BIGARREAU PELISSIER                                           HOME
Prunus avium

1. Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom. 92 fig., 93. 1904. 2. Cal. Cong. Pom. France 30 fig. 1906.
Pelissiers Knorpelkirsche. 3. Proskauer Obstsort. 57. 1907.

This variety originated in France as a chance seedling about 1883 and fruited first in 1891. It was introduced a few years later by M. Auguste Pelssier, a nurseryman at Chateau-Renard, Bouches-du-Rhone, France. Although not yet well established even in France, this cherry is considered promising for market, because of its firm flesh, handsome appearance, high quality and good tree-characters. It is included among the major varieties in The Cherries of New York that the attention of American cherry-growers may be called to it. As yet it seems not to have been tried in this country. The following description is compiled:

Tree upright, vigorous, very productive; branches rather long, large, bearing large, oval leaves; flowers large, semi-open; blooming season early. Fruit matures from early June to the last of June; large or very large, obtuse-cordate, slightly depressed at the apex, with a shallow yet distinct suture; stem short, thick; skin rather thick, firm, yellowish almost entirely overspread with vivid red which becomes darker at maturity but often showing streaks of clear red; flesh fine-grained, firm, juicy, red with streaks of white, sweet, aromatic; quality good to very good; stone of medium size, oval with a pronounced suture.



BLACK GUIGNE                         TOP                               HOME
Prunus avium

There is much confusion in the history of this old cherry. It undoubtedly originated in France and in that part of the country later conquered by the Germans, though Mas, in his Pomologie Générale, mentioned it as probably of German origin. In the time of Louis XIII this variety was known as the Guigne Noire Commune and was cultivated quite extensively in France and northern Italy. It was esteemed both for its earliness and its fine quality and was known as Guigne Guindoulle by the peasants of central France and by the Tuscans in Italy as Corbini because of the color of its skin. Black Guigne, Black Heart, and Early Purple, which, while similar in many characters, are entirely distinct, have been badly confused by both French and German writers and it is only with the greatest difficulty that the three can be separated. While this cherry was formerly considered of worth in Continental Europe, it is scarcely recognized there now and was probably never brought to America. The following description is compiled from European fruit-books :

Tree very large, round-topped, spreading, irregular in outline, productive; branches long, large, straight, brownish, mottled with gray scarf-skin; internodes long and unequal; leaves large, oval or oblong, at the margin irregularly serrate; petiole long, slender, with large glands; blooming season late; flowers small.

Fruit matures the last of June to the middle of July, usually attached in pairs but sometimes in threes; medium to large in size, obtuse-cordate; color bright reddish-black changing to deep purple; suture indistinct; stem slender, inserted in a deep, broad cavity; skin thin, tender; flesh dark purple, with abundant colored juice, half-tender, somewhat stringy, sweet yet sprightly, pleasantly flavored; quality good; stone small, oval.

1. Prince Pom. Man. 2: 192. 1832. Scheur-Kers.
2. Knoop Fructologie 2:36, 43. 1771. Frühe Schwarze Herzkirsche.
3. Christ Wörterb. 274. 1802. Guigne Bigaudelle.
4. Prince Pom. Man. 2:113. 1832. Coburger Maikerzkirsche.
5. Ill. Handb. 51 fig., 52. 1860.
6. Oberdieck Obst-Sort- 377. 1881.
7. Lauche Dout. Pom. III: No. 1, P1. 1882. Guigne Noire Commune.
8. Leroy Dict. POM. 5:328, 329 fig,, 330. 1877. Noire Hâtive de Cobourg.
9. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:123, 124, fig. 62. 1882.


BLACK HAWK
Prunus avium

1. Horticulturist 6:360, 361 fig. 1851. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. RPt- 45, 235. 1854. 3. Elliott Fr. Book 190 fig. 1854. 4. Hooper W. Fr. Book 258, 270, 271. 1857. 5. U.S.D.A. Rpt- 382. 1875 Epervier Noir. 6. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:41, 42, fig. 21. 1882.

Despite the fact that Black Hawk was lauded by the horticulturists in the middle of the last century as one of the best of all black Sweet Cherries, it is now almost unknown. According to the older pomologists it was unsurpassed for eating out of hand but was only mediocre in all other characters of either fruit or tree. In particular it was surpassed in many ways by the better-known Eagle which fills about the same place in cherry culture. The variety was very popular in southern Ohio about Cincinnati where many trees may still be found and where it is still more or less planted. Possibly because of the excellent quality of the fruit, the amateur might well try a tree or two. The description is compiled.

Black Hawk originated with Professor J.P. Kirtland of Cleveland, Ohio, sometime previous to 1845. It is one of the best of the many seedlings fruited by him. The American Pomological Society in 1854 named this sort as one of the promising new fruits and it still remains on the fruit- list of this organization.

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, round-topped, resembling Yellow Spanish in habit, productive, healthy; branches stout, smooth, dark reddish-brown, straight; branchlets slender, with short internodes.

Leaves large, folded upward, obovate, rather thick; upper surface dark green; lower surface pale green; apex abruptly pointed; margin coarsely and deeply serrate; petiole short, stout, bright red, with two or more orange-red, reniform glands.

Buds of medium size, rather short, free; flowers small or medium in size; pedicels long, very slender; calyx-lobes straight, finely serrate, obtuse; petals roundish, broadly and deeply notched at the tip.

Fruit matures about the middle of June, a few days later than Black Tartarian; medium to large, obtuse-cordate, surface uneven, sides compressed; cavity deep, broad, abrupt, nearly regular; color glossy, dark purplish-black changing to almost black at complete maturity; stem usually thick but often variable, of medium length; skin thick, adhering to the pulp; flesh purplish-black, tender, with abundant colored juice, aromatic, well flavored, sweet; of very good quality; stone of medium size, with uneven surfaces.


BLACK HEART                                                                                              HOME
Prunus avium

1. Rea Flora 205. 1676. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 2:115. 1832. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 169 fig. 1845. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 195. 1854. 5. Thompson Gard. Ass't. 526. 1859. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 74. 1862. Guignier a Fruit Noir. 7.Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 1:158,159,160,Pl. I fig. l. 1768.
Fruehe Schwarz Herzkirsche. 8.Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort 116-119. 1819. 9.Mathieu Nom. POm- 340, 349. 1889.
Guigne Noire Ancienne. 10.Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:66fig-7,67,68. 1866.
Bigarreau Noir d'Espagne. 11.Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:223fig.,224. 1877.

Although one of the oldest cherries under cultivation, Black Heart is still largely grown the world over. Prince, in 1832, said that it was more widely cultivated in the United States than any other variety and Downing, in 1845, said Black Heart was then better known than any other cherry in the country. while neither of these two statements would hold for Black Heart now, it having long since passed its heyday of popularity, it is still, because of the fruitfulness of the tree and the high quality and beauty of the fruit, a variety of much merit. Black Heart fails in the commercial fruit growing of nowadays, as compared with the cherry culture of the fruit connoisseurs of a generation ago, because it does not meet market demands, failing to do so through two defects: it does not ship well and when brown-rot is rife it quickly succumbs to this fungus. It is, too, now difficult to obtain the variety true to name, the trees at this Station, as an example, in several attempts, turning out untrue, which forces the use of a compiled description in this text.

This cherry was mentioned by John Rea in 1676 but there can be no doubt but that it originated many years previous to this date. Probably it is the cherry mentioned by Robert Dodonee, a naturalist of Malines, Belgium, in 1552. When or by whom it was introduced to America is not known but it was being grown here very early in the Nineteenth Century and ever since has been considered a valuable variety for general planting. Nearly every nurseryman throughout the United States lists Black Heart, a fact attesting its popularity. The American Pomological Society placed Black Heart on its catalog of fruits in 1862, a place which it has since retained.

Tree large, very vigorous, tall, wide-spreading, productive; branches stout, brownish, mingled with yellow, mottled with gray scarf-skin; lenticels numerous, small.

Leaves very large, oblong, waved, acuminate, nearly flat; upper surface dark green; margin deeply and coarsely serrate; petiole of medium length, lightly tinged with red, with greenish glands.

Buds large, oval, pointed; season of bloom early or very early; flowers medium in size; petals roundish, imbricated.

Fruit matures early, season long; large, obtuse-cordate, somewhat compressed; cavity broad; suture deep; surface somewhat irregular; color dark purple becoming black; stem one and three-fourths inches long, slender; skin slightly shriveled; flesh dark red. firm to very firm becoming tender at full maturity, with abundant colored juice, sweet; good in quality; stone large, roundish-ovate; dorsal suture deep.  [Blackheart in 'Cherries of Utah']

BLEEDING HEART                                                                                                      HOME
Prunus avium

1. Rea Flora 205. 2676. 2. Forsyth Treat. Fr. Trees 42. 2803. 3. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 104-1846. 4. Elliott Fr. Book 215. 1854.
Gascoigne. S. Parkinsm Par. Ter- 571, 572. 1629. 6. Gerarde Herball 1504. 1636. 7. Hogg Fruit Man. 298. 1884.
Red Heart. 8. Rea Flora 206. 1676. 9. Brookshaw Hort. Reposit- 2:183, P1. 96 fig. 1. 1823.
Blutherzkirsche. 10. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 224, 225, 226. 1819.
Gascoigne's Heart. 11. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 174. 1845.
Blutrothe Molkenkirsche. 12. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obsikunde 3:29. 1858.
Guigne Rouge Hative. 13. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:338 fig., 339. 1877.

