Plant Introductions (1895-1927) N.E. Hansen, Horticulturist

   The breeding of hardy fruits has been the leading work of the Department of Horticulture of South Dakota State College ever since the fall of 1895. Many requests have been received for bulletins containing the record of this work. Many of these are out of print and are no longer available. This bulletin contains a complete record of plant introductions from the beginning of the work up to 1927.

The Apple

In the northwestern prairie states several million people need a hardy winter apple. It is the most important fruit problem in this region. Many million dollars have been spent in trying to grow apples for the northern Mississippi valley. There are now many desirable summer and fall varieties but the winter apple problem is still unsolved. After growing fully 10,000 apple seedlings along various lines of pedigree, the department of Horticulture has as yet no apple to offer as the ideal hardy winter apple. However, a number of seedlings are being developed along many lines of pedigree, although many of these are of value only as intermediate steps. The evolution of this apple will probably be a step-by-step process rather than a single stride.

The cultivated apples are said to have descended since prehistoric times from six different species in the temperate parts of Europe and western Asia. In later years, the native wild apples of Siberia and eastern Asia and the native wild apples of America must be added to the list of ancestors. The hybrid origin of all cultivated apples is indicated by their variable pollen, as compared with the uniform pollen of the pure wild species. The hybrid origin is also apparent in the very great variation in apple seedlings.

During the past generation, many thousands of apple seedlings have originated in the northern part of the Mississippi Valley. Many people have taken part in this effort to secure hardier apples, especially winter apples. The general experience indicates very strongly that the future behavior of a new seedling apple is not determined by the behavior of the original tree. The final test is when the trees propagated from it come into full bearing. Crucial test winters, such as 1855-56, 1872-78, 1884-85, 1898-99, and others that were unusually cold, must be reckoned with in estimating the value of any new apple. One must. not be too hasty to praise or condemn any new apple but wait until it comes into full bearing as a budded or grafted tree.

Since so much work has been done by hundreds of orchardists in the growing of seedling apples, the writer has deemed it best to work along new lines as far as possible, to make new combinations of species and in late years to work largely with the Siberian and native wild crabapples. To grow apple seedlings of purely west European ancestry is something that has been tried by hundreds of orchardists, and there are very few that have survived the test winters. It is best to start with trees that are hardy in the first place. The following is a record of seedling apples named and introduced thus far.

Many good seedlings have been discarded or are still held for further observation. If a new seedling is not superior to the Wealthy in size, color and quality of fruit it has little chance of becoming a popular variety. In apples, the standard can be lowered somewhat if the desired quality of long winter keeping could be obtained.

Apples on Siberian Crabapple Roots

Root-killing of the common apple stocks is now one great source of failure in apple culture in the prairie Northwest. It is time that definite experiments were conducted over a wide area with standard varieties of apples grown on the Siberian crab roots. Such trees will be free from root-killing, will attain less size and bear earlier. The tests so far at this station indicate that such trees bear earlier, may be planted closer together and will be easier to spray.

In Bulletin 65 of this Station, published July, 1899, Siberian roots were recommended to prevent the root-killing which is often disastrous in the North. The experiments are still in progress and indicate that the Siberian crab is the best stock in regions subject to winter-killing of the common apple stocks.

The seedlings of the true Siberian Crab (Pyrus baccata [Since changed to Malus baccata -ASC]) are good for park or lawn planting owing to its wealth of blossoms and for the very small fruit from which to raise seedlings for budding in the nursery. In this list see “Nertchinsk crab seedlings” and “Irkutsk crab seedlings.”

Seedlings of Named Siberian Crabs

In 1924, in response to repeated requests, seedlings of some of the most promising named Siberian crabs were distributed. The main varieties were Dolgo, Alexis, Amur, Beauty, Olga, and several more. As the original trees are in a mixed orchard containing many cultivated apples, some interesting seedlings may be expected from these seedlings.

