1.  De Candolle, Alphonse. Origin of Cultivated Plants: 191. 1882.

2.  Translation of Dry den.

3.  Perhaps the most marked distinguishing feature between ancient and modern grape-growing is the training of vines to trees as indicated in the above verse. Pliny says of this practice: "In Campania they attach the vine to the poplar; embracing the tree to which it is thus wedded, the vine grasps the branches with its amorous arms, and as it climbs, holds on with its knotted trunk till it has reached the very summit; the height being sometimes so stupendous that the vintager when hired, is wont to stipulate for his funeral pile and grave at the owner's expense."

4.  Bailey gives the following interpretation of the word "fox" and its derivatives as applied to grapes: " The term fox-grape was evidently applied to various kinds of native grapes in the early days, although it is now restricted to the Vitis labrusca of the Atlantic slope. Several explanations "have been given of the origin of the name fox-grape, some supposing that it came from a belief that foxes eat the grapes, others that the odor of the grape suggests that of the fox an opinion to which Beverly subscribed nearly two centuries ago and still others thinking that it was suggested by some resemblance of the leaves to a fox's track. William Bartram, writing at the beginning of this century, in the Medical Repository, is pronounced in his convictions: ' The strong, rancid smell of its ripe fruit, very like the effluvia arising from the body of the fox, gave rise to the specific name of this vine, and not, as many have imagined, from its being the favourite food of the animal; for the fox (at least the American species) seldom eats grapes or other fruit if he can get animal food.' I am inclined to suggest, however, that the name may have originated from the lively foxing or intoxicating qualities of the poor wine which was made from the wild grapes. At the present day we speak of ' foxiness ' when we wish to recall the musk-like flavor of the wild Vitis labrusca; but this use of the term is of later origin, and was suggested by the name of the grape." Bailey, L. H. Evolution of Our Native Fruits; 5. 1898.

5.  Discourse of the Old Company, British State Papers, Vol. Ill :4c See Virginia Magazine of History, Vol. 1:159.

6.  Laws and Orders of Assembly, Feb. 16, 1623. McDonald Papers, Vol. 1:97. Va. State Library.

7.  Roger Beverly, writing a century later, describes the early grape-growing in Virginia as follows: 11 The Year before the Massacre, Anno 1622, which destroyed so many good projects for Virginia; some French vignerons were sent thither to make an experiment of their vines. These people were so in love with the country, that the character they then gave of it in their letters to the company in England, was very much to its advantage, namely: 4 That it far excelled their own country of Languedoc, The vines growing in great abundance and variety all over the land; that some of the grapes were of that unusual bigness, that they did not believe them to be grapes, until by opening them they had seen their kernels; that they had planted the cuttings of their vines at Michaelmas, and had grapes from those very cuttings, the spring following. Adding in the conclusion, that they had not heard of the like in any other country.' Neither was this out of the way, for I have made the same experiment, both of their natural vine, and of the plants sent thither from England.'' Beverly's Virginia, Second Edition: 107. 1722.

8.  Fiske, John. Old Virginia and Her Neighbors. Vol. 11:372, 385.

9.  American Farmer, Baltimore, 11:35. 1829-30. Ib., 12:396. 1830-31.

10 Dankers, Jasper, and Sluyter, Peter. Journal of a Voyage to New York in 1679-80: 130.

11 Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the State of New York, Holland Documents, 1603-1656. Vol. 1:277.

12 The grant of the bounty is recorded in Volume II, Deeds of New York, page 87, on file in the office of the Secretary of State at Albany. It runs as follows:

" Whereas Paul Richards an inhabitant of this Citty of New York hath made knowne to mee his intent to plant vines at a certaine Plantation that hee hath upon Long Island, called the little ffiefe, which if it succeed, may redound very much to the future benefitt and advantage of the inhabitants within this Government; and in regard, it will require much labour and a considerable charge

13 Bellomont's letter is as follows: "As to propagating vines in these plantations to supply all of the dominions of the Crown, I can easily make that appear. In the first place Nature has given us an index in these Plantations that points to us what may be done in that by the help of art. There grows wild grapes in all of the woods here in very great abundance; I have observed them in many places but especially above Albany on the side of the Hudson river where the vines all along twine around great trees and fait clusters of grapes appear sometimes above 30 foot from the ground. I have eaten of the wild grapes which I thought tastefull enough, only somewhat harsh as an effect of their wildness." Then follows an account of how the French had previously made wine in Canada but that the Court of France had forbade its being made fearing that it might be prejudicial to the wine trade of the French. Earl of Bellomont to the Lords of Trade, Nov. 28, 1700. Documents Relating to Colonial History of the State of New York, 4:787.

14  Francis Higginson wrote in 1630: " excellent Vines are here up and downe in the Woods. Our Governour hath already planted a Vineyard with great hope of encrease."


