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Utter
References.  1.
Synonyms.  English Janneting (6). Seever's Red Streak (6). Utter's (1). Utter's Large Red (9). Utter's Red (5,12-14).
Fruit of good size, yellow and red, rather attractive in appearance. The tree is a rather upright regular grower, forming a full rounded head, healthy and productive (11). It is very hardy and on this account has been grown to some extent in regions where standard varieties do not succeed (13,14).
Historical. Originated in Wisconsin where it was known as early as 1855 (1). It has been much grown in that state and in other parts of the Middle West (13,14) but it is little known in New York.

FRUIT

Fruit above medium to large.
Form usually roundish oblate varying to roundish, sometimes a little inclined to oblong, often somewhat broadly ribbed, pretty regular.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, moderately stout.
Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, medium in width to wide, furrowed gently if at all, sometimes partly russeted.
Calyx small, closed or partly open; lobes small, short, obtuse.
Basin rather shallow to moderately deep, medium in width, abrupt, slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin moderately thick, tough, clear, rather pale yellow usually washed with orange-red and narrowly streaked with bright carmine. Some fruits show little or no red but on highly colored specimens the prevailing color is red.
Dots not conspicuous, numerous, often submerged or whitish or occasionally with russet point.
Calyx tube elongated funnel-form.
Stamens median or below.
Core sessile, medium size, abaxile; cells symmetrical, open or closed; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish or approaching elliptical, but slightly emarginate if at all, smooth or slightly tufted.
Seeds moderately numerous, medium to rather large, somewhat narrow to rather wide, obtuse or approaching acute, moderately light reddish-brown.
Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, somewhat coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, mild subacid, pleasantly flavored, good.
Season October to December or later.

Vandevere
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Oxeye (8,12). Staalcubs (2,4). Stalcubs (3,6). Vandeveer (4). Vandervere (2,6,9-11).
This old variety which is commonly called Vandevere in New York is known to pomologists by the name Newtown Spitzenburg, under which name it is described in Vol. I, page 225. It originated in Newtown, L.I. The true Vandevere which we are here considering is quite distinct from this Newtown Spitzenburg.
When in perfection Vandevere is a beautiful and fine apple, medium in size, marked with light red in indistinct streaks over a yellow background; well colored specimens become deep red; dots numerous, green or light gray; flesh yellowish, crisp and tender with a rich, sprightly, mild subacid flavor, valued especially for culinary purposes; in season from October to January. The tree is of medium size, spreading, moderately vigorous, not very productive (2,6,7).
Historical. An old variety native of Wilmington, Del. (2,6). It is sometimes called the Vandevere of Delaware or the Vandevere of Pennsylvania. It has never been much cultivated in New York and is seldom or never planted here.

Vandevere Pippin
References.  1. Phœnix, Horticulturist 4:471. 1849. 2. Elliott, 1854:113. fig. 3. Downing, 1857:199. 4. Hooper, 1857:94. 5. Warder, 1867:462. 6. Thomas, 1875:204. 7. Budd-Hansen, 1903:193. fig.
Synonyms.  Baltimore of some, incorrectly (2). Big Vandevere (3). Fall Vanderevere (2). Gibbon's Smathhouse? (2). Gibbon's Smokehouse? (2). Imperial Vandervere (2). Indiana Vandervere (3,6). Large Vandervere (5). Millcreek (2). Millcreek Vandervere (2). Pennsylvania Vandevere (2). Red Vandervere (2). Smokehouse? (2). Spiced Oxeye (2). Staalclubs (2). Striped Ashmore? (2). Striped Vandervere (2). Vandervere (2). Vandervere (5). Vandervere Pippin (1,2,5). Vandevere Yellow (4). Watson's Vandervere (2,5). Watson's Vandevere (3,6). Windower (1). Yellow Vandervere (2,5).
A large, coarse apple, yellow, more or less covered with marbled red and scarlet stripes; flesh of rather sharp acid flavor, excellent for culinary use but not esteemed for dessert (5); in season from September or October to early winter. The tree is vigorous, large, spreading, a reliable cropper and productive. The twigs and leaves much resemble those of Vandevere (5). It appears that it is no longer listed by nurserymen.
Historical. Origin unknown (3,5,7). It has been grown to some extent in the West but has never been much cultivated in New York.

