BESSARABIAN                                  HOME
Prunus cerasus

1. Ia. Agr. Col. Bul. 53. 1885. 2. Ia. Sta. Bul. 2:38- 1888. 3. IM. 19:549- 1892. 4. Can. Exp. Fam Bul. 17:6. 1892. 5. Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 244. 1894. 6. U.S.D.A. Pom. RPt. 39, 40. 1895. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 17. 1897. 8. Del. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:122, 123 fig. 8, 124. 1900. 9. Wash. Sta. Bul. 92:12. 1910.

By general consent Bessarabian has a place in home orchards in the colder parts of the Mississippi Valley and the Great Plains. It is very hardy and is said to thrive even under neglect standing as much abuse as a forest tree. As compared with standard commercial cherries of the East the fruit is distinctly inferior in size and quality, being hardly fit to eat out of hand, and is sour and astringent even when cooked. The trees, though hardy and healthy, are dwarfish and not productive because of the smallness of the cherries. It is an early cherry but the fruit hangs long. The variety is said to root well from cuttings, which, if true, might make it worth while trying as a stock. Bessarabian is a variant of English Morello, the fruit of which sort greatly excels it wherever the trees can be equally well grown.

This variety was brought to America from Russia about 1883, by Professor J. L. Budd of Ames, Iowa, who believed it to belong to a race of cherries originally found in central Asia.

Tree of medium size, upright, becoming somewhat spreading, compact, healthy, unproductive, very hardy; branches somewhat drooping, long, slender; leaves abundant, medium to small, oval, coarsely serrate, dark green, broad, flat; glands few, usually on the stalk at the base of the leaf.

Fruit matures medium early, remaining on the tree a long time in good condition, medium in size, roundish-oblate to cordate, irregular, bright red becoming dark red; stem long, varying from one and three-fourths to two inches in length, slender, curved; skin tender; flesh light to dark red, with abundant colored juice, variable in firmness, sprightly subacid becoming milder when fully ripe; fair in quality; stone variable in size, roundish-oval, semi-clinging.

BOURGUEIL                                                            HOME
Prunus cerasus

Cerise de Bourgueil. 1. Mortillet Le Cerisier 3:205. 1866.
Montmorency de Bourgueil. 2. Mas Le Verger 8:123, 124, fig. 60. 1866-73. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:364, 365 fig- 1877.

Bourgueil is a variant form of Montmorency hardly differing enough in fruit from Large Montmorency to be distinguished from it and yet since it seems to be more productive than the last-named sort it is possibly worth adding to the cherry flora of the country. The variety, it must be remembered, is still on probation, but if trees true to name can be obtained it is worth planting in small numbers where growers want a cherry of the Montmorency type.

This variety was found by a Doctor Bretonneau about 1844 in Bourgueil, Indre-et-Loire, France. It is known by the name of the finder as well as that of the locality in which it originated and through having the same place of origin is often confused with Cerise Rouge Pale. The United States Department of Agriculture received this variety in 1905 from Ferdinand Jamin, Bourg-la-Reine, Seine, France, and in turn forwarded it to this Station where it has been fruiting for the past few seasons. Nurserymen do not as yet offer it for sale and it is doubtful if it is known in more than a few places in America.

Tree vigorous, upright-spreading, vasiform, productive; branches slender, smooth, reddish-brown partly covered with ash-gray, with numerous lenticels; branchlets slender, long, brown, with some ash-gray, smooth, with numerous inconspicuous, raised lenticels. Leaves numerous, four inches long, two inches wide, folded upward, obovate to ovate, thick; upper surface dark green, smooth; lower surface light green, pubescent along the veins; apex and base variable in shape; margin doubly crenate; petiole one inch long, thick, with a dull tinge of red, pubescent, with none or with from one to three globose, yellow or brownish glands on the base of the blade.

Buds small, short, variable in shape, plurnp, free, arranged singly as lateral buds and on short spurs in clusters variable in size; leaf-scars prominent; season of bloom late; flowers white, one and one-fourth inches across; borne in scattering, well-distributed clusters, usually in threes; pedicels short, one-half inch long, glabrous, greenish; calyx- tube faintly tinged with red, carnpanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes with a trace of red, broad, serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals crinkled, roundish, entire, sessile, with apex entire; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit matures in mid-season; three-four-ths inch long, one inch wide, nearly oblate, somewhat compressed; cavity deep, wide, medium flaring, regular; suture indistinct; apex roundish to flattened; color bright red; dots small, russet, inconspicuous; stem stout, one and one-eighth inches long, adherent to the fruit; skin tender, free; flesh yellowish-white with colorless juice, tencler and melting, sprightly, sour; of good quality; stone free, large, roundish-ovate, pointed, with smooth surfaces, tinged with red, with a prorninent ventral suture.

BRUSSELER BRAUNE                                            TOP                                HOME
Prunus cerasus

1. Christ Handb. 676. 1797- 2. Christ Woerterb. 288. 1802. 3. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 533-536. 1819. 4. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:63, 64. 1858. 5. Mathieu Nom. Pom- 333, 341. 1889. 6. Am. Pom- Soc. Cat. 24. 1899. 7. Del. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:124, 125, fig. 8. 1900.
Bruesselsche Bruyn. 8. Kruenitz Enc. 75, 76. 1790.
Zweite Grayser Herskirschweichsel. 9. Kraft Pom. Aust. 1:9, Tab. 22 fig. 1. 1792.
Ratafia. 10. Hogg Fruit Man. 309-310. 1884.

From the standpoint of commercial cherry culture, Brusseler Braune has little value. The trees are uncertain in bearing; the cherries are small, sour, and astringent; and, worse than the faults named, the crop ripens very unevenly. It is of the English Morello type but in New York, at least, is far inferior to this well-known sort. Brusseler Braune has been much advertised for cold climates but there are many better cherries that stand cold nearly or quite as well and are better in both tree and fruit characters and, in particular, that will not vex the souls of growers by ripening so unevenly. The variety has two marked peculiarities: the leaves on the two-year-old wood are very small and the fruit-stems bear a small leaflet at their base. These leaflets on the fruit-stem would have to be removed in marketing the crop - another serious defect.

No doubt Brusseler Braune originated in Holland but there is nothing definite as to the time though Truchsess, a German, writes of having received it in 1785 as Bruesselsche Bruyn. The synonyms of this variety are more or less confused with those of English Morello. This cherry was brought to America in 1883 by the late J.L. Budd with several other varieties. In the collection of trees sent out from the original importation, of which this was one, or from trees budded from them, were Griotte du Nord, Large Long Late, Shadow Amarelle, Lutovka, George Glass, Orel No. 27, or Gibb, and Bessarabian. Unfortunately the varieties were badly mixed and much confusion has resulted. It is not impossible that the first three are synonyms but the Lutovka, George Glass, Bessarabian and possibly the Gibb are distinct varieties. In 1895, this Station recommended a new cherry for trial for home and market and distributed buds throughout the state under the name Lutovka. Later it was found that an error had been made regarding the trees sent us as Lutovka, they being the Brusseler Braune. The American Pomological Society added Brusseler Braune to its fruit catalog list in 1899 but dropped it in 1909.

Tree of medium size, vigorous, upright-spreading but with drooping branchlets, dense, round-topped, unproductive; trunk and branches smooth, stout; branches brownish, overspread with ash-gray, with numerous small lenticels; branchlets slender, with short internodes, nearly covered with ash-gray, smooth, glabrous, with small, lightly raised, inconspicuous lenticels.

Leaves three and one-half inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, folded upward, obovate, thick, grooved along the midrib; upper surface very dark, dull green; lower surface light green, pubescent; apex taper-pointed, base acute; margin finely and doubly serrate; petiole one and one-eighth inches long, tinged with dull, dark red, grooved along the upper surface, with from one to four small, globose, yellowish-green glands.