Testing the American Wild Crabapple

The wild crabapple was the only apple known to the Indians before the white man brought over the cultivated apple which is a native of the temperate regions of Europe and Asia. The Indians cached or buried the fruit in the earth over winter. This served to tone down the astringency.

The chief hope in growing many thousands of apple and crab apple seedlings has been to tame the wild American crabapple enough so that the fruit would be desirable at least for culinary use. In the seedling plantations of this station, the wild crab apple from Elk River, some forty miles northwest of Minneapolis, Minnesota, has proved hardy, productive and practically immune to blight. The abundant, fragrant pink and white blossoms in the spring make the trees of great value for lawn and park plantings, although the fruit is too sour and astringent to tempt anyone. However, the fruit will keep at least a year and is useful to impart a quince-like flavor to common apple sauce. In fact some people consider wild American apples a fair substitute for quinces in making preserves.

While the six first generation hybrid varieties: Bismer, Chinook, Kola, Shoko, Tipi and Zapta, are by no means perfect, they are worthy of planting purely for ornamental purposes. These crab apples will probably be hardy far north into Manitoba and will keep well into spring in an ordinary cellar. In the standard fruit lists for the northern limits of apple culture in the prairie Northwest it must be admitted that there are only summer and fall varieties, with no real winter apples that will keep into spring in an ordinary cellar.

A hint of the possibilities of the native American apple may be seen in the Giant, Mercer and Missouri, all found growing wild. Several more are in the collections but not introduced. At present all these are more for ornaments on the lawn than for fruit.

Improvement of the Apple

The following synopsis is a classification of the varieties described in this bulletin. In conformity with the rule now well established in literature of plant breeding, the seed or female parent is mentioned first, the pollen or male parent second.

Cultivated apple (Pyrus Malus [now called Malus domestica. -ASC]) seedlings:
Caramel (Mixed seedling, sweet, of Fameuse type)
Chance (Mixed seedling of northern varieties)
Elta (Seedling of Wealthy top grafted on Hibernal)
Oxbo (Seedling of Roxbury Russet topgrafted on Oldenburg)
Goldo (Seedling of Grimes Golden topgrafted on Oldenburg)
Sereda (Seedling of Harry Kaump topgrafted on Oldenburg)
Sugar (Seedling of Antonovka apple)

Imported Russian Apples:
Adno; Lemon; New Duchess; Russian White; Yellow Sweet; Zeleba

Various Apple crosses:
Hibkee (Graft-hybrid Hibernal x Milwaukee) Sasha (Hibernal x Gravenstein)

Apple x Siberian Crab Hybrids:
Hopa Red-flower (Pyrus Malus Niedzwetzkyana [Malus pumila -ASC] x Pyrus baccata [Malus baccata])

Linda Sweet (Seedling of Malinda topgrafted on Sweet Russet Crab Maga (Seedling of McIntosh apple topgrafted on Virginia Crab) Olga (Duchess of O!denburg apple x Pyrus baccata cerasifera) Sapinia (Seedling of Winesap topgrafted on Virginia Crab)

Siberian Crab seedlings:
Alexis; Amur; Dolgo; Ivan; Beauty; Nocalyx

Manchurian Crab seedlings:
Manchurian Crabapple seedlings (Harbin region, 1924)

Native Wild Crab seedlings:
Mercer; Missouri; Giant

Apple x Wild Crab Hybrids:
Bismer (Bismarck apple x Mercer Wild Crab) Izo (Yellow Transparent apple x Fluke No. 10 Mercer Hybrid) Chinook (Baldwin apple x Elk River, Minn., wild crab)

Wild Crab x Apple Hybrids:
Anoka (Seedling of Mercer topgrafted on Oldenburg)

Wild Crab Apple Hybrids:
Kola; Tipi; (Elk River, Minn. x Oldenburg) Shoko (Elk River, Minn. x Alexander) Zapta (Elk River, Minn. x Bismarck) Red Tip (Elk River, Minn. x Niedzwetzkyana)