Victoria
References.  1.Downing, 1881:111 app. fig. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:251. 3. Powell and Fulton, US.B.P.I. Bul., 48:59. 1903. 4. Beach and Clark, NY Sta. Bul., 248:148. 1904.
Synonyms.  Victoria Sweet (1,4). Victoria Sweeting (2).
This variety belongs in the same group with Mabie. The fruit is of good medium size, dark red, with conspicuous, large dots somewhat like those seen on Westfield Seek-No-Further and Blue Pearmain. The flesh is moderately coarse, very tender, rather juicy, sweet, good to very good, for either dessert or culinary uses. In ordinary storage it is in season from October to January, with October as the commercial limit; in cold storage it may be held till January (4). The tree is a pretty good grower, comes into bearing rather young and yields full crops biennially. It is recommended for trial in Central and Eastern New York where a variety of this type is desired either for the home or for the local market.
Historical. Origin uncertain. It is supposed by some to have originated in Chenango county. Probably it is nowhere grown extensively but it is culitivated more in Chenango and adjacent counties than in any other region. It is occasionally listed by nurserymen (2).

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous with rather short, rather stocky, crooked branches.
Form spreading.
Twigs moderately long, rather slender; internodes medium.
Bark dull reddish-brown or olive-green, slightly mottled with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, usually large and elongated.
Buds medium size, rather narrow, plump, appressed, acute, pubescent.
Leaves medium size, rather broad.

FRUIT

Fruit above medium to medium, fairly uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish inclined to conic, somewhat flattened at base, faintly and broadly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) usually short, moderately thick.
Cavity moderately deep, medium in width to broad, symmetrical, often lipped, sometimes red and smooth, but often bright yellow russet or greenish-russet overspreads the cavity and radiates irregularly over the base in broken lines and splashes.
Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open; lobes usually short and not separated at base, acute.
Basin medium in depth to moderately deep, narrow to wide, somewhat abrupt, slightly wrinkled.
Skin tough, nearly smooth, yellow, blushed and faintly mottled with rather dull red and marked with numerous, narrow stripes of deeper red.
Dots or flecks conspicuous, gray or russet, becoming smaller and more numerous toward the cavity.
Calyx tube short, medium size, conical or somewhat funnel-form.
Stamens median to basal.
Core medium to somewhat distant, usually abaxile; cells closed or partly open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder.
Carpels roundish cordate to elliptical, decidedly concave, tufted.
Seeds numerous, dark, medium size, flat, acute to obtuse.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, moderately coarse, very tender, juicy, sweet, good to very good.
Season October to January.

Victuals and Drink
References.  1. Downing, 1845:141. 2. Thomas, 1849:163. 3. Emmons, Nat. Hist. NY, 3:88. 1851. 4. Elliott, 1854:179. 5. Hooper, 1857:94. 6. Warder, 1867:499. fig. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 8. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:200.
Synonyms.  Big Sweet (1,4,5). Fall Green Sweet (6). Green Sweet of Indiana (6). Pompey (1,4-6).
A large, somewhat rough, dull green or yellowish apple often veined with russet. The flesh is sweet, very tender, fine-grained, very good to best in quality; in season from October to January or later. The tree is medium to rather large, upright or roundish, stocky, vigorous, very productive, often carrying so heavy a load of fruit that many of the apples are small. Downing states that it originated in the neighborhood of Newark, NJ., about 1750 (1). In 1873 (7) it was entered in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society but was dropped from that list in 1897. Bailey does not mention it in his Inventory of Apples Offered by American Nurserymen in 1892 (An. Hort., 1892.). It has been popular in some portions of the West but so far as we know has never been much cultivated in New York. It is undoubtedly an excellent variety for the home orchard.