Buds pointed, plump, free, arranged as lateral buds and in clusters on scatteting, short spurs; leaf-scars prominent; season of bloom late; flowers one inch across, white; borne in scattering clusters in threes and fours; pedicels one and one-eighth inches long, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube furrowed, tinted with red, obconic, glabrous; calyx lobes with a trace of red, acuminate, serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals oval to obovate, entire, nearly sessile, with a shallow, wide notch at the apex; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit matures very late; nearly one inch in.diameter, although variable in size, roundish-cordate, slightly compressed; cavity of mediurn depth, narrow, abrupt; suture very shallow, indistinct; apex roundish, with a small depression at the center; color light red changing to dark red as the season advances; dots numerous, snmall, dark russet, inconspicuous; stem two and one-fourth inches long, with small leaflets at the base, strongly adherent to the fruit; skin thin, tender, separates readily from the pulp; flesh dark red, with dark colored juice, tender and melting, somewhat astringent, sour; of fair quality; stone nearly free when fully mature, fifteen-thirty-seconds inch long, roundish oval, rather plump, blunt-pointed; surfaces smooth; ventral suture slightly enlarged near the base.

BUNTE AMARELLE                                               TOP                                                HOME
Prunus cerasus

1. Truchsess-Heirn Kirschensort. 652-655. 18ig. 2. Ia. Hort. Soc- RPt- 330. 1885. 3. Ia. Sta Bul. 2:40. 1888. 4. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:272. 1903.

So far Bunte Amarelle has found a place only in the trying cherry climate of Iowa and neighboring States. It is not attractive enough in appearance, good enough in quality, or certain and fruitful enough in bear ing to compete with other Amarelles, to which group this variety belongs. Its saving grace is extreme hardiness of tree, though vigor and health help make it somewhat desirable in cold, prairie regions of the Mid-West where cherry growing is more or less precarious. There has been much uncer tainty as to the true variety and we have had to discard the trees on the Station grounds and compile a description.

This variety probably originated in Germany in the latter part of the Eighteenth Century. Truchsess, a German, in 1819, called the cherry Bunte Amarelle because of its variegated color before full maturity. The variety was introduced from Poland to America sometime previous to 1885 and has usually gone under the naine of Amarelle Bunte, From all accounts Professor J. L. Budd of Ames, Iowa, the authority on these hardy cherries during his time, had two different cherries under the name Amarelle Bunte; for in his report at the Iowa Horticultural Society in 1885, he mentioned a variety under that name as being a large, dark purple and nearly sweet sort which could not have been the true Bunte Amarelle of Truchsess.

Budd and Hansen in 1903 described a variety which agees very closely with the true variety of Truchsess which we herewith describe.

Tree vigorous, upright, hardy; foliage large, coarse.

Fruit matures the second week in June; medium to large, roundish, flattened at the base; cavity variablp in depth; suture shallow, indistinct; apex depressed; color yellow overspread with light red; stem green, straight, rather slender, one and one-half to two inches long; flesh slightly colored, juicy, firm but tender, pleasantly subacid; very good in quality; stone variable in size, broad.

CLUSTER                   TOP                                                   HOME
Prunus cerasus

1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 572, fig. 10. 1629. 2. Gerarde Herball 1505 fig. 6. 1636. 3. Prince Pom. Man. 2:132, 133. 1832. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 194 fig., 195. 1845. 5. Hogg Fruit Man. 290. 1884.
Flanders Cluster. 6. Ray Hist. Plant. 1539. 1688.
Cerisier a Bouquet. 7. Duhamel Trait Arb. Fr. 1:176, 177, 178, P1. V1. 1768. & Poiteau Pom. Franc. 2: No. 16, P1. 1846. 9. Mas Le Verger 8:47, 48, fig. 22. 1866-73.
Tros-Kers. 10. Knoop Fructologie 2:43. 1771.
Trauben a Bouquet Amarelle. 11. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 621-629. 1819. 12. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:70, 71. 1858. 13. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 340. 1889.
Griotte a Bouquet. 14. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:278, 279 fig., 280, 281. 1877.

Cluster is a curiosity, charactetized by fruits borne in clusters at the extremity of a single peduncle. The pistils vary from one to a dozen, setting from one to five perfect fruits in the cluster or from eight to twelve as the trees become older. The variety is little known in America but is well known in Europe, having first been described by Dalechamp in 1586, according to Leroy. Its origin is uncertain. Parkinson speaks of it as Flanders Cluster, in 1629, and as it was cultivated in Germany before 1613 and nearly as soon in Switzerland it may be assumed that either South Germany or Flanders is its native home. It appears under several names in European fruit books, the terms trochet, bouquet, buschel, and trauben all signifying that the fruits are borne in clusters and usually referring to this variety. The Cerisier a Trochet of Duhamel is probably a distinct variety. The fruit has little value and is cultivated chiefly as a curiosity. The following description is compiled:

Tree small and bushy, moderately vigorous, dense, productive; branches numerous, long, slender, somewhat curved, drooping and often breaking under a load of fruit; internodes long; leaves small, oblong, acuminate; margin doubly serrate; petiole thick, short, rigid, with small, roundish, conspicuous glands; blooming season late; flowers small.

Fruit matures the last of June, attached in twos or threes, with from two to eight fruits per cluster; variable in size, roundish, flattened at the extremities; suture prominent; color clear red becoming darker at matutity; skin tough, transparent; stem long, inserted in a deep cavity; flesh nearly white, transparent, with abundant juice which is usually uncolored but sometimes tinged red, very tender, sour, yet agreeable; quality fair; stone small, roundish, compressed.

DOUBLE NATTE                                                                                HOME
Prunus cerasus

1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 538, 539. 1819. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 292. 884. 3. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 327. 1888. 4. Ia. Sta. Bul. 7,3:67- 1903.
Cerise van der Nat. 5. Knoop Fructologie 2:41. 1771.
Kirsche von der Natte. 6. Kruenitz Enc. 69, 70. 1790. 7. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 539-542. 1819. 5. Ill. Handb. 509 fig., 510. 1861.

Budd's importations of Russian cherries, to which reference is so often made in this text, brought forth almost universal praise for any and all of the foreign sorts. Cultural tests soon demonstrated, however, that most of the varieties were comparatively worthless; Double Natte is one of these. It is a very mediocre cherry of the Morello group in nowise equal to English Morello except when earliness is a prime requisite, this sort being one of the earliest of the Morellos. In flavor it is equal to English Morello but is no better. At Geneva the trees are seldom very fruitful. From the eulogistic reports of its behavior in the Middle West it would seem that it was better adapted to Iowa, for instance, than for New York. This variety was first mentioned by Knoop, the Dutch pomologist, in 1771. Origin not given. Some years ago Professor J.L. Budd also imported from Russia a cherry under the name Riga No. 18. This cherry has been grown as a separate variety under the name Riga but the descriptions of it are all identical with those of Double Natte and there can be no doubt but that they are one and the same.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped, somewhat vasiform, productive; trunk and branches smooth; branches brown nearly covered with ash-gray, with a few large lenticels; branchlets long, with short internodes, brown partly covered with ash-gray, smooth, with a few very large, raised lenticels.

Leaves numerous, three and three-eighths inches long, one and three inches wide, folded upward, short-obovate, thick, stiff; upper surface glossy, slightly rugose; -pointed, tapering toward the base; lower surface pale green, tenly pubescent; apex sharp; margin coarsely serrate, glandular; petiole thick, dull red, grooved on the upper surface, nearly one inch long, glandless or with one or two small glands at the base of the blade. Buds conical or pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds and in small clusters on spurs; leaf-scars inconspicuous; season of blooming intermediate; flowers white, one and one-fourth inches across; borne in scattering clusters in twos and threes; pedicels one inch long, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube with a faint reddish tinge, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes tinged red, long, acute, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals obovate, entire, tapering to short, narrow claws, with a broad but shallow notch at the apex; filaments about one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit matures early; three-fourths of an inch in diameter, cordate to conical, compressed; cavity somewhat abrupt, regular; suture deep, distinct, often extending entirely around the fruit; apex depressed; color dark red; dots numerous, small, brownish, obscure; stem slender, one and three-fourths inches long, adheres strongly to the fruit; skin thin, tough, separating readily from the pulp; flesh dark red, with reddish juice, tender and melting, sprightly, sour; good to very good in quality; stone nearly free, lonier than wide, nearly round, slightly flattened, with smooth surfaces; somewhat ridged along the ventral suture.