Chinese Apple Seedlings:
Cathay (Seedling of P. prunifolia Rinki) [Malus prunifolia -ASC]

Toringo Crab Seedlings:
Seedlings of Pyrus Sieboldii, Regel [Malus sieboldii -ASC]

Catalog of Apples and Crabapples

Adno Apple.—Introduced 1916. Very handsome, large, red, subacid, productive, late fall apple, received from Russia. Adno, the Russian for “one” is a provisional name until the true name can be determined.
[If you wanted an apple and you Adno apple, it seems like you'd be pretty disappointed. -ASC]

Alexis Crabapple.—Introduced 1919. Alexis is a Russian man’s name. Thousands of seedlings of Siberian Crab Apples have been grown with the hope of obtaining varieties free from blight. The Alexis was raised from seed obtained from the old Imperial Botanic Gardens at St. Petersburg, now Leningrad, Russia. Fruit much like the Dolgo crab, long conical, polished, brilliant, dark solid cherry crab with attractive blue bloom. Flesh yellow, acid. Tree very productive, free from blight so far.

Amur Crabapple—Introduced 1912. Raised from seed of the selected Siberian crab known as Pyrus baccata cerasifera. Cerasifera means cherry-bearing, referring to the bright cherry-like color of the fruit. The word Amur refers to the Amur River region, the original home of the pure Siberian crab, Pyrus baccata, in eastern Siberia.
   There is a great demand on the market for a medium sized crab apple, not too large in size, free from blight, and equal in color to the Transcendent. The Amur is the first attempt in this line after raising thousands of crab apple seedlings. This is offered as an improvement of the Transcendent crab, not in size but in color. It is intense bright red with a light bloom, a beautiful fruit. The jelly of the Amur is a bright ruby red, while that of the Transcendent is light pink; the Transcendent sauce cooks yellow, that of the Amur a pleasing bright red. The Amur is very upright in growth.
   If the tree proves as productive and free from blight elsewhere as at this station, Amur will be worthy of trial. The upright habit of the tree and the bright glowing color of the abundant fruit makes the tree very pleasing from an ornamental standpoint, even though the fruit should be ranked too small to compete with the larger crabs.
   The bright red color of the Amur crab makes it desirable for culinary use. The fruit is one and one-half inches in diameter. The tree has been free from blight.

Anoka Apple.—This bids fair to become the most popular of all the new apples. It was introduced in 1918 before fruiting as South Dakota No. 2. In 1920 it was named Anoka, a Sioux Indian word meaning “on both sides”. It is a seedling of Mercer (Fluke) wild crab top-grafted on Duchess. This tree has borne heavily in 1918 and 1919. The fruit is two and one-half inches in diameter, round, Duchess type of coloring. Flesh white, good subacid. Season September. It is early and heavy bearing under propagation. It bears even on young nursery trees.

Anoka and you donna answer?
Fig. 1—ANOKA APPLE
The fruit is two and one-half inches in diameter. It is an early apple and heavy bearing.


   In the spring of 1920, four trees of Anoka apple, one year buds on seedlings of Red Siberian Crab, were sent to the Experiment Station at Fargo, North Dakota. Under date of December 2, 1922, Professor A. F. Yeager, Agricultural College, Fargo, North Dakota, reports on these trees as follows: “This spring two of the four trees blossomed and one produced 23 apples, the other 26. Practically all the fruit was set from lateral buds. Upon examination this fall it seems that all four of the Anoka apple trees have a lot of lateral fruit buds showing. The trees are not yet as high as one’s head and were scarcely four feet high last spring. They begin ripening about the 15th of August. The apples are medium to above medium in size, but somewhat larger than Duchess. They are oblong in character. Our specimens showed very little color.
   The flavor seemed to be very similar to Duchess. If the variety continues to flourish as it has so far it should be a big addition to our fruit list.”
   Other reports have been received of in the very early bearing of the Anoka. At the South Dakota State Fair at Huron in 1925, John Robertson of Hot Springs, S. D., showed a plate of Anoka, part of a 60 pound crop on one young tree about seven feet in height.

