John Adlum
John Adlum, a native of Pennsylvania, was born in 1759 and died at Georgetown, D. C, in 1836. Adlum was one of the first men to see clearly the possibility of improving the wild grapes of America and of bringing them under cultivation. He published accounts of this fruit in his Cultivation of the Vine and in the agricultural papers of his time, thereby aiding in bringing it into public notice as a cultivated plant. At "The Vineyard", near Georgetown, he established an experimental plantation of grapes from which he distributed many vines, chief of which were those of the Catawba, a variety for whose dissemination he is largely responsible. Adlum tried without avail to have the national government found an experimental farm for the culture of grapes and his effort was one of the first to secure governmental aid in agricultural experimentation. Beside his work with the grape, Adlum was deeply interested in other phases of agriculture and in the scientific movements of his time. He was a soldier of the Revolution, a brigadier-general in the militia of Pennsylvania, a county judge, and a civil engineer and surveyor. In spite of his work in the early part of the last century for agriculture and for his State and country, Adlum was practically unknown to the present generation until a sketch of his life and work appeared in Bailey's The Evolution of Our Native Fruits from which this sketch is written. Adlum's memory is perpetuated in the name of the beautiful climbing fumitory of one of the Northern Atlantic States, Adlumnia cirhosa, bestowed upon him by his contemporary, Rafinesque. (For a more complete account of Adlum's life, see Bailey's Evolution of Our Native Fruits y pp. 50-61.)

Charles Arnold
Charles Arnold was born in Bedfordshire, England, in 1818. In 1833 he removed to Paris, Ontario. He was an enthusiastic hybridizer in many lines, producing a white wheat, the Ontario apple, and the American Wonder pea. In 1853 he established the Paris Nurseries. Of his numerous seedling grapes he gave names to Autuchon, Brant, Canada, Cornucopia and Othello. He was for many years prominent in the agricultural and scientific associations of his adopted country. His object in crossing grapes was to secure varieties sufficiently hardy and early for the Canadian climate. In this he was in a measure successful but his crosses are so susceptible to mildew and rot that their culture has been generally abandoned in both Canada and the United States. He died at his home in Paris, Canada, in 1883.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 199.]

Liberty Hyde Bailey
Liberty Hyde Bailey was born in 1858 in South Haven, Michigan. He graduated from the Michigan Agricultural College in 1882 and then studied botany for two years with Asa Gray at Harvard University. He became professor of horticulture at his Alma Mater in 1885 and resigned in 1888 to accept the Chair of Horticulture in Cornell University, a position which he filled until 1904 when he became Director of the Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station and Dean of the New York State College of Agriculture. In 1907 he was given the degree of Doctor of Laws by the University of Wisconsin. Dr. Bailey is known as a teacher and experimenter but is better known for his horticultural and botanical writings. He has published many popular books on agricultural subjects. The best known of these are: The Nursery Book; The Rule Book; Principles of Vegetable Gardening; Garden Making; The Pruning Book; The Survival of the Unlike; The Evolution of Our Native Fruits. Besides these popular, or semi-popular works he has published two cyclopedias: The Cyclopedia of American Horticulture said. The Cyclopedia of American Agriculture. Dr. Bailey's position in American horticultural literature is unique in that he represents the botanical side of horticulture. He has written monographs on several of our cultivated fruits, notably grapes and plums, both appearing in The Evolution of Our Native Fruits.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 142.]

Patrick Barry
Patrick Barry, one of the founders of the firm of Ellwanger and Barry, whose Mount Hope Nurseries at Rochester, New York, were long of national and international reputation, was born in Belfast, Ireland, in 1816 and died in Rochester, N. Y., in 1890. Besides contributing to the fame of the nursery company he helped to found, Barry was for many years one of the leading pomological editors and authors of the country. New York, especially western New York, is greatly indebted to George Ellwanger and Patrick Barry for the horticultural services of their firm. It is not an exaggeration to say that they introduced fruit-growing in western New York, a region now famous for its fruits. So, also, the parks and home grounds of the many beautiful cities, towns, and villages in western New York are adorned and enriched by ornamental trees, shrubs and vines from the nurseries of Ellwanger and Barry. Patrick Barry came to America in 1836 and with George Ellwanger founded the Mount Hope Nurseries in 1840. Here for a half century he devoted himself to the introduction and distribution of fruit and out-of-door ornamental plants. In the early life of the nursery company many importations were made from Europe and at a time when there were no railroads, telegraph wires, nor ocean steamboats. It was during this early period that the Mount Hope Nurseries began the importation of pears and soon built up one of the largest collections in the country and one which was maintained long after the famous collections farther east had disappeared. At one time or another over 1000 varieties of pears were tested on the grounds of this nursery. For a half century, fruit-growers have studied with pleasure and profit the exhibits of pears made by Ellwanger and Barry at the State and National exhibitions of note. From 1844 to 1852, Patrick Barry edited The Genesee Farmer, one of the best agricultural papers of its day and succeeded A. J. Downing in the editorship of The Horticulturist which he brought to Rochester in 1855 where it was published until 1887. Barry's Treatise on the Fruit-Garden appeared in 1851 and at once became one of the most popular books on pomology. In 1872 the " Treatise " was rewritten and published as Barry's Fruit Garden. Another notable work of which he was author was The Catalogue of Fruits of the American Pomological Society which was compiled by him. Patrick Barry was one of the founders of the Western New York Horticultural Society, for many years the leading horticultural organization of the continent, and of which he was president for more than thirty years. Patrick Barry ranks with Coxe, Kenrick, the Downings, Warder, Eliot, and Thomas as a great leader in pomology of the time in which he lived.

William Crawford Barry, son of Patrick Barry of the preceding sketch, was born in Rochester, New York, in 1847. As a boy he attended parochial schools at Rochester and at Seton Hall, South Orange, New Jersey. As a young man he studied in Berlin, Heidelberg, and the University of Louvain in Belgium. Upon returning to America he took a position in a seed house in New York that he might have practical knowledge of the seed business to bring to the firm of Ellwanger and Barry of which he was soon to become a member. After serving an apprenticeship in the seed business he returned to Rochester to enter the firm which his father and George Ellwanger had founded. From the time of entrance in this company he took a prominent part in its affairs, and for many years before his death, December 12, 1916, he was president of the corporation. Of his horticultural activities, he may be said to have been an organizer and promoter one of the captains in the industry. For twenty-six years he was president of the Western New York Horticultural Society, having succeeded his father to this office. He was the first president of the American Rose Society, and in 1882 was president of the Eastern Nurserymen's Association. For three years he was president of the Board of Control of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station. He helped to establish and took a leader's part in developing the parks of Rochester which have made that city famous among lovers of landscapes. Highland Park was almost a creation of the firm of Ellwanger and Barry. In 1888 the firm gave the city twenty acres of land adjoining the Highland reservoir as the first step in establishing a park system for Rochester. Mr. Barry was chairman of the committee of the park board having in charge Highland Park from the creation of the board until the year before his death when it passed out of existence. Besides these horticultural activities, Mr. Barry was either president or an officer in six banks and trust companies in Rochester. His was a commanding figure in the horticulture of New York. No one attending the meetings of the Western New York Horticultural Society during the twenty-six years he was president can forget Mr. Barry. His knowledge in every division of horticulture, his devotion to grape and pear culture, his genial manner and pleasant greeting to all members, and his force and tact as a presiding officer fitted him so preeminently well for the place that he was unopposed for the presidency during twenty-six terms following the death of his father and until his death.

John Bartram
John Bartram was born near the village of Darby in Delaware (then Chester) County, Pennsylvania, in 1699. Bartram is generally credited with having established the first botanical garden in America. This garden was founded about 1728, some four miles south of what was the town of Philadelphia and is now a part of the Park System of that city. He was bred a Quaker but owing to his liberal opinions was excluded from that Society in 1758. During his life he was in correspondence with mauy of the leading scientific men of Europe to whom he sent many specimens of plants and other things of scientific interest. He made many trips into various parts of the colonies, to Ontario, Lake George, the Carolinas, Florida and Georgia, in search of information. The last of these journeys, that to the southern states, was made after he was seventy years of age. Bartram is blamed by all of his contemporaries for not having published more than he did. His death occurred in 1777.

William Bartram
William Bartram, son of John Bartram, was born in 1739 and died in 1823. Much of his work was done in connection with his father under whom he received his botanical training. His best known work is his Travels in the Carolinas, Georgia and Florida (1791), in which he gives an interesting account of that region, including descriptions of a number of new southern plants. His article on grapes which is here quoted was published in the Domestic Encyclopedia, 1804, and also in the Medical Repository of the same year.
[The brief biographies of the Bartrams was originally from: The Grapes of New York, page 97.]

Jean Louis Berlandier
Jean Louis Berlandier was a Belgian pupil of the great De Candolle, but left Europe about 1828 for America and became a druggist in Matamoras, Mexico. He was one of the first botanists to explore northern Mexico and Texas. In attempting to cross one of the small streams south of the Rio Grande in 1851, he was drowned. Many of his papers, plants and some paintings are preserved in the herbarium of Harvard University and his services to botany are commemorated by the genus Berlandiera, dedicated to him by De Candolle, and the species Vitis berlandieri here described.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 131.]

George Bentham
George Bentham was born near Plymouth, England, in 1800. His father was a man of considerable wealth and the son was privately educated. Early in life he showed an inclination toward botany, writing a book on The Plants of the Pyrenees and Lower Languedoc which was published when he was only twenty-six years old. For a time he studied law in which he showed considerable talent and where his original views attracted some attention. Later, however, he gave his attention to botany almost exclusively, joined the London Horticultural Society and the Linnaean Society, and was more or less closely connected with the workers at Kew. In connection with J. D. Hooker he wrote the Genera Plantarum. Others of his well-known works are Flora Australiensis and Handbook of the British Flora. Bentham died in 1884.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 135.]

Dr. William Draper Brincklé
Dr. William Draper Brincklé, originator of many red raspberries, strawberries, and of two pears, was one of the most prominent American pomologists in the middle of the last century. He was born in Delaware in 1799, and following in his father's footsteps began the practice of medicine at the early age of twenty-one in Wilmington, but to find a larger field for his profession moved to Philadelphia in 1825, where he lived the remainder of a busy life in the vocation of medicine and the avocation of pomology. During his last few years a physical affliction made him an invalid and cut short his life; he died in 1863 in his sixty-fourth year. Dr. Brincklé's most important work in pomology was the amelioration of the strawberry and the red raspberry. Beginning with the strawberry, which he hybridized in a little room in his Philadelphia home, he bred and introduced several fine varieties, of which, perhaps, Cushing was the most notable. Turning his attention next to red raspberries, he produced the Col. Wilder, Cope, Cushing, and Orange, as his finest sorts, of which for many years Orange was a standard commercial variety and is still the acme in quality. Wilmington and Catherine Gardette pears were his chief contributions to the tree fruits. For a quarter of a century, Dr. Brincklé was a leader in American pomology, during which time he served terms as president and vice-president of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society and as vice-president of the American Pomological Society. In 1860 he was editor of Hoffy's North American Pomologist, a most admirable pomological periodical with colored plates. His life was an eminently useful one in medicine and pomology, besides which he was distinguished as a man of great culture and refinement and was beloved by a wide circle of friends in private life, medicine, and pomology.