DYEHOUSE                           TOP                                                           HOME
Prunus cerasus

1. Horticulturist 25:176, 177. 1870. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 3rd App. 161. 1881. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 17. 1897.

Dyehouse is conspicuous among cherries for its earliness and for the beauty of its fruit. Early Richmond is the standard early cherry yet Dyehouse is a week earlier, just as attractive in appearance and equally well flavored. It is near of kin to Early Richmond but the two may be distinguished by the difference in time of ripening and by its brighter, clearer color, greater opaqueness, more highly colored juice and slightly smaller size. Possibly this cherry would supersede the better-known Early Richmond were it not for the defect in size and for the further faults of being less productive and more capricious to environment, as it fails to thrive in localities where the older sort is quite at home. It is a worthy rival of Early Richmond, however, and ought to be grown both for home and commercial purposes far more than it is.

To H.T. Harris of Stamford, Kentucky, belongs the honor of introducing this well-known cherry. Although its parentage is unknown, it is almost certain that a Mr. Dyehouse, Lincoln County, Kentucky, raised the tree from a pit sixty or more years ago. At the time of its introduction its characteristics were not clearly drawn and many believed it to be the Early Richmond. In time, however, differences were shown, as we have set forth in the preceding paragraph. It was added to the fruit list of the American Pomological Society in 1897.

Tree small, vigorous, spreading, with drooping branchlets, dense, round-topped, productive; trunk and branches slightly roughened; branches reddish-brown covered with dark ash-gray, with large, elongated, raised lenticels; branchlets slender, willowy, variable in length, brown overspread with ash-gray, smooth, with a few small, inconspicuous lenticels.

Leaves numerous, three inches long, one and one-half inches wide, slightly folded upward, obovate to long-oval; upper surface very dark green, smooth; lower surface light green, with a few hairs along the midrib; apex acute, base variable in shape; margin finely serrate, with small, dark glands; petiole one-half inch long, tinged with dull red, with a few hairs along the grooved upper surface, with from one to three small, globose, greenish-yellow glands at the base of the blade.

Buds small, short, obtuse, plump, free, arranged singly and in clusters on short spurs; leaf-scars prominent; season of bloom intermediate; flowers one inch across, white; borne in dense but well-disttibuted clusters, usually at the ends of spur-like branches, in twos, threes or fours; pedicels one and one-half inches long, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes tinged with red, serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals roundish-obovate, entire, almost sessile, with entire apex; filaments one fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, nearly equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit matures early; more than one-half inch in diameter, oblate, slightly compressed; cavity of medium depth, narrow, abrupt, regular; suture indistinct; apex flattened, with a small depression at the center; color dark red; dots numerous, small, obscure; stem one inch long, adhering to the pulp; skin thin, tough; flesh light yellowish-white, with pinkish juice, tender, sprightly, tart; of very good qualitv; stone nearly free, ovate, slightly flattened, with smooth surfaces; somewhat ridged along the ventral suture.

[Dyehouse in 'Cherries of Utah']

GEORGE GLASS                                TOP                                                    HOME
Prunus cerasus

1. Mich. Hort. SoC. Rpt. 328, 329. 1898. 2. Ia. HOrt. Soc. Rpt. 79. 1890. 3. Mich. HOrt. Soc. Rpt. 245. 1894. 4. Ia. Sta. Bul. 31:341. 1895. 5. Del. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:125. 1900. 6. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:276, 277. 1903. 7. Ia. Sta. Bul. 73:70. 1903.

George Glass has been widely heralded as a desirable variety in the Middle West but in New York, where it has passed through a rather lengthy probationary period, practically all who have tried it are ready to declare it worthless. It is of the Amarelle group and cannot compete with the many good varieties of its kinship, as the Early Richmond or the several Montmorencies. Its season is between Early Richmond and Montmorency. As compared with the last-named variety, the standard Sour Cherry, the fruit of George Glass is smaller, sourer, less attractive in appearance and the trees are far less fruitful. Possibly the trees are more hardy, this character commending it for the colder parts of the Mississippi Valley.

The origin of this variety is uncertain but it is supposed to have been introduced into Iowa by immigrants from northeastern Germany. In American collections it has often been confused with Brusseler Braune and Bessarabian and by some is declared to be identical with the latter sort. It is supposed to be a cross between a Duke and a Morello cherry.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, rather open, hardy, appears unproductive; trunk thick; branches thick, roughened, with numerous conspicuous, raised lenticels; leaves numerous, four inches long, two inches wide, obovate, thick, stiff, dark green; petiole three-fourths of an inch long, tinged with red, with a few hairs along the upper surface, with one or two small, globose, reddish-orange gland's, usually at the base of the blade; buds intermediate in size and length; leaf-scars prominent; season of bloom intermediate; flowers one and one-fourth inches across; borne in dense clusters.

Fruit matures in mid-season; three-fourths of an inch long, one inch wide, oblate, compressed; cavity deep; color light red changing to dark red; stem one and one-eighth inches long, adherent to the fruit; skin separating from the pulp; flesh yellowish-white, with abundant colorless juice, stringy, tender and melting, rather mild for a sour cherry; good to very good in quality; stone free, roundish or slightly oblate, plump, blunt, with smooth surfaces; ventral suture prominent.

HEART-SHAPED WEICHSEL                            TOP                                                            HOME
Prunus cerasus

1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 573-577. l819. 2. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:60, 61. 1858. 3. Mich. Hort. Soc. RPt- 328. 1888- 4. Wash. Sta- Bul. 92:17- 1910.
Herzfoermige Sauerkirsche- 5. Christ Woerterb. 288. 1802.
Heart-Shaped Griotte. 6. Prince Pom. Man. 2: 149. 1832. 7. Mas Le Verger 8: 103, 104, fig. 50 1866-73.

This Sour Cherry, of the Morello group, is too poor in quality to recommend it for any purpose. The fruit is scarcely edible until dead ripe and even then is too puckering to eat out of hand with relish. The cherries are very attractive, being large for the kind, heart-shaped, of a handsome, clear, glossy dark purple color and very uniform in all characters. The tree is conspicuous because of its symmetrical shape, large size, round head and its many branches and branchlets. The leaves are characteristically small, as are the flowers, which are further distinguished by very narrow petals. The tree is hardy and productive and quite worth a place on a lawn as an ornamental if not in the garden for its fruit. The variety has several characters to commend it to plant-breeders.

This variety came to light in written records in the early part of the Nineteenth Century in German fruit-books -under the name Saure Herzkirsche or Herzkirschweichsel and was highly recommended for its fine flavor. Professor J.L. Budd of Iowa, in one of his European trips, -was impressed with its symmetrical habit of growth and its abundant foliage where he found it growing in eastern Europe as a lawn tree. He included it among his importations but it has not proved valuable in the New World.

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped, unproductive; branches rather slender, smooth except for the large, conspicuous lenticels; branchlets slender, long; leaves numerous, two and three-fourths inches long, one and three-eighths inches wide, obovate to oval, thin, dark green, smooth; petiole over one-half inch long, tinged with red, with from one to three small, globose, ash-yellow or brownish glands at the base of the blade; buds intermediate in size and length, usually obtuse; season of bloom late; flowers one inch across; borne in scattered clusters; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil slightly shorter than the stamens, often defective.

Fruit matures in mid-season; about three-fourths of an inch in diameter, roundish- conic, slightly compressed; color very dark, dull red; stem slender, one and one-fourth inches long, adhering to the fruit; skin thin, tough; flesh very dark red, with dark wine- colored juice, tender, rather meaty, very astringent, sour; of poor quality; stone nearly free, small, ovate, flattened, pointed, with roughish and colored surfaces.

KING AMARELLE                    TOP                                                                    HOME
Prunus cerasus

1. Christ Woerterb. 293. 1802. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 610-615. 1819. 3. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 174. 1825. 4. Ill. Handb. 533 fig., 534. 1861. 5. Lauche Deut. Pom. III: No. 23, Pl. 1882. 6. Am. Gard. 9:264. 1888- 7. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser 3:62. 1900. 8. Ia. Sta. Bul. 73-72. 1903, 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 27. 1909.
King's Cherry. 10. Rea Flora 205. 1676.