Bleeding Heart goes back almost as far as the history of cultivated cherries. It is only of historical interest now and this chiefly because it has been the parent of many sorts of present worth. According to the old writers it took highest rank in the cherry lists of a century and more ago by virtue of it's high quality and handsome appearance, the name being indicative of color and form. So far as can be made out at this late date the variety has been grown but little or not at all in America, the description here given coming from old pomologies.

This, like the preceding sort, is a cherry of several names, having been mentioned first by Parkinson in 1629 as the Gascoign Cherry. In England three different names have been applied to this variety, Gascoigne, Red Heart and Bleeding Heart. At least there seems to be little doubt that the Bleeding Heart and Red Heart listed by John Rea in 1676 were the Gascoign of Parkinson and Gerarde.

Tree of largest size, very vigorous, not very productive; branches numerous, large, long, diverging, brownish-red, mottled with gray scarf-skin; leaves very large, oblong, acuminate; margin crenate; petiole thick, long, reddish, with well-developed glands; blooming season early.

Fruit matures the latter half of July; usually in pairs, large, elongated heart-shaped, with pointed apex; color bright red changing to dark red, somewhat mottled; stem two inches long, slender; flesh reddish, rather tender although firm, with abundant juice, highly flavored, sweetish; good in quality; stone large, oblong.

CALIFORNIA ADVANCE                                                          HOME
Prunus avium

1. Wickson Cal. Fruits 289, 292. 1889. 2. Wash. Sta. Bul. 92:25. 1910.
Advance. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt- 130. 1897.
Ulatis. 4. Mich. Sta. Bul. 77:32. 899.

California Advance is a Sweet Cherry, one of the "Hearts "of common parlance, distinguished and worth growing only because it is extra early, though when fully ripe it is of very good quality. It is usually described as a cherry of "large size "but on the grounds of this Station the cherries run small, as they are occasionally reported elsewhere to do, suggesting that the variety requires good care and a choice cherry soil for a finely finished product. On these grounds the variety seems to be preeminently free from fungus diseases but the robin and other birds take greater toll from it than from almost any other cherry, beginning their harvest long before the fruit is fit for human fare. California Advance might well be planted in a small way for a local market in New York, or a tree or two for home use, but it has no place in large numbers in this State.

California Advance came from a seed of Early Purple sown by W.H. Chapman of Napa, California, the seedling being saved because the cherries were larger and ripened earlier than those of its parent. It has sometimes been confused with the Chapman cherry, of somewhat similar characteristics, which also originated in Napa, but the two are quite distinct.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, dense, productive; trunk and branches stout, srnooth; branchlets of medium thiclmess, brownish-bronze partly covered with ash-gray, glabrous; leaves numerous, five and one-half inches long, two and one-half inches wide, long-obovate to elliptical, thin, medium green, slightly rugose; margin serrate, glandular; petiole nearly two inches long, slender, tinged with red, pubescent along the upper side and with a shallow groove, with from two to four large, reniform, reddish glands, usually on the stalk; buds large, obtuse or pointed, plump, arranged singly as lateral buds or in clusters of vatiable size on numerous short spurs; leaf-scars prominent; season of bloom early; flowers one and one-eighth inches across; pistil equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit ripens very early, season averaging eleven days; about three-fourths inch in diameter, roundish-cordate, compressed; color purplish-black; stem of medium thickness, often one and one-half inches long, adherent to the fruit; skin thin, tender, separates from the pulp; flesh reddish, with dark red juice, meaty, tender, mild, sweet; of very good quality; stone semi-clinging, three-eighths inch by eleven-thirty-seconds inch in size, roundish oval, compressed, oblique, with smooth surfaces.

CENTENNIAL                                                     HOME
Prunus avium

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 17, 159. 1885. 2. Wickson Cal. Fruits 289. 1889. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cal. 24. 1899.

In California, Centennial is passing from the period of probation to one of general acceptance as a standard variety. Unfortunately it has not been well tested in the East but trees growing in a commercial orchard at Geneva show the variety to be a close competitor, in this instance at least, with its parent, Napoleon, the mainstay of Sweet Cherry growers in New York. In some respects it quite surpasses Napoleon. It is larger, sweeter and better flavored and has a smaller pit. The trees fall short of those of its well-known parent, however, in being less fruitful. Even more serious defects are, in the orchard under observation, that Centennial cracks and is less successful in resisting brown-rot than Napoleon though it surpasses many other well-known sorts in these respects. The two varieties under comparison may be further distinguished by the more oblate fruits of Centennial, by a more mottled color and by the pits which are longer and more pointed in the newer variety. Centennial is recommended for home orchards and experimentally for commercial plantations. Centennial is a seedling of Napoleon grown by Henry Chapman, Napa, California. It came in fruit in 1876 but was not introduced until 1885, Leonard Coates of Napa, California, being the introducer. Despite its many merits, Centennial did not win a place on the fruit list of the American Pomological Society until 1899.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped, productive; trunk thick, rough; branches stout, smooth, brownish, with many large lenticels; branchlets thick, with internodes of medium leugth.

Leaves numerons, large, flattened, long-oval to obovate, thick; upper surface dark green, rugose; lower surface pale green, thinly pubescent; apex taper-pointed; margin coarsely serrate, with small and inconspicuous glands; petiole one and one-fourth inches long, pubescent, tinged with red, with from two to four large, reniform, greenish-red, flattened glands, usually on the stalk.

Buds large, long, pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds or in small clusters on short spurs; leaf-scars prominent; blooming season about the middle of May; flowers one and one-fourth inches across, usually arranged in twos and threes; pedicels variable in length averaging one and one-eighth inches, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx tube faintly tinged with red, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes long, acute, glabrous on both suffaces, reflexed; petals oval, entire, tapering to short, narrow claws, with a slightly crenate apex; anthers greenish; filaments one-eighth inch long, shorter than the petals; Pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit matures the last week in June, length of season rather short; very large, short cordate, compressed; cavity deep, wide; suture distinct, broad, shallow; apex roundish or slightly depressed; color amber-yellow, speckled and overlaid with crimson; dots whitish, inconspicuous; stem thick, one and one-fourth inches long, adherent to the pulp; skin thin, tender, cracks badly, adherent to the pulp; flesh whitish, with colorless juice, meaty, crackling, sprightly, sweet; of very good quality; stone semi-clinging, three-eighths inch in length, eleven-thirty-seconds inch in width, ovate, plump, oblique, with smooth surfaces; ridged on the ventral suture.  [Centennial in 'Cherries of Utah']

CLEVELAND                             TOP                                                          HOME
Prunus avium

1. Horticulturist 2:60 fig. 1847-48. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 191 fig., 192. 1854. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 74. 1862. 4. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2: 131. 1866.
Knorpelkirsche von Cleveland. 5. Ill. Handb. 45 fig,, 46. 1867.

Cleveland is a Bigarreau which falls so far short of its near kin, as it grows in New York at least, as not to be worth planting except as an early cherry of its type - earliness being its one saving asset. The cherries closely resemble Rockport in size, color, shape and flavor, are in no way better than that somewhat mediocre sort and are even more subject to brown-rot. It ripens with Black Tartarian and can never compete in orchard or market with that sort. Possibly Cleveland has too much merit to be wholly neglected yet it certainly is not worth planting in New York unless in a locality where it does exceptionally well and when an early cherry of its kind is wanted.

Cleveland is said by its introducer, Professor J.P. Kirtland, to be a seedling from Yellow Spanish. Its close similarity to Rockport suggests that it may have come from a pit of that variety. It was brought out in 1842 but was not adopted by the American Pomological Society for its fruit list until 1862. Despite rapidly passing popularity it is still on this list.

Tree of medium size and vigor, upright-spreading, open, very productive; trunk of medium diameter and smoothness; branches smooth, reddish-brown partly overspread with ash-gray, with many small lenticels; branchlets slender, brown partly overspread with ash-gray, smooth, with numerous small, inconspicuous lenticels.

Leaves numerous, five inches long, two and one-half inches wide, folded upward, obovate to long-elliptical, thin; upper surface medium green, slightly rugose; lower surface light green, lightly pubescent; apex acute, base abrupt; margin coarsely and doubly serrate, glandular; petiole often two inches long, reddish, rather slender, hairy, grooved, glandless or with from one to four renifortn, reddish glands, usually on the stalk.