Samuel Botsford Buckley
Samuel Botsford Buckley was born in 1809, in Yates County, New York, and was educated at Wesleyan University, where he graduated in 1836. In 1866 he was appointed State Geologist of Texas where he resided until he died in 1884. Buckley traveled extensively in connection with his work, explored the southwestern region of the Appalachian Mountains, as well as the southwestern portion of the United States. He was at great disadvantage in his publications in that they were prepared without the benefit of a library. His articles on grapes were published in the Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences for 1861, and in the United States Patent Office Report for the same year.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 116.]

Joseph Lancaster Budd
Professor Joseph Lancaster Budd was a native of New York, having been born July 3, 1835, at Peekskill, Westchester County. On his father's side he was of French ancestry, but his mother was of English descent, a member of the Lancaster family, early settlers on the Hudson River. He was educated in the public schools of Monticello, Monticello Academy and at Hiram College, though he did not finish at the last named institution because of financial distress at home. In 1857 the young man moved west and for a year taught in an academy at Rockford, Illinois, and in the Wheaton schools of the same state. In 1858 he moved to Benton County, Iowa, where he established the Benton County Orchards and Nurseries. He soon became identified with horticulture in Iowa, especially through its State Horticultural Society, an organization of which he was secretary from 1873 to 1885 and from 1892 to 1895, serving in all seventeen years. In 1876 he was elected to the chair of Horticulture and Forestry in the Iowa Agricultural College, a position which he held until 1899, when he retired as professor emeritus, having spent twenty-two years in pioneer work in this college. In 1882 Professor Budd visited Russia to study the hardy plants of that country and imported from there many varieties of fruit, as well as other plants, which he thought suited to the climate of the Northwest. After his return his work was largely given up to originating and testing varieties which he thought would prove of value to the States of the Plains. He was preeminent in America for his work with Russian fruits and was one of the first to see the possibilities of our native plums. The frequency with which his name is mentioned in this book as a breeder of hardy fruits indicates his interest in securing plums adapted to the region in which he lived. The horticultural library of Charles Downing, by the wish of the owner, was given to the Iowa Agricultural College with the expectation that Professor Budd would revise Downing's famous Fruits and Trees of America. 111. health prevented the accomplishment of this task, although as senior author he published, in 1902, the American Horticultural Manual in two volumes. During the greater part of his active life he was a constant correspondent of the horticultural press-Professor Budd was a teacher as well as a pomologist and did much for American pomology in imparting to the men who came in contact with him both knowledge and enthusiasm. He died in Phoenix, Arizona, December 26, 1904.
[From: The Plums of New York, page 145]

Ephraim Bull
Ephraim W. Bull was born in Concord, Massachusetts, in 1805 and died in 1895. He will long be remembered by grape-growers as the originator and introducer of the Concord grape, the history of which is given in the above account of that variety. Bull grew many other seedlings, none of which attained a reputation among growers unless it be Cottage. Ephraim Bull's ninety years were spent in the quiet of his Concord home and he would have remained unknown by others than his neighbors, who honored and loved him, had it not been for his fortunate discovery of the Concord grape, which must always give him a place in the history of American grape culture. The grape which has added immensely to the wealth of a nation, brought its originator scarcely a year's competence. As a partial recompense for his great service to horticulture and to the nation, the memory of Ephraim W. Bull should live long.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 221]

Isadore Burr
John Burr was born in Bridgeport, Connecticut, in 1800. In early life he removed to Ohio* where, although he was engaged in mercantile pursuits, he passed his leisure time in experimenting with strawberries. In this work he was quite successful, producing Burr's Pine and Burr's Seedling, once popular sorts. In 1858 Burr moved to Kansas and soon after began breeding grapes. For this work he was a believer in natural pollination and planted the varieties which he desired to use as parents in close proximity that they might pollinate each other. Burr at first used Concord, Hartford, Isabella, and other grapes of this class as parents, but later he destroyed all of the seedlings of these and used Delaware, Goethe, Salem, Catawba, and other Vinifera hybrids. He did not take trouble to note from which variety the seed came but mixed and planted all together. The records of the parentage of his productions are consequently usually unsatisfactory. Most of his grape productions were introduced to the public by Stayman et Black, a nearby nursery firm. Of Burr's many seedlings he gave names to the following: Cochee, Early Victor, Eclipse, Evaline, Ideal, Iola; Jewel, Magnate, Matchless, Mendota, Omega, Osage, Osee, Paragon, Peola, Primate, Pulasky, Seneca, Superior, Standard, Supreme, and White Jewel. Burr died at his home in Leavenworth, Kansas, in 1892.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 251]

Isadore Bush
Isadore Bush was born at Prague, Bohemia, in 1822. Bush was one of those Germans who, taking part in the troubles of the Fatherland in 1848, found it necessary to seek a home in the New World. He went to Missouri upon his arrival in the country and there spent the remainder of his life. During the Civil War he was secretary to General Fremont and at various times occupied many other positions of trust. He established the Bushberg nursery which for many years was the leading grape nursery of this country. With the aid of Engelmann and others he wrote the Bushberg Catalogue and Grape Manual, a work which has passed through many editions and has probably been more popular and useful than any other book on American grapes published in the English language. Bush died in St. Louis in 1898, having been a citizen of that place for forty-nine years.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 119]

George W. Campbell
George W. Campbell was born in Cortlandville, New York, in 1817. The family moved to Ohio in 1821. In early life Campbell was a printer and editor, as his father had been before him. In 1849 he moved from Sandusky, Ohio, to Delaware in the same State and it was in the latter place that his attention was first turned to horticulture as a livelihood, although he had been interested in it as an amateur much earlier. He was a continuous member of the American Pomological Society from the time of its organization in 1850 until his death. He raised thousands of seedling grapes, of which the following were given names: Campbell Early, Concord Chasselas, Concord Muscat, Juno, Lady, Purity, Triumph, White Delaware. All of these are practically obsolete in the North except Campbell Early and Lady.
Campbell died at his home in Delaware, Ohio, in 1898. For many years before his death he had been the leading writer and speaker in the North on the culture of the grape and on grape-breeding, and his work had a marked influence on the improvement of viticulture.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 198]

Andrew Jackson Caywood
Andrew Jackson Caywood was born near Modena, Ulster County, New York, in 1819. During his early life he was a mason and contractor and engaged in building operations in Orange and Ulster counties. When about twenty-five years of age he became interested in fruit culture and was soon one of the leading fruit-growers in his section. Caywood's grape-breeding work appears to have started about 1850, while he still lived at Modena. In 1861 he removed to Poughkeepsie, and about 1865, what was probably his first grape, the Walter, was brought to the attention of the public. In 1877 he removed to Marlboro, where for many years he conducted a nursery business in connection with fruit raising, first under the firm name of Ferries et Caywood, and later as Caywood et Son, his son Walter having entered the business. Caywood's last years were clouded with financial troubles and failing health. In 1889 he died at his home in Marlboro. No record is available of Caywood's productions nor his manner of work. He appears to have differed from the grape-breeders of his day in that he produced second rather than first generation hybrids. Of these his most important productions are: Dutchess, Metternich, Nectar, Poughkeepsie, Ulster and Walter, though he raised many others, most of which were never named nor disseminated. Caywood's years of unremitting labor in improving grapes will long make his name prominent in American viticulture.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 247]

M. Cibot

M. Cibot, a French missionary, writing nearly a century and a half ago in his memoirs concerning the Chinese (11:280-293. 1784), gives the following account of peaches with which he was familiar in China at that time:
"Peaches are distinguished by size and color, the shape and earliness of their fruit. There are some whose flesh is white, some greenish, some a delicate yellow, some a yellow orange and some marble; some are round, some oval, some lengthened to a point like a crow's beak. Peaches are heard of weighing two pounds or even more. The largest ones I have seen were scarcely three and a half inches in length and diameter; as to earliness, in the middle provinces there are peaches almost as soon as cherries. It is still more astonishing that some varieties do not ripen here till October, and that there is a secret by which they can be kept till January, just as fresh, just as beautiful, and just as delicious as if right off the tree."

William Coxe

Fruit Trees, published in 1817 by William Coxe, is the first American pomology. Though written by an amateur, during most of his life a merchant, his work was done with so much care and exhibits such nice discrimination in selecting, describing and discussing varieties of fruits that until the later and more complete work of Andrew Jackson Downing and Charles Downing, Coxe's Fruit Trees, competing with several other manuals, was the standard pomological work of America. William Coxe was born in Philadelphia, May 3, 1762, and died near Burlington, New Jersey, February 25, 1831. He seems to have inherited wealth and with it scholarly habits and such refinement and charm of personality that in Philadelphia and later in Burlington, to which place he removed in early manhood, he was one of the leaders, in literary, scientific and social circles. His tastes early led him to the cultivation of fruit and he began to grow the varieties then to be had in America and to import sorts from England and France so that by 1817 he was able to say that he had been " for many years actively engaged in the rearing, planting and cultivating fruit trees on a scale more extensive than has been attempted by any other individual in this country." Previous to this for some years, how long cannot be said, he was the moneyed partner with  one Daniel Smith in what, for the times, was an extensive fruit-tree and ornamental nursery. Demands for information became so frequent that he determined to put his knowledge in print and his Fruit Trees was the result. The objects he sought to obtain in writing are well set forth in the title page as follows: "A VIEW of the CULTIVATION of FRUIT TREES, and the Management of Orchards and Cider; with Accurate Descriptions of the Most Estimable Varieties of NATIVE AND FOREIGN APPLES, PEARS, PEACHES, PLUMS, AND CHERRIES, Cultivated in the Middle States of America; Illustrated by Cuts of two hundred kinds of Fruits of the natural size; Intended to Explain Some of the errors which exist relative to the origin, popular names, and character of many of our fruits; to identify them by accurate descriptions of their properties, and correct delineations of the full size and natural formation of each variety; and to exhibit a system of practice adapted to our climate, in the Successive Stages of A NURSERY, ORCHARD, AND CIDER ESTABLISHMENT." He was at one time a member of the State Legislature and later a Congressman intimately associated with Daniel Webster. He was, also, an honorary member of the Horticultural Society of London to which during many years he was a faithful correspondent. It was Coxe's privilege to see the very beginnings of commercial peach-growing in America and through his nursery, his orchard and his book he contributed much to American peach-culture.  [From The Peaches of New York, page 254.]