Vineuse Rouge
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Aromatic Spike No. 354 (13). Compte Orloff (1). Count Orloff (8,13). De Revel (2). Grand Sultan (2,3,7,9,10, 12). Green Transparent (13). Groskoe Selenka Gr&#uuml;ner (5,11). Orloff (4,6). Orlovskoe (6). Orlowskoe (4). Red Transparent (13). Revelstone Pippin (2). Transparente Jaune (2). Transparente Rouge (1). Transparente de Sainte-L&#eacute;ger (2). Transparente Verte (1).
Hansen gives the following description of this variety (13): "Origin, Russia; as fruited in the Iowa Experiment Station orchard, this variety and Red Transparent, Count Orloff, Grand Sultan, Green Transparent and Aromatic Spike No. 354 are identical or very similar. Tree a strong grower, round tipped, a heavy annual bearer. Fruit medium to large, round oblate conic, regular; surface greenish-yellow, rarely faintly splashed with red on sunny side, overlaid with white bloom; dots large, white, few; cavity narrow, abrupt, with irregular patch of russet, stem short, stout, often clubbed; basin small, shallow; calyx, small, closed. Core closed or nearly so, clasping: tube long, funnel-shaped; flesh white, firm, juicy, fragrant, subacid, good for table, very good for cooking. Season very early, about one week before Yellow Transparent, but perishable and should be picked early to prevent watercoring and rotting on the tree. Evidently the name is a misnomer as it means Red Wine Colored."
As grown at this Station Count Orloff, Grand Sultan and Groskoe Selenka Gr&#uuml;ner are identical or very similar, and none of them is very desirable.

Washington Strawberry
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Juniata (7). Washington (2,3). Washington of Maine (7). Washington County Seedling (2).
Fruit smooth, of good size and pretty good color, fairly uniform in shape but somewhat variable in size, desirable for either dessert or culinary uses. It is quite variable in season in different years and in different localities. As fruited at this Station it comes in season in September or October, and some portion of the fruit may be kept in fair condition into the winter or sometimes through the winter. In ordinary storage its commercial limit is October, and in cold storage November (13,16). The fruit hangs well to the tree. The tree is vigorous, hardy, healthy, moderately long-lived, comes into bearing rather early and is a reliable cropper, yielding good crops biennially or almost annually. It is a good variety for home use, but evidently is not wanted in market. Its season is rather short, and it begins to mature at a time when the markets are filled with other fruits.
Historical. Washington Strawberry was first exhibited at the Fair of the State Agricultural Society in Syracuse in 1849 (1,3). It originated on the farm of Job Whipple, Union Springs, Washington county, NY (1). It was included in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society in 1869 (4). It is still listed by nurserymen and has been known for a half century it has failed to establish itself in the commercial orchards of this state and is but little known among New York fruit growers.

TREE.

Tree medium to large, vigorous to moderately vigorous.
Form rather flat, spreading, open.
Twigs below medium to short, straight or nearly so, rather slender to stout with large terminal buds; internodes medium or below.
Bark clear brownish-red or with more or less olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small to medium, round or somewhat elongated, slightly raised.
Buds medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse, free or nearly so, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large or very large.
Form globular, usually inclined to conic, base rounding or sometimes flattened, nearly regular; sides often a little unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short and rather thick or sometimes long.
Cavity below medium to medium, acute to somewhat acuminate, rather shallow to deep, narrow to moderately broad, occasionally lipped, often somewhat furrowed, usually thinly russeted.
Calyx below medium to rather large, usually somewhat open; lobes a little separated and broad at the base, narrow above, long, acute to acuminate.
Basin small to medium, narrow to moderately wide, medium in depth, abrupt, somewhat furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin rather thin, tough, smooth, somewhat waxy, greenish or yellow, washed and mottled with red, conspicuously splashed and striped with bright carmine and overspread with thin bloom.
Dots numerous, russet or whitish and rather conspicuous, often submerged.
Prevailing effect striped red.
Calyx tube rather large, wide, cone-shape with core lines meting, sometimes becoming funnel-form with clasping core lines.
Stamens basal or nearly so.
Core below medium to above, axile or sometimes abaxile; cells not uniformly developed, usually symmetrical and more or less open, sometimes closed; core lines meeting if the calyx tube is cone-shape, clasping if it is funnel-form.
Carpels variable, ovate to broadly obcordate, sometimes a little emarginate, often tufted.
Seeds dark, medium in size, rather long, somewhat acute; often many are abortive.
Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, firm, rather fine to a little coarse, crisp, tender, very juicy, pleasant subacid, sprightly, good to very good.
Season September or October into early winter.