15  Bellomont records that a company of French immigrants had made good wine in Rhode Island toward the close of the 17th century but they were driven out of the Colony by the English and the industry ceased. N. Y. Col. Doc.t 4:787.

16  American Farmer, Baltimore, 10:387. 1828-29.

17  American Farmer, Baltimore, 10:387. 1828-29. Ib., 11:172. 1829-30.

18  Vol. 1:117-198. 1769-71.

19  All that is known of the life of Edward Antill is found in Johnson*s Rural Economy where he is spoken of as ** Mr. Antill, late of Middlesex County, New-Jersey, a gentleman who cultivated the grape with sedulous attention." Johnson's Rural Economy: 164. 1806.

20  The True American, March 24, 1800.

21  Legaux's paper is found as a treatise on the cultivation of the vine in The True American of March 24, 1800. The article contains about 2000 words, the main part of it being ''A Statement of the Expense and Income of a Vineyard, Made on Four Acres of Land, situated in Pennsylvania, in the 40th Degree of Latitude."

Of Legaux's life, little is known, other than that he was a French vine-grower with an experimental vineyard, as he says in the above article, at "Spring Mill, 13 miles N. N. W. from Philadelphia." Johnson speaks of Logaux as a philanthropist; McMahon calls him a " gentleman of Worth and Science "; while Rafmesque accuses him of fraud and deception in the matter of calling the native grapes Bland and Alexander, Madeira and Cape.

Judging the man from his article in The True American and from the words of his contemporaries, he was a capable, enthusiastic and intelligent grape-grower. His philanthropy is more doubtful. It is true that he distributed many grape plants but as he himself says to " fellow citizens possessing pecuniary means." That he practiced deceit in the matter of the introduction of the Alexander as the Cape is probable. However, his deceit, if such it were, may be forgotten and he should be remembered as the chief disseminator of the Alexander, the first distinctive American variety of commercial value.

22 Johnson, S. W., Rural Economy: 156. New Brunswick, N. J., 1806.

23 John James Dufour, born in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland, in 1763, came to America in 1796 to engage in grape-growing and wine-making. An account of his work is given in the text. In 1826 Dufour published the Vine Dresser's Guide, which became the authority on the culture of this fruit at that time. Dufour must be remembered for this book, for the dissemination of the Cape or Alexander grape, and as one of the pioneer vineyardists and wine-makers of the New World.

24  Dufour, John James. Vine Dresser's Guide; 307. 1826.

25   U. S. Statutes at Large. 3:374.

26  American State Papers, Public Lands, 3 :$g6.

27  For fuller accounts of this dramatic episode in French and American history, and in American, agriculture, see: The Napoleonic Exiles in America, J. S. Reeves, Johns Hopkins University Studies, 23 Series, pp. 530-656; The Bonapartists in Alabama, A. B. Lyon, Gulf State Historical Magazine, March, 1903; The French Grant in Alabama, G. Whitfield Jr., Ala. Hist. Soc, Vol. IV* The Vine and Olive Colony, T. C. McCorvey, Alabama Historical Reports, April, 1885.

28  The last official account of this colony in the records of the United States Government is found, in American State Papers, Vol. III. "Ina letter of Frederick Ravesies to the treasury department dated January 18, 1828, is the following: ' We have suffered severely from the unparalleled drought of the last summer; many of our largest and finest looking vines, which had just commenced bearing-luxuriantly, were totally killed by the dry hot weather. Yet, notwithstanding this misfortune, the grantees, with increased diligence, are using every exertion to procure others which are thought to be more congenial to the soil and climate, and are now generally engaged in replanting.' '' Quoted from Studies in Southern and Alabama History, 1904:131.

29  Transactions New York State Agricultural Society, 6:689. 1846.

30  Fuller, Andrew S. Record of Horticulture: 21. 1866.

31  Winsor, Justin. Narrative and Critical History of America, Vol. III:6i. ^ 2 First Voyage to Virginia, Hakluyt's Voyages, 3:301-306.

32  Hakluyfs Voyages t 3:311.

33  Discourse of Thomas Hariot, Hakluyfs Voyages, 3:326.
34  Smith's History of Virginia, 1:122 (1629) Reprint 1819.

35  Works of Capt. John Smith, p. 502.

36 Bruce, Philip Alexander. Economic History of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century, Vol. 1:219. 1896.

37  Report of Francis Maguel, Spanish Archives, Brown's Genesis of the United States: 395. 1610. 4 The History of Travaile into Virginia: 120. 1610, printed 1849.

38.  Anonymous. A Perfect Description of Virginia. 1649, Peter Force's Tracts, Vol. II, 1838.

39.  New English Canaan, 1632. Reprinted in Force's Tracts, 1838.

40.  Lawson, John. History of North Carolina: 169-171. 1714, Reprint 1860.  41.  Ibid. 76.: 184-189.

42.  Transactions American Philosophical Society, 1:191-193. 1769-71.

43.  The True American, Philadelphia, March 24, 1800.

44.  The Sime year, 1804, Mease published Bartram's paper, with some omissions, in the Medical Repository (Second Hexade, I'.ig) under the heading, " Account of the Species, Hybrids, and other Varieties of the Vine of North-America. By Mr. William Bartram, of Pennsylvania." The same paper was again published in 1830 in Prince's A Treatise on the Vine, pp. 216-220.