Henry Dearborn
General Henry Alexander Scammell Dearborn, who followed the vocation of a soldier, statesman, and author, chose as his avocation horticulture and in several of its fields became eminent. A native of New England (1783-1851), son of General Henry Dearborn of Revolutionary fame, he was early educated to the profession of law and pursued that vocation until the war with Great Britain in 1812. Services in this war brought him the rank and title of general. After the war he served as Collector of the Port of Boston, in Congress, and as Mayor of Roxbury, Massachusetts, which office he held at the time of his death. But it is as a patron, friend, and lover of horticulture that the life and work of General Dearborn interest pomologists. He was one of the charter members in the Massachusetts Horticultural Society and a prime mover in its organization. He was elected its first president March 17, 1829. In the history of the Society published in 1880, of all the famous members of this truly remarkable organization, General first president of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. In 1831, General Dearborn first exhibited fruit of the variety at the Massachusetts Horticultural Society where it was named Dearborn's Seedling in honor of the originator. This variety should not be confused with a pear raised by Van Mons of Belgium and named by him Dearborn. The Dearborn of Van Mons is larger and ripens later than the American Dearborn, and was long since taken from lists of pears recommended for cultivation in America. Dearborn was included in the American Pomological Society's first fruit-catalog in 1848, where it was called Dearborn's Seedling. In 1883, the Society shortened the name to Dearborn. Since 1891, the name has failed to appear in the catalogs of this Society.
Dearborn's portrait was chosen for the frontispiece. He was early interested in experimental gardens and rural cemeteries. The plans for experimental gardens advocated by him were never fully carried out, but no doubt his enthusiasm for such gardens, with his own garden as a model, did much to stimulate the planting in America in the early half of the nineteenth century of the many famous gardens which adorned and enriched every center of culture along the Atlantic seaboard. He helped to establish the Mount Auburn and Forest Hills cemeteries, famous among Boston cemeteries, and the first of rural cemeteries in this country. His life-long devotion to rural art as exemplified in gardens and cemeteries knew no bounds. On these subjects and on pomology he contributed many articles to the agricultural and horticultural papers of his time. Few men, it can be said, could better concentrate their thoughts and feelings on paper than he seems to have done. Besides the many papers from his own pen he published several translated treatises from the French, chief of which was a monograph on the Camellia in 1838 and another on Morus multicaulis in 1830, the " Mulberry Craze " being in full swing at this time. General Dearborn was an ardent pear-grower and helped to test the hundreds of seedlings then being brought from Belgium and France and grew as well considerable numbers from his own seed-beds. Of all his seedlings, however, only Dearborn survives.

Augustin and Alphonse De Candolle
Augustin Pyramus De Candolle was born at Geneva, Switzerland, 1778, and died at Turin, Italy, in 1841. He came of an ancient French family which had been driven out of Provence in the middle of the sixteenth century owing to their religion. He began his scientific studies at the College of Geneva, but later removed to Paris where he attended courses of lectures on natural science under the greatest scientists of that day. His best known works are: Historia plantarum Sitcculentarum; Synopsis plantarum in flora Gallica descriptarum; and Prodromus Systematis regni vegetabilis (1824), this last being only about two-thirds completed at the time of his death.

Alphonse Louis Pierre Pyrame De Candolle was born in Paris, France, in 1806. Like his father, whose life is sketched above, he became a noted botanist. His most important works have been translated into English and are as follows: Geographical Botany, 1855; Origin of Cultivated Plants, 1883; and the Memoirs of his father, 1862. He died in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1893.
[The brief biographies of the De Candolles were taken from: The Grapes of New York, page 146.]

Andrew Jackson Downing
1Andrew Jackson Downing was born in Newburgh on the Hudson, the town in which he always lived and which he loved, October 30, 1815. He perished while trying to save other passengers in the burning of the steamer Henry Clay on the Hudson River, July 28, 1852, at the age of 37. Andrew Downing's education was largely acquired from self instruction although he attended the schools of his native town and the academy in the adjoining village of Montgomery. His father, a nurseryman, whose work was mentioned in the sketch of Charles Downing, elder brother of Andrew, gave the younger son every opportunity to cultivate an early developed taste for horticulture, botany and the natural sciences. When but a youth he joined his brother Charles as partner in a nursery firm, a relationship maintained for but a few years and which he severed to begin a career as a writer on landscape gardening and pomological subjects. His first publication was a Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening adapted to North America, with a view to the Improvement of Country Residences, with Remarks on Rural Architecture, a book published in 1841, the author being but 26 years of age. The work passed into instant popularity and is the word of authority which has told thousands of Americans what to do to make their grounds beautiful. Within a few months so great was the success of the first venture that in response to the demand he published his Cottage Residences, a companion book which was received with equal favor, thus giving Andrew Downing first rank as an authority on rural art. In 1845 theFruits and Fruit Trees of America, then and now the chief pomological authority of this continent, was printed simultaneously in London and New York, a second edition coming out in 1850. In 1846 Andrew Downing became the founder and editor of the Horticulturist, which he continued to publish until his death. In 1849 he wrote Additional Notes and Hints about Building in the Country, published in Wightwick's Hints to Young Architects. The summer of 1850 was spent in England in the study of landscape gardening and rural architecture from the result of which came his Architecture of Country Houses. His last work was the editing of Mrs. Loudon's Landscape Gardening for Ladies though Rural Essaysappeared after his death as a collection of his writings with a memoir by George William Curtis and a Letter to his Friends by Frederika Bremer. He was employed in planting the public grounds of the Capitol, the White House and the Smithsonian Institution at Washington when he met his untimely death. Downing is the creator of American landscape gardening and shares with his brother Charles the honor of being the most distinguished pomologist of the country. In the epoch-making Fruits and Fruit Trees of America Andrew Downing was the real genius, Charles Downing the conscientious and painstaking student who worked out the details.

 

Charles Downing

Charles Downing, whose likeness we show in the frontispiece, was born at Newburgh, New York, July 9, 1802.  He spent his life in the place of his birth, dying January 18, 1885.  His parents were natives of Lexington, Massachusetts, who shortly before the birth of Charles Downing, the eldest son, came to Newburgh, the father establishing a shop for the manufacture of wagons, a business which he soon abandoned to become a nurseryman.  Here, in the first successful nursery established in the region, were trained Charles and Andrew Downing, receiving under the careful guidance of the father a knowledge of the business and of fruits which with later self instruction made them the most distinguished pomologists of their day.  With the death of the father in 1822, before Charles had obtained his majority, the responsibiIity of conducting the business and the support of the family devolved upon him.  Andrew J., the younger brother, in 1834, at the age of 19, united with Charles in the management of the nursery business under the firm name of C. & A.J. Downing, a partnership which lasted only until 1839.  Charles continued in the nursery business for rnany years during which time he became the foremost pomologist in the United States and eventually, about 1850, sold his holdings to devote himself to the study of varieties of fruits and the revision of the Fruits and Fruit Trees of America.  This great pomological book was projected and published by Andrew but most of the work of the book as it is now known was done by Charles in revising the original and adding to its many editions.  It is and has long been, as all know, the highest authority on American fruits.  Naturally of an inquiring turn of mind Charles Downing studied closely the qualities of the varieties that came under his observation and seldom described without the fruit in hand.  His variety orchard is said to have contained at one time 1,800 varieties of apples and 1,000 pears with lesser numbers of the other fruits.  A few trees of this wonderful collection still stand.  Charles Downing was one of the most modest and retiring of men, in his younger days delighting in the things of which his brother wrote and seldom putting pen to paper until after his brother's death when he became a regular contributor to horticultural publications over the signature "C. D."  He was never known to make a public speech.  He earned his high distinction in American pomology by his accurate and conscientious descriptions and discussions of varieties of fruits.

Henry Edwards
Henry Waggoman Edwards, at one time Governor of Connecticut, was a pioneer American pear breeder credited with making the first systematic attempt to grow new pears in this country. He was a grandson of the eminent theologian, Jonathan Edwards, was born at New Haven, Conn., in 1779, graduated at Princeton College in 1797, studied law at the Litchfield School and almost immediately entered into public life shortly to become prominent and famous in state and nation. He served Connecticut with honors as its Governor, and in the nation he distinguished himself as Representative in the House from Connecticut, Speaker of the House and as Senator. But it is as a pomologist that his career is of concern to the reader. Always interested in pomology, and no doubt especially interested in pears through the spectacular work of Van Mons, he planted pear seeds in the fall of 1817 with the aim of obtaining new and superior varieties of this fruit. Great success did not attend his attempts at pear breeding, but Governor Edwards made a start in work which Manning, Wilder and a score of others were to carry forward with more striking results. Out of many seedlings, at least five were named and were grown for a longer or shorter time by the pear-growers of a century ago. These are Elizabeth, Calhoun, Dallas, Henrietta and Citron, all described among the minor varieties of this text. While hardly to be considered among the foremost pomologists of the country, Governor Edwards is in the front rank of the lesser men whose combined work has done so much to give weight and impulse to American pomology.

Reuben Elliott

Elliott's American Fruit Growers Guide, published in 1858 and dedicated to Professor Jared P.Kirtland, was one of the notable pomological books of its day. Cherry growers, in particular, owe Elliott a debt of gratitude for the publicity that he gave to Kirtland's cherries, having described in his book 20 of the sorts originated by Professor Kirtland. Beside his fruit book he published Popular Deciduous and Evergreen Trees (1868), Handbook for Fruit-growers(1876) and Handbook of Practicing Landscape Gardening (1877). He also served pomologists well for many years, at various times, from 1850 to 1873, as the secretary of the American Pomological Society. Franklin Reuben Elliott was born in Guilford, Connecticut, April 27, 1817. We know, from complimentary speeches, accepted by Elliott, that he was a descendant of John Eliot, "The Apostle of the Indians."As a young man he engaged with a brother in New York as an importer of dry goods, the first being rated at half a million dollars. Financial ruin came through a disastrous fire and, in 1836, Elliott went to Newburgh and was employed by A.J. Downing from whom he imbibed his knowledge and much of his love for pomology and horticulture. A roving disposition and dissipated habits led him to leave Downing for a position with a relative near Cincinnati who was a market-gardener. A ready pen seems from this time on to have been his chief means of livelihood for we find him successively in Cleveland, Ohio, and St. Louis, Missouri, in newspaper work; after a few years in each place he wandered to Washington where he was employed in the Agricultural Department of the Patent Office illustrating American fruits. From his hand in the Patent Office reports and from his fruit book, came one of the most accurate and beautiful representations of the fruits of this continent. It is probable that while in Washington he began work on his Fruit Growers Guide, the time for which, he tells us in his preface, took ten years. Social infirmities seem to have cost him his position in Washington and his last employment was with the Cleveland Herald, after which comes the record of his death and burial in a pauper's grave January 10, 1878. One of the most brilliant pomologists of his time, his career seems again and again to have been checked by the weaknesses of his life; even so, he rendered horticulture valuable sources for which we must give him gratitude and honor.

