DOUBLE GLASS                                  HOME
Prunus avium X Prunus cerasus

1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 440-451, 487-490, 689. 1819. 2. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:51 52. 1858. 3. Ill. Handb. 163 fig., 164. 1860. 4. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 329. 1888. 5. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 80. 1890. 6. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 17:7- 1892. 7. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:274. 1903 Amarelle Double de Verre. 8. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:197-201, fig. 55. 1866.
Great Cornelian. 9. Hogg Fruit Man. 299. 1884.
Glass. 10. Ia. Sta. Bul. 73:70. 1903.

Double Glass is a Duke, a hybrid more nearly resembling the Sweet Cherry than the Sour Cherry. The trees grow remarkably well in nursery and orchard and their behavior so pleased growers when the variety was brought to notice that it became for a time quite the vogue. But the trees turned out to be unproductive and the cherries so mediocre that the variety rapidly passed through its heyday of popularity. The fruits are curiously marked, the suture being so deep as to make them appear double-hence the name. The variety has no value where sweet sorts are hardy but possibly might find a niche somewhere in regions where a more tender Sweet Cherry cannot be grown.

This variety, of ancient and unknown origin, dates back at least to 1792 when Truchsess received it from Christ under the names Grosse Fruehkirsche and Englische Erzherzogskirsche, both of which were incorrect, the first because it was not characteristic since the fruit did not ripen early, and the second because it denoted a class of dark-fleshed cherries. In France, Double Glass has long been cultivated under the name Amarelle Double de Verre. The variety was brought to America from Russia in 1883 by Professor J. L. Budd. While grown for a time in the Central States it was never highly regarded and has now nearly passed from cultivation. The following description is a compilation:

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading becoming divergent with age, usually hardy, rather unproductive; branchlets thick, reddish-brown; leaves healthy, small to medium, ovate, with serrated margins; buds large, prominent.

Fruit matures the latter part of June; usually large, roundish-oblate, with a very deep suture; color light red becoming much darker at maturity; stem long, thick; skin thin, tough, translucent; flesh yellowish, with abundant uncolored juice, firm, tender, sprightly; good in quality; stone medium in size, roundish.

EAGLE                          TOP                                                              HOME
Prunus avium  [Actuallly  P. avium x (P. avium x P. cerasus  -A.S.C.]

1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 104:84. 1894. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 17. 1897 Black Eagle. 3. Prince Treat. Hort. 31. 1828. 4. Pom. Mag. 3:127, Pl- 127. 1830. 5. Kenrick Am. Orch. 274, 275. 1832. 6. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 170 fig. 62. 1845. 7. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 102. 1846. 8. Mag. Hort. 14:386, 387 fig. 37. 1848. 9. Proc. Nat. Con. Fr. Gr. 52. 1848. 10. Hovey Fr. Am. 1:85, P1. 1851. 11. Horticulturist N. S. 4:287- 1854. 12. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 108, 186. 1856. 13. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:77-79, fig. 12. 1866. 14. Mas Pom. Gm. 11:83, 84, fig. 42. 1882. 15. Hogg Fruit Man. 285, 286. 1884. 16. Cornell Sta. Bul. 98:491 fig. 86. 1895.

We hesitatingly follow the American Pomological Society in calling this variety Eagle when it has so long been known as Black Eagle, the name given it by the great pomologist, Knight. Were this choicely good cherry larger in size, it would still be a prime favorite with growers for in many respects it is one of the best varieties of its species. Its flavor is excellent; the trees are usually fruitful; it ripens at a good time in the cherry season, just after Black Tartarian; the cherries are less liable to crack than many of its rivals; and the trees are as hardy, healthy and vigorous as those of any Sweet Cherry. Some complain that the trees do not bear well at first but are productive only with age. But, after all, it is its high quality that gives Eagle so much merit that it ought not to be forgotten - makes it worth a place in every home orchard and commends it highly to commercial growers of cherries who want a finely finished product for either local or general market. The fruit-stems of this variety are characteristically long.

Eagle was grown about 1806 by Sir Thomas Andrew Knight at Downton Castle, Wiltshire, England, by fertilizing the Bigarreau of the old writers, our Yellow Spanish, with pollen of the May Duke. The correctness of the parentage as given has been questioned because of its inherited characteristics. But if the May Duke is a hybrid between a Sweet and a Sour, a pure Sweet offspring is not an impossibility. [U.P. should recheck his genetics- this statement is not correct; the offspring would still have approximately 25% Sour cherry alleles unless the segregation were not strictly Mendelian- A.S.C.]  In 1823, Honorable John Lowell of Massachusetts received Eagle from Knight. Prince mentioned this cherry in his Treatise of Horticulture, 1828, but the exact date of its introduction into New York is unknown. In 1848 it was placed on the list of fruits adopted by the National Convention of Fruit Growers and since then it has been retained on the fruit list of the American Pomological Society.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, dense, unproductive at first but improving with age; trunk and branches thick, smooth; branches reddish-brown partly covered with ash-gray, with numerous small lenticels; branchlets thick, brownsh partly covered with light ash-gray, the surface slightly ribbed and with small, raised, inconspicuous lenticels.

Leaves numerous, five inches long, two and one-half inches wide, folded upward, long, obovate to elliptical, tmn; upper surface dark green, rugose; lower surface light green, thinly pubescent; apex variable in shape; margin coarsely and doubly serrate, with dark glands; petiole nearly two inches long, tinged with red, with a few hairs, with from two to four reniform, brownish glands usually on the stalk.