Caramel Apple. — Introduced in 1919. One of the seedlings from mixed seed of choice standard Northern apples. Fully medium size, two and three-fourths inches in diameter. Late yellow mostly covered with red stripes. Evidently of the Fameuse type. Flesh snow white, sweet, excellent. Of promise as a winter sweet apple of highest quality, but probably should go south rather than north. The name Caramel is given to it because it is a sweet apple.

Cathay Crabapple. — Introduced 1919. A round-topped dwarfish tree of considerable promise as an ornamental for the lawn. In bloom the tree is one huge bouquet of very large white flowers. The flowers are two and one-half inches in diameter, showing tendency to doubling. Cathay is the ancient name for China, referring to its native home. One of the seedlings of Pyrus ringo [Malus asiatica -ASC] descended from the original importation from Russia by Professor J. L. Budd. The name as now given in Bailey’s Cyclopedia of Horticulture is Chinese apple, Pyrus prunifolia, Willd, var. Rinki, Bailey. This seedling is a good representative of this species. Fruit, one and one-half inches in diameter; clear bright yellow all over with some orange blush. Calyx deciduous. Flesh a clear, juicy acid. Original tree has been very productive. The fruit cooks up as easily as Duchess, making light yellow acid sauce of good flavor.

Beauty Crabapple. — Introduced 1919. One of our seedlings of Pyrus baccata cerasifera raised from seed received from the Botanical Gardens at Petrograd, Russia. The name Beauty has been given to this seedling because it is perhaps the brightest in color of all our crab seedlings. It is a brilliant solid cherry, red all over with orange red underneath, especially on the shaded side. Size is about one and one- fourth inches in diameter. Dots distinct, few, white. Basin deep, irregular. Calyx deciduous with russet scar, and no opening into the core. Flesh white, firm, very juicy, acid. This is of the Cherry crab type. Tree is a very heavy bearer. It is of special promise owing to its tendency to late keeping. The fruit makes a bright red sauce like the Hyslop crab but the flesh has not the astringency of the Hyslop. The fruit has kept into January in a rather warm cellar, Tree is a very stocky, and vigorous grower of wide and strong forks and strongly resistant to blight. This tree should be of special value at the far North as it may mean the beginning of the development of the Siberian crab as a late keeper.

Bismer Apple. — Introduced 1927. Pedigree: Bismarck apple crossed with Mercer wild crab. The name is made up from these two names. It is the second of a series of hybrids of the standard apples with the wild crab in which the wild crab is the pollen parent. Roundish oblate, two and one-quarter inches in diameter; yellow striped and mixed with brown-red; flesh, yellow, pleasant; good subacid; sweet. An early bearer; season, probably winter.

Chance Apple. — Introduced in 1919. One of the chance seedlings from mixed seed of northern grown apples. Original tree productive. Fruit oblate, regular, of full commercial size, red-striped all over with attractive blue bloom. Flesh white, pleasant subacid. Season probably January or later.

Chinook Apple.—Introduced 1924. The first of a series of hybrids of the standard apples with the wild crab in which the wild crab is the pollen parent. In this case, the seed parent is the Baldwin apple, and the pollen parent is the wild crab of Elk River, about forty miles north of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Of promise for the far North. The first fruits of the Chinook apple are only two inches in diameter but this will probably increase somewhat on older trees. Fruit oblate, of a fine dark red, subacid, season probably all winter. Named after an Indian tribe.