George Ellwanger
George Ellwanger, one of the founders and thereafter until his death one of the partners in the Mount Hope Nurseries, Rochester, New York, was born in Germany in 1816 and died in Rochester, New York, in 1906. He came to the United States in 1835, having been educated as a horticulturist in Stuttgart, although possibly the training he received throughout his youth from his father, a grower of grapes and fruits, taught him most, for Ellwanger often said that it was from his father that he acquired his love of horticulture and was by him persuaded to devote his life to the vocation of nurseryman. Ellwanger settled in Rochester in 1839, and the next year joined with Patrick Barry in forming the nursery and seed firm of Ellwanger and Barry, calling their place of business " Mount Hope Nurseries/' Ellwanger was one of the founders of the American Pomological Society, and of the Western New York Horticultural Society and throughout his life took an active interest in both organizations. Mr. Ellwanger had large business interests in Rochester and western New York and helped most materially to develop the city and the country about. His chief contributions to horticulture were made through the Mount Hope Nurseries, the influence of which is briefly set forth in the sketch of the life of Patrick Barry.


George Engelmann
George Engelmann was born at Frankfurt-on-the-Main in 1809. He was educated at the Universities of Heidelberg, Berlin and Wurzburg, receiving a doctor's degree in medicine from the latter institution. In 1832 Dr. Engelmann sailed for America and spent some months in exploring the forests of the Mississippi Valley studying the plants of the region, having become deeply absorbed in botany. He soon after began the practice of medicine in St. Louis where he spent the remainder of his life, dying in 1884. Engelmann was one of the most patient and devoted students of natural history of his time. He mastered several difficult genera of plants, doing his work so well that his monographs will long remain, not only authorities on the plants described, but models for the systematic botanist. Among the genera to which he devoted his time was Vitis, upon which he published several monographs. These appeared in various publications, particularly the Proceedings of the Academy of Science of St. Louis in i860, the American Naturalist for 1868, Riley's reports as entomologist of Missouri for 1872 and 1874, and the third and all later editions of the Bushberg Catalogue.
[From: The Grapes of New York, pages 131-132.]

Elijah Fay
Elijah Fay was born in Southborough, Massachusetts, in 1781. He moved to Brocton, Chautauqua County, New York, in the fall of 1811. The early history of not only the viticulture but of the horticulture of the Chautauqua region is interwritten with that of the Fay family. Elijah Fay's children and grandchildren inherited a love of horticulture from their ancestor and several of them, as mentioned in the text, have been noted for their horticultural work in this region. Lincoln Fay, a nephew of Elijah Fay, one of the first men to grow and sell grape vines in the region, originated the Fay currant which was afterwards introduced by him and his son Elijah H. Fay. Of the Fay family, noted in the annals of grape-growing in this region, only G. E. Ryckman and L. R. Ryckman, grandchild and great-grandchild of Elijah Fay, are now living. Elijah Fay lived to the ripe age of eighty, dying in 1860. His memory should be long cherished as one of the founders of the viticulture of New York.


Andrew S. Fuller
Andrew S. Fuller, pomologist, scientist, and pomological writer, was born in Utica, New York, August 3, 1828, and died May 4, 1896, at Ridgewood, New Jersey. Fuller began work at an early age as a carpenter and builder of greenhouses. In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, he built a small greenhouse on a city lot and in it began the work which soon brought him to the attention of lovers of plants and fruits, with such renown that William R. Prince, Flushing, Long Island, then a leading nurseryman in America, offered him the management of his greenhouse. This position he accepted in 1855, but remained with Prince only two years, leaving to engage for himself in small fruit culture at Brooklyn, New York. He soon specialized in breeding strawberries, and out of thousands of seedlings selected some dozen or more which he named. The best one of these was Col. Ellsworth, an excellent sort, plants of which to the number of 300,000 were sent out by the New York Tribune as premiums to subscribers. His first book, written at about this time, was the Strawberry Culturist. In the early sixties he moved to Ridgewood, New Jersey, where he planned and planted home grounds that soon became a botanical garden as he grew almost every species and variety of ornamental trees, shrubs, small fruits, and nuts which could be made to grow in New Jersey.
Soon after Strawberry Culturist appeared, he published Grape Culturist, this in turn to be followed by Small Fruit Culturist, Practical Forestry, Propagation of Plants, and the Nut Culturist. Of his several pomological books, Small Fruit Culturist is probably the best and certainly served more materially in building up a great industry than any of his other works. Besides these books he was a constant correspondent to the American Agriculturist, Rural New-Yorker, of which he was part owner for a time, the New York Sun, of which he was agricultural editor for twenty-six years, and of American Gardening. He was also editor of the Record of Horticulture which appeared in 1867 and 1868. Besides his interest in pomology he gave attention to entomology, mineralogy and archeology, and collections in these sciences gave him renown in all of them. He was active in all pomological societies of his state and the country during his active lifetime. Probably no other American has labored longer or more devotedly for pomology and horticulture, in both of which he set high ideals in all he did.

Dr. C.W. Grant
Dr. C. W. Grant was born in Litchneld, Connecticut, in 1810. Early in life he became a Doctor of Medicine but soon became dissatisfied with that profession as it was then practiced, and entered dentistry. He settled in Newburgh, New York, where he built up a very large dental practice. Dr. Grant was an enthusiastic amateur horticulturist and numbered among his friends such men of national note as A. J. and Charles Downing, Horace Greeley, Henry Ward Beecher, W-C. Bryant, Donald G. Mitchell and others like these who were interested in rural pursuits. He bought Iona Island in the Hudson River and planted thereon a commercial vineyard. On the death of his wife in 1856 he gave up his dental practice and took up his residence on Iona Island. Here for twelve years he grew grapes and conducted a grape nursery. Unfortunately Dr. Grant's business experience was not such as to enable him to make a success of a commercial nursery. In 1868 he retired from active pursuits and returned to his old home at Litchfield, where he died in 1881. Dr. Grant's chief interest to grape-growers lies in the fact that he was the originator of Iona and Israella and the introducer of Anna and Eumelan. He was one of the first and a most ardent grape-breeder, working especially toward improving the quality of commercial varieties of grapes.
[From: The Grapes of New York, pages 304.]

Nicolas Hardenpont

Cyrus Edwin Hoskins

Oregon has given to pomology two notable breeders of cherries, Seth Lewelling and C.E. Hoskins, the subject of this sketch. Cyrus Edwin Hoskins was born on a farm in Clinton County, Ohio. July 3, 1842, and there he grew to manhood. Almost at the first call for men to defend the Union in the Civil War, Mr. Hoskins responded and joined the 13th Ohio regiment, serving until the close of the war. Returning to Ohio, he gave attention to fruit culture, testing many varieties of several fruits and producing some new grapes and berries. In 1877 Mr. Hoskins moved to Newberg, Yamhill County, Oregon, settling on new land and thus becoming a pioneer in the Northwest. His first pomological venture in Oregon was in growing prunes, his orchard of this fruit being one of the first, and he is credited with having built one of the first evaporators for the curing of prunes in America. For some years he maintained his prune ranch and evaporator, developing a product that gave him the highest reputation in prune markets and made him one of the leading authorities on this fruit in the United States. Early in his orchard work in Oregon Mr. Hoskins began to produce new varieties of cherries and soon offered for sale a number of promising seedlings of which Vesta, Lake, Occident, Stryker and Hoskins were most worthy. Unfortunately, ill health in the family compelled Mr. Hoskins to move from Yamhill County, to which place, after having spent several years in Jackson County, Oregon, and in the Hawaiian Islands, he returned with the expectation of taking up his work in breeding cherries and prunes, but his death, August 18,1908, occurred before his work had been again well begun. The Pacific Northwest owes a debt of gratitude to Mr. Hoskins for the spendid part he played in developing the fruit industry of that region and pomologists the country over owe Mr. Hoskins much for his labors in breeding cherries. 


Charles Mason Hovey
Charles Mason Hovey was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, October 26, 1810, and died in the city of his birth September 2, 1887. His work is noteworthy to small fruit growers in the United States, and The Small Fruits of New York is dedicated to him by publishing his portrait as the frontispiece, by reason of his work with strawberries. Hovey's greatest contribution to horticulture was the Hovey strawberry, originated by him and first fruited in 1836. But he is known to horticulture also because of his great collection of pears, apples, plums, grapes and ornamental plants on his grounds at Cambridge. He was throughout a long and busy life one of America's best authorities on varieties of fruits about which he wrote two sumptuous volumes, issued in parts from 1852 to 1856, in which he described the varieties of tree and small fruits cultivated in the United States. The volumes are handsomely printed and contain more than one hundred colored plates of the varieties which he described. He was best known in his lifetime as the editor of The Magazine of Horticulture, founded in 1835 and published until 1868, between which dates it had an uninterrupted period of prosperity, with a longer life than any other American horticultural magazine. The journal was founded as The American Gardener's Magazine by Hovey and his brother, Phineas Brown Hovey, but in 1837 the name was changed to The Magazine of Horticulture, with Charles M. Hovey, editor. Hovey was also a prominent and reliable nurseryman and seed dealer, and through his establishment many new plants came to America. He was an active member throughout his life of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society and was for a time its president. His writings are characterized by conservatism and accuracy, and he is now, as he was in his lifetime, one of America's great authorities on pomology and horticulture.
[From: The Small Fruits of New York, page 367]

Peter Kalm

Peter Kalm is so often mentioned in the fruit-books published by this Station that readers are entitled to know something about him. Kalm was a Swede, born in 1715, died in 1779, who was sent by the Swedish government to travel in North America. He landed in 1748 and spent the next three years in travel in the settled parts of the New World devoting himself to the study of the plant and animal life, the natural phenomena, resources and agriculture of the Middle and Northern States and Canada. On his return to Sweden, Kalm published an account of his travels in America which was afterward translated into German and then into English. To him we are indebted for much valuable information in regard to the beginnings of agriculture and horticulture in the middle of the Eighteenth Century in America. Kalm was a student of Linnaeus and the great botanist perpetuated his memory by naming our beautiful mountain laurel, Kalmia.