Buds large, conical or pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds and in clusters on spurs of medium length; leaf-scars prominent; season of bloom medium; flowers white, one and one-eighth inches across; borne in scattered clusters in twos and threes; pedicels one inch long, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green faintly tinged with red, campanulate; calyx-lobes with a trace of red, obtuse, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals irregular-oval, crenate, with short, blunt claws and with a crenate apex; anthers yellowish; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit matures in mid-season; nearly one inch in diameter, oblate, somewhat cordate, compressed; cavity regular, flaring; suture a faint groove; apex pointed or slightly depressed; color dark red almost black; dots small, russet, medium in number, obscure; stem slender, two inches long; skin thin, tender; flesh dark red, with wine-colored juice, meaty, tender, crisp, pleasant flavored, mild, sweet; very good to best in quality; stone frcc except along the ventral suture, rather small, ovate, slightly flattened, blunt, with smooth surfaces; ridged along the ventral suture. 

[Black Eagle in 'Cherries of Utah'] 

EMPRESS EUGENIE                                  HOME

Prunus avium X Prunus cerasus

1. Gard. Man. 7:277- 1865. 2. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:159 fig. 41, 160. 1866- 3. Mas Le Verger 8:5, 6, fig. 1. 1866-73. 4. Pom. France 7: No. 10, P1. 10. 1871. 5. U.S.D.A. Rpt. 383. 1875. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat..20. 1877- 7. Leroy Dict. POm- 5:348 fig., 349. 1877. 8. Hogg Fruit Man. 296, 297. 1884.. 9. Gaucher Pom. Prak. Obst. No. 78, Pl. 29. 1894.
Eugenie. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 22. 1883.

This old French cherry, for many years largely advertised and widely sold in America, does not thrive in the New World as well as the reports say it does in the Old World. The two faults that condenm it, as it grows here, are that the cherries ripen very unevenly making several pickings necessary and the trees are so small that, though loaded with fruit, the total yield is not large. Lesser faults are that the cherries are not uniform in shape and are borne thickly in close clusters so that when brown-rot is rife this variety suffers greatly. The short stem, too, prevents easy picking. To offset these faults Empress Eugenie has to its credit the reputation of being about the most refreshing and delicious Duke. In a home plantation where the unevenness in ripening can be utilized to prolong the season and where dwarfness may not be undesirable, Empress Eugenie may well find a place.

This cherry appeared in 1845 as a chance seedling on the grounds of M. Varenne at Belleville, near Paris, France. It first fruited about 1850 and four years later the Horticultural Society of Paris placed it, under the name Imperatrice Eugenie, on its list of recommended fruits. M.A. Gontier, a nurservman at Fontenay-aux-Roses introduced it to commerce in 1855. Empress Eugenie soon became quite generally disseminated throughout Europe and was considered nearly as good as May Duke, with which it has occasionally been confused. It must have been brought to America towards the being of the last quarter of the Nineteenth Century and here it gradually became widely distributed until today it is found in all the leading cherry plantations and is propagated by a large number of nurserymen throughout the United States. The American Pomological Society added this cherry to its fruit catalog list in 1877 under the name Empress Eugenie. In 1883 this name was shortened to Eugenie under which term it has since appeared in the Society's catalog. In The Cherries of New York we have not adopted the shortened name as, by such a change, all trace is lost of the person after whom the cherry was christened.

Tree small, not very vigorous, upright, becoming round-topped, very productive; trunk slender, roughish; branches slender, much roughened, reddish-brown partly covered with ash-gray, with numerous small lenticels; branchlets with short internodes, brown slightly covered with ash-gray, smooth except for the numerous small, conspicuous, much raised lenticels.

Leaves numerous, three and one-half inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, folded upward, obovate, thick; upper surface dark green, slightly rugose; lower surface light green, thinly pubescent; apex abruptly pointed, base variable in shape; margin doubly serrate, with small, dark glands; petiole three-fourths of an inch long, tinged with red, with a few hairs along the upper surface, glandless or with one or two small, globose, greenish-yellow or reddish glands, usually at the base of the blade.

Buds obtuse, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds and m long or short spurs, in clusters vatiable in size; leaf-scars obscure; blooming in mid-season; flowers one and one-fourth inches across, white; borne in very dense clusters, in threes and fours; pedicels one inch long, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube with a faint tinge of red, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes with a trace of red, acute, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals roundish, entire, with short but distinct claws; apex nearly entire; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit matures in mid-season; three-fourths of an inch in diameter, roundish-conic to oblate-conic, compressed; cavity narrow; suture very shallow, indistinct; apex flattened or depressed; color dark red; dots numerous, small, dark russet, obscure; stem one and one-fourth inches long, adherent to the fruit; skin tough, separating from the pulp; flesh pale red, with pinkish juice, tender, meaty, sprightly, pleasant flavored, tart; of good quality; stone semi-clinging, small, ovate, flattened, somewhat oblique, with smooth surfaces.

JEFFREY DUKE                                                                                   HOME
Prunus avium X Prunus cerasus

1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 52. 1831. 2. Mag. Hort. 9:204. 1843. 3. Downing Ft,. Trees Am. 190. 191. 1845. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 74. 1862. 5. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 119, 120, fig. 60. 1882. 6. Hogg Fruit Man. 302. 1884.
Royale. 7. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 1:193, 194, Pl- XV. 1768. 8. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 482-484. 1819. 9. Leroy Dict- POM. 5:386,387 fig., 388- 1877.
Koenigliche Suessweichsel. 10. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 427-429. 1819. 11. Ill. Handb. 73 fig., 74. 1867.
Jeffrey's Royal. 12. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 99. 1846.
Royale Hative. 13. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:134-138, fig. 32. 1866.