King Amarelle is an old European cherry that has taken on new life in America. It is of the Early Richmond type, differing from this standard Amarelle in bearing fruit a little earlier, lighter in color and with a longer stem. The fault which all but condemns the variety as a commercial cherry is the small size of the fruit, the cherries running smaller than those of Early Richmond which, in its turn, is rather too small. The tree is very like that of Early Richmond - quite as vigorous and productive, the same in size and shape and, if anything, a little more hardy. The variety is told from afar in blossoming-time by the peculiar distribution of the flower clusters, which are numerous and dense but always separated by several inches or a foot of bare wood. King Amarelle can never displace Early Richmond but might be tried where a somewhat hardier cherry is wanted or it might be planted as a substitute where the better-known sort fails.

This variety, of old and uncertain origin, sprang up in France about the same time as the Montmorencies and became confused with them. In both fruit and tree-characters, however, King Amarelle is very different from the Montmorencies, being more like Early May but ripening later and making a larger tree. The cultivation of King Amarelle never became extended in Europe because of the inferior quality of the fruit and poor tree-characters. Professor J. L. Budd brought the variety to America from Russia about 1883. The Royal Amarelle, grown on the Canadian Experiment Station grounds in 1900, is undoubtedly King Amarelle. The American Pomological Society placed it on its list of recommended fruits in 1909.

Tree of medium size atid vigor, upright-spreading, open-topped, very productive; trunk roughish; branches rather slender, smooth, reddish-broivn overlaid with dark ash gray; branchlets slender, of medium length, with short internodes, brown partly covered with ash-gray, smooth, with numerous conspicuous, small, raised lenticels.

Leaves three and one-half inches long, one and one-half inches wide, folded upward, obovate, somewhat glossy, thick; upper surface dark green, rugose; lower surface light green, with a few scattering hairs; apex acute, base abrupt; margin finely and doubly serrate, with small, dark glands; petiole one inch long, somewhat slender, lightly tinged with red, with a few hairs on the grooved upper surface and with from one to three small, globose, greenish-yellow glands at the base of the blade.

Buds small, short, obtuse, very free, arranged singly as lateral buds and in clusters on few, short spurs; leaf-scars prominent; season of bloom intermediate; flowers white, one and one-fourth inches across; borne in dense clusters usually in threes; pedicels over one-half inch long, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube with a tinge of red, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes faintly tinged with red, acute, smate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals somewhat obovate, entire, with an entire apex; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrolis, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit matures early; three-fourths inch in diameter, roundish-oblate, compressed; cavity regular, somewhat abrupt; suture indistinct; apex roundish or flattened; color bright red; dots numerous, small, light russet, rather conspicuous; stem one inch long, adhering to the fruit; skin thin, tender, separating from the pulp; flesh pale yellow, with colorless juice, tender and melting, sprightly; fair to good in quality; stone free, ovate, somewhat flattened, pointed, with smooth surfaces, faintly tinged with red; ridged along the ventral suture.

LARGE MONTMORENCY            TOP                                                                        HOME
Prunus cerasus

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cal. 22. 1885. 2. Ibid. 25. 1899. 3. Del. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:110, 194. 1900. 4. Am. Gard. 22:266, 267. 1901.
Flemish. 5. Bradley Gard. 211. 1739. 6. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 49. 1831. 7. Thompson Gard. Ass't 530. 1859.
Grosse Glaskirsche von Montmorency. 8. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort-465-470. 1819. 8. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:54, 55. 1858. 10. Ill. Handb. 16.5 fig., 166. 1860.
Short Stem Montmorency. 11. Prince Pom. Man. 2:139, 140. 1832. 12. Ia. Sta. Bul. 73:75. 1903.
Grosser Gobet. 13. Ill. Handb. 543 fig., 544. 1861.
Montmorency. 14. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2: 195 fig. 54, 196, 197. 1866.

As its synonyms show, Large Montmorency has been grown under various names in Europe and America a testimony to its merits. Were it not that the true Montmorency is so much more fruitful than this larger fruited offshoot of the same race of Amarelle cherries, Large Montmorency would be a leading commercial Sour Cherry, for it is equal to the smaller fruited strain in all other characters with the advantage of size. The relationship between this and the other Montmorencies is apparent but Large Montmorency is easily distinguished by several marked characters from the common Montmorency, known by all, with which it is most often confused. Its fruits are more often borne singly, are larger, have a shorter, thicker stem, are more oblate and ripen a little earlier. The trees are more upright, with stouter branches and are far less fruitful. The flesh-characters of the two kinds are much the same excellent in both, the flavor being particularly refreshing to those who like the acidity of the Sour Cherry. Large Montmorency has been tried and found so wanting in productiveness that it can rarely be recommended as a commercial variety but it is much too good a fruit to be wholly lost and should be grown by connoisseurs who want a large, finely flavored Sour Cherry.

This variety has been much confused with other cherries, particularly Montmorency, Early Richmond and Short Stem Montmorency. Bradley, in 1739, mentioned a Flemish cherry which undoubtedly was the Large Montmorency of today, for the name Flemish has rather commonly been applied to this sort since Bradley's time. There is no doubt but that Large Montmorency sprang up about the same time as the true Montmorency, in the Montmorency Valley in France. It may have been a seedling of the Cerise Hative, afterwards known as Early Richmond, though some writers are of the opinion that the Montmorencies and Cerise Hative were all seedlings of the old Cerise Commune. At any rate, there have come to be at least three distinct types of Montmorency: the true Montmorency with long stems and moderate-sized fruit, called Montmorency a Longue Queue or, in America, Montmorency Ordinaire; the Large Montmorency with its large fruit and shorter, thicker stems, commonly known by the French and German writers as Montmorency a Gros Fruit, Gros Gobet, Grosse Glaskirsche von Montmorency and sometimes as Montmorency 6, Courte Queue; and the Short-Stem Montmorency, often called Montmorency a Courte Queue and sometimes Gros Gobet. Large Montmorency has often been sold for Montmorency, or for Early Richmond, hence the three varieties are more or less confused. Large Montmorency probably came to America about the same time as Montmorency and Early Richmond, early in the Nineteenth Century. In 1875, Ellwanger & Barry, Rochester, New York, disseminated this sort quite extensively but later it proved too unproductive for commercial use. It was soon replaced by the true Montmorency but often the names were interchanged and large forms of the Montmorency were thought to be this variety. The unproductiveness of this cherry has been consistently mentioned by nearly every writer from Duhamel's time to the present. Large Montmorency was added to the American Pomological Society's catalog list of fruits in 1885 as Montmorency Large but in 1899 this name was changed to Large Montmorency.

Tree rather large, vigorous, upright, vasiform, unproductive; trunk thick, roughened; branches stocky, nearly smooth, reddish-brown overspread with dark ash-gray, with numerous large, raised, conspicuous lenticels; branchlets thick, short, brown tinged with bronze, smooth except for the large, nmnerous yellowish, conspicuous, raised lenticels.

Leaves numerous, three and one-half inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, folded upward, broad-oval to obovate, thick, stiff; upper surface dark green, slightly rugose; apex acute, base variable in shape; margin serrate, glandular; petiole one inch long, tinged with dull red, glandless or with from one to three globose, yellow or brownish glands, usually at the base of the blade.

Buds usuafly pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds and in small clusters on short spurs; leaf-scars prominent; season of bloom intermediate; flowers white, one inch across; borne in scattering clusters, usually in threes; pedicels five-eighths inch long, glabrous, green; calyx-tube tinged with red, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes with a trace of red, long, broad, acute, serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals obovate, entire or slightly crenate, sessile, with a crenate apex; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to or longer than the stamens, often defective.

