Apple Home

Ramsdell Sweet
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Avery Sweet (12,14). Avery Sweeting (8). English Sweet (12,14,15,16,18,20). English Sweeting (4,8). Hurlbut (14). Hurlbut Sweet (12). Ramsdale's Sweeting (9). Ramsdell (14,19). Ramsdell's Red (11). Ramsdell Red Sweet (18). Ramsdell's Red Sweeting (1). Ramsdell's Sweeting (3,5-8,12-14). Ramsdel's Red Pumpkin Sweet (2,3,5,7,8,12). Randall's Red Winter (12,14). Red Pumpkin Sweet (3,8,12). Red Pumpkin Sweeting (9). Reindell's Large (14).
This is an attractive red apple of good size and very good quality, in season from midautumn to midwinter. The tree is a pretty good grower and an early bearer, yielding some fruit annually or nearly annually, but in many cases it is not satisfactorily productive and the fruit is not very uniform in size and quality, so that there is a considerable loss from unmarketable fruit. Not recommended for commercial planting in New York.
Historical. This variety was first brought to notice by being exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society by the Rev. H.S. Ramsdell, Thompson, Conn., and was named Ramsdell's Red Sweeting in compliment to him (1). Downing described it in 1845 (3) under the name Ramsdell's Sweeting, but in the 1869 edition (12) it was described under the name English Sweet, the name previously recognized by Elliott (8) but upon what authority we have been unable to learn. In 1862 (10) it was entered on the catalogue of the American Pomological Society under the name Ramsdell Sweet which name has been retained in that catalogue up to the present time. It is also commonly catalogued by nurserymen under the name Ramsdell or Ramsdell Sweet (17).

TREE.

Tree medium size, vigorous or moderately vigorous.
Form upright, open.
Twigs long, curved, moderately stout; internodes medium.
Bark brown, streaked with heavy scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels scattering, small to medium, oval, raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit above medium, sometimes nearly large, somewhat variable in size, fairly uniform in shape.
Form oblong conic to roundish conic, often somewhat elliptical and faintly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium in length, moderately slender, often red.
Cavity acuminate, deep, rather broad, quite symmetrical, often with some stellate russet.
Calyx small to medium, closed or slightly open; lobes narrow, acute to acuminate.
Basin rather small, sometimes oblique, medium to rather deep, narrow to medium in width, abrupt, faintly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, rather tough, smooth, yellow nearly overspread with attractive dark red, or entirely red with obscure splashed and stripes of carmine, overspread with blue bloom.
Dots many, distinct, conspicuous, small to rather large, pale yellow or grayish, often submerged.
Prevailing effect red, attractive.
Calyx tube rather large, long, cylindrical to narrow funnel-shape.
Stamens median.
Core small to medium, axile to somewhat abaxile; cells symmetrical but not uniformly developed, closed or slightly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels ovate to nearly roundish.
Seeds below medium, rather narrow, plump, acute.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, fine, tender, juicy, very sweet, good to very good.
Season October to February.

Raspberry
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Malinowskoe (1,2,3). No. 288 (3,5,8). Red Cheek (6).
A Russian apple, small, fine dark red, sprightly subacid; season July and August. Hansen states (8,9) that it is exceedingly productive and a good substitute for Red June where that variety winter-kills.

Red and Green Sweet
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Large Red Sweeting (5). Large Red and Green Sweeting (2). Prince's Large Red and Green Sweeting ((1,3). Prince's Red and Green Sweet (3). Red Bough (5). Red and Green Sweeting (3). Saille Sweet (9). Virginia Sweet (9).
This is a very large green apple, striped with red, rather attractive when well colored. It does not rank very high in flavor or quality but is suitable for baking. Season August and September. The fruit does n ot last long after it becomes ripe. The tree is medium to large, moderately vigorous to vigorous, long-lived and a reliable cropper yielding heavy crops annually. Although some find it a profitable apple to grow for local market it is not worthy of being recommended for general planting.
Historical. This is an old variety which was described by Coxe (1). It was formerly grown to a comparatively limited extent in some portions of New York and in adjoining states. Occasionally a tree of it is still found in some of the oldest orchards of the state but it is fast going out of cultivation.

TREE.

