TREE AND FRUIT CHARACTERS OF THE CHERRY                                     HOME

Species of cherries have very characteristic trees. The merest glance at the tree enables one to tell the Sweet Cherry, Prunus avium, from the Sour Cherry, Prunus cerasus. The first named is the larger of the two, especially reaching a greater height, is pyramidal in shape, with branches erect and bearing much less foliage than the Sour Cherry. The Sweet Cherry often lives for a century or more -the Sour Cherry attains but the three score years and ten of man. Prunus cerasus is easily distinguished from Prunus avium by its comparatively low, roundish and never pyramidal head. So, too, many of the varieties of either of these two species are readily told in the orchard by the size or habit of the plant.

Other species are either shrubby or tree-like and their varieties may often be identified from the spaciousness or dwarfness of its trees. Size is rather more valuable than other gross characters because of the influence of environment- food, moisture, light, isolation pests and the like -yet size in a plant, or in the parts of a plant, is a very reliable character when proper allowances have been made for environment.

Habit of growth, unlike size, varies but little with changing conditions and thus becomes a most important means of distinguishing species and varieties and not infrequently sets the seal and sign of desirability for an orchard cherry. More than any other character, habit of growth gives what is called "aspect "to a cherry tree. Thus, a species or a variety may be upright, spreading, round-topped, drooping or weeping in habit of growth; the head may be open or dense and may be formed by a central shaft with several whorls of branches or by three or four trunk-like stems each with its scaffolding branches. The trees may grow rapidly or slowly and may be long-lived or short-lived. The trunks may be short and stocky, or long and slender, straight or crooked, gnarled or smooth, these characters often determining whether a cherry is manageable or unmanageable in the orchard.

The degree of hardiness is a very important diagnostic character for groups of cherries and often wholly indicates their value for agriculture. Thus, the varieties of Prunus avium are but little hardier than the peach while those of Prunus cerasus are as hardy or hardier than the apple. The range of varieties as to hardiness falls within that of the species and it is interesting to note that in Europe, where the wild Prunus avium is very common, in the many centuries since the fruit has been under domestication, a cultivated variety hardier than the wild Sweet Cherry has not been developed. Cherries are designated in the technical descriptions as hardy, half-hardy and tender.

Productiveness, age of bearing, and regularity of bearing are distinctive and valuable characters of orchard cherries but not of wild cherries. The care given the tree greatly influences fruitfulness, yet the quantity of fruit produced is often a helpful means of identifying a variety and is a character that must always be considered by the plant-breeder. Age of bearing and regularity of bearing are most important characters with the pome fruits, the apple, in particular, but while worth considering with the drupes are of relatively little value, all drupaceous fruits coming in bearing at about the same time for the species and all bearing regularly, as a rule, unless interfered with by some outside agency preventing the setting or causing the dropping of fruit.

Immunity and susceptibility to diseases and insects are valuable taxonomic characters of both species and varieties of cultivated cherries.

Thus, the varieties of Prunus cerasus are very susceptible to black knot (Plowrightia morbosa), while those of Prunus avium are almost immune. On the other hand, Prunus avium is an inviting prey to San Jose scale (Aspidiotus perniciosus), while Prunus cerasus is but little injured, indeed, seldom, attacked; Prunus mahaleb appears to be almost wholly immune to the powdery mildew (Podosphaera oxyacanthae), while Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus are much attacked, though Wood, a variety of Prunus avium, is almost immune. The English Morello, a variety of Prunus cerasus, is very subject to leaf spot (Cylindrosporium padi), while Montmorency, of the same species, is nearly immune. These examples can be multiplied many times by references to the discussions of varieties, and represent only observations on the grounds and in the -neighborhood of this Station. They serve to show the great importance, to the fruit- grower, the plant-breeder and the systematist, of natural resistance to disease and insects.

Both the outer and the inner bark have considerable value in determining species but are of little importance in identifying varieties and have no economic value to the fruit-grower and hence but little to the breeder. Smoothness, color, thickness and manner of exfoliation are the attributes of the outer bark to be noted, while the color of the inner bark is the only determinant and that relatively unimportant. In young trees the bark of the cherry of all species is smooth, glossy or even brilliant; but later it becomes uneven, scaly and dull, usually ash-gray but varying in all of these characters to an extent well worth noting for taxonomic purposes. Cherries, in common with most trees, have a lighter colored bark in cold than in warm regions, and in dry than in wet areas.

Branches and branchlets are very characteristic in both species and varieties. The length, thickness, direction, rigidity and the branching angle are valuable determining characters and very stable ones, changing but little even with marked variations of soil and climate. Thus, a Sweet Cherry tree can be told from a tree of the Sour Cherry, or the English Morello can be distinguished from Montmorency by branch characters as far as the outlines of the trees are discernible. Few cherries bear spines but all are more or less spurred and these spurs are quite characteristic even in varieties. With the branchlets the length of the internodes should be considered and their direction, whether straight or zigzag; also color, smoothness, amount of pubescence, size and appearance of the lenticels, the, presence of excrescences, are all to be noted in careful study though all are more or less variable, pubescence especially so, this character being too often relied upon in descriptions by European botanists and pomologists.

Leaf-buds vary greatly in different species in size, shape, color of the buds and of their outer and inner scales and in the outline of the scales. The angle at which the bud stands out from the branchlet is of some taxonomic value. Vernation, or the disposition of the leaf-blade in the bud, is a fine mark of distinction in separating the cherry from other stone-fruits and while all cherry leaves are supposed to be conduplicate, that is, folded by the midrib so that the two halves are face to face, yet there are slight but important differences in the conduplication of the leaves in both species and varieties. The manner of bearing buds whether single, in pairs, or in rosettes - must be taken into account, with species at least, and differences in shape and position of leaf and fruit-buds must be noted.

Leaves in their season are very evident and either collectively or individually are valuable determinants of species and varieties. Fruit-growers take little note of leaves, however, though they should be taken into practical account, since their size and number often indicate the degree of vigor. The variability of leaves is usually within limits easily set and occurs most often in young plants, in extremes of soit and climate, and on very succulent growths or water-sprouts. Leaf-size is the most variable character of this organ but is yet dependable in separating several species, as, for example, Prunus avium from Prunus cerasus, the leaves being very much larger in the former than in the latter species. Leaf-forms are very constant in species and varieties, hence especially valuable in classification.