Water
References.  1. Downing, Horticulturis, 19:172. 1864. figs. 2. Warder, 1867:735. 3. Downing, 1869:397. fig. 4. Thomas, 1875:315. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1877:16. 6. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:298. 7. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:252.
Synonyms.  None.
A mild falvored dessert apple of medium size, pale yellow or greenish with attractive blush of lively red; in season from October to December. The tree is a rather moderate grower, does not come into bearing young and is a biennial bearer yielding from fair to good crops. Not recommended for commercial planting.
Historical. Origin Durham township, Bucks county, PA (1,3). It was entered in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society in 1877 (5) and dropped from that list in 1897. It is but little known in this state.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous with short, slender, curved branches.
Form erect or roundish, rather dense.
Twigs long, curved, moderately stout; internodes short.
Bark dark brown, heavily coated with gray scarf-skin; pubescent near tips.
Lenticels scattering, small, round, not raised.
Buds rather prominent, medium to large, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium size.
Form broadly ovate to roundish conic varying to oblong conic with flattened ends, nearly regular.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, slender.
Cavity acuminate, rather narrow to moderately broad, moderately shallow to deep, often compressed, sometimes thinly russeted, the russet not extending beyond the cavity.
Calyx small, to medium, closed or open; lobes long, narrow, acute to acuminate.
Basin varying from shallow rather deep and abrupt, narrow to medium in width, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin pale yellow or greenish with very attractive, lively pinkish-red blush, in well colored specimens deepening to dark or purplish-red, not striped, overspread with thin bloom.
Dots numerous, medium to small, grayish or whitish, often submerged.
Calyx tube short, wide, broadly conical.
Stamens basal to median.
Core rather small, somewhat abaxile; cells closed or slightly open; core lines slightly clasping.
Carpels small, slightly obovate to obcordate, emarginate.
Seeds medium in size, few, dark brown, varying from blunt and flat to acute and rather narrow.
Flesh nearly white, fine, crisp, tender, juicy, pleasant mild subacid, good.
Season October to December or later.

Wealthy
References.  1. Downing, 1869:398. 2. Foster, Horticulturis, 25:362. 1870. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871:10. 4. Thomas, 1875:515. 5. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1876:19. 6. Ib., 1879:33. fig. 7. IA Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1879: ***tbal***
Synonyms.  None.
This variety is particularly valuable for cold climates because the tree is very hardy and the fruit sells well, being bright red and good in quality for either dessert or culinary uses. It is in season from October to early winter or mid-winter. In ordinary storage its commercial limit is October, but in cold storage it may be kept till January or later. It does not stand heat very well before going into storage, and goes down rather quickly (41). Young trees or trees which are making a thrifty growth produce fruit of good size, but mature, slow-growing trees are apt to yield a considerable percentage of undersized fruit, especially when they are overloaded, as is often the case. The crop ripens unevenly, and more than on e picking should be made in order to secure the fruit in prime condition. If it is left upon the tree till fully colored there is apt to be considerable loss by dropping. The tree is a good thrifty grower when young, but with maturity it becomes a moderate or rather slow grower, forming a medium-sized or rather dwarfish tree. Wealthy is planted for commercial purposes in many parts of the state, but in most localities the trees are as yet comparatively young; in some sections of the state it is being planted more than any other apple of its season. Trees that have become old enough to develop the tendency to produce rather small fruit are in some places being grafted over to other sorts. In other places fruit growers, by adopting such treatment as thinning the fruit and keeping the soil fertile, continue to produce apples of good marketable size when the trees are mature.
Historical. Originated by Peter M. Gideon, Excelsior, Minn., from seed of the Cherry Crab, which he obtained about 1860 from Albert Emerson, Bangor, ME (11,28). Ragan (42) states that the fruit was first described in the Western Farmer in 1869. It has been extensively disseminated, particularly in those apple-growing districts where a tree of superior hardiness is especially desired. It is generally listed by nurserymen and its cultivation is gradually increasing.

TREE
.
Tree somewhat dwarfish to medium size, moderately vigorous with short, moderately stout, curved branches.
Form upright spreading or roundish, open and somewhat drooping.
Twigs long, curved, slender; internodes long.
Bark dark brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium to small, oblong, not raised, rather conspicuous.
Buds medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit above medium to large when well grown but often small on old trees; pretty uniform in shape and quality but more or less uneven in size.
Form roundish conic, slightly flattened at base, regular, symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) usually short to medium, but rather long on small fruit and rather slender.
Cavity decidedly acuminate, rather deep, moderately narrow to rather broad, russeted.
Calyx medium size, closed or partly open; lobes broad, obtuse to acute.
Basin medium in depth to rather shallow, rather narrow, abrupt, smooth, symmetrical.
Skin thin, tough, pale yellow or greenish, blushed and marked with narrow stripes and splashes of red, deepening in highly colored specimens to brilliant red, very attractive.
Dots numerous, small, inconspicuous, pale or russet.
Prevailing effect bright red.
Calyx tube conical approaching funnel-form.
Stamens median.
Core medium to very small, axile or sometimes slightly abaxile; cells symmetrical, slightly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels medium to rather small, roundish, narrowing toward base and apex, smooth, flat.
Seeds moderately dark brown, above medium, rather acute.
Flesh whitish sometimes stained with red, moderately fine, crisp, tender, very juicy, agreeable subacid, sprightly, somewhat aromatic, good to very good.
Season October to January.