Dolgo Crabapple. — Introduced 1917. A new red-jellied Siberian crab. At the annual exhibits of this Department at the South Dakota State Fair, many have asked about the remarkably long conical, intensely bright red crabs. This is one brought over from Russia in 1897. A vigorous productive tree and thus far free from blight. Fruit full of juice, jells easily, makes a rich, ruby-red jelly of beautiful color and excellent flavor.
The one-year-old trees in the nursery are of strong growth with wide spreading forks and strongly shouldered limbs, indicating that they will not split down easily. The Dolgo is winning favor over a wide area for its freedom from blight and for its early and heavy bearing qualities.

Elta Apple.—Introduced 1927. An excellent sweet apple. Seedling of Wealthy topworked on Hibernal. Fruit, two and three-eighths inches in diameter; round conical; rich light orange-yellow, red striped. Season, late fall. Name condensed from Wealthy and Hibernal.

Giant Wild Crabapple—Introduced 1917. Probably the largest wild crab found thus far. Good specimens of the fruit run three inches in diameter and weigh four ounces. A brief note by W. H. Shroyer, of Sherrard, Illinois, calling attention to a large-fruited wild crab, appeared in the Fruit Grower (St. Joseph, Mo., Nov., 1911, page 32). The article was illustrated with a cut of a specimen of the fruit. Early in December, 1911, scions were obtained from the original tree near Sherrard, Illinois. The original tree was cut down in clearing out the brush some time in the winter of 1912-13, so it is fortunate that these scions were saved. As near as could be determined, the original tree of the Mercer (Fluke) wild crab was within about four miles of this place, but it had been grubbed out of the open pasture of native timber where it was found. In color and quality, the fruit of the Giant is much like the other large wild crabs, such as Soulard and Mercer, and will be useful mainly for jelly, or for adding a quince-like flavor to common apple sauce.

Goldo Apple. — Introduced 1922, A seedling of Grimes Golden topgrafted on Duchess of Oldenburg apple. The name is condensed from these two varieties. Goldo is distinguished by the smooth, hardy, vigorous growth of the original tree. The fruit is much like Grimes Golden in general appearance and has an excellent flavor. If the trees prove hardy under propagation it will be a decided acquisition as a variety combining the hardiness of Duchess with the season and high quality of Grimes Golden. The flesh cooks quickly into light yellow sauce of excellent flavor. The fruit is larger than Grimes Golden.


Fig. 2—GOLDO APPLE
This is a cross between Grimes Golden and Duchess of Oldenburg. The fruit is much like the Grimes Golden in appearance.

Hibkee Apple. — Introduced 1916. This variety is a puzzle. A graft-hybrid of Hibernal and Milwaukee; the fruits so far show the flesh and core of Milwaukee and the surface coloring of Hibernal. For the method of grafting these split buds, see Bulletin 88, plate 18. Such hybrids are now called periclinal chimeras. It is desirable to ascertain whether this proves stable under propagation. The name Hibkee is made up from the names of these two varieties.

Hopa Red-Flower Crabapple. — Introduced 1920. Hopa is the Sioux Indian word for “beautiful.” A promising addition to the list of ornamental trees for the lawn owing to its wealth of beautiful deep rose crimson blossoms. A striking sight when in bloom. The fruit is too small to be of value for eating, being less than one inch in diameter; but its bright red color will light up the tree in autumn, and the small size is an advantage as the tree is less apt to be stripped for fruit when standing on the lawn. Female parent, Pyrus Malus Niedzwetzkyana, a small red-fleshed apple from Turkestan in the high mountains between Turkestan and China; male parent, Pyrus baccata. This was not a hand cross, but it is almost certain that the baccata was the pollen parent. Trees of strong growth in nursery.

Into Crabapple. — Introduced 1924. This name is now canceled as the tree is really the Maga, introduced 1922, and this was overlooked in checking up the list.
[So MAGA was Into cancel culture way before the first "bad apple" killed a protesting defender of American democracy. -ASC]

Irkutsk Siberian Crab Seedlings. — Introduced 1910. The pure Siberian crab (Pyrus baccata) grown from seed obtained from trees growing wild near Irkutsk, Lake Baikal region, Eastern Siberia. An extremely hardy ornamental tree with fruit the size of a pea; flowers, pink and white. Worthy of growing for ornament, but the fruit is too small for profit. In Russia, seedlings of this tree are used in the nurseries as hardy stocks for the cultivated apple to prevent root-killing.