Tree large.
Form upright spreading to roundish, open.
Twigs short, straight, stout with large terminal buds; internodes short.
Bark brown mingled with olive-green, heavily coated with gray scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium size, oval, not raised.
Buds large, rather prominent, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit large to very large.
Form oblong conic, rather strongly ribbed; sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, moderately slender.
Cavity nearly acuminate, deep, broad, furrowed, sometimes lipped, sometimes thinly russeted.
Calyx closed or partly open; lobes moderately long, narrow, acute.
Basin medium in depth to rather deep, medium in width to rather narrow, wrinkled.
Skin thin, tender, smooth, green changing to yellow, more or less blushed and partly overspread with pinkish-red irregularly striped and splashed with rather bright carmine.
Dots conspicuous, numerous, large and scattering toward the cavity, small and very numerous toward the calyx.
Calyx tube long, funnel-shape.
Core rather large; cells open; core lines clasping.
Carpels nearly roundish, tufted.
Seeds rather small, plump, acute.
Flesh white, fine, very tender, moderately juicy, of pleasant sweet flavor and fair to good quality.
Season August and September.

Red Astrachan
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Abe Lincoln (31-32-34,48). American Red (4,46). Anglesea Pippin (37). Astracan Rouge (34). Astrachan (23). Astrachan Red (2, 18). Astrachan Rouge (31). Astrakhan Rouge (32). Deterding's Early (31,32). Hamper's American (37). Red Astrakhan (31-32). Vermillion d'Ete (31,32,34). Waterloo (37).
This is a very beautiful early summer apple of good medium size, yellow, largely covered with light and dark red, presenting a striped appearance, and overspread with bluish bloom. It is generally well known throughout the state, being valued particularly for home use. It is fit for culinary purposes before it becomes fully ripe, so that for home use it is in season from late July to September. When fully ripe and mellow it is desirable for dessert use. The tree is of medium size, a good grower, moderately long-lived, comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper, yielding moderate to good crops biennially or sometimes annually. The fruit hangs to the tree pretty well till it is fully ripe, but as the crop matures unevenly there is apt to be considerable loss from the dropping of fruit unless several pickings are made. It is not very uniform in size, and a considerable amount of it is small or otherwise unmarketable. It is very perishable, and on this account not well adapted for shipping to distant markets. It is very common in local markets, but often the supply so much exceeds the demand that prices are consequently low.
Historical. Hogg states that Red Astrachan was imported from Sweden into England in 1816 but Lindley (6) states that "This very beautiful apple was imported from Sweden, and first fruited by William Atkinson, Esq., of Grove End, Paddington, in 1816." It was one of the first of the Russian apples imported into America. It was received by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1835 (8). It has become generally disseminated throughout the apple-growing districts of the continent and is commonly listed from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from Canada to the Gulf states.

TREE.

Tree medium to rather large, moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading to roundish, rather dense.
Twigs medium to long, curved, stout to rather slender; internodes long.
Bark clear brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent near the tips.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium to small, oblong, slightly raised.
Buds medium in size, plump, obtuse to acute, free, pubescent.
[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

FRUIT

Fruit medium to sometimes large, not very uniform in size or shape.
Form roundish to roundish oblate, inclined to conical, somewhat ribbed; sides a little unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium, rather slender, bracted.
Cavity acute to sometimes obtuse, medium to deep, moderately broad, often thinly russeted with greenish russet, usually symmetrical, sometimes lipped.
Calyx medium to rather large, open or closed; lobes rather long, moderately broad.
Basin shallow, narrow to medium in width, obtuse, wrinkled.
Skin rather thin, moderately tender, smooth, pale yellow or greenish often nearly or quite overspread with light and dark red splashed and irregularly striped with deep crimson or carmine and covered with rather heavy distinct bluish bloom.
Dots numerous, small, whitish.
Calyx tube long, funnel-form.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core small, somewhat abaxile; cells closed or somewhat open; core lines clasping or sometimes nearly meeting.
Carpels broadly ovate or obovate, slightly tufted.
Seeds small, moderately wide, plump, obtuse.
Flesh white often strongly tinged with red, rather fine, crisp, tender, juicy, brisk subacid, aromatic, sometimes slightly astringent, good to very good.
Season late July to September.