Buds small, short, pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds or in clusters of variable size on rather short spurs; leaf-scars prominent; flowers white, one and one fourth inches across; borne in scattered clusters, usually in twos; pedicels three-fourths inch long, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, tinged with red, light green within, broadly campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes tinged with red, broad, acute, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals roundish, entire, with short, broad claws, notched and crinkled at the apex; filaments in four series, the longest averaging one-half inch in length; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit matures early; about three-fourths of an inch in diameter, cordate, compressed, with an irregular surface; cavity wide, flaring, irregular; suture shallow, indistinct; apex somewhat obtusely-pointed; color light red overspreading yellow; dots numerous, small, yellowish, obscure; stem slender, one and one-half inches long, adherent to the fruit; skin thin, tender, separating readily from the pulp; flesh light yellow, with colorless juice, tender and melting, sweet; of good quality; stone clinging, large, one-half inch long, oval, flattened at the base, plump, with smooth surfaces.

COE         Larger picture                                         TOP                                      HOME
Prunus avium

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 26. 1909.
Coe's Transparent. 2. Horticulturist 2:71, 72 fig, 1847-48. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cal. 211. 1856.
4. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:87 fig., 88. 1866. 5. Cult. & Count. Genet. 36:326. 1871. 6. Thomas Guide Prat. 15, 206. 876.
Guigne Coe. 7. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:319 fig., 320. 1877.
Coe's Bunte Transparent. 8. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 343. 1889.

Even earlier and certainly better than Cleveland, which we have just discussed, is Coe, long known as Coe's Transparent. This is the first of the light-colored cherries to ripen and is a splendid fruit in quality and appearance. The color-plate shows this variety very well possibly too well, since one of its defects is variability in color, the variant usually being very light colored and not as attractive as the type. A second defect is that the fruit runs rather small. The tree-characters are in the main very good. The variety can be distinguished, as a rule, by the large, spreading tree and to a lesser extent by its hardiness, vigor, heathfulness and fruitfulness. Coe is worthy of a place in every home plantation, in orchards for local markets and in favored localities as an early cherry for the general market.

Curtis Coe of Middletown, Connecticut, grew this variety early in the Nineteenth Century from a pit of what he supposed to be Ox Heart. The American Pomological Society included Coe in its list of recommended fruits in 1856.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open, very productive; trunk stocky, shaggy; branches thick, smooth, dark reddish-brown overlaid with ash-gray, with many raised lenticels; branchlets stout, short, brown nearly covered with gray, smooth, glabrous, with numerous small, conspicuous, raised lenticels.

Leaves numerous, four and one-fourth inches long, two and one-fourth inches wide, folded upward or flattened, long-elliptical to obovate, thin; upper surface medium green; lower surface light green, thinly pubescent; apex acute, base abrupt; margin coarsely serrate, with small, black glands; petiole one and three-fourths inches long, thick, tinged with red, grooved, hairy with from one to three large, reniform, greenish-yellow or reddish glands on the stalk.

Buds large, long, conical, plump, free, in dusters on spurs variable in length; leafscars very prominent; season of bloom intermediate; flowers one and one-fourth inches across, white; borne in dense clusters, thicky distributed over the tree in twos and threes; pedicels one inch long, slender, glabrous, green; calyx-tube green, broadly campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes tinged with red, broad, obtuse, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals roundish, entire, with a shallow notch at the apex; filaments one-quarter inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit matures early; nearly one inch in diarneter, roundish-cordate, slightly compressed; cavity regular, abrupt; suture indistinct; apex blunt-pointed or slightly depressed; color pale amber faintly mottled with red; dots smar, light yellow, inconspicuous; stem slender, one and one-half inches long, adherent to the fruit; skin thin, of medium toughness, separating from the pulp; flesh pale ycilow, with colorless juice, tender, meaty, mild, sweet; good to very good in quality; stone semi-free or free, one-half inch long, less than one-half inch wide, roundish, somewhat flattened, blunt, with smooth surfaces; ridged along the ventral suture.

DIKEMAN                               TOP                                                 HOME
Prunus avium

1. Del. Sta. Bul. 35: 16,17 fig. 1897.

Dikeman has some merit as a very late Sweet Cherry but here its usefulness ends. The cherries are too small and the pits too large for this variety to have great worth. The tree is somewhat remarkable for its spreading habit and stout branches.. Plant-breeders seeking for a very late sort might well choose Dikeman as a parent.

Two very similar cherries, with a variation in the spelling, pass under this name. Late in the Eighteenth Century there appeared a cherry on the Dyckman farm near New York City. Some thought it to be identical with Black Tartarian; others said it was distinct and called it Dyckman. It was never more than of local note. Some few years ago the late S.D. Willard of Geneva introduced the Dikeman cherry from the farm of George B. Dikeman, Oceana County, Michigan. This variety often goes under the name Dykeman but from the information at hand we feel certain that Dikeman is the correct spelling. On our grounds this variety and Black Tartarian, although similar, are two distinct sorts, the Dikeman being later, firmer and a clingstone.

Tree large, vigorous, broadly-spreading, open-topped, productive; trunk and branches thick, smooth; branches reddish-brown covered with ash-gray, with numerous lenticels which are variable in size; branchlets short, brown, partly covered with ash-gray, smooth, glabrous, with inconspicuous, slightly raised lenticels.

Leaves numerous, four and one-half inches long, two and one-fourth inches wide, folded upward, obovate to long-elliptical, thin; upper surface medium green, slightly rugose; lower surface light green, faintly pubescent; apex acute, base abrupt; margin coarsely and doubly serrate; petiole about one and one-half inches long, tinged with red, with a few hairs, with from one to four reniform, reddish glands, usually on the stalk. Buds large, pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds or in clusters variable in size on short spurs; leaf-scars prominent; season of bloom intermediate; flowers white, one and three-eighths inches across; borne in scattering clusters, in ones, twos or threes; pedicels one and one-fourth inches long, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube tinged with red, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes with reddish tinge, broad, acute, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals roundish, entire, nearly sessile, with a shallow notch at the apex; filaments one-half inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit matures late; about three-fourths of an inch in diameter, cordate; cavity wide, flaring; suture shallow, indistinct; apex slightly pointed, with a small depression at the center; color purplish-black; dots numerous, small, dark russet, inconspicuous; stem slender, one and one-fourth inches long, adherent to the fruit; skin thin, tender, adherent to the pulp; flesh dark red, with dark colored juice, very meaty, crisp, mild, somewhat aromatic, sweet; of good quality; stone clinging, longer than wide, ovate, flattened, with smooth surfaces, somewhat marked with a reddish tinge.

DOWNER    Larger picture                TOP                                                                      HOME
Prunus avium

1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 218. 1835. 2. Hovey Fr. Am. 2:93, 94, P1. 1851.
Downer's Red Heart. 3. Kenrick Am. Orch. 276. 1832.
Downer's Late. 4. Proc. Nat. Con. Fr. Gr. 52. 1848. 5. Ann. Pom. Belge 2:65, P1. 1854.
Guigne Tardive de Downer. 6. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:95 fig., 96, 97. 1866.

Downer is a Sweet Cherry, one of the so-called "Hearts "much prized by those who know it as a late cherry delicately and richly flavored. Possibly it is the best of the late Sweet Cherries. Several defects keep it from being of any considerable worth; it thrives only in the choicest soils; the trees are often unhealthy as well as lacking in vigor; the flesh is thin and the stone is large; and, though the cherries set abundantly, the yield is small because the fruits are small. So, while the variety is almost indispensable in a home orchard, ripening after almost all of the dessert cherries have gone, Downer has small place in a commercial plantation. It should be said further in its favor, however, as a commercial fruit, that it stands harvesting and shipping very well.

Downer takes the name of Samuel Downer, Dorchester, Massachusetts, who grew it some time before 1832 when it first found a place in pomological works. It was included by the American Pomological Society in its schedule of fruits in 1848 as Downer's Late. It now appears as Downer with Downer's Late Red as a synonym in accordance with the rules of the Society.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, dense-topped, productive; trunk thick, with shaggy bark; branches thick, roughened, dark brown overspread with dark gray, with numerous large lenticels; brancmets slender, long, brown partly covered with ash-gray, smooth, with inconspicuous, raised lenticels.

Leaves numerous, three inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, folded upward, obovate, rather stiff; upper surface dark green; lower surface light green, hairy along the veins; apex acute, base abrupt; margin doubly serrate, glandular; petiole one inch long, thick, dark red, grooved, glandless or with from one to three large, globose or reniform glands on the stalk.