John Kenrick

John Kenrick, one of the pioneer nurserymen on'American soil, began his business career by raising peach-seedlings. His nursery was situated in the towns of Newton and Brighton, Massachusetts, and was founded in 1790. As we have stated in the text, he early acquired the art of budding and possibly was the first, or at least one of the first, nurserymen to offer budded peach-trees for sale. In 1823, he advertised in the New England Farmer thirty varieties of budded peaches five to eight feet high at thirty-three and one-third cents each. These thirty varieties must have included practically all of the named sorts then grown in America. It is interesting to note that he states in the advertisement that the trees were packed with clay and mats. It was in this year that William Kenrick, son of John Kenrick, became a partner of his father. Beside growing peaches, the Kenrick nurseries offered for sale other trees, vine and bush-fruits and ornamentals as well. The Kenricks were also extensive growers of currants from which
they made currant-wine, their output in 1824 being 1700 gallons; in 1825, 3000 gallons and in 1826, 3600 gallons. The date and place of John Kenrick's birth cannot be learned. His death occurred in 1833 in the Kenrick mansion, built in 1720, standing near the nurseries. New England, and peach-growers everywhere, owe him a debt of gratitude for his services in horticulture.

William Kenrick

William Kenrick, son of John, of whom we have just written, was born in 1795 in the family mansion on Nonantum Hill in the town of Newton, Massachusetts. He was trained by his father as a nurseryman and in 1823 became a partner in the Kenrick nurseries, of which he soon after appears to have assumed control. The Kenrick nurseries, at this time, were probably the most extensive and the best known of any in New England. Besides growing the fruit-bearing plants of the time and such ornamentals as were then to be found in America, the Kenricks seem to have taken an enthusiastic part in the craze for the Lombardy Poplar which was then raging in America. The elder Kenrick must have been one of the early growers of this popular plant for in 1797 two acres of his nursery was appropriated to the Lombardy Poplar. The son, in his turn an enthusiast, succumbed to the silk-culture fad and seems in 1835 to have been one of the leading growers of the mulberry, Morus multicaulus, for feeding silkworms. In this year Mr. Kenrick published the American Silk Growers Guide, which is, in essence, a treatise on mulberry-culture. William Kenrick's most notable pomological achievement, however, was the publication of the New American Orchardist which appeared in 1833. While not the best of the pomological manuals of the time, it is a valuable contribution to American pomology because of its full descriptions of the fruits of that date. Beginning with his father in 1823, William Kenrick continued in the nursery business for twenty-seven years, probably growing, importing and disposing of more fruit and ornamental trees than any other nurseryman in New England during this time. He died in February, 1872, at the ripe age of 77 having lived to see the orchards planted from his nursery come to full fruition and every part of New England made more beautiful by the ornamental trees and shrubs grown under his care.

Peter Kieffer
Peter Kieffer, a nurseryman of good reputation in his state, deserves pomological honors because of his keenness of vision in selecting for distribution the pear which bears his name. Few men would have recognized merit in the seedling from which the Kieffer pear came. Peter Kieffer was born in Alsace in 1812, whence he emigrated to America in 1834. In Europe he had worked for twelve years in the garden of the King of France and upon his arrival in America sought employment as a gardener which he found on the estate of James Gowen at Mt. Airy, near Philadelphia. In 1853 he started a small nursery at Roxborough, a short distance from Philadelphia. Much of his stock was imported from Europe, most of which came from Van Houtte, the famous Belgian nurseryman. From Van Houtte, Kieffer obtained seeds of the Chinese Sand pear from which came the Kieffer pear as described in the history of the variety. As a token of his faith in his new variety, Kieffer planted an orchard of this pear, some of the trees of which still live and bear. Peter Kieffer died in 1890, having made an important contribution to horticulture even though the variety sent out by him is far from perfect and has been much over-praised and over-planted.

Dr. Jared P. Kirtland

Jared P. Kirtland, M. D., though now less well known than some of his contemporaries, was one of the great pomologists of his time and a man of notable achievements in other branches of natural history as well. Professor Kirtland was born at Wallingford, Connecticut, November 10, 1793, and died at East Rockport, near Cleveland, Ohio, December 11, 1877. For sixty years of a long life his avocation was the production of new varieties of fruits and flowers and, though a half century has passed since he ceased active work, the results of his labors are yet to be found in the gardens and orchards of the whole country. In pomology he gave special attention to breeding grapes, raspberries, pears and cherries. He achieved success, too, as a hybridizer of peonies and in the introduction of rare foreign magnolias. Professor Kirtland is given credit as being the first horticulturist successfully to bud and graft magnolias, an achievement which has made possible their cultivation under many conditions and to a degree of excellence that otherwise would not be obtained. He was the founder of the Cleveland Society of Natural History and was for many years its president. He was a member of the American Philosophical Society, the highest recognition for scientific work to be obtained in his time in this country. He served as professor in several medical schools and filled other places of honor and trust. From his boyhood we are told that he was interested in natural history and was intimately acquainted with the plants and animals of Ohio, having special knowledge of birds and fishes, the propagation of the latter being one of his hobbies. In pomology we owe him most for the many new cherries he has given us, thirty varieties described in The Cherries of New York having come from his breeding grounds. Among these areWood, Pontiac, Powhatan, Tecumseh, Osceola, Kirtlandand Red Jacket, sorts scarcely surpassed for high quality and grown commonly in America and to some extent wherever Sweet Cherries will thrive. His 84 years seem to have been well ordered, given almost wholly for the good of the public, and his name should be cherished by pomologists among those who have done most for fruits and fruit-growing on this continent.

John Lawson

Lawson, John History of Carolina, 181-183. 1714. Reprinted at Raleigh, 1860. Lawson's History of Carolina contains the best description of the natural resources of the southern Atlantic seaboard published in colonial times. It is a book of nature rather than of history and one of fascinating interest which cannot be read without admiring and loving the author and mourning his sad fate. Poor Lawson was burned at the stake by the Indians in 1711. We cannot refrain from quoting his description of North Carolina as printed on page 79 of his history: "A delicious country, being placed in that girdle of the world which affords wine, oil, fruit, grain, and silk, with other rich commodities, besides a sweet air, moderate climate, and fertile soil. These are the blessings, under Heaven's protection, that spin out the thread of life to its utmost extent, and crown our days with the sweets of health and plenty, which, when joined with content, render the possessors the happiest race of men upon earth."

John Eaton Le Conte
John Eaton Le Conte was born near Shrewsbury, New Jersey, in 1784 and died at Philadelphia in i860. In 1817 he entered the army as a topographical engineer, and in 1831 was retired with the grade of major. Le Conte early became interested in natural history and his military expeditions gave him ample opportunity for studying the flora and fauna of eastern America. He published a number of important botanical papers, one of which was The Vines of North America published in 1854-55. His contributions to the genus Vitis will be found under that head.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 144]

Seth and Henderson Lewelling
Little is known of the early life of Seth and Henderson Lewelling. They were of Welsh ancestry and both were born in Salem, North Carolina, Henderson on the 25th of April, 1809, and Seth on the 6th day of March, 1819. Henderson died in California December 28th, 1878, while Seth died in Milwaukee, Oregon, Febuary 21st, 1897. When the boys were still very young their parents moved from North Carolina to Ohio and founded the town of Salem in Ross County; later they moved to Indiana where their father established a nursery and became one of the pioneer fruit-growers of what was then the West and here again they founded a town of Salem. We next hear of Henderson Lewelling in Salem, Henry County, Iowa, the town of his naming, with the statement that in 1837 he planted a small nursery of 35 varieties of apples and some peach, plum and cherry trees.

The history of the Lewellings now becomes more definite for we have it from Seth Lewelling1 (we spell the name as does he and not "Luelling "as do many in writing of him) that in March, 1847, Henderson Lewelling planted an assortment of apples, pears, peaches, plums and cherries and loaded them into two wagons and started to Oregon. This traveling nursery was on the road from March to November and one can imagine the labor of watering and caring for the trees in this trip across mountains and plains. Henderson Lewelling formed a partnership with William Meek under the firm name of Meek & Lewelling, Milwaukee, Oregon. Seth joined his brother in the fall of 1850 bringing with him from the East a considerable quantity of fruit seed. For the next few years the nursery operations were on a large scale, over 100,000 grafts being planted in 1853. From time to time they made new importations of plants and fruit seeds from the East. Seth says that his brother quit the business and moved to California in 1853 and we hear no more of him until his death in 1878. In 1857, the partnership between Meek and Seth Lewelling was dissolved leaving the latter the owner of the Milwaukee nurseries. It was in 1860 that Seth Lewelling raised his first seedling cherry, the Republican, called by him Black Republican, which was sold to George Walling of Oswego and Mr. Hanson of East Portland, the proceeds bringing Lewelling $500. Mr. Lewelling counts the Republican and Bing cherryes and the Golden Prune as his most notable contributions to pomology.  [ 'Lambert' turned out to be a lasting introduction as well... A.S.C.]

The Lewellings are types of fruit-breeders who have done noble work for pomology in the settlement of all our statesmen of indominable courage and will who have bred and grown fruits throughout their lives in spite of every adversity. Few other men labored longer and more devotedly to improve the cherry than Seth Lewelling.
1 Oregon St. Bd. Hort. An. Rpt. 2:242. 1893.


Nicholas Longworth
Nicholas Longworth, known as the "father of American grape culture", was born in 1783, in Newark, New Jersey. At an early age he went West making his home in Cincinnati where he became a lawyer, banker, and a man of large business affairs in what was then the far frontier. From his boyhood Longworth was interested in horticulture and as a young man became greatly interested in native grapes. He was one of the men to whom John Adlum sent the Catawba and he became its disseminator and a promoter for the region in which he lived, making this grape the first great American grape and Cincinnati the center of the foremost grape-growing region of the Continent. He was the first vineyardist to make wine on a large scale and perfected methods of making wine from the native grapes so that the product was comparable to that from the best wine cellars of Europe. Longworth introduced the first cultivated variety of the wild black raspberry, Rubus occidentalis, under the name of the Ohio Everbearing. His interest in the strawberry was second only to that in the grape and he not only did much to encourage its cultivation in America but also, after a long controversy with horticulturists and botanists, fully established the fact that many varieties of this fruit are infertile with themselves and that under cultivation infertile varieties must have sorts planted near them capable of cross-pollinating them. Longworth took a deep interest in horticulture generally and gathered about him a group of pioneer horticulturists who did much for American fruit-growing in the middle of the nineteenth century, in many respects molding and guiding the horticulture of that time in this country. Longworth wrote much for the contemporary horticultural magazines and published two small books, "The Cultivation of the Grape and Manufacture of Wine" and "Character and Habits of the Strawberry Plant." He died in 1863, aged 80, at Cincinnati, one of the most distinguished, enterprising and wealthy citizens of his State. For further discussion of his life see Bailey's Evolution of Our Native Fruits: 61-65. 1898.


