7. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:533, 545, 546, 548, 552. 1898. 8. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:242. 1902.

Norwood is a Labrusca-Vinifera cross-breed of the same specific parentage as Rogers' hybrids which it greatly resembles. It is rather more hardy than most other grapes of its breeding and is preeminently a long keeper, surpassing most of the similar hybrids in this respect, though all of these are notable for their keeping quality. But the variety is incapable of self-fertilization and does not set its fruit well even in a mixed vineyard, which fault should debar it from either the commercial or the amateur list. The quality is from good to very good.

N. B. White originated Norwood from seed of Concord fertilized with Black Hamburg. It was introduced about 1880 and has been rather widely tested but has never been popular, and is now seldom seen in varietal vineyards.

Vine vigorous, subject to winter injury in unfavorable locations, variable in productiveness. Canes intermediate in length and number, slender; tendrils continuous to intermittent, bifid. Leaves large, not uniform in color, thin; lower surface grayish-green, thinly pubescent. Flowers sterile to imperfectly self-fertile, open late; stamens short. Fruit ripens a little earlier than Concord, keeps and ships well. Clusters large to medium, often long and broad, irregularly tapering, sometimes heavily single-shouldered, intermediate in. compactness. Berries large, roundish to oval, purplish-black covered with heavy blue bloom, very persistent, firm. Skin thick, rather tough, adheres considerably to the pulp, decidedly astringent. Flesh greenish, tough, stringy, slightly foxy, sweet at skin to acid at center, good to very good in quality. Seeds adherent, rather large, long, sharp-pointed.

(I) OHIO.

(Bourquiniana.)

1. Mag. Hort., 8:168. 1842, 2. 76., 9:191, 430- 1843. 3. Downing, 1845:251, 257. 4. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt., 1845:937, 940. 5. Id., 1847:465. 6. N. Y. Ag. Soc. Rpt., 1848:366. 7. Thomas, 1849:398. 8. Mag. Hort., 16:546. 1850. 9. Horticulturist, 6:224. 1851- io+ Bush. Cat., 1883: 127. 11. Tex. Farm and Ranch, Feb. 8, 1896:11. 12. Traite gen. de vit., 6:374. 1903.

Alabama (12). Black Spanish (12). Black Spanish Alabama (12, ?io). The Black (12). Blue French (12). Burgundy (12). Cigar Box (2, 8, 9, 11, 12). Devereaux (12). El Paso (12) Jack (9, 10, 12). Jacques (10, 12). Jacquez (12). Jac (12). Jacquet (12). Lenoir (12). Long-worth's Ohio (4, 8). Longworth's Ohio (3, 7, 10, 11, 12). MacCandless (12). O/wo (12). Segar Box (3, 6, 7, 10, 12).

At one time Ohio attracted a great deal of attention in southern grape regions as a wine grape of the Lenoir group but was discarded as inferior to other similar grapes, lacking chiefly in hardiness and in health of vine. The grape is somewhat interesting from its singular history.

In 1834 some grape cuttings in a cigar-box were left at the home of Nicholas Longworth of Cincinnati, Ohio, during Mr. Longworth's absence from home. The man who left them did not return and Longworth could not succeed in tracing the donor's identity. From these came Ohio.

The Ohio has, at different times, been said to be the same, in turn, as Herbemont, Lenoir and Norton. In regard to the first, Longworth had Herbemont in cultivation before he received the Ohio and neither he nor his vineyardists failed to see distinct and constant differences between the two varieties. The last two are disposed of in the Cincinnati Horticultural Society Report given on the next page. Longworth and others corroborated these statements from their own comparisons of the varieties growing in the vineyards around Cincinnati. Many grape-growers, and Longworth of the number, have been of the opinion that Ohio might be the same as the variety cultivated in Mississippi under the name Jack or Jacques, both names being corruptions of Jacquez, an old Spaniard who had introduced the grape into the section around Natchez. The Ohio is probably now obsolete. It did not succeed north of Cincinnati and its culture was dropped in the place of its origin on account of its susceptibility to mildew and black-rot.

The following description of Ohio is taken from a report to the Cincinnati Horticultural Society: "Very fine specimens of the grape cultivated under this name, were presented by N. Longworth and J. E. Mottier, some of the bunches measuring nine inches in length. As there has been some belief expressed by eastern cultivators, that this grape is the same as Norton's Seedling, of Virginia, the committee took pains to examine them together, in Mr. Longworth's garden, where both were pointed out to us by Mr. Sleath, the gardener. The difference between the two was at once apparent and striking. In the grape shown as the Norton's Seedling, said by Mr. Sleath to have been obtained from Mr. Norton himself, the wood is not so bright a red as in the Ohio, and the leaf is large and entire, whereas that in the Ohio is three-lobed; the bud is also much less prominent and not so pointed as in the Ohio. The bunches of fruit in the Norton's Seedling were shorter and more compact, with a thick pulp. In the Ohio, the bunches were long, very much shouldered, conical or sharp-pointed, and the fruit without pulp sweeter, more juicy and vinous in flavor, and the seeds smaller, darker colored and less numerous than in the Norton's Seedling.

"The Committee think the grape brought into notice here, by N. Long-worth, Esq., under the names of the Ohio or Cigar box, a valuable and distinct variety, and well worthy of cultivation. This grape has a stronger resemblance to the Le Noir which was also growing near; but its bunches were more shouldered, more pointed, and less compact."

(II) OHIO. (Labrusca.) 1.  U.S.D.A. Rpt., 1892:264. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:75.

Another Ohio originated with R. H. Hunt of Euclid, Ohio, about twenty years ago. Of this variety Van Deman says:

" Cluster large, tapering, slightly shouldered. Berry rather large, round, black with slight bloom; skin rather thick, tender; pulp moderately juicy, tender. Seeds small, three or four in number. Flavor mild, slightly subacid; quality medium. Season early."

This variety is not in the collection of this Station and we have not been able to find either vines or fruit.

ONEIDA.

(Vinifera, Labrusca.)

1. Bush. Cat., 1883:128. 2. Mass. Hatch Sta. Bul., 2:21. 1888. 3. II1. Sta. Bui, 28:261. 1893. 4. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:533, 548, 556. 1898. 5. Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:174. 1899. 6. Ga. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:328. 1900. 7. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 21:396. 1902.

Oneida is a New York seedling, interesting as an offspring of the Vinifera-Labrusca hybrid Merrimac. It was sold by subscription in 1884 and thereby somewhat widely distributed but has not generally been reported upon with favor and is of doubtful value. There are many complaints of its being unfruitful and some of its being unhealthy and in consequence a weak grower. In some sections, however, it is fairly satisfactory. While it keeps well it is said to lose flavor soon after picking. Oneida is one of the rare sorts with erect stamens and yet self-sterile.

H. Thacher of Oneida County, New York, originated Oneida from seed of Merrimac planted in 1871. It bore its first fruit in 1875 and was introduced by A. M. Purdy of Palmyra in 1884. The vine characters are largely those of Labrusca but the fruit shows very strongly the descent from Vinifera. Unlike the berries of Labrusca there is no disagreeable taste near either skin or seeds and the texture of skin and flesh is much like that of the European Malaga.

Vine medium in vigor, not hardy, variable in productiveness, somewhat subject to attacks of fungi. Canes medium to long, numerous, often rather slender, roughened; tendrils continuous, bifid. Leaves large to medium, moderately light green; lower surface pale green, pubescent. Flowers sterile, open medium late; stamens upright. Fruit ripens later than Concord, keeps well. Clusters small to medium, tapering, usually single-shouldered, loose. Berries variable in size, roundish, handsome red in color, almost equal to Delaware although in some seasons the berries have an unattractive greenish-red color. Skin thick, adheres considerably to the pulp. Flesh somewhat stringy, tender, vinous, sweet from skin to center, with some Vinifera sprightliness, fair to good in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, not numerous, rather large, broad, short, plump, usually with a small enlarged neck; chalaza large, distinct, roughened.

OPORTO.

(Riparia, Labrusca.)

1. Mag. HorL, 26:552. 1860. fig. 2. U. 5. Pat. Off. Rpt.y 1861:477. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862:90. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1862:157. 5. Strong, 1866:352. 6. Husmann, 1866:124. 7. Fuller, 1867:247. 8. Am. Jour. Hort., 4:275. 1868. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1871:108. 10. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1872:540. fig. 11. Bush. Cat., 1883:128.

Blue Tart (2). Blue Vine Grape (2). Oporto (2),

Oporto was at one time somewhat sought for as a wine grape from the fact that its wine resembled in color and flavor that from Oporto. The name has given many the idea that the grape is a European variety a misnomer in this respect, as its botanical characters show it to be a cross between Riparia and Labrusca. The variety is now scarcely known, being inferior in most of its horticultural characters to others of its species, but it might be valuable in breeding work for some of its characters. Oporto is very hardy, unusually free from fungal diseases, and its must is very thick and dark, even staining the hands a deep purple, hence suitable for adding color to wines. The variety is very resistant to phylloxera and has been used in France as a phylloxera-resistant grafting stock.

The origin of this variety is unknown. It was introduced into cultivation about 1860 by E. W. Sylvester of Lyons, New York. The Oporto was placed on the American Pomological Society list in 1862 and removed in 1867. The botanical characters indicate that this variety is a Riparia-Labrusca cross-breed. It has much the same vine characters as Clinton, but is, if anything, more rampant in growth than that vigorous variety.

Vine vigorous to very vigorous, unusually hardy, healthy, variable in productiveness. Canes above medium to long, of medium thickness, dark brown to reddish-brown, surface covered with thin blue bloom; tendrils continuous, bifid. Stamens refiexed.

Fruit ripens with Concord, ships and keeps well. Clusters medium to small, inferior in length, intermediate in width, cylindrical to oval, often single-shouldered, variable in compactness. Berries below medium in size, roundish to oblate, frequently compressed on account of compactness of cluster, black, glossy, covered with abundant blue bloom, persistent, firm. Skin very thin, tender, contains a large amount of dark wine-colored pigment. Flesh nearly white, or sometimes with purplish tinge, moderately juicy, fine-grained, inclined to solid, sweet to somewhat acid, decidedly spicy, of fair quality. Seeds separate somewhat easily from the pulp, often numerous, below medium to small, of average length, inclined to broad, faintly notched, often sharply pointed, plump, dark brown; raphe sometimes shows as a partly submerged cord in the shallow groove; chalaza of average size, above center, oval, nearly obscure.

ORIENTAL.

(Vinifera, Labrusca.)

1. Barry, 1883:449. 2. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1889-90:95. 3. II1. Sta. Bul., 28:256. 1893. 4. Col Sta. Bui, 29:19. 1894. 5. Bush. Cat., 1894:165.

Oriental is an excellent dark red Vinifera-Labrusca hybrid resembling Rogers' red hybrids but not in any way surpassing them. While a good grape, it is doubtful if it can take the place of the better known varieties of Rogers. Like many grapes of this class its fruit is of high quality but the vine is of only moderate vigor and is susceptible to mildew and black-rot. Oriental is more satisfactory in the dry portions of the middle West than in New York.

This variety was produced by N. B. White of Norwood, Massachusetts, from seed of a wild Labrusca fertilized with Black Hamburg pollen.

Vine vigorous, not always hardy, averages with Concord in productiveness. Canes unusually long, above medium in number and thickness, surface slightly roughened; tendrils continuous, sometimes intermittent, bifid to trifid. Leaves large, green; lower surface grayish-green, pubescent. Fruit ripens about ten days before Concord, keeps well. Clusters intermediate in size and length, broad, vary from single-shouldered to double-shouldered, loose. Berries large to medium, oval to roundish, dull dark red, covered with lilac bloom, inclined to drop somewhat from pedicel, soft. Skin thick, tough, with but little astringency. Flesh somewhat tough, stringy, coarse, vinous, sweet from skin to center, good in quality. Seeds adherent to the pulp, often numerous, large, long, medium to broad, blunt; chalaza central to distinctly above center, frequently with shallow radiating furrows.

OTHELLO.Othello pic

(Vinifera, Riparia, Labrusca.)

1. Gar. Mon., 9:22, 23. 1867. fig. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1867:173. 3. Downing, 1869: 552. 4. Grape Cult., 2:24, 25. 1870. fig. 5. Bush. Cat., 1894:167. 6. Tenn. Sta. Bul., Vol. 9: 185. 1896. 7. Tex. Sta. Bul., 48:1151, 1161. 1898. 8. Mo. Sta. Bui, 46:40, 43, 44, 45, 76. 1899. 9. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:47. 1901. 10. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:246. 1902. 11. Traite gen. de vit., 5:160. 1903.

Arnold's Hybrid No. 1 (4). Arnold's No. i (i). Arnold's No. 1 (3, 5, 6, 11). Arnold's Hybrid (2). Arnold's Hybrid (n). Canadian Hamburg (3, 11). Canadian Hybrid (3, 11). Challenge? (11).

Othello is interesting as being so far the most valuable hybrid between Vinifera and Riparia, having attracted much attention in Europe as well as in America. The significance of the name is not apparent unless, because of its dark color, it was christened after Shakespeare's dusky Moor. In France, Othello does remarkably well as a direct producer and is used somewhat for a resistant stock. While most of its characters are spoken of in the superlative by the French, in America it is not so highly thought of chiefly because of its susceptibility to fungi, though it shows other weaknesses which seem inherent to hybrids of Vinifera and native species when grown in this country. The fruit of Othello matures so late that it could never become a valuable variety for any considerable portion of New York. It is in no sense a table grape nor does it make, according to the French, a high grade of wine, but rather a well-colored, pleasant, ordinary wine of considerable alcoholic strength.

Charles Arnold of Paris, Brant County, Ontario, produced Othello from seed of Clinton fertilized by Black Hamburg. The seed was planted in 1859 and the variety was sent out for testing about ten years later. There seems considerable doubt whether Arnold's Clinton was the same as the variety known under that name in the United States, but if not, it was similar. Assuming that Arnold's is the well known Clinton, Othello is descended from Labrusca, Riparia and Vinifera. The characters of the three species are shown in the variety. The foxy flavor, the tomentum of the leaf, the pulpy flesh, and the usually continuous tendrils are all from Labrusca. Riparia is revealed in the long, slender canes, the resistance to phylloxera and the shallow, spreading root system. There are but few of the characters of Black Hamburg, the Vinifera parent, to be found and yet the much lobed leaf, the cluster, the oval berry and the flavor indicate the Old World grape and make fairly certain the triple origin.

Vines vigorous, hardy, usually productive, slightly susceptible to attacks of mildew in some localities. Canes long, intermediate in number and size, light to dark brown; nodes enlarged, frequently strongly flattened; internodes medium to below in length; diaphragm of average thickness; pith intermediate in size; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, sometimes intermittent, of medium length, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds intermediate in size, length and width, conical to nearly obtuse. Leaves of average size and thickness; upper surface light green, dull and smooth; lower surface pale green, pubescent; lobes three to five with terminal lobe acute to obtuse; petiolar sinus deep to medium, very narrow, frequently closed and overlapping; basal sinus shallow, narrow; lateral sinus deep to medium, not wide; teeth medium to very deep, rather wide; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens late, keeps fairly well. Clusters very large to above medium, long, broad, tapering, frequently with a loose single shoulder, two to three bunches per shoot, compact; peduncle medium to long, intermediate in thickness; pedicel nearly long, medium to slender, covered with numerous small warts, enlarged at point of attachment to fruit; brush very short, wine-colored. Berries large to medium, oval to roundish, black, glossy, covered with abundant blue bloom, very persistent, intermediate in firmness. Skin thin, tough, adheres strongly to the pulp, contains a moderate amount of bright colored red pigment, without astringency. Flesh dark green, very juicy, fine-grained, slightly tough, sprightly, low in quality for table use. Seeds separate somewhat easily from the pulp, one to three in number, medium to below in size, of average length and breadth, with neck sometimes slightly swollen, brownish; raphe usually distinct; chalaza small, above center, oval to circular, not obscure.

OZARK.

(Aestivalis, Labrusca.)

1. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1889:374. 2. Ib., 1890:156. 3. Ib., 1891:128. 4. Ib., 1892:267. 5.

Bush. Cat., 1894:167. 6. Va. Sta. Bul., 94:135. 1898. 7. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:40, 43, 44, 45, 52. 1899. 8. Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:174. 1899. 9. Ky. Sta. Bul., 92:95. 1901. fig. 10. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:47. 1901. 11. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1905:213.

Ozark belongs to the South and to Missouri, and the Ozarks in particular, and cannot be ripened in the average New York season. Its merits and demerits have been threshed out by the Missouri grape-growers with the result that its culture is somewhat increasing. It is a wine and not a table grape, of low quality, partly, perhaps, from overbearing which it habitually does unless the fruit is thinned. It is healthy and a very strong grower; but is self-sterile, which is against it as a market sort. In spite of self-sterility and low quality, however, it is a promising sort for the country south of Pennsylvania.

Ozark was originated by Dr. J. Stayman of Leavenworth, Kansas, from seed which he states was from an unknown source. The variety was introduced by Stayman et Black about 1890. The variety apparently is of Aestivalis descent with a slight admixture of Labrusca. There was another Ozark raised by Frederick Muench of Marthasville, Warren County, Missouri, in 1851. It has probably long been obsolete.

Vine vigorous to very vigorous, usually hardy, medium to very productive. Canes rather long, often somewhat thick, intermediate in number, covered with thin blue bloom, surface slightly roughened; tendrils intermittent, usually bifid. Leaves unusually healthy and attractive, dense, medium to large, light green; lower surface pale green, thinly pubescent and cobwebby. Flowers sterile or nearly so, open late; stamens reflexed. Fruit ripens late, keeps well. Clusters medium to large, long to medium, usually with a long and loose single shoulder, very compact. Berries variable in size, dull black, covered with abundant blue bloom, persistent. Skin variable in thickness, tough, contains a large amount of wine-colored pigment. Flesh not very juicy, tender when fully ripe, mild, fair in quality. Seeds separate somewhat easily from the pulp, medium to small, not notched; raphe shows as a distinct cord-like ridge; chalaza plainly above center, very distinct.