Western Beauty
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Beauty of the West (4, 10). Big Rambo (3,5). Musgrove's Cooper (3-5). Ohio Beauty (1,3-5).
The three varieties, Western Beauty, Grosh and Summer Rambo, resemble each other so closely in fruit that it is practically impossible to distinguish the one from the other from the examination of the fruit alone. The Summer Rambo, however, ripens about a month earlier than the other two varieties and it can consequently be readily distinguished in the orchard. Pomologists are in doubt as to whether Grosh and Western Beauty are two distinct varieties or the same variety under two names. We have been unable to obtain sufficient evidence to determine this point.
For a technical description of the fruit, see Grosh, page 89.
Hyde King was received here for testing under the name Western Beauty and consequently is referred to under that name erroneously in some published accounts of its record at this Station. See Volume I, page 106.
Historical. Origin unknown. First introduced to notice by William F. English of Rhinehart, Auglaize county, Ohio (1,2).

Westfield (Seek-No-Further)
References.  1.  [***will be added later***]
Synonyms.  Will be added later.
XXX
Historical.

TREE
.
Tree
Form
Twigs
Bark
Lenticels
Buds

FRUIT

Fruit
Form
Stem (Pedicel)
Cavity
Calyx
Basin
Skin
Dots
Calyx tube
Stamens
Core
Carpels
Seeds
Flesh
Season

White Astrachan
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Astracan Blanche (10). Astracan d'Ete (10). Astracanischer Sommer (10). Astrachan White (2). Blanche Glacee d'Ete (10). De Glace d'Ete (10). De Glace Hative (10). De Moscovie d'Ete (10). Gelee d'Ete (10). Glace de Zelande (1-3, 6-8, 10). Glacee d'Ete (10). Naliwi Jabloky (10). Pomme Astrachan (3). Pomme d'Astrachan (2). Pyrus Astracanica (1,2,6,7). Taffitai (10). Transparent Apple (14). Transparente de Astracan (10). Transparente d'Ete (10). Transparente de Zurich (10). Transparente de Muscovie d'Ete (10). Transparent Muscovie (7). Transparent de Muscovie (1-3, 6,8). White Astracan (1,3-5, 7, 10, 15).
A Russian apple of little or no value for this region. Fruit medium size, roundish to roundish oblate, waxen yellow or whitish with faint streaks of red; flesh white, acid, good for culinary use; season August and September (6,17).
Historical. It has been known in this country for many years (4-9). It was not entered on the catalogue of the American Pomological Society till 1889 (16) and was dropped from that list in 1891. It is practically unknown in New York.