Much care has been taken to illustrate accurately the size and form of cherry leaves in the color-plates in this text but it is impossible to reproduce by color-printing the tints of the leaves, though these are quite constant in both species and varieties.

Other characters of leaves taken into account in describing cherries are thickness, roughness, and pubescence, all of which are somewhat variable, being greatly influenced by climate and soil. Quite too much stress is laid upon the value of pubescence on leaves in determining groups, unless comparisons can be made between plants growing in the same habitat. Possibly more important than any other part of the leaf-blade, in the study of species at least, is the margin. This in the cherry is always serrated and often sub-serrated. These serrations are best studied at the middle of the sides of the leaves, those at the base and apex often being crowded or wanting.

The petiole may be used to good advantage in distinguishing both species and varieties. Thus, in consequence of the great length and slenderness of the petiole of leaves of Sweet Cherries, the leaves are always more or less drooping, while those of the Sour Cherry are usually erect by reason of the petiole being short and strong. The color of the petiole is said by some to be correlated with that of the fruit - a statement that needs verification. The pubescence of the petiole must be noted.

The position, size, shape and color of the glands on cherry leaves must be noted as they are fairly constant guides. They are usually on the petiole at the base of the leaf but are sometimes on the leaf itself. The glands are commonly given as globular or reniform in shape but there are often intermediate forms the shape of which is hard to classify.

Stipules in this plant have considerable taxonomic value, having some distinguishing marks not possessed by the leaves. Cherry leaves springing from dormant leaf-buds have very small stipules, sometimes so minute as hardly to be seen, but on the current year's growth the stipules are larger, being largest at the tip of the branchlet. There is considerable difference in the size of these organs in varieties of the same species. Stipules of the cherry are nearly always borne in pairs. The small stipules, appearing with the first leaves, drop, at this Station, about the middle of June while those accompanying the later leaves on the wood growth of the current year remain until in July, there being a difference in varieties as to how long they remain. All stipules are deeply rootbed and bear glands of varying color and shape on the serrations, the characters of both serrations and glands offering some distinguishing marks for species and varieties.

The flowers of cherries are very characteristic, as a study of the color-plates of blossoms will show, furnishing a wholly distinctive mark of species and helping to distinguish varieties. The flowers are hermaphrodites and are borne in more or less dense, corymbose clusters. Individual flowers in species and varieties vary in size, shape, color and odor. The peduncles are long or short, as the case may be; the corolla furnishes distinctions in size, shape and color of petals; the calyces are chiefly distinguished by their glands and the amount and character of the pubescence; while stamens and pistils, offer differences in size, color of their different parts and in the number of stamens. In plums the reproductive organs differ greatly in ability to perform their functions, some varieties being self-sterile. In New York there seem to be no marked differences in fecundity in cherries nor are there so frequently the malformations of reproductive organs which are found in plums. The season of flowering is a fine mark of distinction between species and varieties, a fact well brought out by the chart on pages 80-81.

Of all organs, the fruit of the cherry is -most responsive to changed conditions and hence most variable, yet the fruits furnish very valuable taxonomic characters in both botany and pomology. In pomology, in particular, the fruits must be closely studied. Size, shape, color, bloom, stem, cavity, apex, suture and skin are the outward characters of which note must be made; while the color, aroma, flavor and texture of the flesh are usually very characteristic. Both species and varieties are well distinguished by the time of ripening though there is much variation in ripening dates. The keeping quality is scarcely taken into account with cherries but varies a great deal, chiefly in accordance with firmness of the flesh. The flesh of cherries, as in all drupaceous fruits, clings to the stone or is wholly or partly free - a character of interest both to the systematist and to the fruit-grower. The color of the juice, whether colorless or red, is a plain and certain dividing line in both species and varieties.

The pits of cherries are rather more lacking in distinction than in other stone-fruits, plums for example, yet they must be accounted of considerable value in detemlination and for this reason have been included in all of the color-plates of varieties. Cherry-pits from individual trees are almost lacking in differences except in size but between species and varieties show many distinctions not only in size but in shape, surfaces, grooves and ridges, in the ends and more or less in the seeds within. Cherries of any variety grown on poor soils or in incongenial climates tend to have large stones and little flesh, white the pits are smaller and there is more flesh with the opposite extremes in environment. As will be pointed out in the discussion of the group of cherries known as the Dukes, many varieties have pits with shrunken and abortive seeds coming, as we think, from the hybrid origin of these cherries. The several pages given to the discussion of the characters of cherries are in preparation for a proper understanding of the classifications and descriptions of species and varieties. We are now ready for the classification of the species of cherries which contribute or may contribute forms for cultivation either for their fruits or as stocks upon which to grow edible cherries. The following is a brief conspectus of the edible species of Prunus followed by a fuller conspectus of the sub-genus Cerasus to which cherries belong.


The genus Prunus is variously delimited and divided by systematic botanists. A simple, and from a horticultural point of view, a very satisfactory classification, is to put almonds and peaches in one sub-genus (Amygdalus), cherries in a second (Cerasus), plums and apricots in a third (Euprunus), and to place the racemose cherries and cherry-laurels, usually considered in Prunus, in another genus, Padus. In this division of Prunus into three sub-genera we may assign to each the following characters.

A. Leaves convolute, i.e., roned in the bud (showing best in the opening buds).1

Euprunus. Plums and apricots.

A.A. Leaves conduplicate, i.e., folded lengthwise along the midrib in the bud.

B. Fruit more or less dry and hirsute; if juicy or glabrous the blossoms appear long before the opening of the leaves; fruits without stems.

Amygdalus. Almonds and peaches.

B.B. Fruit always juicy and usually glabrous; blooms appearing with the leaves.

Cerasus. Cherries.

Of these several divisions we are here concerned only with Cerasus, to which belong all fascicled cherries, the racemose, or Padus, cherries as yet having little or no value as esculents. The genus Prunus is from year to year being enlarged by the discovery of new species, the additions to Cerasus in particular being numerous. Thus, a decade ago, botanists placed in this sub-genus, at the outside, not more than a score of species but Koehne, the most recent monographer of Cerasus, describes 119 species. Of Koehne's species at least a dozen are more or less cultivated for their fruits and a score or more are grown as ornamentals. The following species are listed by Koehne: 2

1The leaves are conduplicate in venation in a few species of American plums; these species are intermediate between plums and cherries.