PEABODY.

(Riparia, Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Bush. Cat., 1883:129. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1883:92. 3. Mass. Hatch Sta. An. Rpt., 6:22. 1893. 4. Va. Sta. Bul., 30:108. 1893. 5. Can. Cen. Exp. Farms Rpt., 1894:139. 6. Mieh. Sta. Bul., 169:174. 1899. 7. 76., 194:58. 1901.

Peabody is a comparatively unimportant offspring of Clinton produced by Ricketts. The grapes are too small for dessert purposes and their value for wine seems not to have been determined though from its parentage it would be called a wine grape. In general appearance Peabody resembles Ricketts' Advance but is later, not so strong a grower, nor so prolific nor hardy. It appears to do better in the northern tier of states or in Canada than farther south.

This variety is supposed to be a seedling of Clinton grown by J. H. Ricketts about 1870 and introduced in 1882. The fruit is distinctly different in several characters from Clinton or other seedlings of that variety suggesting that Peabody is not a pure-bred, seedling.

Vine vigorous, hardy, produces medium crops. Canes long, numerous, often thick, light brown with ash-gray tinge, considerably darker at nodes, covered with thin blue bloom; tendrils intermittent, bifid to trifid. Leaves medium to above in size, dark green, thin, lower surface pale green, nearly glabrous. Flowers semi-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright. Fruit ripens rather early, keeps well. Clusters large to medium, medium to long, usually with a fair-sized shoulder connected to the bunch by a long stem, compact to medium. Berries intermediate in size, distinctly oval to roundish, black, glossy, covered with abundant blue bloom, persistent. Skin thick, tough, not astringent. Flesh very juicy, tender, vinous, spicy, agreeably sweet at skin to tart at center, good in quality. Seeds usually separate from the pulp easily when fully mature, intermediate in size, broad; raphe sometimes shows as a partially submerged cord in the bottom of a rather wide, deep groove; chalaza distinctly above center, often roughened.

PERFECTION.

(Labrusca, Bourquiniana, Vinifera.)

1. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1889:372. 2. Ib.t 1892:268. 3. Bush. Cat., 1894:168. 4. Va. Sta. Bul., 94:138. 1898. 5. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:48. 1901.

Perfection is a seedling of Delaware, which it greatly resembles but does not equal in New York, being hardly as high in quality, does not keep as well, shrivels before ripening, and shells badly. In its vine characters, it is much more like a Labrusca than Delaware, suggesting that it is a Delaware cross. In the Southwest it is considered a valuable early red grape. Dr. J. Stayman of Leavenworth, Kansas, originated Perfection from seed of Delaware; sent out for testing about 1890.

Vine medium to vigorous, healthy, injured in severe winters, productive. Canes intermediate in length and number, slender; tendrils intermittent, trifid to bifid. Leaves healthy, medium in size and color; lower surface grayish-white with tinge of bronze, heavily pubescent. Flowers fertile or nearly so, open in mid-season; stamens upright. Fruit ripens before Delaware, does not keep well. Clusters intermediate in size, averaging slightly larger than Delaware, of fair length, usually single-shouldered, compact. Berries medium to small, nearly roundish when not misshapen by compactness of cluster, attractive red but slightly less brilliant than Delaware, covered with thin gray or faint lilac bloom, inclined to drop from pedicel, soft. Skin thin, variable in toughness, not astringent. Flesh medium in juiciness and tenderness, vinous, mild, moderately sweet, good in quality but inferior to Delaware. Seeds adherent to the pulp, quite numerous, below medium to small, of average length, often with slightly enlarged neck.

PERKINS.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Horticulturist, 14:246. 1859. 2. Mag. Hort., 27:523, 532. 1861. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 1862:147. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1875:24. 5. II1. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1878:8. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1883:58. 7. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:40. 8. Neb. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:93. 9. II1. Sta, Bui, 28:261. 1893. 10. Bush. Cat., 1894:168, 169. fig. 11. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:534, 548, 556. 1898. 12. Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:174. 1899. 13. Ala. Sta. Bul., 110:69, 70, SS. 1900. 14. S. C. Sta. Bid., 58:7, 8. 1901. fig.

Perkins was at one time grown largely as an early grape but has been very generally discarded on account of its poor quality. Its pulp is hard and its flavor is that of Wyoming, Northern Muscadine and their like, all easily identified and best characterized by their disagreeable foxiness. As with nearly all Labruscas it is a very poor keeper. Notwithstanding the faults of its fruit, Perkins may have value in regions where grape-growing is precarious; for it is one of the most reliable grapes cultivated, being hardy, vigorous, productive, and very free from fungal diseases. Added to the above qualities, it is eaily, thus making a plant well worthy the attention of the grape-breeder.

This variety is said to be an accidental seedling found about 1830 in the garden of Jacob Perkins of Bridgewater, Massachusetts. For many years it had only a local reputation and became known to viticulturists about 1860. It was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1875 and although several efforts have been made to have it removed it still remains. It was suspected by some of those familiar with its early history to be a seedling of Isabella or Catawba but there is little or nothing in the vine or fruit to substantiate such a supposition.

Vine vigorous, healthy, hardy, productive. Canes long to medium, numerous, thick to medium, rather dark brown, deepening in color at the nodes, surface heavily pubescent; tendrils continuous, bifid to trifid. Leaves above medium to small, thick; upper surface medium green, medium to slightly rugose; lower surface grayish-white, heavily pubescent; veins distinct. Flowers nearly fertile, open medium early; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens earlier than Delaware, ships well for an early grape. Clusters intermediate in size and length, broad to medium, cylindrical to slightly tapering, often with a short single shoulder, compact. Berries large to medium, distinctly oval, dull green changing to an attractive pale lilac or light red when fully ripe, covered with rather abundant gray or lilac bloom, inclined to drop considerably from the pedicel, somewhat soft. Skin thin, tough, contains no pigment. Flesh nearly white, medium juicy, stringy, fine-grained, firm and meaty, very foxy, sweet at skin to nearly acid at center, poor to fair in quality. Seeds decidedly adherent, numerous, medium to above in size, width and length, somewhat blunt, light brown with yellow tips; raphe buried in a narrow, nearly deep groove; chalaza small, distinctly above center, oval to pear-shaped, rather distinct.

POCKLINGTON.Pocklington pic

(Labrusca.)

1. Gar. Mon., 21:207, 362. 1879. 2. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1880:238. 3. Gar. Mon., 22:176. 1880. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:32, 44. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1881:24. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1883:58. 7. Rural N. Y., 45:622, 653. 1886. 8. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-87:171. 9. II1. Sta. Bui, 28:266. 1893. 10. Bush. Cat., 1894:169. 11. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:605. 1894. 12. Ib., I5:432] 433- l896. 13. Ib., 17-534, 542, 544, 545, 547] 552] 55^. 1898. 14. Ga. Sta. Bui, 53:48, 52, 58. 1901. 15. Kan. Sta. Bui, 110:237. 1902.

Golden Pocklington (10).

Before the advent of Niagara, Pocklington was, all things considered, the leading white grape, having very generally displaced Martha. The variety had the fatal fault, however, of ripening late in the latitude of New York which, with some minor defects, has caused it to fall below Niagara in value for the grape districts of this region if not for the whole country. It is now being grown less and less, and though still commonly found, must soon become largely a grape for the amateur and the collector.

Pocklington is a seedling of Concord and resembles its parent in most of its vine characters, fully equaling or surpassing it in hardiness, but of slower growth and not quite as healthy, vigorous or productive. In quality it is as good if not better than either Concord or Niagara, being sweet, rich and pleasant flavored, though as with the other two grapes it has a little too much foxiness for critical consumers of grapes. It is a handsome fruit, a delicate golden yellow in color, being often called the Golden Pocklington, and with finely formed bunches and berries making it one of the most attractive of all green grapes. Pocklington keeps and ships better than Concord or than any of the latter's seedlings, having a tough, though comparatively thin, skin. Under some conditions, it ripens unevenly and in some localities it is unfruitful. Pocklington is not equal to several other of the grapes of its season in quality, as, for instance Iona, Jefferson, Diana, Dutchess and Catawba, but it is far above the average as a table grape and for this reason and because of its handsome appearance, one of the most attractive of all green grapes, it should be retained in our list of grapes for the garden.

John Pocklington of Sandy Hill, Washington County, New York, originated Pocklington from seed of Concord about 1870. The variety was first exhibited at the New York State fair in Rochester, in 1877, and was exhibited before the American Pomological Society two years later. It was introduced by John Charlton of Rochester, New York, about 1880. In 1881 it was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog. In spite of its general failure as a commercial sort, it is still offered for sale by many nurserymen.

Vine medium in vigor, hardy, variable in productiveness, somewhat subject to mildew in the Hudson River and Central Lakes districts. Canes intermediate in length, number, and size, very dark reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes medium to below in length; diaphragm thin; pith slightly above average size; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, of fair length, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds small, very short, slender, pointed, open late. Young leaves tinged on lower side only, prevailing color light rose-carmine. Leaves variable in size, medium to rather thick; upper surface light green, glossy, of average smoothness; lower surface tinged with bronze, pubescent; veins distinct; lobes none to three with terminus acuminate to acute; petiolar sinus medium to deep, rather wide; teeth of average depth, medium to rather narrow. Flowers fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.


Fruit not uniform in season of ripening but averaging later than Concord, keeps and ships fairly well. Clusters medium to large, intermediate in length and breadth, cylindrical to slightly tapering, often single-shouldered, medium to compact; peduncle medium to short, of average thickness; pedicel short to medium, thick, covered with few small warts; brush short, greenish. Berries large to above medium, slightly oblate, attractive yellowish-green or with tinge of amber, covered with thin gray bloom, variable in adhesion to pedicel, nearly firm. Skin covered with scattering russet dots, thin and tender, adheres slightly to the pulp, contains no pigment, faintly astringent. Flesh light green, often with yellow tinge, translucent, juicy, tough, fine-grained, slightly foxy, nearly sweet at skin to tart at center, good in quality. Seeds do not separate easily from the pulp, one to six, average three, intermediate in size, length and breadth, brownish ; raphe obscure; chalaza of medium size, slightly above center, usually oval, obscure-

POUGHKEEPSIE.

(Bourquiniana, Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Gar. Mon., 22:176. 1880. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:44. 3- A7". Y; Sta. An. Rpt., 9:329. 1890. 4. Ib., 11:632. 1892. 5. Bush. Cat., 1894:170. 6. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:534, 547. 1898. 7. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:41, 43, 44, 45, 53. 1899. 8. Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:175. 1899. 9. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:48. 1901. 10. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:239. 1902.

POUGHKEEPSIE RED (1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9).

Poughkeepsie has been known on the Hudson River for nearly a half century yet it is now but little grown there and has not been widely disseminated elsewhere. There is no doubt as to its quality, both as a table grape and for wine; in this respect it is considered by many as equal to the best of our American varieties and quite the equal of some of the finer European sorts. But the vine characters are practically all poor and the variety is thus effectually debarred from common cultivation. Both vine and fruit greatly resemble Delaware but it is not the equal of the latter variety in vine characters and does not surpass it in fruit. In particular, it is more easily winter-killed and is less productive than Delaware. It ripens with us a little earlier than the last named sort and this with its beauty and fine quality is sufficient to recommend it for the garden at least.

A. J. Caywood of Marlboro, New York, originated Poughkeepsie, it is said, from seed of Iona fertilized by mixed pollen of Delaware and Walter. The original seedling was raised in the sixties but the variety was only known locally until about 1880 when it was brought before the public. It has never been popular in any section and is now nearly obsolete.

Vine intermediate in vigor, doubtfully hardy, variable in productiveness, some seasons producing such heavy crops that the vine is weakened, and on this account a somewhat uncertain bearer. Canes medium to short, intermediate in number, thick to medium, dark reddish-brown; tendrils intermittent, frequently three in line, bifid to trifid. Leaves not healthy, medium to small, of average thickness; upper surface medium green, glossy, somewhat rugose on older leaves; lower surface pale green to grayish-green, thinly pubescent. Flowers fertile, open medium late; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens about with Delaware, keeps and ships fairly well. Clusters medium to below in size, intermediate in length and width, tapering to cylindrical, usually single-shouldered, very compact. Berries small, roundish, pale red to attractive red when properly ripened, covered with a medium amount of dark lilac bloom, persistent, firm. Skin thin and tender but does not crack, contains no pigment. Flesh pale green, very juicy, tender, nearly melting, fine-grained, vinous, sweet or nearly so from skin to center, refreshing, very good to best in quality. The flesh characters closely resemble Delaware. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, small, of medium length, medium to broad, usually plump with slightly enlarged neck, brownish; raphe obscure; chalaza of average size, distinctly above center, circular, obscure.

PRENTISS.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt.t 1878:357. 2. Ib., 1879:191, 194, 320, fig., 321. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1881:24. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1883:59, 61. 5. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1884:343, 345. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:103, 106, 144. 7. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 9:332. 1890. 8. II1. Sta. Bui, 28:266. 1893. 9. Bush. Cat., 1894:171. fig. 10. Husmann, 1895:93. 11. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:534, 542, 545] 547] 552- l898- 12. Mich. Sta. Bui, 169:175. 1899.

Prentiss is a green grape of good quality, once well known and generally recommended, but now going out of cultivation. If popular preference turned upon quality, we should still grow this variety, but consideration must be given to other characters and in these Prentiss fails. Those who have grown it in the several grape districts of New York accredit the vines with about all the faults a grape can have. Thus, it is almost universally considered tender to cold, lacking in vigor and being unproductive, while in some localities it is looked upon as uncertain in bearing, and subject to rot and mildew. On the other hand, there are vineyards in which it does very well and in such it is a remarkably attractive green grape, especially in form of cluster and in form and color of berry, in these respects resembling the one-time favorite Rebecca though never so high in quality as that variety. Its season is given as both before and after Concord. It must always remain a variety for the amateur and for special localities.

This variety is said to have been originated by J. W. Prentiss of Pulteney, Steuben County, New York, about forty years ago, from seed of Isabella.1 It was introduced about 1880 by T. S. Hubbard of Fredonia, New York. In 1881 it was placed on the catalog of the American Pomological Society and is still retained.

Vine medium to weak, with a tendency to winter injury, unfruitful, capricious in bearing, somewhat subject to attacks of mildew. Canes intermediate in length and number, thick, light to dark brown; tendrils continuous, bifid.

Leaves above medium to small, thick; upper surface light green, smooth to rugose in the older leaves; lower surface pale green, pubescent; veins obscure. Flowers self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit variable in season of ripening averaging about with Concord, keeps well. Clusters not large, medium to short, of average width, tapering to cylindrical, sometimes with a slight single shoulder, compact. Berries above medium to small, vary in shape from roundish to oval, light green with strong yellowish tinge covered with thin gray bloom, persistent, firm. Skin of medium thickness, somewhat tough, contains no pigment. Flesh pale green, juicy, medium in tenderness, slightly foxy, sweet next the skin to agreeably tart at center, good in quality. Seeds adherent, sometimes numerous, intermediate in size, variable in width, very slightly notched, short to medium, sharp-pointed, dark brown; raphe buried in a shallow, narrow groove; chalaza large, slightly above center, irregularly circular to oval, surface often roughened, obscure.

1A. J. Caywood, of Marlboro, New York, published the claim that this variety was originated by him, that he had named it Hudson but had delayed sending it out on the advice of several grape experts till it had been further tested. For this purpose Caywood says he sent the variety to about sixty men, among them J. W. Prentiss. Those who examined fruit from the two original vines said they were certainly very similar if not identical.


REBECCA.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Mag. Hort., 22:458, 484, 502. 1856. 2. Horticulturist, 11:528. 1856. 3. Am. Pom. Sec. Rpt., 1856:39, 162, 201. fig. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1856:214. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1858:67. 6. Gar. Mon., 2:200. 1860. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862:90. 8. Grant's Descrip. Cat., 1864:5. 9. Mag. Hort., 33:70, 148. 1867. 10. Grape Cult., 1:43, IS0] 327- 1869. 11. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1883:59. 12. Bush. Cat., 1883:132. 13. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:237. 1902.

During the middle and latter part of the last century, when grape-growing was more in the hands of connoisseurs than now, Rebecca was one of the sterling green varieties. It is wholly unsuited for commercial vineyards and for years has gradually been disappearing from cultivation. The fruit of Rebecca is exceptionally fine, consisting of well-formed bunches and berries, the latter a handsome yellowish-white and semitransparent. In quality it is of the best, with a rich, sweet flavor and pleasing aroma. But the vine characters condemn it for any but the amateur and even in the garden it must have exceptionally good care to succeed. The vines lack in hardiness and vigor, are susceptible to mildew and other fungi, and are productive only under the best conditions. It is recommended as being especially desirable to plant on south walls where it seems to succeed much better than in exposed situations.

The original vine of this variety was an accidental seedling found in the garden of E. M. Peake at Hudson, New York. It bore its first fruit in 1852 when the vine was four years old and was brought to the notice of the public four or five years later. The Massachusetts Horticultural Society awarded the variety their silver medal in 1856 and it was exhibited before the American Pomological Society the same year. Here it-made so favorable an impression that it was placed with Concord and Delaware under "new varieties which promise well." In 1862 it was placed on the regular list where it remained till 1891, when it was removed. It was introduced by W. Brooksbank of Hudson.