T.T. Lyon

Theodatus Timothy Lyon, fruit-grower, experimenter and writer, was for many years the leading pomological authority of his adopted State, Michigan. T. T. Lyon, as he always signed his name, was born in Lima, New York, January 13, 1813, and died in South Haven, Michigan, February 6, 1900. At the age of fifteen he moved with his parents to Michigan where until his thirty-first year, in 1844, he worked at most of the arts and crafts practiced by pioneers in a new country. In the year named, he began the career of horticulturist, by planting a nursery at Plymouth, Michigan. In the nearby regions French missionaries had early planted orchards and old settlers had long been importing varieties of fruit. The nomenclature of these fruits was in uttermost confusion. T. T. Lyon set himself the task of ascertaining the correct names of these varieties in the old settlements of the State. The result was he became the pomological authority of the State. In 1874 Mr. Lyon moved to the famous " peach-belt " of western Michigan, where he lived until his death. Here, at first, he was president of a prominent nursery company. In 1876 he was elected president of the State Horticultural Society and continued as its active president until 1891 and from then on until his death was honorary president. In 1888 T. T. Lyon wrote a History of Michigan Horticulture which was published in the Seventeenth Report of the State Horticultural Society, From the beginning of his interests in horticulture in southwestern Michigan Mr. Lyon was particularly interested in peaches growing seedlings, testing new varieties, planting orchards and in every way helping to forward the great peach-industry of the region. He was probably, in his time, the best informed, the most accurate and the most critical judge of peaches in this countty. In 1889 he was given charge of the South Haven Sub-station of the Michigan Experiment Station which gave him added facilities for studying and describing fruits and a means of publishing, through his connection with the Experiment Station, bulletins on fruits. These, for accurary of description of varieties, are still unsurpassed among American pomological publications. Besides these bulletins, the fruit-lists in the reports of the Michigan Horticultural Society and in the American Pomological Society, during the last half of the Nineteenth Century, show the results of his accurate judgment of fruits. A modest man, shrinking from publicity, his printed works but poorly represent his vast knowledge of fruits and his great influence in the betterment of American pomology.



Robert Manning
The fame of Robert Manning as an accurate and discriminating American pomologist will long endure. Few Americans, one conceives, as his life is reviewed, have rendered greater service in any field of the nation's agriculture. The quantity of his work was not remarkably large, but the quality was superfine. Systematic pomology in particular owes him much for his painstaking descriptions of fruits, and his corrections in nomenclature. Born in Salem, Mass., July 18, 1784, he made the town of his birth famous as a pomological center in America, where, at the time of his death, October 10, 1842, his garden probably contained a larger collection of fruits than had ever before been brought together in America. Manning began collecting fruits in 1823 when he established his "Pomological Garden" at Salem for the purpose of introducing and testing new varieties of fruits. He attempted to bring together all of the varieties of fruits that would thrive in eastern Massachusetts, and when his garden was fullest had about 2000 fruits, of which 1000 kinds were pears, to which fruit he gave most attention. He had many English, French, and Belgian correspondents from whom he received the most notable fruits grown in their countries. He is said to have had a most remarkable memory and could carry in mind the names, tree-habits, and qualities of any fruit he had ever seen and could identify it at sight. In whatever group of pomologists he chanced to be, his identifications and decisions on nomenclature were accepted as correct. Small wonder, therefore, that the Book of Fruits, published by Manning in 1838, at once took the place of authority for descriptions of tree-fruits and for such small-fruits, trees, and shrubs as the author described. It was the first, and is almost the only, American pomology in which the descriptions were all made with fruit in hand. The author intended this book to be the first of a series, but the books to follow never appeared. He was one of the founders of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. Pear-growers are indebted to Manning for the work he did in testing the seedlings sent out by Van Mons, the famous Belgian breeder, most of whose pears came to American orchards through the agency of the Salem Pomological Garden. He also received and introduced valuable pears from the London Horticultural Society. His achievements mark Manning among the most notable American pomologists, of whom no other labored as devotedly for the attainment of better pears.

Humphrey Marshall
Humphrey Marshall was born in the town of West Bradford, Pennsylvania, in 1722, of Quaker parents. He was a cousin of John Bartram, their mothers being sisters. Like Bartram, he had few opportunities for education, not going to school after he was twelve years of age. He was a stonemason by trade, studying botany in his leisure moments. In 1773 he started a botanic garden at Marshallton. In 1785 he published Arbustrum Americanwm, The American Grove, or An Alphabetical Catalog of Forest Trees and Shrubs, Natives of the American United States. This work had been in preparation about five years previous to its publication. It is said to be the first botanical work of a native American. Marshall died in 1801.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 96.]

Andre & F. Andre Michaux
Andr# Michaux was a French botanist, born at Satory, Versailles, in 1746. He took up the study of botany and made many trips to foreign lands in behalf of the French Government. One of these was an expedition to North America where he remained from 1785 to 1796 exploring the country and gathering many botanical specimens through Canada, Nova Scotia and the United States as far west as the Mississippi. His chief works are Histoire des chenes de VAmerique Septentrionale {History of the Oaks of North America), 1801; and Flora Boreali Americana, 1803. He described and named Vitis rotundifolia, V. aestivalis, V. cordifolia, V. riparia, and V. rubra, as well as giving much information on other species. Michaux died on the Island of Madagascar in 1802.

F. Andre Michaux was born at Versailles in 1770 and died at Vaureal in 1855. He was a son of Andre Michaux and also a botanist, and like his father employed by the French Government to explore North America with a view of introducing valuable plants into France. He published in 181013 a Histoire des Arbres Forestieres de VAmerique Septentrionale which was later translated into English under the name North American Sylva. He also published A Voyage a l-ouest des Monts Alleghanys, 1804.
[These brief biographies of the Michaux's were taken from: The Grapes of New York, page 108]

Jacob Moore
Jacob Moore was born in Brighton, New York, in 1835. He early engaged in the nursery-business and about 1860 began to experiment in hybridizing grapes, his first production of note being Diana Hamburg which proved too tender to be of value in New York. In 1873 he sold the Brighton to its introducer, the grape having come from a union of Diana Hamburg and Concord. In 1882 Moore's third grape of note, the Diamond, was introduced, its parents being Concord, fertilized by Iona. One other grape completes his list of varieties of this fruit the Geneva, a Vinifera-Labrusca hybrid from seed planted in the spring of 1874. Beside these grapes, Moore was the originator of the Ruby, Red Cross and Diploma currants and the Bar-seckel pear. Jacob Moore died in January, 1908, having devoted a life to the improvement of fruits and having spent a patrimony of no small amount and all of his earnings in carrying on experiments in horticulture. It saddens one to know that after having devoted a half century to the enrichment of agriculture, poor Moore should have passed his last years in comparative poverty, and that they were embittered with the thought that, unlike the inventor, the producer of new fruits can in no way protect the products of his originality, even though they added millions to the wealth of the country as have his fruits.

Thomas Volney Munson
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 122]

Thomas Nuttall
Thomas Volney Munson, the well-known nurseryman, viticulturist, and pl]t-breeder, was born near Astoria, Illinois, September 26, 1843. He graduated from Kentucky University, Lexington, Kentucky, in 1870. His nursery has for thirty-one years been located a^en^son] Texas. Munson has introduced more hybrid grapes than any other man in America 8^ probably in the world. He has paid great attention to grape botany, particularly to the southwestern species. Monographs on grapes, from his hand, have appeared in the proceedings of iri0us horticultural societies and in horticultural journals. Bulletins written by him have been ^ued by the United States Department of Agriculture and the Texas Experiment Station. He as at present a book ready for publication entitled Foundations of American Grape Culture. Th/arie**es produced by Munson are particularly successful in the Southwest where conditions ariUC^ ^^t most of our northern varieties fail. The most valuable of those that have been thoroi11^ tested are Brilliant, America, Carman, Gold Coin and Rommel.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 122]

Thomas Nuttall
Thomas Nuttall was born in Settle in Yorkshire, England, in 1786. He migrated to the United States in 1807, making his home in Philadelphia where he became acquainted with William Bartram and Dr. Barton. It was largely owing to the influence of these men that he turned his attention to botany. Nuttall was an extensive traveler and made botanical expeditions into many parts of the country. He explored the Middle West up to the Rocky Mountains and made a trip around the Horn to California. From 1825 to 1834 he was connected with Harvard College. In 1842 he was called to England by a bequest from an uncle left to him conditional on his residing for nine months of each year in England; compliance with this request caused a cessation of his botanical work in America. He died at Nutgrove, Lancashire, in 1859. Nuttall's first and probably greatest work was his Genera of North American Plants and Catalogue of the Species, published in 1818. Besides various accounts of his expeditions he made an addition of three volumes to Michaux's Sylva bringing that work up to six volumes.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 98.]

Jules Emile Planchon
Jules Emile Planchon, a French systematic and horticultural botanist, was born in Ganges (Herault) in 1823, and died at Montpellier in 1888. Planchon was a writer of many valuable monographs on botanical subjects and in combination with F. Sahut and J. Bazille discovered that the cause of a mysterious and serious malady which had been affecting the French vineyards for some years, was due to an insect on the roots, the phylloxera. Later, he and C. V. Riley determined that this insect was a native of America. Planchon was one of the first to suggest, and always urged, the reconstitution of French vineyards by the use of American stocks. During the later years of his life he was professor of botany in the School at Montpellier. His most noted contribution to grape literature is his monograph of the grape vine and other plants of the Ampelopsis family which appeared as the second half of the fifth volume of the continuation of De Candolle's Prodromus Systematis Naturalis.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 124.]