2 The species are given as classified by Koehne, Plantae Wilsonianae Pt. 2:237-271. 1912. The liberty has been taken of changing the form of Koehne's citations to conform to that used at this Station. For the sake of brevity some of the citations of the original author have been omitted. Space does not permit the publication of Koehne's system of classification. This may be found in Plantae Wilsonianae Pt. 2:226-237. 1912.

Conservative botanists will hardly accept all of Koehne's species, in describing which the author tells us he labored under the difficulty of paucity of material and that as more material comes to hand theremust, therefore, be revisions. These species are provisionally accepted in The Cherries of New York under the belief that botany and horticulture are best served by giving names freely so that all forms to which reference may need to be made may thus be better identified.

The botanical student of Cerasus is referred to Schneider's comprehensive disscussion of Prunus in his Handbuch der Laubholzkunde 1: 589-637. 1906 and 2:973-993; also Koehne's monographs of Cerasus, Sargent, C. S., Plantae Wilsonianae Pt. 2:197-271. 1912. Profitable though it might be, space does not permit in The Cherries of New York a botanical discussion of other than the species cultivated for their fruits.

Besides these well-recognized species of cultivated cherries there are several others that play a much less conspicuous part in horticulture. Prunus fruticosa Pallas, the Dwarf Cherry of Europe, is much cultivated, more especially its botanical variety pendula, as an ornamental and somewhat for its fruit. According to Wilson, Prunus involucrata Koehne is grown for its fruit in the gardens of China; the fruits, he says, are "small and lacking in flavour."The fruits of Prunus emarginata Walpers are eaten by the Indians on the Pacific Coast and the early settlers used the species as a stock for orchard cherries. Prunus jacquemoniii Hooker, the Dwarf Cherry of Afghanistan and Tibet, is occasionally in culture for its fruit and as a park plant; so also is another dwarf cherry from southwestem Asia, Prunus incana Steven. Prunus pseudocerasus Lindley, the Flowering Cherry of Japan, is a well-known ornamental the world over and in Japan is used as a stock for orchard cherries for which purpose, as we have suggested in the discussion of stocks, it ought to be tried in America.

Wilson, E.H. A Naturalist in Western China 2:27- 1913.


Div.1. TYPOCERASUS Koehne.
Subsect. 1. MAHALEB Koehne.

Cerasus sect. Mahaleb Roemer. Fam. Nat. SYn- 3:79- 1847.
Prunus subgen. Cerasus sect, Mahaleb Koehne. Deutsche Dendr. 305. 1893.

Ser. 1. EUMAHALEB Koehne.
1. Prunus mahaleb Linnaeus- SP. P1. 472. 1753. Europe, Western Asia.

Ser. 2. PARAMAHALEB Koehne.
2. Prunus mollis Walpers. Rep. 2:9. Western North America.
3. Prunus emarginata Walpers- Rep. 2:9. Western North America.
Cerasus californica Greene. Fl. Francis 1:50.
4. Prunus pennsylvanica Linnaeus. Syst. ed 13 SUPPL 252. Eastern North America.

Subsect. 2. EUCERASUS Koehne.
Prunus sect. Eucerasus Koehne. Deutsche Dendr. 306. i&93.

5. Prunus fruticosa Pallas. Fl. Ross. 1: 19. 1784. Europe to Siberia,
6. Prunus acida C. Koch. Dendr. 1: 112. 1869. Southern Europe.
7. Prunus cerasus Linnaeus. SP. P1. 474. 1753. Europe, Western Asia.
8. Prunus avium Linnaeus. Fl. Svec. ed 2:165. 1755. Europe, Western Asia.

Subsect. 3. PHYLLOMAHALEB Koehne.
Ser. 1. APHANADENIUM Koehne.

9. Prunus maximowiczii Ruprecht. Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg 15: 131. 1857.
Prunus bracteata Franchet & Savatier. Enum. P1. Jap. 2:329. 1879.
Prunus apetala Zabet. Illust, Deutsch. Dendr. Ges. 13:60 (not Franchet & Savatier) 1904. Amur, eastern Manchuria, Korea, Saghalin, Japan from Hokkaido to Kiushiu.
Prunus maximowiczii aperta Komarow. Act. Hort. Petrop. 22:5, 48. 1904. Manchuria from the Ussuri through Kirin to Mukden and northern Korea
10. Prunus pulchella Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:197. 1912. Western Hupeh.

Ser. 2. MACRADENIUM Koehne.
11. Prunus conadenia Koehne. L C. 197. IV Westem Szechuan.
12. Prunus pleiocerasus Koehne. l.c. 198. Western Szechuan.
13. Prunus macradenia Koehne. l.c. 199, Western Szechuan.
14. Prunus discadenia Koehne. l.c. 200. Western Hupeb.
15. Prunus szechuanica Batalin. Act. Hort. PetroP. 24:167. 1895. Szechuan.

Subsect. 4. PHYLLOCERASUS Koehne.
16. Prunus tatsienensis Batalin. Act. Hort. Petrop. 14:322. 1897. Szechuan.
Prunus tatsienensis adenophora (Franchet) Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:238. 1912.
Prunus maximowiczii adenophora Franchet. P1. Delavay. 195. 1889. Yunnan.
Prunus tatsienensis stenadenia Roehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:201. 1912. Western Szechuan.
17. Prunus variabilis Koehne. l.c. 201. Western Hupeh.
18. Prunus pilosiuscula (Schneider) Koehne. l.c. 202.
Prunus tatsienensis pilosiuscula Schneider. Fedde Rep. Nm. Sp. r:66. 190.5. Western Hupeh anci Szechuan.
19. Prunus polytricha Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:204. 1912. Western Hupeh.
20. Primus rehderiana Koehne. l.c. 205. Western Hupeh.
21. Prunus venusta Koehne. l.c. 239. Western Hupeh.
22. Prunus litigiosa Schneider. Fedde Rep. Nov. Sp. 1:65. 1905. Hupeh.
Prunus litigiosa abbreviata Koehne. Plant. Was. Pt. 2:205. 1912. Western Hupeh,
23. Prunus clarofolia Schneider. Fedde Rep. Nov. Sp. 1:67. 1905. Szechuan.

subsect. 5. PSEUDOMAHALEB Koehne.
24. Prunus yunnanensis Franchet. P1. Delavay. 195. 1889. Yunnan.
25. Prunus macgregoriana Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:240. 1912. Western Hupeh.
26. Prunus henryi (Schneider) Koehne. l.c. 240.
Prunus yunnanensis henryi C. K. Schneider. Fedde Rep. Nov. Sp. 1:66 (in part) 1905. Yunnan.
27. Prunus neglecta Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:241. l912.
Prunus yunnanensis henryi C. K. Schneider. Fedde Rep. Nov. Sp. 1:66 (in part) 190s. Yunnan.