Fruit matures in mid-season; three-fourths of an inch in diameter, oblate, compressed; cavity wide, flaring; suture shallow; apex flattened or depressed; color dark red; dots numerous, small, russet, somewhat conspicuous; stem thick, one inch long, adhering fairly well to the fruit; skin thick, separating from the pulp; flesh whitish, showing distinctly the fibers in the pulp, with abundant colorless or slightly tinged juice, tender and melting, sprightly, pleasant flavored, tart; of very good quality; stone free, roundish, plump, with smooth surfaces, tinged with red.

LATE KENTISH                            TOP                                            HOME
Prunus cerasus

1. Downing Fr. Trees. Am. 197. 1845. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cal. 27. 1909.
Kentish Red. 3. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 249. 1817.
Pie Cherry. 4. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 371. 1849.
Red Pie Cherry. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt- I03. 1852.
Kentish. 6. Elliott Fr. BOOK 217. 1854..

This old cherry served well the needs of Americans in colonial times when all cherries were grown from pits or suckers. Though but little improvement on the wild Prunus cerasus, the trees were so hardy, vigorous, healthy and productive that any who had a bit of spare land could have cherries. This, therefore, became preeminently the "pie cherry "of New England and the North Atlantic States. The trees are long-lived and even so late as a generation ago Downing says that this variety is "better known among us than any other acid cherry, especially abundant on the Hudson and near New York."The variety is never planted now, having long since been superseded by better sorts, Early Richmond and Montmorency in particular, but it is still to be found as old trees or self-sown near where a tree of the variety formerly stood. Late Kentish and Early Richmond, the latter the Kentish of some authors, are much confused. Late Kentish is the old Pie Cherry of Colonial times. It is a seedling sort belonging to America, having been planted along fences and roadsides in the earhest times. This cherry is mentioned by the Pilgrims in 1620 and this and the May Duke were listed as market varieties in Massachusetts. Many believe it to be a seedling of Early Richmond, sometimes, as we have seen, called Kentish, but this variety being two weeks later, received the name Late Kentish. The name was put on the fruit list of the American Pomological Society in 1873. The following description is a cornpilation:

Tree small, bears annually, very productive, hardy. Fruit matures about two weeks after Early Richmond; medium or below in size, roundish, flattened; stem one inch to one and one-half inches in length, stout, straight; color deep, lively red; flesh light colored, with abundant colorless juice, very tender, sour, remaining quite acid even when fully ripe; stone does not adhere to the stalk.

LITHAUER                    TOP                                                                                    HOME
Prunus cerasus

1. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 328. 1888. 2. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 17:9- 1892. 3. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 245, 1894. 4. Del. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:128. 1900. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Sp. Rpt. 33. 1904-05. 6. Am. POM. Soc. Cat. 27. 1909.

It is barely possible that Lithauer, if the trees can be obtained, may have some value in the coldest and bleakest parts of New York where less hardy sorts cannot be grown. The variety is too poor in quality to be worth planting where the better but less hardy cherries will grow. We greatly doubt whether it is worthy a place in the recommended list of fruits of the American Pomological Society. It is included here only because of the prominence given it by a place in the fruit list named.

This is one of the varieties imported from Russia by Professor J.L. Budd of Iowa, who reported that it was much grown in southwest Russia for drying and in makng cherry wine. As tested in various parts of this country Lithauer has proved of little value except in the extreme north. The American Pomological Society, in 1909, listed this sort in its catalog of recommended fruits for northern fruit regions. The following description is compiled:

Tree large, vigorous, tall, weeping, hardy.

Fruit matures from the middle to the last of July; small, roundish, slightly oblate; stem long, averaging one and one-half inches, slender; color dark purplish-red becoming almost black at maturity; skin thick, tough; flesh dark red, with reddish juice, firm, meaty, quite acid or bitter even when fully ripe, poor in quality; stone variable in size, roundish.

LUTOVKA           TOP                               HOME
Prunus cerasus
 1.  Ia.  Hort.  Soc.  Rpt.  328.  1885.  2.  Am.  Pm.  Soc- Cat.  17.  1897.  3.  Am.  Pom.  Soc.  Sp.  Rpt.  32, 33.  1904-05.  4.  Am.  POM.  Soc.  Cal.  27.  1909.
 Galopin.  5.  Thomas Guide Prat.  21.  1876.  6.  Kan.  Sta.  Bul.  73:189- 1897.
 For a time Lutovka and Galopin were listed as two distinct varieties.  Unquestionably they are the same despite the seeming difference in origin.  All we know of Galopin is that it was said to have been originated by a nurseryman in Belgium whose name it bears.  The Lutovka was introduced into this country by J.L. Budd of Iowa, in 1883, and, according to the introducer,was well known in Poland and Silesia as a roadside tree.  Nothing is said of it in foreign literature.  As was the case with many of Budd's importations, this variety did not stand the test of culture.  It is a shy bearer and is now seldom recommended, although it was placed on the list of desirable fruits of the American Pomological Society in 1897 where it still remains.  The variety has no value in New York.  In 1895, this Station sent out buds which they had been led to believe were the Lutovka and which they later found to be Brusseler Braune.  The following description is compiled:
 Tree large, upright, slightly spreading; leaves large, ovate, leathery, produced from short spurs along the main branches.
 Fruit ripens the forepart of July; medium to above in size, roundish-oblate; suture often a line, sometimes lacking; stem short, stout, set in a large, deep cavity; skin dark, clear red, thin, tough, translucent; flesh colorless, meaty, juicy, slightly acid; quality good; pit large, roundish, free.
 
 

OSTHEIM                    TOP                                                                        HOME
Prunus cerasus

1. Christ Obstbaeume 159. 1791. 2. Christ Handb. 676. 1797. 3. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 512-517- l819. 4. Prince Pom. Man. 2:145. 1832. 5. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:60. 1858. 6. Ill. Handb. 187 fig., 188. 1860. 7. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:295, 296 fig. 1877. 8. Mathieu Nom. POM. 371. 1889. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 25. 1899. 10. Del. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:121, 122. 1900. 11. Ia. Sta. Bul. 73:78 fig. 18, 79. 1903. 12. Wash. Sta. Bul. 92:14, 21, 22. 1910.

Ostheim finds considerable favor in the prairie states of the Middle West but is all but worthless as grown in New York and other eastern states. It is one of the Morellos and falls far short of the best of its group, the cherries being too small and of but mediocre quality. The trees are typical Morellos, round-headed, with slender, drooping branches and branch lets and very dark green foliage. The fruit is borne toward the ends of short branches which are not well distributed over the main branches, leaving much bare wood. Like all Morellos the fruit hangs long after maturity and since the ripening season is late the variety may be worth growing because of its lateness; as it may, also, in cold climates because of great hardiness. The trees on their own roots throw up many suckers which are often used in propagation. The variety has the reputation, too, of coming true to name from seeds.

Ostheim is a native of Spain and not of Germany as many have supposed. The trees were found in the region of the Sierra Morena Mountains, Spain, and were taken to Germany by a Dr. Klinghammer after the Wars of the Succession, 1701-1713. The cherry took the name Ostheim from the German town of that name where it was widely grown. The variety, being easily propagated, spread throughout Germany and soon became one of the best-known cherries. Later, the name seems to have come to be a class term for all cherries similar to the original Ostheim. The names Ostheim, Ostheimer, Griotte Ostheim and Ostheimer Weichsel are used interchangeably by foreign writers for this variety. American writers, however, have given these names to two very sirnilar but distinct varieties. Ostheim was brought to the United States by William Robert Prince of the Linnean Botanical Gardens early in the Nineteenth Century. It has proved very satisfactory in some sections of the West and Canada, while in the East it is but a mediocre variety at best. At different times either buds or trees of so-called Ostheims have been imported to this country which have turned out not to be the true variety. What these sorts really are will remain uncertain until the several forms can be brought together and compared. Professor Budd imported a variety in 1883, which since has become known as Ostheim, carrying Griotte d'Ostheim as a synonym. Whether or not this is the old variety or a distinct strain of the Ostheim class we are unable to say. The Cerise d'Ostheim received by this Station has proved identical with this variety. Ostheim was first listed by the American Pomological Society in 1899. A cherry known as Minnesota Ostheim, introduced into Minnesota from Germany, is now recognized as a distinct sort. The variety as it is known in Kansas and Missouri is often called the German Ostheimer though some believe this to be different from the true sort.