45. Johnson's Rural Economy: 155-197. New Brunswick, N. J., 1806.

46.  McMahon's Gardening: 226-241. Philadelphia, Pa., 1806.

47.  American Farmer, 8:116. Baltimore, 1826.

48.  Adlum, John. Cultivation of the Vine: 149. Second Edition, Washington, 1828.  49.  Adlum, John. Cultivation of the Vine. Preface. 1823.  

50.  For a full account of Dufour's attempts to grow European grapes see Bailey's Evolution of Our Native Fruits, pp. 2142.

51.  Buchanan, Robert. Grape Culture: 61. 1850.

52.  British Parliamentary Papers (Library of Congress), Vol. 30. 1859.

53.  American Pomological Society Report for 1852:45.

54.  Horticulturist, 6:445. 1851.

55.  Horticulturist, 6:444. 1851.

56.  American Pomological Society Report for 1852:45.

57.  Magazine of Horticulture, 11:134. 1845.

58.  U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Special Report, No. 36. 1880.

59.  Champagne: Decrease in Imports and Increase in Domestic Production, April 25, 1907, p. 427.

60.  Tarr, R. S., Cornell (N. Y.) Exp, Sta. Bui, 109. 1896.

  61.  Burke, R. T. Avon, and Marean, Herbert, Field Operations, Bureau of Soils, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1901. 

  62.  The Grape Belt, 16: No. 20, Feb. 26, 1907.

  63.  For a full account of the geology of these lakes and the valleys in which they lie, see the Physical Geography of New York State by Ralph S. Tarr. New York. 4.1902. 

  64.  Story of the Vine, E. R. Emerson: 198. 1902.

  65.  Downing, 1872:119 app.

  66.  Traite gen. de vit., 5:201. 1903.

  67.  Bush. Cat., 1883:71.

  68.  Bush. Cat., 1894:89.

  69.  Tex. Sta. Bui, 48:1153. 1898.

  70.  Mag. Hort., 1863:67.

  71.  Fuller, 1867:237.

  72.  Bush. Cat., 1883:75.

  73.  Downing, 1869:532.

  74.  Advertising circular sent out by Wm. B. Brown in 1899.

75.  Cat., 1908:18.

76.  Bush. Cat., 1883:89.

77. Traite gen. de vit., 6:278. 1903.

78. Ibid. p. 279.

79.  Horticulturist, 12:458. 1857.

80.  Gar. Mon.y 2:265. 1860.

81.  Bush. Cat., 1894:116.

82.  Cat., 1907-8:18.

83.  Tex. Sta. Bul., 56:267. 1900.

84.  Munson regards them as identical.

85.  Traite gen. de vit.t 6:192. 1903.

86.  On account of criticisms of the justice of the award, Grant returned the prize to be competed for a second time. At the second trial it went to Concord on vine characters.

87.  Sou. Agr., 2:552. 1829.

88.  Amer. Farmer, 11:237,412. 1829-30.
89.  The illustrations in The Grapes of New York, unless otherwise mentioned, are life-size; but it must be remembered that when objects having three dimensions are reproduced on a flat surface there is seemingly a considerable reduction in size. Allowance should be made for this illusion in comparing fruit with illustration.
90.  Bush. Cat., 1883:120.
91.  Downing, 1857:341.
92.  Horticulturist, 16:286. 1861.
93.  Mag. Hort.y 9:430. 1843.
94.  Traite gen. de vit., 6:166. 1903.
95.  U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt., 1855:308.
96.  Amer. Farmer, 3:332. 1822.
97.  S.C. Sta. Bid., 132:17, 18. 1907. 98. Mo. Ent. Rpt.t 1874:71.
99. Bush. Cat., 1883:9.
100. N.V. Sta. An. Rpt., 17:518. 1898. N. Y. Sta. Bui. 157. it
101. Tex. Sta. Bui., 56:239. 1900.
102. Gar. and For., 8:47. 1895.
103. W. Brennan, Gilgandra, N. S. W.
104. Bush. Cat., 1894:22.
105. Husmann, 1895:188.
106. Husmann, G. C, California Fruit Grower, Mar. 14, 1908
107. S. C. Sta. Bui. 132. 1907.
108. Bush. Cat., 1894:22. 109. Planchon is our authority for calling this Riparia. 110. Translation from the Latin. 111. Am. Gard., 12:584. 1891. 112. Husmann, 1895:189.
113. Grape Cult., 1:4. 1869. 114. U.S.D.A. Rpt., 1862:198. 115. Gar. and For., 2:584. 1889.