Subsect. 6. LOBOPETALUM Koehne.
Ser. 1. HETEROCalyx Koehne.
28. Prunus scopulorum Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:241. 1912. Western Hupeh.
29. Prunus glabra (Pampanini) Koehne.
Prunus hirtipes glabra Pampanini. Nuov. Giorn. Bot. Ital. 17:293. 1910; 18:122. 1911. Hupeh.
30. Prunus involucrata Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:206. 1912. Western Hupeh.
31. Prunus hirtipes Hemsley. Jour. Linn. SOC. 2.3:218. 1887.
32. Prunus schneideriana Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:242. 1912. Chekiang.
33. Prunus duclouxii Koehne. l.c. 242. Yunnan.
34. Prunus ampla Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:243. 1912. Szechuan.
35. Prunus malifolia Koehne. l.c. 207. Westem Hupeh.
Prunus malifolia rosthornii Koehne. l.c. 243. Szechuan.

Ser. 2. CYCLAMINIUM Koehne.
36. Prunus cyclamina Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:207. 1912. Western Hupeh
Prunus cyclamina biflora Koehne. l.c. 243. Western China.
37. Prunus dielsiana Schneider. Fedde Rep. Nov. Sp. 1:68. 1905.
"P. szechuanica, var.? "or "P. szechuanicadielsiana Schneider,"1. c., not P. szechuanica Batalin. Hupeh.
Prunus dielsiana laxa Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:208, 1912. Western Hupeh.
Prunus dielsiana conferta Koehne. l.c. 244. Western Hupeh.
38. Prunus plurinervis Koehne. l.c. 208. Western Szechuan.
39. Prunus rufoides Schneider. Fedde Rep. Nov, Sp. 1:55. 1905. Szechuan.
40. Prunus hirtifolia Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:209. 1912. Western Szechuan.

Sect. 2. pseudocerasus Koehne.
Prunus subgen. Cerasus sect. Yamasakura Koidzumi. Tokyo Bot. Mag. 25:183. 1911
Subsect 7. HYPADENIUM Koehne.
41. Prunus glandulifolia Ruprecht & Maximowicz. Mem. Sav. Etr. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg 9:87 (Prim. Fl. Amur.) 1859. Amur.