Tree below medium in size, vigorous, upright-spreading, with drooping branchlets, donse, very productive; trunk smooth; branches rather slender, smooth, dark ash-gray partly overspreading reddish-brown, with small, raised lenticels; branchlets slender, willowy, long, brown partly overspread with ash-gray, smooth, glabrous, with small, inconspicuous lenticels.

Leaves very numerous, three and one-fourth inches long, one and one-half inches wide, folded upward, obovate to oval; upper surface very dark green, smooth; lower surface pale green, with a few scattering hairs; apex taper-pointed, base variable in shape; margin finely serrate, with small, dark glands; petiole slender, one-half inch long, short, tinged with dull red, grooved, with a few scattering hairs, with from one to three small, globose, greenish-yellow glands at the base of the blade.

Buds small, short, usually obluse, plump, free, arranged as lateral buds and in small clusters on short spurs; leaf-scars prominent; season of bloom medium; flowers one inch across, white; borne in scattering clusters, in twos and threes; pedicels five-eighths of an inch long, rather slender, glabrous, greeriish; calyx-tube green with a faint tinge of red, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes with a trace of red, rather long, serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals obovate, entire, nearly sessile, apex entire; filaments one. fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, nearly equal in length to the stamens.

Fruit matures very late; nearly three-fourths of an inch in diameter, roundish to slightly oblate, compressed; cavity very shallow and narrow, flaring; suture indistinct; apex roundish with a small depression at the center; color very dark red approaching black; dots numerous, small, dark russet, inconspicuous; stem slender, one and one-fourth inches long, but slightly adherent to the fruit; skin thin, tender, separating readily from the pulp; flesh dark red, with much very dark colored juice, tender and melting, sprightly, tart, losing its astringency when fully ripe; of fair quality; stone free, nearly one-half inch in diameter, roundish-oblate, somewhat pointed, with smooth surfaces slightly stained with red.

SHORT-STEM MONTMORENCY                        TOP                                                    HOME
Prunus cerasus

1. Christ. Handb. 679. 1797. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 2:141, 142. 1832. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:36,5, 366 fig., 367. 1877.
Gobet a Courte Queue. 4. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 1:180, 181, P1. VIII. 1768. 5. Kraft Pom. Aust. 1:7, Tab, 18 fig. 1. 1792.
Gros Gobet. 6. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 634-638. 1819. 7. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:71, 72. 1858. 8. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:204, 308. 1866. 9. Mas Le Verger 8:51, 52, fig. 24. 1866-73.
10. Hogg Fruit Man. 299, 300. 1884. 11. Mathieu Nom. POM. 358. 1889. 12. Guide Prat. 9, 190, 1895.
Flemish. 13. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 195 fig. 85, 196, 1845.
Cerise a Courte Queue. 14. Poiteau Pom. Franc. 2: No. 15, P1. 1846.
Cerise Gros Fruit. 15. Pom. France 7: No. 11, P1. 11. 1871.

In tracing the history of the Montmorency cherries from Duhamel's time to the present we have been led to conclude that three distinct types are now being cultivated. of these closely related strains, all of which probably originated about the same time in Montmorency Valley, France, Montmorency is by far the most important and the one now grown commercially in all parts of the country. Large Montmorency, while quite similar to Montmorency, is much less grown because of its unproductiveness, although in quality it is quite equal or perhaps superior to Montmorency. Short-Stem Montmorency, under discussion here, varies considerably both in tree and fruit from either of the other two, although it is frequently taken for Large Montmorency. The tree is smaller and more drooping but usually very productive. The fruit, similar in size to Large Montmorency, differs from it by being more oblate and irregular, and in having a very deep, wide suture which becomes an indistinct line towards the apex. The skin seldom becomes as dark red even at perfect maturity. The flavor is more sprightly but its quality is not as high. All three varieties have long lists of synonyms, many of which have been used for each of the three sorts. Many writers believe that only two distinct strains of Montmorency exist and that Short-Stem Montmorency is identical with Large Montmorency. The variety is little grown in North America and is not as worthy for any purpose as either of the other two better-known sorts.

Tree upright-spreading, round-topped, productive; trank shaggy; branches roughish, reddish-brown covered with ash-gray, with numerous lenticels; branchlets slender, long, brown partly overspread with ash-gray, smooth, with conspicuous, numerous, small, raised lenticels.

Leaves numerous, variable in size, averaging four inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, long-oval to obovate, thick; upper surface dark green, smooth; lower surface medium green, with a prominent midrib; apex taper-pointed, base acute; margin doubly crenate, glandular; petiole one inch long, tinged with dull red, variable in thickness, lightly pubescent, glandless or with from one to three large, raised, reniform glands or, the stalk.

Buds small, short, variable in shape, free, arranged as lateral buds and on few, if any, spurs; Icaf-scars obscure; season of bloom late; flowers white, one inch across; borne in a few scattering clusters, variable in number of flowers per cluster; pedicels one-half inch long, thick, greenish; calyx-tube green or with a tinge of red, campanulate, glabrous; calyx lobes with a trace of red, obtuse, serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals roundish-oval, crenate, sessile, with a distinctly notched apex; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length, often defective.

Fruit matures in mid-season; over three-fourths of an inch in diameter, decidedly oblate, irregular in outline, slightly compressed; cavity deep, wide, irregular, flaring; suture very deep near the stem but shallow at the apex which is flattened or depressed; color light to dark red; dots numerous, small, russet, inconspicuous; stein very thick, less than three-fourths of an inch long, adhering strongly to the fruit; skin rather tender, separating from the pulp; flesh pale yellow, with colorless juice, tender and melting, sprightly, sour; of fair quality; stone clinging along the ventral suture, small, roundish, plump, blunt, with smooth surfaces, faintly tinged with red; ventral suture very prominent.

SKLANKA        Larger picture                   TOP                                            HOME
Prunus cerasus

1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 330. 1885. 2. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 327. 1888. 3. U.S.D.A. Pom. Rpt. 40,41. 1895. 4. Del. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:196 fig. 6, 117. 1900. 5. Ia. Sta. Bul. 73:83 fig. 21, 84. 1903.

Sklanka is evidently a cross between a cherry of the Amarelle group and one of the Morellos - another indication of the frequency of hybridization in this fruit. The cherries of Sklanka have the light-colored skin and juice of the Amarelles while the dwarfish, round-topped trees with pendant branches and abundant, small leaves are typical of the Morellos. The variety is in no way remarkable unless it be in hardiness, the pomologists of the colder parts of the Mississippi Valley holding that it is one of the hardiest of cherries. The fruit is not on a par with that of a score of other Amarelles and the trees, in New York at least, are too small and unproductive to be worth planting. The cherry has value, then, only where hardiness is a prime requisite.

Sklanka was imported to this country from Russia in 1883 by Professor J.L. Budd of Ames, Iowa. Its parentage and origin are uncertain. It does not seem to have been grown in continental Europe outside of Russia but in certain sections of that country it is reported as being one of the hardiest and most productive of the Sour Cherries. As grown in our Northem Central States it has proved one of the hardiest of all varieties but has not, as yet, gained much reputation commercially even in these cold regions. It is mentioned but seldom in the literature and is listed by but few nurserymen.

Tree of medium size, vigorous, spreading, with drooping branchlets, open-topped, unproductive; trunk thick and smooth; branches rather slender, long, slightly roughened, reddish-brown partly overspread with ash-gray, with numerous rather small lenticels; branchlets slender and willowy, with short internodes, brown nearly covered with ash gray, smooth except for the lenticels, which are small, numerous, raised, conspicuous.

Leaves of medium number, three and one-fourth inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, folded upward, obovate to elliptical, thick, stiff; upper surface very dark green, glossy, smooth; lower surface medium green, finely pubescent along the midrib and larger veins; apex and base acute; margin. finely and doubly serrate, with small, dark glands; petiole three-fourths of an inch long, thick, tinged with dull red, grooved, with a few hairs along the upper surface, with from one to four small, globose, orange-colored glands usually at the base of the blade.