This old variety, which has almost passed from cultivation, may have had its origin in France about the middle of the Eighteenth Century, though more likely it originated in England much earlier. Leroy mentions a Royale cherry which was introduced from England to France about 1730 and was first grown by M. le Normand in the garden of Louis XV. The name Royale was first used by the French about 1735 from the fact that it was grown in the royal gardens and since that time this name has clung to the variety in most of the French plantations. According to English writers, the variety was brought to notice in England by Jeffrey, proprietor of the Brompton Nursery at Brompton Park, England, and from that time it was known as Jeffrey's Duke. English pomologists maintain that Jeffrey renamed the old Cherry Duke of England, giving it his name.  Jeffrey Duke appeared on the American Pomological Society's fruit catalog list in 1862 but was dropped in 1871. It is doubtfut if the variety can now be found in America. The following description is compiled from the authors given in the references:

Tree large, vigorous, very upright, unusually compact, slow-growing, productive; branches very numerous, stocky, straight, thickly set with fruit-spurs; internodes short; branchlets very short; buds closely set; leaves numerous, medium in size, oval or obovate, acuminte; margin finely and irregularly serrate; petiole short, slender, with small, flattened or globose glands; blooming season late; flowers small, very open.

Fruit matures in mid-season, usually attached in pairs; medium in size, roundish, slightly flattencd at the apex and base; suture a well-marked line; color lively red becoming dark red or almost black when fully ripe; stem slender, inserted in a moderately broad, deep cavity; skin thin; flesh firm but tender, yellowish-amber, with abundant colored juice, slightly stringy, highly flavored; good in quality; stone small, roundish, tinged with red.

KNIGHT                                  TOP                                                                   HOME
Prunus avium [actually a Duke: (P. avium x P. cerasus) x P. avium- see text A.S.C.]

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 26. 1900.
Knight's Early Black. 2. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 52. 1831, 3. Prince Pom. Man. 2:120. 1832.
4. Proc. Nat. Con. Fr. Gr. 52. I 848. S. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:19- 1858. 6. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:83. 1866. 7. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 85, 86, fig. 43. 1882.
Knight's Fruehe Herzkirsche. 8. Ill. Handb. 3 fig., 4. 1867.

This old English variety has long been popular in America, where it is generally known as Knight's Early Black, this name having been shortened by the American Pomological Society to Knight. Possibly Knight is to be found in dooryards and home gardens in Eastern United States as often as any other Sweet Cherry with the exception of Black Tartarian. The characters which give it popularity are excellent quality, handsome appearance because of its glossy, dark purple color and uniformity in color, shape and size, and its earliness, it being the earliest good Sweet Cherry. Unfortunately, even in the best soil and under the most painstaking treatment, the cherries run small, a defect for American markets. The small size also leads to comparatively low yields even though the fruits are often borne in prodigious numbers. Knight, in size, color and flavor, is much like Black Tartarian but the cherries are smaller and ripen earlier. As the trees grow on the grounds of this Station they are about all that could be desired in a Sweet Cherry. The trees are characteristically marked by smooth bark which is dotted with large lenticels. There are now better sweet varieties than Knight for most purposes but still this old variety has too many merits, especially for home grounds, to be wholly forgotten.

Knight comes from a seed of May Duke crossed with Yellow Spanish by T.A. Knight, Downton Castle, Wiltshire, England, about 1810. The new variety sprang into prominence almost immediately, being mentioned by French, German and English writers. Knight is still one of the well recognized sorts in Europe and America and has appeared continuously on the fruit list of the American Pomological Society since 1848. Mathieu has included several synonyms under this head which we question as we believe they belong to the Guigne Noir Hative, a distinct variety though very similar.

Tree of medium size, upright-spreading, open-topped, very productive; trunk stocky, variable in smoothness; branches smooth, light reddish-brown nearly overspread with ash-gray, with small lenticels; branchlets thick, brown lightly covered with ash-gray, variable in smoothness, with small, raised, inconspicuous lenticels.

Leaves numerous, five and one-half inches long, two and one-half inches wide, folded upward, obovate to long-oval, thin; upper surface dark green, rugose; lower surface light green, thinly pubescent; apex and base variable in shape; margin doubly serrate, with small, dark glands; petiole two inches long, slender, tinged with red, with a shallow groove and with few hairs, with two or three large, reniform, reddish glands, usually on the stalk.

Buds long, conical or pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds and in small clusters on spurs variable in length; leaf-scars prominent; season of bloom intermediate; flowers white, one and one-fourth inches across; borne in dense clusters, usually in twos; pedicels one inch long, slender, glabrous; calyx-tube green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes lightly tinged with red, long, acute, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals oval, entire, deeply notched at the apex; filaments nearly one-half inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit matures early; three-fourths of an inch in diameter, cordate to conical; cavity wide, rather abrupt; suture indistinct; apex flattened, with a small depression at the center; color dark reddish-black, obscurely mottled; dots nurnerous, small, russet, obscure; stem slender, one and one-half inches long, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, tender, separating from the pulp; flesh dark red, with dark colored juice, tender, meaty, mild, sweet; of good quality; stone free except along the ventral suture, small, roundish-ovate, with smooth surfaces.

