State of New York- Department of Agriculture
The Apples of New York
Volumes I & II
[Apples starting with "S" or "T" -ASC]
Apple Home
Fruit Home

Safstaholms
References.  1. Regel, 1868:473. 2. Gibb, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-87:81. 3. Eneroth-Smirnoff, 1901:46. 4. Hansen, SD Sta. Bul., 76:96. 1902.
Synonyms.  Safstaholm (2,4). Säfstaholmsäple (1). Säfstaholmsäpple (3).
This is an apple of fairly good red color, not particularly bright yet not unattractive. The flesh lacks piquancy and is not very juicy but because of its distinct aroma and rich subacid flavor it is classed among the good dessert apples. It is hardly acid enough for culinary use. The tree is a pretty good grower, comes into bearing young and so far as tested at this Station promises to be productive. It is doubtful whether it has sufficient value for the New York fruit grower to make it worthy of trial in this state.
Historical. Originated in Sweden about 1835. It was received for testing at this Station from the United States Pomologist in 1901.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous with rather short, slender branches.
Form upright spreading or roundish, open.
Twigs short, rather slender to moderately stout, straight or nearly so; internodes short to medium.
Bark rather dull brown tinged with red, mottled with heavy scarf-skin, pubescent.
Lenticels very scattering, small to medium, roundish, not raised.
Buds often rather deeply set in the bark, medium size or below, plump, obtuse to somewhat acute, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large, pretty uniform in shape and size.
Form oblong to oblong conic, somewhat elliptical, often indistinctly ribbed; sides often unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, moderately slender to rather thick.
Cavity large, acute to acuminate, moderately shallow to deep, wide, sometimes lipped, often russeted.
Calyx medium or below, usually partly open; lobes moderately narrow, acute.
Basin small to medium, obtuse to rather abrupt, shallow to moderately deep, moderately narrow to rather wide, gently furrowed.
Skin thin, smooth or sometimes slightly rough toward the apex, pale yellow mottled and blushed with red, becoming rather dull red over a considerable portion of the fruit, mottled and splashed with carmine and sometimes marked with flecks and irregular lines of russet.
Dots rather conspicuous, often large, pale gray or with russet center.
Prevailing color red.
Calyx tube cone-shape.
Stamens basal.
Core medium to large, abaxile; cells often unsymmetrical, usually somewhat open; core lines meeting.
Carpels roundish to broadly ovate, mucronate, sometimes emarginate, tufted.
Seeds numerous, above medium to rather large, wide, usually obtuse, plump.
Flesh yellowish, firm, a little coarse, moderately juicy, peculiarly aromatic, mildly subacid, rich, good for dessert, rather mild for culinary use.
Season late October or November to midwinter; often some portion of the fruit may be kept in ordinary storage to March.

Sailee Russet
References.  1. Waugh, VT Sta. An. Rpt., 14:307. 1901.
Synonyms.  None.
A local variety grown in the vicinity of Lake Champlain. The following account of it is given by Waugh (1):
"Sailee was a Frenchman who came over from France about a hundred years ago and who had a farm on Cumberland Head, Clinton county, NY, just across from Grand Isle. He had a large orchard and grew many varieties of apples, some of which he had brought from France, other of which came from other sources, and some of which he originated himself. From his having given his own name to this variety it is supposed to have originated in his own grounds. It was early distributed to Grand Isle, and is a good variety, but not superior to Roxbury.
"Fruit oblate, slightly conic, size small to medium, cavity very deep and broad, stem medium long, slender, basin deep, corrugated, calyx small, closed, color dull green with occasional blush and considerable russet, dots russet, skin tough, flesh white, core small, flavor subacid, quality good, season early winter."

Sailly Autumn
References.  1. Downing, 1857:187. 2. Thomas, 1875:511.
Synonyms.  None.
A local variety which originated at Plattsburg, NY. Fruit medium, roundish conic, greenish-yellow frequently with a deep red cheek. Stalk short; cavity medium; calyx small, closed; basin small, narrow; flesh very tender, rich, aromatic, subacid, good. September (1,2).
We are unacquainted with this variety and have received no report concerning it from any of our correspondents.

St. Lawrence
References.  1.***tbal*** 13. Hooper, 1857:90.***tbal***
Synonyms.  Corse's St. Lawrence (8). Montreal (4,11,18). Saint-Laurent (18). Saint-Lawrence (18). York and Lancaster (17).
When well grown, St. Lawrence is a large, handsome apple. It is better for dessert than for culinary use but does not excel standard varieties of its season for either purpose. While it does very well in some portions of Western New York, generally speaking, it reaches a higher degree of perfection in favorable locations in the St. Lawrence valley and in the Lake Champlain region than in other portions of the state. The crop ripens somewhat unevenly and should have more than one picking in order to secure the fruit in prime condition and prevent great loss from dropping. It does not stand heat well before going into storage and goes down quickly. The fruit may not remain on the tree till it is well colored, and unless it is well-colored it fades in the barrel some much as to render it almost valueless for market. It varies greatly in keeping qualities in different seasons but usually October is its commercial limit in ordinary storage. In cold storage it may be held until December (30). The tree is a moderately strong grower, hardy, generally pretty healthy, moderately long-lived and a reliable cropper yielding good to rather heavy crops biennially. It is not a very good grower in the nursery. Some growers hold that it is desirable to topwork it upon some more vigorous stock as Northern Spy. Although many fruit growers regard it as a fairly profitable commercial apple it cannot be recommended for general cultivation.
Waugh remarks that in Grand Isle county, Vermont, "It is rather common but not highly prized. It precedes Fameuse in season and is of the same general character" (25). Wooverton (29) states that it is not planted in the commercial orchards of Ontario bordering Lakes Ontario, Erie or Huron, but it is valued in orchards along the St. Lawrence river and parts of the Province between the latitudes 45 and 46. In the Niagara district it is considerably affected by scab and by codling moth.
Historical. As early as 1835 St. Lawrence was recommended as one of the American varieties which was worthy of cultivation in England (3). Its origin does not appear to be definitely known but some credit it to this country (12,17,26,28,29). In 1848 Thomas (6) described it as a newly introduced variety cultivated in the vicinity of Rochester and originally from Lower Canada. In 1862 it was entered in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society (15). It is frequently listed by nurserymen (23) but is now seldom planted in New York state.

TREE.

Tree medium size, moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading.
Twigs smooth, rather dark reddish brown.

FRUIT

Fruit large to medium.
Form oblate inclined to conic varying to roundish oblate, faintly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium in length, moderately slender.
Cavity large, acute, deep, regular, greenish-russeted.
Calyx small, closed.
Basin rather small, narrow, moderately deep, abrupt, wrinkled.
Skin pale yellow washed and marbled with bright red striped and splashed with bright dark carmine and overspread with thin white bloom.
Dots numerous rather obscure, fine, russet.
Calyx tube narrow, cone-shape to funnel-form.
Stamens median.
Core medium size, somewhat abaxile; cells partly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels obovate to elliptical, emarginate.
Flesh white, sometimes slightly stained with red, tender, fine-grained, crisp, juicy, mild subacid, good to very good for dessert; rather mild for culinary uses.
Season September and October.

St. Peter
References.  1.
Synonyms.  No. 80 (5,9). No. 372 (9). Petrovskoe (5,9). Petrowskoe (2,3,9).
A small August apple, greenish-yellow streaked and splashed with dull carmine, mild subacid, fair quality. The tree is a moderately vigorous grower, rather slow in coming into bearing and not a reliable cropper. Not valuable for planting in New York.
Historical. A Russian apple imported by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1870. It was receivd in 1888 from Dr. T.H. Hoskins, Newport, VT, for testing at this Station (6).

Sandy Glass
References.  1.
Synonyms.  No. 24 M (1-3, 5,8,9). Steklianka pesotchnaya (1).

A rather attractive apple of greenish-yellow color and often faintly blushed; it is of pretty good quality but inferior to Fall Pippin and other standard varieties of its season. The tree is below medium size, not a strong grower, comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper yielding pretty good crops nearly annually. It is not valuable for planting in New York except possibly in localities where superior hardiness is specially desired.
Historical. Imported from Russia by the Iowa Agricultural College (1) from which institution it was received in 1890 for testing at this Station.

TREE.

Tree below medium size, moderately vigorous.
Form rather flat, spreading and somewhat inclined to droop.
Twigs moderately long, curved, stout; internodes medium.
Bark dull brown, heavily coated with rough gray scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels very conspicuous, numerous, large to medium, oval, raised.
Buds medium size, broad, plump, acute to obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit above medium to large, quite uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish oblate or inclined to ovate, regular, sometimes obscurely ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium length, rather thick.
Cavity rather small, acuminate to acute, moderately deep, narrow to medium in width, usually symmetrical, more or less russeted and often with outspreading rays of thin russet.
Calyx small, closed; lobes medium to short, acute.
Basin shallow to moderately deep, medium in width to wide, lightly furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin pale greenish-yellow often becoming clear yellow as it ripens, faintly blushed and overspread with whitish bloom.
Dots numerous, light, small, submerged, mingled with a few that are large and russet.
Calyx tube very long, moderately wide, conical to cylindrical.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core medium to small, axile; cells symmetrical, closed or slightly open; core lines meeting or clasping.
Carpels roundish or somewhat ovate, deeply emarginate.
Seeds large, wide, plump, acute to obtuse, dull dark brown.
Flesh white or with greenish tinge, rather fine, tender, juicy, brisk subacid, fair to good.
Season September to early winter.

Saxton
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Fall Stripe (3-5, 7-10).
An old New England variety (3). Fruit yellow, shaded and splashed with light and dark red; flesh a little coarse, subacid, good to very good; season September. It was put upon the list of the American Pomological Society in 1871 (2) and dropped from that list in 1897. It is still listed by some nurserymen (6) but so far as we can learn it is practically unknown among New York fruit growers.

