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Utter
References.  1.
Synonyms.  English Janneting (6). Seever's Red Streak (6). Utter's (1). Utter's Large Red (9). Utter's Red (5,12-14).
Fruit of good size, yellow and red, rather attractive in appearance. The tree is a rather upright regular grower, forming a full rounded head, healthy and productive (11). It is very hardy and on this account has been grown to some extent in regions where standard varieties do not succeed (13,14).
Historical. Originated in Wisconsin where it was known as early as 1855 (1). It has been much grown in that state and in other parts of the Middle West (13,14) but it is little known in New York.

FRUIT

Fruit above medium to large.
Form usually roundish oblate varying to roundish, sometimes a little inclined to oblong, often somewhat broadly ribbed, pretty regular.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, moderately stout.
Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, medium in width to wide, furrowed gently if at all, sometimes partly russeted.
Calyx small, closed or partly open; lobes small, short, obtuse.
Basin rather shallow to moderately deep, medium in width, abrupt, slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin moderately thick, tough, clear, rather pale yellow usually washed with orange-red and narrowly streaked with bright carmine. Some fruits show little or no red but on highly colored specimens the prevailing color is red.
Dots not conspicuous, numerous, often submerged or whitish or occasionally with russet point.
Calyx tube elongated funnel-form.
Stamens median or below.
Core sessile, medium size, abaxile; cells symmetrical, open or closed; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish or approaching elliptical, but slightly emarginate if at all, smooth or slightly tufted.
Seeds moderately numerous, medium to rather large, somewhat narrow to rather wide, obtuse or approaching acute, moderately light reddish-brown.
Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, somewhat coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, mild subacid, pleasantly flavored, good.
Season October to December or later.

Vandevere
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Oxeye (8,12). Staalcubs (2,4). Stalcubs (3,6). Vandeveer (4). Vandervere (2,6,9-11).
This old variety which is commonly called Vandevere in New York is known to pomologists by the name Newtown Spitzenburg, under which name it is described in Vol. I, page 225. It originated in Newtown, L.I. The true Vandevere which we are here considering is quite distinct from this Newtown Spitzenburg.
When in perfection Vandevere is a beautiful and fine apple, medium in size, marked with light red in indistinct streaks over a yellow background; well colored specimens become deep red; dots numerous, green or light gray; flesh yellowish, crisp and tender with a rich, sprightly, mild subacid flavor, valued especially for culinary purposes; in season from October to January. The tree is of medium size, spreading, moderately vigorous, not very productive (2,6,7).
Historical. An old variety native of Wilmington, Del. (2,6). It is sometimes called the Vandevere of Delaware or the Vandevere of Pennsylvania. It has never been much cultivated in New York and is seldom or never planted here.

Vandevere Pippin
References.  1. Phœnix, Horticulturist 4:471. 1849. 2. Elliott, 1854:113. fig. 3. Downing, 1857:199. 4. Hooper, 1857:94. 5. Warder, 1867:462. 6. Thomas, 1875:204. 7. Budd-Hansen, 1903:193. fig.
Synonyms.  Baltimore of some, incorrectly (2). Big Vandevere (3). Fall Vanderevere (2). Gibbon's Smathhouse? (2). Gibbon's Smokehouse? (2). Imperial Vandervere (2). Indiana Vandervere (3,6). Large Vandervere (5). Millcreek (2). Millcreek Vandervere (2). Pennsylvania Vandevere (2). Red Vandervere (2). Smokehouse? (2). Spiced Oxeye (2). Staalclubs (2). Striped Ashmore? (2). Striped Vandervere (2). Vandervere (2). Vandervere (5). Vandervere Pippin (1,2,5). Vandevere Yellow (4). Watson's Vandervere (2,5). Watson's Vandevere (3,6). Windower (1). Yellow Vandervere (2,5).
A large, coarse apple, yellow, more or less covered with marbled red and scarlet stripes; flesh of rather sharp acid flavor, excellent for culinary use but not esteemed for dessert (5); in season from September or October to early winter. The tree is vigorous, large, spreading, a reliable cropper and productive. The twigs and leaves much resemble those of Vandevere (5). It appears that it is no longer listed by nurserymen.
Historical. Origin unknown (3,5,7). It has been grown to some extent in the West but has never been much cultivated in New York.

VANHOY

Rererences. 1. NV. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 8:356. 1889. 2. Beach, Ib., 15:276, 284. 1896. 3. Massey, N. C. Sta. Bul., 149 :318. 1898. 4. Bruner, N. C. Bd. Agr. Bul., tg00:11. 5. Budd-Hansen, 1903:194. 6. Powell and Fulton, US, B. P. I. Bul., 48:59. 1903. 7. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta, Bul., 248:148. 1904. 8. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul. 56:319. 1905. 9. J. Van. Lindley, Cat. Pomona. N. C. (cited by 8).
Synonyms. Van Hoy (3). Van Hoy No-Core (1, 2). Van Hoy No-Core (5, 8).
As grown at the Geneva Station, Vanhoy lacks character, being unattractive in general appearance and only fair in quality. It is not desirable for any purpose and is remarkable only because the core is small and usually has no well-developed seeds.
Historical. This is a variety of North Carolina origin and in its native state it is said to be a fair dessert apple with good market qualities (3, 4). It is practically unknown in New York.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous, not large. Form spreading, rather flat, open.
Twigs below medium to short, straight, slender to moderately stout; internodes long to below medium. Bark dark clear reddish-brown with some olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, but slightly pubescent if at all.
Lenticels rather conspicuous, scattering, medium to small, elongated, slightly raised. Buds large to below medium, broad, plump, acute to obtuse, free or somewhat appressed, slightly pubescent.
Fruit.Moscow Mitch, The Kremlin's little gremlin
Fruit medium, sometimes large. Form oblate to roundish, a little inclined to conic; axis sometimes oblique; sides often somewhat unequal. Stem medium to long, moderately thick. Cavity medium in size, acute to acuminate, moderately narrow to rather wide, moderately deep to deep, often compressed or obscurely furrowed, sometimes lipped, sometimes thinly russeted.
Calyx below medium to large, closed or partly open; lobes often leafy, long, acute to acuminate. Basin small to medium, somewhat obtuse to rather abrupt, medium in width and depth or sometimes deep, occasionally slightly furrowed.
Skin thick, leathery, smooth, dull yellowish-green largely overspread with dull red and marked with narrow, obscure splashes or stripes of dark carmine.
Dots rather conspicuous, pale yellow or russet.
Calyx tube rather large, cone-shape to funnel-form. Stamens median.
Core small, abaxile or nearly so; cells symmetrical, closed; core lines meeting or, when the tube is cone-shape, slightly clasping. Carpels rather flat, roundish ovate to obcordate, slightly emarginate, mucronate. Seeds few, rarely plump, wide, rather long, obtuse to acute, sometimes tufted; often all are abortive.
Flesh whitish tinged with yellow or green, firm, a little coarse, quite crisp, breaking, moderately juicy, mild subacid, fair quality.
Season at Geneva January to May.

Victoria
References.  1.Downing, 1881:111 app. fig. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:251. 3. Powell and Fulton, US.B.P.I. Bul., 48:59. 1903. 4. Beach and Clark, NY Sta. Bul., 248:148. 1904.
Synonyms.  Victoria Sweet (1,4). Victoria Sweeting (2).
This variety belongs in the same group with Mabie. The fruit is of good medium size, dark red, with conspicuous, large dots somewhat like those seen on Westfield Seek-No-Further and Blue Pearmain. The flesh is moderately coarse, very tender, rather juicy, sweet, good to very good, for either dessert or culinary uses. In ordinary storage it is in season from October to January, with October as the commercial limit; in cold storage it may be held till January (4). The tree is a pretty good grower, comes into bearing rather young and yields full crops biennially. It is recommended for trial in Central and Eastern New York where a variety of this type is desired either for the home or for the local market.
Historical. Origin uncertain. It is supposed by some to have originated in Chenango county. Probably it is nowhere grown extensively but it is culitivated more in Chenango and adjacent counties than in any other region. It is occasionally listed by nurserymen (2).
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous with rather short, rather stocky, crooked branches.
Form spreading.
Twigs moderately long, rather slender; internodes medium.
Bark dull reddish-brown or olive-green, slightly mottled with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, usually large and elongated.
Buds medium size, rather narrow, plump, appressed, acute, pubescent.
Leaves medium size, rather broad.
FRUIT
Fruit above medium to medium, fairly uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish inclined to conic, somewhat flattened at base, faintly and broadly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) usually short, moderately thick.
Cavity moderately deep, medium in width to broad, symmetrical, often lipped, sometimes red and smooth, but often bright yellow russet or greenish-russet overspreads the cavity and radiates irregularly over the base in broken lines and splashes.
Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open; lobes usually short and not separated at base, acute.
Basin medium in depth to moderately deep, narrow to wide, somewhat abrupt, slightly wrinkled.
Skin tough, nearly smooth, yellow, blushed and faintly mottled with rather dull red and marked with numerous, narrow stripes of deeper red.
Dots or flecks conspicuous, gray or russet, becoming smaller and more numerous toward the cavity.
Calyx tube short, medium size, conical or somewhat funnel-form.
Stamens median to basal.
Core medium to somewhat distant, usually abaxile; cells closed or partly open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder.
Carpels roundish cordate to elliptical, decidedly concave, tufted.
Seeds numerous, dark, medium size, flat, acute to obtuse.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, moderately coarse, very tender, juicy, sweet, good to very good.
Season October to January.

Victuals and Drink
References.  1. Downing, 1845:141. 2. Thomas, 1849:163. 3. Emmons, Nat. Hist. NY, 3:88. 1851. 4. Elliott, 1854:179. 5. Hooper, 1857:94. 6. Warder, 1867:499. fig. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 8. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:200.
Synonyms.  Big Sweet (1,4,5). Fall Green Sweet (6). Green Sweet of Indiana (6). Pompey (1,4-6).
A large, somewhat rough, dull green or yellowish apple often veined with russet. The flesh is sweet, very tender, fine-grained, very good to best in quality; in season from October to January or later. The tree is medium to rather large, upright or roundish, stocky, vigorous, very productive, often carrying so heavy a load of fruit that many of the apples are small. Downing states that it originated in the neighborhood of Newark, NJ., about 1750 (1). In 1873 (7) it was entered in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society but was dropped from that list in 1897. Bailey does not mention it in his Inventory of Apples Offered by American Nurserymen in 1892 (An. Hort., 1892.). It has been popular in some portions of the West but so far as we know has never been much cultivated in New York. It is undoubtedly an excellent variety for the home orchard.

Vineuse Rouge
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Aromatic Spike No. 354 (13). Compte Orloff (1). Count Orloff (8,13). De Revel (2). Grand Sultan (2,3,7,9,10, 12). Green Transparent (13). Groskoe Selenka Gr&#uuml;ner (5,11). Orloff (4,6). Orlovskoe (6). Orlowskoe (4). Red Transparent (13). Revelstone Pippin (2). Transparente Jaune (2). Transparente Rouge (1). Transparente de Sainte-L&#eacute;ger (2). Transparente Verte (1).
Hansen gives the following description of this variety (13): "Origin, Russia; as fruited in the Iowa Experiment Station orchard, this variety and Red Transparent, Count Orloff, Grand Sultan, Green Transparent and Aromatic Spike No. 354 are identical or very similar. Tree a strong grower, round tipped, a heavy annual bearer. Fruit medium to large, round oblate conic, regular; surface greenish-yellow, rarely faintly splashed with red on sunny side, overlaid with white bloom; dots large, white, few; cavity narrow, abrupt, with irregular patch of russet, stem short, stout, often clubbed; basin small, shallow; calyx, small, closed. Core closed or nearly so, clasping: tube long, funnel-shaped; flesh white, firm, juicy, fragrant, subacid, good for table, very good for cooking. Season very early, about one week before Yellow Transparent, but perishable and should be picked early to prevent watercoring and rotting on the tree. Evidently the name is a misnomer as it means Red Wine Colored."
As grown at this Station Count Orloff, Grand Sultan and Groskoe Selenka Gr&#uuml;ner are identical or very similar, and none of them is very desirable.

VIRGINIA GREENING

REFERENCES. 1. Prince, N. £. Farmer, 8:1. 1829. 2. Kenrick, 1832:60. 3. White, Horticulturist, 7:319. 1852. 4. Elliott, 1854:160. 5. Downing, 1857:200. 6. Hooper, 1857:95. 7. Warder, 1867:416. fig. 8. Downing, 1869:393. g. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 10. Thomas, 1875:230. 11. Barry, 1883:356. 12. Wickson, 1889:248. 13. Bailey, An. Hort. 1892:251. 14. Budd-Hansen, 1903:105.
Synonyms. Green Mountain Pippin (8). Ross Greening (8). Virginia Pippin? (8).
A large, oblate, yellowish-green apple with hard, firm flesh. In the South, where it is supposed to have originated, it is valued as a late keeper. The tree is large, spreading, vigorous and productive. It is but little grown in this state.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to nearly large, uniform in size and shape. Form oblate or roundish oblate varying to roundish conic, regular or nearly so, symmetrical.
Stem medium to long, moderately slender. Cavity medium in size, acute to acuminate, deep, moderately narrow to rather broad, often slightly furrowed, russeted and with outspreading russet. Calyx medium or below, partly open; lobes slightly separated at the base, usually short and obtuse to acute. Basin medium size, usually rather shallow but varies to moderately deep, moderately wide, obtuse or occasionally rather abrupt, furrowed obscurely if at all, slightly wrinkled.
Skin thick, tough, smooth or slightly roughened with russet dots and flecks, grass-green sometimes with brownish blush. Dots distinct, usually areolar with russet center, whitish or fawn-colored on the blushed portion, often irregular toward the cavity.
Calyx tube cone-shape to funnel-form. Stamens median.
Core small to medium, axile or with a narrow, hollow cylinder in the axis; cells symmetrical, closed or sometimes slightly open; core lines meeting the limb of the calyx tube or clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels roundish to broadly obovate or approaching obcordate, deeply emarginate, smooth or slightly tufted. Seeds numerous, small, rather narrow, plump, acute to obtuse, usually smooth.
Flesh creamy yellow or greenish, very firm, hard, breaking, coarse, moderately juicy, mild subacid becoming somewhat sweet, fair to good.
Season February to June.