LATE DUKE                                  TOP                                                                       HOME

Prunus avium X Prunus cerasus

1. Pom. Mag. 1:45, P1. 1828. 2. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 48. 49, 55, 56. 1831. 3. Prince Pom. Man. 2:134, 135. 1832. 4. Hort. Reg. (Eng.) 1:257, fig. 1833. 5. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 191 fig. 80. 1845. 6. Mag. Hort. 13:397 fig. 33, 398. 1847- 7. Gard. Chron- 556. 1848. 8. Hovey Fr. Am. 1:37, 38, P1. 1851. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 74. 1862.
Wahre Englische Kirsche. 10. Christ Handb. 682. 1797. 11. Christ Woerterb. 284. 1802. 12. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 405-410. 1819. 13. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:50. 1858. 14. Ill. Handb. 499 fig., 500. 1861.
Spaete Herzogenkirsche. 15. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 434-437. 1819.
Anglaise Tardive. 16. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:179-18l, fig. 48. 1866. 17. Mas Le Verger 8:67, 68, fig. 32. 1866-73.

Late Duke is a variant of the well-known May Duke, ripening from two weeks to a month later. The size, color, flavor and season of the fruit all commend it, as do the vigor, health and fruitfulness of the trees. The cherries are not quite as sweet as those of May Duke, a little more marbled in color of skin and ripen through a longer season. The trees are readily told from those of the earlier Duke, being more open and spreading, scanter of foliage, with slender branches and with fruit more thickly clustered along the branchlets. Ripening in a season when hybrid varieties are gone or rapidly going, Late Duke is a valuable acquisition in the home orchard and for nearby markets to which tender-fleshed varieties can be shipped. If those who want late cherries will plant this variety on a northern slope, against a northern wall or where in any way shaded or in a cool soil, these delicious cherries can be had until well toward August. The tree is hardy and its blossoming-time is late so that the variety is well adapted to northern latitudes.

The origin of this variety is unknown. In 1797, Christ mentions "a true English cherry" which is probably Late Duke. At least Oberdieck, in 1861, states that the true English cherry is identical with the Late Duke, or Anglaise Tardive. In 1823, Late Duke was introduced into England by the London Horticultural Society from M. Vilmorin, of Paris, under the name Anglaise Tardive. Though the French name of this variety seems to indicate an English origin, the old English writers were not aware of any cherry of this kind being in existence in England previous to its introduction by the Horticultural Society. Because of the close resemblance of Late Duke to May Duke it has often been confused with that sort and by some writers was supposed to be a late strain of May Duke. The American Pomological Society listed Late Duke in its fruit catalog in 1862.

Tree vigorous, upright-spreading, becoming spreading at maturity, open-topped, productive; trunk and branches slender; branches brown overlaid with dark ash-gray, with numerous small lenticels; branchlets slender, short, reddish-brown, with ash-gray scarf-skin, with numerous conspicuous, small, raised lenticels.

Leaves numerous, three inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, folded upward, obovate, thick; upper surface very dark green, smooth; lower surface light green, with a few scattering hairs; apex abruptly pointed; margin doubly crenate, with small, dark glands; petiole one inch long, lightly tinged with red, grooved and somewhat hairy on the upper surface, glandless or with one or two small, reniform, greenish glands, usually at the base of the blade.

Buds small, short, obtuse or conical, plump, free, arranged singly and in clusters; leaf-scars prominent; season of bloom late; flowers white, one inch across; borne in numerous, dense clusters, in twos, threes and fours; pedicels one inch long, slender, glabrous, green; calyx-tube reddish, campanulate; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, serrate, reflexed; petals roundish, entire, almost sessile; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit matures very late; one inch in diameter, blunt-cordate, somewhat compressed; cavity wide; suture shallow; color dark red; stem slender, one and one-half inches to two inches long, deeply inserted; flesh arnber-colored, with abundant juice, tender, rich, sprightly subacid; stone semi-clinging, medium to large, roundish-ovate, compressed.

[Late Duke in 'Cherries of Utah']

LOUIS PHILIPPE
Prunus avium X Prunus cerasus

1. Elliott Fr. BOOK 218. 1854. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 74. 1862. 3. Horticulturist 22:289, 290 fig. 1867. 4. Thomas Guide Prat. 26, 195. 1876. 5. Cult. & Count. Gent- 42:378- 1877. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 27. 1909.

Here again we have a very evident hybrid between some Sweet Cherry and a Sour Cherry of the Morello type in which Morello characters are most prominent. If the description and color-plates of this variety and Olivet be compared it will be found that the two cherries are nearly identical. They differ only in season of ripening and in minor tree-characters which may be best summarized by the statement that this cherry has in the tree more of the aspect of a Morello than has Olivet. It may be suspected that one or the other of the two varieties on our grounds is mis-named but the descriptions of all who have described the two show that they are very similar, if not identical. The history of Louis Philippe, long known in America but little or not at all known in Europe, throws some light on the question of its distinctness from Olivet, the origin of which is known, inasmuch as Louis Philippe seems to be the older of the two. The value of the two varieties to cherry-growers is the same and is indicated in the discussion of Olivet.

Elliott, the American pomologist, imported Louis Philippe from France in 1846 but the cherry does not seem to have been known at that time in Europe and it is possible that Elliott gave it its name. For the first few years the variety was not given the recognition it deserved but, in 1862, it was recognized by the American Pomological Society by a place on its list of recommended fruits which it still holds under the name, Philippe.

Tree vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped; trunk and branches intermediate in thickness; branches with numerous very large, elongated, raised lenticels.