Scarlet Pippin
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Crimson Beauty (3). Crimson Pippin (2). Crimson Scarlet Pippin (2). Leeds Beauty (4-6,8).
An apple of the Fameuse group which is quite closely resembles McIntosh (2), but is firmer in flesh and slightly more acid. "A very attractive looking apple said to sell better than Fameuse, which it does not equal in quality. Tree a strong, upright grower and said to be a heavy bearer" (6). Season about the same as Wealthy or earlier (1). It appears to be worthy of testing in New York especially in those regions of the state where Fameuse and McIntosh succeed best.
Historical. Originated about 1860 at Lynn, Leeds county, Ontario, near Brockville, where it has been locally grown for some years (4,7). Mr. Harold Jones, Maitland, ON, Experimenter for Ontario for apples in the St. Lawrence river district, has had most to do with bringing this variety to notice as an autumn dessert fruit of value (6), but the report that the variety originated with him is incorrect (7).

TREE.

Tree vigorous.
Form upright.
Twigs long, straight, stout; internodes short.
Bark dark brown or reddish-brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent near tips.
Lenticels numerous, very conspicuous, medium size, oval, slightly raised.
Buds medium size, flat, obtuse, appressed, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium size.
Form rounish inclined to oblate, regular.
Stem (Pedicel) short, stout to slender.
Cavity acute, shallow to deep, moderately wide to wide, sometimes lipped.
Calyx closed or open.
Basin narrow, shallow, slightly wrinkled or almost wanting.
Core small.
Flesh white, firm, crisp, tender, melting, juicy, mild subacid with a pleasant but not high flavor, very good.
Season fall and early winter.

Schuyler Sweet
References.  1. Thomas, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1871:49. 2. Rural NY 1871:108. 3. Downing, 1872:31 app.
Synonyms.  None.
This variety is unknown to us. We have received no report concerning it from any of our correspondents. Thomas gave the following description of it in 1871 (1): "A large, showy apple, ripening in October, originated on the lands of Rensselaer Schuyler, Seneca Falls, NY. Tree in vigor and form resembles the Baldwin, and is productive.
"Fruit large, roundish, inclining to roundish oblate; pale yellow with a few scattering brown dots; stalk slender, inserted in a large deep cavity; calyx closed; basin large, deep, slightly corrugated; flesh whitish, half fine, tender, moderately juicy, pleasant, sweet; quality good to very good; core small."

Scollop Gilliflower
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Cornish Gilliflower (3). Five-Quartered Gilliflower (7,9). Jellyflower (7,9). Red Gilliflower (3,5 of some 7 & 9). Ribbed Gilliflower (7,9). Scalloped Gillyflower (1). Scalloped Gilliflower (5). Scolloped Gilliflower (3,6).
An old variety of unknown origin which was formerly grown to some extent in this state but is now practically obsolete. It has sometimes been confounded with the Red Gilliflower of Elliott (2) and sometimes with Striped Gilliflower (9). It has been much esteemed in some portions of Ohio (2). Downing describes it as a moderate or poor grower with young shoots much darker colored than those of Striped Gilliflower, the tree more spreading and unproductive and the fruit more ribbed, much darker, rather dull red with broader stripes and splashes, with flesh more yellow, mildly subacid, aromatic, richer in quality and a month or more later in ripening than Striped Gilliflower (9).
Elliott (2) describes the fruit as "medium to large, roundish conical, flattened at base, tapering toward the eye, sometimes angular, always much ribbed or scolloped, light yellow, striped and splashed with shades of light light and dark red; stem short, slender; cavity deep, russeted, irregular; calyx with long segments; basin abrupt, deep, ribbed; core large, hollow; seeds ovate, rounded; flesh yellowish, firm, crisp, tender, juicy, slight tinge of sweet. November to February."

Scott Best
References.  1. Downing, 1869:349.
Synonyms.  None.
We are unacquainted with this variety and have received no report concerning it from any of our correspondents. According to Downing, it originated on the farm of Luther Scott, Hinsdale, Cattaraugus county, NY. The tree is moderately vigorous, spreading; the fruit medium to large, yellowish, shaded and mottled with light red, striped and splashed with crimson; flesh whitish, fine, tender, subacid, good to very good. Season November and December (1).

Seneca Favorite
References.  1.Mag. Hort., 19:165. 1853. 2. Warder, 1867:731.
Synonyms.  None.
A large, attractive, pale yellow apple. It resembles Swaar, but is earlier and larger, and its texture is more crisp (Wilson, C.S., Hist. of the Apple in NY State, unpublished thesis Cornell Univ. 1905.). It is excellent for dessert as well as for culinary uses. The crop begins to ripen in early autumn, and continues ripening in succession through a period of several weeks. The later fruit may be kept into early winter or midwinter. The tree is of medium size, vigorous, round-headed. It is a desirable variety for the home orchard.
Historical. N.S. Page states (Letter, 1905) that the original tree of Seneca Favorite grew upon his father's farm, five mies southwest of Geneva, and was an old tree forty-five years ago. It has been grown to a limited extent as an apple for the home orchard in various localities in Ontario county, particularly in the town of Seneca. Downing states Seneca Favorite as a synonym for Quince (Downing, 1872:10 index, app.), but the true Seneca Favorite is surely not identical with Quince. It is now seldom propagated.

FRUIT

Fruit very large to medium, usually large.
Form variable, roundish conic to oblong conic, nearly regular but somewhat ribbed and elliptical; axis sometimes oblique; sides usually unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) long to medium, moderately slender.
Cavity acute, deep, broad, quite strongly furrowed and compressed, usually somewhat russeted.
Calyx small to above medium, closed or somewhat open; lobes broad, acute to acuminate.
Basinvery small, shallow or very shallow, narrow, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin rather thick, tough, smooth or slightly roughened by russet dots, at first green but becoming attractive pale yellow often with faint blush which sometimes deepens to a moderately bright rather pinkish-red, not striped.
Dots numerous, irregular, large and small, varying from prominent russet to obscure and submerged, often reddish on blushed cheek.
Calyx tube funnel-form usually with long, narrow cylinder but sometimes short.
Stamens median to basal.
Core rather large, somewhat abaxile; cells symmetrical, closed or somewhat open; core lines clasping.
Carpels elliptical, emarginate, smooth.
Seeds numerous, medium to above, dark brown, plump, obtuse to acute.
Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, agreeably subacid, sprightly, very good.
Season fall and early winter to midwinter.

Sharp
References.  1. Beach, NY Sta. An. Rpt., 11:602. 1803. 2. Ib., Gard. and For., 8:428. 1895. 3. Burrill and McCluer, Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:311. 1896. 4. Powell and Fulton, USBPI Bul., 48:56. 1903. 5. Beach and Clark, NY Sta. Bul., 248:144. 1904.
Synonyms.  None.
This at its best is an excellent dessert fruit of very attractive appearance and very good quality. It is less suitable for most culinary uses because it is mildly subacid or nearly sweet, and it is not a good market variety because very often it is below medium size and not highly colored. It resembles Maiden Blush somewhat in shape and color. In this region it comes in season early in October or late in September. In ordinary storage it commonly reaches its commercial limit in November, but sometimes a portion of the fruit keeps till March. The tree is not a strong grower, but it comes into bearing young and yields full crops biennially.
It is distinct from both Sharp Greening and Sharp Russet. Buckman believes that it is the same as the Butler or Butler Sweet of Pennsylvania (Letter, 1895). Historical. Received from Benjamin Buckman, Farmingdale, Illinois, in 1889 for testing at this Station. Mr. Buckman obtained his stock from the Illinois Experiment Station. That Station secured the variety from A.N. Lawver, who received it from Halliday and Son, Baltimore, Maryland.

TREE.

Tree below medium size, a slow grower with short, moderately stout branches.
Form upright spreading or roundish, open.
Twigs short to below medium, stout to rather slender, straight; internodes medium.
Bark dull brown or brownish-red with some live-green, streaked with thin scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium to small, oblong, slightly raised.
Buds medium size or below medium, prominent, plump, obtuse, free or nearly so, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit often below medium, sometimes above medium, uniform in shape and size.
Form roundish oblate to roundish conic, sometimes approaching oblong conic, regular or very faintly ribbed, symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) often very short and not exserted.
Cavity usually rather large, acute to acuminate, moderately deep to deep, moderately wide to wide, sometimes very slightly furrowed and often russeted.
Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open; lobes long.
Basin moderately shallow to rather deep, moderately wide, abrupt, smooth or sometimes slightly ridged or wrinkled.
Skin attractive pale yellow partly covered with a bright blush.
Dots minute, pale or brown.
Calyx tube funnel-form.
Stamens median to basal.
Core medium in size, somewhat abaxile; cells open or closed; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish or somewhat elliptical, emarginate.
Seeds medium or above, moderately long, rather flat, obtuse, dark.
Flesh whitish, moderately firm, fine-grained, tender, crisp, juicy, mild subacid, nearly sweet, very good.
Season late September into October.

Sherman
References.  1. Rural NY 1870 (cited by 3). 2. Downing, 1872:31 app. 3. Ragan, USBPI Bul., 56:281. 1905.
Synonyms.  Sherman's Favorite (2,3). Sherman's Sweet (1-3).
A yellow sweet apple of good medium size and mild, rather rich flavor; in season from November to January (2). Downing states that it originated on the farm of E.C. Sherman, Wyoming, NY. We have received no report concerning this variety and find no account of its having been grown outside of the place of its origin.

Shiawassee
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Michigan Beauty (5). Shiawasse Beauty (3,7,8,20). Shiawassee Beauty (1,2,4-6,9-12,16-19,22-25, 27-30). Shiawassie Beauty (15).
Fruit of the Fameuse type, of good size, quite attractive appearance and pleasant dessert quality. It has a flavor and aroma somewhat similar to that of McIntosh. Probably McIntosh would be preferred to Shiawassee by most fruit growers. The fruit of Shiawassee is fair, uniform and hangs pretty well to the tree. It ripens in October, and some portion of the fruit may be held till January. The tree is of uniform size, very hardy, vigorous, upright spreading, healthy and long-lived. It does not come into bearing very young, and when mature in some cases it is not a reliable cropper, but it is generally reported as yielding good to heavy crops biennially, or sometimes annually.
Historical. The original tree was planted as an ungrafted seedling in the orchard of Beebe Truesdell, in Vernon, Shiawassee county, Mich., and came into bearing about 1850 (1). The variety is often listed by nurserymen but is seldom planted in this state.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to nearly large, uniform in shape, but not in size.
Form oblate conic, pretty regular but sometimes elliptical.
Stem (Pedicel) medium in length, slender to moderately thick.
Cavity acute, varying from nearly acuminate to somewhat obtuse, deep, broad, rather symmetrical, sometimes compressed, often with outspreading russet rays.
Calyx small to below medium, closed or slightly open; lobes rather short, moderately narrow.
Basin rather shallow to moderately deep, rather wide, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, somewhat furrowed and wrinkled, often compressed.
Skin rather pale yellow, usually entirely overspread with attractive red, irregularly splashed and striped with carmine.
Dots small to medium, grayish.
Calyx tube medium size, moderately wide, conical to short funnel-shape.
Stamens median to nearly basal.
Core below medium size, widely abaxile; cells symmetrical, usually open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels cordate to broadly ovate.
Seeds rather dark brown, medium size, rather narrow, plump, acute.
Flesh white, fine, crisp, tender, juicy, pleasant subacid, aromatic, rather sprightly, good to very good.
Season October to January.