WABASH RED

References. 1. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:223. 1892. 2. Ib., 13:170. 1894.
   Synonym. Wabash Red Winter (2).
As grown at this Station, Wabash Red is a rather attractive apple of fairly good size, bright color, smooth and uniform appearance and good dessert quality for a late-keeping apple, but rather too mild in flavor for most culinary uses. It has the merit of retaining its texture and flavor well till very late in the season. As tested here the fruit shows a tendency to be deficient in size. The tree is a good grower, is not slow in coming into bearing and yields moderate to good crops nearly annually. It is sufficiently promising to be worthy of further testing.
This is distinct from Wabash or Wabash Bellflower.
Historical. Received in 1892 and 1894 from Downing and Morris, Clinton, Ind., for testing at this Station (1, 2).
TREE.
Tree vigorous.
Form upright to roundish, rather dense. Twigs short to above medium, straight or somewhat curved, stout and with large terminal buds; internodes medium to short. Bark brownish-red mingled with olive-green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent. Lenticels conspicuous, quite numerous, small to medium, roundish or a little elongated, slightly raised. Buds medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse, free or nearly so, slightly pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit large to medium, quite uniform in size and shape. Form roundish oblate, a little inclined to conic, usually regular; sides sometimes unequal. Stem short to above medium, rather thick. Cavity small to medium, acuminate to nearly obtuse, moderately deep to deep, rather narrow to moderately broad, sometimes lipped, usually russeted and with outspreading russet.
Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open; lobes sometimes separated at the base. Basin medium size, usually shallow and obtuse but varying to moderately deep and somewhat abrupt, wide, somewhat furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin moderately thick, tough, nearly smooth, bright clear yellow, in highly colored specimens largely overspread with bright red or orange-red obscurely striped with darker red. Dots numerous, rather conspicuous, small to medium, whitish or pale yellow and russet. Prevailing effect red.
Calyx tube cone-shape to truncate funnel-form. Stamens median.
Core rather small, axile or nearly so; cells symmetrical, usually closed; core lines somewhat clasping. Carpels roundish, smooth or nearly so.
Seeds compactly filling the cells, medium or above, rather wide, somewhat obtuse, tufted; often some are abortive.
Flesh whitish slightly tinged with yellow, very firm, a little coarse, crisp, not tender, moderately juicy, mild subacid, pleasant, sprightly, good.
Season December to May.

WAGENER

References. 1. N. Y. Agr. Soc. Trans., 1847:315. fig. 2. Ib., 1848:275, 285. fig. and col. pl. frontispiece. 3. Horticulturist, 3:95. 1848. 4. Thomas, 1849:173. fig. 5. Mag. Hort., 16:158. 1850. 6. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:73. 1851. col. pl. No. 41. 7. Elliott, 1854:114. fg. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1856. 9. Downing, 1857:110. fig. 10. Hooper, 1857:95. 11. Horticulturist, 17:150, 1862. 12. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 29:261. 1863. fig. 13. Warder, 1867: 490. fig. 14. Waring, Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1871:40. 15. Wagener, Ib., 1872:454. fig. 16. Fitz, 1872:175. 17. Barry, 1883:356. 18. Rural N. Y., 47:749. 1888. 19. Wickson, 1889:248. 20. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:208. 21. Can. Hort. 14:91, 131. 1891. 22. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:252. 23. Can. Hort., 16:406. 1893. 24. Rural N. Y., 56:317, 359. 1897. 25. Waugh, Vt. Sta. Bul., 61:32. 1897. 26. Ib., Rpt, 14:311. 1901. 27. Alwood, Va. Sta, Bul., 130:125. 1901. 28. Budd-Hansen, 1903:195. fig. 29. Powell and Fulton, U.S.B. P. I. Bul., 48:59. 1903. 30. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:148. 1904.  [31.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 192.]
   Wagener, at its best, is an apple of superior excellence. The color is a beautiful bright red with some contrasting pale yellow; it has fine texture, high flavor and excellent quality. It is very desirable for culinary uses but is especially esteemed for dessert. It is in season about with Tompkins King or from October to February, yet often some portion of the fruit may be kept in ordinary storage till late spring. Its commercial limit is December, or, in cold storage, about February 1st. It does not stand heat well before going into storage and is quite apt to scald toward the close of the season, particularly if not well colored. After scalding it goes down quickly (29, 30). Often there is some loss from drops, especially if the crop is not picked as soon as it is well colored, and many times there is a rather high percentage of loss in fruit that is unmarketable because it is undersized or misshapen. In the nursery Wagener is a pretty good grower, upright and well- formed; in the orchard it is quite vigorous at first, but as it advances in maturity it usually becomes a rather weak grower, with branches full of fruit spurs. It comes into bearing at an early age and so long as it remains healthy it is a reliable cropper, yielding moderate to rather heavy crops biennially or nearly annually. In many cases it overbears so that the fruit does not all develop properly in size and color. Under such circumstances it is a great advantage to thin the fruit. To get best results the thinning should be done as early as June. Under favorable conditions the crop is pretty uniform in size, color and quality. The tree is often short-lived, but some report that it is longer-lived when top-worked upon hardier and more vigorous stock such as Northern Spy, Baldwin and Tolman Sweet. On account of its dwarfish form and habit of coming into bearing at an early age it is recommended by some fruit growers as a filler to plant between the rows of longer-lived apple trees. Some fruit growers consider it a profitable variety, but many do not. Although it was introduced about a half century ago and it is now sufficiently well known so that it may perhaps be regarded as a standard market variety, yet it has not established itself to any considerable extent in the commercial orchards of this state and is not being extensively planted.
Historical. The first published reference to the Wagener which we find is that given in the Report of the N. Y. State Agricultural Society for 1847, in which it is stated that it was awarded second premium as a seedling of merit (1). In 1848 it was again presented for competition and was placed by the committee in the list of first-class apples, awarded an additional premium and also a diploma. An illustrated description of it was published in the report of this Society for that year with the remark “This very fine apple the committee consider a desirable addition to the list of first-rate fruits. Its appearance is prepossessing as is also its size and form” (2). An account of the history of Wagener was also given in which it was stated that in the spring of 1791 Mr. George Wheeler brought with him from Dover, Dutchess county, N. Y., to Penn Yan, Yates county, a quantity of apple seeds which he sowed that spring in the nursery upon his farm which he was then reclaiming from the wilderness. In 1796 Abraham Wagener, from whom the name of the apple is derived, bought this seedling nursery and planted trees from it upon his place in what is now the village of Penn Yan. In 1848 it was remarked that the old tree was producing an annual and abundant yield of beautiful and delicious fruit (2). It continued to bear full crops till about the year 1865 (15). After it was brought to the notice of the State Agricultural Society, the Wagener soon began to be propagated quite extensively and it has since become widely disseminated throughout the country. In 1892 Wagener was being offered quite generally by nurserymen throughout the country except in the North Mississippi valley, the Rocky Mountain region and the plains from Nebraska to Texas (22). It is generally known throughout New York but is not planted extensively in any section of the state.
TREE.
Tree dwarfish to medium size, at first moderately vigorous but soon becoming a slow grower; branches short, stout and filled with spurs. Form roundish to spreading, open. Twigs short to medium, often somewhat curved, moderately stout, usually quite blunt; internodes medium to short. Bark clear dark reddish-brown mingled with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent near tips. Lenticels scattering, medium or below, elongated or sometimes roundish, not raised. Buds medium to rather large, sometimes projecting, plump, acute, free, pubescent.
[Diseases:  "Fair" resistance (31). C'mon, Tom, that's not very helpful! -ASC]
Fruit.
Fruit medium to rather large. Form oblate to roundish oblate, broadly ribbed or irregularly elliptical; sides often unequal. Stem short to moderately long, moderately thick to rather slender. Cavity variable, acute, moderately deep to deep, broad or sometimes compressed and rather narrow, often angular or furrowed, sometimes thinly russeted. Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open; lobes small, usually short, acute to acuminate, connivent, reflexed. Basin medium in width and depth, abrupt, somewhat furrowed.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, glossy, bright pinkish-red striped with bright carmine and mottled and streaked with thin whitish scarf-skin over a clear, pale yellow background. Dots numerous, whitish or russet, sometimes mingled with light russet flecks. Prevailing color bright light red.
Calyx tube long, rather narrow, funnel-form, often elongated and extending to the core. Stamens median to marginal.
Core below medium to moderately large, somewhat abaxile with hollow cylinder in the axis, varying to nearly axile; cells symmetrical, closed or open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels broadly roundish or approaching elliptical, but little emarginate if at all, smooth or nearly so, mucronate. Seeds moderately numerous, rather small to above medium, short to moderately long, moderately wide, obtuse, rather light brown; often some are abortive.
Flesh whitish slightly tinged with yellow, moderately firm, rather fine-grained, crisp, tender, juicy to very juicy, subacid, aromatic, sprightly, very good to best.  [Also useful for apple butter, pies, applesauce and cider (31).]
Season October or November, to February or later.  [Ripens in the fall in Virginia and is a good keeper, storing without shriveling (31).]

WALBRIDGE.

REFERENCES. 1. Rural N. Y., 1870:204, 205. fig. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875 :36, 68, 124; Cat.: 8. 4. Downing, 1876 :50 app. fig. 5. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1877:213. 6. Burrill, [b., 1878:226. 7. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 1882:343. 8. Gibb, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1883 :124. 9. Thomas, 1885:527. 10. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:252. 11. Ib. 1892:238. 12. Craig, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt. 1894:126. 13. Can. Hort., 17:69, 70. 1894. 14. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:592. 1804. 15. Maynard, Putnam and Fletcher, Mass. Sta. Bul., 44:4. 1897. 16. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1897:15. 17. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt. 14:311. 1901. 18. Craig, Can. Hort., 24:76. 1901. fig. 19. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1902:96. 20. Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. Bul., 106:56, 1902. 21. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bul. 76:112. 1902. fig. 22. Budd-Hansen, 1903:196. fig. 23. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:59. 1903. 24. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:149. 1904. Synonyms. Edgar County Red Streak (7, 8). Epcar RedstreaK (2, 11). Edgar Redstreak (9, 17, 21, 22). Encar Rep Streak (4). Edgar Red Streak (16). Kentucky Red Streak (7). Walbridge (4). WaALLBRIDGE (13, 20).
The accompanying colored plate shows the whole fruit of Walbridge. The section is shown on the same plate as that which shows the whole fruit of Rambo.
Fruit red-striped, rather attractive when well colored, good for culinary purposes, but not equal to standard varieties of its season for dessert use. Season, November to February or March. Commercial limit, in ordinary storage, February; in cold storage, April or May (23, 24). The fruit hangs well to the tree so that there is little loss from drops, but often a comparatively large amount of it is undersized, misshapen or otherwise unmarketable. This variety has been planted to a considerable extent in Wisconsin, Iowa and adjacent portions of the Mississippi valley and has been grown quite successfully in many localities in that region. It appears to be less well adapted to New York conditions and is of comparatively little value for planting in this state. The tree makes a good growth in the nursery. In the orchard it is moderately vigorous, comes into bearing rather young and yields full crops biennially.
Historical. The first description of this variety which we have been able to find is a very good one which appeared in the Rural New Yorker for 1870 under the name Walbridge (1). It was disseminated from Wisconsin under the name Walbridge and has Jong been in cultivation under this name (4, 6). The American Pomological Society listed it as Walbridge in 1873 (2), but at the following meeting of the Society in Chicago, in 1875, it was decided that it was identical with Edgar Red Streak which originated with Joseph Curtis, Paris, Edgar county, Ill., in 1818 (3), and accordingly it was entered on the Society’s Catalogue as Edgar Red Streak with Walbridge as a synonym. It continued to be thus listed until 1897 when the popular name Walbridge was finally accepted by the Society (16).
TREE.
Tree medium in size, moderately vigorous. Form upright becoming roundish or spreading, open. Twigs medium to long, usually curved, moderately stout, with large terminal buds; internodes short to medium. Bark moderately dark reddish-brown, mingled with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; heavily pubescent. Lenticels scattering, small to medium, round to oblong, not raised. Buds prominent, medium to rather large, broad, plump, obtuse, free or nearly so, pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit sometimes nearly large but usually medium or below. Form roundish conic, flattened at the base, varying to roundish or to oblate conic, often one-sided. Stem short to medium.
Cavity medium, acute to acuminate, deep to moderately deep, rather narrow to broad, symmetrical, furrowed gently if at all, sometimes partly covered with fine russet. Calyx small, usually closed, pubescent. Basin small, characteristically shallow or scarcely at all depressed, often oblique, somewhat furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin moderately thin, tough, smooth, green becoming clear pale yellow or whitish, washed with red, conspicuously mottled and striped with bright carmine and overspread with thin bloom. Dots numerous, often submerged, sometimes whitish and rather conspicuous; a few are russet. Prevailing effect in well-colored specimens, striped red.
Calyx tube long, narrow, cone-shape to truncate funnel-form with fleshy pistil point projecting into base. Stamens median to marginal.
Core small to medium, abaxile with a wide, hollow cylinder in the axis, or sometimes axile; cells symmetrical, closed or sometimes partly open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels broadly roundish, emarginate, mucronate. Seeds few, dark, below medium to rather large, moderately wide, obtuse to somewhat acute.
Flesh whitish a little tinged with yellow, firm, moderately fine to a little coarse, crisp, moderately tender, juicy, sprightly, rather mild subacid, slightly aromatic, fair to good in flavor and quality.