Buds all, except the terminals which are large, pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds, or in small clusters on short spurs; leaf-scars prominent; flowers white, one and one-fourth inches across; borne in thin clusters in ones and in twos; pedicels variable in length often one inch long, glabrous; calyx-tube faintly tinged with red, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes tinged with red, acuminate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals roundish, entire, somewhat sessile, with a shallow notch at the apex; pistil glabrous, nearly equal to the statnens in length, often defective.

Fruit matures among the latest; three-fourths of an inch in diameter, roundish- cordate, slightly compressed; cavity very shallow, flaring; suture obscure; apex variable in shape usually somewhat pointed; color light to dark red frequently showing an amber background on the shaded side; dots numerous, small, russet, inconspicuous; stem one and three-fourths inches long, adherent to the fruit; skin tough, separating from the pulp; flesh pale yellow, with colorless juice, somewhat stringy, tender, with soft flesh, mild and pleasant, sweet when fully ripe; good to very good in quality; stone large, free, ovate, flattened, with smooth surfaces; somewhat ridged along the ventral suture.

EAGLE - incorrectly listed as P. avium, it is actually a Duke- A.S.C.

ELKHORN                                                               HOME
Prunus avium

1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:117. 1832. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 213. 1854. 3. Am. POm- SOC. Cat. 24. 1899.
Joh Tradescantes Cherrie. 4. Parkinson Par. Ter. 574. 1629.
Hertogs-Kers. 5. Knoop Fructologie 2:36, 40. 1771.
Grosse Schwatze Knorpelkirsche. 6. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 180-192. 1819. 7. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:36. 1858. 8. Ill. Handb. 89 fig., 90. 1860. 9. Lauche Deut. Pom. III: No. 6, Pl. 1882. 10. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 357, 358. 1889.
Tradescant's Black Heart. 11. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 188 fig., 189. 1845. 12. Thompson Gard. Ass't 526. 1859. 13. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 74. 1862.
Gros Bigarreau Noir. 14. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:108-III, fig. 24. 1866. 15. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5-224, 225 fig., 226. 1877,
St. Margaret's Cherry. 16. Flor. &, Pom. 105, P1. 542. 1881.

Elkhorn has served its day and is now being rapidly superseded by other cherries of the Bigarreau group to which it belongs. It was valued by the old pomologists because of the large size of the fruit, the firm flesh, late ripening, rich flavor, and because it hangs well on the tree long after maturity. But it fails in competition with other Bigarreaus in bearing cherries quite variable in size, in the diminishing size of the fruit as the trees attain age and more than an else in being but moderately productive. The bark of the trunk and main branches is so heavily overspread with gray as to make this a distinguishing mark. The fruit, too, is distinct in appearance by reason of the irregular surface of the skin. The variety possesses no characters, as it usually grows, to make it worth planting either for home or market.

The history of this old cherry was almost hopelessly confused by the early horticulturists by the vast number of names they used for it, many of which belonged to other varieties. Elkhorn is supposed to have been raised by John Tradescant, gardener to Charles I of England, under the name Tradescant's Black Heart. Of this cherry, John Parkinson in 1629 says: "John Tradescantes Cherrie is most usually sold by our Nursery Gardiners, for the Archdukes cherrie, because they have more plenty thereof, and will better be increased, and because it is so faire and a cherrie that it may be obtruded without much discontent: it is a reasonably good bearer, a faire great berrie, deepe coloured, and a little pointed." It is not known when or how Elkhorn got to America. The first cherry-grower in this country to mention it was William Prince, in 1832, who says that his father noticed the variety growing in a garden next to a hotel in Maryland about 1797 and brought cions of it to New York afterwards propagating and selling it under the name Elkhorn given to the cherry by the hotel proprietor. Elkhorn was at one time very popular and well disseminated throughout the United States and is sold now by a large number of nurserymen either under the name Tradescant's Black Heart or as Elkhorn. In 1862, the American Pomological Society listed in its fruit catalog Tradescant's Black Heart but dropped it in 1877. In 1899 this Society placed the variety in its catalog under the name Elkhorn and it still remains on its list of recommended fruits. From its history it is apparent that this cherry is rightly called Tradescant or Black Heart or by some combination of these terms but Elkhorn has been adopted by the American Pomological Society, is everywhere in common use on this continent and is so distinctive that we choose for this text the newer name.

Tree large, very vigorous, upright, open-topped, moderately productive; trunk stocky, smooth; branches stout, smooth, with numerous small lenticels, reddish-brown heavily overspread with ash-gray; branchlets thick.

Leaves numerous, three and three-fourths inches long, two and one-fourth inches wide, short-oval to obovate, thin; upper surface medium green, roughish; lower surface dull, light green, lightly pubescent; apex acute; margin coarsely serrate, glandular; petiole with from one to three raised glands of medium size, variable in shape, usually on the stalk.

Fruit matures in late mid-season; three-fourths of an inch in diameter, cordate to conical, slightly compressed; cavity deep, wide, flaring; suture indistinct; apex roundish or pointed, with a slight depression at the center; color purplish-black; dots numerous, small, dark russet, inconspicuous; stem one and three-eighths inches long, adhering to the fruit; skin thin, tender, adhering somewhat to the pulp; flesh a characteristically dark purplish-red, with very dark colored juice, meaty, firm, crisp, mild, sweet; of good quality; stone semi-free, ovate, flattened, slightly pointed, with smooth surfaces, tinged with red.  [Elkhorn in 'Cherries of Utah']

ELTON                    Larger picture              TOP                                                                         HOME
Prunus avium

1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 49. 1831. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 2: 121,122. 1832. 3. POM. Mag. 2:92, Pl 1839. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 186 fig. 77. 1845. 5. Proc. Nat. Con. Fr. Gr. 52. 1848. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. RPt- 75. 1850. 7. Am. POm- SOc- Cat. 54. 1852. 8. Elliott Fr. Book 194 fig. 1854. 9. Thompson Gard. Ass't 528. 1859. 10. Ill. Handb. 105 fig., l06. 1860. 11. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:91 fig. 17, 92, 93. 1866. 12. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 463 fig. 1869. 13. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:196, 197 fig. 1877. Flesh Coloured Bigarreau. 14. Prince Pom. Man. 2:128. 1832. 15. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 182 fig. 74. 1845. 16. Leroy Dict. POM. 5:192, 193 fig. 1877.

Elton has been freely recommended and widely cultivated in Europe and America for the past century and probably no cherry has given more general satisfaction. The variety is distinguished by the form, color, flesh and flavor of its fruit. The cherries are oblong-heart-shaped possibly too much drawn out for best appearance and often too oblique; the color, very well shown in the color-plate, is most attractive and makes up for any defect in shape - a dark red mottled with amber, very bright, clear and glossy; the flesh, a little too soft to ship well, is delicate and most pleasing to the palate; the flavor is peculiarly rich and luscious being hardly surpassed by that of any other cherry. The trees may be as readily told as the fruit, by the unusually dark red color of the petioles of the leaves. The branches are stout and bear the crop thickly placed close to the wood and in prodigious quantities. Unfortunately it has a fault which in America, at least, makes it almost unfit for a commercial plantation. Brown-rot, the scourge of the Sweet Cherry, attacks this variety more aggressively than almost any other sort and for this reason, while its merits can hardly be too highly spoken of, Elton must remain for most part a variety for the home orchard. The tree, perfect in most respects, is a little tender to cold. Leroy, the French pomologist, thinks it does better on Mahaleb than on the Mazzard stock. This is another cherry from Thomas Andrew Knight, the great English pomologist. Knight fruited it first about 1806, the tree coming from a pit of Yellow Spanish, the paternal parent being White Heart. From the first it took a high place in English and continental pomology as it did also in America upon being brought here in 1823. The variety is everywhere known and grown in America and is for sale by many nurserymen. Elton was one of the fruits to receive attention at the first meeting of the American Pomological Society in 1848, and in 1852 was put on the list of recommended fruits where it still remains.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped, very productive; trunk thick, smooth; branches srnooth, reddish-brown covered with ash-gray, with small lenticels; branchlets long, brown partly covered with ash-gray, smooth, with inconspicuous, raised lenticels, intermediate in nurnber and size.

Leaves numerous, five and one-half inches long, two and one-half inches wide, folded upward, long-obovate to elliptical, thin; upper surface dark green, rugose; lower surface light green, thinly pubescent; apex acute, base abrupt; margin doubly serrate, with small, dark glands; petiole two inches long, heavily tinged with red, with a few scattering hairs along the upper surface, with from two to four reniforrn or globose, reddish-brown glands on the stalk.

Buds large, long, pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds and on very short spurs variable in size; large scars prominent; mid-season in blooming; flowers one and one-half inches across, white; borne in twos and threes; pedicels one inch long, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes tinged with red, long, broad, acute, serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals roundish, entire, nearly sessile, with a shadow notch at the apex; filaments about one-half inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit matures early; about one inch long, three-fourths inch wide, cordate to conical, somewhat compressed and oblique; cavity rather abrupt, regular; suture indistinct; apex distinctly pointed; color dark red with an amber tinge, faintly mottled; dots numerous, small, light yellow, obscure; stem slender, one and three-fourths inches long; skin thin, tender, separating from the pulp; flesh white with a tinge of yellow, with colorless juice, slightly stringy, tender, very mild, sweet; of good quality; stone free except along the ventral suture, one-half inch long, long-ovate, slightly flattened, with smooth surfaces; some- what ridged along the ventral suture.