Ivan Crabapple. — Introduced 1916. One of our many seedling crabs. Noteworthy for the calyx segments being absent in the ripe fruit, the same as in the pure Siberian crab (Pyrus baccata). Fully one and three-fourths inches in diameter, roundish oblate, good color, marbled with stripes and orange red, acid.

Izo Crabapple. — Introduced 1919. Male parent Yellow Transparent apple. Female parent, Fluke No. 10, which is a seedling of Mercer Wild crab with some standard apple. This makes this pedigree one- half Russian apple, one-fourth West European apple, and one-fourth wild crab from Mercer County, Illinois. Izo is the Sioux Indian word for peninsula. Regular, oblate. Yellow with bronze cheek. Russet dots and firm subacid flesh. The compact entire carpels of the core show influence of the wild crab. Flesh is clear acid, Appears promising as a crab that will keep well into winter.

Kola Wild Crabapple. — Introduced 1922. A hybrid of the wild native crab apple from Elk River, Minnesota, with pollen of Duchess of Oldenburg apple. The fruit is flat, green, full two inches in diameter on the original tree fruiting in greatly crowded nursery rows of seedlings. The skin is oily like the wild crab. The fruit cooks up into an acceptable sauce. Trees have strong forks and appear immune to blight and winter killing. Kola is the Sioux Indian name for “friend”. The heaviest specimen of Kola in 1919 weighed three ounces; the largest was two and one-half inches in diameter. This was the first year of fruiting.

Lemon Apple. — Limonoe (R. & K. 159) Apple. A large apple, fully three inches in diameter; color, clear greenish yellow with bronze blush. Flesh white, mild subacid, of good quality. Show some evidence of keeping capacity. Although not the first time the Lemon apple has been imported, this is our own importation from Russia. Worthy of a trial in the North. From the 1922 list.

Linda Sweet Crabapple. — Introduced 1922. A seedling of Malinda apple topgrafted on Sweet Russet Crab apple. A large crab apple with skin much russeted. Flesh mild subacid sweet. Apparently a late winter crab. The influence of the Sweet Russet pollen is evident from the sweet flesh and russet skin. Linda is derived from the word Malinda.

Maga Crabapple. — Introduced 1922. A seedling of McIntosh Red apple top-grafted on Virginia crab. Fruit large for a crab, flattened, with bright red stripes. The McIntosh evidently contributed its high flavor as the flesh is of the same type. Season evidently late. This tree looks like a good cross of the McIntosh apple and the Virginia crab, and if it proves hardy under propagation will be something decidedly worth while. The original tree bore a heavy crop in 1919.

Manchurian Crabapple Seedlings. — Introduced 1926. These are seedlings of Pyrus baccata, var., Mandshurica, Maxim, a form of Siberian crab grown from seed gathered by Prof. N. E. Hansen in 1924, in the mountain region, about fifty miles east of Harbin, Manchuria. The small fruit varies in size; tree is of somewhat stronger growth than the ordinary Siberian wild crab and for that reason is worthy of testing as a stock. The tree is quite ornamental, heavily branched in the open but grows taller when crowded by other trees in the forest.
[So we have the Manchurian Candidate right with MAGA. Yeah, that fits. #TRE45ON. -ASC]

Mercer Wild Crabapple. — Found growing wild near Sherrard, Mercer County, Illinois, about 35 years ago, by the late N. K. Fluke of Davenport, Iowa. Fruit yellow, oblate, and up to two and five- eighths inches in diameter. Weight three ounces. This tree has been especially productive here at this station when top grafted on Hibernal apple. Flavor acid and acerb, so it is useful mainly for jelly or for adding a quince-like flavor to apple sauce. The tree is really beautiful when in bloom. From the 1928 list.