Vine weak to vigorous, not always hardy, not productive, somewhat susceptible to attacks of mildew. Canes long to below medium, numerous, above medium to slender, inclined to dull brown, deepening in color at the nodes; tendrils continuous to intermittent, bifid to trifid. Leaves variable in size, of average thickness; upper surface dark green, dull, medium to rugose; lower surface grayish-green, pubescent; veins variable in distinctness. Flowers fertile or nearly so; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens with Concord or later, ships and keeps well. Clusters medium to small, medium to short, of average width, cylindrical to roundish, rarely with a small single shoulder, compact. Berries intermediate in size, oval, green with yellowish tinge sometimes verging on amber, not glossy, covered with thin gray bloom, persistent, firm. Skin intermediate in thickness and toughness, contains no pigment. Flesh pale green, very juicy, tender, nearly melting, vinous and a little foxy, sweet from skin to center, good to very good in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, medium to below in size, medium to short, above medium to narrow, blunt, medium brown; raphe obscure; chalaza of average size, above center, circular to oval, not distinct. Must 690.


RED EAGLE.Red Eagle pic

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Kan. Sta. Bul., 28:162. 1891. 2. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 10:498. 1891. 3. Ib., 11:633. 1892. 4. Va. Sta. Bid., 30:106. 1893. 5. AT. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:525, 534, 548, 556. 1898.

6. Va. Sta. Bul., 94:138. 1898. 7. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:48. 1901. Munson No. 47 (4).

Red Eagle is a pure-bred seedling of Black Eagle which it resembles in all characters except color of fruit. It is one of comparatively few purebred offspring of Vinifera-Labrusca crosses of the second generation and therefore of interest to grape-breeders. Munson, the originator of the variety, does not include Red Eagle in his last catalog but on the grounds of this Station it takes high rank as a grape of quality and at least can be recommended to the amateur. In general it shows the characters found in Rogers' first generation hybrids and ranks with them in fruit and vine.

The variety was originated by T. V. Munson, from whom it was received at this Station in 1888.

Vine medium in vigor, injured in severe winters, moderately productive. Canes of average length, medium to few, slender, dark brown, surface covered with a small amount of blue bloom; nodes prominent, slightly flattened; internodes of fair length; diaphragm intermediate in thickness; pith medium in size; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous to intermittent, long to medium, bifid.

Leaf-buds medium to below in size, short, of average thickness, conical to obtuse, open late. Young leaves heavily tinged on under side and lightly along margin of upper side with rose-carmine. Leaves intermediate in size, thick; upper surface light green, dull, medium to slightly rugose; lower surface grayish-green, slightly pubescent; veins well defined; lobes three to five with terminus obtuse to acute; petiolar sinus deep, medium to narrow, sometimes closed and overlapping; basal sinus variable in depth, wide; lateral sinus often very deep, somewhat wide; teeth medium to deep, wide. Flowers sterile to fertile, open moderately late; stamens reflexed.

Fruit ripens a little before Concord, keeps fairly well. Clusters medium to small, variable in length, broad, slightly tapering, usually single-shouldered but sometimes double-shouldered, loose to medium with many abortive berries; peduncle nearly long to medium, inclined to slender; pedicel very long, slender; brush pale green with brown tinge, short to medium, rather slender. Berries variable in size, roundish, light to very dark red, not glossy, covered with heavy lilac or faint blue bloom, persistent, rather soft. Skin medium to thick, tender, adheres slightly to the pulp, contains a small amount of red pigment, without astringency. Flesh greenish, transparent, juicy, very tender and melting, slightly foxy, agreeably tart next the skin to slightly acid at center, very good in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, one to five, average three or four, often rather large, of mean breadth, long, somewhat blunt, light brown; raphe buried in a narrow, shallow groove; chalaza large, above center, irregularly circular to oval, distinct.

REGAL.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Rural N. Y., 62:436. 1903. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1903:82. 3. N. Y. State Fr. Gr. Assoc. Rpt., 1904:41.

As was the case with the preceding grape, Regal is also a second generation hybrid of Vinifera and Labrusca, the parent of this variety being Lindley, which, as the technical description shows, it much resembles. The fact is again demonstrated in this variety that the characters of grape-hybrids, at least of these two species, are passed to subsequent generations much as they were found in the first generation. The fruit of Regal is attractive in appearance and in quality, its characters being much the same as those of Lindley. A seemingly insignificant fault might make it somewhat undesirable in a commercial vineyard; it is that the clusters are borne so close to the wood that it is difficult to harvest the fruit, and especially to avoid injury to the berries next to the wood. The variety is worthy of extensive trial in the vineyards and gardens of the State.

Regal was originated in Rockford, Illinois, in 1879 by A. W. Woodward. It was introduced some years later by M. Crawford of Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio. The original vine was one of a lot of Lindley seedlings. Some vines of this variety were sent out by the introducer under the title Crawford No. pp.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, very productive. Canes intermediate in length and size, rather numerous, medium dark reddish-brown. Tendrils intermittent, bifid to trifid. Leaves healthy, medium to nearly large, of average thickness; upper surface green, slightly glossy and rugose; lower surface pale green with bronze tinge, strongly pubescent. Flowers fully self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens with Lindley or later; keeps well. Clusters small to medium, shorter than Lindley, medium to broad, cylindrical to tapering with sometimes an inclination to oval, usually with a short single shoulder, sometimes double-shouldered, very compact. Berries above medium to below, averaging larger than Brighton, roundish but frequently compressed on account of compactness of cluster, purplish-red to dark red, covered with lilac bloom, persistent, of average firmness. Skin thin, medium to tough, contains no pigment. Flesh pale green, very juicy, fine-grained, slightly stringy and solid until fully ripe when it becomes rather tender, sweet at skin to acid at center? slightly musky, good in quality but not equal to Lindley. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, rather numerous, intermediate in size, long to below medium, above medium to narrow, slightly notched, inclined to blunts frequently with a short enlarged neck, brownish; raphe buried in a medium-sized groove; chalaza small, above center, circular to oval, distinct.

REQUA.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. U.S.D.A. Rpt., 1864:136. 2. Horticulturist, 24:126. 1869. 3. Grape Cult., 1:181. 1869. 4. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:633. 1892. 5. Ib., 17:534, 548, 556. 1898. 6. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:41, 43, 44, 45. 1899. 7. Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:175. 1899. 8. Ga. Sta. Bui, 53:48. 1901. 9. Can. Hort., 24:261. 1901. fig. 10. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:243. 1902.

Rogers' No. 28 (1). Rogers1 No. 28 (2, 3, 4, 9).

Requa is one of Rogers' hybrids hardly equaling others of its color and season. It is an attractive grape in cluster and berry and of very good quality but quite subject to rot and ripening too late for the grape regions of this latitude, being as late as Catawba. In giving his grapes names, Rogers used those of English or German horticultural or botanical celebrities and of some of the Indian names of counties and towns of Massachusetts. Requa was dedicated by Rogers to a Mr. Requa, a horticulturist of local note, of Salem-on-Erie, Massachusetts.

For an account of the parentage and early history of this variety see Rogers' Hybrids. In 1869 this variety was named Requa, it having been previously known as Rogers No. 28. There appear at present to be two varieties passing under this name. Georgia, Texas and Missouri report this variety as having erect stamens but in our vineyard it shows only recurved stamens.

Vine medium to vigorous, hardy except in severe winters, medium in productiveness, not always heaJchy. Canes medium to long, intermediate in number and thickness; tendrils continuous to intermittent, trifid to bifid. Leaves large to medium, dark green, often thick and rugose; lower surface grayish-green, pubescent. Flowers sterile to partly fertile, open late; stamens renexed. Fruit ripens about with Catawba or earlier, keeps a long time in good condition. Clusters large to medium, intermediate in length and width, nearly cylindrical, often with a long single shoulder, compact. Berries medium to large, slightly oval to roundish, dark dull red covered with thin gray or lilac bloom, strongly adherent, not firm. Skin thin, nearly tough, adheres considerably to the pulp. Flesh very pale green, somewhat tender, rather stringy, vinous, slightly foxy, almost sweet from skin to center, good to very good in quality. Seeds slightly adherent to the pulp, above medium to medium in size and length, often rather broad, somewhat blunt.

ROCHESTER.Rochester pic

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. W. N. Y, Hort. Soc. Rpt., 23:60. 1878. 2. Ib., 27:22. 1882. 3. Barry, 1883:442. 4. JSf. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 9:329. 1890. 5. Ib., 11:634. 1892. 6. Bush. Cat., 1894:173. 7. Va. Sta. Bul., 94:138. 1898. 8. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:534, 546, 547, 552. 1898. 9. Mo. Sta. Bui, 46:41, 43, 44, 45, 53. 1899. 10. Mich. Sta. Bid., 169:175. 1899. 11. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:240. 1902.

Barry's No. 19 (1).

Rochester, as the color-plate shows, is a large-clustered, red grape, very handsome in appearance. It is also very good in quality. The vine is a particularly strong grower and very productive and in the locality in and about Rochester at least, very free from diseases. It is so very vigorous that it needs much room and long pruning. The variety is difficult to propagate and therefore not in favor with nurserymen, and is to be had, if at all, usually at extra expense. The grapes are sweet, rich, and vinous, ranking from good to very good in quality. The fruit, however, should be used as soon as ripe, as it does not keep well and the berries quickly shatter from the bunch. As an attractive early red grape Rochester is well worth a place in the garden and possibly in favored locations for a special market.

Ellwanger et Barry of Rochester, Monroe County, New York, in 1867 fruited over one hundred seedling grapes which they had raised from mixed seed of Delaware, Diana, Concord, and Rebecca. Only two of these seedlings were finally saved, the Rochester and the Monroe. The Rochester was introduced by the originators about 1880.

Vine medium to vigorous, usually hardy, medium to productive. Canes long, intermediate in number and size, dark reddish-brown; nodes moderately enlarged, slightly flattened; internodes short; diaphragm thick; pith small, shoots pubescent; tendrils intermittent, long, bifid or trifid.


Leaf-buds medium to below in size, short, of average thickness, conical, open in mid-season. Young leaves tinged on upper and under sides with dull rose-carmine. Leaves medium to large; upper surface light green, slightly glossy, nearly smooth; lower surface grayish-green, pubescent; veins distinct; lobes none to three with terminus acute; petiolar sinus deep to medium, variable in width; basal sinus absent; lateral sinus shallow to a mere notch when present; teeth shallow, of average width. Flowers fertile, open mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens earlier than Concord, does not always ripen evenly, does not keep well. Clusters large to medium, about average length, broad, tapering, usually single-shouldered but sometimes heavily double-shouldered, very compact; peduncle short, intermediate in thickness; pedicel short, slender, covered with few warts; brush of medium length, slender, yellowish-brown. Berries above medium to small, oval, dark red to purplish-red but the berries do not color uniformly, dull, covered with thin, lilac bloom, inclined to drop from pedicel, soft. Skin thick to medium, somewhat tough, inclined to crack sometimes on account of compactness of cluster, does not adhere to pulp, contains no pigment, astringent. Flesh pale green, transparent, juicy, tender, fine-grained, somewhat vinous and foxy, sweet, good to very good in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, one to three, average two, large, medium to short, rather broad but often blunt, quite variable, however, in general characters, medium to dark brown; raphe buried in a slight groove; chalaza of average size, above center, circular to oval, obscure.

ROCKWOOD.

(Labrusca.)

1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1874:154. 2. An. Hort., 1889:101. 3. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:279. 1895. 4. Bush. Cat., 1894:107. 5. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:534, 548. 55[5. 1898. 6. Mick. Sta. Bui, 169:175. 1899. 7. Ala. Sta. Bul., 110:74, 88. 1900. 8. Ga. Sta. But., 53:49. 1901. 9. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:237. 1902. 10. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1903:30.

Rockwood is a comparatively unimportant black seedling of Concord and from the originator of Concord. It is of higher quality than its parent and since it is earlier, coming with Moore Early or just after, it is worthy a place in garden collections as an early black grape. It has been thoroughly tested and discarded as unprofitable by commercial vineyardists probably on account of its vine characters which on our grounds are not as good as those of Concord and would disqualify it for a market variety. In appearance the fruit is much like Concord.

The variety was originated by E. W. Bull of Concord, Massachusetts, from seed of Concord. It was introduced in 1889 by George S. Josselyn of Fredonia, New York.


ROGERS' HYBRIDS.

1. Mag. Hort., 23:86. 1857. 2. Horticulturist, 13:86, 119. 1858. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1860:35, 85. 4. 76., 1862:148. 5. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt., 1864:135, 136, 137. figs. 6. A7. Y. Ag. Soc. Rpt., 1865:338. figs. 7. Horticulturist, 20:81. 1865. 8. Strong, 1866:31, 339. 9. Mead, 1867:204. 10. Fuller, 1867:228, 246. 10. Rec. of Hort., 1868:46. 11. Horticulturist, 24:126. 1869. 12. Grape Cult., 1:153, X93] fig-] J94; 2^2- 1869. 13. Am. Jour. Hort., 5:261. 1869. 14. Ant. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875:39. 15. Bush. Cat., 1894:173- fig. 16. Meekan's Mon., 9:94. 1899. 17. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1901:166.

The forty-five seedlings known as Rogers' Hybrids were originated by Edward S. Rogers of Salem, Massachusetts. Rogers states that the suggestion which started him in this work was an article by Dr. Lindley of the University of London, originally printed in the London Horticulturist and reprinted in Downing's Horticulturist for September, 1847. This article, which is entitled "Remarks on Hybridizing Plants," is a general discussion of the results of this practice so far as they were then known.

The female parent used by Rogers was a four or five year old, large-fruited Labrusca known locally as Carter or Mammoth Globe, and very similar to, but not identical with Sage, The pollen for fertilizing the blossoms of this vine was secured from vines of Black Hamburg and White Chasselas growing in a cold grapery near by. In the summer of 1851, clusters of the Carter were fertilized with pollen from the Vinifera vines both at the time of emasculation and later, and small cotton bags were tied on the blossoms to prevent the interference of foreign pollen. In addition to the repeated applications of pollen to the stigmas, Rogers placed clusters of blossoms of the Vinifera sorts in the enclosing sacks. As a result of these pollinations, he secured about one hundred and fifty seeds which were planted in the garden that fall. In the spring of 1852 practically every seed germinated, but cut worms and other accidents reduced the number to forty-five which finally fruited. These were left to grow on poles where they were originally planted for three years, when, because of crowding, twenty-five of them were removed to another part of the garden. The untransplanted vines began to bear fruit in 1856 and the transplanted ones a few years later. The seedlings were numbered by Rogers from one to forty-five and for a long time they were known under these numbers. Of these, one to five inclusive were of the Carter-Black Hamburg cross; six to fourteen inclusive were of the Carter-White Chasselas cross; and all of the numbers from fifteen to forty-five were of Hamburg parentage. As will be noted under Salem, this was later given a number higher than forty-five, owing to the confusion of the sort with some other after being sent out. With this exception, the original crosses were all included in these numbers. In 1858 and 1859, Rogers sent many of these varieties, under the original numbers, to various people for testing. He was compelled to do this, owing to lack of room in the half acre which comprised the Rogers' garden, to properly test the sorts himself. Of this garden Marshall P. Wilder says: " It is 150 years old; a cold matted soil, filled with old apple and pear trees, currant bushes, flax, and everything mingled in together. It is in a close, hived up place in the city of Salem, and it is a wonder that he ever had a bunch of grapes to show."

Unfortunately, this dissemination led to the confusion of some of the numbers, a confusion which has never been satisfactorily straightened out.

In 1867, No. 22, or 53, was given the name Salem. Two years later at the earnest request of a committee from the Lake Shore Grape Growers' Association, Rogers gave names to several of his hybrids, as listed below. He stated that the names selected were either those of persons noted for scientific or literary attainments, or else of counties and towns in Massachusetts. There was some criticism at the time from those who thought there were other numbers as well deserving of names as those which were so distinguished. And it must be admitted that the vines of this collection are remarkably equal in their possession of good and bad characters. About 1870, Bush of Bushberg, Missouri, received three sorts as Rogers' No. jp. One of these which was particularly promising, he, with Rogers' consent, named Aminia. None of the others has ever been named, although several of them are still cultivated to a minor extent. The named varieties, with the corresponding numbers, are as follows: 1. Goethe. 3. Massasoit. 4. Wilder. 9. Lindley. 14. Gaertner. 15. Agawam. 19. Merrimac. 28. Requa. 39. Aminia. 41. Essex. 43. Barry. 44. Herbert. 53 or 22. Salem (but not the Salem now known).

For some years, many grape-growers believed that these hybrids were nothing more than seedlings of the wild Labrusca mother but it was soon generally accepted that they were genuine hybrids. To those who are familiar with Rogers' work, this was evident from the first, as the Carter or Mammoth Globe is a self-sterile sort, and the sacks enclosing the blossoms would prevent the introduction of other pollen than that intentionally placed on the stigmas by Rogers himself. A. D. Rogers, a brother of E. S. Rogers, in a communication to the Horticulturist, in 1858, says that " many of these seedlings had upright stamens," but of the ones which were later named, Agawam alone is thus characterized. This is important in considering the value of these varieties, as no variety has ever become popular as a market sort which is self-sterile.

Rogers' Hybrids are unique in that the standard of excellence was so high in all of the forty-five seedlings produced. Some have credited this to the manner in which he did his work and in particular to the excess of pollen applied to the stigmas; others consider it more likely due to his choice of parent vines. Unfortunately the evidence bearing on this point is not sufficient to form definite conclusions.

After the production of the seedlings mentioned above Rogers continued the work, recrossing the varieties already produced with various Vinifera varieties. None of these ever showed sufficient promise to be introduced.

ROMMEL.Rommel pic (not the General)

(Labrusca, Riparia, Vinifera.)

1. An. Hort., 1889:101. 2. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:117. 3. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:606. 1894. 4. Bush. Cat., 1894:174. fig. 5. Husmann, 1895:125. 6. Kan. Sta. Bul., 73:182. 1897. 7. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:535, 548, 556. 1898. 8. Tex. Sta. Bul., 48:1151, 1162. 1898. fig. 9. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:41, 42, 44, 45, 53, 76. 1899. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:31. 11. Tex. Sta. Bul., 56:271, 280. 1900.