Sine-Qua-Non
References.  1.
Synonyms.  None.
An August apple of good dessert quality, now seldom found in cultivation. It originated on Long Island and was brought to notice by Wm. Prince (2). It was entered on the catalogue of the American Pomological Society in 1862 (11) and dropped from that list in 1871. The tree is a rather slow, crooked grower, in some cases an indifferent bearer (7), in others productive (4,13). Fruit medium size, roundish ovate, pale greenish-yellow; flesh greenish-white, tender, juicy, mild subacid, sprightly, good; season late August.

Slingerland
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Slingerland's Fall Pippin (2). Slingerland Pippin (1,3-5).
An excellent flavored apple of the Green Newtown type in season during late fall and early winter. It is not as good a keeper as Green Newtown. Raised from seed of the Newtown about 1830 by a Mr. Slingerland of New Scotland, Albany county, NY (1,2).

FRUIT (1-3).

Fruit medium to large.
Form roundish, often oblique.
Stem (Pedicel) exserted but short.
Calyx small to medium, partly closed.
Skin yellow splashed with reddish-orange over the base.
Dots minutes.
Core small.
Flesh whitish tinged with yloow, firm, tender, juicy, brisk, rather rich subacid, good to very good.
Season December to February or later.

Somerset (N.Y.)
References.  1.  [***will be added later***]
Synonyms.  Will be added later.
An early apple of high sprightly flavor. A fine family fruit. The tree is an unusually early bearer, upright spreading, vigorous and productive. Season late August to October (4, 6, 7).
There is a distinct variety of Maine origin which is also called Somerset. Historical.  Brought to notice by C.L. Hoag, Lockport, N.Y. Origin unknown but supposed to be Somerset, Niagara county, NY (2). This variety appears to have been but sparingly disseminated.
Tree.  large, vigorous.
Fruit (2,5)
Fruit: below medium.
Form Like 'Black Gilliflower', roundish conical.
Skin deep golden-yellow to whitish-yellow with sometimes a few nettings of russet and sparsely sprinkled with brown dots.
Flesh quite white, tender, juicy, with a rich aromatic flavor; quality very good or best.
Season late August to October.

Sops of Wine
References.  1.  [***will be added later***]
Synonyms.  Will be added later.
A dark crimson apple; flesh fine, stained with red; in season in August and September. The tree is a good grower, comes into bearing rather young and is a biennial or nearly annual cropper. Of little value except as a dessert apple for family use.
Historical.  "A very ancient English culinary and cider apple" (24). It is frequently listed by nurserymen but is now seldom planted in New York being superseded by other better varieties.
Tree.  medium to large, moderately vigorous to vigorous.
Form upright or inclined to roundish, rather dense.
Twigs short to rather long, curved, moderately stout; internodes short.
Bark dark brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; heavily pubescent.
Lenticels very scattering, small, oblong, not raised.
Buds medium size, broad, obtuse, free, pubescent.

Fruit medium to sometimes large, uniform in shape, but not in size.
Form roundish to roundish conic, slightly ribbed; sides unequal.
Stem short to rather long, moderately slender.
Cavity acute, moderately deep, medium or sometimes narrow, sometimes slightly furrowed, sometimes with thin, radiating russet rays.
Calyx medium to rather small, closed or slightly open; lobes rather short.
Basin shallow, narrow, furrowed, somewhat wrinkled.
Skin moderately thin, moderately tender, slightly roughened, greenish-yellow almost entirely overspread with purplish-red, mottled, irregularly splashed and sometimes indistinctly striped with dark carmine, overspread with thin white bloom.
Dots small, few, light russet or yellow.
Calyx tube short, wide, cone-shape.
Stamens marginal to median.
Core medium size, somewhat abaxile; cells usually symmetrical but not uniformly developed, open to nearly closed; core lines meeting.
Carpels broad ovate, rather concave, mucronate, tufted.
Seeds rather large or medium size, moderately wide, plump, obtuse.
Flesh yellowish often stained wth pink, soft, fine, juicy, aromatic, mild, pleasant, subacid, good.
Season August to October.
[Information from the Southeastern U.S. here.]

Sour Bough
References.  1. Downing, 1869:357.
Synonyms.  None.
This is an old Westchester county variety which, according to Downing, is of medium size, roundish conic, yellow with whitish, brisk subacid flesh, good for cooking. Season, September. "Often knotty and uprofitable" (1).
The name Sour Bough has also been applied sometimes to the Champlain; see page 30; and also to the Tart Bough; see page 220.

Spectator
References.  1. Downing, 1869:357.
Synonyms.  None.
Originated with J.W. Bailey, Plattsburg, NY. According to Downing (1), this is an apple of medium size, ribbed, yellow, shaded with red in the sun; flesh white, subacid, hardly good; season September. The variety is unknown to us.

Starkey
References.  1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875:65. 2. Downing, 1876:69 app. 3. Thomas, 1885:524. 4. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:133. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 1897:14. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903:179.
Synonyms.  None.
Fruit of good size, fair, well colored, largely striped and splashed with red, pleasant subacid, excellent for dessert or culinary use. Season, October to midwinter. In Maine, where it originated, it is said to be popular in market. It has not been sufficiently tested to determine its value for this state, but it appears to be worthy of testing. Tree a hardy and vigorous grower in the nursery, becoming rather large and spreading in the orchard; comes into bearing rather young and is a good biennial cropper.
Historical. Originated on the farm of Moses Starkey, North Vassalboro, Kennebec county, ME.

TREE.

Tree medium to rather large, moderately vigorous to vigorous with long, moderately stout, curved branches.
Form spreading or roundish, open.
Twigs medium to long, stout, geniculate, often irregularly crooked; internodes long to below medium.
Bark brownish-red mingled sometimes with olive-green, irregularly mottled with scarf-skin; pubescent near tips.
Lenticels scattering, inconspicuous, medium size or below, round, raised.
Buds medium to large, prominent, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to rather large.
Form oblate to oblate conical, regular or faintly ribbed, symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) medium length.
Cavity medium size, rather shallow, partly covered with greenish russet.
Calyx large, closed or nearly so.
Basin medium size, shallow, somewhat wrinkled.
Skin pale yellow, washed or deeply blushed with lively red, splashed and striped with carmine.
Dots pale gray or russet.
Prevailing effect red.
Calyx tube conical or somewhat funnel-form.
Core rather small.
Flesh whitish, firm, rather fine, juicy, crisp, pleasant, lively subacid, becoming mild subacid, very good.
Season October to January.

Starr
References.  1. Downing, Tilt. Jour. Hot., 6:347. 1869. fig. 2. Downing, 1869:360. 3. Thomas, 1875:512. 4. Hexamer, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:70. 5. Rural NY, 54:587. 1895. 6. Parry, NJ, Cat., 1896.
Synonyms.  None.
Fruit large, very attractive for a green or yellowish apple, and very good in quality, especially for dessert use. Season, August and September. The tree is a pretty good grower, comes into bearing young and as tested at this Station give promise of being an annual bearer. Starr appears worthy of testing where a fruit of this type is desired.
Historical. The original tree was found on the grounds of Judge J.M. White, Woodbury, NJ, which property afterward came into the possession of Mrs. Starr. The propagation of the variety was begun by Wm. Parry in 1865 under the name of Starr (6). So far as we can learn, it has been but little planted in New York.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous with short, moderately stout, curved branches.
Form upright spreading or roundish, rather dense.
Twigs long, curved, stout with large terminal buds; internodes long.
Bark brownish-red, tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent near tips.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, round, not raised.
Buds prominent, large, long, broad, plump, acute, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit very large to large, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form distinctly oblate to roundish oblate, regular or faintly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, moderately thick, sometimes swollen.
Cavity acute, varying from a little obtuse to somewhat acuminate, shallow to medium, broad, smooth or gently furrowed.
Calyx medium size, closed, lobes long to medium, rather narrow, acuminate.
Basin medium in depth, narrow, abrupt, somewhat furrowed.
Skin rather thick, tough, nearly smooth, green becoming yellowish-green, sometimes with indications of a faint blush.
Dots numerous, small and large, pale or russet.
Calyx tube long, very wide to moderately wide, conical to cylindrical and large, extending to the core.
Stamens nearly marginal.
Core medium to rather large, abaxile to nearly axile; cells closed or slightly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels obovate, sometimes tufted.
Seeds dark brown, medium to large, rather wide, plump, acute to nearly acuminate.
Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately fine, very tender, crisp, very juicy, sprightly subacid, aromatic, very good.
Season August and September.

Stayman WinesapStayman pic
References.  1.  Downing, 1881:106 app. fig. 2. Stayman, Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:77.  3. Bailey, Mich. Sta. Bul., 31:54. 1887.  4. Rural N.Y. 55:1. 1896. 5. Amer. Gard., 17:33. 1896.   6. Van Deman, Rural N.Y., 57:201. 1898.  7. Powell, Del. Sta. Bul., 38:20. 1898. fig. 8. Van Deman, Rural N.Y., 58:800. 1899.  9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:20.  10.  Rural N.Y., 59:466, 510. 1900. fig. 11.  Amer. Gard., 22:191. 1901.  12.  Van Deman, Rural N.Y., 60:124, 210, 307,532. 1901.  13. Taylor, U.S. Dept. Agr. Yr. Bk., 1902:470. col. pl. 14. Rural N.Y. 61:688. 1902. 15. Bruner, N.C. Sta. Bul., 182:22. 1903. 16. Powell and Fulton, U.S.B.P.I. Bul., 48:57. 1903.  17. Budd-Hansen, 1903:180. fig. 18. Beach and Clark, N.Y. Sta. Bul. 248:145. 1904.
Synonyms.  Stayman (4,5,6,8,10,12,13,16). Stayman's Winesap (1-3,7,11,13) but erroneously.