FLORENCE              Larger picture                                 TOP                                   HOME
Prunus avium

1. Prince Treat. Hort. 29. 1828. 2. Kenrick Am. Orch. 277. 1832. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 187. 1845. 4. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 365. 1849. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat.122. 1885.
Knevett's Late Bigarreau. 6. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 46. I 83 1.
Bigarreau de Florence. 7. Leroy Dict. POM. 5:204 fig., 205. 1877.
Florence Heart. 8. Bunyard-Thomas Fr. Gard. 43. 1904.

Florence is a Bigarreau so similar to Yellow Spanish as to be hardly worth planting, since it is, all and all, surpassed by its better-known rival.

The fruit hangs on the tree in edible condition an almost phenomenal length of time which has given rise to much divergence of opinion as to its season, some pomologists rating it as early, others as mid-season and still others as late. At Geneva the trees of this variety are not as healthful, vigorous or as fruitful as those of Yellow Spanish, with which it must compete, nor are the cherries qnite as fine in appearance or quality.

This variety was found in Florence, Italy, early in the Nineteenth Century by John Houblon, who took it to England from whence it was brought to America. It found a place in 1885 on the fruit list of the American Pomological Society where it remained until 1891, when it was discarded, with quite sufficient reason.

Tree vigorous, upright, open-topped, productive; trunk and branches thick, smooth; branches reddish-brown partly overspread with ash-gray, with numerous lenticels; branch lets thick, long, brown partly covered with ash-gray, smooth, with inconspicuous, raised lenticels.

Leaves numerous, variable in size, averaging four and one-fourth inches long, two and one-fourth inches wide, folded upward, long-oval to obovate, thin; upper surface rather dark green, rugose; lower surface, dull light green, thinly pubescent; apex acute, base abrupt; margin coarsely and doubly serrate, glandular; petiole one and threefourths inches long, thick, pubescent, dull red, with from two to four large, renifonn, reddish glands on the stalk.

Buds pointed, plump, free, arranged as lateral buds and grouped in large clusters on numerous short spurs; season of bloom intermediate; flowers one and one-fourth inches across, white; borne in dense clusters in twos and threes; pedicels three-fourths of an inch long, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes greenish, acute, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals broad-obovate to oval, entire, with very short, blunt claws, distinctly notched at the apex; filaments nearly one-half inch long; pistil glabrous, usually shorter than the stamens.

Fruit matures early; one inch in diameter, cordate, compressed; cavity deep, wide; suture very shallow; apex somewhat pointed; color reddish over an amber background, marked with indistinct, whitish spots and streaks; dots numerous, small, whitish, inconspicuous; stem one and one-half inches long, adherent to the fruit; skin thin, separating from the pulp; flesh yellowish-white, with colorless juice, tender, meaty, crisp, sprightly, sweet; of very good quality; stone clinging, cordate, flattened, blunt, with roughish surfaces; enlarged along the ventral suture.

HILDESHEIM                               TOP                                                                               HOME
Prunus avium

1. Prince POM. Man. 2-131. 1832. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 196. 1854.
Guignier a Fruit Rouge Tardif. 3. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 1: 162. 1768.
Agathe- 4. Knoop Fructologie 2:37- 1771.
Doppelttragende Kleine Rothe Spatkirsche. S. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 281, 282, 283. 1819.
Hildesheimer Ganz Spate Knorpelkirsche. 6. Truchsess-Heirn Kirschensort. 321, 322, 323. 1819.
Late Red Guigne- 7. Prince Pom. Man. 2: 113. 1832.
Bigarreau Tardif de Hildesheim. 8. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 284. 1845.
Merveille de September. 9. Elliott Fr. Book 210. 1854.
Belle Agathe de Novembre. 10. Ann. Pom. Belge 3: 9, Pl. 1855.
Hildesheimer Spate Knorpelkirsche. 11. Ill. Handb. 139 fig. 140, 1860.
Kratos Knorpelkirsche. 12. Ill. Handb. 59 fig., 60. 1867.
Schoene Agathe. 13. Ill. Handb. 63 fig., 64. 1867.
Bigarreau de Fer. 14. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:199, 200 fig. 1877.
Belle Agathe. 15. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:99, 100, fig. 50. 1882.
Bigarreau de Hildesheim. 16. Hogg Fruit Man. 282. 1884.

This variety, one of,the oldest, has been called by a great number of names by European Writers- The cherry mentioned by Duhamel, in 1768, as a late Guigne with red fruit, otherwise known as Guigne de Fer, can be no other than Hildesheim. The exact origin of the variety has never been known, though it is supposed to have sprung up in the neighborhood of Hildesheim, Prussia. It was brought to America early in the Nineteenth Century, probably by William Prince. With it came some of the numerous foreign names. It seems certain that Late Red Guigne mentioned by Prince was Hildesheim. Ripening late and being small and of rather undersirable texture, Hildesheim did not meet with much favor in America, never being widely disseminated, and has long since passed from cultivation. This variety, under the name Belle Agathe, was propagated in Belgium by M. Thiery about 1852 and for some time was supposed to be a separate sort. The following description is compiled:

Tree very large, vigorous, upright, hardy, an annual bearer, unproductive while young producing good crops later; branches thick, large, long, straight; leaves numerous, of medium size, oval or elongated-oval, acuminate; margin finely and regularly serrate; petiole slender, rather short, tinged red, with large, flattened glands; blooming season early.

Fruit matures very late, usually attached in fives but sometimes in threes and fours; small to medium, roundish-cordate, flattened on one side, somewhat irregular; color yellowish, mottled and marbled with aark red; stem two inches long, slender, somewhat curved; skin thick; flesh pale yellow, slightly tinged with red at tho pit, firm, somewhat stringy, rather dry, with uncolored juice, pleasant flavored, sweet; quality good; stone medium to large, with reddish surface, long, compressed.

IDA            Larger picture            TOP                                                                                       HOME
Prunus avium

1. Gard. Mon. 20:270, 271. 1878. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 3rd App. 162. 1881. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 26. 1909.

Ida is a handsome, large, light red cherry resembling Napoleon in shape and Rockport in color, but differing from both in having soft flesh which places it among the Hearts rather than the Bigarreaus. Because of beauty of the fruit, earliness and good tree-characters, Ida promises to become a rather general favorite in home orchards though it falls short of several others of its near of kin in flavor and flesh-characters. It can never take a high place among commercial kinds because the cherries are too soft to handle well, show bruises plainly, are somewhat susceptible to brown-rot and come when better cherries are plentiful. The trees are vigorous, hardy and bear full crops regularly and in various environments. The variety is readily told by the upright habit of growth and by the large lenticels on trunk and branches. Ida has been very well tried as a commercial variety in this State but in the ups and downs of the industry has not held its own with other sorts and can be recommended only for home plantations.

E.H. Cocklin of Shepherdstown, Pennsylvania, grew this variety as a seedling of Cocklin's Favorite, another of his cherries. The cherry was named after his daughter, Ida. It seems to have proved worthy of general culture, as it is -now listed by many nurserymen. The American Pomological Society placed Ida on its fruit list in 1909.

Tree large, vigorous, upright, open-topped, somewhat vasiform, very productive; trunk stout; branches very stocky, smooth, light ash-gray over brown, with large, much raised lenticels; branchlets very stout, short, brown partly covered with ash-gray, roughish, with a few raised lenticels.

Leaves five and one-half inches long, two and one-half inches wide, folded upward, elliptical to obovate, thin; upper surface dark green, smooth; lower surface light green, pubescent along the midrib and larger veins; apex taper-pointed, base acute; margin doubly crenate, with small, black glands; petiole two and one-fourth inches long, thick, tinged with red, somewhat hairy along the grooved upper surface, usually with two large, reniform, reddish glands on the stalk.

Buds large, long, pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds and in dense clusters on numerous short spurs, also with many small, round, lateral leaf-buds on the secondary growth; leaf-scars not prominent; blooming in mid-season; flowers white, one and one-fourth inches across; borne in clusters usually in twos; pedicels three-fourths of an inch long, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, whitish within, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes with a tinge of red, acute, reflexed; petals roundish, entire, dentate at the apex, nearly sessile; filaments nearly one-half inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit matures early; three-fourths of an inch in diameter, cordate, slightly compressed; cavity deep, flaring, regular; suture a distinct line; apex variable in shape; color amber overspread with light red, mottled; dots numerous, rather large, yellowish, somewhat conspicuous; stem one and one-half inches long; skin thin, separating readily from the pulp; flesh whitish, with colorless juice, tender and melting, mild, sweet; of good quality; stone free or semi-free, roundish, slightly flattened, blunt, with smooth surfaces; with distinct ridges along the ventral suture.