Rommel is rarely found under cultivation in New York, lacking somewhat in robustness, hardiness and productiveness, and being very susceptible to the leaf-hopper. The variety comes from Munson of Denison, Texas, and is seemingly too far removed from the warm climate in which it originated to be profitable in New York. Besides the defects named above, it does not attain its natural high quality in this latitude and the grapes crack badly as they ripen. The bunch and berry are attractive in form, size and color as shown in the color-plate, though the illustration does not do justice to the size of the bunch, the season of 1908, in which the fruit was produced, having been cold and wet and therefore very unfavorable to this variety. At its best, Rommel is a very good table grape and the authorities say makes a very fine white wine. The variety is of interest to the student of grapes from the standpoint of its breeding, having very largely the vine characters of its maternal parent, Elvira, with somewhat better fruit. The name commemorates the service to viticulture of Jacob Rommel of Morrison, Missouri.

T. V. Munson originated Rommel in 1885 and introduced it in 1889. The parents are Elvira pollinated by Triumph. Rommel was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1899.

Vine medium to vigorous, not always hardy, medium to productive, susceptible to injury by leaf-hoppers. Canes medium to long, moderately numerous, thick to medium, light to dark reddish-brown, surface somewhat rough; nodes enlarged, often flattened; internodes medium to short; diaphragm thick or nearly so; pith medium to large; shoots slightly glabrous; tendrils intermittent, medium to long, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds intermediate in size and thickness, short to medium, prominent, obtuse to conical, open very late. Young leaves tinged on under side and along margin of upper side with light rose-carmine. Leaves medium to above in size, roundish, thick; upper surface light green, dull, rugose; lower surface pale green, nearly free from pubescence but slightly hairy; leaf usually not lobed with terminus acute to acuminate; petiolar sinus medium to deep, narrow, often closed and overlapping; basal sinus lacking; lateral sinus very shallow when present; teeth medium to deep, of average width. Flowers semi-fertile, open moderately late; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens in mid-season, ships and keeps fairly well. Clusters variable in size, above medium to short, moderately broad, cylindrical to slightly tapering, usually single-shouldered, compact to medium; peduncle long to medium, thick; pedicel of average length, slender, usually smooth; brush short, pale green. Berries large to medium, oblate to roundish, frequently compressed on account of compactness of cluster, light green with yellow tinge, glossy, covered with a moderate amount of gray bloom, persistent, firm, but breaking easily under pressure. Skin thin, cracks badly, medium to tender, adheres very slightly to the pulp, contains no pigment, without astringency. Flesh greenish, translucent, juicy, tender and melting, slightly stringy, sweet to agreeably tart at center, variable in quality but ranks fair to good, appears to be better in some locations. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, one to four, average two, medium in size and length, rather broad, sharp-pointed, very plump, brownish; raphe buried in a somewhat wide groove; chalaza intermediate in size, above center, oval to circular, indistinct.

R. W. MUNSON.

(Lincecumii, Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1893:118. 2. Husmann, 1895:126. 3. Tex. Sta. Bul., 56:280. 1900. 4. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:49. 1901. 5. Rural N. Y., 60:614, 726. 1901. 6. Ib., 62:790, 886. 1903. 7. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1904:239.

R. W. Munson, from Texas, is a somewhat promising variety for the North for its intrinsic value, and is certainly interesting from the standpoint of its breeding as it gives Northern growers a grape with a generous admixture of Lincecumii blood. Its several essential vine characters are very good though it is self-sterile and needs a companion variety which produces an abundance of pollen. Concord and Brilliant are recommended by the originator as notable pollenizers. R. W. Munson is particularly resistant to black-rot, making it valuable for regions where this fungus is a scourge. The fruit is sweet, juicy and very pleasantly flavored, with tender pulp, and while not of the highest quality yet a most pleasing and particularly refreshing grape. The variety is well worthy more extensive trial in New York.

T. V. Munson of Denison, Texas, raised the original vine of R. W. Munson from seed of Big Berry (a variety of Post-oak) pollinated by

Triumph. The seed was planted in 1887 and the resulting variety introduced by the originator in the fall of 1894.

Vine vigorous, doubtfully hardy, productive, healthy. Canes medium to nearly long, intermediate in number, thick to medium, dark red; internodes medium to long; tendrils intermittent, bifid. Leaves healthy. Flowers sterile or nearly so, open late; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens about with Concord, does not keep well. Clusters below medium to small, rather short, often single-shouldered, compact to medium. Berries medium to large, slightly oblate, dull black covered with a medium amount of blue bloom, inclined to shatter considerably, not very firm. Skin thin, variable in toughness, not astringent. Flesh pale green, rather tender when fully ripe, peculiarly vinous, nearly sweet at skin to agreeably tart at center, slightly spicy and with some Post-oak flavor, good in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, rather numerous, intermediate in size, length, and width. Raphe obscure in a very shallow groove; chalaza slightly above center, oval; obscure.

SAGE.

(Labrusca.)

1. Allen, 1848:134. 2. Horticulturist, 6:575. l85I- Ib.t 7:87, 108. 1852. 4. U. 5. Pat. Off. Rpt.y 1853:300, 301. 5. Mag. Hort., 24:91. 1858. 6. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt., 1859:48, 55, 66. 7. U.S.D.A. Rpt., 1864:134. 8. N. Y. Ag.Soc. Rpt., 1865:337. fig. 9.(?) Bush. Cat., 1894:151.

Mammoth (7, 8). ?Mammoth Sage (9). Sage (7, 8). Globe (8).

This variety, which is variously known tinder the names Sage, Mammoth Sage, Mammoth, and Globe, is of interest because it represents a type of large-fruited, early-ripening Labruscas which have been used frequently by breeders as the native parent in a Vinifera cross. A variety similar to this was used in particular by E. S. Rogers as the mother plant in making his notable crosses. They have also been used by AVhite and others.

The original vine was a chance seedling found by Henry E. Sage about x8n on the banks of a small stream near Portland, Connecticut. The variety was first brought to public notice by John Fiske Allen in 1848 through a very laudatory description which was much criticised by those who objected to the foxy aroma of the Sage but as warmly defended by others who liked the foxiness. The variety was later advertised and sent out by the Shaker community at Harvard, Worcester County, Massachusetts. Within a few years it seems to have been disseminated throughout eastern New England, and was particularly acceptable in those sections where Isabella failed to ripen. There is no evidence that it was ever planted except in gardens. With the introduction of Concord and other early varieties of higher quality the cultivation of the Sage was dropped. It is probably now obsolete.

The best description we have of Sage is the following, copied from the United States Department of Agriculture Report for 1864:

"It is much like most of the wild Fox grapes of this vicinity, [Massachusetts] but the berries are much larger, light chestnut or mahogany color, and they have a flattened or compressed shape, instead of being round, frequently an inch in diameter. The bunch is small with three to six berries in a round, ball-like cluster, with sometimes a side stem with one berry at the end of it for a shoulder. The stem of the bunch is not very long. The leaves usually are ' entire ' with a short pointed termination at the end of the midrib, and two other points of the other divisions into which all American leaves are divided, making always either plainly, or in the rudimental state, five lobes. Thus the leaves are not much lobed, scarcely toothed, and have a rusty, woolly appearance. The young wood, last season's growth, is hard and wiry and covered with bristles. The grape itself is sweet, but has a hard pulp, that some compare to a piece of India-rubber when eating it. It is early, and perfectly hardy, as much so as any wild grape in this vicinity."

ST. LOUIS.

(Labrusca.)

1. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1899:54. 2. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1905:166. 3. Mich. Sta. Sp. Bui, 30:11. 1905.

As St. Louis grows on the Station grounds it is so similar to Worden and Concord that it would seem to be superfluous in the grape list of the State. But the variety is so highly recommended in the West, especially in the states from which the above references come, that it is possibly worth}7 of trial in the grape regions of New York as an early type of Concord.

St. Louis was introduced by Henry Wallis of Wellston, Missouri, about 1897. In 1900, he states that it is a seedling of Concord, was originated in St. Louis, and that it had created a sensation for twenty years in the St. Louis markets. The general character of both fruit and vine corroborates the Concord parentage though the frequently intermittent tendrils indicate there is a strain of other than Labrusca blood present.

Vine vigorous, hardy, medium to productive. Canes long to medium, intermediate in number, often rather thick, medium brown to nearly dark reddish-brown deepening in color at the nodes, covered with considerable pubescence; tendrils continuous to intermittent, bifid to trifid. Leaves very large to medium, variable in color, thick; lower surface grayish-white tinged with bronze; heavily pubescent. Flowers fertile or nearly so, open medium early; stamens upright. Fruit ripens about with Concord, or slightly earlier, keeps and ships well. Clusters large to medium, intermediate in length, rather broad, usually single-shouldered but occasionally with a double shoulder, medium to compact. Berries nearly large to medium, roundish, dull black, covered with thick blue bloom, persistent. Skin of average thickness and toughness. Flesh tough, foxy, sweet at skin to slightly acid at center, good in quality with a slight resemblance to Concord. Seeds do not separate easily from the pulp, medium to above in size and width, intermediate in length.

SALEM.Salem pic

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1862:148. 2. U.S.D.A. Rpt., 1865:16. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1867:114. 4. Mead, 1867:222. 5. Rec. of Hort., 1868:46. 6. Ar. Y. Ag. Soc. Rpt., 1868:228. 7. Mag. Hort., 34:7. 1868. 8. Horticulturist, 24:138. 1869. fig. 9. Grape Cult., 1:150, 181, 327. 1869. 10. Am. Jour. Hort., 5:2641. 1869. 11. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1869:42. 12. Grape Cult., 2:148, 149, fig., 298. 1870. 13. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1877:205. 14. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:42, 138. 15. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 9:329. 1890. 16. II1. Sta. Bui, 28:261. 1893. 17. Tenn. Sta. Bui, Vol. 9:187. 1896. 18. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:535, 542, 543, 544, 548, 553. 1898. 19. Mich. Sta. Bui, 169:175. 1899.

Rogers' No. 22 (1, 2). Rogers' No. 2% (3, 5, 6, 9, n, 12, 13, 15). Rogers' No. 53 (4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 17).

Salem is the one of Rogers' hybrids of which the originator is said to have thought most and to which he gave the name of his place of residence. Taking all of its characters, the variety is as close an approximation to the ideal Rogers had in mind of a European grape and an American vine as any one of the score or more of his hybrids. Salem ranks among the best of these hybrids for either the garden or the commercial vineyard, and while commonly found in both it has not been sufficiently recognized by those who grow grapes for the market. It is difficult to say why it is not more largely grown as a market fruit in New York. The two chief faults, unproductiveness and susceptibility to mildew, are not found in all localities, and in these at least and especially near good markets, Salem ought to take high rank as a commercial fruit.

As compared writh other hybrids of Vinifera and Labrusca, Salem is early, hardy, vigorous and fairly productive of handsome fruit of high quality both for table and for wine-making. Though the color-plate does not show it, there is a suggestion in bunch and berry of Black Hamburg, the paternal parent. So, too, there is such a suggestion in the flavor and the keeping quality and, as with the parent, the fruit neither cracks nor shatters and therefore ships well. To the two faults named above must be added that of pulpiness of berry, a defect common to many hybrids of the two species represented in Salem. It is useless to recommend for testing varieties that have been known as long and as widely grown as Salem but it is worth while, is almost a duty, in a work of this kind to urge further trials of some of the grapes of highest quality, as Salem, on a commercial basis. Such fruit properly grown, packed, and placed in the market ought to bring remunerative prices.

This one of Rogers' hybrids is No. 22 of his Vinifera-Labrusca crosses. It early attracted favorable attention from the various cultivators who had received vines from the originator for testing. It was christened Salem by Rogers in 1867, two years earlier than his other hybrids were named. At about this time, owing to a confusion of this variety with some other, and charges that certain parties were sending out a black grape under the name Rogers' No. 22, Rogers changed the number of Salem to 53.

Salem was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1869 and was removed in 1871, reinstated in 1873, and has since been retained. It is possible that the dropping of the name from the catalog for the one year was a printer's oversight as there is nothing in the body of the text to indicate a reason for such action. Salem has always been one of the most popular of Rogers' hybrids and it is offered for sale to-day by practically all grape nurserymen.

Vine medium to vigorous, unusually hardy, variable in productiveness, susceptible to severe attacks of mildew. Canes long, of average number, intermediate in thickness, light to dark brown; nodes enlarged, usually not flattened; internodes medium to above in length; diaphragm thick; pith medium to above in size; shoots slightly pubescent; tendrils continuous to intermittent, long to medium, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds rather large, of average size, thick to medium, often compressed, roundish, obtuse to conical, open early. Young leaves faintly tinged on lower side with slight rose-carmine. Leaves variable in size, medium to thin; upper surface dark green, dull, of medium smoothness; lower surface pale green with slight bronze tinge, pubescent; veins moderately distinct; lobes none to three with terminus acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, often closed and overlapping; basal sinus lacking; lateral sinus shallow, narrow, often notched; teeth intermediate in depth and width. Flowers sterile, open in mid-season; stamens reflexed.


Fruit ripens slightly before Concord, keeps and ships well. Clusters medium to large, rather short and broad, tapering to cylindrical, frequently heavily single-shouldered, compact; peduncle short to medium, thick; pedicel medium to short, thick, covered with few small warts, enlarged at point of attachment to berry; brush short, pale green. Berries large to medium, roundish, very dark red, dull, covered with a medium amount of blue bloom, decidedly persistent, soft. Skin thick, intermediate in toughness, adheres strongly to the pulp, contains no pigment, astringent. Flesh slightly translucent, juicy, tender, somewhat stringy, moderately fine-grained, inclined to vinous, sprightly, sweet at skin but acid at center, good to very good in quality. Seeds one to six, average four, large, long and broad, blunt, brownish; raphe shows as a distinct cord-like ridge; chalaza small, roughened and frequently with radiating furrows, much above center, variable in shape, distinct.

SCUPPERNONG.*

(Rotundifolia.)

1. Amer. Farmer, 1:317. 1819. 2. Ib., 3:332. 1822. 3. Ib., 9:29, 30. 1827. 4. Ib., 9:139. 1827. 5. Prince, 1830:167. 6. Ib., 1830:170. 7. Downing, 1845:258. 8. Horticulturist, 12:457. 1857. 9. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt., 1857:231. 10. Gar. Mon.y 5:73, 74. 1863. 11. Grape Cult., 1:38, 280, 292. 1869. 12. Ib., 3:60. 1871. 13. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871:16. 14. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:40, 68, 147, 153, 155. 15. Gar. Mon., 28:140, 173. 1886. 16. Ala. Sta. Btrt., 29:18. 1891. 17. Bush. Cat., 1894:177. fig. 18. Am. Gard., 20:688. 1899. 19. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:49, 59. 1901. 20. iV. C. Sta. Bul., 187:58, 60. 1903. 21. S. C. Sta. Bul., 132:18. 1907.

American Muscadine (5, 10, of the South 7). Bull (9, 17, of the South 7). Bullace (9, 17). Bullet (17, of the South 7). Fox grape of the South (7). Green Scuppernong (6). Green Muscadine (6). Hickman (3). Hickman (5, 10). Muscadine (9). Roanoke (4). Roanoke (5, 10, 17, of the South 7). Scuppernong (3, 4, 5). White Muscadine (11, 17). White Scuppernong (5). Wild green Muscadine (6). Yellow Muscadine (17).

The Scuppernong is preeminently the grape of the South. It is the chief representative of the great species Vitis rotundifolia, which runs riot in natural luxuriance from Delaware and Maryland to the Gulf, and westward from the Atlantic to Arkansas and Texas. The name Scuppernong was taken from the Indians and is now common in the geography of North Carolina; a river, a town, a lake, and a swamp all bear this appellation. Calvin Jones, an agriculturist of note in North Carolina during the early part of the last century, gives the following history of the name as applied to the grape it now distinguishes: "This grape et wine had the name of Scuppernong given to them by Henderson et myself, in compliment to James Blount of Scuppernong, who first diffused a general knowledge of it in several well written communications in our paper and it is cultivated with more success on that river than in any other part of the state, perhaps, except the Island of Roanoke."

Scuppernong is said to have been found on Roanoke Island at the time of the landing of Sir Walter Raleigh's colony. There is a tradition that an old vine now growing on this island is the original vine. At an early day it was quite common to propagate Scuppernong by seed, pulling out all vines bearing black fruit as soon as the color of the fruit could be determined. Because of this practice it is probable that there are many seminal varieties under the general name Scuppernong. All that seems to be required for a grape to pass under this name is that the vine should be a Rotundifolia and the fruit white.

In the horticultural accounts of the history of Scuppernong it is commonly spoken of as having been found wild during the latter part of the eighteenth century. But Lawson, writing about 1700, in the account quoted on page 37 of this work, describes with sufficient accuracy a white Rotundifolia which could hardly be any other than the Scuppernong. It is, thus, in a sense, a botanical as wrell as a horticultural variety. Its close relationship to the black form of Rotundifolia is attested by the fact that its seedlings are as often, probably more often, black than white. That Scuppernong is more distinct than the other varieties of Rotundifolia is indicated by the fact that of the ten cultivated varieties of Rotundifolia now grown in the South, James, Thomas, Eden, Meisch, Flowers, Memory, Seedlin, Tenderpulp, Jeter, and Scuppernong as given by Newman, all are black but the last named.

Scuppernong vines are to be found on arbors, in gardens, or half wild, on trees and fences on nearly every farm in the South Atlantic States. As a rule, these vines receive little cultivation, are unpruned, and are given no care of any kind, but even under neglect they produce large and sure crops, are almost immune to mildew, rot, phylloxera, or other fungal or insect pests. The plants give not only an abundance of fruit but on arbors and trellises are much prized for their shade and beauty. The growth of the vine is prodigious; seemingly well authenticated reports state that vines are known which cover an acre of land; other tales, having at least the semblance of truth, are equally marvellous. Thus there are accounts of vines of this variety over a hundred years old and which bear 500 bushels of fruit and make 2000 gallons of wine.