Subsect. 8. SARGENTIELLA Koehne.
42. Prunus pseudocerasus Lindley. Trans. Hort. Soc. Lond. 6:90. 1826. Cultivated in China.
Cerasus pseudocerasus G. Don. London Hort. Brit. 200. 1830.
Prunus sieboldii Koidzumi. Tokyo Bot. Mag. 25:184. 1911.
Prunus pseudocerasus sieboldii Maximowicz. Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg 29:102.
Prunus paniculata Ker. Bot. Reg. 10: t. 800. 1824, not Prunuspaniculata Thunberg.
Cerasus paniculata De Candolle. Prodr. 2:539. 1825.
Cerasus sieboldii Carriere. Rev. Hort. 371. 3866.
Prunus sieboldii Wittmack. Gartenfl. 51:272. 1902.
Prunus pseudocerasus serrulata sieboldtii Makino. Tokyo Bot. Mag. 22:102. 1908?
Prunus serrulata serrulata sieboldtii Makino. 1.c.23:74. 1909.
Prunus pseudocerasus typica sieboldii Koidzumi. l.c. 182.
Prunus pseudocerasus flore roseo pleno Koehne. (Horticultural)
Prunus pseudocerasus naden Koehne. (Horticultural)
Prunus pseudocerasus watereri Koehne. l.c. 172. 1909.
Cerasus wattererii, cited by Lavallee Icon. Arb. Segrez. 119. 1885, as a synonym under Cerasus pseudocerasus?
Cerasus watereri Goldring. Garden 33:416, fig. p. 420. 1888?
Prunus serrulata serrulata watterii Makino. Tokyo Bot. Mag. 23:75. 1909? (Horticultural)
Prunus pseudocerasus virescens Koehne.
Prunus donarium Siebold. Rijks-Herbarium, Leyden.
43. Prunus paracerasus Koehne. Fedde Rep. Nov. SP. 7:133. 1909. Japan. (Horticultural)
44. Prunus serrulata Lindley. Traw. Hort.Soc.London7:138. 1830.
Prunus cerasus flore simiplici Thunberg. F1.Jap.201. 1784.
Prunus donarium Siebold. Verh. Batav.Genoot. 12:No.l. 68(Syn. Pl. Oecon.) 1827.
Prunus jamasakura Siebold. l.c. 1827.
Cerasus serrulata G. Don. Loudon Hort. Brit. 490. 1830,
Prunus puddum Miquel. Ann. Mus. Lugd..Bat. 2:90, (in Part, not Wallich) 1865.
Prunus pseudocerasus jamasakura glabra Makino. Tokyo Bot. Mag.22:93. 1809.
Prunus pseudocerasus jamasakura praecox Makino, 1.C. 98. 1908.
Prunus pseudocerasus jamasakura glabrapraecox Makino. l.c. 113.
Prunus pseudocerasus serrulata glabra Makino. l.c. 101
Prunus pseudocerasus spontanea hortenesis Koidzumi. l.c. 23:183. 1909.
Prunus cerasus flore pleno Thunberg. F1.Jap. 201. 1784.
Prunus serrulata Lindley. cf . supra.
Cerasus serrulata G.Don. Loudon Arb.Brit. 2:701 fig.407. 1833.
Cerasus pseudocerasus Lavallee. Icon.Arb.Segrez.119: t.36. 1885,(ubi citatur: Cerasus maeda h.).
Prunus pseudocerasus serrulata glabra fugenzo Makino. Tokyo Bot.Mag.22:73. 1908.
Prunus serrulata serrulata fugenzo rosea Makino. 1.c.23:74. 1909.
Prunus jamasakura elegans glabra Koidzurni. 1.C.25:185. 1911.
Prunus jamasakura speciosa Koidzumi. l.c.186. Japan,Korea.
Prunus serrulata albida (Makino) Koehne.
Prunus pseudocerasus hortenesis flore simiplicialbo Maxirnowicz. Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg 29:102.
Prunus pseudocerasus Stapf. Bot. Mag. 131: t. 8012. 1905.
Prunus pseudocerasus serrulata sieboldiialbida Makino. Tokyo Bot. Mag. 22:102. 1908.
Prunus serrulata serrulata albida Makino. l.c. 23:74. 1909.
Prunus serrulata yashino Koehne. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Ges. 18:167, 1909.
Prunus pseudocerasus yoshino Koehne. (Horticultural)
Prunus serrulata lannesiana (Carriere) Koehne. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Ges. 18: 167. 1909.
Cerasus lannesiana Carriere. Rev. hort. 198. 1872.
Prunus pseudocerasus hortensis flore simiplicicarneo Maximowicz. Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg 29: l02.
Prunus serrulata serrulata lannesiana Makino. Tokyo Bot. Mag. 23:74. 1909.
Prunus jamasakura speciosa noblis Koidzumi. 1.C. 25:187. 1911.
Prunus serrulata kriegeri Koehne. Gartenfl. 52:2 (nomen nudum) 1902.
Cerasus pendula kriegeri F. Spath ex Koehne.
Prunus serrulata grandiflora A. Wagner. Gartenfl. 52:169, t, 1513a. 1903.
Prunus pseudocerasus hortenesis flore plenoviridi Maximowicz. Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg 29: 102.
Prunus pseudocerasus serrulata glabra viridiflora Makino. Tokyo Bot. Mag, 22-102. 1908.
Prunus serrulata serrulata viridiflora Makino. l.c. 23-74. 1909.
Cerasus donarium Siebold. Rijks. Herbariurn, Leyden.
Prunus pseudocerasus ukon Koehne. (Horticultural)
Prunus serrulata ochichima Koehne. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Ges. 18; 169. 19N.
Prunus serrulata serrulata fugenzo, 2. alborosea Makino. Tokyo Bot. Mag. 23:74. 1909.
Prunus pseudocerasus ochichima Koehne. (Horticultural)
Prunus pseudocerasus shirofugen Koehne. (Horticultural)
Prunus serrulata hisakura Koehne. Gartenfl. 51: 2, t. 1494 b. 1902.
Cerasus caproniana flore roseo pleno VanHoutte. fl. des. Serres 21: 141. t. 2238. 1875.
Cerasus serratifolia rosea Carriere. Rev. hort. 889, t. fig. B. 1877.
Prunus pseudocerasus hortenesis flore semiplenoroseo Maximowicz. Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg 11: 699. 1883.
Prunus pseudocerasus hisakura Koehne. (Horticultural)
Prunus pseudocerasus benifugen Koehne. (Horticultural)
Prunus pseudocerasus "New Red." Koehne. (Horticultural)
Prunus serrulata "W. Kou." Koehne. (Horticultural)
Prunus jamasakura speciosa nobilis donarium Koidzumi. Tokyo Bot. Mag. 25:187. 1911.
Prunus serrulata veitchiana Koehne. FeddeRep. Nov.SP.9'122. 1911.
Cerasus pseudocerasus"JamesVeitch."Gartenfl. 51:497. 1902. (Horticultural)
Prunus serrulata mucronata Kochne. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr.Ges.: 8:170. 1909.
Prunus pseudocerasus hortenesis flore pulcherrimoplenacandido Maximowicz. Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg 29:102.
Prunus cerasus flore roseo pleno Koehne. (Horticultural)
Prunus serrulata flore pleno Koehne. (Horticultural)
Prunus serrulata shidare-sakura Koehne, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Ges. 18: 170. 1909.
Prunus pseudocerasus hortensis flore carneosuffuso Maximowicz. Bld. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg 20: 102.
Prunus pseudocerasus shidare-sakura Koehne. (Horticultural)
44 x 88 ? Prunus affinis Makino. Prunus pseudocerasusjamasakura x incisa? Makino, Tokyo Bot. Mag, 22:99. 1908. Japan.
45. Prunus sargentii Rehder. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendro. Ges. 17:159. 1908.
Prunus puddum Miquel. Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. 2:90 (in part, not Wallich) 1865.
Prunus pseudocerasus sachalinensis F. Schmidt. Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg ser. 7, 12: No. 2. 124.
Prunus pseudocerasus spontanea Maximowicz. Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg 29.102.
Prunus mume crasseglandulosa Miquel. Rijks.Herbarium, Leyden.
Prunus pseudocerasus Sargent. Garden and Forest 10:462, fig. 58 (not Lindley) 1897.
Prunus Sp. Zabel. Beissner, Schelle & Zabel Handb. Laubholz.Ben. 241. 1903.
Prunus pseudocerasus borealis Makino. Tokyo Bot. Mag. 22:99. 1908.
Prunus serrulata borealis Makino. l.c. 23:75. 1909.
Prunus pseudocerasus spontanea Koidzumi. l.c. 182.
Prunus jamasakura elegans compta Koidzumi. 1.C.25:186. 191l.
Prunus jamasakura borealis Koidzumi. 1.c.187. Korea, Saghalin,Japan.
46. Prunus tenuiflora Koehne. PlantWilS.Pt.2:209. 1912. WesternHupeh.
47. Prunus wildeniana Koehne. 1.C.249. Hupeh.
48. Prunus leveilleana Koehne. 1.C.250. Korea.
49. Prunus sontagae Koehne. 1.c.250. Korea.
50. Prunus mesadenia Koehne. 1.c.250. Nippon.
51. Prunus parvifolia (Matsumura) Koehne. l.c. 251.
Prunus pseudocerasus parvifolia Matsumura. Tokyo Bot. Mag. 15: 101. 190l.
Prunus pseudocerasus typica parvifolia Koidzumi. l.c. 23:182. 1909.
Prunus jamasakura elegans parvifolia Koidzumi. 1.C.25:186. 1911. Japan.
Prunus parvifolia aomoriensis Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:251. 1912. Northern Nippon.
52. Prunus concinna Koehne. l.c. 210. Western Hupeh.
53. Prunus twymaniana Koehne. l.c. 211. Western Szechuan.