KIRTLAND       Larger picture         TOP                                                               HOME
Prunus avium

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Sp. Rpt. 22. 1904-05.
Kirtland's Mary. 2. Horticulturist 2;123, 124 fig. 21. 1847-48. 3. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 365. 1849. 4. Cole Am. Fr. Book 231. 1849. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 39. 1852. 6. ibid. 235. 1854. 7. Elliott Fr. Book 198 fig. 1854.. 8. Hooper W. Fr. Book 262, 263. 1857. 9. Mas Le Verger 8:55, 56, fig. 26. 1866-73.
Mary. 10. Hogg Fruit Man. 69, 86, 87. 1866.

In the collection of cherries at this Station, Kirtland stands among the best of the Bigarreaus in quality of fruit - in fact is hardly surpassed in richness and delicacy of flavor. The fruit, too, as may be seen from the color-plate, is handsome, the cherries resembling the well-known Napoleon but being a little darker in color. The flesh is firm and meaty and stands handling well and also resists the brown-rot as well as any other cherry. With these splendid qualities of fruit, Kirtland would long ago have been one of the standard commercial cherries were its tree-characters better. Wherever tried, the complaint comes that the trees lack vigor and can be grown successfully only on choice cherry soils and under the best of care. With these faults the variety can be recommended only for home orchards and for local markets where there is demand for a very early Bigarreau, since this variety ripens before most other cherries of its kind.

Kirtland was grown in 1842 by Professor J.P. Kirtland of Cleveland, Ohio, and ranks foremost in quality and appearance of all the seedlings raised by this well-known cherry-breeder. The American Pomological Society, in 1852, mentioned this sort as deserving of further trial and, in 1854, listed it among the varieties of prornising fruits. Elliott, in his Fruit Book, noted this cherry under the name Kirtland's Mary, in honor of Professor Kirtland's daughter, and classed it as a variety worthy of general cultivation. Hogg, in 1866, dropped the name Kirtland and listed it as Mary, while in the American Pomological Society's Special Report for 1905 it is called Kirtland. According to the rules of pomological nomenclature, Hogg was correct in holding the name Mary but, since there is another Mary and no worthy sort bearing the name of so eminent a horticulturist as Professor Kirtland, this Station follows the American Pomological Society in the use of Kirtland.

Tree small, rather weak, upright-spreading, open-topped, productive; trunk and branches slender, smooth; branches reddish-brown partly overspread with ash-gray, with numerous lenticels; branchlets thick, brown almost entirely overspread with ash gray, smooth except for the longitudinal, conspicuous, raised lenticels.

Leaves five inches long, two and one-fourth inches wide, folded upward, elliptical to obovate, thin; upper surface medium green, somewhat glossy, smooth; lower surface light green, thinly pubescent; apex acute, base abrupt; margin doubly serrate, with small, dark glands; petiole one and three-fourths inches long, slender, tinged with red, lightly pubescent along the upper side, with two or three reniform, reddish glands on the stalk.

Buds pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds or on numerous, very short spurs in clusters variable in size; leaf-scars prominent; blooming in mid-season; flowers white, one and one-fourth inches across; borne in dense clusters; pedicels one inch long, pubescent, reddish-green; calyx-tube tinged with red, light green within, campanulate, glabrous; calyxlobes reddish, obtuse, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals, roundish-oval, entire, with short, broad claws and a notched apex; filaments in four series, the longest one-half inch; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens,

Fruit matures in mid-season; three-fourths of an inch in diameter, cordate, compressed; cavity wide, flaring; suture a rnore or less distinct line; apex roundish or pointed, with a small depression at the center; color amber overspread with bright red; dots numerous, small, grayish, conspicuous; stem one and three-fourths inches long, adhering to the fruit; skin tough; flesh whitish, with colorless juice, tender, meaty, with a pleasant and refreshing flavor; very good to best in quality; stone free, small, roundish-ovate, with smooth surfaces; ridged along the ventral suture.

KNIGHT [actually a Duke: (P. avium x P. cerasus) x P. avium- which see. A.S.C.]


MERCER                                TOP                                              HOME
Prunus avium

U.S.D.A. Rpt. 262, P1. 5. 1892. 2. Am. Gard- 14:39 flg. 1893. 3. Can. Hort. 17:322 fig. 693. 1894. 4. Black & Son Cat. 22 fig. 1909.

This comparatively new Bigarreau is on probation in many parts of the State and country, otherwise we should not give it prominence in The Cherries of New York, as the variety is all but worthless as it grows on the grounds of this Station. The trees are not sufficiently fruitful, the cherries are too small, the flavor in none too good and the fruit is not at all resistant to brown-rot - four fatal defects for a cornmercial cherry.

This variety is reported to have sprung from a pit of a Mazzard tree and was introduced several years ago by Black & Son of Hightstown, New Jersey. The name, Mercer, after the county in New Jersey from which it was introduced, was given the cherry by H.E. Van Deman, then United States Pomologist.

Tree vigorous, healthy, not always productive; branches long, grayish-brown, smooth, with a few small, inconspicuous lenticels.

Leaves numerous, four and one-half inches long, two and one-fourth inches wide, folded upward, long-oval, leathery; upper surface dark green, smooth; lower surface light green, pubescent, grooved along the midrib; apex taper-pointed, base abrupt; margin coarsely and doubly serrate, glandular; petiole one and one-half inches long, tinged with dull red, thick, with from two to five very large, reniform, reddish glands, variable in position.

Buds of medium size and length, conical, plump, free; leaf-scars rather prominent; season of bloom earty; flowers one and one-fourth inches across, in scattering clusters in twos and threes; pedicels three-fourths inch long, glabrous; calyx-tube green or faintly tinged red, carnpanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes greenish streaked with red along the edges, long, obtuse, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals broad-oval, entire, slightly indented at the apex, tapering to short, blunt claws; filaments one-half inch long, shorter than the petals; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit matures in mid-season; small, cordate to blunt-conic, compressed; cavity shallow, narrow, abrupt; suture an indistinct line; apex flattened or depressed; color black; dots small, numerous, obscure; stem slender, one and one-fourth inches long, adherent to the fruit; skin thin, rather tender; flesh reddish, with dark colored juice, tender, meaty, crisp, aromatic, mild flavored, sweet; fair to good in quality; stone free or semi-clinging, variable in size, ovate, flattened, blunt-pointed, with srnooth surfaces, tinged with red.

MEZEL           Larger picture                           TOP                                                      HOME
Prunus avium

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 26. 1909.
Bigarreau Monstrueux. 2. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 46. 1831.
Bigarreau of Mezel. 3. Horticulturist 1:475 fig., 476. 1846-47- 4. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:107 fig., 108. 1866. 5. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 454. 1869. 6. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:218 fig., 219. 1877.
Great Bigarreau. 7. Horticulturist 6:20 fig., 21. 1851. 8. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 253. 1857.
Monstreuse de Mezel. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 74. 1862.
Schwarze Knorpel von Mezel. 10. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 377. 1889.

Mezel seems to have made a stir in pomological circles in the middle of the Nineteenth Century by reason of the great size and beautiful appearance of the cherries. Though on the recommended list of the American Pomological Society and frequently spoken of in the pomological works of the day and offered by some nurserymen, we have not been able to find many trees of this variety now growing in New York. We glean from the literature that Mezel pleased the eye more than the palate and that the trees, while vigorous and healthy, were not productive. At any rate after a decade or two of much advertising and what would seem to have been a very thorough trial, Mezel failed to receive very general approbation from cherry-growers and has now almost passed from cultivation. Contrary to the general behavior of the variety in New York, the tree and fruit from which the accompanying description was made have so many merits that one can well wish that the variety will not wholly pass out of cultivation.

This variety was found at Mezel, Puy-de-Dome, France, by M. Ligier sometime prior to 1846 when it was brought to notice. Even so, it had grown in a vineyard at that place for thirty years and was only made public after an excursion of several members of a horticultural society to the vineyard. It was immediately heralded as a coming variety and grafts were distributed. Great Bigarreau, which made its appearance a few years later, is here included as a synonym though many writers list it as a distinct sort. Bigarreau Monstrueux, first listed in the London Horticultural Society catalog for 1831, is held by many pomologists to be identical with Mezel which, if true, casts some doubt on the generally accepted history of the variety. Mezel appeared on the fruit list of the American Pomological Society in 1862 but was discarded in 1869; it was replaced in 1883 and is still on the list though it is scarcely known in any part of the United States.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, variable in productiveness; trunk stocky, nearly smooth; branches thick, smooth, reddish-brown partly overspread with dark ash-gray, with lenticels medium in number and size; branchlets of average thickness, variable in length, with internodes of medium length, brown partly covered with ash-gray, smooth, glabrous, with small, inconspicuous, raised lenticels medium in number.