. The fruit, to a palate accustomed to other grapes, is not very acceptable, having a musky flavor and a somewhat repugnant odor, which, however, becomes with familiarity, it is said, quite agreeable. The pulp is sweet and juicy but is lacking in sprightliness. From the Scuppernong are made several very good wines and it would seem that the future of this and other varieties of Rotundifolia, from a commercial standpoint, lies largely in their value for wine. Quite aside from the quality of the fruit as a table grape, they are not suitable for the market from the fact that the berries drop from the bunch in ripening and become more or less smeared with juice so that as they are brought into market in quantity, their appearance is not at all appetizing.

Vine vigorous to rank, not hardy in the North, very productive. Canes long, numerous, slender, vary from ash-gray to grayish-brown; surface smooth, thickly covered with small, light brown dots; pith greenish; tendrils intermittent, simple. Leaves small, thin; upper surface light green, smooth; lower surface very pale green, slightly pubescent along the ribs, otherwise smooth; veins inconspicuous. Flowers open very late; stamens reflexed.

Fruit ripens late, even in the South, often ripening unevenly, appears to keep well but berries drop as they mature. Clusters small, roundish, not shouldered, loose. Berries very few per cluster, large, roundish, dull green often with brown tinge, not persistent, firm. Skin very thick and tough, covered with many small russet dots; no pigment. Flesh pale green, juicy, tender and soft, fine-grained, very foxy, sweet to agreeably tart, fair to good in quality. Seeds slightly adherent to pulp, large, medium to short, often very broad, not notched, quite blunt, plump, surface unusually smooth, brownish; raphe buried in a narrow, shallow groove; chalaza small, nearly central, elongated, rather obscure. Must 880. 26

*In the eastern portion of the Southern States, the section where this variety originated and where it is still most largely grown, Scuppernong is applied only to a white variety of Vitis rotundifolia. Unfortunately in many portions of the South and in the North, the word Scuppernong is apparently taken as meaning a grape of the southern Fox or Rotundifolia class; thus we find some writers using such contradictory expressions as White Scuppernong, Green Scuppernong, and Black Scuppernong. In the South, at least, this use of the term appears to have arisen in the last fifty years, usage previous to that time being practically unanimous in recognizing that the Scuppernong was the white Rotundifolia which had been selected at an early day for cultivation on account of certain superior cultural characters distinguishing it from the rest of the species.

SECRETARY.

(Vinifera, Riparia, Labrusca.)

1. Grape Cult., 2:158. 1870. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1871:41, 112. 3. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1872:94. 4. Horticulturist, 29:328. 1874. 5. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1876-7:32. 6. N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1881:11. 7. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 27:21. 1882. 8. Bush. Cat., 1883:135. fig. 9. Mass. Hatch Sta. Bul., 37:11, 16. 1896. 10. Tex. Sta. Bul., 48:1151, 1162. 1898. 11. Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:176. 1899. 12. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:41. 1891.

Injured by mildew and rot which nearly every year attack leaves, fruit and young wood, Secretary is able only in exceptional seasons and in favored localities to produce a crop of good grapes. Nevertheless it has many excellent qualities as an amateur grape and should not be lost to cultivation. The fact that it is the result of the fecundation of a Riparia by a Vinifera, both parents being excellent varieties, gives Secretary added interest and value and makes its perpetuation still further worth while.

There is no question as to the rank of the fruit characters of Secretary. Taken together they make it a grape of exceptionally high quality, the berries being meaty yet juicy, fine-grained and tender with a sweet, spicy, vinous flavor. The bunches are large, well formed with medium-sized, purplish-black berries covered with thick bloom, making a very handsome cluster. While the vine and foliage somewhat resemble those of Clinton, one of its parents, the variety is not nearly as hardy, vigorous or productive nor as healthy, falling short in all of these respects and making its culture in New York precarious. Moreover, in any but favored localities in this State, its maturity is somewhat uncertain. These defects of vine have kept Secretary from becoming of commercial importance and make it of value only to the amateur.

Secretary is one of the first productions of Ricketts of Newburgh. He grew the original vine from seed of Clinton fertilized by Muscat Hamburg. Planted in 1867, it is said to have borne a little fruit when one year old from the seed. Specimens of the variety were exhibited before the American Pomological Society in 1871. Ricketts sold the variety about 1875 to S. W. Underhill of Croton Point, New York, who introduced it a few years later. On account of its many weak points it has never been popular and it is apparently not offered for sale by any of the nurserymen to-day.

Vine not uniform in vigor, doubtfully hardy, quite variable in productiveness, inclined to be an uncertain bearer, subject to attacks of fungi. Canes medium to below in length, numerous, intermediate in thickness, light brown but conspicuously darker at nodes, surface covered with thin blue bloom; tendrils intermittent, bifid. Leaves small to medium, thin; upper surface light green, nearly dull, smooth; lower surface pale green, almost glabrous; veins indistinct. Flowers semi-fertile, open early; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens soon after Concord, keeps and ships well. Clusters medium to large, long to medium, of average width, cylindrical to tapering, frequently with a medium to large single shoulder, variable in compactness but often loose and with many abortive fruits. Berries large to medium, roundish to oval, somewhat flattened at point of attachment to pedicel, dark purplish-black, glossy, covered with thick blue bloom,, persistent, firm. Skin intermediate in thickness, tough with wine-colored pigment. Flesh greenish, juicy, fine-grained, tender, vinous, sweet, good in quality. Seeds separate readily from the pulp, medium to nearly large, broad to medium, slightly notched, long to above medium, dark brown; raphe shows as a moderately distinct cord; chalaza small, above center, distinctly oval. Must 930.

SENASQUA.Senasqua pic

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1868:10. 2. Downing, 1872:120 app. 3. Am. Jour. Hort., 8:9. 1870. fig. 4. U.S.D.A. Rpt., 1875:384. 5. Bush. Cat., 1883:138. fig. 6. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 9:327. 1890. 7. Ib., 11:636. 1892. 8. Ib., 17:535, 546, 547. 1898. 9. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:49. 1901.

It is almost a sufficient characterization of Senasqua to say that it is a Labrusca-Vinifera hybrid. The merits and demerits of the cross-breeds of these two species are so similar in the varieties of them now in cultivation that they can be placed in a group having as few variations as can be found in the parent species. The characters of these hybrid grapes have been well discussed in writing of the varieties sent out by Rogers and the place of Senasqua is well designated when the statement is made that it is very similar to Rogers' hybrids. The vine lacks somewhat in vigor, hardiness, productiveness and health. The grapes are of good quality and when well grown the variety is up to the average of such hybrids in fruit characters so far as the palate is concerned. Unfortunately the berries have a tendency to crack which is aggravated by the fact that the bunches are so compact as to crowd the berries and thus add to the cracking. Senasqua is one of the latest to open its buds and is therefore seldom injured by late frosts. This variety is hardly as well adapted for commercial viticulture as several other such hybrids and can be recommended only for the garden for the sake of variety.


Stephen W. Underhill of Croton Point, New York, originated Senasqua from seed of Concord pollinated by Black Prince. The seed was planted in 1863 and the resulting variety introduced about 1870. This variety, although it attracted much attention at the time of its introduction, was never popular. It was rather widely tested but was soon dropped and is to-day practically obsolete. The foliage and vines of Senasqua show little trace of Vinifera but the descent from the foreign species is plainly marked in the fruit.

Vine variable in vigor, sometimes weak and tender, medium to unproductive, somewhat susceptible to attacks of mildew. Canes short, few in number, above average size, light to dark reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short to medium; diaphragm thick; pith of medium size; shoots slightly pubescent; tendrils intermittent, long to medium, trifid to bifid.

Leaf-buds below average size, short, of medium thickness, conical, open very late, tinged on under side and slightly along margin of upper side with light rose-carmine. Leaves intermediate in size and thickness, light green, slightly glossy, medium to somewhat rugose; lower surface whitish-green, pubescent; veins distinct; leaf usually not lobed with terminus acute; petiolar sinus of average depth, medium to narrow; basal and lateral sinuses shallow and narrow when present; teeth intermediate in depth and width. Flowers fertile, open late; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens a little later than Concord, keeps well. Clusters large to medium, intermediate in length, broad to medium, irregularly tapering, usually with a small single shoulder, very compact with uneven surface; peduncle short to medium, thick; pedicel intermediate in length, thick, usually smooth, enlarged at point of attachment to fruit; brush short to medium, green with slight red tinge. Berries above medium in size, roundish, reddish-black to black, covered with heavy blue bloom, persistent, firm. Skin medium to thick, tender, inclined to crack, adheres strongly to the pulp, contains a fair amount of light wine-colored pigment, without astringency. Flesh greenish, translucent, very juicy, tender, meaty, vinous, somewhat spicy, sprightly, good in quality. Seeds separate readily from the pulp, one to five, average two, intermediate in size, rather long, narrow, usually one-sided, light brown; raphe buried in a narrow groove; chalaza small, above center, oval, obscure.

SHELBY.

(Labrusca, Riparia.)

1. Vineyardist, Oct. 15, 1893. 2. Rural N. Y., 53:683. 1894. 3. Bush. Cat., 1894:180. 4. Rural N. Y., 55:638, fig., 642. 1896. 5. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt.t i7*535] 546, 547* 557- l898. 6. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:49. 1901.

Shelby is hardly worth cultivating in New York. It ripens at a time when there are many other grapes which surpass it in flavor and appearance.

It has, however, been somewhat highly spoken of and grape experimenters may want to try the variety. The name is from Shelby, Ohio, the birthplace of the originator.

D. S. Marvin of Watertown, New York, originated the Shelby about 1880. It was introduced in the fall of 1894. The originator writes that the parentage of this variety is not positively known but it is supposed to be a Labrusca-Riparia cross. The botanical characters of the fruit and vine as it grows on the Station grounds verify this supposition.

Vine vigorous, variable in hardiness, medium to productive. Canes long, numerous, medium to slender; tendrils intermittent, sometimes continuous, bifid to trifid. Leaves uniform in size, green, often thin; lower surface grayish-green with tinge of bronze, strongly pubescent. Flowers fertile or nearly so, open in mid-season or earlier; stamens upright. Fruit ripens early, sometimes before Winchell, does not keep nor ship well. Clusters medium to below in size, short, frequently with a single shoulder, shorter and more compact than Winchell. Berries medium to small, roundish, light green to yellowish-green, covered with thin gray bloom, somewhat inclined to shatter. Skin thin, variable in toughness, peculiarly astringent. Flesh tough, stringy, foxy, sweet from skin to center, mild, fair to good in quality. Seeds do not separate readily from the pulp, not very numerous, medium to below in size, short, broad, plump.

STANDARD.

(Labrusca, Vinifera, Bourquiniana?)

1. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886:187. 2. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1892:266. 3. N. Y. Sta. An.

Rpt., 11:637. 1892. 4. Bush. Cat., 1894:180. 5. Va. Sta. Bui, 94:136. 1898. 6. N. Y. Sta.

An. Rpt., 17:535, 548, 557. 1898. 7o Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:41. 1899.

Burr's No. $ (1).

Standard is said to be a full sister of Jewel, but it is not equal to the sister nor nearly equal to the reputed parent, Delaware. The variety seems to be thought highly of in the West and it is possible that it has greater value there than in New York. The quality of the grape is high and it is said to make a light-colored wine of good body, taste and aroma, but taking it all and all it does not rise above mediocre and cannot be recommended unless for trial.

The variety was originated by John Burr of Leavenworth, Kansas, from seed of Delaware planted about 1874. It was introduced in 1887 by Stayman et Black of Leavenworth, Kansas. There are few characters of either vine or fruit that show evidence of having come from Delaware.

Vine variable in vigor, usually hardy in ordinary seasons, productive. Canes short to medium, few in number, rather slender; tendrils continuous to intermittent, bifid to trifid. Leaves not very healthy, medium to small, moderately light green; lower surface tinged with bronze, pubescent. Flowers partly fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright. Fruit ripens about with Concord, usually keeps fairly well. Clusters not uniform in size, short, frequently with a small single shoulder, compact to medium. Berries small to above medium, roundish, very dark reddish-black covered with a large amount of lilac bloom, sometimes shatter considerably from pedicel. Skin thin, rather tender. Flesh unusually pale green, somewhat stringy, vinous, tender, sweet from skin to center, good in quality. Seeds slightly adherent, medium to small, intermediate in width; chalaza oval, often distinctly above center.

STARK-STAR.

(Labrusca, Vinifera, Aestivalis.)

1. National Nur., 10:128, 133. 1902. 2. Rural Ar. Y., 62:788. 1903. 3. II1. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1903:65, 208, 274, 276. 4. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1904:301.

Stark-Star is receiving careful attention in the South and Southwest but unfortunately it does not ripen early enough to promise well for this latitude. On the Station grounds it ripens after Catawba, which does not always mature. If the variety fulfills the high expectations of it in the region of its origin it is worthy a trial in the regions of this State where the Catawba ripens.

The variety was originated by Joseph Bachman of Altus, Arkansas, from seed of Catawba fertilized by Norton or Hermann. The seed was planted about 1892. Stark-Star was introduced by Stark Brothers, of Louisiana, Missouri.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive. Canes medium to short, numerous, often slender, roughened; tendrils continuous to intermittent, bifid to trifid. Leaves large to medium, dark green, frequently thin; lower surface pale green, slightly pubescent, cobwebby. Fruit ripens later than Catawba, appears to be an excellent keeper. Clusters large, medium to long, inclined to broadness, frequently with a well marked short single shoulder, very compact. Berries medium to below in size, oval to roundish but frequently compressed on account of compactness of cluster, black when ripe, covered with blue bloom, persistent. Skin intermediate in thickness, tender. Flesh pale green, not very juicy, tough and solid, slightly aromatic and spicy, almost sweet, fair to good in quality. Seeds adhere somewhat to the pulp, numerous, medium to small, intermediate in length and width, plump; raphe shows as a distinct cord; chalaza distinctly above center to nearly central.

SUPERB.

(Labrusca, Vinifera, Aestivalis.)

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1891:126. 2. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1891:126. 3. Rural N. Y., 52:636. 1893. fig. 4. Bush. Cat., 1894:180. 5. Husmann, 1895:38. 6. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:396. 1899. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:28, 8. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:49. 1901.

The quality of Superb ranges from good to very good but the appearance of the fruit is against the variety. It resembles Eumelan, the reputed parent, in size, shape, and color but is not as attractive. The vine on the Station grounds is not such as to recommend it highly, and since it has been known for at least twenty years without having become at all popular with grape-growers, it may be assumed that the grape has weaknesses elsewhere as well as here.

A. F. Rice of Griswoldville, Georgia, originated this variety, it is said, from seed of Eumelan. The seed was planted in 1880 near South Weymouth, Massachusetts. Superb was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1899.

Vine medium to vigorous, usually hardy, healthy, productive. Canes short to medium, few in number, often tapering, ash-gray changing to light or dark brown; tendrils continuous, bifid. Leaves healthy, medium to large, moderately light green; lower surface grayish-green, thinly pubescent, the pubescence being distributed in flecks. Flowers strongly self-fertile, open in mid-season or later; stamens upright. Fruit ripens before Concord, keeps and ships well. Clusters intermediate in size and width, medium to long, frequently with a long, loose single shoulder, compact. Berries medium to below in size, roundish to oval, dark purplish-black covered with thin blue bloom, persistent, not very firm. Skin thick, tough, without astringency. Flesh juicy, tender, aromatic, sweet from skin to center, spicy, good to very good in quality. Seeds separate readily from the pulp, medium to small, medium to long, sharp-pointed; raphe occasionally shows as a partially submerged cord in a broad groove; chalaza distinctly above center.


TAYLOR.

(Riparia, Labrusca.)

1. Valley Farmer, 1858:122. 2. Horticulturist, 14:486. 1859. 3* ^-; X5:34- 1860. 4. Gar. Mon., 2:68, 119, 163. 1860. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1860:78. 6. Horticulturist, 19:156. 1864. 7. Husmann, 1866:104. 8. Fuller, 1867:231. 9. Grape Cult., 1:44, 74, 242, 291, 296. 1869. 10. Ill Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1881:161. 11. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1883:133. 12. Bush. Cat., 1883:20, 138. 13. Tex. Sta. Bul., 48:1151, 1162. 1898. 14. Mo. Sta. Bid., 46:41, 43, 45, 46, 76. 1899. 15. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:49. 1901.

Bullitt (1, 4). Bullitt (3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12). Taylor (2, 5). Taylor (4, 11). Taylor Bullit (13, 14). Taylor's Bullitt (8, 11). Taylor's Bullitt (12).

Taylor is hardly known in New York nor, indeed, is it now much grown elsewhere. It is of interest for the part it has played in the grape culture of the past and especially for its worthy offspring. Many of these now outrank the parent in the regions and for the purposes for which Taylor is grown. In truth, the most valuable quality of Taylor seems to be its capacity for transmitting its good characters to its seedlings; some of course fall much below it, as a table or wine grape, but a considerable number quite equal it, and a few surpass it, but all resemble the parent vine much more than is common among grapes. While it is from the species to which Taylor belongs that we must look for our hardiest vines yet this grape and its offspring, though not particularly tender to cold, do best in southern regions as they require a long, warm summer and fall to mature properly. Taylor was long grown in both Europe and California as a grafting stock for the Old World varieties as a protection against phylloxera, and is still somewhat cultivated in these regions for that purpose.

The quality of the fruit of Taylor is from fair to good, the flavor being sweet, pure, delicate and spicy and the flesh tender and juicy, but the bunches are small, the flowers infertile so that the berries do not set well and give very imperfect and unsightly clusters. The skin is such, too, that it cracks badly, a defect that is seemingly transmitted to many of the seedlings of the variety. The vine is strong, healthy, hardy but not very productive. Taylor is essentially a wine grape, and it is not likely that it or many of the varieties bred from it will make table grapes. The wine is said to be exceptionally good, of great body and high flavor.