Leaves numerous, four and one-half inches long, two and one-eighth inches wide, oval to obovate, thick, leathery; upper surface dark, shiny green, smooth; lower surface olive-green, with a large, prominent midrib; apex taper-pointed; margin finely serrate, with reddish-brown glands; petiole one inch long, usuauy with one or two large, globose, yellowish-red, glands, variable in position.

Flowers one and one-fourth inches across, white, well distributed, mostly in threes; pedicels one inch long, thick, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals slightly obovate, entire, broad, slightly notched at the apex; stamens one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, equal in length to the stamens.

Fruit matures in mid-season or later; nearly one inch in diameter, roundish-ovate; cavity abrupt; suture very shallow to a mere line; apex flattened, depressed; color very dark red; dots numerous, unusually small, obscure; stem one and one-fourth inches to one and one-half inches long, adhering well to the fruit; flesh light red, with much wine colored juice, fine-grained, tender and melting, sour at first, becoming pleasantly tart at full maturity; good in quality; stone separates readily from the flesh, small, roundish ovate, plump; ventral suture grooved; dorsal suture with a small ridge.

MAGNIFIQUE                                               TOP                                     HOME
Prunus avium X Prunus cerasus

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 27. 1909.
Belle et Magnifigue. 2. Kenrick Am. Orch. 279, 280. 1832. 3. ibid. 239, 1841.
Belle Magnifique- 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 193. 845. 5. Am. Pom- SOC- Cat- 54. 1852.
6. Elliott Fr. Book 191. 1854. 7. Downing Fruit Trees Am. 272. 1857. 8. Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom. 82 fig., 83. 1904.
Belle de Magnifique. 9. Ann. Pom. Belge 1:61, fig. 1. 1853. 10. Pom. France 7: No. 19, P1. 19. 1871.
Belle de Chatenay. 11. Ill. Handb. 179 fig., 180. 1860. 12. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:175-178, fig, 48. 1866. 12. Mas Le Verger 8:57, 58, fig. 27. 1866-73. 13. Mathieu Nom. POM. 334, 343. 1889. 14. Guide Prat. 9, 181. 1895.

This good, old cherry has never been considered a commercial fruit in the United States; yet it is, and has been, surprisingly popular with nurserymen, most of whom for nearly a century have offered it for sale. A generation ago, when American fruit-growing was in the hands of connoisseurs, Magnifique was -more popular than now. It has failed as a commercial cherry because the crop ripens very unevenly, there being sometimes green and fully ripe cherries on the tree at the same time, though the season is usually given as very late. This is one of the lightest in color of the hybrid Dukes, the Sour Cherry parent very evidently having been an Amarelle - a conclusion to which both fruit and tree point. The quality is usually counted as very good though it is too acid to be a first- rate dessert cherry for some. The trees are very vigorous and usually are fruitful. Magnifique has been grown so long that its place in the orchard would seem to have been fixed by experience; yet it might be made more than a cherry for the home orchard if some commercial grower would plant it in a shaded place and a cool soil and thereby retard ripening time until other cherries were gone.

This valuable cherry was brought to notice in 1795 by Chatenay, surnamed Magnifique, a nurseryman near Paris. It seems, at first, to have been quite commonly called Belle de Chatenay but Belle de Magnifique became the commoner appellation ending in America at least with the universal name "Belle Magnifique."The variety was introduced into America from France sometime before 1830, by General H.A.S. Dearborn, Boston, Massachusetts, President of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. The cherry is typically a Duke sort and is so listed by most writers, though Downing in 1845 placed it with the Morello cherries. Magnifique was placed upon the fruit list of the American Pomological Society in 1852 where it has since remained.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, dense, productive; trunk and branches stocky, brown overlaid with dark gray; branchlets with many, small conspicuous lenticels.

Leaves numerous, three and one-half inches long, two inches wide, obovate to oval, thickish; upper surface dark green, slightly rugose; lower surface finely pubescent; apex abruptly pointed, base variable in shape; margin finely serrate, with small, dark glands; petiole one inch long, tinged with dull red, grooved on the upper surface and with a few hairs, glandless or with one or two small, reniform, greenish glands usually at the base of the leaf.

Buds obtuse or conical, plump, free, arranged as lateral buds or in rather dense clusters, on short spurs; leaf-scars obscure; season of bloom late; flowers white, one inch across, wide open; borne in dense clusters on short spurs, usually in threes or fours; pedicels one inch long, slender, glabrous, light green; calyx-tube greenish, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes, broadly and shallowly dentate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals obovate, entire, with very short claws, indented at the apex; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit matures late; nearly one inch in diameter, cordate; cavity rather deep; suture very shallow; color pale red changing to bright red; dots numerous, small, russet, conspicuous; stem one and one-fourth inches long; skin thick; tough, adherent to the pulp; flesh whitish, with abundant colorless juice, fine-grained, meaty but tender, pleasantly tart, sprightly; very good in quality; stone free, small, oval, plump, slightly pointed, with smooth surfaces; slightly notched near the base of the ventral suture.

NOUVELLE ROYALE                      TOP                                                       HOME
Prunus avium X Prunus cerasus  [Possibly P. cerasus x (P. avium x P. cerasus)- see below- A.S.C]

1. Flor. & POM. 72, P1. 1862. 2. Gard. Mon, 7:248- 1865. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 70, 88. 1866, 4. Mas Le Verger 8: 147, 148, fig. 72. 1866-73. 5. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 484. 1869. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 31. 1875. 7. Gaucher Pom. Prak. Obst. No. 80, Tab. 33. 1894. 8. Guide Prat. 9. 1895.