Leaves numerous, five inches long, often two and one-half inches wide, long-oval, thin; upper surface dark green, strongly rugose giving a crumpled appearance; lower surface dull, light green, with slight pubescence; apex varies from abrlipt to taper-pointed, base abrupt; margin glandular, coarsely serrate; petiole long, averaging one and one-half inches, slender, tinged with red, with from one to four reniform glands of medium size on the petiole.

Buds intermediate in size and length, plump, pointed, arranged singly as lateral buds or in clusters of various sizes on both long and short spurs; leaf-scars prominent; season of bloom intermediate; flowers one and seven-sixteenths inches across, well distributed in scattering clusters in twos and threes; pedicels one and one-eighth inches long, medium in thickness, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube with a slight tinge of red, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes long, medium in width, acute, slightly serrate, glabrous within and without; petals somcwhat obovate, crenate, nearly sessile, with a very shallow notch at the apex; anthers yellow; filaments shorter than the petals; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens, often defective.

Fruit matures in mid-season; large, seven-eighths inch long, thirteen-sixteenths inch wide, cordate, compressed, the surface markedly irregular and broken into ridges; cavity very deep, widc, irregular, abrupt; suture variable, shallow to very deep and wide and at times double; apex blunt-pointed, usually not depressed; color attractive purplish black; dots numerous, very small, somewhat russet, obscure; stem medium in thickness, long, averaging two and one-eighth inches, adheres well to the fruit; skin medium in thickness, rather tender but not inclined to crack, adheres slightly to the pulp; flesh purplish-red, with abundant dark red juice, tender, meaty, mild, very pleasant, sweet; very good to best in quality; stone clinging, large, strongly ovate, with slightly roughish surface.

OX HEART                      TOP                                                                   HOME
Prunus avium

1. Miller Gard. Kal. 154. 1734. 2. Christ Handb. 663. 1797. 3. Brookshaw Hort. Reposit. 1:36, P1. 18 fig. 2. 1817. 4. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 249. 1817. 5. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 132-135. 1819. 6. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 176. 1845. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 244. 1858. 8. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 57, 58, fig. 29. 1882. 9. Oberdieck Obst-Sort. 365, 366. 1882. 10. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 339, 371. 1889.
Bigarreau Gros Commun. II. Mag. Hort. 9:203. 1843.

Ox Heart is very commonly used as a class name for the large, meaty varieties of cherries which are cordate in shape. In America the name is most often given to the light-fleshed cherries, such as Yellow Spanish, Napoleon or White Bigarreau at one time, however, the name was applied to a distinct variety known throughout England, Germany and America, being first mentioned by Miller, an Englishman, in 1734 Coxe, in 1817, was the first American writer to list the variety but it never became popular in the New World. Ox Heart appeared among the fruits rejected by the American Pomological Society in 1858 and from then on it gradually gave way to better varieties. The synonyms of the true Ox Heart are badly confused not only with other dark-fleshed varieties but with those of the Yellow Spanish type. As some of these varieties are merely listed while others have but a meager description, it is impossible to separate or group them with any degree of certainty. In the 1909 catalog of the American Pomological Society there appears an Ox Heart of American origin and of recent introduction, known in the West as Major Francis. There are also in several nursery catalogs a "white-fleshed Ox Heart." What this variety is we are unable to say. The following is a description of Ox Heart compiled from European fruit books:

Tree medium in vigor, round-topped, spherical, productive; branches somewhat curved; internodes of medium length; leaves obovate, obtusely pointed, margin finely serrate; petiole short, rather slender, flexible, tinged red, with two reniform glands; flowers small; petals irregularly elliptical.

Fruit matures the last of June or early in July; medium to large, cordate, pointed, sides unevenly cornpressed; color lively red changing to intense purple or nearly black; stem of medium length and thickness, usually tinged red, inserted in a broad, deep cavity; skin tough; flesh dark red, with abundant colored juice, half-tender but firmer than most Heart, sweet though slightly bitter before complete maturity; quality good; stone medium in size, broadly cordate, adhering to the flesh along the ventral suture.

REPUBLICAN    Larger picture                 TOP                                                               HOME
Prunus avium

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cal. 26. 1909.
Black Republican. 2. Cult. & Count. Gent. 35:534. 1870. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 20. 1875.
4. Am. Gard. 9:357 fig. 1888. 5. Wickson Cal. Fruits 289. 1889. 6. Wash. Sta. Bul. 92:23, 25. 1910.
Lewelling. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 127. 1875. 8. Gard. Mon. 17:336. 1875. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 26. 1909. 10. Wash. Sta. Bul. 92:28, 29, fig. 7. 1910.

For some reason Republican does not make headway in the favor of cherry-growers though all who have described it spoke well of it. Judged by the palate, Republican is one of the best of the Bigarreaus. The cherries are rich and sweet in flavor, firm of flesh and with an abundance of refreshing juice. Judged by the eye, too, it holds its own with the best of its class, the fruit having a pleasing rotundness of shape and a beautiful dark red, almost black, glossy color. ln size the variety very often falls short; for, though often given as one of the largest, it turns out to be, in many orchards, but of medium size and sometimes is small. Here seems to be its fatal defect. It is exceedingly capricious as to soils, failing wholly or in part in all but the very choicest cherry environments. The trees are large, spreading and vigorous but on the grounds of this Station are more susceptible to the shot-hole fungus than any other Sweet Cherry, It has been reported to be very subject to this disease at the Washington Station also. The failure of this cherry to meet the demands of commercial cherry-growers during a probationary period of nearly a half a century means that it is, at most, of but local value.

This variety, known under two other names, Black Republican and Lewelling, originated about the middle of the Nineteenth Century in the orchard of Seth Lewelling, Milwaukee, Oregon. In traveling across the continent in 1849, Mr. Lewelling took with him to Oregon, Bigarreau, Morello and Mahaleb cherries and from seeds of one of the Bigarreaus sprang several seedlings, among them one which was named Black Republican. The parentage of the sort is not known though it was thought to be a cross between Napoleon and Black Tartarian, having sprung up near these two trees. Some cherry-growers and nurserymen describe a cherry which they call Lewelling but in every case the descriptions agree very closely with Republican. Many list the two names separately as designating two distinct varieties of diverse origin. Of these, some have supposed Republican to be a seedling of Eagle originating in 1860. The American Pomological Society for many years listed Black Republican alone beginning in its catalog of 1875 but in 1909 the catalog contained the two names, Republican and Lewelling. Inasmuch as the consensus of opinion is that both names apply to a single cherry this Station has decided to list Republican only.

Tree large, vigorow, upright-spreading, open-topped, very productive; trunk thick, somewhat shaggy; branches stout, roughened, brown covered with ash-gray, with large, raised lenticels; branchlets stout, with long internodes, brown nearly overspread with ash gray, smooth except near the base, with a few small, raised, inconspicuous; lenticels.

Leaves numerous, five inches long, two and five-eighths inches wide, folded upward, obovate to oval, thin; upper surface dark green, smooth, lower surface slightly hairy; apex acute, base abrupt; margin coarsely and doubly serrate, glandular; petiole one and one-fourth inches long, thick, tinged with dull red, with two or three large, reniform, light green or reddish glands on the stalk.

Buds pointed or obtuse, plump, free, arranged singly on the branchlets, or in small clusters on spurs of medium length; season of bloom intermediate; flowers white, one and one-half inches across; borne in scattering clusters in ones and twos; pedicels variable in length, averaging one inch long, characteristically thick, glabrous; calyx-tube tinged with red, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes variable in width, tinged with red, long obovate to acute, finely serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals obovate, entire, with short, blunt claws, with shallow, notched apex; filaments five-sixteenths of an inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length, often defective.

Fruit matures late; about one inch in diameter, wide, variable in shape, cordate or roundish-cordate, compressed, with angular and uneven surfaces; cavity deep, wide, flaring; suture a shallow groove, often extending around the fruit; apex with a small depression at the center; color purplish-black; dots numerous, small, dark russet, inconspicuous; stem thick, one and one-eighth inches long, adherent to the fruit; skin thin; flesh purplish red, with dark colored juice, tender, meaty, crisp, mild, sweet or with slight astringency before fully mature; of good quality; stone semi-free, small, ovate, flattened, rather blunt, with smooth surfaces. 

[Republican in 'Cherries of Utah']

ROCKPORT     Larger picture                        TOP                                                                                   HOME
Prunus avium

1. Horticulturist 2:59 fig., 60. 1847-48. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 201, 202 fig. 1854, 3. Hooper W. Fr. Book270, 271. 1857. 4. Am. Pom.Soc.Cat. 74. 1862. 5. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:13l. 1866. 6. Oberdieck Obst-Sort- 372. 1881.