William Prince

William Prince, second of the name in American pomology and third proprietor of the celebrated Prince nurseries at Flushing, Long Island, was born November 10, 1766, and died April 9, 1842. His grandfather, a French Huguenot, was the founder of the establishment of which he became owner, and which he made his reputation. Under his father, the first William Prince, the nursery at Flushing developed into a great commercial nursery, a private experiment station, a testing ground for American and foreign fruits and a botanic garden of American plants. The mantle dropped by William Prince, the father, at his death in 1802, fell upon the shoulders of William Prince, subject of this sketch, then just reaching the prime of life and one of the most brilliant and versatile pomologists the country has known. William Prince continued most successfully the work of his father in breeding new varieties, domesticating native plants and importing foreign fruits and ornamentals. During his supervision the Prince Nursery reached the height of its fame. It was conducted less for money than for love of the work. An attempt was made to grow every American and European plant-species having horticultural value. The catalogs published from the nursery by William Prince are among the best horticultural and botanical contributions of the first half of the Nineteenth Century. Besides these, William Prince is the author of the Treatise on Horticulture, published in 1828, and gave assistance to his son, William Robert Prince, in preparing his Pomological Manual published in 1832. In the description of varieties in this text it will be found that many varieties of peaches were originated, introduced, imported or first described by William Prince.
William Robert Prince, fourth proprietor of the Prince Nursery and Linnaean Botanic Garden Flushing, Long Island, was born in 1795 and died in 1869. Prince was without question the most capable horticulturist of his time and an economic botanist of note. His love of horticulture and botany* was a heritage from at least three paternal ancestors, all noted in these branches of science, and all of whom he apparently surpassed in mental capacity, intellectual training and energy. He was a prolific writer, being the author of three horticultural works which will always take high rank among author of A Treatise on the Vine, devoted his life to promoting the culture of the grape in America. He tried all of the European sorts obtainable, " reared " as he tells us, " from plants imported direct from the most celebrated collections in France, Germany, Italy, the Crimea, Madeira, etc.; and above two hundred varieties are the identical kinds which were cultivated at the Royal Garden of the Luxembourg at Paris, an establishment formed by royal patronage for the purpose of concentrating all the most valuable fruits of France, and testing their respective merits."1 After nearly a half century of experimentation he gave up the culture of foreign grapes and largely devoted the last years of his life to growing and disseminating native varieties, exercising, probably, a greater influence on the culture of American grapes than any other of the many men who have helped improve the grapes of this country.

1 Prince, Wm. R. A Treatise on the Vine: 337. 1830.

Nicholas Longworth, of Cincinnati, Ohio, experimented with the European grapes for thirty years. His experience is best told in his own words written in 1846: " I have tried the foreign grapes extensively for wine at great expense for many years, and have abandoned them as unfit for our climate. In the acclimation of plants I do not believe. The white, those of Prince's time. These were: A Treatise on the Vine, Pomological Manual, in two volumes, and the Manual of Roses, beside which he was a lifelong contributor to the horticultural press. All of Prince's writings are characterized by a clear, vigorous style and by accuracy in statement. His works are almost wholly lacking the ornate and pretentious furbelows of most of his contemporaries though it must be confessed that he fell into the then common fault of following European writers somewhat slavishly. During the lifetime of Wm. R. Prince, and that of his father Wm. Prince, who died in 1842, the Prince Nursery at Flushing was the center of the horticultural nursery interests of the country; it was the clearing-house for foreign and American horticultural plants, for new varieties and for information regarding plants of all kinds.

Constantino Samuel Rafinesque

Constantino Samuel Rafinesque was born in Galata, a suburb of Constantinople in European Turkey, in 1783. He was of French-German descent, his father being a French merchant of Marseilles, and his mother of Saxon parentage. In 1802 he came to Philadelphia. While here he was busied with mercantile pursuits, occupying a position as clerk, but studied botany out of office hours for amusement. In 1805 he went to Sicily where he spent the next ten years. Here he commenced the extensive series of publications which have made his name so well known to scientists. In 1815 he returned to the United States, traveling about from place to place for some time and finally settling in Lexington, Kentucky, where he became a professor in Transylvania University. He left Lexington in 1825, removing to Philadelphia, where he spent the remainder of his life, dying in poverty in 1840. Rafinesque's biographer gives 420 differently titled articles on nearly all scientific subjects as the product of his pen. His monograph on grapes, entitled American Manual of the Grape Vine and The Art of Making Wines, etc., was published in Philadelphia in 1830.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 99.]

James H. Ricketts

James H. Ricketts was born in Oldbridge, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, in 1830, the family moving to Indiana while Ricketts was still a child. When a young man Ricketts learned the trade of bookbinding in Cincinnati and later practiced this art in New York City. In 1857 he established a bookbinding business at Newburgh, New York; here he became interested in raising fruit, devoting to it such time as could be be spared from his business. In 1861 he started his work in grape improvement, reading all the books then published on this subject in order to prepare himself to carry on the work intelligently. His first production was Raritan which he says he thought not much improvement. In 1862, he built a glass house in order that he might have Vinifera vines for crossing with natives outside. His first production of foreign cross-breeds was the Charles Downing, now known as Downing.
Ricketts produced many hundred seedlings, and for ten or twelve years exhibited them at various fairs, horticultural society meetings and other places, where their magnificent appearance and fine flavor attracted universal and favorable attention and made him the recipient of many medals and prizes. Unfortunately Ricketts, like many other American grape-breeders, fell into financial difficulties, and in 1877 lost his vineyard and home by foreclosure. In 1888, he moved to Washington. D. C, to work at his trade but has again started to improve grapes and is now growing a number of new varieties which will probably be shown to the public in the near future. Ricketts' seedlings are characterized by a large size of bunch and berry, and by high quality. Unfortunately it has been the experience of growers in nearly all grape regions that the vine characters of his varieties are not equal to those of the fruit, the vines being subject to mildew and other Vinifera weaknesses. However, Ricketts produced magnificent specimens of his grapes, year after year, under conditions which every one admits were less favorable than those of the average grape-grower. The secret of his success seems never to have been discovered. This anomaly is so striking that Campbell did not hesitate to suggest that the fault was with the American grape-grower rather than with Ricketts' grapes or the location of the vineyard. The best known of his varieties are: Advance, Bacchus, Don Juan, Downing, Eldorado, Empire State, Highland, Jefferson, Lady Washington and Secretary. Besides these he produced many others, some of which were named but many of which were known only under numbers.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 318-319.]

Edward Staniford Rogers

Edward Staniford Rogers was born in the old family mansion on Essex Street, Salem, Massachusetts, June 28, 1826, and died in Peabody, Massachusetts, March 29, 1899, He was the son of Nathaniel Leverett Rogers, an old-time Salem merchant, who, with his brothers John and Richard, was engaged in the maritime trade. Edward Rogers was educated in Master Ira Cheever's school, a famous Salem school of the day, and, later, he made several voyages in his father's ships as clerk and supercargo and, finally, passed a number of years in the counting-room of the firm in Salem. After his father's death, Mr. Rogers lived in the old family home with his brother and their mother, and in the garden back of the house, quite large for a city lot, he indulged his natural taste for horticulture and conducted his experiments in grape hybridization.
By temperament Mr. Rogers was quiet and retiring and so generous that he gained practically no profit from his horticultural productions, for he freely gave cuttings and rooted plants of the hybrids he raised to friends and visitors before his own stock was by any means large. Mr. Rogers possessed literary ability and was an extensive reader, but could rarely be drawn into conversation excepting among his most intimate friends who were wont to " drop in " at his long, low greenhouse in the garden or at his office, extemporized in the old colonial barn at the rear of the house. After the death of his mother the old house was sold and the brothers removed to another house in Salem and some years later, after the death of his brother, Mr. Rogers bought the place, his last home, in Peabody, Massachusetts, where he cultivated trees and flowers for pleasure and experiment. An accident which resulted in a permanent lameness prevented much physical labor during his last years and probably in a measure hastened his death.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 390.]

Jacob Rommel

Jacob Rommel was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1837. The family moved to Hermann, Missouri, in 1838 where his father, Jacob Rommel, Sr., engaged in the nursery business and became interested in grape-growing and wine-making. In i860 the younger Rommel removed to Morrison where he entered into partnership with H. Sobbe to grow nursery stock and cultivate grapes. At this time much dissatisfaction was felt among the grape-growers of the Middle West with the standard varieties then grown, most of which were table grapes secured from the East, and were poorly adapted to wine-making and to Missouri conditions. To remedy this defect Rommel originated many new varieties, using Taylor chiefly as a parent. Among others he produced Amber, Beauty, Black Delaware, Elvira, Etta, Faith, Montefiore, Pearl, Transparent and Wilding. Rommel's seedlings are characterized by extreme vigor and productiveness. They were not designed for table grapes and they lack the qualities to recommend them as such. In 1900 Rommel retired from business and removed to Chamois, Missouri, where he still lives.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 352.]

William Saunders

William Saunders, great Canadian horticulturist, entomologist, and a leader in experimental work in agriculture in the Dominion of Canada, was born in England in 1835 and died in London, Ontario, September 13, 1914. His name will be found in The Small Fruits of New York as a breeder of raspberries, gooseberries, and currants more often than that of any other man. On his fruit farm, near London, Ontario, Saunders worked for many years hybridizing small fruits, grapes, and apples, besides which he did much in improving Canadian cereals. Saunders started his professional career as a chemist and druggist, but found time for work in the avocations of botany, entomology, horticulture, and plant breeding. He was one of the founders of the Entomological Society of Ontario, and for thirteen years was editor of the Canadian Entomologist. He is the author of Insects Injurious to Fruits, long regarded on this side of the Atlantic as about the best book on economic entomology for fruit growers. In 1886 he became director of the Dominion Experimental Farms at Ottawa, where for a quarter of a century he labored unremittingly in science and administrative work to build up the splendid chain of agricultural stations which now stretch in the provinces of Canada from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Space does not offer to give details of his work with all the fruits; mention can be made only of his most meritorious small fruits. Perhaps he did most with black currants, of which Magnus, Clipper, Climax, and Eagle are best known. He crossed the gooseberry with the black currant, thereby producing an interesting but sterile hybrid. In his work with raspberries he made many crosses between red and black sorts. Sarah is about the best cf these. Two red varieties, Brighton and Count, have been grown more or less. Several of the gooseberries originated by Saunders as Pearl and Josselyn, are now commonly grown in gooseberry regions. Perhaps his most noteworthy work in breeding fruits was with hardy apples for the cold Canadian Northwest, using the common crab and Russian and American apples as parents. His Marquis wheat proved to be one of the best varieties for the Northwest, and added millions of dollars to the farm crops in the Far West. He was, all in all, Canada's greatest pomologist, plant breeder, and worker in agriculture, and stands out as a foremost man in several fields of agriculture on this side of the Atlantic.