If this cherry were to be judged by its behavior on the grounds of this Station, it would be called one of the best of the hybrid Dukes. In particular, it would be commended by its product, the trees not making as good a showing as the fruit. The cherries are distinguished by their large size, dark red color, glossy surface, good quality, lateness in maturity and, even more particularly, sweetness, keeping in mind that the variety is a hybrid and not a true Sweet Cherry. The shape, too, offers a distinguishing character, the fruits being more oblate than in any other Duke. The long, stout stem is still another characteristic. Unfortunately the tree, while satisfactory in all other respects, is unproductive - a fatal fault in these days of commercial fruit-growing. Nouvelle Royale is not widely known in America and may well be given trial by those who want a late Duke. This variety is supposed from its fruit- and tree-characters to be a hybrid between Early Richmond and May Duke but where, how and when it came to light is not known. Downing, in 1869, mentions the Nouvelle Royale as having recently been introduced into this country and it was noted in the Report of the American Pomological Society for 1875 but has never received a place upon the Society's fruit catalog list.

Tree large, vigorous, upright, compact, moderately productive; trunk of medium size; branches upright, thickish; branchlets slender, long, brown partly covered with ash gray, with very numerous conspicuous, raised lenticels.

Leaves numerous, three and one-half inches long, two inches wide, folded upward, obovate; upper surface dark green, glossy, rugose; lower surface light green, lightly pubescent; apex abruptly pointed, base acute; margin finely and doubly serrate, glandular; petiole one and one-fourth inches long, slender, tinged with dull red, grooved and with few hairs along the upper surface, glandless or with from one to four globose, greenish yellow or reddish glands variable in size usually at the base of the blade.

Buds small, short, obtuse, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds and on short spurs in clusters variable in size; leaf-scars obscure; season of bloom intertnediate; flowers white, one inch across; borne in dense clusters in threes and fours; pedicels three-fourths of an inch long, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube with a tinge of red, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes somewhat reddish, broad, acute, serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals roundish, entire, nearly sessile, apex entire; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, longer than the stamens.

Fruit matures in mid-season; nearly one inch in diameter, oblate, strongly compressed; cavity deep, narrow, abrupt; suture shallow; apex flattened or slightly depressed; color dark red; dots numerous, small, russet, inconspicuous; stem one and three-fourths inches long, adherent to the fruit; skin thin, tender, separating from the pulp; flesh pale yellowish or with a tinge of red, with light pink juice, slightly stringy, tender and melting, pleasantly flavored, mildly tart; of very good quality; stone free, roundish-oval, plump, blunt, oblique, with smooth surfaces often tinged with red, with small ridges radiating from the base.

OLIVET                                                          TOP                                                                           HOME
Prunus avium x Prunus cerasus

1. Gard. Mon. 19:19. 1877. 2. Am. Pom. SOC. Cat. 20. 1881. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 3rd App. 164. 1881. 4. Can. Exp. Farm Bul.17:11. 1892. 5. Cal. Sta. An. Rpt. 316. 1895-97. 6. Va. Sta. Bul. 133:27- 1902. 7. Ia. Sta. Bul. 73:76, 77. 1903. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Sp. Rpt. 24. 1904-05. 9. Wash. Sta. Bul. 92:21. 19l0.

Olivet is a large, globular, deep red, glossy cherry with a rich, vinous, subacid flavor. Some writers call Olivet a Duke while others place it with the Morellos. The fruit, on the grounds of this Station, shows many characteristics of the Morellos while the tree appears to be a Duke, suggesting that it is a hybrid between trees of the two groups. The fruit, eaten out of hand, would be rated as a very good Morello or a subacid and somewhat mediocre Duke, a fruit hardly good enough for dessert and not as good as some of the sourer cherries for culinary purposes. It is one of the earliest of the Morello-like cherries and this may give it a place in the cherry flora of the country. The trees are large and vigorous and their much-branched, round tops would seem to give the maximum amount of bearing surface, but, unfortunately, the cherries do not set abundantly. On the grounds of this Station the variety is not fruitful, this being its chief defect. In other parts of the country, however, it is reported to be either very productive or moderately so. The descriptions of this cherry as given by American experiment stations and nurserymen show plainly that there are several distinct sorts passing under the name Olivet in this country.

Olivet, of comparatively recent origin, was found at Olivet, Loire, France. American nurserymen introduced this variety sometime previous to 1877, for in that year the Gardener's Monthly mentioned the cherry, as being "a valuable Duke sort filling an unoccupied place among the list of early cherries in central New York."Olivet was entered on the American Pomological Society's catalog list of fruits in 1881 where it is still retained.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, round-topped, unproductive; trunk thickish, rather rough; branches thick, smooth, reddish-brown partly overspread with ash-gray, with numerous small lenticels; branchlets short, brown partly overspread with ash-gray, smooth, with numerous raised lenticels.

Leaves numerous, three and one-half inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, folded upward, obovate to oval, thin; upper surface dark green, smooth; lower surface light green, glossy, with a few scattering hairs; apex acute; margin doubly serrate, glandular; petiole one and one-fourth inches long, greenish, glandless or with one or two globose, brownish glands variable in position.