Rockport is of very doubtful commercial value and has too many faults to be included with the best sweet sorts for a home orchard. It is more easily characterized by its faults than its merits. Compared with the well-known Yellow Spanish, of which it is a seedling and to which it is similar, the cherries are smaller and the pits are larger than those of the parent variety, quite too large for the amount of pulp. Worst of the faults of the variety is, however, that the cherries are not sufficiently firm of flesh to withstand harvesting, shipping and the attacks of the brown-rot fungus. To offset the defects of the fruit the flesh is rich, sweet and tender, making it, all in all, as good as any other Sweet Cherry for dessert. The trees, too, are very satisfactory, being large, vigorous and very fruitful, though with the reputation of requiring good soil and the best of care, of lacking a little in hardiness to cold, and of having the period of maturing the crop more or less changed by soil and culture. Rockport has been, and is, more or less popular in New York but it can be recommended only for a home orchard.

Rockport is another of Professor Kirtland's introductions, having been raised by him at Cleveland, Ohio, about 1842, from a seed of Yellow Spanish. It soon won a place, in 1862, on the fruit list of the American Pomological Society where it still remains. It is mentioned by several foreign authors and many American nurserymen offer it for sale. Swedish is given as a synonym of Rockport by Hooper.

Tree large, vigorous, upright, very productive; trunk somewhat slender, roughish; branches smooth, reddish-brown, with numerous small lenticels; branchlets stout, variable in length, with long internodes, brown almost entirely overspread with ash-gray, smooth, with conspicuous, raised lenticels.

Leaves numerous, three and one-half inches long, one and three-four-ths inches wide, folded upward, long-oval to obovate; upper surface dark green, somewhat rugose; lower surface dull, light green, pubescent along the veins; apex acute to taper-pointed, base abrupt; margin coarsely serrate, glandular; petiole two inches long, tinged with red, with a few hairs on the upper surface, glandless or with from one to four large, reniform, reddish, glands variable in position.

Buds large, long, pointed, plump, free, arranged singly and in clusters from lateral buds and short spurs; leaf-scars prominent; season of bloom intermediate; flowers white, one and one-fourth inches across; borne in clusters usually in twos; pedicels one inch long, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes acute, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals roundish, entire, dentate at the apex, nearly sessile; filaments nearly one-half inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens, often defective.

Fruit matures early; one inch in diameter, cordate to conical, compressed; cavity shallow, wide, flaring, regular; suture a distinct line; apex roundish, with a small depression at the center; color bright red over an amber-yellow background, mottled; dots very numerous, small, light yellowish, somewhat conspicuous; stem one and one-half inches long, adhering well to the fruit; skin thin, tender; flesh pale yellowish-white, with color less juice, tender, somewhat melting, aromatic, mild, sweet; good to very good in quality; stone free, ovate, plump, with smooth surfaces.

SPARHAWK                                       TOP                                                           HOME
Prunus avium

1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 219, 220. 1835.
Sparkawk's Honey. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 177. 1845. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 74. 1862.
4. Mas Le Verger S; 143, 144, fig. 70. 1866-73.
Honey Heart. 5. Cole Am. Fr. Book 234 fig. 37, 235. 1849.

Sparhawk has little to recommend it for either a home or commercial orchard; but the rich and honeyed sweetness of the cherries, scarcely surpassed in flavor, might make it worth planting by plant-breeders and connoisseurs of choicely good fruits. The name "honey" which appears in several of the synonyms is indicative of the flavor of the fruit. The cherries are quite too small and the pits altogether too large for a commercial product. The tree is upright-spreading, with numerous thick branches over which the cherries are rather thickly scattered in ones, twos and threes and never in clusters. The fruit-stems are characteristically long and slender. Though of the Bigarreau group the flesh is too tender to well withstand harvesting, shipping and the brown-rot. This cherry was introduced by Edward Sparhawk, for whom it was named, of Brighton, Massachusetts. The variety has been known under a number of different names, the number being no measure of its merit, however, for it has never been extensively cultivated. The American Pomological Society placed it in its fruit catalog list of recommended varieties in 1862 but dropped it in 1871 and for many years but little attention has bcen given it. It is now for sale in but few of the nurseries of the country.

Tree large, vigorous, upright, rather open-topped, hardy, unproductive; trunk stocky, slightly shaggy; branches thick; branchlets medium in thickness and length; leaves numerous, five inches long, two and one-fourth inches wide, long-oval to obovate, thin, medium green; margin coarsely and doubly serrate, glandular; petiole two inches long, thick, overlaid with red, with one or two large, reniform, reddish glands on the stalk; buds intermediate in size and length; season of bloom intermediate, average length five days; flowers one and one-fourth inches across; pistil shorter than the stamens.

Fruit matures in mid-season, average length about nineteen days; nearly seven-eighths inch in diameter, somewhat conical, compressed; color dark red over a yellowish background, finely mottled; stem of rnediurn thickness, one and three-eighths inches long, adherent to the fruit; skin thin, tough, separates from the pulp; flesh pale yellowish-white, with colorless juice, tender, crisp, highly flavored, mild, aromatic, sweet; very good in quality; stone nearly free, large for the size of the fruit, ovate, flattened, slightly oblique, with smooth surfaces.

WHITE BIGARREAU                        TOP                                   HOME
Prunus avium

1. Thacher Am. Orch. 217. 1822. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 2:125. 1832. 3. Mag. Hort. 8:283. 1842.
4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 180 fig., 181. 1845. 5. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 366. 1849. 6. McIntosh Bk. Gard. 2:541. 1855.
Tradescant. 7. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 250. 1817.
While Oxheart. 8. Kenrick Am. Orch. 278. 1832.

White Bigarreau is a cherry of the past, having been considered one of the good sorts of a century ago. Rivers, the English pomologist, believed it to have come originally from Russia. It is reputed to have been brought to America from France by Chancellor Livingston of Revolutionary fame. Thacher, in 1822, described the variety first under its present name. The variety, as the synonymy shows, has been grown under many names both in America and Europe. In 1845, according to Downing, this cherry was common in the neighborhood of New York and Philadelphia but since Downing's time no one seems to have mentioned it. The variety is usually spoken of in the United States as neither hardy nor productive. The fruit books describe it as follows;

Tree medium in size, spreading, very tender, unproductive; leaves narrow, waved.

Fruit matures the last of June or early in July; large to very large, heart-shaped, somewhat pointed; color yellowish-white with a bright red cheek, mottled; flesh very firm, breaking, pleasantly flavored, sweet; very good in quality; stone separating readily from the flesh.

WHITE HEART                            TOP                                               HOME
Prunus avium

1. Bradley Gard. 21l- 1739. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 173, 174 fig. 1845. 3. Elliott Fr. Book 216. 1854. 4. Horticulturist 15:327, P1. fig. 1. 1860. 5. Hogg Fruit Man. 315. 1884.
Amber Heart. 6. Miller Gard. Kal. 154. 1734. 7. Jour. Roy. Hort. SOC. 21:355. 1898.
Fruehe Bernsteinkirsche. 8. Truchsess Heim Kirschensort. 304, 305. 1819. 9. Dochnahl Fuehr.
Obstkunde 3:39. 1858. 10. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:4,5, 46, fig. 23. 1882. 11. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 348. 1889.
Kentish Bigarreau. 12. Bunyard-Thomas Fr. Gard. 43. 1904.

White Heart is mentioned in The Cherries of New York only because of its reputation in Europe and the frequent references, therefore, that American cherry-growers see to it in European publications. Bunyard and Thomas, in the reference given, speak of it as one of the best and most profitable cherries grown in the famous Kent cherry orchards. Early American horticulturists describe it but it seems not to have been widely grown in America and has probably long since passed from cultivation, It failed, according to Elliott, because it was a "variable and uncertain bearer "and while an early cherry "not early enough to compete with many new varieties."

White Heart seems to have been mentioned first by Miller in 1734. A little later it is found to be described in both Germany and France, indicating that it must have been known and widely distributed before the time given. It seems to have been brought to America before the War of the Revolution and to have been grown in this country under the several different names which are given in the list of synonyms. The following description is compiled:

Tree large, vigorous, somewhat erect, very healthy, rather productive; branches stocky, somewhat angular, with large, roundish, lightcolored lenticels; internodes of unequal length; leaves medium in size, oval or obovate, sharply pointed; margin finely serrate; petiole short, slender, tipped with two reniform, orange-red glands; flowers medium in size; petals obovate.

Fruit matures early in June; rather small, roundish-cordate, often one-sided, with a distinct suture; color whitish-yellow, tinged and speckled with pale red in the sun; stem long, slender, inserted in a wide, shallow cavity; skin firm; flesh light colored, firm, half tender, breaking, juicy, sugary, pleasant; first quality; stone rather large, roundish-oval, with a pointed apex.