Subsect. 9. CONRADINIA Koehne.
54. Prunus conradinae Koehne Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:211. 1912. Western Hupeh.
55. Prunus helenae Koehne. 1.C. 212. Western Hupeh.
56. Prunus saltuum Koehne. 1.C. 213. Western Hupeh.
57. Prunus pauciflora Bunge. Mem. Etr.Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg 2:97 ((Enum. Chin. Bor.) 1835. Chili.
58. Prunus sprengeri Pampanini. Nuov. Giorn. Bot. Ital. 18:230. 1911. Hupeh.
59. Prunus yedoensis Matsumura. Tokyo Bot. Mag. 15: 100. 1901. Cultivated in the gardens of Tokyo.

Subsect. 10. serrula Koehne.
60. Prunus majestica Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:252. 1912.
Prunus puddum Franchet, P1. Delavay. 197 (not Roxburgh following Brandis) 1889.
Prunus cerasoides tibetica Schneider. Fedde Fep. Nov. Sp. 1:54 (in part) 1905. Yunnan.
61. Prunus serrula Franchet. P1. Delvay. 196. 1889. Yunnan.
Prunus serrula tibetica (Batalin) Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:213. 1912. Western Szechuan.
Subsect. 11. puddum Koehne.
62. Prunus campanulata Maximowicz. Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg 29. 103.
Prunus cerasus Koidzumi. Tokyo Bot. Mag. 23:181 (in Part, -not D. Don) 1909. Fokien.
Cultivated in Japan.
63. Prunus hasseusii Diels. Fedde Rep. Nov. SP. 4:289. 1907. Siam.
64. Prunus cerasoides D. Don. Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 239. 1825.
Prunus silvatica Roxburgh. Hort. Beng. 92. 1814.
Cerasus phoshia Hamilton. De Candolle Prody. 2:535. 1825.
Cerasus puddum Seringe. De Candolle Prody. 2:537. 1825.
Prunus puddum Roxburgh. Forest Fl. Brit. Ind. 194. 1874. Nepal.
65. Prunus rufa Steudel. Nomencl. Bot. 2:404. 1841.
Cerasus rufa Wallich. Cat. No. 721. 1829. Eastern Himalaya.
66. Prunus trichantha Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:254. 1912.
Prunus rufa Hooker. Fl. Brit. Ind. 2:314 (in part) 1878. Eastem Himalaya.

Subsect. 12. MICROCALYMMA Koehne.
67. Prunus herincquiana Lavallee. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:214. 1912. Western Hupeb.
Prunus herincquiana biloba (Franchet) Koehne. Western Hupeh.
Prunus biloba Franchet in Herb. Paris. China.
68. Prunus subhirtella Miquel. Ann. Mus. Lugd..Bat. 2:91. 1865.
Prunus subhirtella oblongifolia Miquel. 1. c.
Prunus incisa Maximowicz. B14. Sci. Acad. St. Petersburg 29:99.
Prunus pendula ascendens Makino. Tokyo Bot. Mag. 7: I 03. 1893?
Prunus herincquiana ascendens Schneider. Ill. Handb. Laubholz. 1:608. 1906.
Prunus itosakra subhirtella Koidzumi. Tokyo Bot. Mag. 23:180. 1908. Japan.
Prunus subhirtella fukubana Makino. Tokyo Bot. Mag. 22:118. 1909.
Prunus itosakra ascendens amabilis Koidzumi. 1.C.23:181. 1909?
69. Prunus pendula Maximowicz. Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg 29:98.
Prunus itosakura Siebold. Verh. Batav. Genoot. 12: No. 1, 68. 1830.
Cerasus pendula flore roseo Siebold. Cat. 5:3,. 1863, Maximowicz.
Cerasus pendula rosea Dombrain. Floral Mag. 10. t. 536. 1871.
Prunus subhirtella pendula Tanaka. Useful Pl. Jap. 153, fig. 620. 1895.
Cerasus itosakura Siebold. Herb., Maximowicz. 1. c.
Cerasus herincquiana Lavallee. Icon. Arb. Segrez. 117. 1885.
Prunus miqueliana Schneider. 111. Handb. Laubholz. 1:609 (not Maximowicz) 1906.
Prunus herincquiana Schneidcr. l.c. 608.
Cerasus pendula Siebold in herb.,Koehne. 1. c.
Prunus cerasus pendula flore roseo Koehne. l.c. (Horticultural)
Prunus itosakra pendula Koidzumi. Tokyo Bot. Mag. 23:180. 1909. Japan.
70. Prunus taiwaniana Hayata. Jour. Coll. Sci. Tokyo 30:87. 1911. Formosa.
71. Prunus microlepis Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:256. 1912. Hondo.
Prunus microlepis ternata Koehne. l.c. 256. Hondo.

Subsect. 13. Ceraseidos (Siebold & Zuccarini) Koehne.
Ceraseidos Siebold & Zuccarini. Abh. Akad. Mimh. 3:743 t- 5. 1843.

72. Prunus setalosa Batalin. Act. Hort. Petrop. 12: 165. 1892. Eastern Kansu.
73. Prunus phyllopoda Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt 2:257. 1912. Northem Shensi.
74. Prunus canescens Bois. l.c. 215. Western Hupeh.
75. Prunus veitchii Koehne. L C. 257. Western Hupeh.

76. Prunus giraldiana Schneider. Fedde Rep. Nov. Sp. 1:65. 1905. Northern Shensi.
77. Prunus droseracea Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:215. 1912. Western Szechuan.

Ser. 3. OXYODON.
78. Prunus trichostoma Koehne. l.c. 216. Western Szechuan.
79. Prunus latidentata Koehne. l.c. 217. Western Szechuan.
80. Prunus micromeloides Koehne. L C. 218. Western Szechuan.
81. Prunus oxyodonta Koehne. l.c. 218. Western Szechuan.
82. Prunus glyptocarya Koehne. l.c. 219. Western Szechuan
83. Prunus pododenia Koehne. l.c. 258. Western China.
84. Prunus lobulata Koehne. l.c. 220. Western Szechuan.
85. Prunus stipulacea Maximowicz. Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg 11:689. 1883. Kansu.
86. Prunus pleuroptera Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:221. 191l. Western Szechuan.
87. Prunus zappeyana Koehne. l.c. 221. Western Hupeh.
Prunus zappeyana? subsimplex Koehne. l.c. 222. Western Hupeh.
88. Prunus incisa Thunberg. Fl. jap. 202. 784.
Cerasus incisa Loiseleur. Nouveau Duhamel 5:33. 1812.
Cerasus apetala Miquel. Ann. Mus. Lugd. Big. 2:93 1865 (in part). Japan.