WALKER BEAUTY

References. 1. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:223. 1892. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892 :252. 3. Smith Co. W. and T., Cat., 1897:14. 4. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bul., 205:47. 1903. 5. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:223. 1905.
Doubtful REFERENCES. 6. ? Warder, 1867:735. 7- ? White, Gard. for the South, 1868:349. 8 ? Downing, 1869:395. 9. ? Thomas, 1875:515.
Synonyms. Walker (4, 5). Walker's Beauty (5). Walker YELLow (7,8,9)? Walker's Winter (6)?
Fruit predominantly yellow, rather attractive in color but not very uniform in size or shape and rather too acid in flavor to be acceptable for dessert. As tested at this Station the tree is a good grower, comes into bearing rather young and is an annual cropper but not very productive. In the nursery the tree makes a fine upright growth but it is somewhat subject to bark-splitting in the spring.
Historical. Received in 1892 from W. and T. Smith, Geneva, N. Y., for testing at this Station (1). Walker Beauty is reported to have originated in Allegheny county, Pa. (3), but we have been unable to verify this statement. The fruit corresponds closely with Downing’s brief description of Walker Yellow, a native of Pulaski county, Ga. (8). Thus far it has been disseminated but little in New York.
TREE.
Tree vigorous; branches long, slender, curved.
Form upright or roundish, dense. Twigs moderately long, curved, slender; internodes medium. Bark brown tinged with olive-green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous, small, oblong, not raised. Buds set deeply in the bark, medium in size, plump, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit variable in size and form, usually medium to rather large. Form roundish conic varying to somewhat oblong or sometimes a little oblate, often distinctly inclined to conic, regular to irregularly elliptical, sometimes obscurely ribbed; sides unequal. Stem short to medium, slender to moderately slender, sometimes swollen, pubescent, usually with a distinct reddish tinge on one side. Cavity medium in size, acute varying to somewhat acuminate or sometimes to obtuse, narrow to moderately wide, deep to moderately shallow, often compressed and furrowed, sometimes partly russeted. Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open; lobes rather leafy, medium to long, acute. Basin small to medium, varying from medium in width and depth to narrow and moderately shallow, abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled, often compressed.
Skin moderately thick, tough, smooth, clear yellow usually more or less blushed and sometimes with a distinctly red cheek with a few obscure carmine stripes, sometimes marked with suture line. Dots numerous, inconspicuous, small, green or whitish, often submerged, sometimes with fine russet point. Prevailing effect yellow.
Calyx tube rather large, conical varying to funnel-form. Stamens median or below.
Core small to medium, usually axile but varying to somewhat abaxile; cells symmetrical, closed or sometimes partly open; core lines clasping. Carpels roundish to elongated, slightly emarginate, mucronate. Seeds below medium to above, smooth, plump, wide, obtuse to somewhat acute, rather dark brown.
Flesh whitish with yellow tinge, firm or very firm, moderately coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, very brisk subacid, too acid for dessert, good.
Season November to April.

WALLACE HOWARD

REFERENCES. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:66. 2. Ib., 1883:93. 3. Ib., 1887:93. 4. Rural N. Y., 46:751. 1887. 5. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:252. 6. Taylor, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1893:288. 7. Thomas, 1897:658. 8. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:149. 1904.
Synonym. Boarman’s SEEDLING (1, 2).
Fruit of pretty good size and attractive color, but the flesh lacks character. Suitable only for dessert use. As tested at this Station the tree is a pretty good grower, comes into bearing rather young and yields moderate to good crops nearly annually, but the fruit is not specially desirable for either home use or market. It is not recommended for planting in New York. As grown in the South it has been called a magnificent fruit of best quality (1) and one of the finest apples cultivated in that region (3).
Historical. Originated from seed by Robert Boatman, Dillon, Walker county, Ga., on the Lookout Mountain Range and first described as Boatman’s Seedling (1). It was afterwards called Wallace Howard by the Atlanta Pomological Society, in honor of Reverend Wallace Howard of Georgia (2, 6).
TREE.
Tree vigorous to moderately vigorous. Form upright spreading to roundish, rather dense. Twigs short, generally straight, stout or moderately stout, with large terminal buds; internodes short or below medium. Bark brown or reddish-brown with some olive-green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin, pubescent. Lenticels rather conspicuous, numerous, medium size, roundish or oval, slightly raised. Buds prominent, medium to large, broad, plump, acute, free or nearly so, slightly pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit above medium to large, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish or roundish oblong, often somewhat flattened at the base and inclined to conic; axis sometimes oblique; sides often unequal. Stem short to medium, rather slender. Cavity acuminate or somewhat acute, deep, sometimes compressed and rather narrow but more often wide, often gently furrowed, sometimes lipped, usually russeted. Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open; lobes often long, narrow, acuminate. Basin rather small, often oblique, sometimes with decided protuberance above one side, narrow, varying from very shallow to moderately shallow and abrupt, often distinctly furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin smooth or roughened with russet dots and flecks, yellow nearly overspread with orange-red mottled and distinctly striped with bright carmine.
Dots numerous, conspicuous, gray or russet, rather large. Prevailing effect striped red.
Calyx tube rather small, rather narrow, short, cone-shape varying to truncate funnel-form with fleshy pistil point projecting into the base. Stamens marginal.
Core rather small to above medium, axile or somewhat abaxile with a hollow cylinder in the axis; cells symmetrical, closed; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels rather flat, roundish ovate, but slightly emarginate if at all, somewhat tufted. Seeds numerous, small to medium, moderately wide, rather short, plump, obtuse, sometimes tufted.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, a little coarse, crisp, moderately tender, rather juicy, mild subacid becoming nearly sweet, somewhat aromatic, good.
Season November to March (8).

WANDERING SPY

REFERENCES. 1. Bailey, dn. Hort., 1892:252. 2. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1902:204.
This variety originated in the Ozarks with Wyatt Coffelt, Mason Valley, Benton county, Ark. It has not yet been fruited to any considerable extent outside the locality of its origin. As grown in that region the fruit appears to be pretty uniform in size, above the average of Jonathan, fairly free from disease and of satisfactory color and is in season from December to March.t is said to keep well in storage, holding firm with good color and fine flavor till late in the season.
Stock of this variety was received for testing at this Station in 1900 from J. B. Wild & Bros., Sarcoxie, Mo. It has not yet been tested here sufficiently to show whether it promises to be of value for commercial planting in New York. Thus far the fruit has not been nearly so attractive in color nor as good in quality as Tompkins King, Baldwin or Northern Spy, but it averages good marketable size and is superior in quality to Ben Davis and other apples of that class. It has been grown here on heavy clay loam. It is quite probable that on warmer, lighter. soils it would develop better color and flavor. The tree is a vigorous grower, comes into bearing early and gives evidence of being a reliable biennial bearer.
Fruit.
Fruit large to medium as grown at this Station. Form slightly oblate inclined to conic. Stem medium to short. Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, rather narrow to moderately wide, symmetrical or slightly furrowed, russeted and often with outspreading russet rays. Calyx small to medium, partly open, sometimes closed.
Basin abrupt, symmetrical or somewhat compressed.
Skin rather thick, tough, dull greenish becoming yellow, blushed with dull red sparingly and faintly striped with dull carmine, in highly colored specimens developing deep dull red over a large part of the fruit. Dots scattering, medium to large, pale gray or russet.
Calyx tube short cone-shape varying to short funnel-form with fleshy pistil point projecting into the base.
Core medium to below; cells closed; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels roundish, deeply emarginate. Seeds medium to large, light brown, rather narrow, acute.
Flesh whitish or tinged with green, firm, fine, moderately crisp, very tender, moderately juicy to juicy, subacid, good.
Season January to April or May.

WASHINGTON ROYAL
REFERENCES. 1. Robbins, N. E. Farmer, 7:231. 1855. 2. Downing, 1857:201. 3. Warder, 1867:735. 4. Downing, 1869:396. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871. 6. Thomas, 1875:515. 7. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:298. 8. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 9. Maynard, Putnam and Fletcher, Mass. Sta. Bul., 44:4. 1897. 10. Waugh, Amer. Gard., 20:221. 1899. fig. 11. Van Deman, Rural N. Y., 60:69. 1901. 12. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:312. 1901. 13. Mead, Rural N. Y., 61:67. 1902. 14. Ib., 62:50. 1903. figs. 15- Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:60. 1903. 16. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul. 248:149. 1904.
Synonyms. Lock’s Favorite (12). PALMER GREENING (8, 9, 13, 14). Palmer Greening (4, 10, 11, 12, 18). Washington Royal (14).
Fruit yellow or greenish usually somewhat shaded with red, rather attractive in color, quite variable in size, good in quality but mild in flavor and eventually becoming nearly sweet. More suitable for dessert than for culinary use. As grown at Geneva some portion of the fruit may often be kept till May or June in ordinary storage, yet its season is so variable that November may be regarded as the usual safe commercial limit for handling this variety (16). It is favorably regarded locally in New England, where it is commonly grown under the name Palmer Greening (9, 10, 12). Taking all things into consideration, it is hardly equal to standard varieties of its season and is not recommended for commercial planting in New York.
Historical. Originated in Sterling, Mass. It was brought to notice by Ephraim Robbins of Leominster in 1855 (1). It has been planted but sparingly in New York state.
TREE.
Tree vigorous.
Form upright spreading to roundish. Twigs below medium to rather long, curved, slender to moderately stout; internodes medium to short. Bark dark brown with some green, heavily streaked with scarf-skin, somewhat pubescent. Lenticels scattering, small to medium, roundish, usually not raised. Buds medium to small, broad, rather plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit medium or above. Form a little oblate, often somewhat ribbed, irregular. Stem short to medium. Cavity medium to rather large, acuminate to acute, rather narrow to moderately broad, often somewhat furrowed, usually smooth and green. Calys small to medium, partly open, sometimes closed; lobes erect. Basin moderately shallow, rather narrow, abrupt, often some- what furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin thin, moderately tender, waxy, yellow or greenish, usually with thin dull orange blush which sometimes deepens to clear red. Dots numerous, whitish or areolar with russet center, characteristic and conspicuous.
Prevailing effect rather attractive greenish-yellow.
Calyx tube conical to somewhat urn-shape or funnel-form.
Stamens median.
Core medium to large, somewhat abaxile to nearly axile; cells closed or partly open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels rather concave, broadly roundish, emarginate. Seeds dark, medium, rather wide, plump, obtuse, or somewhat acute.
Flesh whitish, firm, moderately fine, crisp, tender, juicy, pleasant subacid becoming nearly sweet, somewhat aromatic, good to very good.

Washington Strawberry
References.  1.  [XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 194.]
Synonyms.  Juniata (7). Washington (2,3). Washington of Maine (7). Washington County Seedling (2).
Fruit smooth, of good size and pretty good color, fairly uniform in shape but somewhat variable in size, desirable for either dessert or culinary uses. It is quite variable in season in different years and in different localities. As fruited at this Station it comes in season in September or October, and some portion of the fruit may be kept in fair condition into the winter or sometimes through the winter. In ordinary storage its commercial limit is October, and in cold storage November (13,16). The fruit hangs well to the tree. The tree is vigorous, hardy, healthy, moderately long-lived, comes into bearing rather early and is a reliable cropper, yielding good crops biennially or almost annually. It is a good variety for home use, but evidently is not wanted in market. Its season is rather short, and it begins to mature at a time when the markets are filled with other fruits.
Historical. Washington Strawberry was first exhibited at the Fair of the State Agricultural Society in Syracuse in 1849 (1,3). It originated on the farm of Job Whipple, Union Springs, Washington county, NY (1). It was included in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society in 1869 (4). It is still listed by nurserymen and has been known for a half century it has failed to establish itself in the commercial orchards of this state and is but little known among New York fruit growers.

TREE.

Tree medium to large, vigorous to moderately vigorous.
Form rather flat, spreading, open.
Twigs below medium to short, straight or nearly so, rather slender to stout with large terminal buds; internodes medium or below.
Bark clear brownish-red or with more or less olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small to medium, round or somewhat elongated, slightly raised.
Buds medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse, free or nearly so, pubescent.
[Diseases:  Moderate resistance to the major diseases (Burford).]

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large or very large.
Form globular, usually inclined to conic, base rounding or sometimes flattened, nearly regular; sides often a little unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short and rather thick or sometimes long.
Cavity below medium to medium, acute to somewhat acuminate, rather shallow to deep, narrow to moderately broad, occasionally lipped, often somewhat furrowed, usually thinly russeted.
Calyx below medium to rather large, usually somewhat open; lobes a little separated and broad at the base, narrow above, long, acute to acuminate.
Basin small to medium, narrow to moderately wide, medium in depth, abrupt, somewhat furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin rather thin, tough, smooth, somewhat waxy, greenish or yellow, washed and mottled with red, conspicuously splashed and striped with bright carmine and overspread with thin bloom.
Dots numerous, russet or whitish and rather conspicuous, often submerged.
Prevailing effect striped red.
Calyx tube rather large, wide, cone-shape with core lines meting, sometimes becoming funnel-form with clasping core lines.
Stamens basal or nearly so.
Core below medium to above, axile or sometimes abaxile; cells not uniformly developed, usually symmetrical and more or less open, sometimes closed; core lines meeting if the calyx tube is cone-shape, clasping if it is funnel-form.
Carpels variable, ovate to broadly obcordate, sometimes a little emarginate, often tufted.
Seeds dark, medium in size, rather long, somewhat acute; often many are abortive.
Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, firm, rather fine to a little coarse, crisp, tender, very juicy, pleasant subacid, sprightly, good to very good.
Season September or October into early winter.  [A good keeper for a fall-ripening cultivar (Burford).]