Van Deman calls this the best variety of the Winesap class for general cultivation (12).  Taylor remarks that the only particular in which it does not equal its parent is in its color which is somewhat less brilliant than that of Winesap and adds that it appears to be adapted to a wider range of soil and climate and well worthy of testing throughout the middle latitudes, both for home use and for market (13).  As tested at this Station the tree is moderately vigorous, comes into bearing young and is a reliable annual cropper, alternating heavy with light crops; but the fruit, as shown by the accompanying illustration, does not develop properly here in size and color.  It is evidently not well suited for regions as far north as this.
Historical.  This variety was originated from seed of Winesap in 1866 at Leavenworth, Kan., by Dr. J. Stayman and bore its first fruit in 1875 (13).  The earliest published descriptions of it were given by Downing (1) and Stayman (2).  "Further than these descriptions the variety does not appear to have attracted any special attention until after 1890, when its good qualitites were discovered almost simultaneously by Mr. R. J. Black of Bremen, Ohio, and Mr. J.W. Kerr, of Denton, MD, both of whom fruited it on top grafts at about that time.  It was first catalogued by the latter in 1894-1895 and has been quite extensively planted in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia since that date, and somewhat in other States" (13).

Tree moderately vigorous. 
Form spreading and somewhat open.
Twigs below medium to rather long, irregularly crooked, moderately stout, with large terminal buds; internodes medium to long..
Bark dark brown or reddish-brown with some olive green, heavily coated with scarf-skin, pubescent near tips.
Lenticels inconspicuous, scattering, small to large, roundish, raised..
Buds prominent, above medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse to acute, pubescent.
Leaves medium in size.

Fruit medium to large, uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish conic to globular, flattened at the base and rounding toward the basin; sides sometimes slightly unequal.
Stem medium to short.
Cavity large, acuminate to acute, deep to very deep, medium in width to wide, often gently furrowed, sometimes compressed, usually partly russeted and sometimes with outspreading broken russet rays..
Calyx small to medium, closed or sometimes partly open; lobes long, acute to acuminate.
Basin small, sometimes oblique, varying from shallow, narrow and obtuse to medium in width and depth and abrupt, furrowed, somewhat wrinkled.
Skin smooth, rather thick, tough, green becoming yellowish, often nearly completely covered with rather dull mixed red and rather indistinctly striped with dull carmine.  In less highly colored specimens, the striped effect is more noticeable.
Dots light gray and russet, often rather large and conspicuous.
Prevailing effect bright very dark red.
Calyx tube cone-shaped to elongated funnel-form, sometimes extending nearly or quite to the core.
Stamens median.
Core small to medium, abaxile to nearly axile; cells symmetrical, closed or open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder
Carpels thin, tender quite concave broadly roundish to elliptical, emarginate.
Seeds variable, medium or above, long, obtuse to acute, plump; often some are abortive.
Flesh tinged with yellow or slightly greenish, firm, moderately fine-grained, tender, moderately crisp, breaking, juicy to very juicy, aromatic, sprightly, pleasant subacid, good to very good.
Season December to May; commercial limit, April.
[Information from the Southeastern U.S. here.]

Stillman Early
References.  1. Downing, 1857:193. 2. Thomas, 1875:512. 3. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:298.
Synonyms.  Stillman (3).
This variety originated in Clinton, Oneida county, NY. Downing (1) states that the tree is a moderate grower and productive; the fruit small, yellow, sometimes slightly blushed; flesh pleasant subacid, good; season late July and early August. We are unacquainted with this variety and have received no report concerning it from any of our correspondents.

Strawberry
Synonyms. 
This name has been applied to a great many different to a great many different varieties of the apple. Those mentioned in this volume are listed below:
Autumn Strawberry, see Late Strawberry.
Chenango Strawberry, see Chenango.
Early Strawberry
Fall Strawberry, see Late Strawberry.
Late Strawberry
St. John's Strawberry, see Early Strawberry.
Strawberry, see Chenango, Early Strawberry, Late Strawberry and Richard Graft.
Washington Strawberry

Striped Gilliflower
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Red Gilliflower (2). Scollop Gilliflower, incorrectly (2). Striped Bellflower (2).
This variety appears to be practically obsolete in New York. The tree is a vigorous grower and generally productive (2).

FRUIT

Fruit large to very large.
Form variable roundish conic to oblong conic, often furrowed, angular, but less ribbed than Scollop Gilliflower.
Stem (Pedicel) short, curved.
Cavity acute, deep, wide, furrowed, brown or russeted.
Calyx large, closed or partly open; lobes erect.
Basin shallow, abrupt.
Skin yellowish-white or greenish, partly covered with dull red, striped and splashed with carmine.
Dots few, indistinct, gray or white.
Calyx tube cone-shape.
Stamens median.
Core sessile, abaxile, large; cells wide open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels tufted.
Seeds few, small, roundish, plump, obtuse, black.
Flesh yellowish-white, breaking, juicy, briskly subacid, fair to good.
Season September.

Stroat
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Straat (2-4, 8,9).
Stroat was formerly much esteemed among the descendants of the Dutch settlers on the North river (4). The fruit is described as above medium, roundish inclined to conic, yellowish-green; flesh yellow, very tender, rich, brisk subacid, good to very good; season September to November or December (4,6,8).
We have not seen this fruit nor has it been mentioned by any of our correspondents.

Strode Birmingham
References.  1. Downing, 1857:193. 2. Warder, 1867:733. 3. PA Sta. Hort. Assn. Rpt., 1886:50. 4. Powell and Fulton, USPBI Bul., 48:57. 1903. 5. Beach and Clark, NY Sta. Bul., 248:145. 1904.
Synonyms.  Dumpling (3). Strode (4,5). Strode's (1). Strode's Birmingham (1-5).
A medium-sized yellow apple of mild subacid flavor and good quality. Commercial limit September. For home use it is in season in September and October and a few specimens may be kept till January (5). It is reported as a desirable variety for market and general purposes in Pennsylvania (3). The tree comes into bearing rather young and is productive yielding moderate to good crops nearly annually. As compared with standard varieties of its season, it does not appear to be worthy of the attention of the New York fruit growers.

FRUIT

Fruit of medium size; uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish conic or inclined to oblong, regular or faintly ribbed; sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) long, slender.
Cavity acute to almost acuminate, usually rather deep, medium in width, symmetrical, russeted.
Calyx medium to small, closed or partly open; lobes medium in length and width, acute, reflexed.
Basin shallow, narrow to medium in width, obtuse, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, tender, smooth, clear yellow or greenish, often with faint blush and marked with russet flecks.
Dots scattering, very minute, submerged, inconspicuous, red or russet.
Calyx tube short, wide, urn-shape to broadly conical.
Stamens nearly basal.
Core medium to small, axile; cells almost closed; core lines meeting.
Carpels broadly ovate to oblong narrowing toward either end, deeply emarginate.
Seeds dark dull brown, medium to large, wide, plump, broadly acute, tufted.
Flesh yellowish, rather firm, fine, rather rather crisp, tender, juicy, brisk subacid becoming mild and pleasant when fully mature, good to very good.
Season

Stump
References.  1.
Synonyms.  None.
This very beautiful apple resembles Chenango in form, size and general appearance. In Western New York it is by some considered a good variety for commercial planting, but others find difficulty in marketing it with profit, since it is esteemed chiefly for dessert purposes and ripens at a season when there is comparatively little demand for apples, and shows bruises so readily that it is not well adapted for barrelling. It may be marketed in local markets or shipped in small packages. The crop ripens unevenly, and on this account should have more than one picking in order to secure the fruit in prime condition. It begins to ripen in late August or early September. Its commercial limit is September or early October, but its season for home use extends to November (11). The trees are upright, compact and stocky, so that they may stand closer together than common varieties in the orchard, or be used for alternating with more spreading trees. They are hardy, long-lived, and reliable croppers, yielding good to heavy crops biennially. The fruit is borne on short spurs close to the limbs. It is recommended for planting in the garden and commercial orchard where a variety of this type is desired.
Historical. Originated as a chance seedling in an old stump on the rounds of John Prue, Chili, NY (1). It appears that it has been planted more in Western New York than in any other section of the state.

TREE.

Tree a slow, stiff, upright rower in the nursery, apt to crack at the collar, not popular with nurserymen; in the orchard it becomes a moderately vigorous or vigorous grower; branches long, moderately stout, curved, filled with fruit spurs.
Form very upright but eventually somewhat roundish.
Twigs moderately long, curved, moderately stout; internodes medium.
Bark brown tinged with green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, medium size, round, not raised.
Buds medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium or below, uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish conic to oblong conic, regular or faintly ribbed; sides sometimes unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) very short, variable in thickness.
Cavity acute or approaching obtuse, usually rather shallow, medium in width to rather broad, unsymmetrical, frequently furrowed, sometimes lipped, partly russeted.
Calyx medium to small, slightly open or closed; lobes short, rather narrow, acute.
Basin shallow, narrow, abrupt.
Skin smooth, clear pale yellow largely washed and mottled with bright pinkish-red, becoming deep red in highly-colored specimens, rather indistinctly striped and splashed with bright carmine.
Dots numerous, rather large, areolar with russet point or with whitish point.
Prevailing effect red and yellow contrasting beautifully.
Calyx tube broadly conical with fleshy pistil point projecting into the base.
Stamens basal.
Core below medium to rather large, usually abaxile; cells open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels elongated ovate tapering toward base and apex.
Seeds rather dark brown, medium to small, usually very wide, short, very plump, obtuse to acute.
Flesh whitish or tinged with yellow, rather fine, tender, juicy, rich, aromatic, sprightly pleasant subacid; very good.
Season September and October.