89. Prunus caudata Pranchet. P1. Delvay. 196. 1889. Yunnan.
90. Prunus iwagiensis Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:259. 1912. Hondo.
91. Prunus nipponica Matsumura. Tokyo Bot. Mag.19:99. 1901.
Prunus miqueliana Koidzumi. 1.C.23:184 (not Maximowicz) 1909.
Prunus ceraseidos Maximowicz. Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg 29:103.
Prunus apetala typica Schneider. Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1:608. 1906. Japan.
92. Prunus autumnalis Koehne. Plant.Wils. PL2:259. 1912.
Prunus subhirtella autumnalis Makino. TokyoBot.Mag.22:117. 1908. Hondo.
93. Prunus kurilensis Miyabe. TokyoBot.Mag.24:11. 1910.
Prunus ceraseidos kurilensis Miyabe. Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 4:226 (Fl. Kurile Isl.) 1800.
Prunus incisa kurilensis Koidzumi. Tokyo Bot. Mag. 23:184. 1909.
94. Prunus nikkoensis Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:260. 1912. Japan.
95. Prunus miqueliana Maximowicz. Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg 11: 692 (not Schneider) 1883. Japan.
96. Prunus tschonoskii Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:261. 1912.
Prunus ceraseidos Maximowicz. Bul. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg 29: 103.
Prunus apetala iwozana Schneider. 111. Handbuch Laubholzk. 1:608. 1906. Japan.
97. Prunus apetala (Siebold & Zuccarini) Franchet & Savatier. Enum. P1. JaP. 2:329. 1879 (not Zabel, cf, P.maximowiczii, No. 9).
ceraseidos apetala Siebold & Zuccarini. Abh. Akad. Münch. 3:743. t.5. 1843.
Prunus ceraseidos Maximowicz. But. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg 29:103. Japan.

98. Prunus gracilifolia Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:223. 1912. Western Hupeh.
99. Prunus rossiana Koehne. l.c. 223. Westem Hupeh.

Div. II. MICROCERASUS (Spach, Roemer) Koehne.
Cerasus sect. Microcerasus Spach. Hist. Veg. 1:423. 1834.
Alicrocerasus Webb. Phytogr. Canar. 2:19. 1836-40.
Sect.1. SPIRAEOPSIS Koehne.
Subsect. 1. MYRICOCERASUS Koehne.
100. Prunus pumila Linnaeus. Mant. P1. 75. 1767. Eastern North America.
101. Prunus besseyi Bailey. Bul. Cor. Ex. Sta. 70:261. 1894. Eastern North America.

Subsect. 2. SPIRAEOCERASUS Koehne.
102. Prunus dictyoneura Diels. Bot. Jahrb. 36, Beibl. 82, 57. 1905. Shensi.
103. Prunus humilis Bunge. Mem. Etr. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg 2:97 (Enum.Pl. Chin. Bor.) 1833.
Prunus salicina Lindley. Trans. Hort. Soc. Lond. 7:239. 1830.
Prunus bungei Walpers. Rep. 2:9 (not -Moris) 1893. China.
104. Prunus glandulosa Thunberg. Fl. Jap. 202. 1784.
Amygdalus pumila Linnaeus. Alant. 1: 74. I 767.
Cerasus glandulosa Loiseleur. Nouv. Duhamel 5:33. 1825.
Prunus glandulosa glabra Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:263. 1912.
Prunus japonica glandulosa Maximowicz. Bul. Soc. Nat. MOSC. 54:13. 1879. Japan.
Prunus glandulosa glabra alba Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:263. 1912.
Prunus japonica Lindley. Bot. Reg. 8: t. 1801. 1835.
Prunus glandulosa glabra rosea Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:263. 1912.
Prunus japonica typica flore roseo Maximowicz, in sched.
Prunus japonica flor. simp. Tanaka. Useful Pl. Jap. 153, fig. 621. 1895.
Prunus japonica glandulosa Matsumura. Tokyo Bot. Mag. 14:136. 1900. Japan.
Prunus glandulosa glabra albiplena Koehne. Plant Wils. Pt. 2:264. 1912.
Cerasus japonica multiplex Seringe. De Candolle Prodr. 2:539 (in Part) 1825.
Prunus japonica flore pleno Siebold & Zuccarini. Fl. JaP. 1: 172 t. 90 f. TI 1. (in part) 1826.
Prunus japonica Oudemans. Neerlands Plantentuin t. 2. 1865.
Prunus japonica flore albo pleno Lemaire. I11. Hort. 5: t. 183. 1858.
Prunus japonica Maximowicz. Bul. Soc. Nat. MOSC. 54. 14 (in part) 1879.
Prunus japonica multiplex Makino. Tokyo Bot. Mag. 22:72 (in part) 1908. Japan.
Prunus glandulosa purdomii Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:264. 1912. Northern China.
Prunus glandulosa trichostyla Koehne. l.c. 224.
Prunus glandulosa trichostyla faberi Koehne. l.c. 224.
Prunus japonica J. Hutchinson. Bot. Mag. 135: t. 8260 (not Thunberg) 1909. Shantung.
Prunus glandulosa trichostyla paokangensis (Schneider) Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:264. 1912.
Prunus japonica packangensis Schneider. Fedde Rep. Nov. Sp. 1: 53. 1905. Western Hupeh.
Prunus glandulosa trichostyla sinensis (Persoon) Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:265. 1912.
Amygdalus indica nana Plukenett. Phytogr. 1: t. 11. f. 4 (1691, new edit. 1769).
Prunus sinensis Persoon. Syn. 2:36. 1807.
Cerasus japonica Seringe. De Candone Prodr. 2:539 (in part) 1825.
Prunus japonica flore pleno Siebold & Zuccarini. Fl. Jap. 1:172 t. 90 f. Ill. (in part) 1826.
Prunus japonica Maximowicz. Bul. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 54: 14 (in part) 1883. Northern Shensi.
Prunus glandulosa salicifolia (Komarov) Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:26s. 19l2.
Prunus japonica salicifolia Komarov. Act. Hort. Petrop. 22:754. 1904. Shing-king.
109. Prunus pogonostyla Maximowicz. Bul. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 54:11. 1879.
Prunus formosana Matsumura. Tokyo Bot. Mag. 15:86. 1901.
Prunus pogonostyla globosa Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:265. 1912. Formosa.
Prunus pogonostyla obovata Koehne. l.c. 265. Formosa.
106. Prunus japonica Thunberg. Fl. Jap. 201. 1784.
Prunus japonica japonica Maximowicz. Bul. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 54:12. r879.
Prunus japonica typica Matsumura. Tokyo Bot. Mag. 14:135. 1900.
Prunus japonica eujaponica Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:266. 1912.
Prunus japonica eujaponica fauriei Koehne. l.c. 266. Japan.
Prunus japonica eujaponica oldhamii Koehne. l.c. 266. Hupeh.
Prunus japonica gracillima Koehne. l.c. 266.
Prunus japonica gracillima thunbergii Koehne. l.c. 266.
Prunus japonica thunbergii Koehne. Fedde Rep. NOV. Sp. 8:23. 1910. Cultivated in the Späth Arboretum near Berlin, received from St. etersburg.
Prunus japnica gracillima engleri Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:266. 1912.
Prunus japonica engleri Koehne. l.c. 266. Manchuria.
Prunus japonica gracillima minor Koehne. l.c. 267. Cultivated in the Späth Arboretum, Berlin.
Prunus japonica gracillima sphaerica (Carriere) Koehne. l.c. 267.
Prunus japonica sphaerica Carriere. Rm. Hort. 468, fig. 163. 1890.
Prunus japonica kerii (Steudel) Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:267. 1912.
Prunus japonica Ker-Gawler. Bot. Reg. 1: t. 27. 1815.
Amygdalus pumila Sirns. Bot. Mag. 47: t. 2176. 1820,
Prunus kerii Steudel. Nomencl. Bot. ed. 2, 403. 1841, which cites "Cerasus" japonica Ker-Gawler.
Prunus japonica typica flore pleno Zabel. Beissner, Schelle & Zabel Handb. Laubholz.Ben. 238. 1903. Chekiang. Cultivated in England.
? Prunus praecox Carriere. Rev. Hart. 488, fig. 142, 143. 1892. Originated from sowings of Prunus japonicasphaerica and supposed to be runus japonica X domestica.
107. Prunus nakaii Leveille. edde Rep. Nm. SP. 7:198. 1909. Korea.
108. Prunus carcharias Koehne, Plant. Wils. pt. 2:267. 1912. Szechuan.