Water
References.  1. Downing, Horticulturis, 19:172. 1864. figs. 2. Warder, 1867:735. 3. Downing, 1869:397. fig. 4. Thomas, 1875:315. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1877:16. 6. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:298. 7. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:252.
Synonyms.  None.
A mild falvored dessert apple of medium size, pale yellow or greenish with attractive blush of lively red; in season from October to December. The tree is a rather moderate grower, does not come into bearing young and is a biennial bearer yielding from fair to good crops. Not recommended for commercial planting.
Historical. Origin Durham township, Bucks county, PA (1,3). It was entered in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society in 1877 (5) and dropped from that list in 1897. It is but little known in this state.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous with short, slender, curved branches.
Form erect or roundish, rather dense.
Twigs long, curved, moderately stout; internodes short.
Bark dark brown, heavily coated with gray scarf-skin; pubescent near tips.
Lenticels scattering, small, round, not raised.
Buds rather prominent, medium to large, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium size.
Form broadly ovate to roundish conic varying to oblong conic with flattened ends, nearly regular.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, slender.
Cavity acuminate, rather narrow to moderately broad, moderately shallow to deep, often compressed, sometimes thinly russeted, the russet not extending beyond the cavity.
Calyx small, to medium, closed or open; lobes long, narrow, acute to acuminate.
Basin varying from shallow rather deep and abrupt, narrow to medium in width, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin pale yellow or greenish with very attractive, lively pinkish-red blush, in well colored specimens deepening to dark or purplish-red, not striped, overspread with thin bloom.
Dots numerous, medium to small, grayish or whitish, often submerged.
Calyx tube short, wide, broadly conical.
Stamens basal to median.
Core rather small, somewhat abaxile; cells closed or slightly open; core lines slightly clasping.
Carpels small, slightly obovate to obcordate, emarginate.
Seeds medium in size, few, dark brown, varying from blunt and flat to acute and rather narrow.
Flesh nearly white, fine, crisp, tender, juicy, pleasant mild subacid, good.
Season October to December or later.

WATWOOD

REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1876:71 app. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:252. 3. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:223. 1892.
Fruit medium size, rather dull colored, green or yellowish partly washed and splashed with red, mild, pleasant subacid, good quality; in season from December to May. It originated at Blandville, Ballard county, Ky., and is valued in that region because it is a long keeper and the tree is a uniformly good cropper. It was introduced by W. M. Samuels and Co., Clinton, Ky., from whom it was received in 1892 for testing at this Station (3). As grown here it is inferior to standard varieties of its season. It is not recommended for planting in New York.

Wealthy
References.  1. Downing, 1869:398. 2. Foster, Horticulturis, 25:362. 1870. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871:10. 4. Thomas, 1875:515. 5. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1876:19. 6. Ib., 1879:33. fig. 7. IA Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1879: ***tbal***  [XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 195.]
Synonyms.  None.
This variety is particularly valuable for cold climates because the tree is very hardy and the fruit sells well, being bright red and good in quality for either dessert or culinary uses. It is in season from October to early winter or mid-winter. In ordinary storage its commercial limit is October, but in cold storage it may be kept till January or later. It does not stand heat very well before going into storage, and goes down rather quickly (41). Young trees or trees which are making a thrifty growth produce fruit of good size, but mature, slow-growing trees are apt to yield a considerable percentage of undersized fruit, especially when they are overloaded, as is often the case. The crop ripens unevenly, and more than one picking should be made in order to secure the fruit in prime condition. If it is left upon the tree till fully colored there is apt to be considerable loss by dropping. The tree is a good thrifty grower when young, but with maturity it becomes a moderate or rather slow grower, forming a medium-sized or rather dwarfish tree. Wealthy is planted for commercial purposes in many parts of the state, but in most localities the trees are as yet comparatively young; in some sections of the state it is being planted more than any other apple of its season. Trees that have become old enough to develop the tendency to produce rather small fruit are in some places being grafted over to other sorts. In other places fruit growers, by adopting such treatment as thinning the fruit and keeping the soil fertile, continue to produce apples of good marketable size when the trees are mature.
Historical. Originated by Peter M. Gideon, Excelsior, Minn., from seed of the Cherry Crab, which he obtained about 1860 from Albert Emerson, Bangor, ME (11,28). Ragan (42) states that the fruit was first described in the Western Farmer in 1869. It has been extensively disseminated, particularly in those apple-growing districts where a tree of superior hardiness is especially desired. It is generally listed by nurserymen and its cultivation is gradually increasing.
TREE.
Tree somewhat dwarfish to medium size, moderately vigorous with short, moderately stout, curved branches.
Form upright spreading or roundish, open and somewhat drooping.
Twigs long, curved, slender; internodes long.
Bark dark brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium to small, oblong, not raised, rather conspicuous.
Buds medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.
[Diseases:  Susceptible to scab, bitter rot, fireblight and cedar apple rust (Burford).]
FRUIT
Fruit above medium to large when well grown but often small on old trees; pretty uniform in shape and quality but more or less uneven in size.
Form roundish conic, slightly flattened at base, regular, symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) usually short to medium, but rather long on small fruit and rather slender.
Cavity decidedly acuminate, rather deep, moderately narrow to rather broad, russeted.
Calyx medium size, closed or partly open; lobes broad, obtuse to acute.
Basin medium in depth to rather shallow, rather narrow, abrupt, smooth, symmetrical.
Skin thin, tough, pale yellow or greenish, blushed and marked with narrow stripes and splashes of red, deepening in highly colored specimens to brilliant red, very attractive.
Dots numerous, small, inconspicuous, pale or russet.
Prevailing effect bright red.
Calyx tube conical approaching funnel-form.
Stamens median.
Core medium to very small, axile or sometimes slightly abaxile; cells symmetrical, slightly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels medium to rather small, roundish, narrowing toward base and apex, smooth, flat.
Seeds moderately dark brown, above medium, rather acute.
Flesh whitish sometimes stained with red, moderately fine, crisp, tender, very juicy, agreeable subacid, sprightly, somewhat aromatic, good to very good.  [Also useful for applesauce and pies (Burford).]
Season October to January.  [Only a fair keeper as grown in the South (Burford).]

WELLS

REFERENCES. 1. Humrickhouse, Mag. Hort., 14:113. 1848. 2. Hovey, Ib., 15:27. 1849. fig. 3. Thomas, 1849:173. 4. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:68. 1851. fig. 5. Elliott, 1854:161.
Doubtful REFERENCES. 6. ? Hooper, 1857:96. 7. ? Downing, 1857:135. 8. ? Warder, 1867:735.
Synonyms. APPLE OF THE WELL (4). Cheat (2). Domine(7,8)? English Rambo of some (2). English Red Streak (7)? English Winter Red Streak (1, of some 5). Striped Rhode Island Greening (1, 2, 5,7?). Wells (7, 8)? Wells Apple (3, 67). Wells Apple (4, 5).
This old variety probably originated in Maryland. It has been much grown in Central and Southern Ohio under the name Wells (5). So far as we can learn it was first described under this name by Humrickhouse (1). Hovey (2), Thomas (3), Emmons (4), Elliott (5), and Hooper (6), recognize Wells as the correct name. Downing in 1857 (7), stated that it was identical with Domine as also did Warder (8), in 1867. In previous reports from this Station we have accepted the synonymy of this variety as given by Downing, but if the opinion expressed in the following letter is correct Downing erred in publishing Wells as a synonym of Domine. In 1896, R. J. Black, of Bremen, Ohio, wrote us as follows: "I observe that your reports follow Downing, Thomas and others in keeping the error of the Ohio Pomological Society, usually so accurate, in making Domine and Wells synonymous. They are very distinct in both tree and fruit. Wells is a thrifty grower with olive shoots, spreading and very twiggy, just the reverse of Domine; the fruit of Wells has more unbroken red with few stripes or none. It was brought to this vicinity from Adams county, Pa., near the beginning of the present century by a gentleman named Dittoe." Mr. Black very kindly furnished us with stock of the true Wells but this has not yet come into bearing in the Station orchards.
Elliott says “The trees grow vigorously with spreading tops and slender branches and bear abundantly every year but do well only on strong clay soil" (5).
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous, with moderately long, slender, curved branches.
Form roundish, spreading, open. Twigs long, curved, moderately stout; internodes short. Bark dull brown mingled with more or less olive-green, heavily mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips. Lenticels very scattering, medium in size, oval, slightly raised. Buds deeply set in the bark, medium in size, broad, flat, obtuse, appressed.
Fruit (5).
Fruit "large, roundish, narrowing to the eye; yellowish green, streaked and blotched with red; calyx, closed; basin, shallow; flesh, white, tender, juicy, sprightly, subacid; 'very good.' Nov. to March."

Western Beauty
References.  1.  [XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 196.]
Synonyms.  Beauty of the West (4, 10). Big Rambo (3,5). Musgrove's Cooper (3-5). Ohio Beauty (1,3-5).
The three varieties, Western Beauty, Grosh and Summer Rambo, resemble each other so closely in fruit that it is practically impossible to distinguish the one from the other from the examination of the fruit alone. The Summer Rambo, however, ripens about a month earlier than the other two varieties and it can consequently be readily distinguished in the orchard. Pomologists are in doubt as to whether Grosh and Western Beauty are two distinct varieties or the same variety under two names. We have been unable to obtain sufficient evidence to determine this point.
For a technical description of the fruit, see Grosh, page 89.
Hyde King was received here for testing under the name Western Beauty and consequently is referred to under that name erroneously in some published accounts of its record at this Station. See Volume I, page 106.
Historical. Origin unknown. First introduced to notice by William F. English of Rhinehart, Auglaize county, Ohio (1,2).
[Diseases:  Moderate resistance to the major diseases (Burford).
Uses:  Dessert, frying and baking (Burford).
Season:  Ripens in late summer in Virginia, after 'Summer Rambo' and unsurprisingly for its ripening season, is only a fair keeper (Burford).]

Westfield (Seek-No-Further)

REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1845:96. 2. N. Y. Agr. Soc. Trans., 1846:207. fig. 3. Kirtland, Horticulturist, 2:544. 1848. 4. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 15:26. 1840. fig. 5. Thomas, 1849:175. fig. 6. Cole, 1849:127. fig. 7. Horticulturist, 4:470. 1850. 8. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:24. 1851. fig. 9. Elliott, 1854: 115. fig. 10. Hooper, 1857:97. 11. Gregg, 1857:61. 12. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 13. Warder, 1867:520, 707, 708. fig. 14. Downing, 1869:399. fig. 15. Barry, 1883:356. 16. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:208. 17. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:249. 18. Ib., 1892:252. 19. Burrill and McCluer, Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:311, 340, 345. 1896. 20. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:312. 1901. 21. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1902:90. 22. Budd-Hansen, 1903:199. 23. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:60. 1903. 24. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:150. 1904.  [25.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 197.]
Synonyms. Connecticut Seeknofurther (5). Connecticut Seek-No-Further (9). Marietta Seek-No-Further (3, 4). New-England Seeknofurther (38). Red Winter Pearmain, of some (9). Russet Seek-No-Further (4). SEEK- No-Furtuer (17). Seeknofurther (23). Seek-No-Further (4, 19, 20, 21, of Connecticut 1 and 2). WestFiELD (16, 20, 21, 23). WESTFIELD SEEK-No- FartHER (7). WESTFIELD SEEK-NO-FURTHER (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, II, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19). Westfield Seek-No-Further (5, 8).
   Among fruit growers and fruit dealers this variety is commonly called Seek or Seek-No-Further and doubtless will continue to be so called as long as it remains in cultivation. Pomologists recognize Westfield Seek-No-Further as the correct name, thus distinguishing this from certain other varieties which have been cultivated under the name Seek-No-Further. In 1845 Downing observed, “The Seek-no-further of New-Jersey and Pennsylvania is the Rambo, that of some parts of New-York is the (American) Domine. The Seek-no-further of Coxe is a large, roundish fruit, narrower at the eye. Skin smooth, pale yellowish-green, or nearly white. * * * Ripe in October, and will keep a couple of months.”
   Westfield Seek-No-Further is an old favorite dessert apple. It is but little valued for cooking. The fruit usually averages about medium size. It is not remarkably attractive in appearance, being creamy-yellow striped with dull red and sometimes partly russeted, but at its best it has a peculiarly pleasant, rich, mild subacid flavor which has made it popular. Its season in ordinary storage is late fall and early winter, but when properly handled it may be held in cold storage about as late as Baldwin, It stands handling and shipping well, but toward the close of the season it is apt to shrivel badly. Since it is not particularly attractive in color and is used only for dessert purposes it commonly finds but a limited demand in general market and often brings less than the average prices for the leading standard commercial varieties of its season. It has gained the reputation of being a very hardy variety, being superior to Baldwin and Rhode Island Greening in this respect, but its successful cultivation is more restricted to particular districts or regions than is the case with either of the other varieties named. It does not commonly develop as good color or quality on heavy, cold soils, particularly if they are not well drained, as it does on well-drained, fertile, gravelly or sandy loam. In 1854 Elliott observed that in Ohio and adjoining states the fruit of this variety differed remarkably when grown in different regions. He reported that as “grown in rich loamy alluvial soils of the South, it is much russeted, and about the stem the russet has appearance of rich bronze; progressing northward, it gradually loses its russet, until on light sandy soils in Michigan, it becomes a pale-yellow ground, with stripes and splashes of clear red and minute dots.”
In many parts of New York it has not proved reliably productive, but in other regions, particularly in certain localities in the Lake Ontario apple belt, it has been a regular and abundant cropper, developing good color and fine flavor and is still regarded as a good commercial variety. Generally the tree is very hardy, remarkably healthy and long-lived. There is usually little loss from drops if the crop is picked at the proper season. The fruit is quite uniform in grade and the amount of culls is comparatively small.
Historical. This old variety found its way into this state from New England with the early settlers more than one hundred years ago. It was introduced into Ohio from Connecticut as early as 1796 (2). In 1846 the committee of the New York State Agricultural Society on the selection of the best varieties of apples for cultivation in New York reported concerning the Westfield Seek-No-Further:
“This truly excellent apple originated in Westfield, or its neighborhood, a beautiful meadow town, about ten miles west of Springfield, in the Connecticut valley, in Massachusetts. For many miles up and down, and round about that river, it is the apple, par excellence, of that locality; as much so as is the Newtown Pippin on Long Island, or the Esopus Spitzenburgh in Ulster. Whole orchards are planted of this fruit, and no where does it flourish in higher luxuriance and perfection. It loves a warm, free soil; is hardy, vigorous and prolific, "In flavor, it is excelled by few apples whatever for all household purposes. It flourishes well in this State, particularly in the western counties. Wherever it will grow, its cultivation is recommended, both for domestic and market purposes.”
It is generally well known throughout the state but for the most part is found only in old orchards, and there are few, if any, localities where its cultivation is being extended.
TREE.
Tree medium to large, rather slender, moderately vigorous to vigorous. Form spreading or roundish. Twigs above medium, sometimes long; inter- nodes short, varying from rather slender to moderately stout. Bark dark brownish-red or brownish-green, mottled or blotched with gray scarf-skin, sparingly pubescent. Lenticels of a clear light color, rather conspicuous, irregular in size and shape. Buds medium, often projecting, obtuse or some- times acute, often not pubescent, free from bark.
[Diseases:  Moderate resistance to the major diseases (25).]
Fruit.
Fruit usually about medium size, sometimes below medium, sometimes rather large, uniform. form usually roundish conical varying occasionally to roundish ovate and less often to rather oblong conical, regular or obscurely ribbed, symmetrical or nearly so. Stem medium to long, rather slender. Cavity medium in size, acuminate, deep, narrow to medium in width, usually symmetrical, russeted and with some outspreading green or yellow russet. Calyx small to medium, usually partly open; lobes short, reflexed, obtuse or acute. Basin small, shallow, narrow to medium in width, obtuse or some- what abrupt, sometimes decidedly furrowed.
Skin tough, smooth, rather deep yellow or greenish, shaded and splashed with rather dull red but in highly colored specimens largely overspread with bright pinkish-red, striped with deep carmine. It is overspread with a thin bloom which gives it a somewhat bluish cast but when polished it is bright and glossy. Dots characteristically large and conspicuous, pale yellow, grayish or russet, often areolar with russet center, smaller and more numerous toward the basin, larger and more scattering and more often areolar toward the cavity.
Calyx tube rather wide, cone-shape. Stamens basal.
Core medium, axile; cells usually symmetrical, open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels somewhat elliptical or varying to roundish and approaching truncate at the base and narrowing toward the apex, mucronate, but slightly emarginate if at all. Seeds numerous, rather small to medium, plump, acute to somewhat obtuse.
Flesh slightly tinged with pale yellow, firm, medium in grain or a little coarse, crisp, tender, breaking, juicy, mild subacid, rich, sometimes a little astringent, peculiarly aromatic, sprightly, very good to best.  [Also useful for baking, cider and particularly drying wherein the dried slices retain a pronounced apple flavor (25).
Season:  Ripens in the fall in Virginia and where it is only a fair keeper (25).]