Stymus
References.  1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1867 (cited by 3). 2. Downing, 1869:365. 3. Ragan, USBPI Bul., 56:298. 1905.
Synonyms.  Stymer's (3).
This variety was described by Downing in 1869 as a new and really excellent apple which originated on the farm of Jacob Stymus, Dobbs Ferry, NY (2). Fruit medium size, yellowish, shaded, splashed and striped with light and dark crimson; flesh fine, tender, pleasant subacid, very good; season October and November.
We are unacquainted with this variety and have received no report concerning it from any of our correspondents.

Suffolk Beauty
References.  1. Downing, 1869:365.
Synonyms.  None.
Described in 1869 by Downing (1) as a new variety from Deer Park, Long Island. Fruit medium, yellowish-white; flesh subacid; season August and September.
This variety is unknown to us and we have received no report concerning it from any of our correspondents.

Summer Bellflower
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Summer Bellefleur (1,8). Summer Belle-fleur (5).
This fruit bears considerable resemblance in form and color to Yellow Bellflower. Flesh tender, subacid, good. It is in season from the middle of August to the middle of September. The tree is erect, of medium size, a good grower, hardy and a good cropper. It is not considered a satisfactory variety for commercial planting and so far as we can learn is gradually becoming obsolete in New York. Downing described it in 1848 as a new variety of promise and stated that it was raised by John R. Comstock of Washington, Dutchess county, NY from seed of the Esopus Spitzenburg (1,6). It was entered on the list of the American Pomological Society in 1875 as a variety of value for Nebraska (8). It was dropped from that list in 1897.
A distinct variety of Pennsylvania origin has also been known under the name Summer Bellflower (6,7).

Summer Pearmain
References.  1.
Synonyms.  American Pearmain (19, 20). American Summer (26). American Summer Pearmain (7,8,11-14, 16, 19-25, 27, 29). Early Summer Pearmain (2,5-7, 11,14,16, 19, 23,25, of Coxe 13). Watkins Early (19,20).
An amateur fruit which when perfect is beautiful and of mild, rich, excellent flavor (26). The tree being of slender growth in the nursery is not a favorite with nurserymen and although it makes a large productive tree in the orchard, it is not profitable as a market variety (22). It is desirable for family use because the fruit is suitable both for culinary and dessert purposes and the crop ripens in succession through a period of nearly two months.
There is also another Summer Pearmain or English Summer Pearmain which ripens somewhat later (Ragan, U.S.B.P.I. Bul., 56:300. 1905). Historical. Supposed to be of American origin. It is an old variety; first described in 1817 by Coxe.

FRUIT (11, 14, 22, 23)

Fruit of medium size.
Form variable, oblong or roundish inclined to conic, sometimes oblate.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long.
Cavity deep, acute, regular.
Calyx large, open or closed.
Basin medium size, abrupt, slightly wrinkled.
Skin smooth, greenish-yellow, more or less covered with dull purplish-red, marbled, splashed and striped with brighter red.
Dots minute.
Core medium to small, roundish; cells closed.
Seeds small, pointed.
Flesh yellowish, very fine, tender, almost melting, juicy, aromatic, crisp, mild subacid, best.
Season August and September.

Summer Queen
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Lancaster Queen (15, 20). Polecat (20). Queen (3, 6, 13). Sharpe's Early (20). Sweet's Harvest (1,3,4,6). Swett's Harvest (2).
A striped red apple of good size and excellent quality for culinary use, in season during late summer. In regions farther west it is a very popular variety for home use and is also considered by some desirable for market. The tree is a moderate grower with rather spreading habit and productive, yielding good crops almost annually.
Historical. This is an old variety which is supposed to have originated in this country (4, 19, 26). it is commonly listed by nurserymen in most parts of the country (25). So far as we have been able to learn it is not often grown in New York and is now seldom planted in this state.

FRUIT (10, 12, 15, 19).

Fruit medium to large.
Form roundish conical, somewhat angular.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long, slender.
Cavity narrow to rather wide, regular, pretty deep.
Calyx medium to large, open or closed.
Basin shallow or none, furrowed.
Skin yellow, striped, splashed and shaded with mixed red.
Dots minute, yellow.
Core medium size; cells open.
Seeds numerous, acute, brown.
Flesh whitish-yellow, sometimes with tinge of pink, firm, aromatic juicy, subacid, good to very good for culinary use.
Season August and September.

Summer Rambo
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Cambour des Lorrains (15). Charmant Blanc (15). De Lorraine (15). De Rambourg (15). De Rambure (15). De Notre-Dame (15). Frank Rambour (1,7,9). Grosh (16). Gros-Rambour de Notre-Dame (6). Rambour (3,15,17). Rambour Blanc (15). (Rambour D'Amerique, 19)? Rambour D'Ete (4,6,8-11). Rambour Franc (2,4-7,9-12, 15,21). Rambourg Aigre (15). Rambour Gros (7, of the English 6). Rambour Raye (6,15). Rambu (15). Remboure d'Ete (15). Summer Rambour (4,9-11).
Fruit of the type of Grosh; very attractive in size, form and color; large, oblate, yellowish-green considerably striped and splashed with mixed red, good to very good. Season early autumn. Begins to ripen about a month earlier than Grosh. The tree is a strong grower, comes in to bearing young and bears quite regularly yielding moderate to good crops. Although it has long been known in cultivation in this country it has not gained much recognition among New York fruit growers. The fine color and size of this variety combined with its comparatively good quality recommend it for home use or local market. It is an old variety and has been tested in many parts of the United States but its cultivation has never become extensive. These facts would indicate that it has weaknesses not apparent to the casual observer. Possibly it is worthy of further trial in this state.
Historical. This variety is said to have originated in France (15). It has long been known in this country having been described by Coxe in 1817 and Kenrick in 1832 (4,6). It was listed in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society under the name Rambour Franc from 1862 to 1871 (12,14,20). It is still listed by nurserymen (18). It is comparatively little known in New York state but is more often found in cultivation in Ohio and regions farther west.

TREE.

Tree vigorous.
Form upright spreading to roundish, open.
Twigs moderately long, curved, moderately stout; internodes medium.
Bark brown, tinged with green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, round, not raised.
Buds medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit large to very large, uniform in size and shape.
Form oblate to roundish oblate, sometimes slightly ovate, sometimes faintly ribbed, pretty regular; sides often unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, rather thick.
Cavity nearly acuminate, deep to medium in depth, rather broad, usually symmetrical, sometimes lipped, sometimes slightly russeted close to the stem.
Calyx rather large, closed or sometimes slightly open; lobes medium to short, rather narrow, acute to obtuse.
Basin deep to sometimes medium, wide to medium in width, abrupt, smooth, symmetrical.
Skin thick, tough, smooth, attractive clear bright yellow or greenish, in well colored specimens largely washed and mottled with lively pinkish-red, conspicuously marked with many broken stripes and splashes of bright carmine.
Dots numerous, usually small and submerged, but some are scattering, large, brown or russet.
Prevailing effect striped. Calyx tube medium in length, rather wide, broadly conical.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core rather small, axile; cells nearly closed; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels roundish to roundish ovate approaching elliptical.
Seeds frequently abortive, rather large, wide, plump, acute, moderately dark brown.
Flesh yellowish-green, firm, breaking, coarse, tender, very juicy, mildly subacid, somewhat aromatic, good.
Season September to November.

Summer Redstreak
References.  1. Downing, 1869:371.
Synonyms.  None.
A September apple which originated in Columbia county, NY. According to Downing (1), the tree is moderately vigorous and productive. The fruit medium, yellowish, shaded, striped and splashed with rich red; flesh white, sometimes a little stained next [to] the skin, brisk subacid, valued for cooking.
We have neither seen this variety nor received any report concerning it.

Summer Rose
References.  1.
Synonyms.  French Reinette (10). Harvest Apple (2,3,6). Lippincott (10,13,16). Lodge's Early (23). Wolman's Harvest (16). Woolman's Early (11, 14, 17). Woolman's Harvest (1,8,10,16). Woolman's Striped Harvest (11).
A little dessert apple. Thomas rated it better in quality for the table than Early Harvest but less productive and too small for general value (11). The tree is a moderately vigorous or slow grower but is hardy, comes in to bearing young and is productive. Suitable for culinary use in July, ripe in August.
Historical. This is an old new Jersey apple which Coxe described as of singular beauty and excellent for both eating and stewing; the size is moderate, the form flat, the skin smooth, of a beautiful yellow resembling wax, blended with red in streaks and blotches (2). It is still occasionally listed by nurserymen (26) but is now seldom or never planted in New York.

FRUIT

Fruit small to nearly medium.
Form roundish, somewhat oblate.
Stem (Pedicel) rather short to medium, varying from stout to slender.
Cavity shallow, acute, regular.
Calyx small, closed or partly open.
Basin regular, wide, abrupt, slightly furrowed.
Skin smooth, waxen, very pale yellow, striped and splashed distinctly with bright red and carmine on the exposed cheek.
Dots minute.
Core medium to large; cells closed; core lines meeting.
Seeds ovate, numerous, short, plump.
Flesh white, fine-grained, crisp, very tender, sprightly, juicy, subacid, agreeable but not rich, suitable for either culinary or dessert use.
Season

Summer Spitzenburg
References.  1.Downing, 1872:36 app. fig.
Synonyms.  French Spitzenburg (1).
This is a September apple of attractive color. It is but little grown in New York. The tree is large, upright or roundish, a good grower, hardy, long-lived and reliably productive yielding good crops biennially. It is not considered valuable for commercial planting because the fruit is apt to be undersized and drops badly. By some it is esteemed for home use.
Historical. Downing states that it originated with Woolsey Ostrander, Plattekill, Ulster county, NY (1).

FRUIT (1).

Fruit medium, whitish almost covered with red and overspread with thin bloom.
Flesh moderately juicy, a little aromatic, good to very good.
Season August and September.

Summer Sweet
References.  1. mag. Hort.,, 14:388. 1848. fig. 2. Cole, 1849:97. 3. Hooper, 1857:87. 4. Downing, 1869:372.
Synonyms.  Summer Sweeting (1)..
A yellow sweet apple ripe in August and September. The tree is of medium size, moderately vigorous, spreading, productive. Fruit medium size, roundish oblate inclined to conic; flesh whitish, tender, rich, sweet (2,4).
Historical. An old Connecticut apple (1,2,4) now but very seldom found in cultivation in New York.