Missouri Wild Crabapple. — Found some 40 years ago near Kansas City, Missouri, by the late Col. J. C. Evans of Kansas City, Missouri. This fruit was named and introduced by Colonel Evans. Fruit roundish, two and one-half inches in diameter, truncated, regular, rich golden yellow all over. Its native acerbity is considerable toned down but it is still a wild crab. Worthy of preservation as a curiosity and perhaps as a basis for further work. From the 1919 list.
   Specimens of the Missouri wild crab grown at this Station on French Paradise stock were two and seven-eighths inches in diameter and weighed four and one-half ounces.

Nertchinsk Siberian Crab Seedlings. — Introduced 1924. For the far North, it may prove best in the long run to improve the Siberian crab by straight selection through several generations rather than by hybridization with the standard apples. The Siberian crabs vary considerably in hardiness. The one from Nertchinsk, eastern Siberia, near the headwaters of the Amur river, appears to be the hardiest one now available and will go farther north. They are very productive. The fruits make a beautiful sight on the tree and make as fine show as the common European Mountain Ash which is not entirely hardy here, often winter-killing after heavy fruiting. Fruits mostly small, for ornament only, and for stocks.

New Duchess Apple. — Introduced 1924. This is the name under which this variety was imported some years ago from Russia. The trees are productive and the fruit appears to be much the same as the Duchess of Oldenburg. Perhaps the basin is less corrugated and the size is extra large.

Nocalyx Crabapple. — Introduced 1920. A seedling of Spitzenberg crab. This is probably the largest apple with a deciduous calyx produced to date. Fruit round, two inches in diameter, yellow with red stripes. Sprightly subacid, with sweet after-taste. A very productive tree. Season September. This fruit has no calyx segments and no calyx tube open into the core. However, in the Nocalyx, Ivan, Amur, and other crabs, the calyx segments are not wholly deciduous, occasional specimens retaining their segments.

Olga Crabapple. — Introduced 1919. Pedigree: Female parent, Duchess of Oldenburg apple. Male parent, Pyrus baccata cerasifera, which is much like the old Cherry crab. This combines the Russian apple with the Siberian crab. Fruit is regular, oblate, fully one and one- half inches in diameter on the seedling tree. Color, solid bright cherry red all over with blue bloom; dots distinct, white, many large; basin quite shallow, smooth; cavity wide, obtuse with considerable russet. Calyx mostly deciduous. Flesh is yellowish white, crisp, juicy, acid, of good quality. Red core outline in flesh. Very good to eat raw as it mellows. The fruit cooks up very quickly, as easily as the Duchess apple itself, and the sauce is of an attractive deep salmon red. Under propagation, the trees may increase slightly in size of fruit. The tree is a vigorous, stocky grower with strong forks and is extremely productive.

Oxbo Apple. — Introduced 1922. A seedling of Roxbury Russet apple top-grafted on Duchess of Oldenburg apple. The name is condensed from the names of these two varieties. Fruit of fair size, up to two and five-eighths inches in diameter; white juicy, subacid. Season probably late fall, but not fully determined. A stock grower in the nursery.

Red Tip Crabapple. — Introduced 1919. Female parent, a wild crab from Elk River, Minnesota. Male parent, Pyrus Malus Niedzwetzkyana, a small red-fleshed apple from Turkestan in the high mountains between Turkestan and China. The pedigree does not indicate any promise as a table fruit, but the red-tipped young leaves make it an interesting tree from the ornamental standpoint. The fruit is small.

Russian White Apple. — Introduced 1924. Noteworthy for its snow-white color and a favorite at State Fair Exhibits. A good summer apple, flesh snow-white, juicy, sprightly subacid. This tree is growing in the old Russian apple orchard at State College and the name Russian White, is given until the real name can be determined.