Red Type of Westfield Seek-No-Further.

Besides the general type of the Westfield Seek-No-Further above described some growers hold that there is a distinct strain with characteristically deep red fruit. W. J. Gahan of Clarkson, Monroe county, N. Y., reports that he has always thought that there were two strains of this variety—a red Seek-No-Further and a gray Seek- No-Further. D. D. Stone of Lansing, Oswego county, N. Y., grows Westfield Seek-No-Further which, as compared with the common type, is considerably more highly colored, having more of a solid red color and being less noticeably striped. The dots are decidedly more conspicuous; the flesh is perhaps more highly flavored but otherwise identical with the common type as also are the core characters. Mr. Stone reports that the tree of the red type is of a more roundish form, that of the common type more spreading. We have not had the opportunity of determining whether there is in fact a distinct type characterized by more highly colored fruit or whether such differences as are above mentioned are brought about altogether by differences in the conditions under which the fruit is grown.

White Astrachan
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Astracan Blanche (10). Astracan d'Ete (10). Astracanischer Sommer (10). Astrachan White (2). Blanche Glacee d'Ete (10). De Glace d'Ete (10). De Glace Hative (10). De Moscovie d'Ete (10). Gelee d'Ete (10). Glace de Zelande (1-3, 6-8, 10). Glacee d'Ete (10). Naliwi Jabloky (10). Pomme Astrachan (3). Pomme d'Astrachan (2). Pyrus Astracanica (1,2,6,7). Taffitai (10). Transparent Apple (14). Transparente de Astracan (10). Transparente d'Ete (10). Transparente de Zurich (10). Transparente de Muscovie d'Ete (10). Transparent Muscovie (7). Transparent de Muscovie (1-3, 6,8). White Astracan (1,3-5, 7, 10, 15).
A Russian apple of little or no value for this region. Fruit medium size, roundish to roundish oblate, waxen yellow or whitish with faint streaks of red; flesh white, acid, good for culinary use; season August and September (6,17).
Historical. It has been known in this country for many years (4-9). It was not entered on the catalogue of the American Pomological Society till 1889 (16) and was dropped from that list in 1891. It is practically unknown in New York.

White Juneating
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Bracken (8,11, of Ohio 7). Carolina (10). Caroline (10). Early Jenneting (16). Early May (10, ?14). Gennetting (17). Ginetting (1,16). Jenneting (2). Jennetting (17). Joaneting (16). Juneateing (1). Juneating (4,6,8,10,11,14,16). Juneting (2,16). Owen's Golden Beauty (3,6,10,16). Primiting (16). Yellow May (18,19). Yellow June (14).
This apple has little to recommend it except that it ripens very early in the season. It is small, roundish oblate, pale yellow, sometimes faintly blushed and has white, crisp, pleasant subacid flesh which becomes mealy if kept only a few days after it ripens. The tree is not large, only a moderate grower and not a great bearer (6,8,16).
Historical. Hogg (16) gives the following interesting account of the history of this apple and the probable derivation of the name Juneating: "One of our oldest apples, and although generally known and popular, seems to have escaped the notice of Miller, who does not even mention it in any of the editions of his Dictionary. As I have doubts of this being the Geneting of Parkinson-- his figure being evidently intended for the Margaret, which in some districts is called Joaneting-- the first mention we have of this variety is by Rea, in 1665, who describes it as 'a small, yellow, red-sided apple, upon a wall, ripe in the end of June.'
"'Juneating,' as applied to this apple, is quite a misnomer. Abercrombie was the first who wrote it June-eating, as if in allusion to the period of its maturity, which is, however, not till the end of July. Dr. Johnson, in his Dictionary, writes it Gineting, and says it is a corruption of Janeton (Fr.), signifying Jane or Janet, having been so called from a person of that name. Ray (Hist. Plant., ii. 1447.) says, 'Pomum Ginettinum, quod unde dictum sit met latet.' Indeed, there does not seem ever to have been a correct definition given of it.
"My definition of the name is this. In the Middle Ages, it was cutomary to make the festivals of the Church periods on which occurrences were to take place or from which events were to be named. Even in the present day we hear the country people talking of some crop to be sown, or some other to be planted at Michaelmas, St. Martin's or St. Andrew's tide. It was also the practice for parents to dedicate their children to some particular saint, as Jean Baptiste, on the recurrence of whose festival all who are so named keep it as a holiday. So it was also in regard to fruits, which were named after the day about which they came to maturity. Thus, we have the Margaret Apple, so called from being ripe about St. Margret's Day, the 20th of July; the Magdalene, or Maudlin, from St. Magdalene's Day, the 22nd of July. An in Curtius (Hortorum, p. 522) we find the Joannina, so called, 'Quod circa divi Joannis Baptistæ nativtatem esui sint.' These are also noticed by J. Baptista Porta; he says, 'Est genus alterum quod quia circa festum Divi Joannis maturiscit, vulgus Melo de San Giovanni dictur.' And according to Tragus (Hist., p. 1043), Quæ apud nos prima maturantur, Sanct Johans Opfell, Latine, Præcocia mala dicuntur.'
"We see, therefore that apples were called Joannina because they ripened about St. John's Day, and we have among the old French pears, Amir&#eacute; Joannet-- the 'Wonderful Little John', which Merlet informs us was so called because it ripened about St. John's Day. If, then, we add to Joannet the termination ing, so general among our names of apples, we have Joanneting. There can be no doubt that this is the correct derivation of the name of this apple."

WHITE PEARMAIN.

References. 1. N. Y. Agr. Soc. Trans., 1849:124. 2. Phoenix, Horticulturist, 4:471. 1850. 3. Downing, 1857:110. fig. 4. Hooper, 1857:59, 60, 99, 100. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1858. 6. Mag. Hort., 27:60, 62. 1861. 7. Warder, 1867:508. 8. Thomas, 1875:232. 9. Barry, 1883:357. 10. Wickson, 1889:248. 11. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:252. 12. Stinson, Ark. Sta. An. Rpt., 7:47. 1894. 13. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1897:15. 14. Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. Bul., 106:56. 1902. 15. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:60. 1903. 16. Budd-Hansen, 1903:201. fig.
Synonym. White WINTER PEARMAIN (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14). White Winter Pearmain (15, 16).
This is an old favorite dessert apple in portions of the Middle West from Ohio to Kansas. It appears to succeed better in those regions than it does in New York. It is not recommended for planting in this state.
Historical. Warder says "This favorite fruit was brought to Indiana by some of the early pomologists, in the days of saddle-bag transportation. In a lot of grafts, two varieties, having lost their labels, were propagated and fruited without name. Being considered Pearmain-shaped, they were called respectively Red and White Winter Pearmains. The former proved to be the Esopus Spitzenberg; the latter has never yet been identified, though believed to be an old eastern variety." For a time it was confused with an old New Jersey apple by the name of Michael Henry Pippin, and Elliott fell into the error of publishing White Pearmain and White Winter Pearmain as synonyms of Michael Henry Pippin but it was finally conceded that White Pearmain and Michael Henry Pippin are distinct varieties (4, 7). In 1858 it was catalogued by the American Pomological Society as White Winter Pearmain (5). Since 1897 (13) it has been listed as White Pearmain but it is very doubtful whether this change will be generally accepted by fruit growers and fruit dealers. This variety has been little grown in New York and is now seldom or never planted here.
TREE
Tree vigorous.
Form spreading. Twigs short, stout, blunt at tips, generally straight; internodes vary from short to long. Bark reddish-brown overlaid with heavy scarf-skin, quite pubescent. Lenticels conspicuous, numerous, above medium, elongated, raised. Buds large, projecting, acute, quite pubescent, free.
Fruit.
Fruit below medium to nearly large, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish ovate or roundish approaching oblong conic, varying to roundish conic, somewhat ribbed, pretty symmetrical. Stem medium to long. Cavity rather small to above medium, acute, deep, moderately narrow to broad, somewhat furrowed, sometimes russeted. Calyx medium to large, usually closed; lobes long, acute. Basin small to medium, oblique, shallow and obtuse to medium in depth and rather abrupt, medium in width, often distinctly furrowed, wrinkled, pubescent.
Skin tough, smooth, slightly waxen, pale yellow, or at first greenish, with a shade of brownish-red. Dots numerous, pale or russet, often submerged, usually larger and much elongated about the cavity.
Calyx tube long, conical.
Core medium to rather large; cells closed or partly open; core lines somewhat clasping. Carpels rather flat, broad or roundish-cordate, emarginate, mucronate, tufted. Seeds light brown, medium to large, rather wide, plump, obtuse to acute, tufted.
Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, firm, fine-grained, crisp, tender, juicy, mild subacid, sprightly, very pleasantly aromatic, very good to best.
Season December to March.

WHITE PIPPIN

Rererences. 1. Mag. Hort., 14:113, 1848. 2. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y.,3:85. 1851. 3. Downing, 1857:203. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1860. 5. Mag. Hort., 27:100. 1861. 6. Warder, 1867:647. fig. 7. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1880:277. 8. Barry, 1883:356. 9. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:300. 10. Bailey, An, Hort., 1892:252. 11. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:580, 506. 1892. 12. Ib., E. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1900:44. 13. Ib, W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt.,1900:37. 14. Brackett, Amer. Gard., 22:191. 1901. 15. Budd-Hansen, 1903: 202. fig. 16. Bruner, N. C. Sta. Bul., 182:23. 1903. 17. Powell and Fulton, U.S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:60. 5903. 18. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul. 248:150. 1904.
Synonym. Canada Pippin (3).
Fruit medium to large, often averaging rather large. The general appearance is good for a yellow apple. It is suitable for home use or for general market purposes. In ordinary storage it is in season from November to May with February as the ordinary commercial limit. It varies considerably in keeping qualities in different seasons (18). Warder (6) observes that "in some of its external characters it more nearly resembles the Yellow Newtown Pippin than any other fruit; but, while it lacks the high, spicy flavor of that apple, it is found to be much more profitable in the orchard." It has long been highly esteemed in some sections of Ohio and other portions of the Middle West. In Central and Western New York it generally succeeds better than does either the Yellow Newtown or the Green Newtown. The tree is a good thrifty grower, comes into bearing young and is a reliable cropper, yielding moderate to good crops annually or nearly annually. Some New York fruit growers consider it a profitable commercial variety because the fruit is large, pretty uniform, rather attractive and generally keeps pretty well. It is not recommended for general planting in New York.
Historical. Warder remarks that "the origin of this valuable fruit is entirely unknown, and its history can only be traced to the nursery of Silas Wharton, who may have brought it with him from the East. For a time some of our leading pomologists74 thought it was the Canada Reinette, but this idea has long since been relinquished, and all agree that it is sui generis, though it may have had a different name." It has been grown to a limited extent in some portions of New York, but, so far as we can learn, its planting is not being extended.
TREE.
Tree large, vigorous. Form upright spreading to roundish, rather dense.
Twigs long to rather short, straight, moderately slender to rather stout and often very blunt; internodes short. Bark very dark brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, heavily pubescent. Lenticels numerous, large to medium, oval or irregular, raised, conspicuous. Buds deeply set in bark, medium to short, flat, obtuse, more or less appressed or sometimes free, pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to large, often averaging rather large, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish or roundish oblate, inclined to conic, irregular or somewhat angular, sometimes symmetrical. Stem short. Cavity medium or above, acute or approaching acuminate, deep, moderately narrow to rather wide, often wavy, sometimes lipped, partly russeted and often with a strip of russet extending out on one side. Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open; lobes long, narrow, acuminate. Basin small to medium, moderately shallow to medium in depth, rather narrow to moderately wide, rather abrupt, usually somewhat furrowed and slightly wrinkled.
Skin pale yellow or greenish, sometimes blushed, mottled and striped with thin brownish-red or brownish-pink. Dots small, characteristically whitish and submerged, or green with fine russet point. They are more scattering, larger, irregular and more often russet toward the cavity.
Prevailing color yellow or green.
Calyx tube long, narrow, elongated conical to somewhat funnel-form.
Stamens median to nearly basal.
Core small to medium, somewhat abaxile with hollow cylinder in the axis; cells not uniformly developed but usually symmetrical, closed or sometimes open; core lines clasping.
Carpels roundish to somewhat ovate varying to elongated and narrow, sometimes emarginate, slightly tufted. Seeds small to above medium, plump, rather narrow, elongated, acuminate, medium brown to rather dark brown.
Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, firm, moderately fine-grained to a little coarse, tender, crisp, juicy, sprightly subacid, good or sometimes very good.