Sweet Bough
References.  1.
Synonyms.  August Sweet (22). August Sweeting (12). Autumn Bough (11). Bough (4,5,7,10-13, 17, 22, 24,25,27,29,34). Bough Apple (2,6,8,20). Bough, Early Sweet (18). Bough, Sweet (37). (Bow Apple 1,3?) Early Bough (7,9,11,25,27). Early French Reinette (4). Early Sweet Bough (10,11,13,17,22). Early Sweetheart ((36). Large Bough (21). Large Early Bough (28). Large Early Yellow Bough (27). Large Sweet Bough (15,19,30). Large Yellow Bough (10,16,22,23,26,27,33). Large Yellow Bough (11,13,15,17,20,21,25,30,31,34,35,37). Niack Pippin (17). Pound's July (26). Sweetbough (28). Sweet Harvest (10,11,17,22,25,27). Yellow Bough (12). Washington (17, 25, incorrectly 22).
This variety is a universal favorite throughout the state for the home orchard. Hovey (11) well says of it: "The Bough is one of our finest summer apples, having all the good qualities which should recommend a fruit for general cultivation. The tree is moderately vigorous, making a handsome head, and bears abundant crops of large, very fair fruit, which begins to ripen the last of July, and remains in eating till the first of September. As a table apple, it will not rank as high as the Early Harvest; but, as a kitchen fruit, in its honied sweetness and tender flesh, it has no equal of its season. It should be found in every good collection."
It is handled to a limited extent in local markets, but is too soft to stand shipping to distant markets. it cannot be ranked among the profitable commercial varieties. The tree comes into bearing rather young, and under favorable conditions is long-lived, specimens being found sixty to eighty years old which are still quite productive. In unfavorable locations the tree is sometimes injured by winter, and the branches are attacked somewhat by the apple canker.
Historical. This was described by Coxe in 1817 under the name Bough apple (2). It is evidently of American origin.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading to roundish, dense.
Twigs short, straight, moderately stout with large terminal buds; internodes short.
Bark clear brown mingled with olive-green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; not pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small, round, not raised.
Buds medium in size, plump, acute, free, not pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit above medium to large, uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish conic or ovate to sometimes slightly oblong conic with broad and rather flat base, pretty regular; sides often unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, moderately thick, usually not exserted.
Cavity acuminate, deep, rather broad, sometimes furrowed or compressed, usually smooth.
Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open; lobes often leafy, sometimes separated at base, long, narrow, acute.
Basin rather small, medium to rather shallow, narrow, a little abrupt, smooth or slightly wrinkled.
Skin rather thick, tough, smooth, pale greenish-yellow often changing to yellowish-white, sometimes faintly blushed.
Dots numerous, small, often light colored and submerged, sometimes russet.
Calyx tube long, wide at top, conical to funnel-shape.
Stamens median.
Core rather large to medium, abaxile to nearly axile; cells closed or open; core lines clasping.
Carpels roundish to cordate, slightly emarginate, slightly tufted.
Seeds light brown, medium to rather small, plump, acute.
Flesh white, moderately firm, fine, somewhat crisp, very tender, juicy, sweet, slightly aromatic, good to very good.
Season August and early September.

Sweet Fall Pippin
References.  1. Downing, 1857:192. 2. Warder, 1867:733. 3. Thomas, 1875:513.
Synonyms.  None.
A large, greenish-yellow apple, good either for dessert or for culinary uses; in season from October to January. The tree is large, spreading, vigorous to very vigorous, hardy and a reliable cropper yielding good crops annually or nearly annually. It is not a good variety for commercial planting. Downing refers to it as being grown in Weschester county (1). it is also occasionally found in Western New York. We do not find it listed by nurserymen and it is gradually going out of cultivation.

Sweet Russet
References.  1. Warder, 1867:528. fig. 2. Downing, 1869:377. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:250.
Synonyms.  Summer Russet (2).
A small roundish or oblate apple, yellow, mostly covered with light russet tinged with red in the sun, juicy, sweet, very good; season September and October. Tree large, spreading and drooping, a moderately vigorous grower, hardy, long-lived and usually a reliable cropper yielding good crops biennially. Origin unknown. It was at one time disseminated by Parsons and Company, Flushing, NY.
The name Sweet Russet has also been applied to the variety described as Pumpkin Russet on page 170.

Sweet WinesapSweet Winesap pic
References.  1.  Elliott, 1854:160- not the Sweet Winesap of Downing. 2. Warder, 1867:721,734.  3. Downing, 1869:378.  4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871:10.  5. Thomas, 1875:501.  6. Ib., 1875:514.  7. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:298.  8. Thomas, 1897:270.  9. Budd-Hansen, 1903:186.  10. Beach and Clark, NY Sta. Bul., 248:124.  1904.  11. Ragan, U.S.B.P.I. Bul., 56:141. 1905.  12. Ib., 56:170. 1905.  13. Ib., 56:304,305. 1905.
Synonyms.  Bailey Sweet (10) incorrectly.  Hendrick (10). Hedrick Sweet (10).  Henrick (11).  Henrick Sweet (2,5,7,8,11,13,?3).  Henry Sweet (3,13). Ladies' Sweet of some (3,12,13), but erroneously. Lady Sweet of some, but erroneously.  Lady Sweeting of some, but erroneously.  Red Sweet Winesap (3,13). Rose Sweet.  Sweet Pearmain (8).  Sweet Pearmain of some (3,13).  Sweet Wine Sap (6).

An attractive red winter apple, symmetrical, uniform, of good medium size, or, under favorable conditions, rather large.  It is excellent in quality for dessert or for baking or other culinary uses.  Some fruit growers report that the tree is satisfactorily hardy, but others find that it is a little lacking in in hardiness and for that reason prefer to top-work it upon some vigourous, hardy stock such as Northern Spy, Roxbury or Golden Russet..  It is usually healthy and moderately long-lived.  It tends to form a rather dense head, particularly where thorough tillage is practiced, and for this reason the top should be made sufficiently open so that the foliage may be kept in good working condition throughout the tree.  The tree is not an early bearer, but when it comes into bearing it is a reliable cropper.  In many cases it is inclined to overbear and produce a considerable amount of undersized fruit.  Some few hold that two pickings should be made on account of the tendency of the fruit to drop, but others report that it hangs to the tree well enough so that but one picking is needed if the fruit is gathered before it is too far advanced in maturity.  The fruit has a tough skin, stands heat well before going into storage and remains sprightly and crisp till late in the seaon.  As grown in Western New York it ordinarily comes into season in November and may be held in common storage till April first or in cold storage till May fifteenth (10).  It sells well in markets where there is any considerable demand for a red winter apple of sweet flavor.  It is often shipped to Baltimore, Washington and other southern markets.
 
Historical.  Downing described Sweet Winesap in 1869 as a variety from Pennsylvania (3), with Henrick Sweet as a synonym.  In 1879 fruit of the variety commonly known in Western New York as Henrick Sweet was identified by Charles Downing for William J. Edmunds, of Brockport, N.Y. as undoubtedly Sweet Winesap.  Mr. Edmunds has very kindly supplied us with some of his Sweet Winesap fruit which certainly is identical with the apple grown at Geneva and in other parts of the state as Henrick Sweet or Hendrick Sweet.  He has also presented us with Downing's letter, the text of which is here given in full.  "In looking over the apples you sent me a month or more since, I am now certain it is the Sweet Winesap which is described in Downing's second revised edition, page 378.  Many years since the late Isaac Hildreth, a nurserman at Geneva, sent me a barrel of this kind which he said went by the name of Henricks Sweet and as you say, they kept through the winter in to March with very little waste.  Ladies Sweet keeps still later and is one of the best of its season."
Sweet Winesap has long been cultivated in Western New York under the names Henrick Sweet and Hendrick Sweet.  In some localities, particularly in Wayne county, it is known as Rose Sweet.  Occasionally it is erroneously called Ladies Sweet, Lady Sweet or Lady Sweeting.  Since it bears some resemblance to the true Lady Sweet it is not strange that it is sometimes thus confused with that variety.  Warder listed it under the separate names of Sweet Winesap and Henrick Sweet.  Thomas, in 1875, followed Downing in giving Sweet Winesap as a variety from Pennsylvania and notices Henrick Sweet as a separate variety.  Evidently he was not familiar with this variety under the name Sweet Winesap, but he must have recognized that it was identical with the apple commonly known in his own section as Herick Sweet.  The 1897 edition of Thomas (8), makes Henrick Sweet a synonym for Sweet Pearmain, but Lyon doubted the correctness of this decision (11).  We have not seen Sweet Pearmain but the descriptions of that variety given by Downing (3) and Elliot (1) do not apply closely to Sweet Winesap.

Tree medium in size, vigorous of moderately vigorous.  Form upright spreading to roundish, rather dense. 
Twigs medium to long, rather slender to moderately stout; internodes medium. 
Bark brownish tinged with dark red, mottled with inconspicuous grayish scarf-skin, scarcely pubescent. 
Lenticels scattering, small to medium, often elongated.
Buds medium in size, broadly roundish, obtuse or sometimes acute, somewhat pubescent, generally appressed.

Fruit varies under different conditions from medium to large but under faily similar conditions is pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish conic, wide and flattended at the base, varying to roundish ovate or to oblate conic, regular or slightly elliptical, pretty symmetrical.
Stem short to moderately long, moderately slender
Cavity above medium size, acuminate to acute, gently furrowed, sometimes partly russeted.
Calyx medium or above, usually somewhat open; lobes often long and acuminate.
Basin medium to rather large, often oblique, roundish, deep, moderately narrow to rather wide, decidedly abrupt, sometimes slightly furrowed.
Skin tough, smooth, clear pale yellow or greenish nearly overspread with bright light red, plainly marked with long narrow carmine stripes, covered wit a thin bloom and often to a considerable extent with thin, light gray scarf-skin producing a slightly dull effect. 
Dots small to medium, scattering, whitish or russet.  Prevailing effect red or striped red.
Calyx tube funnel-shape, with broad, yellowish limb and narrow cylinder, sometimes nearly or quite cone-shape.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core small to medium, axile or sometimes abaxile; cells usually symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping. 
Carpels flat, roundish to broadly elliptical, emarginate.
Seeds medium or below, plum, obtuse.
Flesh nearly white, firm, rather fine, moderately crisp, tender, juicy, distinctly sweet, good to very good.
[Information from the Southeastern U.S. here.]