Red Gravenstein
References.  1. Leroy, 1873:339. fig. 2. Can. Hort., 16:362. 1893. 3. Lucas, Ed., Illustr. Handb.der Obstk., 1893:250.
Synonyms.  Gravenstein Rouge (1). Rother Gravensteiner (1).
Bud sports of the Gravenstein have appeared at different times which bear red fruit. For a statement concerning such sports the reader is referred to Gravenstein, page 84.

Red Hook
This is a large, late summer or early autumn apple which is being grown commercially to a limited extent in the vicinity of Red Hook, Dutchess county, NY. W.S. Teator, of Upper Red Hook, who furnished us with the fruit from which the following description was made, states that the variety originated in this locality and has been known under the name of Red Ox or Striped Ox. As the name Striped Ox has been applied to other varieties he proposes the name Red Hook for this apple. The tree is large, low branching and an annual cropper yielding heavy crops. The fruit is firm, smooth, bright, attractive, quite free from the attacks of fungi and good for culinary use but when overripe it becomes dry and worthless. It stands shipment well and is one of the earliest fruits of that locality that can be shipped to Europe.

FRUIT

Fruit large to very large.
Form roundish to roundish conic, somewhat elliptical, symmetrical, sometimes faintly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) short, thick to rather slender.
Cavity acuminate, deep, broad, gently furrowed, smooth or partly russeted.
Calyx medium to rather small, partly closed; lobes broad, obtuse to acute.
Basin rather small, moderately deep, narrow to medium in width, abrupt.
Skin tough, attractive pale yellow, rather thinly mottled and blushed with lively red, and sparingly striped and splashed with bright carmine.
Dots rather small, numerous, whitish or with russet center.
Calyx tube elongated funnel-shape approaching conical.
Stamens median.
Core medium or below, axile or nearly so; cells pretty symmetrical, closed; core lines clasping the cylinder.
Carpels broadly roundish.
Seeds rather dark brown, medium size, irregular, obtuse.
Flesh firm, coarse, tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, good.
Season late summer or early autumn.

Red June
References.  1.  [***will be added later***]
Synonyms.  Will be added later.
An attractive little apple, deep red over yellow, tender, brisk subacid, very good. The tree is a moderate grower, a pretty reliable bearer, and commonly yields good crops. Some find it profitable because it is handsome and takes well in some markets.
The crop ripens so unevenly that it should have two or three pickings in order to secure the fruit in good condition. The variety is more popular South and West than it is in New York.
STRIPED RED JUNE.
A variety has found its way into cultivation which appears in all respects identical with the Red June except that the fruit is striped. It is supposed to be either a seedling of the Red June or a sport of that variety (11, 12).
Historical.  This is a southern apple which is supposed to have originated in North Carolina. It has long been known in cultivation and is commonly listed by nurserymen, but it has not been planted to any considerable extent in New York.
Tree.  Tree moderately vigorous with short, moderately stout, curved branches.
Form at first upright but becoming spreading or roundish.
Twigs very short, straight, slender; internodes medium size.
Bark dull brown, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small, oblong, not raised.
Buds small, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent.

Fruit small or below medium, uniform in shape and size.
Form roundish ovate or a little inclined to oblong, rather regular; sides usually unequal.
Stem variable, usually long, slender.
Cavity small, acuminate to acute, shallow to medium in depth, narrow, slightly symmetrical, sometimes compressed, russeted but slightly if at all.
Calyx medium to large, leafy, closed.
Basin small, shallow, narrow, rather obtuse, smooth or wavy.
Skin thin, tender, smooth, glossy, pale yellow or greenish, nearly overspread with deep purplish-red approaching blacking-purple on the exposed cheek; some specimens are entirely red.
Dots rather numerous, very small, inconspicuous, light.
Calyx tube short, moderately wide, conical to funnel-form.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core large, axile to somewhat abaxile; cells symmetrical, open or sometimes closed; core lines slightly clasping or meeting.
Carpels broadly ovate to elliptical.
Seeds rather dark brown, numerous, small to medium, plump, acute.
Flesh white, fine, tender, juicy, brisk subacid, good to very good.
Season late July to early winter.
[Information from the Southeastern U.S. here.]
[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

Red Transparent
References.  1.
Synonyms.  No. 333 (1-4). Skvosnoi Krasnoi (1,2).
A Russian variety of little value where Primate can be grown. Fruit medium size with pale skin nearly covered with red and overspread with delicate bloom. Basin irregularly wrinkled; calyx prominent, closed; flesh greenish-white, not very crisp; water-cores badly; season late July and early August (6).