Buds usually pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds and in small clusters on short spurs; leaf-scars prominent; season of bloom intermediate; flowers white, one inch across; borne in dense clusters, usuauy in threes; pedicels one-half inch long, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube with a tinge of red, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes with a trace of red, long, of medium width, acute, serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals oval to slightly obovate, entire, nearly sessile; apex entire; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit matures in mid-season; nearly one inch in diameter, roundish to slightly oblate, somewhat compressed; cavity abrupt, regular; suture a line; apex roundish, with a small depression at the center; color bright red; dots russet, obscure; stem thickish, one and one-fourth inches long, adheritig well to the fruit; skin tough, separating from the pulp; flesh light red, with abundant light red or wine-colored juice, tender and melting, sprightly, astringent, tart; of fairly good quality; stone free, small, roundish, slightly flattened, somewhat pointed at the apex, with smooth surfaces; somewhat ridged along the ventral suture.

REINE HORTENSE                   TOP                                                                                   HOME
Prunus avium X Prunus cerasus

1. Gen. Farmer 11: 191 fig. 1850. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 55. 1856. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 211. 1856. 3. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:54. 1858, 4. Ill. Handb. 167 fig., 168. 1860. 5. Thornas Guide Prat. 17, 204. 1876. 6. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:379-382, fig 1877.
D'Aremberg. 7. Lond. Hort, Soc. Cat. 45. 1831. 8. Kenrick Am. Orch. 215. 1835.
Hortense. 9. Elliott Fr. Book 196, 197 fig. 1854. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Cal. 27. 1909.

Were there not so many good Duke varieties of its season Reine Hortense would take high rank among hybrid cherries. Several qualities fit it admirably for home and somewhat for commercial plantations. To begin with, it is most excellent in quality, its flavor being a commingling of the refreshing acidity of the Sour Cherry and the richness of the Sweet Cherry, though to some there may be a little too much acidity for a first class dessert fruit. The cherries are also handsome - large, round, bright, glossy red with a shade of amber and very uniform in size, color and shape. The fruit is especially attractive on the tree as it hangs on long stems in twos and threes thickly scattered and never much clustered. Unfortunately the fruit does not stand handling in harvesting and marketing quite as well as that of some other Dukes and is a little too susceptible to brown-rot for a good commercial cherry. The chief faults of the variety, however, are in the trees rather than in the fruit. The trees are but of medium size, are not as productive as some others of the hybrid sorts, are at their best only in choice cherry soils and demand good care. In Europe, Reine Hortense is much used as a dwarf and for training on walls. It would seem that its merits and faults, as it grows in America, are such as fit it preeminently well only for the amateur.

Of the several accounts of the origin of Reine Hortense the one giving France as its home and Larose as its originator is here accepted as authentic, M. Larose of Neuilly-sur-Seine, Seine, a gardener of the imperial court, grew the original tree early in the Nineteenth Century from a seed of the Cerise Larose, a seedling of his introduction. Soon after the first mention of this variety, about 1841, there appeared the Louis XVIII, Morestin, Guigne de Petit-Brie and several others. The variety was seemingly rechristened by every nurserseryman who got hold of it. At one time the name Monstreuse de Bavay was acceptable to many, it having been given to the variety by a Mr. Bavay of Vilvorde, Brabant, Belgium, about 1826. The theory that Reine Hortense comes true to seed and therefore has several strains has been discredited. The American Pomological Society recognized Reine Hortense in 1856, only a few years after being introduced into this country, by placing it on the recommended fruit list. In 1909, the Society shortened the name from Reine Hortense to Hortense but in this text we prefer to use the full name, thereby indicating clearly the person for whom the cherry was christened. Tree of medium size, upright-spreading, productive: tnink shaggy; branches smooth, dark reddish-brown covered with ash-gray, with a few large lenticels; brancmets rather slender, with short internodes, brown partly overspread with ash-gray, smooth, with inconspicuous, raised lenticels.

Leaves numerous, four and one-half inches long, two and one-half inches wide, folded upward, oval to obovate, thin; upper surface dark green, rugose; lower surface light green, pubescent along the midrib; apex taper-pointed, base abrupt; margin coarsely serrate, with dark glands; petiole one inch long, tinged with red, pubescent along the grooved upper surface, with none or with from one to four small, globose, greenish-yellow or brownish glands, usually at the base of the blade.

Buds large, long-pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds and in small clusters on few long spurs; blooms appearing in mid-season; flowers white, one and one fourth inches across; borne in dense clusters usually in threes; pedicels one inch long, slender, glabrous; calyx-tube with a tinge of red, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes long, acuminate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals roundish, entire, sessile, with entire apex; filaments one-fourth of an inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit matures in mid-season; nearly one inch in diameter, oblong-conic to obtuse conic, compressed; cavity somewhat sharow, narrow, abrupt, often lipped; suture indistinct; apex roundish with a small depression at the center; color amber-red; dots numerous, light russet, conspicuous; stem tortuous, slender, one and one-half inches long, adherent to the fruit; skin tcnder, separating from the pulp; flesh pale yellow, with colorless juice, tender and melting, sprightly subacid; of very good quality; stone free, rather large, oblong to oval, flattened, blunt, with smooth surfaces.  [Reine Hortense in 'Cherries of Utah']

ROYAL DUKE                          TOP                                                                               HOME
Prunus avium X Prunus cerasus

1. Mag. Hort. 9:204, 205. 1843. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 192. 1845. 3. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 369. 1849. 4. McIntosh Bk. Gard. 2:543. 1855. 5. Thompson Gard. Ass't 530. 1859. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 12. 1871. 7. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:125, 126, fig. 63. 1882. 8. Hogg Fruit Man. 311. 1884.
Royale d'Angleterre. 9. Christ Obstbäume 159. 1791.
Cerise Royale. 10. Christ Woerterb. 284. 1802. 11. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 40 fig. 1906.
Koenigskirsche. 12. Truchsess Heim Kirschensort. 422, 423, 424. 1819.
Ungarische Suessweichsel. 13. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:51. 1858.
Anglaise Hative 14. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:161-163, fig. 42. 1866. 15. Mas Le Verger 8:83, 84, fig. 40. 1866-73. 16. Pom. France 7,: NO. 24, P1. 24, 1871. 17. Guide Prat. 17, 180. 1895.
Belle de Worsery. 18. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:181. 1866. 19. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:39, 40, fig. 20. 1882.