Switzer
References.  1.***10. Can. Hort., 13:216. 1890. 11.***
Synonyms.  Suislepper (3-5).
When well grown this is a very handsome fruit of medium size or below, nearly white with beautiful blush. It is very good in flavor and quality either for dessert or culinary uses. As fruited at this Station the tree comes into bearing rather early and is a fairly reliable cropper yielding pretty good crops biennially. As compared with standard varieties of its season it does not appear to merit the attention of New York fruit growers.
Historical. A Russian apple imported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1870. It was received in 1888 for testing at this Station from T.H. Hoskins, Newport, VT.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous with short, moderately stout, curved and crooked branches.
Form spreading, rather flat, open.
Twigs short, curved, stout with large terminal buds; internodes medium.
Bark dark brown, streaked with heavy scarf-skin, slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small, round, not raised.
Buds large, prominent, broad, plump, obtuse, free, heavily pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit below medium to above medium.
Form roundish or oblate, regular.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to rather long, rather slender.
Cavity acuminate, moderately shallow, narrow, lightly russeted with thin, greenish-russet.
Calyx small, closed; lobes medium in length, narrow, acute.
Basin shallow or almost none, narrow to wide, furrowed, often wrinkled.
Skin clear white or becoming yellowish, washed with bright pink which often deepens to crimson.
Dots whitish, obscure.
Calyx tube variable, elongated conical to cylindrical or funnel-form.
Stamens median to somewhat basal.
Core large, axile; cells closed or partly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels round, deeply emarginate.
Seeds large, dark brown, medium in width, long round, deeply emarginate.
Flesh white, firm, fine, juicy, mild subacid, good.
Season late August to October.

Sylvester
References.  1. Horticulturist, 17:150. 1862. 2. Warder, 1867:617. fig. 3. Downing, 1869:379. 4. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1871:154. 5. Fitz, 1872:170.
Synonyms.  None.
A waxen-white fruit with crimson blush and brisk subacid flesh; very good for culinary uses. Season September and October. The tree is large, roundish, moderately vigorous, hardy, long-lived and a reliable cropper yielding good crops biennially. It is not desirable for commercial planting because the fruit shows bruises very readily.
Historical. Originated at Lyons, NY (3). it is but little grown even in the locality of its origin.

Tart Bough
References.  1. Thomas, 1849:142. 2. Elliot, 1854:178. 3. Warder, 1867:734. 4. Downing, 1869:380.
Synonyms.  Sour Bough of some (4).
An old variety which according to Downing (4) was originated and disseminated by Judge Buel of Albany, NY. Elliott (2) states that it resembles Early Harvest, but it ripens ten days later, has more acid and the trees are more rapid in growth. He regarded it as unworthy of cultivation.
Downing recognizes another Tart Bough the fruit of which is small and whitish with white, tender flesh, juicy, sprightly, pleasant subacid, good. Season August (4).)
We do not know of either of these varieties.

Tetofsky
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Tetoffsky (2). Tetofski (10,12, 27,29).
A Russian apple below medium size, yellow, striped with crimson, sprightly acid, suitable for culinary use in July, ripe in August. The tree is very hardy, very upright, deep rooted, comes into bearing young and yields full crops biennially or sometimes annually. Desirable for planting in regions where superior hardiness is particularly desired. It is but little earlier than Yellow Transparent which is superior to it in size and desert qualities. There is a limited demand for the fruit in some local and special markets.
Historical. Tetofsky is one of the pioneers of the Russian varieties in this country hanving been imported by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society from the London, England, Horticultural Society about 1835 (28). Manning (2) described it as early as 1841 as a new fruit of value. It has been widely disseminated particularly in regions where its superior hardiness renders it peculiarly valuable. It has never been commonly grown in New York state and is now seldom planted here.

TREE.

Tree medium size to dwarfish, moderately vigorous, deep rooted with moderately stout branches filled with small spurs.
Form very erect, rather dense.
Twigs short, straight, moderately stout; internodes short.
Bark dull brown with tinge of red, lightly coated with gray scarf-skin, slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small, oblong, not raised.
Buds small, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to rather small but usually below medium; uniform in size and fairly uniform in shape.
Form oblate to roundish, a little inclined to conic, pretty regular.
Stem (Pedicel) medium in length, rather slender.
Cavity obtuse, medium to rather deep, moderately broad, usually symmetrical, gently furrowed.
Calyx rather large, closed; lobes long, moderately broad.
Basin shallow, medium in width, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin moderately thick, somewhat tough, smooth, waxy, greenish-yellow, more or less striped and splashed with rather attractive bright red, overspread with very faint bloom. Many specimens have little or no red.
Dots inconspicuous, pale or greenish, submerged.
Calyx tube long, wide, funnel-shape with broad cylinder varying to nearly urn-shape.
Stamens median to nearly marginal.
Core large, axile or somewhat abaxile; cells open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish, concave.
Seeds medium size, short, moderately plump, somewhat obtuse.
Flesh white, firm, a little coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, sprightly, slightly aromatic, subacid, fair to good.
Season late July to early September.

Thaler
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Charlottenthaler (2-4, 6-8, 11, 15). Charlotten Thaler (10, 13). Charlottenthaler Apple (1). Charlottelthaler Golba (5). No. 147 (7). Scharlottenthaler Golba (1,3,4). Yellow Transparent (11).
A Russian variety of the Yellow Transparent type. It resembles the Yellow Transparent so closely that some have considered them identical but they are distinct (6, 12). Since Yellow Transparent is superior in health, vigor and productiveness Thaler is not recommended for planting.

Thompson
References.  1. Hansen, SD Sta. Bul, 76:104. 1902. 2. Munson, ME Sta. Rpt., 1902:85.
Synonyms.  Thompson No. 24 (2). Thompson's Seedling No. 24 (1).
Fruit of pretty good size, striped red and yellow, rather attractive. Frlesh subacid, fair or possibly good in quality. Season early winter. The tree is a pretty good grower, comes into bearing rather young and bears nearly annually yielding moderately good crops. This is a new variety which has gained recognition in the upper Mississippi valley on account of its hardiness in that region. It is also reported as promising int he Northern apple districts of Maine (2). It is not worthy of planting in this state where standard varieties of its season succeed but may be worth testing in those localities where a tree of superior hardiness is desired.
Historical. Originated by J.S.B. Thompson, Grundy county, IA and first propagated under the name Thompson Seedling No. 24 (1). In 1892 it was received for testing at this Station from the Jewell Nursery Company, Lake City, Minn., by which the variety was introduced.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous with moderately long, slender, curved, drooping branches.
Form spreading, open, inclined to droop.
Twigs moderately long, curved, moderately stout; internodes medium.
Bark brown tinged with red, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels numerous, meidum size, oval, raised, conspicuous.
Buds medium size, broad, obtuse to acute, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit below medium to above or rather large.
Form roundish or roundish oval, pretty regular but somewhat unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium in length, slender.
Cavity acuminate to acute, deep, medium in width to rather narrow, more or less russeted.
Calyx medium size, open; lobes separated at base.
Basin deep, narrow to rather wide, abrupt, somewhat furrowed.
Skin pale yellow more or less overspread and mottled with pinkish-red striped and splashed with carmine.
Dots grayish or brownish, few, small, inconspicuous.
Calyx tube short, conical to funnel-form.
Stamens basal to median.
Core medium size, abaxile; cells fairly symmetrical, open; core lines nearly meeting.
Carpels nearly cordate to elliptical.
Seeds numerous, medium size, flat, moderately acute.
Flesh white, moderately fine, crisp, rather tender, juicy, subacid to mild subacid, fair to good.
Season October to early winter or midwinter.

Tinmouth
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Teignmouth (3,5,6). Tinmouth Sweet (8). Vermont Pippin (3,5).
Tinmouth is a fall and early winter apple of good size, good quality and rather attractive appearance. The tree is a good grower, with an upright habit. It is a regular cropper and very productive. It does not seem to be desirable for general commercial planting in New York.
Historical. Downing remarked that this variety originated at Tinmouth, VT and was much esteemed in the region of its origin (5). Waugh calls it a good apple and states that it is almost unknown in Grand Isle county but is much more common in other parts of Vermont (9). So far as we have discovered it is but little known in New York.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large.
Form oblate to roundish, regular or obscurely ribbed; sides often distinctly unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) often bracted, short to medium, usually not exserted.
Cavity large, acute or approaching acuminate, deep, broad, russeted and with outspreading russet rays.
Calyx small, partly closed or open; lobes often small, sometimes long, acute, recurved.
Basin rather large, deep, moderately wide, abrupt to moderately abrupt, often somewhat wrinkled.
Skin tender, pale yellow or greenish, often with a bright deep blush and overspread with thin bloom.
Dots numerous, greenish or russet, giving the surface a somewhat rough appearance.
Prevailing effect yellow.
Calyx tube rather small, cone-shape or approaching funnel-form.
Stamens median.
Core rather small, axile or nearly so; cells closed; core lines clasping.
Carpels roundish to obcordate, emarginate, mucronate.
Seeds rather large, broad, somewhat obtuse.
Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, moderately fine, tender, rather juicy, mild subacid with a peculiar flavor, sprightly, good in quality.
Season October to early winter or midwinter.

Titovka
References.  1.
Synonyms.  No. 134 (11). No. 230 Gov. (4). Titovca (9). Titowka (5). Titus Apple (1-5,7). Titus Riga (25).
A Russian apple, large, roundish or somewhat oblong, greenish-yellow, handsomely shaded and striped with red and covered with light bloom. When fully mature the ground color is yellow and the red is bright and dark often nearly covering the fruit. Quality good to very good for culinary use. Season August and September. The tree is a vigorous grower, comes into bearing rather young and is moderately productive. It is one of the best Russian apples of its season which we have tested. The crop does not ripen uniformly and more than one picking is required in order to secure the fruit in prime condition for the market. Titovka is perhaps worth of testing for market where fruit of this type and season is desired.
This appears to be the variety which Hansen describes under the name Titovka Department, which name he adopts to distinguish it one the one hand from a variety called Titovka with Titus Riga as a synonym and on the other from a variety called Titovka Speer (23).
Historical. Imported from Russia by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1870. It was received in 1883 from Ellwanger and Barry, Rochester, NY for testing at this Station. In 1807 it was entered in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society as a variety of value in the pomological district which includes the Dakotas, Montanta and Wyoming (19). It is but little known in New York and so far as we can learn its cultivation is not increasing in this state.