White Spanish Reinette
References.  1.
Synonyms.  American Fall Pippin (9). Belle Joséphine (9). Blanche (7). Blanche d'Espagne (7). Camuesar (1,6,9). Camoisas du roi d'Espagne (7). Camoise Blanche (7). Camoisée Blanche (7). Camuezas (7). Camuzar (7). Cobbett's Fall (2,3,6,7) err. Concombre Ancien (1,2,5,7,9). De Ratteau (1,2,5,7,9). D'Espagne (1,2,3,5-7). Elgin Pippin? (6). Episcopale (7). Fall Pippin (1-3,7, err. 6) err. Joséphine (9). Large Fall (1). Large Fall Pippin (2,3,6,7). Philadelphia Pippin (7). Reinette A Gobelet (7). Reinette Blanche (7). Reinette Blanceh D'Espagne (3,9, 1,2,5-8). Reinette D'Espagne (1,6,7,9). Reinette Tendre (7). Saint-Germain (7). York Pippin (7).
This variety belongs in the group with Fall Pippin and Holland Pippin. It resembles Fall Pippin in the growth of the tree as well as in the color and character of the fruit, but is less regular in shape and keeps later (3,6). Season here October to January or February; Hogg gives its season in England as December to April (9). Lyon gives its season in Michigan as October to January (10).
Historical. This is an old European variety which has long been cultivated in Spain, France and England (1-3,6,7,9). It was early imported into this country and is perhaps the parent of our Fall Pippin and Holland Pippin (6). According to Lyon (10) it is seldom seen under its own name. It appears to be but little cultivated in New York having been superseded by other varieties.

FRUIT

Fruit very large.
Form roundish oblate or inclined to oblong, angular, uneven at the crown where it is nearly as broad as at the base (3,6,9).
Stem (Pedicel) short.
Cavity narrow, rather small, regular.
Calyx large, open.
Basin deep, broadly angular, irregular, oblique.
Skin smooth, waxy, yellowish-green, with orange tinge and brownish-red blush on the exposed cheek.
Calyx tube conical.
Stamens marginal.
Cells open, obovate.
Flesh yellowish-white, crisp, tender, juicy, subacid, very good for either dessert or culinary purposes.
Season October to January or February.

Williams
References.  1.  [XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 201.]
Synonyms.  Lady's Apple (5). Queen (5). Williams Early (5,12,15,19). Williams Early Red (7,12). Williams Favorite 3,5,7-18, 21-25, 27, 28). Williams Favorite Red (5,8,12). Williams Favourite Red (2). Williams Favourite (4,19). Williams Red (8,12,19). [Despite very similar names, this apple is distinct from the more-recently-developed 'Lady Williams' and 'Williams Pride' and from the ancient 'Lady Apple' -ASC].
Williams is a very beautiful, bright red apple of mild agreeable flavor, good for dessert but not suitable for culinary uses. It is a favorite in Boston and other eastern markets, and is grown to a limited extent for commercial purposes in some portions of Eastern New York. It does not stand shipping very well, the skin being thin, tender and easily bruised, therefore best handled in small packages. It is in season during late August and early September. Under favorable conditions the fruit becomes rather large, but with very heavy crops it is apt to be rather small unless properly thinned. The crop ripens unevenly, and more than one picking is required to secure the fruit in prime condition. The tree being only moderately vigorous, it is an advantage to topwork it upon some thrifty hardy stock, such as Northern Spy, Rhode Island Greening, or Tolman Sweet. When topworked in this way the Williams becomes a rather vigorous grower, makes a tree of pretty good size, comes into bearing early and in favorable locations, under good treatment, is a reliable cropper, yielding good crops annually or nearly annually. It can be recommended for commercial planting where fruit of this type and season is desired.
Historical. Williams originated in Roxbury, Mass., more than 150 years ago. It was brought to the notice of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1830 and then named Williams. It had previously been known in market under the name Queen and Lady's Apple (5). It was entered in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society in 1854 and is still retained on that list (13). It has become widely disseminated and is still often listed by nurserymen (21) but is nowhere being planted to any considerable extent.
TREE.
Tree rather small and a slow grower but when topworked on vigorous stock and properly tilled and fertilized it becomes rather large and vigorous.
Form upright spreading or roundish, somewhat dense.
Twigs short, curved, moderately stout, with large terminal buds; internodes short.
Bark dark brown tinged with green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, small to medium size, oblong, raised.
Buds medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.
[Diseases:  Highly resistant to fireblight, susceptible to cedar apple rust, somewhat susceptible to the other major diseases (Burford).] FRUIT
Fruit medium or under favorable circumstances rather large, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form oblong conic to roundish conic, broadly ribbed; sides often unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long, moderately thick.
Cavity obtuse, shallow, rather broad, furrowed, sometimes russeted.
Calyx above medium size, usually closed; lobes long.
Basin medium to rather shallow, rather narrow to moderately broad, a little abrupt, somewhat furrowed.
Skin moderately thick, rather tender, nearly smooth, pale yellow overlaid with bright deep red, indistinctly striped with dark red or crimson.
Dots numerous, inconspicuous, small, grayish or russet.
Calyx tube long, narrow, funnel-shape or approaching cylindrical, sometimes extending to the core.
Stamens marginal.
Core medium to rather large, axile; cells closed or slightly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels ovate to roundish.
Seeds above medium, rather narrow, long, moderately plump, acute or nearly acuminate, dark brown.
Flesh sometimes tinged with red, firm, a little coarse, moderately crisp, tender, rather juicy, becoming dry when overripe, pleasant mild subacid, aromatic, good.  ["It is not suitable for culinary use." (Burford)]
Season late August and September.  [Only a fair keeper as grown in Virginia (Burford).]

Willis Sweet
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Pear Lot (5). Pear-Tree Lot (5). Willis Sweeting (1,3).
A rather large sweet apple in season in late summer and early autumn. According to Downing the tree is a good grower and productive; the fruit whitish with shade of light red washed with crimson; flesh crisp, juicy, tender, rich, sweet, very good; valuable for dessert, for culinary purposes and for market (5).
Historical. A chance seedling that originated at Oyster Bay, Long Island, about 1800, on the farm of Edmond Willis. It first had the local name of Pear-tree Lot or Pear Lot. Later it was named Willis Sweeting by Parsons & Co., of Flushing, NY (3). In 1869 it was entered in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society (6), but was dropped from that list in 1899. It is still occasionally listed by nurserymen (8) but is now seldom planted. It is not generally known in New York.

WILLOW

RerereNces. 1. Mag. Hort., 14:113. 1848. 2. Thomas, 1849:175. 3. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:77. 1851. fig. 4. Elliott, 1854:164. fig. 5. Horticulturist, 10:87. 1855. 6. Downing, 1857:204. 7. Hooper, 1857:06. 8 Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 1860. 9. Mag. Hort., 27:99. 1861. 10. Warder, 1867:619. fig. 11. Barry, 1883:357. 12. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:300. 13. Taylor, Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1892:57. 14. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:252. 15. Hoskins, Rural N.Y., 53:310. 1894. 16, Burrill and McCluer, /ll. Sta. Bul., 45:346. 1806. 19. Richman, Utah Sta. Bul., 45:17. 1896. 18. Stinson, Mo. Fr. Sta. Bul., 3:27. 1902. 19. Budd-Hansen, 1903:205. fig. 20. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:61. 1903.  [21.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 202.]
Synonyms. James River (0, 10, 12). Willow Leaf (4). Willow Twig (2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17,18). Willow Twig (19). Willow Twig (1, 3, 4, 10, 16, 20).
Willow is a southern or semi-southern variety. It has been cultivated chiefly in the central portion of the Mississippi valley. Like many other southern winter apples its quality is not the best, but it is a good, long keeper. The tree is a strong grower and a rather early and regular bearer. Willow is less attractive than Ben Davis, both in size and in color, but after coming into season it does not become mealy and deteriorate in quality as soon as Ben Davis does in the regions where it is most popular. Willow has proved to be quite hardy in the North, but it requires a rather long and favorable season for the proper development of its fruit. The fruit is not as attractive as that of the Baldwin, neither is it as good in quality, but it is valuable because it keeps late. When well grown it is, on the whole, rather attractive, being quite uniform in size and shape, large and nearly symmetrical. The prevailing color, though somewhat dull, is a pretty good red with contrasting green showing through the stripes. It is not recommended for general planting in New York state.
Historical. The origin of Willow is uncertain. The first that written pomology knows of this variety is that it was being grown in the state of Ohio about the middle of the last century. It was said to have been brought there from New Jersey (1, 4), but these statements are hardly convincing because they lack definiteness. Warder refers to it as a Virginia fruit but the authority for the statement is not given. Its cultivation gradually spread from Ohio throughout the Middle West. The fruit was found particularly desirable for shipping to New Orleans and other southern markets. Up to about twenty years ago, Willow was esteemed very highly as a commercial variety in the apple-growing portions of Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas and Kansas, but during the last two decades it has fallen very much into disfavor on account of its susceptibility to scab, blight, and bitter rot and many cultivators have gone so far as to cut the trees out altogether on account of the menace from the spread of these diseases to other varieties. So far as we have learned it has been quite free from disease when grown in this state. It has been cultivated in New York in a limited way only and the planting of it does not appear to be increasing very much.
TREE.
Tree makes a poor growth in the nursery but under favorable conditions it becomes large and vigorous in the orchard. Form upright spreading with terminals drooping on bearing trees. Twigs short to medium, very slender, straight, limber; internodes long. Bark clear yellowish-green or light reddish with no noticeable scarf-skin; quite pubescent. Lenticels scattering, small, generally elongated, raised. Buds small to medium, projecting a little, moderately obtuse, rather pubescent, adhering to the bark.
[Diseases:  Somewhat susceptible to the major diseases and dies with high frequency in the nursery, making propagation difficult (21).]
Fruit.
Fruit large to medium. Form usually roundish inclined to conic, varying sometimes to roundish oblate, regular or faintly ribbed, symmetrical. Stem short.
Cavity acute, deep, wide, often irregular or compressed, sometimes lipped, usually smooth green or red with pale dots but sometimes thinly russeted.
Calyx small, closed. Basin medium size or above, moderately wide to wide, irregular or compressed, rather deep, often abrupt, sometimes ridged, wrinkled.
Skin smooth, pale yellowish-green or dull green mottled and blushed with red and irregularly striped and splashed with deeper red. Dots numerous, rather large, russet-gray or yellowish. Prevailing color fairly good red but usually rather dull.
Calyx tube rather long, narrow, funnel-shape. Stamens marginal to median.
Core medium or above, axile; cells not uniformly developed, symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping. Carpels thin, tender, rather flat, broadly roundish narrowing toward the base. Seeds medium to large, flat, wide, plump, rather blunt.
Flesh yellowish or greenish, very firm, coarse, crisp, moderately tender, juicy, sprightly, slightly aromatic, fair to good.  [Also useful for cider (21).]
Season January to May  [Excellent keeper (21).].

WILLSBORO
.
REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1869:409. 2. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:336. 1905.
Downing describes this fruit as medium, yellow mostly overspread, mottled and marbled with dull red; flesh sprightly subacid; season December to February. Supposed to have originated at Willsboro, Essex county, N. Y. (1).

WINDSOR.

REFERENCES. I. Van Deman, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1889:442. col. pl. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1891:123. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:252. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1897:15. 5. Thomas, 1897:285. fig. 6. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bul., 76:115. 1902. fig. 7. Can. Hort., 25:49. 1902. 8. Budd-Hansen, 1903:205. fig. 9. Erwin, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 1903:252. 10. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1903 :05.
Synonym. Windsor Chief (3, 6, 9, 10). Windsor Chief (5, 8).
On account of its superior hardiness, Windsor is regarded as a promising variety for rigorous climates. The fruit is of good size, attractive red color although rather dark, pleasant subacid flavor and good quality. The tree is very hardy, comes into bearing rather early and is a reliable cropper, yielding moderate to good crops nearly annually. The fruit hangs well to the tree. It is in season from December to April. It has not yet been grown to any considerable extent in New York, but it probably would never find more than a very limited demand in our markets because its flavor is rather too mild for a good culinary apple and it does not excel standard varieties of its season for dessert purposes.
TREE
Tree moderately vigorous. Form upright spreading or roundish, dense, with laterals inclined to droop. Twigs below medium to medium length, slender, irregularly curved; internodes medium to long. Bark clear reddish-brown lightly mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips. Lenticels inconspicuous, rather numerous, small to medium, round or somewhat elongated, not raised. Buds medium to small, projecting, plump, acute to acuminate, free, slightly pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit above medium to below medium. Form roundish conic varying to oblate, rather broad, flat at the base, often one-sided and faintly ribbed.
Stem medium to long, rather slender. Cavity rather large, obtuse to somewhat acute, wide, rather deep or sometimes varying to moderately shallow, russeted and with coarse outspreading russet rays. Calyx rather small, closed or partly open; lobes small, connivent, acute, pubescent. Basin medium in size, abrupt, moderately shallow to rather deep, usually rather wide, often somewhat furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin moderately thick, smooth, somewhat waxy, pale yellow or greenish blushed with thin dull red or in highly colored specimens predominantly deep red, sometimes obscurely striped with dull carmine. Dots characteristically conspicuous, usually rather large, dull, pale, often areolar with russet center, sometimes mingled with flecks of russet.
Calyx tube funnel-form. Stamens median or below.
Core small, axile; cells not uniformly developed, closed; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels broad narrowing toward base and apex, varying to obcordate, tufted. Seeds variable, below medium to rather large, moderately narrow to rather wide, obtuse or approaching acute, tufted, light brown.
Flesh nearly white, tinged with green or yellow, firm, moderately fine-grained to somewhat coarse, juicy, somewhat aromatic, mild subacid becoming nearly sweet, good to possibly very good for dessert.