White Juneating
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Bracken (8,11, of Ohio 7). Carolina (10). Caroline (10). Early Jenneting (16). Early May (10, ?14). Gennetting (17). Ginetting (1,16). Jenneting (2). Jennetting (17). Joaneting (16). Juneateing (1). Juneating (4,6,8,10,11,14,16). Juneting (2,16). Owen's Golden Beauty (3,6,10,16). Primiting (16). Yellow May (18,19). Yellow June (14).
This apple has little to recommend it except that it ripens very early in the season. It is small, roundish oblate, pale yellow, sometimes faintly blushed and has white, crisp, pleasant subacid flesh which becomes mealy if kept only a few days after it ripens. The tree is not large, only a moderate grower and not a great bearer (6,8,16).
Historical. Hogg (16) gives the following interesting account of the history of this apple and the probable derivation of the name Juneating: "One of our oldest apples, and although generally known and popular, seems to have escaped the notice of Miller, who does not even mention it in any of the editions of his Dictionary. As I have doubts of this being the Geneting of Parkinson-- his figure being evidently intended for the Margaret, which in some districts is called Joaneting-- the first mention we have of this variety is by Rea, in 1665, who describes it as 'a small, yellow, red-sided apple, upon a wall, ripe in the end of June.'
"'Juneating,' as applied to this apple, is quite a misnomer. Abercrombie was the first who wrote it June-eating, as if in allusion to the period of its maturity, which is, however, not till the end of July. Dr. Johnson, in his Dictionary, writes it Gineting, and says it is a corruption of Janeton (Fr.), signifying Jane or Janet, having been so called from a person of that name. Ray (Hist. Plant., ii. 1447.) says, 'Pomum Ginettinum, quod unde dictum sit met latet.' Indeed, there does not seem ever to have been a correct definition given of it.
"My definition of the name is this. In the Middle Ages, it was cutomary to make the festivals of the Church periods on which occurrences were to take place or from which events were to be named. Even in the present day we hear the country people talking of some crop to be sown, or some other to be planted at Michaelmas, St. Martin's or St. Andrew's tide. It was also the practice for parents to dedicate their children to some particular saint, as Jean Baptiste, on the recurrence of whose festival all who are so named keep it as a holiday. So it was also in regard to fruits, which were named after the day about which they came to maturity. Thus, we have the Margaret Apple, so called from being ripe about St. Margret's Day, the 20th of July; the Magdalene, or Maudlin, from St. Magdalene's Day, the 22nd of July. An in Curtius (Hortorum, p. 522) we find the Joannina, so called, 'Quod circa divi Joannis Baptistæ nativtatem esui sint.' These are also noticed by J. Baptista Porta; he says, 'Est genus alterum quod quia circa festum Divi Joannis maturiscit, vulgus Melo de San Giovanni dictur.' And according to Tragus (Hist., p. 1043), Quæ apud nos prima maturantur, Sanct Johans Opfell, Latine, Præcocia mala dicuntur.'
"We see, therefore that apples were called Joannina because they ripened about St. John's Day, and we have among the old French pears, Amir&#eacute; Joannet-- the 'Wonderful Little John', which Merlet informs us was so called because it ripened about St. John's Day. If, then, we add to Joannet the termination ing, so general among our names of apples, we have Joanneting. There can be no doubt that this is the correct derivation of the name of this apple."

White Spanish Reinette
References.  1.
Synonyms.  American Fall Pippin (9). Belle Joséphine (9). Blanche (7). Blanche d'Espagne (7). Camuesar (1,6,9). Camoisas du roi d'Espagne (7). Camoise Blanche (7). Camoisée Blanche (7). Camuezas (7). Camuzar (7). Cobbett's Fall (2,3,6,7) err. Concombre Ancien (1,2,5,7,9). De Ratteau (1,2,5,7,9). D'Espagne (1,2,3,5-7). Elgin Pippin? (6). Episcopale (7). Fall Pippin (1-3,7, err. 6) err. Joséphine (9). Large Fall (1). Large Fall Pippin (2,3,6,7). Philadelphia Pippin (7). Reinette A Gobelet (7). Reinette Blanche (7). Reinette Blanceh D'Espagne (3,9, 1,2,5-8). Reinette D'Espagne (1,6,7,9). Reinette Tendre (7). Saint-Germain (7). York Pippin (7).
This variety belongs in the group with Fall Pippin and Holland Pippin. It resembles Fall Pippin in the growth of the tree as well as in the color and character of the fruit, but is less regular in shape and keeps later (3,6). Season here October to January or February; Hogg gives its season in England as December to April (9). Lyon gives its season in Michigan as October to January (10).
Historical. This is an old European variety which has long been cultivated in Spain, France and England (1-3,6,7,9). It was early imported into this country and is perhaps the parent of our Fall Pippin and Holland Pippin (6). According to Lyon (10) it is seldom seen under its own name. It appears to be but little cultivated in New York having been superseded by other varieties.

FRUIT

Fruit very large.
Form roundish oblate or inclined to oblong, angular, uneven at the crown where it is nearly as broad as at the base (3,6,9).
Stem (Pedicel) short.
Cavity narrow, rather small, regular.
Calyx large, open.
Basin deep, broadly angular, irregular, oblique.
Skin smooth, waxy, yellowish-green, with orange tinge and brownish-red blush on the exposed cheek.
Calyx tube conical.
Stamens marginal.
Cells open, obovate.
Flesh yellowish-white, crisp, tender, juicy, subacid, very good for either dessert or culinary purposes.
Season October to January or February.