Royal Duke has a place in the cherry flora to follow in season the well-known May Duke and to precede another standard sort, Late Duke. It is so nearly like these two sorts, except in season, and so similar to Arch Duke, as well, that there is much difficulty in getting the variety true to name. It is more often taken for May Duke than for the other kinds named but it differs from this well-known sort in being a little later in season, and the cherries are larger, a little lighter in color, do not hang as thickly, being scattered along the branches, often singly, and are more oblate. The trees are markedly upright and the foliage is very dense. None of the Dukes are popular in America for market fruits and this is no exception though, among all, Royal Duke is as good as any - pleasantly flavored, juicy, refreshing and very good. The trees, too, are very satisfactory. The variety has a place in home orchards and for local markets. The French say that the tree makes a very weak growth budded on the Mahaleb and that it should be worked on the Mazzard, which is generally true of all Dukes. The buyer will have difficulty in getting the true Royal Duke in America.

The origin of this variety is unknown but the Royale d'Angleterre, mentioned by Christ in 1791, was probably the variety now known as Royal Duke, although the description is too meager to be certain. According to Thompson, Royal Duke was one of the varieties formerly cultivated in England under the names Late Duke, Arch Duke, or Late Arch Duke and was probably introduced by the London Horticultural Society from France under the name of Anglaise Tardive. When or by whom this variety was introduced into America is not known but according to Downing it was very rarely found here in the first half of the Nineteenth Century. The American Pomological Society placed Royal Duke upon its catalog list of recommended fruits in 1871.

Tree of mediurn size, vigorous, upright, vasiform, unproductive at this Station; trunk slender, roughish; branches stocky, with roughened surface, dark reddish-brown covered with ash-gray, with lenticels of medium number and size; branchlets stout, long, brown partly overspread with ash-gray, smooth except for the lenticels which are inconspicuous.

Leaves numcrous, variable in size, averaging four and one-half inches long, two inches wide, folded upward, oval to obovate; upper surface dark green, slightly rugose; lower surface medium green, pubescent along the midrib; apex abruptly pointed, base acute; margin serrate or crenate; petiole variable in length, often one and one-half inches long, not uniform in thickness, tinged with red, glandless or with one or two small, reniform, greenish-yellow or reddish glands, usually at the base of the blade.

Buds rather small, pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds and in very dense clusters on numerous short spurs; leaf-scars obscure; time of bloom mid-season; flowers white, one inch across; borne in very dense clusters, closely grouped in fours and fives; pedicels over one-half inch long, glabrous, green; calyx-tube green or with a tinge of red, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes with a trace of red, acute, serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals roundish, entire, sessile, apex entire; filaments nearly one fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, longer than the stamens.

Fruit matures early; three-fourths inch in diameter, oblate, compressed; cavity rather narrow, abrupt, regular; suture a mere line; apex flattened or depressed; color bright red becoming darker at maturity; dots few, small, obscure; stem one and one-half inches long, adhering to the fruit; skin thin, rather tough, separating from the pulp; flesh pale yellowish-white with tinge of red, pinkish juice, tender, sprightly, pleasantly acid; good to very good in quality; stone semi-free, small, ovate, slightly flattened, with smooth surfaces.  [Royal Duke in 'Cherries of Utah']

WATERLOO               TOP                                                                                   HOME
Prunus avium X (Prunus avium X Prunus cerasus)

1. Prince Treat. Hort. 29. 1828. 2. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 56. 1831. 3. Prince Pom. Man. 2: 118. 1832. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 178. 1845. 5. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 101, 102. 1846.
6. Elliott Fr. Book 213, 214. 1854. 7. Hogg Fruit Man. 314. 1884.

This old sort, seemingly well thought of in Europe, has not been popular in America and has only historical value to cherry-growers of this country. It is an interesting cherry resembling the Bigarreaus in tree and leaf-characters while the flowers are more like those of the Dukes, the fruit, too, taking on more the aspect of the Dukes than of the Sweet Cherry. The variety has long since passed from general cultivation in the United States and can now be found only in collections or as an occasional dooryard tree.

This cherry was raised early in the Nineteenth Century by T.A. Knight, Downton Castle, Wiltshire, England, and first fruited in 1815, shortly after the Battle of Waterloo, hence its name. It was supposed to be a cross between Yellow Spanish and May Duke. The variety was brought to this country by Honorable John Lowell of Newton, Massachusetts, though it was described by Prince in 1828 from European fruit books. The following description is compiled:

Tree vigorous, thrifty, rather irregular and spreading, productive; branchlets thick, stocky, grayish; leaves large, drooping, wavy; margin slightly serrate; flowers large; stamens shorter than the pistil.

Fruit matures the last of June or early in July; large, obtuse-cordate, broad at the base, convex on one side, flattened on the other; stem one and one-half to two inches in length, slender; color dark purplish-red becoming nearly black at maturity; skin thin; flesh purplish-red becoming darker next to the stone, firm but tender, juicy, fine flavored, sweet; good in quality; stone separating readily from the pulp, small, roundish-ovate, compressed.