WINE.

REFERENCES. 1. Coxe, 1817:121. fig. 2. Thacher, 1822:140. 3. (?) Wilson, 1828:136. 4. Fessenden, 1828:131. 5. Kenrick, 1832:54. 6. Floy-Lindley, 1833:87. 7. Mag. Hort., 1:364. 1835. 8. Manning, 1838:55. 9. Ib., Mag. Hort., 7:51. 1841. 10, Downing, 1845:143. 11. N. Y. Agr. Soc. Trans., 1849:354. fig. 12. Thomas, 1849:175. 13. Cole, 1849:120. 14. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:63. 1851. 15. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 16. Elliott, 1854:116. fig. 17. Gregg, 1857:€0. 18. Hooper, 1857:43, 96. 19. Warder, 1867:466. 20. Fitz, 1872:143, 150. 21. Barry, 1883:357. 22. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:300. 23. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:252. 24. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893: 134. 25. Budd-Hansen, 1903:206. 26. Bruner, N. C. Sta. Bul., 182:23. 1903.
Synonyms. Fine Winter (1, 2, 5,6). Hays (21, 25, 26). Hays Apple (5,11, 12, 14, 18). Hays Wine (24). Hays Winter (1, 2, 6, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16,17, 18, 19, 22). Hays Winter Wine (16). Hollow Crown Pearmain (16). Large Winter Red (1, 2, 5). Pennsylvania Redstreak (19). Pennsylvania Red Streak (21, 24,25). Wine Apple (1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 17). Wine Apple (16). Winter Wine (16, 21).
Wine is a large and rather attractive red apple of good to very good quality for dessert use. It is in season from late October to March or April, Coxe published the following description of it in 1817 (1). "An uncommonly large, fair, handsome red apple—the form is round, flat at the ends: the skin is a lively red, streaked and spotted with a small portion of yellow: the stalk end frequently of a russet colour, both ends deeply indented; the stalk very short, the taste is rich and pleasant, an admired table fruit, and excellent for cooking as well as for cider; it ripens in October, and keeps well through the fall and winter. The tree is uncommonly large and handsome, the leaves small, it bears abundantly; from its spreading form, it does not require much trimming—it is probably as saleable an apple as any sold in the Philadelphia market: in the state and county of Delaware it is called Hays Winter; and in some places in New-Jersey, the fine Winter, and large Winter Red."
In 1849 the Committee on Fruits for the N. Y. State Agricultural Society added Wine to the list previously recommended for general dissemination and cultivation and gave the following description of the variety (11). "Fruit large; form globular and slightly oblate; color of a deep rich red, striped and dashed with yellow, often quite indistinctly, and frequently a yellowish russet around the base of the stem: texture crisp, but tender and juicy; flesh yellowish-white; flavor rich and sprightly vinous, acid. Core large; stem short, seldom or ever rising above the outline of the fruit, and inserted in a deep, round and smooth cavity; eye large and set in a deep and broad basin; season, ripe in October and keeps in fine condition until March. Its growth is thrifty and vigorous, making a beautiful tree, it is also hardy and productive, its leaves are small and easily recognized.
“The Wine apple is richly entitled to a place on our list, for it is not only beautiful in appearance but it is hardy, productive and of a flavor which is peculiarly agreeable to most persons; it is also equally well adapted to the dessert and kitchen, and makes most delicious cider; in fact we could not recommend to our agricultural population a more useful fruit. It originated in the State of Delaware and is very popular where well known. As there are many spurious varieties sold as the Wine apple, cultivators must be cautious of whom they purchase their trees,”
In regions farther south and west it has long been a favorite fruit for either market or kitchen use for which its size and form render it peculiarly attractive (19). It appears less well adapted to the conditions existing in this state for although it has long been known here it has established itself in but comparatively few localities and is now seldom if ever planted.
This is quite distinct from the Twenty Ounce which is known to some under the name of the Wine Apple. The name Wine has also been applied to two other varieties.40

Wine Rubets
References.  1. Budd, IA Agr. Coll. Bul., 1885:7. 2. Beach, NY Sta. An. Rpt., 12:600. 1893. 3. Ib., 12:603.1893. 4. Ragan, US.B.P.I. Bul., 56:337. 1905.
Synonyms.  Cut Wine (2-4). No. 210 (1-4). Rubets Vinogradnui (1,4). Rubez vuinogradnui (4). Vinograd (1,3).
Fruit below medium size, nearly symmetrical, covered with delicate bloom. Skin green, lightly shaded with red and with a crimson cheek. Basin shallow, wrinkled. Stem medium length, slender, set in a deep cavity. Flesh mild subacid, fair to good in quality. Begins to ripen here about the 1st of August. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. A Russian apple imported by the United States Department of Agriculture. It was received here in 1888 from Dr. T.H. Hoskins, Newport, VT, under the name Cut Wine.

WINESAP.

REFERENCES. 1. Coxe, 1817:153. fig. 2. (?)Thacher, 1822:140. 3. Buel, N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:476. 4. Wilson, 1828:136. 5. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831:39. 6. Manning, Mag. Hort., 7:50. 1841. 7. Downing, 1845:143. 8. Kirtland, Horticulturist, 2:545. 1848. 9. Thomas, 1849:175. 10. Elliott, Horticulturist, 3:420. 1840. 11. Cole, 1849:130. 12. Phoenix, Horticulturist, 4:472. 1850. 13. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:68. 1851. 14. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 15. Elliott, 1854:117. fig. 16. Hooper, 1857:97. 17. Gregg, 1857:60. 18, Mag. Hort. 30:162. 1864. 19. Warder, 1867:546. fig. 20. Downing, 1872:10, 12 index, app. 21. Fitz, 1872:143, 155, 172. fig. 22. Barry,1883:357. 23. Rural N. Y., 47:749. 1888. 24. Wickson, 1889:246. 25. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:300. 26. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:580, 596. 1892, 27. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:252. 28. Clayton, Ala. Sta. Bul. 47:7. 1893. 29. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:134. 30. Stinson, Ark. Sta. An. Rpt. 7:46. 1804. 31. Mathews, Ky. Sta. Bul., 50:32. 1804. 32. Rural N. Y., 54: 859. 1895. 33. Ib., 55:1, 51, 190, 250, 341. 1806. 34. Burrill and McCluer, Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:346. 1806. 35. Taylor, U. S. Pom. Bul. 7:357. 1808. 36. Massey, N. C. Sta. Bul., 149:318. 1898. 37. Van Deman, Rural N. Y., 59:224. 1900. 38. Alwood, Va. Sta. Bul., 130:138. 1901. figs. 39. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1902:96. 40. Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. Bul., 106:56. 1902. 41. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bul., 76:116. 1902. 42. Stinson, Mo. Fr. Sta. Bul., 3:26. 1902. 43. Budd-Hansen, 1903:206. fig. 44. Bruner, N. C. Sta. Bul., 182:27. 1903. figs. 45. Powell, U. S. Dept. Agr. Yr. Bk., 1903:232. col. pl. 46. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:61. 1903. 47. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:151. 1904.  [48.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 203.]
Synonyms. Holland’s Red Winter (20). Royal Red of Kentucky (20). Texan Red (20). Wine Sap (12, 13, 15, 17, 21, 27, 28, 31). Wine Sop (15, ?7).
Winesap is one of the oldest and most popular apples in America. It is known in all the apple-growing sections from Virginia westward to the Pacific Coast. An indication of its popularity may be gained from the fact that according to Bailey’s Inventory (27) there were, in 1892, seventy-three nursery firms offering Winesap for sale as compared with sixty-four firms offering Baldwin, fifty-eight offering Northern Spy and forty-eight offering Rhode Island Greening. It should be borne in mind however that the number of firms selling a variety is not an altogether true criterion of the number of trees sold.
Like various other old varieties, Winesap has many seedlings which partake more or less of the characters of the parent. The best known of these are Arkansas, Arkansas Black, Paragon and Stayman Winesap.
The tree is a rather vigorous though not particularly rank grower, comes into bearing early and is a remarkably regular cropper. It does best on rather light, rich, deep soils and does not succeed on heavy clays or in low, damp locations. In unfavorable situations the trees are apt to be short-lived and in New York are less hardy than the leading commercial varieties of this region. Although Winesap is a well-known market apple, yet with the exception of the Piedmont region in Virginia and certain districts elsewhere it has not proved generally successful for the commercial orchard. In New York it seldom reaches good medium size. In more southern latitudes and under favorable conditions the fruit is well colored and of good quality, but excepting on young trees or on soils of more than average fertility it averages too small for a good market variety. When well grown it is of very good quality and attractive in appearance, being quite uniform in shape and size and of good dark red color. As grown at this Station it is in season from January to June with April as the ordinary commercial limit (47). When grown farther south its season extends to February in ordinary storage and to April in cold storage. It is a good shipper and stands heat well before going into storage, but late in the season it often scalds, particularly when not well colored.
Historical. Nothing definite is known of the origin of Winesap. Coxe speaks of it as being "the most favored cider fruit in West Jersey." From this fact many writers have referred to West Jersey as the region of its origin or probable origin but such statements seem hardly warranted by the evidence.
TREE.
Tree medium size, vigorous. Form roundish spreading, rather straggling and open. Twigs rather stout, rather short to above medium; internodes short. Bark very dark reddish-brown with thin gray scarf-skin, somewhat pubescent. Lenticels especially clustered just below the nodes, conspicuous, round or elongated, variable in size but usually above medium. Buds large to medium, broad, usually rather obtuse but sometimes acute, free or nearly so. Foliage thin; leaves usually not large, narrow.
[Diseases:  Moderate resistance to the major apple diseases (48).]
Fruit.
Fruit as grown in New York averages even smaller than that which is grown farther south. It is pretty uniform in size and shape. Form usually conical, sometimes roundish, nearly truncate at base, nearly regular or obscurely ribbed, symmetrical. Stem medium to short, rather slender. Cavity medium to rather small, acute to acuminate, narrow to rather broad, deep, symmetrical or somewhat furrowed, often more or less lipped, often russeted or with out- spreading russet rays. Calyx medium to large, closed; lobes long, narrow, acuminate. Basin rather small to medium, often oblique, shallow to rather deep and abrupt, narrow to moderately wide, distinctly furrowed, somewhat wrinkled.
Skin medium in thickness, tough, smooth, glossy, bright deep red indistinctly striped and blotched with very dark purplish-red over a distinctly yellow ground color or green if not fully mature, overspread with faint bloom. Dots rather small, scattering, whitish, sometimes in conspicuous contrast with the deep red skin especially toward the cavity. Prevailing effect bright deep red.
Calyx tube quite variable, conical or funnel-shape. Stamens marginal.
Core medium to small, abaxile with a hollow cylinder in the axis, narrowing toward the apex; cells pretty uniformly developed, symmetrical, open or nearly closed; core lines clasping. Carpels broadly roundish, much concave, but slightly emarginate if at all, mucronate. Seeds below medium to above, wide, plump, obtuse.
Flesh tinged with yellow, veins sometimes red, very firm, rather coarse, moderately crisp, very juicy, sprightly subacid, good to very good.  [Also useful for cider, apple butter and pies. The slices hold their shape when cooked (48).
Season:  Ripens in late winter in Virginia and is a very good keeper (48).]