Joseph Stayman

Dr. Joseph Stayman was born in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, in 1817. The family was of German descent and had long been identified with the Mennonites of the region of his birthplace. Stayman's father was a farmer and miller and during early life the son was engaged in these occupations. In 1839 he accompanied his parents to Ohio, where he was engaged in the milling business with his father for a time and later entered the lecture field and studied medicine. In 1849 he married and established his home in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, removing two years later to Abingdon, Illinois. For several years he practiced medicine but in 1858 purchased a nursery which was the beginning of his connection with the fruit business. In i860 he removed to Leavenworth, Kansas, where he lived the remainder of his life, dying at his home in that city in 1903.
Dr. Stayman was a man of great originality and had varied interests. In plant-breeding he worked with strawberries, apples, raspberries and grapes, producing among others the Clyde strawberry, the Stayman apple and a host of varieties of grapes. Of his named sorts of grapes there are: Black Imperial, Cherokee, Concordia, Daisy, Darwin, Exquisite, Marsala, Mary Mark, Mrs. Stayman, Osceola, Oscaloosa, Oswego, Ozark, Pawnee, Perfection, Prolific, Snowflake, White Beauty, White Cloud and White Imperial.
Stayman and John Burr were neighbors and friends, and held similar opinions as to the best methods of procedure in originating new varieties. Neither believed in artificial pollination but grew the several varieties from which crosses were desired in close proximity and then planted seed from the best developed fruits. Their methods certainly gave them varieties with a high standard of excellence. Stayman may be regarded as one of the leading viticulturists of the Great Plains region. He was, too, one of the pioneers of America in breeding fruits. His many contributions to our lists of fruits make his name memorable to fruit-growers and lovers of fine fruits.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 422.]

David Thomas

David Thomas is now scarcely known in horticulture except as he is spoken of as the father of America's well-known agricultural, horticultural and pomological writer, John Jacob Thomas. Yet the father merits recognition for his work in agriculture and horticulture. David Thomas was a Quaker, born in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, in 1776 He became a civil engineer and moved to Aurora,  Cayuga County, New York, in 1805 and began to practice his profession. Later he became one of the engineers in charge of the construction of the Erie Canal and still later performed a similar service in building the Welland Canal. Soon after, we find him a nurseryman and fruit-grower at Aurora. Throughout his entire life, his son writes, he was interested in horticulture, pomology and botany and by his writings on these subjects, published principally in the Genesee Farmer, then the leading agricultural paper in western New York, and in Travels in the Western Country in 1816, published in Auburn in 1819, David Thomas performed most valuable services in forwarding the cultivation of fruits. He was a corresponding member of the London Horticultural Society and of the Linnaean Society of Paris. His articles in the Genesee Farmer and other agricultural papers furnish the most authoritative statements we have in regard to the early history of fruit-growing in western New York. The name of David Thomas ought long to be preserved by horticulturists of the State and country together with that of his illustrious son, John Jacob Thomas.


Joseph Pitton de Tournefort
Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, a French botanist of considerable reputation in his day, was born at Aix, Provence, in 1656 and died in 1708. He was educated by the Jesuits for a priest but following a natural inclination he later became a botanist. In 1683 he became professor of botany at the Jardin des Plantes in Paris. While occupying this position he made trips through western Europe, Greece and Asia Minor. His principal work, and the one quoted here, is Institutiones Rei Herbariae in three volumes, published in Paris in 1700. He was one of the most prominent systematic botanists who preceded Linnaeus.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 95.]

The Underhills
No one family has furnished so many members who have been prominent in American grape-growing as the Underhills. The first of this remarkable family, Robert Underhill, was born in York-town, Westchester County, New York, in 1761. During his early life he appears to have been engaged in various enterprises. At one time he was part owner and conductor of a flouring mill at the head of navigation on the Croton River; later he sold his interest in this business and in 1804 removed to Croton Point, which he had previously bought. Here, during the War of 1812, the supply of watermelons from the South being cut off, he planted eighty acres of melons, and it is said that as many as six vessels were lying off Croton Point at one time waiting for the melons to mature. Among other of his ventures was the growing of castor beans, and toward the end of his life he became interested in viticulture. An account of his operations cultivating grapes is given in the first part of this work. Robert Underhill died at Croton Point in 1829. After his death his two sons, William Alexander Underhill and Robert T. Underhill, bought from their father's estate the two hundred and fifty acres comprising Croton Point. Their holdings were not in common, William A. Underhill having about one hundred and sixty-five acres and his brother the balance.
R. T. Underhill was born on the Croton River in 1802 and died in 1871 at Croton Point. William A. Underhill was born at the same place as his brother in 1804, and died suddenly while on a trip to New York City in 1873. The first three Underhills were pioneer vineyardists in this State, and were men of great enterprise and initiative, contributing much to American viticulture by precept and example; but none of them was an originator of new varieties.
Stephen W. Underhill, son of William A. Underhill, was born at Croton Point in 1837. I*1 n*s boyhood he became familiar with the grape-growing operations of his father and uncle, and about i860 became interested in hybridizing as a means of originating new varieties. Most of his work was done between 1860 and 1870. He originated Black Defiance, Black Eagle, Croton, Irving, Sen-asqua and many other named and unnamed sorts. Of his varieties it may be said that they generally show too many Vinifera weaknesses for profitable commercial sorts. S. W. Underhill is still living at Croton-on-Hudson, a short distance from Croton Point, the scene of the labors of three generations of the Underhill family. Since the death of his father, in 1873, he has devoted himself almost exclusively to brick-making, an occupation in which his father had been interested.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 226.]

Martin Vahl
Martin Vahl, a Norwegian, was born in 1749, and died in 1804. As a pupil of the great Linnaeus, Vahl became a prominent worker in botany and natural history in Denmark and was an author and writer of note on these subjects, publishing much on botany. He traveled extensively, but it does not appear that he visited North America, though he wrote three large volumes on the flora of tropical America. It is probable that he named and described Vitis palmata from herbarium specimens.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 125.]

Carl von Linne
Carl von Linne, better known in the Latin form of Carolus Linnaeus, was born in 1707 at Rashult in the province of Smaland, Sweden. His father, a minister, endeavored to educate his son to follow the same profession. In this he failed, as Linnaeus from his earliest years took no interest in the classical studies then taught. His father was finally induced to educate young Linnaeus as a physician. Linnaeus was the greatest systematist in the history of botany. His general system, though much modified, is still in use. Although he named many species of plants, it was not as a traveler and explorer but as a recipient of the results of travels of others that the specimens were secured from which the descriptions were made. Linnaeus died at Upsala, Sweden, in 1778. His herbarium after his death was sold and finally became the property of the Linnaean Society of London, where the specimens are frequently used by botanists from various parts of the world for purposes of comparison.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 149-150.]

Jean Baptiste Van Mons

Thomas Walter
But little is known of the life of Thomas Walter. He was a native of Hampshire, England, and migrated to St. John's Parish, South Carolina, where he had a plantation on the Santee River. Here he died in 1788 at about the age of forty-eight years. His only publication of note is the Flora Caroliniana, published in the year of his death. He must have been in correspondence with European botanists of that time as his herbarium is preserved in the British Museum.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 96]

Nelson Bonney White
Nelson Bonney White was born in the town of Putney, Windham County, Vermont, in 1824. During his younger years he lived for a time in Ohio and in New York but finally settled in Norwood, Massachusetts. White was a cabinet maker by trade, but coming under the influence of E. S. Rogers at the time when Rogers' hybrids were causing a stir in New England, he took up grape-breeding as a pastime. He is probably the oldest grape-breeder of note now alive, as he has been engaged in this occupation over fifty years. His best known productions are August Giant, Amber Queen, and Norfolk. Two other of his varieties, International and King Philip, are very highly spoken of but have not yet been distributed.
[From: The Grapes of New York, page 364]

Marshall Wilder
Marshall P. Wilder contributed to all fields of American horticulture as an ardent amateur grower and as a most generous patron. But it was as a pomologist and especially as a grower of grapes and pears that he established a permanent place for himself in the horticulture of the country. He was born in New Hampshire in 1798 and died in Boston in 1886, having lived in Dorchester, a suburb of Boston, for upwards of a half century. By vocation a merchant, he was a captain of industry in his day, yet most of his life, especially after the prime had been passed, was devoted to the avocation of horticulture. He was one of the founders of the American Pomological Society and had the great honor of being its president, excepting a single two-year term, from the first meeting in 1850 until his death. During the last years of his presidency, Wilder actively engaged in the reform of pomological nomenclature which the Society was then carrying on. He was an active member of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society for fifty-six years and its president from 1841 to 1848. He was also one of the founders of the Massachusetts Board of Agriculture, of the Massachusetts Agricultural Society, of the United States Agricultural Society, and was a trustee of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Besides membership and activity in these agricultural organizations, he served as colonel and commander in a military company and as president of the New England Historic and Genealogical Society from 1868 until his death. Wilder was a zealous collector and introducer of flowers. He specialized in camellias, azaleas, orchids, and roses. A rose bearing his name is still a garden favorite. Many floral novelties of his day owe their origin or introduction to Marshall P. Wilder. He was ever enthusiastic over American grapes and tested all of the many new varieties introduced about the middle of the last century. But the pear was even more to his fancy than the grape, and he endeavored to grow every native variety of any promise whatsoever. All told, he tested over 1200 varieties, and in 1873 exhibited more than 400 varieties. He originated several new pears and to him is due the honor of having introduced the Beurre d'Anjou in 1844. At his death he left the American Pomological Society $1000 for Wilder medals for new fruits and $4000 for general purposes. To the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, he left $1000 to encourage the introduction of new American pears and grapes. Among many distinguished American pomologists who sought to improve the pear, Marshall P. Wilder deserves most of any recognition for his services and a place is therefore accorded him for his likeness in the frontispiece of The Pears of New York and the book is thereby dedicated to him.

Dr. A. P. Wylie
Dr. A. P. Wylie was a southern hybridizer. His life was one of exceptionally varied usefulness. Besides being a physician he worked with many different plants, producing new varieties of cotton, peach, nectarine, magnolia and other species. His hybrids were produced chiefly during the sixties and early seventies. His method of testing hybrid grapes was unique; as soon as the fruit from the cross-fertilized blossoms ripened, the seeds were planted and the seedlings forced the first winter in a hothouse. In the spring it was planted by the side of a mature vine outside and the seedling grafted by inarching on the established vine. In this manner, his son writes us, he frequently secured fruit the second summer. In 1873 he suffered the irreparable misfortune of losing his residence by fire. This destroyed all of his seeds and also his seedlings, which were in an adjacent hothouse. The number of Dr. Wylie's grape seedlings cannot be accurately told as many of them were never disseminated. Of his better known sorts there are Berckmans, Dr. Wylie, Mrs. McClure, and Peter Wylie, the best known of which is the first. Dr. Wylie was the first man to hybridize the Vitis rotundifolia with other species of grapes. Unfortunately these hybrids appear to have been lost to cultivation. He died at his home in Chester, South Carolina, in 1877. [From: The Grapes of New York, page 182-183.]