Red Wine
References.  1.
Synonyms.  No. 343 (2,4,7). Rother Weinapfel (7). Rotherwein appel (4). Vinnoe Krasnoe Osennee (4). Weinapfel Rother (2,3). Weinappel Rother (1).
A Russian apple of the Lowland Raspberry type (7,8). Fruit medium, waxen-white almost completely covered with bright red. Flesh white, tender, subacid, good. Season August and September.
So far as we know this variety has not been tested in New York.

Reed
References.  1. Downing, 1869:329.
Synonyms.  None.
A local variety which according to Downing originated with George Reed, Leedsville, Dutchess county, NY. Fruit medium, whitish shaded and mottled with light and dark red; flesh white, a little stained next [to] the skin, pleasant subacid, good; season November.
We are unacquainted with this variety and have received no report concerning it from any of our correspondents.

Repka
References.  1. Barry, 1883:334. 2. Schroeder, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-87:79. 3. Gibb, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887:57. 4. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:248. 5. Beach, NY Sta. An. Rpt., 13:254. 1894.
Synonyms.  No. 139 (2,3). Riepka (3).
Historical. Origin Russia. Received in 1884 from Ellwanger and Barry, Rochester, NY for testing at this Station. It has been but little disseminated in New York.

TREE.

Tree rather small; not a vigorous grower.
Form spreading or roundish.
Twigs short, straight, stout with large terminal buds; internodes short.
Bark brown or reddish-brown, heavily coated with gray scarf-skin.
Lenticels scattering, medium to small, round, slightly raised.
Buds large, prominent, broad, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium or below.
Form roundish oblate inclined to conic, regular; sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) rather short, moderately slender.
Cavity acute, medium in depth to deep, rather wide, heavily russeted and with outspreading russet rays.
Calyx rather small, closed.
Basin moderately deep, wide, somewhat abrupt, usually furrowed or wrinkled.
Skin moderately thin, tough, clear pale yellow or whitish.
Dots small, white, pale and submerged or russet.
Calyx tube long, narrow, funnel-form.
Core small; cells closed; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish.
Seeds medium size, wide, flat, obtuse.
Flesh white, rather firm, fine, juicy, crisp, rather mild subacid, good.
Season August and September.