WINTER BANANA.
References. 1. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:224. 1892. 2. Heiges, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1895 :20. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1897 :36. 4. Beach, Eastern N.Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt.,1900:44. 5. Ib. Western N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1900:37. 6. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1901:98. 7. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:151.
Synonyms. BANANA (2, 3). Winter Banana (2, 3).
Fruit large, clear pale yellow with beautiful contrasting pinkish-red blush, attractive in appearance, characteristically aromatic, of good dessert quality, but too mild in flavor to excel for culinary uses. The tree is a pretty good grower, comes into bearing young, is almost an annual bearer and yields moderate to rather heavy crops. In ordinary storage the fruit is in season from mid-November to the first of April, but its safe commercial limit in this climate probably would not extend much beyond December. In cold storage it ranks as a keeper about with Rhode Island Greening, but is not equal to Baldwin. It could perhaps be used to advantage commercially to follow the Maiden Blush and extend the season for fruit having the general appearance of that variety. As compared with Maiden Blush this is larger, neither as uniform nor as symmetrical, better for dessert use but less desirable for culinary purposes. Its color is such that it shows bruises more readily than do red apples like Baldwin or Tompkins King. It is sufficiently promising to be worthy of further testing where an apple of this color is desired.
Another variety which has been disseminated under the name Banana is a sweet apple. It is described on page 60 under the name Banana Sweet.
Historical. Winter Banana originated on the farm of David Flory near Adamsboro, Cass county, Ind., about 1876. It was introduced by Greening Brothers, Monroe, Michigan, in 1890 (4, 5). It has as yet been but little planted in this state.
TREE.
Tree medium in size, vigorous. Form rather flat, spreading and somewhat inclined to droop, open. Twigs long, curved or nearly straight, moderately stout; internodes long. Bark reddish-brown mingled with olive-green, lightly and irregularly coated with scarf-skin, pubescent. Lenticels conspicuous, numerous, medium to large, round or slightly elongated, raised. Buds sunk in the bark, medium or above, plump, acute to obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit nearly large to very large, not very uniform in size or shape. Form roundish conic to oblong conic, or sometimes oblate and noticeably flat at the base, often irregularly elliptical and somewhat ribbed; axis sometimes oblique; sides often unequal. Stem short to moderately long, medium in thickness to rather slender. Cavity usually rather large, acute to acuminate, moderately shallow to deep, broad, gently furrowed, sometimes lipped, smooth or sometimes partly russeted. Calyx small to medium, partly open or sometimes closed; lobes convergent or connivent, short to medium length, obtuse to acute. Basin small to medium, often decidedly oblique, rather shallow to moderately deep, usually rather narrow but sometimes moderately wide, obtuse to rather abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin smooth, moderately thick, tough, waxy, bright pale yellow, often with a blush which in well-colored specimens deepens to dark pinkish-red. Often a suture line extends from the basin nearly or quite to the cavity. Dots numerous, whitish and submerged or with fine russet point. Prevailing effect yellow with a pretty contrasting blush.
Calyx tube wide above, rather short, cone-shape or funnel-form. Stamens median to marginal.
Core rather small to above medium, abaxile; cells not uniformly developed, usually symmetrical and open, sometimes closed; core lines somewhat clasping. Carpels elongated ovate, narrow, emarginate, tufted. Seeds often abortive; the plump ones vary from small to rather large and are more or less irregular, usually obtuse to acute, dull dark brown, sometimes tufted.
Flesh whitish tinged with pale yellow, moderately firm, a little coarse, somewhat crisp, tender, juicy, mild subacid, distinctly aromatic, good to very good.

WINTER HOG ISLAND SWEET.
REFERENCE. Downing, 1869:413.
This variety is mentioned by Downing as having originated on Long Island. We are unacquainted with it and have received no reports concerning it from any portion of the state. Downing describes it as medium or below, pale yellow striped and shaded with light and dark red; flesh tender, rather rich and sweet, good; season November to February.

WINTER PEARMAIN.

REFERENCES. I. Forsyth, 1803:51. 2. Thacher, 1822:131. 3. Forsyth, 1824:118. 4. Tb. 1824:130. 5. Floy-Lindley, 1833 :62. 6. Cultivator, 3:36. 1846. 7. Thomas, 1849 :175. fig. 8. Gregg, 1857:60. 9. Mas, LeVerger, 4:19. 1865. 10. Warder, 1867:736. 11. Downing, 1869:413. 12. Fitz, 1872:167. 13. Leroy, 1873:541. fig. 14. Hogg, 1884:169. 15. Ib. 1884:246. 16. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892 :253.
Synonyms. Autumn Pearmain, erroneously (7). Ducks Bill (15). Germaine (13). Great Pearmain (11). Green Winter Pearmain (12). HEREFORDSHIRE PEARMAIN (6). HertFordshire Pearmain (1). Hertfordshire Pearmain (4). Old English Pearmain (3). Old English Pearmain (14). Old Pearmain (5, 7, 11, 14, of Lindley 13). Parmain d’Angleterre of Knoop 1760 (13). Parmain d’Hiver (5, 11). Parmain-Pepping (13). PEARMAIN (2,14). Pearmain (11). Pearmain Herefordshire (12). PEARMAIN D’HIVER (13). Pepin Parmain d’Angleterre (5, 11). Pepin Parmain d’Hiver (11). Peremenes (11). Permaine (13). Permein (13). Platarchium (13). Sussex Scarlet Pearmain (15). Winter Pearmain (2, 6, of Ray 13).
Several different varieties have been known under the name Winter Pearmain both in Europe and in this country. The references given above do not all refer to the same variety and in some cases it is impossible to determine which Winter Pearmain the writer has in mind.
In 1822 Thacher (2) gave the following account of the Winter Pearmain of the old Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts. “The winter pearmain is among the first cultivated apples by the fathers of the old Plymouth colony, and is, undoubtedly, of English descent. Many trees of this kind are now supposed to be more than one hundred years old, and grafted trees from them produce the genuine fruit in great perfection. The tree is tall and upright, forming a handsome regular top: it is hardy, and will flourish in a light soil. It is not an early bearer, but when attained to about twelve years, from having been grafted, it produces more abundantly and uniformly than any other kind within our knowledge. The fruit is scarcely excelled as a table apple or for cookery; and the cider, made from it, is said to be inferior to none. The apple is of a moderate size; fair and smooth; of a reddish colour; interspersed with green and yellow; the flesh a rich yellow; the flavour slightly aromatick, and agreeable. There are two or three varieties of this apple, but rather of an inferiour quality.”
The following is the description given by Floy-Lindley (5) of the Winter Pearmain mentioned by Ray in 1688: “ fruit medium, regular, tapering to the crown, grass-green with a little red on the sunny side; in season from November to March.” Downing (11) remarks that the tree of this variety is a free and healthy grower and productive. This is the Pearmain d’Hiver of Leroy (13), the English Winter Pearmain of Mas (9), the Winter Pearmain or Old Pearmain of Downing (11) and the Pearmain or Old Pearmain of Hogg (14). Hogg (14) states that this is the oldest English apple on record and that its cultivation in Norfolk can be traced back to the year 1200. He says that the Winter Pearmain of the London market is a different apple (15).
An apple is grown in the Middle West under the name of Winter Pearmain which is of medium size, oblate inclined to conic, yellowish, shaded and striped with light and dark red, subacid, good; in season from November to February (11).
There is a Winter Pearmain of Pennsylvania which is below medium, oblate to roundish oblate, yellow splashed and shaded with brownish-red, mild subacid, good; in season from January to May (11).

WINTER ST. LAWRENCE.

REFERENCES. 1. Shepherd, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1885:17. fig. 2. Ib., 1886-87 :9, 99. 3. Can. Hort., 11:7, 145. 1888. col. pl. and fig. 4. Woolverton, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 1889:155. 5 Hoskins, Rural N. Y., 48:88. 1889. 6. Burnet, Can. Hort., 12:337. 1889. 7. Budd, Ib., 13:24. 1890. 8. Hoskins, Amer. Gard., 15:288. 1894. 9. Craig, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1896:135. figs. 10. Waugh, Vt. Sta. Bul., 61:32. 1897. 11. Can. Hort., 25:49. 1902. 12. Budd- Hansen, 1903:206.
Synonyms. Mank’s Codling (9). Rambour Barré (9).
The following account of Winter St. Lawrence is given by Macoun. “Imported in 1833 from Manchester, England, under the name of Mank’s Codling [erroneously -ASC], by the late Wm. Lunn, of Montreal. Named Winter St. Lawrence by the Montreal Horticultural Society about 1873. Fruit medium to large, roundish, slightly conical; skin greenish yellow well covered with deep red through which are dark purple splashes and streaks; dots fairly numerous, pale, distinct; cavity rather deep and medium in width; stem short, slender; basin narrow, almost smooth, of medium depth; calyx partly open, sometimes closed. Flesh white, rather soft, melting, moderately juicy, subacid, good flavour; core small; quality good; season, early winter. Tree a moderately spreading, strong grower and apparently very hardy. A shy but annual bearer at Ottawa.”
This variety is but little known among New York fruit growers.

WINTER SWEET PARADISE.

References. 1. Downing, 1845:124. 2, Cole, 1849:130. 3. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:85. 1851. 4. Elliott, 1854:150. fig. 5. Hooper, 18§7:102. 6. Mag. Hort. 27:99. 1861. 7. Kirtland, 1b., 33:53. 1867. 8. Warder, 1867:737. 9. Fitz, 1872:143, 156. 10. Downing, 1872:10 index, app. 11. Thomas, 1875 :212, 12, Barry, 1883:357. 13. Bailey, An. Hort, 1892 14. Ill. Sta, Bul, 45: 346. 1896.  [15.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 205.]
Synonyms. Honey Sweet of some (4). Paradise Winter (8). Paradise Winter Sweet (4). White Robinson (14). Wine Sweet (10).
Fruit large, roundish oblate, dull green with brownish-red blush, fine-grained, juicy, sweet; in season during early winter and midwinter [Ripens in the Fall in Virginia and is a good keeper (15)].
Tree a vigorous, upright grower and productive, but it is not an early bearer (12).  [Susceptible to bitter pit; somewhat resistant to the other major diseases (15).]
Historical. In 1845 Downing made the following observation concerning this variety. “We received it some years ago along with the Summer Sweet Paradise from Mr. Garber of Columbia, Pa. and consider it a native fruit” (1). From Pennsylvania it was carried into Ohio and later its cultivation was extended into other portions of the Middle West. Although an old variety it is but little known in New York. It is still propagated to a considerable extent by nurserymen.
[Burford suggest that it originated in 1842 near the town of Paradise in Lancaster, Pennsylvania (15).
Uses:  Besides dessert (fresh-eating), it's also good for baking, frying and a distinctive, sweet apple butter (15).]

WISMER.

References. 1. Amer. Gard., 18:142. 1897. fig. 2 Can. Hort., 20:78. 1807. 3. Rural N. Y., $6:54. 1897. 4. Ragan, U.S. B. P. I. Bul,, 56:341. 1005.
Synonyms. Wismer’s Dessert (1, 2, 3). Wismer's Dessert (4). Wisner’s Dessert (4).
This is an apple of Canadian origin introduced in 1897 by J. H. Wismer, Port Elgin, Ontario. In color it is said to resemble Esopus Spitzenburg (3) The tree is said to be very hardy, vigorous and productive and the fruit medium to large, yellow shaded and striped with bright red; the flesh mild subacid, of excellent flavor and exceedingly fine, tender texture, We are not acquainted with this apple. It has not yet been tested sufficiently in this state to indicate whether it has any value for this region.

Winthrop Greening
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Howe Apple (2,5). Kennebec Seedling (8). Lincoln (1). Lincoln Pippin (2,4,5).
Fruit yellow, tinged with red, of good size and good quality; season September to early winter. The flesh is tender, crisp, very juicy, sprightly, mild subacid (2). The tree is a shy bearer.
Historical. Originated in Winthrop, ME, about the year 1800 (1,2). It was entered in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society in 1854 (3) and dropped from that list in 1897. It is but little known in New York.

Wolf River
References.  1.  [XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 206.]
Synonyms.  None.
This is a variety of the Aport group. It resembles Alexander very closely in size, form, and color. Hansen states (20) that it is "supposed to be a seedling of the Alexander, which it somewhat resembles, but is more round and less conical, and averages larger, as grown in the West. The Wolf River has largely superseded Alexander in the western states. Tree a strong spreading grower, not an early bearer, but productive in alternate years." As fruited at this Station it is in season from September to December, with October as the commercial limit in ordinary storage. In cold storage it may be held till January. It does not stand heat well, and goes down quickly (24). The tree is very hardy and a good grower, and is a biennial or sometimes annual cropper, yielding moderate to good crops. The fruit, being large, shapely and highly colored, often sells well because of its attractive appearance; some fruit growers are finding it a profitable variety.
Historical. Originated by W.A. Springer, near Wolf River, Fremont county Wisconsin, hence its name. it was entered in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society in 1881 (5). It is frequently listed by nurserymen (11). Within recent years it has been planted to a limited extent in New York state and at the present time its cultivation is probably increasing somewhat.
TREE.
Tree large, moderately vigorous.
Form much spreading, open and inclined to droop.
Twigs short, straight, slender; internodes short.
Bark brown, tinged with green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small, round, not raised.
Buds small, plump, obtuse to acute, free, slightly pubescent.
[Diseases:  Susceptible to fireblight and sunscald; moderate resistance to cedar apple rust, scab and powdery mildew (Burford).]
FRUIT
Fruit large, uniform in size and fairly uniform in shape.
Form broad and flat at the base and somewhat inclined to conic or roundish, often somewhat irregular.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, rather thick, not exserted.
Cavity acuminate, usually deep, rather wide and very heavily russeted.
Calyx medium to large, open or closed.
Basin medium to deep moderately narrow, abrupt, usually smooth, somewhat broadly furrowed.
Skin rather thick, pale bright yellow or greenish, mottled and blushed with bright deep red and marked with conspicuous splashes and broad stripes of bright carmine.
Dots numerous, medium to rather large, areolar, depressed, pale or russet.
Calyx tube conical.
Stamens median to basal.
Core below medium to rather large, somewhat abaxile; cells closed or partly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly cordate, approaching elliptical, slightly emarginate, somewhat tufted.
Seeds dark brown, of medium size, rather wide, short, moderately plump, obtuse.
Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, firm, moderately coarse, tender, juicy, subacid, a little aromatic, fair to good. [I remember my parents buying some Wolf River apples from an orchard in the North Georgia mountains. They were unbelievably bland, with no taste whatsoever. Water has more flavor. We mocked them for all the years till we left home.   Burford says they are useful for baking, apple butter and drying as well as fresh-eating. Maybe they're better up North. -ASC].
Season September to December.  [Ripens in late summer in Virginia and is a poor keeper (Burford).]

Workaroe
References.  1. NYSta. An. Rpt., 8:349. 1889. 2. Beach, Ib., 11:588. 1892.
Synonyms.  None.
A Russian apple of good size, pale yellow, blushed and striped with red and overspread with pinkish bloom. Flesh firm, crisp, tender, juicy, rather mild subacid with an agreeable but not high flavor and good quality. It is a good apple but hardly equal to other varieties of its season. The tree does not come into bearing very young but is a pretty good grower and eventually a good cropper yielding full crops biennially.
Received in 1884 from Ellwanger and Barry, Rochester, NY for testing at this Station.