FRUIT

Fruit large.
Form roundish or somewhat oblong, a little inclined to conic, nearly regular, pretty symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) short, usually not exserted.
Cavity acuminate, very deep, sometimes slightly russeted.
Calyx medium size, closed; segments small, convergent.
Basin moderately shallow to deep, very abrupt, wrinkled.
Skin smooth, pale green becoming yellow, shaded and striped with bright red and overspread with light bloom.
Calyx tube elongated cone-shape or funnel-form.
Stamens median or below.
Core rather large, somewhat abaxile; cells pretty symmetrical, open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish or somewhat obovate, emarginate.
Seeds few, rather small, plump.
Flesh whitish, coarse, crisp, juicy, subacid, good to very good for culinary uses.
Season August and September.

Tompkins King
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Flat Spitzenburg (28). King (5,7,15,17,19,24,27,31,34). King Apple (1-4, 12, 32, of New York 10, of Western New York 8 and 13). King of Tompkins County (12,14-18, 20-22, 26-28, 30, 33, 35). Toma Red (15). Tommy Red (21). Tompkins County King (19). Tom's Red (21). Winter King (6).
This apple is commonly called King. Less frequently it is called Tompkins County King or King of Tompkins County. Pomologists now accept Tompkins King as the correct name.
The fruit has a beautiful red color with enough clearly contrasting yellow to make a very attractive appearance. It is symmetrical, uniformly large, and excellent in quality for either dessert or culinary uses. It is well adapted for marketing in fancy packages and is in good demand for both special and general trade, often selling at an advance over other standard varieties in both domestic and foreign markets. The principal demand for it comes in late fall and early winter. It does not keep quite as long in storage as Rhode Island Greening, but rather later than Hubbarsdston. It is in season from October or late September to December and January or later. In common storage its commercial limit is December, or exceptionally January, and in cold storage usually February but in some cases later. The fruit often shows some decay in November or sometimes even in October. Its keeping qualities do not vary so much in different seasons as is the case with many other sorts (35). Some of the fruit is often kept in cellars till spring, ****tbal*** Historical.

TREE
.
Tree
Form
Twigs
Bark
Lenticels
Buds

FRUIT

Fruit
Form
Stem
Cavity
Calyx
Basin
Skin
Dots
Calyx
Stamens
Core
Carpels
Seeds
Flesh
Season

Tom Putt
References.  1. London Hort. Soc. Cat., 1831:No. 1299. 2. Hogg, 1884:229.
Synonyms.  Coalbrook (2). Marrow-bone (2). Tom Put (1).
A rather attractive red apple of good size, moderately coarse, subacid, fair to good for culinary uses. The tree is a moderately vigorous grower, comes into bearing rather early and yields full crops annually or nearly annually. As compared with standard varieties of its season it does not appear to be worth of the attention of New York fruit growers.
Historical. This is an old English variety (1,2). In 1892 it was received for testing here from W. and T. Smith, Geneva, NY.

Tufts
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Tufts Baldwin (2,5,6,7,9,10,12, of some 3 and 5). Tufts Seedling (1).
An apple of the Baldwin group, somewhat like Baldwin in form, color and general appearance, but more mild in flavor and less desirable for market or culinary uses. In ordinary storage it is in season from October to January with October as the commercial limit, but in cold storage it may be held through the winter (13). In some years nearly all of the fruit is discolored at the core. The crop does not ripen evenly, and there is apt to be considerable loss from dropping of the fruit. The tree is large, a pretty good grower, comes into bearing rather early and yields full crops biennially. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. This variety originated in Cambridge, Mass., about 1830. It was first exhibited at the annual show of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1848 (4). It is now rarely listed by nurserymen (8,9) and is seldom or never planted in this state.

TREE.

Tree large, moderately vigorous.
Form very spreading, flat, open.
Twigs moderately long, curved, slender; internodes short.
Bark brown, heavily coated with gray scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium size, oblong, not raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit large or nearly so, quite uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish to roundish oblate, sometimes with a broad protuberance above the cavity on one side, often flattened at apex, broadly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) long, rather slender.
Cavity acute to acuminate, medium in depth to deep, rather broad, often furrowed, usually with outspreading, irregular, greenish-russet.
Calyx medium to rather small, usually closed.
Basin rather shallow to moderately deep, medium in width to wide, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, slightly wrinkled, somewhat ridged.
Skin moderately thin, tough, smooth, green or yellowish nearly covered with bright deep red like the Baldwin, not striped or with indistinct stripes of purplish carmine.
Dots conspicuous, medium to rather small, gray or russet.
Calyx tube medium in length, conical or funnel-shape.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core large, axile or nearly so; cells closed or partly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish, often discolored, rather flat, emarginate.
Seeds often few, not well developed, dark brown, large, long, somewhat acute, slightly tufted.
Flesh tinged with yellow or greenish, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, rather tender, moderately juicy, rather mild subacid, fair to good.
Season October to December or January.

Twenty Ounce
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Aurora (8,11,13). Cabashaw, incorr. (21). Cayuga Red Streak (6,10,17,3,5,8,11-16,19-22). Coleman (8,11,13). De Vin du Conn. (13). Dix-Huit Onces (2,13). Eighteen Ounce (4,6,13). Eighteen Ounce Apple (2,8,11). Gov. Seward's (3,6). Lima (8,11,13). Morgan's Favorite (8,11,13). Twenty Ounce Pippin (3, err. 4 and 6). Wine (21, of Conn. 11).
This is one of the most satisfactory of the fall varieties for commercial planting in New York. It is also highly esteemed for home use. The fruit is large, attractive, green becoming yellowish with broad stripes and splashes of red. It is in season from September to early winter. It keeps well for a fall variety and stands shipping well. Usually it should be handled direct to the consumer without going into cold storage. In common storage the fruit goes down rapidly during October and November. In cold storage it may be kept till midwinter (21). It hangs pretty well to the tree for so large an apple, is pretty uniform in size and generally reliable and satisfactory in color and quality. The fruit is in good demand in general market and sells at good prices. It is especially esteemed for culinary uses but it is inferior to other varieties for evaporating. The tree is a rather vigorous grower with main branches erect and laterals rather willowy and more or less drooping. It seems to succeed particularly well in favorable locations in the apple belt south of Lake Ontario. It is especially subject to sunscald and canker on the trunk and larger limbs. For this reason it is desirable to topwork it upon some hardy and thrifty stock such as Tolman Sweet or Northern Spy. Careful attention should be given to treating the canker.1 The top is inclined to grow rather dense and required constant attention to keep it properly pruned to admit the light to the foliage in all parts of the tree so that the fruit may color properly. The tree when full grown is of medium size or below medium and may be planted closer in the orchard than Baldwin, Rhode Island Greening or Northern Spy. it comes into bearing rather young and is almost an annual bearer yielding moderate to good or even heavy crops. The skin of the fruit is apt to be roughened by the application of spray mixtures. In spraying Twenty Ounce after the fruit is set, it is therefore desirable to use an abundance of lime in the bordeaux mixture and make the application uniform and thorough but not excessive.
In different localities in New York Twenty Ounce is known under the various synonyms of Cayuga Redstreak, Wine Apple and Limbertwig. It is quite distinct from Twenty Ounce Pippin; see Volume I, page 349.

Historical. This variety was brought to the notice of pomologists about sixty years ago (1,3), when fruit of it grown in Cayuga county, NY was exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. At that time its cultivation appeared to be mostly confined to Cayuga county and its origin was unknown. In 1857 Downing (8) reported that it originated in Connecticut but upon what authority we are unable to state. Twenty Ounce is well known in most of the apple-growing sections of the state and in certain districts its cultivation for commercial purposes appears to be increasing. It is pretty generally listed by nurserymen (17).

TREE
.
Tree moderately vigorous with branches moderately long and moderately stout.
Form upright becoming roundish, dense; laterals willowy, slender and more or less drooping.
Twigs short, straight, slender; internodes medium.
Bark reddish-brown tinged with green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, round, not raised.
Buds medium size, broad, flat, obtuse, appressed, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit very large.
Form variable, usually roundish or roundish conic, sometimes broadly ribbed.
Stem deep set, short to medium, moderately thick or rather slender.
Cavity acuminate, very deep, sometimes lipped, sometimes russeted.
Calyx below medium size to above, usually closed.
Basin often oblique, often shallow but occasionally deep, moderately narrow to rather wide, rather abrupt, broadly and deeply furrowed.
Skin thick, tough, greenish becoming rather yellow, washed, mottled and splashed with bright red or deepening to dark or purplish-red with carmine stripes.
Dots grayish or russet, small to large, often raised, sometimes whitish and submerged.
Calyx tube large, long, wide, conical or funnel-shape extending to the core.
Stamens usually basal.
Core large, axile or somewhat abaxile; cells symmetrical, usually closed, sometimes wide open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder.
Carpels elongated ovate, slightly emarginate, somewhat tufted.
Seeds medium size, round to narrow, obtuse to acute, variable.
Flesh whitish somewhat tinged with yellow, coarse, moderately tender, juicy, subacid, good for culinary use, second rate for dessert.
Season September to early winter.

RED TYPE OF TWENTY OUNCE.

A red Twenty ounce which originated at Hilton, Monroe county, NY is being propagated under the "Collamer." See page 36. 1NY Sta. An. Rpt., 18:399-418. 1899. Ib., 22:321-386. 1903.

Tyre Beauty
References.  1. Downing, 1869:388. 2. Horticulturist, 24:52. 1869. fig.
Synonyms.  None.
This was brought to notice about thirty-five years ago as a new seedling apple of value in the locality of its origin, Tyre, Seneca county, NY. Fruit medium, pale yellow, splashed, marbled and shaded with crimson. Flesh tender, slightly acid, neither rich nor peculiarly sprightly. Season early September (2).
We are unacquainted with this variety and so far as we known it has not been grown outside of the locality of its origin.