Williams
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Lady's Apple (5). Queen (5). Williams Early (5,12,15,19). Williams Early Red (7,12). Williams Favorite 3,5,7-18, 21-25, 27, 28). Williams Favorite Red (5,8,12). Williams Favourite Red (2). Williams Favourite (4,19). Williams Red (8,12,19). [Despite very similar names, this apple is distinct from the more-recently-developed 'Lady Williams' and 'Williams Pride' and from the ancient 'Lady Apple' -ASC].
Williams is a very beautiful, bright red apple of mild agreeable flavor, good for dessert but not suitable for culinary uses. It is a favorite in Boston and other eastern markets, and is grown to a limited extent for commercial purposes in some portions of Eastern New York. It does not stand shipping very well, the skin being thin, tender and easily bruised, therefore best handled in small packages. It is in season during late August and early September. Under favorable conditions the fruit becomes rather large, but with very heavy crops it is apt to be rather small unless properly thinned. The crop ripens unevenly, and more than one picking is required to secure the fruit in prime condition. The tree being only moderately vigorous, it is an advantage to topwork it upon some thrifty hardy stock, such as Northern Spy, Rhode Island Greening, or Tolman Sweet. When topworked in this way the Williams becomes a rather vigorous grower, makes a tree of pretty good size, comes into bearing early and in favorable locations, under good treatment, is a reliable cropper, yielding good crops annually or nearly annually. It can be recommended for commercial planting where fruit of this type and season is desired.
Historical. Williams originated in Roxbury, Mass., more than 150 years ago. It was brought to the notice of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1830 and then named Williams. It had previously been known in market under the name Queen and Lady's Apple (5). It was entered in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society in 1854 and is still retained on that list (13). It has become widely disseminated and is still often listed by nurserymen (21) but is nowhere being planted to any considerable extent.

TREE.

Tree rather small and a slow grower but when topworked on vigorous stock and properly tilled and fertilized it becomes rather large and vigorous.
Form upright spreading or roundish, somewhat dense.
Twigs short, curved, moderately stout, with large terminal buds; internodes short.
Bark dark brown tinged with green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, small to medium size, oblong, raised.
Buds medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium or under favorable circumstances rather large, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form oblong conic to roundish conic, broadly ribbed; sides often unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long, moderately thick.
Cavity obtuse, shallow, rather broad, furrowed, sometimes russeted.
Calyx above medium size, usually closed; lobes long.
Basin medium to rather shallow, rather narrow to moderately broad, a little abrupt, somewhat furrowed.
Skin moderately thick, rather tender, nearly smooth, pale yellow overlaid with bright deep red, indistinctly striped with dark red or crimson.
Dots numerous, inconspicuous, small, grayish or russet.
Calyx tube long, narrow, funnel-shape or approaching cylindrical, sometimes extending to the core.
Stamens marginal.
Core medium to rather large, axile; cells closed or slightly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels ovate to roundish.
Seeds above medium, rather narrow, long, moderately plump, acute or nearly acuminate, dark brown.
Flesh sometimes tinged with red, firm, a little coarse, moderately crisp, tender, rather juicy, becoming dry when overripe, pleasant mild subacid, aromatic, good.
Season late August and September.

Willis Sweet
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Pear Lot (5). Pear-Tree Lot (5). Willis Sweeting (1,3).
A rather large sweet apple in season in late summer and early autumn. According to Downing the tree is a good grower and productive; the fruit whitish with shade of light red washed with crimson; flesh crisp, juicy, tender, rich, sweet, very good; valuable for dessert, for culinary purposes and for market (5).
Historical. A chance seedling that originated at Oyster Bay, Long Island, about 1800, on the farm of Edmond Willis. It first had the local name of Pear-tree Lot or Pear Lot. Later it was named Willis Sweeting by Parsons & Co., of Flushing, NY (3). In 1869 it was entered in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society (6), but was dropped from that list in 1899. It is still occasionally listed by nurserymen (8) but is now seldom planted. It is not generally known in New York.