Rhode Island Greening
References.  1. Coxe, 1817:129. fig. 2. Thacher, 1822:134. 3. Buel, N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:476. 4. Fessenden, 1828:131. 5. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831:32. 6. Kenrick, 1832:52. 7. Floy-Lindley, 1833:37. 8. Ib., 1833:86. 9. Mag. Hort., 1:326, 364. 1835. 10. Manning, 1838:56. 11. Ib., Mag. Hort., 7:51. 1841. 12. Downing, 1845:128. fig. 13. Horticulturist, 1:257. 1846. 14. Ib., 1:361, 407, 431. 1847. 15. Ib., 2:545. 1848. 16. Ib., 3:292. 1848. 17. Thomas, 1849:184. 18. Cole, 1849:123. fig. 19. Elliott, Horticulturist, 3:420. 1849. 20. Phoenix, Ib., 4:472. 1850. 21. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:90. 1851. col. pl. No. 22. 22. Hovey, 2:79. 1851. 23. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 24. Elliott, 1854:104. fig. 25. Bivort, An. de Pom. Beige, 1855:60. 26. Gregg, 1857:58. 27. Hooper, 1857:79. 28. Horticulturist, 13:144. 1858. 29. Ill. Handb. Obst., 1:265. 1858. 30. Warder, 1867:414. fig. 31. Regel, 1868:453. 32. Mas, Le Verger, 1868:11. 33. Leroy, 1873:853. fig. 34. Lauche, 1: col. pl. No. 62. 1882. 35. Barry, 1883:353. 36. Hogg, 1884:194. 37. Rural N. Y., 43:681. 1884. 38. Wickson, 1889:246. 39. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 40. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:248. 41. Bredsted, 1893:171. 42. U.S. Pom. Bui, 7:354. 1898. 43. Adams, Amer. Card., 22:599. 1901. 44. Eneroth-Smirnoff, 1901:425. 45. Budd-Hansen, 1903:163. fig. 46. U.S. Dept. Agr. Yr. Bk., 1903:233. col. pi. No. 26. 47. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul, 48:54. 1903. 48. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul, 248:141. 1904.
Synonyms.  Burlington Greening (1, 6, 12, 24, 33, 36). Greening (17 and common colloquial usage). GREEN NEWTOWN PIPPIN (7) erroneously, corrected by Floy;(36, erroneously 33). Hampshire Greening (24,33). Jersey Greening (1,3,6, 24, 33, 36, ?2 and 12). RHODE ISLAND (47). Verte de Vile de Rhodes (33). VERTE DE RHODE ISLAND (33).
Rhode Island Greening is grown more extensively in New York than any other apple except the Baldwin and in a few sections of the state it surpasses even Baldwin. Its range of distribution on this continent is nearly coextensive with that of Baldwin.
In accordance with the usage of the American Pomological Society (23) the word Greening in the name of this variety is put in italics as the first step toward shortening the name to Rhode Island. "Fruit growers and fruit dealers know the variety very well by the name Rhode Island Greening but commonly call it by the simple name Greening. Among these classes of people it will doubtless continue to be known by the name Greening or Rhode Island Greening as long as it remains in cultivation.
The apple, as the name indicates, is green in color. It is commonly deep grass-green in autumn, and later, as it ripens, develops more or less of a yellow color. It often has a dull blush and occasionally develops a rather bright red cheek but is never striped. Generally it is a reliable cropper and productive. The fruit has a recognized standing both in domestic and foreign markets and sells readily at good prices. It is generally regarded as one of the very best cooking apples grown being almost the peer of Esopus Spitzenburg and decidedly superior to Baldwin for all culinary purposes. It is also very good in quality for dessert use. Hovey well remarks (22): "As a cooking apple, the Greening is unsurpassed; and as a dessert fruit of its season, has few equals. To some tastes it is rather acid; but the tenderness of its very juicy flesh, the sprightliness of its abundant juice, and the delicacy of its rich and fine flavor is not excelled by any of the numerous varieties that we at present possess. In addition to these merits, it ripens up of a fine mellow shade of yellow, and its entire flesh, when well matured, is of the same rich tint." It is a favorite variety in nearly all of the apple-growing sections of the state but it succeeds particularly well in Central and Western New York and in the middle portion of the Hudson valley. When grown farther south it is less desirable for commercial purposes because it ripens earlier and is not so good a keeper. In the North it is a little less hardy than Baldwin. It is a good variety to grow with the Baldwin in commercial orchards because, being a little earlier in season, it can be picked and marketed before it is necessary to pick Baldwin. Moreover it bears good crops some years when there is but a light crop of Baldwins or perhaps none at all. In regions best adapted to its cultivation it thrives on different slopes and on a variety of soils, but generally, it appears to do particularly well on fertile gravelly or sandy loam with well-drained clay subsoil. The tree is long-lived and eventually becomes large although it is not an exceptionally rapid grower. It is hardy, strong, vigorous, and usually pretty healthy but unless thorough preventive treatment is given, both the foliage and the fruit are often injured by the apple-scab fungus. In some locations the limbs are rather susceptible to the disease known as canker (Paddock, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:331. 1899. Ib., 18:342. 1900.). The tree does not come into bearing very young and in many cases it is classed as a biennial cropper, but in favorable locations with good care it becomes almost an annual bearer yielding moderate to heavy crops. The fruit hangs well to the tree until it begins to ripen, but then is apt to drop to a considerable extent especially in high winds. The tree has a tendency to form a rather dense head particularly when the soil is kept fertile and well tilled and the foliage is thoroughly protected from the attacks of insects and fungi. In pruning, special care should be taken to keep the head sufficiently open so that the light may reach the foliage in all parts of the tree. Sometimes the orchardist makes the mistake of cutting out large branches from the center of the tree thereby exposing the remaining limbs to injury by sunscald. A better way is, thin the top every year by removing as many of the smaller branches as may be necessary to make it uniformly open. In training the young tree it is well to form the head rather high because as it matures the branches become long, wide-spreading and more or less drooping, and where the tree is headed low the lower branches eventually are so much in the way that it is necessary to remove them. Moreover when loaded with fruit these bend so close to the ground as to interfere with the free circulation of the air beneath the tree, and thus conditions are produced which favor the development of the apple scab and other fungous diseases. When well grown, Rhode Island Greening produces a large percentage of high-grade fruit that is smooth, uniform and pretty large with little loss from undersized or other low-grade apples. It appears to be somewhat more subject than Baldwin to the attacks of apple scab and unless thorough preventive treatment is given this trouble is apt to cause very serious loss both by direct injury to the fruit and by opening the way to the attacks of other fungi, notably the pink-rot fungus (Eustace, AT. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 22:108. 1903.). In ordinary storage it is in season from October to March or April and its common commercial limit is January or early February. It may be held commercially in cold storage till March or April (48). It ripens rapidly during periods of warm weather in autumn and does not stand heat well before going into storage as this induces scald. If put in cold storage in good condition the fruit keeps well and goes down gradually but if affected by scald or disease it goes down quickly. In going down, it scalds badly in storage, loses in quality, turns yellow, becomes mealy and large specimens are liable to burst (48). The markets of the East prefer the green-colored fruit probably because this color is regarded as an indication that the apples are not over-ripe. In some western markets however the more attractive yellow and blushed fruit sells well. Some fruit growers follow the practice of picking the fruit while it is still quite green in order to hold its green color. Such fruit does not have as good flavor and quality as that which is allowed to become properly ripened on the tree and probably it is more liable to scald but storage men differ in their opinions on this point. It is very important that fruit of this variety which is intended for cold storage should be hurried into storage as soon as it is picked. This practice is more essential with Rhode Island Greening than with the average variety (48).
Historical. The locality of the origin of Rhode Island Greening is not known with certainty but there is little reason to doubt that it originated in the State of Rhode Island and probably in the vicinity of Newport near the place now known as Green's End (43), "where, in olden times, there was a tavern kept by Mr. Green, who raised apple trees from seed. Among the trees thus produced was one which bore a large green apple. The scions of this tree were in such demand by the people who stopped there as guests, that the tree died from excessive cutting and exhaustion. The fruit which resulted from grafting with these scions was known by different names in Rhode Island as the 'apple from Green's Inn,' while in adjoining States it was called the 'Green's Inn apple from Rhode Island.' * * * In the town of Foster, upon the farm of Thomas R. Drowne, at Mt. Hygeia, stands an old Rhode Island Greening tree, which is supposed to be nearly 200 years old. * * * This tree, to the knowledge of members of the family now living, has borne uninterruptedly until within a few years. * * * On the farm of Frederick W. Winslow, a few rods southwest of the lime kiln on the northern verge of Fruit Hill, stands a Rhode Island Greening tree, which is locally known as the 'Daughter Tree' This tree is a limb of the mother tree, which was broken off in the September gale of 1815, and which upon being thrust into the rich moist soil, took root and became an independent tree. The mother tree was planted * * * in 1748. It was, therefore, 141 years old when it was cut down in 1889. * * * Authentic records of trees of this variety that were planted about 150 years ago in the soil of North Providence, on the farm of the late Lemuel Angell, are still in possession of that family. It was introduced into the old Plymouth colony from Newport in 1765; from there (?) it was carried into Ohio in 1796 by General Putnam."
While we have no record of its earliest introduction into this state it is well known that Rhode Island Greening was pretty widely disseminated in the older settled regions of New York during the eighteenth century. It is often found in the very oldest orchards now in existence in New York and it also ranks as one of the most important varieties in recently planted orchards.
Tree.  Tree large or above medium, strong, vigorous.
Form wide-spreading, somewhat drooping, rather dense.
Twigs medium to long, often somewhat crooked, rather stocky ; internodes usually short.
Bark olive-green with reddish-brown tinge, thinly covered with lines of gray scarf-skin, pubescent.
Lenticels scattering but rather conspicuous, medium in size to rather large, usually roundish, raised.
Buds medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse, appressed, pubescent.
Leaves rather large, broad; foliage rather dense.
Fruit Fruit above medium to large or very large, quite uniform in shape and size.
Form roundish to roundish oblate or sometimes slightly inclined to conic, regular or a little inclined to elliptical, sometimes obscurely ribbed, symmetrical or sides slightly unequal.
Stem medium in length and thickness, partly green, pubescent.
Cavity medium in size, acute, medium in depth and width, symmetrical or rarely lipped, usually smooth, sometimes russeted and with narrow, outspreading russet rays.
Calyx below medium to rather large, usually closed, sometimes partly open, pubescent; lobes moderately long, acute.
Basin small to medium, shallow and obtuse to moderately deep and abrupt, regular or slightly furrowed.
Skin moderately thick, tough, smooth, waxy, grass-green varying to rather yellow, sometimes with brownish-red blush which rarely deepens to a distinct bright red (37).
Dots greenish-white or russet, especially numerous toward the basin and often submerged.
Prevailing effect green or yellowish.
Calyx tube rather wide, usually cone-shape with fleshy pistil point projecting into the base but occasionally funnel-form.
Stamens median to basal.
Core medium or below, somewhat abaxile to axile or nearly so; cells pretty uniform, symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines meeting if the calyx tube is cone-shape, otherwise clasping.
Carpels rather thin, flat, emarginate, roundish to roundish cordate, sometimes tufted.
Seeds few; often some are abortive. The plump ones are large, moderately narrow, long, acute to acuminate and sometimes tufted.
Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately fine-grained, crisp, tender, juicy, rich, sprightly subacid, peculiarly flavored, very good in quality.
Additional History: This tree on the Drowne farm is supposed by some to be the original Rhode Island Greening tree. An illustrated description of it appeared in the Providence Sunday Journal October 2, 1898. Within recent years a sprout has grown out from the base of this old tree. In 1900 Senator T. R. Drowne very kindly furnished this Station with scions from this sprout and also from the upper branches of the tree. A comparison of the trees propagated from these scions, which are now growing at this Station, shows that the trees from scions taken from the upper branches of the old tree are the true Rhode Island Greening, but those grown from scions taken from the sprout at the base of the old tree are very different, thus demonstrating that the old tree on the Drowne farm is not growing on its own roots and, therefore, is not the original Rhode Island Greening tree.
[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