Subsect. 2. AMYGDALOCERASUS Koehne.
Cerasus sect. Microcerasus Spach.
Microcerasus Webb. Phytogr. Canar. 2: 19 (1836-50); Schneider Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1:601. 1906.
Prunus subgen. Microcerasus Focke. Engler & Prantl Natürl. Pflanzenfam. 3:3, 54. 1888.
Prunus sect. Trichocerasus et subgen. Microcerasus Koehne. Deutsche Dendr. 302, 306. 1893.
109. Prunus tomentosa Thunberg. Fl. Jap. 203. 1784. Siebold & Zuccarini Fl. Jap. 1:51, t. 22. 1826. Japan, western and northern China.
Prunus tomentosa spaethiana Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:269. 1912. Cultivated in European gardens.
Prunus tomentosa grabneriana Koehne. l.c. 269. Cultivated near the Botanic Garden, Berlin-Dahlem.
Prunus tomentosa insularis Koehne. l.c. 269. Japan. Cultivated in Japan.
Prunus tomentosa souliei Koehne. l.c. 269. Szechuan.
Prunus tomentosa kashkarovii Koehne. l.c. 269. Tibet.
Prunus tomentosa endotricha Koehne. l.c. 225. Western Hupeh.
Prunus tomentosa breviflora Koehne. l.c. 270. Northern Shensi.
Prunus tomentosa trichocarpa (Bunge) Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:270. 19,2.
Prunus trichocarpa Bunge. Mem. Etr. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg 2:96 (Enum. P1. Chin. Bor.) 1833. Northern China.
Prunus tomentosa tsuluensis Koehne. Plant. Wils. Pt. 2:270. 1912. Northern Shensi.
Prunus tomentosa heteromera Koehne. l.c. 270. Szechuan.
110. Prunus batalinii (Schneider) Koehne. l.c. 270.
Prunus tomentosa, (?) batalinii Schneider. Fedde ReP. NOV. Sp. 1:52. 1905. Szechuan.
111. Prunus cinerascens Franchet. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Pa . ser. 2, 8:216 (P1. David II. 34) 1885. Western Szechuan.
112. Prunus jacquemontii (Edgeworth) Hooke. Fl. Brit. Ind. 2:314. 1878. Afghanistan, Northwestern Himalaya, Tibet.
193. Prunus incana (Pallas) Steven. Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 3:263. 1812. Armenia, Georgia, Himalaya?
Cf. Cerasus hippophaeoides Bornmüller. Oester. Bot. Zeit. 49:15. 1899. Cappadocia.
114. Prunus griffithii (Boissier) Schneider. 111. Handb. Laubholzk. 1:606. 1906. Afghanistan.
115. Prunus prostrata Labillardiere. Icon. P1. Syr. 1:15, t. 6. 1791. Southern Europe, Crete, Algier, Western Asia to Persia and Syria
Cf. Prunus bifrons Fritsch. Sitz. Acad. Wien 101: pt. 1. 636, t. 3, fig. 1. 1892. Himalaya?
116. Prunus brachypetala (Boissier) Walpers. Ann, 1:272. 1848-49. Southern Persia.
117. Prunus microcarpa C. A. Meyer. Verz. Pfl. Caucas. Casp. 166. 1831. Caucasia, Northern Persia.
Cf. Cerasus tortuosa Boissier & Haussknecht. Boissier Fl. Or. 2:647. 1872. Antilibanon, Cappadocia, Kurdistan.
118. Prunus verrucosa Franchet. Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 6, 16:280. 1883. Turkestan.
Cf. Prunus calycosus Aitchison & Hemsley. Trans. Linn. Soc. 3:61, t. 8. 1888. Afghanistan.
119. Prunus diffusa (Boissier & Haussknecht) Schneider. Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1:606. 1906. Southwestern Persia.

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