Wine Rubets
References.  1. Budd, IA Agr. Coll. Bul., 1885:7. 2. Beach, NY Sta. An. Rpt., 12:600. 1893. 3. Ib., 12:603.1893. 4. Ragan, US.B.P.I. Bul., 56:337. 1905.
Synonyms.  Cut Wine (2-4). No. 210 (1-4). Rubets Vinogradnui (1,4). Rubez vuinogradnui (4). Vinograd (1,3).
Fruit below medium size, nearly symmetrical, covered with delicate bloom. Skin green, lightly shaded with red and with a crimson cheek. Basin shallow, wrinkled. Stem medium length, slender, set in a deep cavity. Flesh mild subacid, fair to good in quality. Begins to ripen here about the 1st of August. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. A Russian apple imported by the United States Department of Agriculture. It was received here in 1888 from Dr. T.H. Hoskins, Newport, VT, under the name Cut Wine.

Winthrop Greening
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Howe Apple (2,5). Kennebec Seedling (8). Lincoln (1). Lincoln Pippin (2,4,5).
Fruit yellow, tinged with red, of good size and good quality; season September to early winter. The flesh is tender, crisp, very juicy, sprightly, mild subacid (2). The tree is a shy bearer.
Historical. Originated in Winthrop, ME, about the year 1800 (1,2). It was entered in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society in 1854 (3) and dropped from that list in 1897. It is but little known in New York.

Wolf River
References.  1.
Synonyms.  None.
This is a variety of the Aport group. It resembles Alexander very closely in size, form, and color. Hansen states (20) that it is "supposed to be a seedling of the Alexander, which it somewhat resembles, but is more round and less conical, and averages larger, as grown in the West. The Wolf River has largely superseded Alexander in the western states. Tree a strong spreading grower, not an early bearer, but productive in alternate years." As fruited at this Station it is in season from September to December, with October as the commercial limit in ordinary storage. In cold storage it may be held till January. It does not stand heat well, and goes down quickly (24). The tree is very hardy and a good grower, and is a biennial or sometimes annual cropper, yielding moderate to good crops. The fruit, being large, shapely and highly colored, often sells well because of its attractive appearance; some fruit growers are finding it a profitable variety.
Historical. Originated by W.A. Springer, near Wolf River, Fremont county Wisconsin, hence its name. it was entered in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society in 1881 (5). It is frequently listed by nurserymen (11). Within recent years it has been planted to a limited extent in New York state and at the present time its cultivation is probably increasing somewhat.

TREE.

Tree large, moderately vigorous.
Form much spreading, open and inclined to droop.
Twigs short, straight, slender; internodes short.
Bark brown, tinged with green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small, round, not raised.
Buds small, plump, obtuse to acute, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit large, uniform in size and fairly uniform in shape.
Form broad and flat at the base and somewhat inclined to conic or roundish, often somewhat irregular.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, rather thick, not exserted.
Cavity acuminate, usually deep, rather wide and very heavily russeted.
Calyx medium to large, open or closed.
Basin medium to deep moderately narrow, abrupt, usually smooth, somewhat broadly furrowed.
Skin rather thick, pale bright yellow or greenish, mottled and blushed with bright deep red and marked with conspicuous splashes and broad stripes of bright carmine.
Dots numerous, medium to rather large, areolar, depressed, pale or russet.
Calyx tube conical.
Stamens median to basal.
Core below medium to rather large, somewhat abaxile; cells closed or partly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly cordate, approaching elliptical, slightly emarginate, somewhat tufted.
Seeds dark brown, of medium size, rather wide, short, moderately plump, obtuse.
Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, firm, moderately coarse, tender, juicy, subacid, a little aromatic, fair to good. [I remember my parents buying some Wolf River apples from an orchard in the North Georgia mountains. They were unbelievably bland, with no taste whatsoever. Water has more flavor. We mocked them for all the years till we left home. -ASC].
Season September to December.

Workaroe
References.  1. NYSta. An. Rpt., 8:349. 1889. 2. Beach, Ib., 11:588. 1892.
Synonyms.  None.
A Russian apple of good size, pale yellow, blushed and striped with red and overspread with pinkish bloom. Flesh firm, crisp, tender, juicy, rather mild subacid with an agreeable but not high flavor and good quality. It is a good apple but hardly equal to other varieties of its season. The tree does not come into bearing very young but is a pretty good grower and eventually a good cropper yielding full crops biennially.
Received in 1884 from Ellwanger and Barry, Rochester, NY for testing at this Station.