The original vine of Taylor was a wild seedling found in the early part of the last century on the Cumberland Mountains near the Kentucky-Tennessee line by a Mr. Cobb who planted the vine on his farm in Shelby County, Kentucky. Later the farm was sold to Cuthbert Bullitt. About 1840, the grape came to the attention of Judge John Taylor of Jericho, Henry County, Kentucky, an enthusiastic amateur horticulturist who secured the vine from Bullitt and sent cuttings to many grape-growers for testing. It was early introduced into the grape region of the middle West where it was widely tested but was never extensively planted owing to its lack of productiveness. Its culture has been on the wane for many years and only an occasional nurseryman in that section handles the variety to-day. This variety has, at different times, passed under the names Bullitt, Taylor, Taylor's Bullitt, with various spellings of the name Bullitt. The following description has been compiled from various sources:

Vine vigorous to rank, healthy, hardy, variable in productiveness. Leaves small, attractive in color, smooth. Flowers bloom early; stamens reflexed. Fruit ripens about two weeks before Isabella. Clusters small to medium, shouldered, loose to moderately compact. Berries small to medium, roundish, pale greenish-white, sometimes tinged with amber. Skin very thin. Pulp sweet, spicy, fair to good in quality.

TELEGRAPH.

(Labrusca, Aestivalis.)

1. U.S.D.A. Rpt., 1863:549. 2. Gar. Mon., 9:51. 1867. 3. 76., 10:19, 344. 1868. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1869:42. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1869:56. 6. Grape Cult., 1:44, 115, 296. 1869. 7. Gar. Mon., 11:83. 1869. 8. Horticulturist, 30:73. 1875. 9. Bush. Cat., 1883:82, 139. 10. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 36:43. 1891. 11. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:637. l892- I2- Tenn. Sta. Bul., Vol. 9:187. 1896. 13. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:535, 546, 547, 557- 1898. 14. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:41, 42, 44, 45. 1899. 15. Kan. Sta. Bid., 110:237. 1902. 16. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt.t 1906:65, 67.

Christine (2, 3, 7). Christine (4, 8, 9, 10, 12). Telegraph (2, 3).

The characters of Telegraph are not such as to give it high rank among grapes and now that nearly forty years have passed since its origin, and many better varieties have come into cultivation, the variety is worth mentioning only as a matter of record. Its most remarkable character is compact, well shouldered bunches, making them attractive in appearance though somewhat small for a commercial variety. Telegraph is susceptible to rot and the birds are particularly fond of its fruit. It ripens very early and is of better quality than Hartford not high praise. The variety is peculiar in that the ripening season seems to vary from a few days after Hartford to as late as Concord. It is earlier, comparatively, in the South than in the North; that is, in cool summers it matures slowly.

Telegraph, or Christine, as it appears to have first been called, is a chance seedling which appeared about the middle of the last century in the yard of a Mr. Christine, Hestonville, near Westchester, Chester County, Pennsylvania. About 1860 P. R. Freas, editor of the Germantown Telegraph, to whom fruit was sent, bestowed upon it the name of his paper, which finally supplanted the original name. It was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1869 and removed in 1899. Telegraph is apparently a Labrusca with a strain of Aestivalis.

Vine vigorous, hardy, usually healthy, very productive. Canes unusually long, medium to numerous; tendrils continuous, trifid to bifid. Leaves healthy, medium to large, inclined to roundish, light green; lower surface grayish-white, pubescent. Flowers fertile, open in mid-season or earlier; stamens upright. Fruit usually ripens soon after Hartford but sometimes later, a fair shipper and keeper. Clusters medium to small, often short, broad, cylindrical, blunt at ends, single-shouldered, very compact. Berries intermediate in size, roundish to slightly oval on account of compactness of cluster, dull black covered with a large amount of blue bloom, persistent. Skin intermediate in thickness, tough, does not adhere to the pulp, astringent. Flesh greenish, tough and solid, slightly foxy, pleasant flavor, sweet at skin to tart at center, fair to good in quality. Seeds somewhat adherent and numerous, medium to above in size, variable in shape and size.

TO-KALON.

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Mag. Hort., 1:459. l835- 2- N. Y. Ag. Soc. Rpt., 1847:353. 3. Mag. Hort., 21:42, 1855. 4. Ib., 22:507. 1856. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1856:163. 6. Downing, 1857:345. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1858:72. 8. Horticulturist, 14:299. 1859. fig. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1860:81. 10. Ib., 1862:146. 11. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862:90. 12. Gar. Mon., 5:73, 74. 1863. 13. Grant, 1864:11. 14. Gar. Mon., 8:362. 1866. 15. Grape Cult., 1:327. 1869. 16. Downing, 1869: 556. 17. Bush. Cat., 1883:139.

The Beautiful (16). Carter (4). Carter (7, iot 16, 17, of Boston 12). SpoffordSeedling (16, 17). Wyman (3). Wyman (10, 12, 16, 17).

The fruit characters of To-Kalon are so similar to those of Catawba that it was hardly worthy of introduction. Beside duplicating the Catawba in fruit the vines are not healthy, being very susceptible to mildew and rot, the fruit drops badly, and the crop does not ripen well. The quality of the fruit is very good, once it can be secured. A point in its favor is that it ripens a little before Catawba. The variety long since ceased to be of commercial importance and can now be found but rarely in collections.

To-Kalon was originated in the early part of the last century by Dr. Spofford of Lansingburg, New York. The originator states that it is a seedling of a European grape, but from its resemblance to Catawba it is supposed by many to have been a seedling of that variety. Wyman and Carter are two varieties of later introduction which are said to be identical with To-Kalon, but as the origin of each is apparently authentic and distinct it appears more probable that they are merely similar sorts. To-Kalon was placed on the list of sorts recommended by the American Pomological Society in 1862 but was dropped from this list in 1871.

The following description has been compiled from various sources:

Vine vigorous to rank, variable in productiveness, hardy, often mildews badly. Foliage large, abundant. Flowers do not always set well. Fruit ripens somewhat earlier than Catawba. Clusters large, shouldered. Berries large, oval to oblate, darker than Catawba, covered with heavy bloom, shells. Pulp sweet, of pure flavor, melting, very good in quality.

TRIUMPH.Triumph pic

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Grape Cult., 2:295. 1870. 2. Am. Jour. Hort., 9:84. 1871. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:33, 40, 162. 4. Downing, 1881:169 app. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1883:26. 6. Bush. Cat., 1883:140, fig., 141. 7. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1884:217. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:104. 9. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:637. 1892. 10. Va. Sta. Bul., 94:142. 1898. 11. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:535. 548] 557- 1898. 12. Miss. Sta. Bul., 56:17. 1899. 13. Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:176. 1899. 14. Ala. Sta. Bul., 110:89. 1900. 15. Ga. Sta. I?wZ., 53:49, 52, 59. 1901. 16. Kan. Sta. Bul., no: 243. 1902. 17. Traite gen. de vit., 5:186. 1903.

Campbell's Concord Hybrid No. 6 (6). Campbell's Seedling No. 6 (17). Hybride de Concord No. 6 (17).

When quality, color, shape and size of bunch and berry are all considered, Triumph is one of the finest dessert grapes of America. When at its best it is a magnificent bunch of golden grapes of highest quality, esteemed even in southern Europe where it must compete with the best of the Viniferas, though unfortunately it is nearly as susceptible in that region to phylloxera as the Old World varieties, a defect which has caused its relegation there from commercial vineyards to the collections of experimenters and amateurs. In America its commercial importance is curtailed by the fact that it requires a long season for its proper development and the variety justifies its name only in the South and more particularly in the Southwest. In the latitude of New York it is doubtfully hardy and the short summer season never permits it to attain the quality and beauty which characterize it further south.

Triumph has, in general, the vine characters of the Labrusca parent Concord, especially its habit of growth, vigor, productiveness and foliage characters, falling short in hardiness, resistance to fungal diseases and earliness of maturity. Even in New York the vines are as vigorous and set nearly as much fruit as Concord; but they are injured in cold winters unless protected, and suffer in particular from the mildews. The fruit matures with or a little later than the Catawba. It proves, in regions where it is largely grown, to be quite adaptable to different soils and locations and the small amount of data at hand on this point in New York suggests that this adaptability holds for the grape regions of this State as well. It prefers, if anything, a deep soil to a shallow one and alluvial or clayey soils to lighter lands.

While the vine characters of Triumph are those of Labrusca there is scarcely a suggestion of the coarseness, or of the foxy odor and taste of Labrusca; and the objectionable seeds, pulp, and skin of the native grape give way to the far less objectionable structures of Vinifera. Grapes of this variety do not have the firm and often disagreeable pulpiness of many other similar hybrids, as for instance most of Rogers' hybrids. The flesh is tender and melting and the flavor rich, sweet, vinous, pure and delicate, giving the variety high rank among the best American grapes. In the North, as would be expected from its lack of proper maturity, the flavor is insipid as compared with the same character in the South. The skins of the berries are faulty being more apparent in eating than those of Vinifera and under unfavorable conditions crack badly; because of the tenderness of the skin the variety neither ships nor keeps remarkably well. Triumph is not only one of the best dessert grapes but it is said to make a very good white wine.

There are numerous pure-bred and cross-bred offsprings of Triumph in America which indicate that this variety may be very successfully used in grape-breeding Munson of Texas, in particular, among other viticulturists, has used it to advantage in breeding work, his Bailey, Big Extra, Big Hope, Carman, Early Golden, Fern Munson, Governor Ross, Newman, Ragan, Rommel, R. W. Munson, W. B. Munson, all having been bred with Triumph as an ancestor.

When all of its qualities and characters are considered, and for all parts of America, it can hardly be disputed that Triumph is the best of the hybrids of the two species from which it comes that has been produced by artificial fertilization. That it does not succeed better in New York is a distinct loss to the viticulture of the State.

Triumph was originated nearly a half century ago by George W. Campbell of Delaware, Ohio, from seed of Concord fertilized by Chasselas Musque (Joslyn's St. Albans). The originator considered it of no value in his vineyard but sent it to Samuel Miller of Bluffton, Missouri, who gave it the name Triumph. It was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1883.

Vine vigorous, doubtfully hardy, medium to very productive, somewhat subject to attacks of mildew. Canes medium to long, intermediate in number and thickness, moderately dark brown, surface covered with a slight amount of bloom; nodes enlarged, variable in shape; internodes medium to above in length; diaphragm thick; pith medium in size; shoots slightly pubescent; tendrils intermittent, medium to long, trifid, sometimes bifid.

Leaf-buds large to medium, long and thick, obtuse to conical, open late. Young leaves tinged on under side and along margin of upper side with brownish-carmine. Leaves large, of average thickness; upper surface light green, dull, medium to slightly rugose; lower surface grayish-white, pubescent"; veins distinct; leaf usually not lobed with terminus obtuse to acute; petiolar sinus medium to deep, narrow, often closed and overlapping; basal sinus absent; lateral sinus shallow and narrow when present; teeth deep, wide to medium. Flowers fertile, open late; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens with Catawba or later, does not rank among the best keepers. Clusters very large to medium, long, broad, tapering to cylindrical, sometimes single-shouldered, compact; peduncle short to medium, above average thickness; pedicel medium to short, slender, smooth, considerably enlarged at point of attachment to fruit; brush short, pale yellowish-green. Berries medium to above in size, oval, pale green or golden yellow, glossy, covered with heavy gray bloom, persistent, firm. Skin thin, variable in toughness, sometimes inclined to crack, adheres considerably to the pulp, contains no pigment, slightly astringent. Flesh light green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tender, somewhat vinous, good to very good. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, one to five, average three, below medium to small, intermediate in width, long, brownish; raphe sometimes visible being partly submerged in the short shallow groove * chalaza of average size, above center, oval to circular, distinct.


ULSTER.Ulster pic

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Bush. Cat., 1883:141. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt.f 1885:104. 3. Ohio Hor1. Soc. Rpt., 1885-6: 224. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1889:24. 5. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1891:128. 6. Rural N. Y., 50:691. 1891. 7. 76., 51:170, 681. 1892. 8. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:637. 1892. 9. II1. Sta. Bul., 28: 262. 1893. 10. Bush. Cat., 1894:183. 11. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 39:26 1894. 12. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:536, 548, 553, 557. 1898. 13. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:240. 1902. 14. Mich. Sta. Bul., 205:41. 1903.

Ulster Prolific (i, 2, 3, 5, 9, 11, 13). Ulster Prolific (8, 10).

The accompanying color-plate does not do justice to Ulster as to size and beauty of the fruit but it well illustrates one of the chief faults of the variety. The vines usually set too much fruit in spite of efforts to control the crop by pruning, and two undesirable results follow: The bunches are small and the vines, lacking vigor at best, fail to fully recover from the over-fruitfulness. Over-productiveness and lack of vigor are the two defects in Ulster that have kept it from becoming of more importance commercially and a greater favorite as a garden grape. The quality of the fruit is very good, being much like that of Catawba both in flesh characters and in flavor. The color of the berries seems to vary greatly, sometimes being nearly as red as Catawba and under other conditions an unattractive green with a reddish tinge. As a rule the fruit keeps well but there are exceptions especially when the variety is not grown under the conditions best suited to it. Ulster has many good qualities but its deficiency in vigor and capriciousness in both vine and fruit characters prevent its becoming a grape of value for either vineyard or garden.

Ulster was originated by A. J. Caywood of Marlboro, New York, and was introduced by the originator about 1885. It was included in the list of sorts recommended by the American Pomological Society in 1899. Its parents are said to be Catawba pollinated by a wild Aestivalis. Both vine and fruit show unmistakable traces of Labrusca and Vinifera, but the Aestivalis characters, if present, are not apparent.

Vine medium to weak, usually hardy, productive, often overbears, sometimes susceptible to attacks of mildew. Canes medium to short, not numerous, slender, moderately dark brown, surface roughened and covered with faint pubescence; nodes enlarged and flattened; internodes short; diaphragm of average thickness; pith intermediate in size; shoots pubescent; tendrils usually intermittent, of medium length, bifid, dehisce early.

Leaf-buds intermediate in size, short to medium, thick, plump, conical to pointed, open rather late. Young leaves faintly tinged on under side and along margin of upper side, which is rather glossy, prevailing color pale green with considerable rose-carmine tinge. Leaves small to medium, thick; upper surface light green, glossy, somewhat smooth; lower surface grayish-white, pubescent; veins distinct; leaf usually not lobed with terminus acute to acuminate; petiolar sinus of average depth, medium to wide; basal sinus absent; lateral sinus a mere notch when present; teeth shallow to medium, above medium width. Flowers fertile or nearly so, open rather early; stamens upright.

Fruit usually ripens with Concord or a little later, keeps and ships well. Clusters intermediate in size, above average length, intermediate in breadth, cylindrical to slightly tapering, often single-shouldered, compact; peduncle short, slender; pedicel intermediate in length, slender to medium, covered with numerous warts; brush short, yellowish-green. Berries above medium to medium in size, roundish to roundish-oval, rather dark dull red but do not always color well, covered with thin light to dark lilac bloom, persistent, of average firmness. Skin thick, tough, adheres slightly to the pulp, contains no pigment, somewhat astringent. Flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, tender, fine-grained, faintly aromatic, slightly foxy, sweet next the skin to tart at center, good to very good in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, one to six, average three, medium to above in size, variable in length and breadth, somewhat plump, brownish; raphe obscure; chalaza intermediate in size, above center, oval to circular, not distinct; surface of seeds slightly roughened.

UNION VILLAGE.

(Labrusca, Vinifera?)

1. Elliott, 1854:247. 2. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt., 1856:433. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1856:39, 165. 4. Downing, 1857:346. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1858:69. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1858:235. 7. Mag. Hort., 24:92, 94. 1858. 8. Horticulturist, 14:74. 1859. fig. 9. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1860:49. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1860:89. n. Mag. Hort., 27:533. 1861. 12. Horticulturist, 16:234. 1861. fig. 13. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1862:146. 14. Mag. Hort., 29:422. 1863. 15. Ib., 31:103. 1865. 16. Mead, 1867:198. 17. Grape Cult., 1:43, 44; I5I; 239] 262,327. 1869. 18. Bush. Cat., 1883:142. 19. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1883:59.

Imitation Hamburg (i). Ontario (8, 9, 10, 14). Ontario (13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19). Shaker (2). Shaker (4, 17, 18).

Rampant in vine, with thick wood, large coarse leaves, bunches and berries, Union Village is marked by grossness in all of its characters. Its vigor of vine and showiness of fruit attracted the attention of the viticulturists of a half century ago and it was then quite commonly grown but has now been almost wholly discarded because of poor quality, susceptibility to disease, and lack of hardiness. It ripens somewhat late and quite unevenly. It might prove of some value in breeding for the characters for which, even among the largest and most vigorous grapes of to-day, it is distinguished.

This variety was originated by the Shakers at Union Village, Warren County, Ohio. It was introduced by Nicholas Longworth of Cincinnati about the middle of the last century. In 1858 it was placed on the American Pomological Society's list of grapes that promise well and in 1862 was placed on the regular list of recommended sorts. Here it remained until 1883, when it was dropped. Ontario, another grape of this type, which was originated by W. H. Read of Port Dalhousie, Ontario, was considered by many synonymous with Union Village but the evidence seems to show that, though very similar, it had a distinct origin. Union Village is said to be a seedling of Isabella. The characters generally indicate Labrusca although the lobing of the leaves and the susceptibility to fungi may indicate a strain of Vinifera.

The following description has been compiled from various sources:

Vine vigorous to rank, usually productive, somewhat tender, subject to attacks of fungi. Canes large, long; internodes short. Leaves coarse and large. Fruit ripens about one week before Isabella, matures unevenly. Clusters large to very large, often shouldered, compact. Berries large to very large, roundish, dark purplish-black covered with heavy bloom, shell badly. Skin moderately thin. Flesh tart, resembling Isabella somewhat in flavor, quality fair to good.