Buds small, short, variable in shape, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds and in few, very small clusters; time of blooming mid-season; flowers one and three-sixteenths inches across, white; borne in dense clusters usually at the ends of branches or spurs, well distributed, usually in threes; pedicel over one-half inch long, glabrous, greenish; calyx tube green, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals roundish, entire, nearly sessile, with almost entire apex; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to the stamens in length.

Fruit matures early; about three-fourths of an inch in dia;rneter, oblate, not compressed; cavity of medium depth, narrow, abrupt; suture lacking; apex flattened or strongly depressed; color bright currant-red; dots numerous, light colored, slightly conspicuous; stem thick, less than one inch long, adherent to the fruit; skin rather tough, separating from the pulp; flesh pale yellow, with colorless juice, tender and melting, sour; of good quality; stone semi-free, clinging only along the ventral suture, about one-third inch in diameter, roundish, slightly flattened, blunt, with smooth surface.

SPAETE AMARELLE                            TOP                                                            HOME
Prunus cerasus

1. Christ Handb. 679. 1797. 2. Christ Woerterb. 294. 1802. 3. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 629-632. 1819. 4. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:67, 68. 1858. 5. Ill. Handb. 541 fig., 542. 1861. 6. Mas Le Verger 8:149, 150, fig. 73. 1866-73. 7. Lauche Deut. Pom. II1: No. 24, Pl. 1882. 8. Am. Gard. 9:264. 1888. 9. Ia. Sta. BU1. 2:36- 1888. 10. Del. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:126, 127. 1900.
Spaete Morello. 11. Ia. Hort. Soc. RPt. 78. 1890. 12. Budd-Hanson Am. Hort. Man. 2:282, 283. 1903.

This is another variety with Amarelle fruit and a Morello-like tree and is unquestionably a hybrid between varieties of the two groups. Several references from the Middle West mention Späte Amarelle as very promising but in New York, where such sorts as Early Richmond and the Montmorencies thrive, it is unpromising for any purpose. The cherries are quite too poor in quality, being very sour, and the trees too unproductive to make the variety even a poor rival of a score or more of Amarelles and Dukes with which it would have to compete in this State.

The origin of this cherry is unknown but according to Truchsess it was sent out from Hanover as Späte Morelle in 1785. In 1797, Christ mentions a cherry under this name the description of which agrees with that of Spaete Amarelle. Lauche states that Truchsess received the variety from Hanover under the name Späte Morelle and later changed the name to Späte Amarelle. This cherry was grown in the Paris National Nursery under the name Cerise Amarelle Tardive and at one time was commonly grown in gardens in France. In the spring of 1883, Professor J.L. Budd of Iowa brought to America a large -number of cherries from central and eastern Europe. Somehow there was confusion in the description of these imported cherries and two kinds were described under the name Spaete Amarelle, one a light-fleshed sort, the other with red flesh and colored juice. The true variety has light flesh and juice and a pleasant, acid flavor and is probably identical with the old French sort, Cerise Amarelle Tardive. The cherry sometimes called Spaete Morello can be no other than the Spaete Amarelle.

Tree of medium size, vigorous, upright-spreading, round-topped, rather unproductive; trunk stocky, somewhat shaggy; branches smooth, dark brown overspread by ash-gray, with numerous lenticels variable in size; branchlets slender, rather short, brown nearly covered with ash-gray, smooth, with slightly raised, inconspicuous lenticels.

Leaves numerous, small, folded upward, oval to somewhat obovate, rather stiff; upper surface dark green, smooth; lower surface medium green, pubescent only on the midrib and larger veins; apex acute, base variable in shape; margin finely serrate, glandular; petiole greenish or with a sligbt bronze tinge, glandless or with from one to four small, globose, brown or yellowish glands usually at the base of the blade.

Buds small, pointed, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds and in clusters on long or short spurs; leaf-scars prominent; season of bloom late; flowers one inch across, white; borne in scattered clusters, usually in threes; pedicels three-fourths of an inch long, slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube green with a tinge of red, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes with a trace of red, rather narrow, acute, serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals broad-oval, entire, slightly crenate at the apex; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, equal to or longer than the stamens.

Fruit matures in mid-season; one-half inch long, oblate, slightly compressed; cavity shallow, narrow; suture indistinct; apex roundish or depressed; color dark red; dots numerous, very small, obscure; stem slender, one and one-half inches long; skin thin, tender; flesh light red, with hght colored juice, tender, tart; of good quality; stone free, roundish, flattened, with smooth surfaces; distinctly ridged along the ventral suture.

SUDA            Larger picture                    TOP                                                                                HOME
Prunus cerasus

1. Am. POM. SOC. Cat. 27. 1909.
Suda Hardy. 2. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 21. 1892-93. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 25. 1899. 4. Stark Brothers Cat. 1899. 5. Ia. Sta. Bul. 73:84 fig., 85. 1903. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Sp. Rpt. 36. 1904-05.

Suda has been widely advertised as an improved English Morello but, while there seem to be some slight differences between the two, the new variety is not an improvement on the old so far as can be discovered at this Station. The trees of Suda in general aspect are more upright and the stems of the cherries longer and more slender than those of English Morello, being but an inch in length in the one variety and an inch and three fourths in the other. The trees on the grounds of this Station are not as productive as those of English Morello. The cherries, if anything, are not as high in quality as those of the older and probably the parent variety. It is doubtful if there is a place for Suda in the cherry industry of New York.

This cherry originated in the garden of a Captain Suda, Louisiana, Missouri, about 1880. The American Pomological Society listed Suda in its fruit catalog of 1899 as Suda Hardy but in 1909 shortened the name to Suda, a change which has generally been accepted.

Tree vigorous, rather unproductive; branches slender, with numerous small lenticels; branchlets slender, long; leaves numerous, four inches long, two and one-fourth inches wide, obovate to oval, dull, dark green; margin doubly serrate, with dark glands; petiole one inch long, of medium thickness, tinged with dull red, glandless or with one or two reniform, yellowish-brown glands usually at the base of the blade; buds small, short, obtuse, arranged singly as lateral buds and on but very few, if any, spurs; season of bloom late; flowers white, one inch across; filaments one-fourth inch long; pistil shorter than the stamens.

Fruit matures very late; three-fourths inch in diameter, roundish-cordate, slightly compressed; cavity flaring; suture indistinct; color dark purplish-red; stem slender, one and three-fourths inches long, adhcrent to the fruit; skin separating from the pulp; flesh dark red, with dark colored juice, tender, somewhat meaty, sprightly, astringent, very sour; poor in quality; stone free or nearly so, ovate, slightly pointed, with smooth surfaces.      [Suda in 'Cherries of Utah']

TIMME                TOP                                                                                                HOME
Prunus cerasus

1. Ia. Sta. Bul. 73-85, 86. 1903. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 27. 1909.

Timme can hardly be distinguished from Early Richmond, differing only in smaller fruits, and probably is a seed variation of that variety. On the grounds of this Station the trees of Timme are even more productive than those of Early Richmond, one of the most fruitful of all cherries, but the greater fruitfulness of the tree hardly offsets the smaller size of the cherries, It is doubtful if this new strain can displace the older Early Richmond, which is well established in the favor of cherry-growers everywhere.

The variety is supposed to have been brought to America from Germany by a Mr. Timme of Omaha, Nebraska. It is of some local importance in Iowa and Nebraska but as yet has not been widely distributed in America. possibly it will be found in time that it is some old German variety renamed. It was placed on the fruit list of the American Pomological Society in 1909.

Tree medium in size, rather vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped, healthy; trunk and branches thick, with numerous large lenticels; branchlets slender, long, willowy; leaves three and one-half inches long, one and five-eighths inches wide, ovate to obovate, thick, stiff, leathery, dark green; margin finely serrate, tipped with reddish-brown glands; petiole three-fourths of an inch in length, with one or two large, globose glands variable in position; flowers one inch across, in dense clusters.