Sapinia Crabapple. — Introduced 1920. This is a seedling of Winesap top-grafted on Virginia crab. The name is made up from these two names. One of the forerunners of a new race of hybrid apples, in which the cultivated apple instead of the Siberian crab is the female parent. Fruit thinly washed with dull red, almost two inches in diameter. Flavor subacid. Evidently a long winter keeper.

Sasha Apple. — Introduced 1919. A seedling of the Hibernal pollinated with Gravenstein pollen. The fruit is a fine yellow, oblate and excellent quality sweet apple of full commercial size; the tree is of strong, stocky growth, has blighted a little but not more than some of the standard varieties. The pedigree indicates it should combine hardiness and quality. Sasha is a Russian man’s name. The Sasha is a fine quality fruit, but the tree blights so much that it has been discarded here at Brookings.

Sereda Apple. — Introduced 1916. From seed of the Harry Kaump top grafted on Oldenburg (Duchess) apple. Resembles Yellow Transparent and is similar in maturing very early, but is more regular in form. Yellow, juicy sprightly subacid, Sereda is the Russian word for Wednesday.

Shoko Wild Crabapple. — Introduced 1922. A hybrid of the wild crab of Elk River, Minnesota, with pollen of Alexander apple, one of the largest Russian apples. Fruit nearly two inches in diameter, green, acid, but cooking into an acceptable sauce. The size of the fruit will probably increase, as the original tree is much crowded in nursery rows. Shoko is the Sioux Indian for “seven”.

Sugar Crabapple. — Introduced 1919. A large flavored [what does "large" taste like? -ASC] winter sweet crab. One of our seedlings of Antonovka. Fruit two inches in diameter, round oblate, yellow with bronze blush. Flesh a rich sweet. This has fruited several times and has increased considerably in size since it first fruited. The fruit cooks up easily into a dark yellow sweet sauce that is very good. This tree has been free from blight so far. Its really excellent flavor should commend it to those who like sweet apples.

Tipi Wild Crabapple.—Introduced 1922. Also a hybrid of the wild crab of Elk River, Minnesota, with pollen of the Duchess of Oldenburg apple and much the same in tree and fruit as Kola. Tipi is the Teton Indian for “tent”.

Toringo Crabapple. — From the 1917 list. Pyrus Toringo Crabapple. A dwarf crab native of Japan. Fruit the size of a pea, flowers white and bluish. Grown mostly for ornament, but promising as a dwarf stock. Descended from the original stock imported by Prof. J. L. Budd from Russia. Not entirely hardy but worthy of further study. Pyrus toringo, Sieb., [Malus toringo -ASC] is now listed in Bailey’s Cyclopedia of Horticulture as Pyrus Sieboldii, Regel.

Yellow Sweet Apple—This old Russian apple has borne abundant fruit for many years in the Russian apple orchard of this Department. It is one of the earliest apples; round, yellow, juicy, sweet. This variety should find a place in every family orchard. From the 1924 list.

Zapta Wild Crabapple. — Introduced 1922. A hybrid of the wild native crab apple from Elk River, Minnesota, with pollen of the Bismarck apple, a large variety from New Zealand resembling the Alexander. Fruit two and one-eighth inches in diameter, green, acid and acerb, but cooks up well into sauce, The original tree is closely crowded in our seedling nursery so the size of the fruit will probably increase under propagation. Zapta is the Sioux word for “five.”

Zeleba Apple. — Introduced 1922. An importation from Russia. The full name, Krimskaja Zeleba, indicates that Crimea, in southern Russia, is the place of origin. As fruited here, it is a very large, round, red apple, size about three and one-half inches in diameter and very heavy, flesh white, pleasant subacid. The fruit cooks up well. An apple of very attractive color, really a beautiful fruit. Season about December to midwinter. Zeleba has shown some tendency to blight.