VERGENNES.Vergennes pic

(Labrusca.)

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:34, 117. 2. Barry, 1883:450. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1883:26. 4. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 29:19, 112. 1884. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:103, 105. 6. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-7:172. 7. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 9:330. 1890. 8. II1. Sta. Bui, 28:262. 1893. 9. Bush. Cat., 1894:184. fig. 10. Gar. and For., 8:487. 1895. 11. N. Y. Sta, An. Rpt., I7:536] 542, 543. 544, 54', 553- l898- I2- Ib-] ^'S^S* 389] 396- l899- *3- Mo. Sta. Bui, 46:41, 43,44,45,53,76. 1899. 14. Mich. Sta. Bul., 1691176. 1899. 15. Kan. Sta. Bui, 110:237. 1902. 16. Ont. Fr. Gr. Assoc. Rpt., 34:99. 1902.

While not one of the leading commercial varieties in New York, Vergennes has steadily increased in popularity during the thirty years since its introduction. One of the most valuable attributes of Vergennes is that it seldom fails to bear a crop though it has a tendency to overbear which causes it to be variable in size of fruits and in time of ripening; with a moderate crop it ripens with Concord but with a heavy load of grapes the crop matures from one to two weeks later. Vergennes is somewhat unpopular with vineyardists because of the sprawling habit of the vine making a vineyard of this grape untractable for vineyard operations. This fault is obviated somewhat by grafting it on other vines. In some of the grape regions of New York the vines are precariously hardy though tenderness to cold can hardly be said to be a serious fault of the variety.

The appearance of the fruit is attractive and while the quality is not high, yet it is good; the flavor is agreeable, the flesh is tender and seeds and skin are not objectionable. Considering all of its fruit characters, Vergennes may be said to be more than an ordinary grape much better than several better known commercial varieties. The variety is somewhat remarkable in being probably the best shipper and the best keeper among the pure Labrusca varieties. Nearly all of the grapes which ship and keep well have more or less Vinifera blood, but if Vergennes has any foreign blood it shows it only in its keeping and shipping qualities. At present Vergennes is the standard late-keeping grape for this region being very commonly found in the markets as late as January and sometimes February. A number of seedlings of Vergennes, pure-bred and cross-bred, growing on the Station grounds, show that this variety transmits its characters well to its offspring indicating that it has value for grape-breeding. Vergennes may be recommended for its intrinsic value for the vineyard and the garden and to the experimenter as one of the best pure Labruscas for the production of new and improved varieties.

The original vine of this variety was a chance seedling found in the garden of William E. Greene, Vergennes, Vermont. It fruited for the first time in 1874. It was placed on the list of sorts recommended by the American Pomological Society in 1883 and is still retained.

Vine variable in vigor, not always hardy, medium to very productive depending upon amount of winter injury, usually healthy. Canes long to medium, intermediate in number and size, dark dull brown; nodes enlarged, strongly flattened; internodes of average length; diaphragm thick; pith medium in thickness; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, long to medium, bifid or sometimes trifid.

Leaf-buds large to medium, long, thick; open very late. Young leaves tinged on under side and along margin of upper side with rose-carmine. Leaves large to medium, thin; upper surface light green, glossy, somewhat rugose; lower surface pale green, very pubescent; veins indistinct; leaf usually not lobed with terminus broadly acute; petiolar sinus of average depth, medium to wide; teeth shallow, often wide. Flowers nearly sterile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit variable in season but usually ripens one to two weeks later than Concord, keeps and ships well. Clusters intermediate in size and length, broad, cylindrical to tapering, sometimes single-shouldered, variable in compactness but inclined to be loose; peduncle short to medium, thick; pedicel intermediate in length and thickness, covered with numerous small warts, enlarged at point of attachment to fruit; brush slender, short, pale green. Berries large to below medium, oval to roundish, light and dark red, covered with lilac bloom, persistent, medium in firmness. Skin does not crack, thick, tough, adheres considerably to the pulp, contains no pigment, astringent. Flesh pale green, juicy, fine-grained, somewhat stringy, tender, vinous, sweet next the skin, agreeably tart at center, good to very good in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, one to five, average three, variable in size, length and breadth, not notched, usually blunt, brownish; raphe distinct; chalaza small, plainly above center, usually roundish, often with shallow radiating furrows, distinct.

VICTORIA.

(Labrusca, Vimfera.)

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt.t 1883:92. 2. Ib., 1885:104. 3. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1891:129. 4.

Rural N. F., 50:691, 847. 1891. 5. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:637. 1892. 6. Del. Sta. An. Rpt., 7:135, 139. 1895. 7. Rural N. Y., 56:822. 1897. 8. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17: 536, 548, 557. 1898. 9. Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:176. 1899. 10, Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:49. 1901.

As a green seedling of Concord, Victoria has much in common with others of its kind that have come from this parent. In particular it resembles Hayes but does not equal it, being of poorer quality and having smaller and less attractive fruits; neither does it equal Martha. Victoria is marked by having more foxiness in flavor than do most of the white seedlings of Concord. In view of the many good green grapes, there is little about Victoria to recommend it,there are many commonplace grapes of its color and season quite its equal.

This variety was originated by T. B. Miner of Linden, Union County, New Jersey, about 1871.

Vine of medium vigor, usually hardy, productive, subject to attacks of mildew in unfavorable locations. Canes medium to short, not numerous, slender; tendrils continuous, trifid to bifid. Leaves medium in size, dark green; lower surface pale green with tinge of bronze, covered with short down. Flowers nearly fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright. Fruit ripens about with Concord, does not keep well. Clusters average in size, long, inclined to slender, often single-shouldered, compact. Berries intermediate in size, roundish, light green with pale yellow tinge, covered with thin gray bloom, persistent. Skin thin, tender. Flesh pale green, slightly tough, foxy, sweet at skin to acid at center, good in quality. Seeds do not separate readily from the pulp, medium to below in size, of average width and length.

WALTER.Walter pic

(Vinifera, Labrusca, Bourquiniana.)

1. Mag. Hort., 31:120. 1865. 2* ^-; 33:7] 54- 1867. 3. Horticulturist, 23:359, 360. 1868. fig. 4. Grape Cult., 1:307, 327, 329. 1869. 5. Am. Jour. Hort., 6:342. 1869. fig. 6. Ib., 8:144, 299. 1870. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871:16. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875:39. 9. Ib.y 1883:59, 154. 10. Bush. Cat., 1894:185. fig. 11. Tex. Sta. Bul., 48:1151, 1163. 1898. 12. Ga. Sta. Bui,, 53:49. 1901. 13. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:243. 1902.

Were it not almost impossible to grow healthy vines of Walter it would take rank among the best of our American grapes. But stunted by fungi which nearly every year attack leaves, young wood and fruit, it is only possible in exceptionally favorable seasons to produce a crop of grapes with this variety. Not infrequently the attacks of mildew are so severe that the vines are defoliated before mid-season. Besides its susceptibility to cryptogamic diseases the variety is fastidious as to soils and even in localities to which it seems adapted it is variable in growth. While not to be classed among the tender grapes yet it is injured in severe winters, and is almost certain to suffer some injury after defoliation by fungi. There are several reports at hand which seem to show that it is hardier and more vigorous on the roots of hardy, strong-growing varieties.

As if to atone for the faults of the vine the fruit of Walter is almost perfect, lacking only in the size of bunch and berry. The bunch and berry resemble Delaware, one of its parents, while it has the peculiar flavor of Diana, the other parent. Well grown, the fruit is more attractive than that of Delaware but it cannot be said that the quality is quite the equal of that of either of its parents. It does not have the fault of ripening its berries unevenly, one of the defects which debars Diana from profitable cultivation. Though more fastidious, Walter is usually adapted to conditions under which Delaware thrives. The variety has been cultivated for nearly half a century but is seemingly less and less grown, a fact to be regretted; for there are few American grapes of more exquisite flavor and aroma and more dainty appearance. It is said that when protected from dew by walls or other shelter the vines are not so badly attacked by fungi, if at all, and that Walter may thus be grown to perfection. If this be true grape-lovers should see that the variety is long retained in collections and for the garden.

A. J. Caywood originated this variety about 1850 from seed of Delaware pollinated by Diana. It was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1871. Walter is still to be found in an occasional varietal vineyard but it is seldom offered for sale by nurserymen.

Vine moderately vigorous, not hardy in exposed locations, variable in productiveness, subject to attacks of fung1. Canes medium to above in length and size, dark reddish-brown, surface covered with thin blue bloom; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes medium to above in length; diaphragm thick; pith of fair size; shoots pubescent; tendrils intermittent, medium to above in length, bifid.

Leaf-buds small, intermediate in length and thickness, pointed to conical. Foliage of average size, thick; upper surface dark green, glossy, smooth; lower surface tinged with bronze, heavily pubescent; lobes none to three with terminus acute; petiolar sinus of average depth, narrow to medium; basal sinus lacking; lateral sinus usually a notch if present; teeth intermediate in depth and width. Flowers open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit somewhat variable in season of ripening, averaging about with Delaware, keeps and ships well. Clusters medium in size and length, broad, cylindrical to tapering, usually single-shouldered, compact; peduncle short to medium, of average thickness; pedicel medium in length, slender, covered with small scattering warts; brush short, slender, green with brownish tinge. Berries small to medium, often strongly ovate, red, much like Delaware, glossy, covered with a moderate amount of lilac bloom, persistent, firm. Skin intermediate in thickness, very tough, adheres but slightly to the pulp, contains no pigment, without astringency. Flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, tough, somewhat foxy, vinous, quite strongly aromatic, sweet next the skin to tart at center, good to very good in quality. Seeds do not separate easily from the pulp, one to four, average three, below medium in size and length, intermediate in width, medium to sharp-pointed, light brown; raphe obscure; chalaza large, above center, irregularly circular, distinct. Must ioo0.

WAPANUKA.

(Labrusca, Riparia, Vinifera, Bourquiniana.)

1. Tex. Sta. Bul., 56:280. 1900. 2. Rural N. Y., 60:637. 1901. 3. Ib., 62:790. 1903. 4. Iowa Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1904:228. 5. Mof Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1904:305. 6. II1. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1905:302.

Though there are many qualities to commend Wapanuka, yet it is not as popular in the North as was expected it would become at the time of its introduction. The chief reason for its failure is that it does not ship well, seemingly a prime requisite for a commercial grape in New York, though the markets are seldom far distant. It is probable, too, that the flavor is not quite as high in this latitude as in the South, or it may be that the grapes with which we compare it here are better flavored than in the South. At any rate it does not have the comparatively high quality in New York that it is reported to have elsewhere, being too insipid. There is a tendency, too, for the grapes to shatter. The fruits when well grown are attractive and the quality is from fair to good. Wapanuka is worthy a trial in commercial vineyards; and because of the handsome appearance and distinct flavor of the fruit it deserves a place in the garden.

Munson of Texas, originated Wapanuka from seed of Rommel fertilized by Brilliant. It was introduced by the originator in the fall of 1898.

Vine vigorous, usually hardy, productive. Canes medium to short, intermediate in number and size, dark reddish-brown, often with ash-gray tinge; tendrils continuous, bifid to trifid. Leaves large, moderately light green, somewhat rugose on older leaves; lower surface dull green tinged with bronze, pubescent. Flowers fertile or nearly so, open before mid-season; stamens upright. Fruit ripens about with Concord, does not keep well. Clusters intermediate in size, long to medium, frequently with a long-peduncled single shoulder, compact. Berries large, roundish, very pale yellowish-green, covered with thin gray bloom, with a tendency to shatter, soft. Skin covered with few, small, dark dots, very thin and tender. Flesh unusually pale green, tender, somewhat foxy, sweet and mild, good in quality. Seeds separate easily from the pulp, intermediate in size, broad, distinctly notched, short.

WHITE IMPERIAL.

(Vinifera, Labrusca, Bourquiniana.)

1. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:78. 2. Ib., 1892:270. 3. Bush. Cat., 1894:186. 4. Va. Sta. Bid., 94:142. 1898. 5. Mich. Sta. Bid., 169:177. 1899. 6. Ga. Sta. Bul., 53:50. 1901.

White Imperial is one of Stayman's numerous productions. The originator thought it one of the most valuable, if not the most valuable, of his white grapes. As the variety grows in the Station vineyard the fruit is neither especially attractive in appearance nor of very high quality though better in the latter respect than the average. White Imperial is one of a somewhat large number of offspring of Dutchess now known to viticulture in which the good qualities of the parent have been transmitted in a large measure to the progeny. White Beauty, described in the next chapter, is of the same parentage and is similar in general characters of vine and fruit, though berries and bunches are a little larger and the vines a little more vigorous. White Imperial was introduced with great expectations in the West, but, especially in the vineyards of Missouri, while still grown somewhat is not holding its own with better known grapes of its class.

White Imperial was produced by Dr. J. Stayman of Leavenworth, Kansas, from seed of Dutchess. The variety was introduced about twenty-five years ago by Stayman et Black.

Vine medium to very vigorous, hardy, variable in productiveness, susceptible to attacks of fungi under unfavorable conditions. Canes intermediate in length, rather numerous, inclined to slender; tendrils continuous to intermittent, bifid to trifid Leaves above average size, intermediate in color and thickness; lower surface pale green, often with considerable pubescence, slightly cobwebby. Flowers partly sterile, open early; stamens upright. Fruit ripens about a week before Delaware, keeps well. Clusters variable in size, intermediate in length, slender, frequently single-shouldered, variable in compactness. Berries medium to small, oval to roundish, light green, sometimes with a yellow tinge, covered with thin gray bloom, persistent. Skin sprinkled with reddish-brown dots, thin, tender, without astringency. Flesh pale green, fine-grained, tough, sweet at skin to agreeably tart at center, somewhat sprightly, good to best in quality. Seeds not numerous, medium to small, sharp-pointed.

WILDER.Wilder pic

(Labrusca, Vinifera.)

1. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1861:68. 2. Horticulturist, 18:98. 1863. 3. Ib., 21:325. 1866. fig. 4. Mead, 1867:205, 207. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1867:44. 6. Horticulturist, 24:126. 1869. 7. Grape Cult., 1:181. 1869. 8- ^-; 2:29, fig., 30. 1870. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:40, 42, 123, 138, 153, 162, 168. 10. II1. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:81. 11. Bush. Cat., 1894:187, fig., 188. 12. Va. Sta. Bui, 94:136. 1898. 13. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., I7:537] 548, 553. 1898. 14. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:41, 43, 44, 46, 64, fig. 1899. 15. Ala. Sta. Bul., 110:70, 89. 1900. 16. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:243. 1902.

Rogers' No. 4 (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Rogers' No. 4 (6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 15).

The accompanying color-plate scarcely does Wilder justice as to size of bunch and berry but were the illustration somewhat enlarged it would be very typical of the variety. The berries when fully ripe are quite similar in size and color to Black Hamburg but the bunches have fewer berries than the European parent and the quality, as would be expected, is not so good, falling short chiefly in flesh characters. While Wilder is surpassed in quality, and, as usually grown, in appearance by other of Rogers' hybrids, it is one of the most reliable of all of them for vineyard culture, the vines being vigorous, hardy, fairly productive, and, though somewhat susceptible to mildew, as healthy as any of the hybrids of Labrusca and Vinifera. Wilder is not as well known in the markets as it should be, and now that fungal diseases can be controlled by spraying, this, with other such hybrids, should be more generally planted in commercial vineyards and especially for local and special markets. The wine from this, and for that matter from any of Rogers' grapes, is not of quality such as recommends it and neither are the grapes suitable for grape juice. Surplus fruit would often, therefore, be a loss in large plantations.

Wilder is one of the forty-five Labrusca-Vinifera hybrids raised by E. S. Rogers of Salem, Massachusetts. For an account of its origin and parentage, see Rogers' Hybrids. The first notes as to the qualities of this variety were published in 1858. The variety was placed on the American Pomological Society list of recommended sorts in 1867 and has never been removed. In 1869, Rogers expressing a desire to name one of his seedlings after Marshall P. Wilder, Mr. Wilder selected this one as in his estimation the best of all Rogers' hybrids and it was given his name.

Vine medium to very vigorous, hardy, productive, somewhat susceptible to attacks of mildew. Canes long, moderately numerous, often below average thickness, ash-gray to dark reddish-brown with darker tinge at the nodes which are usually not flattened; internodes long; diaphragm of average thickness; pith intermediate in size; shoots thinly pubescent; tendrils intermittent, medium in length, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds of average size, short, thick, roundly obtuse to conical, open early. Young leaves tinged on lower side and along margin of upper side with rose-carmine. Leaves large, often irregularly roundish, of average thickness; upper surface dark green, glossy, smooth; lower surface pale green, pubescent; veins distinct; usually not lobed with terminus acute to obtuse; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, often closed and overlapping; basal sinus lacking; lateral sinus shallow, narrow, or a mere notch when present. Flowers sterile, open mid-season or earlier; stamens renexed.

Fruit ripens with Concord or earlier, keeps and ships fairly well. Clusters variable in size but are not large, short and broad, irregularly tapering, heavily single-shouldered, sometimes double-shouldered, loose; peduncle of average length, thick; pedicel long, thick, covered with numerous, prominent warts; brush of fair length, thick, green with tinge of light red. Berries large, slightly oval, purplish-black to black, not glossy, covered with heavy blue bloom, persistent, firm. Skin thick, variable in toughness, adheres somewhat to the pulp, with bright red pigment, astringent. Flesh greenish, translucent, juicy, tender, has some Vinifera sprightliness, sweet at skin to tart at the seeds, good in quality. Seeds adherent to the pulp, one to five, average three, above medium in size, often long, intermediate in breadth, light brown; raphe sometimes shows as a partially submerged cord; chalaza small, above center, oval, distinct.

WINCHELL.Winchell pic

(Labrusca, Vinifera, Aestivalis.)

1. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 4:224. 1885. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887:91. 3. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 7:105, 108. 1888. 4. Rural N. Y., 47:675. 1888. fig. 5. Gar. and For., 2:24, 432. 1889. 6. Ohio Hort. Soc. Adv. Rpt., 1890:21. 7. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 9:331. 1890. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1891:151. 9. Rural N. Y., 50:691, 705. 1891. 10. Ib., 51:19, 63, 633, 681. fig. 1892. 11. Bush. Cat., 1894:130, 131, fig., 188. 12. Wis. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:223. 1896. 13. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1897:19. 14. Mo. Sta. Bul., 46:39, 42, 45, 46, 50, 54, 76. 1899. I5; Rural N. Y., 58:23. 1899. 16. Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:177. 1889. 17. Ala. Sta. Bul., 110:82. 1900. 18. Kan. Sta. Bul., 110:236, 238. 1902.

Green Mountain (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18). Green Mountain (10, 11, 12, 13, 16). Winchell (6, 9, 14, 17, 18).

Winchell is at once very early and of very good quality, characters seldom found combined in grapes. But this is not all that can be said; the vines are vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive, and the fruit keeps and ships well, altogether making a most admirable early grape. Unfortunately the berries, and under some conditions the bunches, are small, and this, combined with the fact that green grapes are not as popular as black and red ones, has kept Winchell from being as largely planted as it otherwise would have been. Then, too, as has been noted before, the competition from the South, in which larger, cheaper and as good grapes compete with early northern crops of this fruit, is limiting the production of early varieties of grapes in the North.

There are some minor faults, too, which under some conditions become drawbacks to the culture of Winchell. At best the bunch of this variety is loose and characterized by a large shoulder. Sometimes this looseness becomes so pronounced as to give a straggling, poorly-formed cluster; so, too, the shoulder when as large as the cluster itself, which often happens, makes the cluster unsightly. There is a tendency, under some conditions, for the grapes to shell.when fully ripe and this is often a serious fault. Again, while the crop usually ripens evenly yet there are seasons when two pickings are needed because of unevenness in ripening. Lastly the skin is thin and there is danger in unfavorable seasons, or in shipping, of the berries cracking though this is seldom a serious fault. These defects do not begin to offset the several good characters of Winchell and it is, for New York at least, the standard early green grape and deserving to rank with the best early grapes of any color.

The original vine of this variety was raised by James Milton Clough of Stamford, Bennington County, Vermont, about the middle of the last century from seed of an unknown purple grape. For some years it had a local reputation and was propagated by some of Clough's neighbors. By what name it was then known does not appear. In December, 1885, according to their statements, Ellwanger et Barry of Rochester, New York, received this variety from C. E. Winchell, then of Stamford. In 1888, this firm introduced the variety to the trade. The same year there was introduced by Stephen Hoyt's Sons of New Canaan, Connecticut, a variety under the name Green Mountain. This firm states that they bought the variety from James M. Paul, of North Adams, Massachusetts, in December, 1885. Previous to his sale Paul had sent a vine of the grape to this Station; he exhibited fruit of Green Mountain before the American Pomological Society in 1887, but without any name.

Later grape-growers found that Winchell and Green Mountain were very similar or identical. Unfortunately, in the meantime, Paul had died and no one knows positively where he secured his vines although there is every reason to believe they were from Mr. Clough. Those who consider the Winchell and Green Mountain separate varieties say the Winchell has larger berries and is somewhat later in ripening than the Green Mountain. Though unable to make a close comparison of vines and fruits of the two supposed varieties, the authors of The Grapes of New York choose to consider them so nearly identical, if not identical, as to pass under one name which should be the one first published, Winchell.

Although the botanical characters of this variety are chiefly Labrusca, the thin bloom which sometimes shows on the canes, the occasional intermittent tendrils, and the lob ing of the leaf, indicate slight admixtures of Vinifera and Aestivalis.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, very productive. Canes long to medium, numerous, slender, medium dark brown, surface covered with very thin bloom; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes above medium to short; diaphragm thick; pith medium to below in size; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, sometimes intermittent, of average length, bifid.

Leaf-buds medium to below in size, short to medium, thick, open early. Young leaves faintly tinged on under side only with faint rose-carmine. Leaves large to medium, of average thickness; upper surface light green, glossy, smooth to medium; lower surface dull green, tinged with bronze, faintly pubescent; lobes three to five with terminal lobe acute to acuminate; petiolar sinus deep, of medium width; basal sinus shallow, intermediate in width; lateral sinus variable in depth and width; teeth shallow, moderately wide. Flowers fertile, open about mid-season or somewhat earlier; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens very early, sometimes before Moore Early, keeps and ships well for an early grape. Clusters large to below medium, long, slender, cylindrical to slightly tapering, often with a long single shoulder, loose to moderately compact; peduncle long, moderately slender; pedicel short, slender, covered with few, small, inconspicuous warts; brush greenish-white. Berries above medium to small, roundish, light green, covered with thin white bloom, usually persistent, soft. Skin often marked with small reddish-brown spots, thin, tender, adheres very slightly to the pulp, contains no pigment, slightly astringent. Flesh greenish, translucent, juicy, tender, fine-grained, sweet; very good to best in quality. Seeds separate fairly well from the pulp, one to four, average two, small, plump, moderately wide and long, blunt, brownish; raphe obscure, chalaza small, slightly above center, circular, not distinct.

WOODRUFF.Woodruff pic

(Labrusca, Vinifera?)

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:44, 65. 2. Ib., 1885:107, 108. 3. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1887-8: 87, 209. 4. Ib., 1888-9:16. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1889:24. 6. Gar. and For., 3:490, 599. 1890. 7. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:179. 8. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:638. 1892. 9. II1. Sta. Bid., 28:262. 1893. 10. Bush. Cat., 1894:188. fig. 11. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:537, 545] 546, 548, 553. 1898. 12. Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:177. 1899. 13. Ib., 194:59. 1901. 14. Kan. Sta. Bid., 110:238. 1902. 15. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1904-05:228.

Woodruff Red (i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 14). Woodruff Red (10).

Woodruff is a handsome, showy, brick-red grape with large clusters and berries. While very attractive in appearance its taste belies its looks, for the flesh is coarse and the flavor foxy. In spite of its attractive appearance, Woodruff would scarcely be worth attention were it not for its excellent vine characters. The vines are hardy, vigorous, productive and fairly healthy. In appearance it is a typical strong-growing Labrusca with the varied adaptabilities of that species for soils and ability to withstand adverse conditions. It ripens a little before or with Concord and comes on the market at a good time, especially for a red grape. When introduced Woodruff promised to be a valuable commercial grape but its poor quality, the fact that it does not keep well, and a pronounced tendency to crack and shatter, have kept the variety from becoming prominent for either vineyard or garden. While it is worthy of attention under some conditions because of hardiness and possibly other vine characters, yet it is hardly worth growing where other varieties of its color and season can be had.

Woodruff, or as it was first known, Woodruff Red, came from C. H. Woodruff of Ann Arbor, Michigan. He reported it as a chance seedling which came up in 1874 and fruited for the first time in 1877. It was supposed to be a cross of Catawba and Concord. It was introduced in 1885 and placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1889.

Vine very vigorous, hardy, produces as heavy or heavier crops than Concord, inclined to mildew in unfavorable locations. Canes intermediate in length, number and thickness, dark brown; nodes slightly enlarged, flattened; internodes medium to short; diaphragm medium to above in thickness; pith below average size; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, of mean length, bifid to trifid.

Leaf-buds small, short to medium, slender, pointed to conical. Leaves intermediate in size, of average thickness, somewhat roundish; upper surface light green, dull, rugose; lower surface greenish-white to bronze, pubescent; veins indistinct; leaf usually not lobed with terminus acute to obtuse; petiolar sinus intermediate in depth, medium to wide; basal sinus lacking; lateral sinus shallow and narrow when present; teeth very shallow and narrow. Flowers semi-fertile, open moderately early; stamens upright.

Fruit variable in season of ripening, usually shortly before Concord but sometimes slightly later, does not always keep well. Clusters variable in size, of fair length, broad, often widely tapering, usually single-shouldered or with largest clusters sometimes double-shouldered, compact; peduncle medium to long, variable in thickness; pedicel medium to short, thick, smooth, with scarcely any enlargement at point of attachment to fruit; brush long, pale green. Berries large to below medium, roundish to oval, dark red, dull, covered with thin lilac to faint blue bloom, sometimes drop badly from pedicel, firm. Skin thin, medium to tender, adheres strongly to the pulp, contains no pigment, slightly astringent. Flesh very pale green to nearly white, translucent, juicy, tough, coarse, very foxy, sweet at skin but quite tart at center, fair in quality. Seeds do not separate easily from the pulp, one to five, average, three or four, intermediate in size, medium to broad, short, rather plump, blunt, brownish; raphe obscure; chalaza small, slightly above center, oval, not distinct.

WORDEN

(Labrusca.)

1. Am. Hort. An., 1870:95. 2. Wis. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1873:71. 3. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1874:258. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1881:24. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:42, 115, 121, 123, 136, 144, 168. 6. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 27:30, 97. 1882. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:103. 106. 8. Wis. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1885:176. 9. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-7:171. 10. II1. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1887:91. 11. Wis. Sta. An. Rpt., 5:162. 1888. 12. TV. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 9:328. 1890. 13. Miss. Sta. Bid., 22:12, 13. 1892. 14. Bush. Cat., 1894:190. 15. Col. Sta. Bul., 29:20. 1894. 16. Tenn. Sta. Bul., Vol. 9:189. 1896. 17. Gar. and For., 9:300. 1896. 18. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:537, 542, 543, 544, 545, 547, 553, 557. 1898. 19. Ev. Nat. Fruits, 1898:75. 20. Ont. Fr. Exp. Stas. Rpt., 8:11, fig., 49. 1901. 21. Mich. Sta. Sp. Bul., 27:10. 1904.

Worden's Seedling (i, 6). Worden's Seedling (12, 14).

Worden possesses most of the good qualities of Concord and lacks some of its bad ones. Of all the offspring of Concord, this variety is best known and is most meritorious. It is of the type into which nearly all of the black seedlings of Concord fall and surpasses all of these in quality though it does not equal the best of the green seedlings of the parent in fruit characters, especially in flavor. It differs chiefly from Concord in having larger berries and bunches, in having better quality and in being from a week to ten days earlier. It is equally, hardy, healthy, vigorous and productive. It is more fastidious in its adaptations to soil and other conditions than its parents but now and then it is found to do even better under some conditions.

Worden is not as good a grape in many minor characters as the Concord and this is the chief reason why it is not grown as much as its distinguished parent. Its chief fault is that the fruit cracks badly, often preventing the profitable marketing of a crop. The Concord cracks also in unfavorable weather but the cracked berries often, or nearly always, partly or wholly recover from the injury through the growing over of the wounds. The Worden lacks the power of overcoming the cracking. Beside this tenderness of skin, the pulp of Worden is softer than that of Concord, there is more juice and the keeping qualities are not as good, so that the variety hardly ships as well as the more commonly grown grape. In some seasons there is a decided tendency to shell or shatter if the fruit is overripe. Worden is very popular in New York and the North both for commercial plantations and the garden It is a more desirable inhabitant of the garden and for nearby markets, because of higher quality, than Concord, and under conditions w^ell suited to it, is better as a commercial variety, as it is handsomer as well as of better quality. In the markets it ought to sell for a higher price than Concord if desired for immediate consumption and if it can be promptly harvested, as it does not hang well on the vines. In many markets Worden is sold as Concord and has the effect of extending the Concord season. Its earlier season is against it for a commercial variety in the great Chautauqua Grape Belt of New York and with the defects mentioned will prevent its taking the place of Concord to a great degree.

The Worden was originated by Schuyler Worden of Minetto, Oswego County, New York, from seed of Concord planted about 1863. It bore its first fruit when four years old. Its history is peculiar in that it was for many years unappreciated, being confused with Concord, which was frequently sent out as Worden. It was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1881, where it still remains. The variety was given its name by J. A. Place of Oswego, New York, a local horticulturist of some note and a friend of Worden.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive, yielding as heavy crops as Concord. Canes above medium in size and number, thick, dark brown with reddish tinge; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes intermediate in length; diaphragm thick; pith of fair size; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, somewhat slender, bifid, sometimes trifid.

Leaf-buds small, short, slender, pointed, open in mid-season. Young leaves tinged on under side and along extreme margin of upper side with light rose-carmine. Leaves healthy, large, thick; upper surface dark green, glossy, smooth; lower surface light bronze, pubescent; leaf usually not lobed; petiolar sinus of average depth, medium to wide, often urn-shaped; teeth shallow, medium in width. Flowers fertile, open in mid-season or earlier; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens one or two weeks earlier than Concord, does not keep long. Clusters large, medium to long, broad, tapering to cylindrical, usually single-shouldered, somewhat compact; peduncle short, thick; pedicel of medium length, slender, covered with few small warts; brush long, light green. Berries large, roundish to oval, dark purplish-black to black, glossy, covered with heavy blue bloom, not always persistent, moderately firm. Skin of average thickness, somewhat tender, cracks badly, adheres slightly to the pulp, contains considerable dark red pigment, astringent. Flesh greenish, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tough, slightly foxy, sweet at skin to tart at center, mild, good to very good in quality. Seeds adherent, one to five, average three, large, broad, medium to short, blunt, brownish; raphe buried in a shallow groove; chalaza of average size, slightly above center, oval, somewhat obscure.

WYOMING.Wyoming pic

(Labrusca.)

1. N. Y. Ag. Soc. Rpt., 1868:230. 2. Downing, 1869:558. 3. Am. Hort. An., 1871:83. 4. Horticulturist, 29:339. 5. Bush. Cat., 1883:145. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:103. 7. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 30:89. 1885. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1889:24. 9. Am. Card., 12:48. 1891. 10. II1. Sta. Bul., 28:262. 1893. 11. Va. Sta. Bul., 94:139. 1898. 12. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., i7*-537, 548, 557- 1898. 13, Mo. Sta. Bui, 46:41, 42, 44, 46, 54. 1899. 14. Mich. Sta. Bui, 169:178. 1899. 15. Kan. Sta. Bui, 110:238. 1902.

Hopkins Early Red (2). Wilmington Red (3, 5). Wyoming Red (i, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13 14, 15). Wyoming Red (5).

Such value as Wyoming has lies in its hardiness, productiveness, healthiness and earliness. The general appearance of the fruit of the variety is very good; the bunches are well-formed and composed of rich amber-colored berries of medium size. But the quality is poor, being that of the wild Labrusca in foxiness of flavor and in the flesh characters. It is not nearly as valuable as some other of the red Labruscas hitherto described and can hardly be recommended for either the garden or the vineyard. It may be of value in breeding work and possibly for localities in which grapes are precariously hardy or in which more fastidious varieties cannot be grown. Wyoming is illustrated in The Grapes of New York chiefly because it is a typical red Labrusca though in times past it has been of commercial importance and hence has some historical interest.

Wyoming was introduced to public notice by Dr. S. J. Parker of Ithaca, New York, who states that it came from northern Pennsylvania in 1861. About 1870 it was fruited in central New York where it immediately attracted attention and was exhibited at various fairs and horticultural society meetings. It was named after the Wyoming Valley, beyond which place it could not be traced, and where it presumably originated. The variety was first known as Wyoming Red but later the Red was dropped.

Wyoming shoot

Another variety under the name Wyoming preceded this. It was a black-fruited sort of apparently no value and seems now to be obsolete. The name Wilmington Red has been used to designate this variety, by what authority does not appear, as it was apparently first described under the name Wyoming Red. The Wyoming was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1889 and removed in 1899. In spite of the fact that this variety has been discarded by the American Pomological Society, it is still offered for sale by many grape nurserymen.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive to very productive. Canes medium to below in length, numerous, slender, dark reddish-brown, surface covered with a slight amount of blue bloom; nodes enlarged, frequently flattened; internodes short to medium; diaphragm medium to below in thickness; pith medium in size; shoots thinly pubescent; tendrils continuous, rather short, bifid.

Leaf-buds small, short, slender, pointed to conical, open late. Young leaves slightly tinged on under side only with faint rose-carmine. Leaves medium in size, of average thickness; upper surface light green, dull, smooth; lower surface dull green with tinge of bronze, slightly pubescent; lobes none to three with terminus acute to acuminate; petiolar sinus medium to shallow, wide to medium; basal sinus usually none; lateral sinus shallow and wide when present; teeth shallow, of average width. Flowers sterile, open in mid-season; stamens reflexed.

Fruit usually ripens from a week to ten days earlier than Concord, keeps and ships well for a grape of its species. Clusters medium to small, frequently below average length, medium to rather slender, slightly cylindrical to tapering, usually not shouldered but sometimes with a small single shoulder, compact to medium. Peduncle short to medium, slender; pedicel short, slender, covered with few small warts; brush slender, medium in length, pale green with brownish tinge. Berries above medium to small, roundish, dark dull red to rich amber red, covered with thin lilac bloom, persistent, firm. Skin medium in thickness, tender, adheres slightly to the pulp, contains no pigment, astringent. Flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, tough and solid, strongly foxy, vinous, sweet at skin to tart at center, poor in quality. Seeds do not separate easily from the pulp, one to three, average two and three, intermediate in size, breadth and length, slightly notched, usually rather blunt, light brown; raphe buried in a narrow, shallow groove; chalaza of average size, slightly above center, irregularly circular to oval, obscure,

FOOTNOTES
The grape vine in the vineyard is not ornamental, but only because its beauty is marred by the formal shapes in which it must be trained to meet the purposes of the cultivator. But as a festoon for an arbor, or for hiding a neglected building, for the porch of the farmhouse, or for any place where a bold or picturesque effect is wanted, or for giving an expression of strength, no vine surpasses some of the varieties of our native grapes. Properly planted they are not only beautiful in themselves but attractive through their suggestiveness. To sit under one's own vine and fig tree is the ancient idea of a life of peace, contentment and security; and this association with the patriarchal use of the vine is one of the charms of the grape.