Fruit matures medium early; over one-half inch in diamter, roundish-oblate; color light red becoming dark red at full maturity; stem one inch long; flesh yellowish-white, with abundant pinkish juice, tender and melting, pleasant flavored, sprightly; good in quality; stone semi-clinging, roundish-ovate, plump; prominently ridged along the ventral suture.

TOUSSAINT            TOP                                                                            HOME
Prunus cerasus

1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 1:178-180, P1. VII. 1769. 2. Kraft Pom. Aust. 1:7, Tab. 18 fig- 2. 1792. 3. Poiteau Pom. Franc. 2: No. 21, P1. 1846. 4. Ann. Pom. Belge 1:103, 104, P1. 1853.
5. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:205, 308. 1866. 6. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:305, 306 fig., 307, 308. 1877. 7. Rev. Hort. 250. 1906.
Slaets Bluehender Kirschbaum. 8. Kruenitz Enc. 42, 43. 1790.
All Saints. 9. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 661-668. 1819. 10. Prince Pom. Man. 2:152, 153. 1832. 11. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:72. 1858. 12. Hogg Fruit Man. 277. 1884. 13. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 332. 1889.

Toussaint is a marked deviation from its species. Instead of bearing blossoms normally this variety sends out small branches from the buds. In the axis of the first four leaves are borne the buds destined to produce similar branches the following spring. As the branches elongate these buds remain dormant but others are borne which produce flowers in umbellike clusters of two or three. The trees begin blooming three or four weeks later than other cherries and new buds and flowers appear continually until August or thereabouts. The tree, too, is most striking in appearance, being dwarfish in stature, thickly set with pendant branchlets and, all in all, attractive enough to make it a rather handsome ornamental. The cherries are of little or no value, being quite too acid to eat out of hand but furnishing very late fruit which may be used for culinary purposes. The description given is compiled.

The history of the variety is uncertain. Leroy says that it was mentioned by Dalechamp, a French writer, as early as 1586. Duhamel seems to have been the first pomologist to describe it which he did in 1768 under the name Cerisier de la Toussaint. The variety is well known in Europe, being widely distributed in Austria, Germany, Belgium, France and England, pomologists and nurserymen in all these countries seeming to be well acquainted with it. There are no records of its culture in America, although Prince and Elliott describe it from European fruit books.

Tree small, hardy, moderately productive; branches slender, numerous, pendant.

Fruit small, flattened on the ends and sides; stem long; color clear red, darker on maturing, rather transparent; flesh white somewhat red at the center, with reddish juice; flavor, if mature, sour, though not excellent; stone large, long, clings to the flesh more than to the stem. The fruit borne in October never reaches maturity.

VLADIMIR      Larger picture         TOP                                                                        HOME
Prunus cerasus

1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 84, 85. 1882. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 75. 1883. 3. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 327-328. 1885. 4. Ia. Sta. Bul. 19:550. 1892. 5. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 454. 1895. 6. Del. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:128, 129. 1900. 7. Ia. Sta. Bul. 73:87. 1903. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 27. 1909.

Vladimir is a Morello-like cherry not more promising in New York, at least in the orchard of this Station, than any other of the many competitors of English Morello. The cherries are large, very similar in size and appearance to those of English Morello; the pit is small, the skin very thin and separating readily from the pulp. The variety is further characterized by the very dark red flesh and dark colored juice which is too astringent and sour to eat out of hand but does very well for culinary purposes. The tree is much like that of English Morello but is far more dwarfish and not as productive, these being fatal faults for commercial planting in New York. It falls short of English Morello in another respect -the fruit ripens very unevenly. Vladimir has the reputation of being one of the hardiest of all cherries. It is said to come true from seed and does better on its own roots than on either Mazzard or Mahaleb. The Russians, according to Budd, succeed best with it when it is propagated from sprouts and allowed to form a bushy plant with several stems, the oldest of which are cut from time to time. There seems to be little in the variety to commend it for either home or commercial plantings in New York.

Vladimir is a generic name for a group of varieties grown in Russia, principally in the province of Vladimir east of Moscow. Most of these cherries are large, black fruits with highly colored juice and good quality, much valued for market use in their native country. Professor J.L. Budd imported a number of these Vladimir cherries from Orel in Central Russia and grew them at the Experiment Station grounds in Iowa, giving to each a seedling number as a distinguishing characteristic. One, Orel No. 25, was selected as being superior in many respects to the others and was finally named Vladimir. This variety, typical of these Russian cherries, has been considerably propagated and is generally distributed throughout this country.. The American Pomological Society added Vladimir to its list of recommended fruits in 1909.

Tree dwarfish, round-topped, very hardy, productive; trunk medium or below in size; branches willowy, drooping, reddish-brown slightly overspread with ash-gray; branchlets slender, long, smooth, with a few small, raised lenticels.

Leaves numerous, three inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, folded upward, oval, thick; upper surface dull, dark green, smooth; lower surface light green, with a few scattering hairs; apex acute, base slightly abrupt; margin finely serrate, with dark colored glands; petiole one-half inch long, tinged with red, with a few scattering hairs along the stalk, glandless or with from one to four small, reniform, greenish-yellow glands at the base of the blade.

Buds small, short, very obtuse, plump, free, arranged singly as lateral buds and in small clusters on small spurs; leaf-scars obscure; season of bloom intermediate; flowers white, one and one-fourth inches across; borne in scattering clusters in twos, threes and fours; pedicels three-fourths of an inch long, rather slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube with a tinge of red, somewhat obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes reddish, broad, obtuse, serrate, glabrous within and without, reflexed; petals roundish or slightly obovate, irregularly crenate, with short, blunt claws, apex entire; filaments over one-fourth inch long; pistil glabrous, shorter than the stamens.

Fruit matures very late; three-eighths of an inch long, seven-eighths of an inch wide, roundish-cordate, slightly compressed; cavity rather shallow; suture a line; apex roundish; color dark red almost black at full maturity; dots numerous, small, russet, inconspicuous; stem slender, one and one-half inches or more in length, adherent to the fruit; skin thin, separating from the pulp; flesh dark red, with very dark colored juice, slightly stringy, melting, sprightly, astringent, sour; of fair quality; stone semi-clinging, rather large, long-ovate to oval, with smooth surfaces, tinged with red.

WRAGG                                                 HOME                            TOP
Prunus cerasus

1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 171. 1884. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 95. 1887. 3. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 17:15 fig. 8. 1892. 4. Neb. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 39. 1892. 5. Am. Gard. 20:178. 1890. 6. Del. Sta. An. Rpt. 12: 119. 120. 1900. 7. Ia. Sta. Bul. 73:89, fig. 26. 1903. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Sp. Rpt. 38. 1904-05. 9. Wash. Sta. Bul. 92:22, 23. 1910.

Wragg is either English Morello or a strain of that variety. Trees on the grounds of this Station are identical with English Morello but it may be that here, and occasionally elsewhere, the older sort has been substituted for Wragg. In Iowa, where the new variety is most largely grown, pomologists claim that it is distinct and that it is an improvement on English Morello. Professor J.L. Budd, an authority on Russian cherries, believed that this sort is distinct and of Russian origin having, according to him, been brought to America by Ellwanger & Barry of Rochester, New York, in an importation of Russian trees. Captain C.L. Watrous of Des Moines, Iowa, another prominent pomologist of that State, was of the opinion that Wragg came to light on the grounds of J. Wragg, Waukee, Iowa, as a sprout from another tree. Colonel G.B. Brackett, pomologist of the United States Department of Agriculture, who visited Mr. Wragg's place some years ago and compared the new cherry with the English Morello, could find no distinguishing characters between the two. On the other hand, Mr. Wragg insisted that they were distinct. The American Pomological Society calls Wragg and English Morello the same. Those who believe that the two are distinct say that the fruit of Wragg is larger, the trees hardier and that the cherries ripen a little later than those of English Morello. With the information now at hand it is impossible to say here whether or not Wragg is distinct. A compiled description taken from the text describing this cherry is so unsatisfactory that we offer none and refer the reader to that of English Morello from which it differs but little, if at all.

[Wragg in 'Cherries of Utah']