Ribston Pippin
References.  1.  [***will be added later***]
Synonyms.  Beautiful Pippin (25). Englische Granat-Reinette (40). Essex Pippin (40). Formosa (25). Formosa Pippin (7,10,15,22,32,40). Glory of York (10,15,22,25,32,35,40, of some 7). Granat-Reinette (40). Nonpareille (40). Pepin Ribston (40). Reinette Grenade Anglaise (40). Reinette de Traver (32). Ribston Pippin (1,3-5,7,10,13-19,21,22,25,28,32,34,35,38,41,44-46). Ribston Pepping (40). Ribston's Pepping (40). Ribstone (32). Ribstone Pippin (6,12). Ridge (46 by error). Rockhill's Russet (32). Travers (15,22,25,32). Ravers Apple (7,10,40). Travers Peppin (40). Travers Pippin (35). Travers Reinette (40).
Ribston evidently belongs in the same group as Hubbardston. It is much esteemed for its rich flavor and fine quality and it is desirable either for dessert or culinary uses. The fruit is pretty smooth and uniform but often it averages below medium size and is ordinary in appearance. Heat ripens it quickly and it is not considered a very good keeper. In cold storage, if properly handled before storing, it is possibly equal to 'Tompkins King' or Hubbardston as a keeper (46). Its season in Southern New York extends from late September to November or December, and in the northern and more elevated regions from late fall to early or mid-winter and sometimes a portion of the fruit may be kept till spring in ordinary storage. The tree is pretty hardy, vigorous, healthy and long-lived. It comes into bearing rather young and usually bears some fruit every year. Occasionally the crops are heavy but more often they vary from moderate to rather light. Generally speaking, it is hardly satisfactory as a cropper and 'Hubbardston' is much to be preferred for planting in commercial orchards in New York.
Historical.  Ribston originated more than two hundred years ago in Yorkshire, England (1, 7). In that country it has long been considered the standard of excellence among dessert apples. It has long been known in cultivation in America but has not gained the standing here that it holds in England. It is not grown to any considerable extent in New York but succeeds better farther north, as in portions of Northern New England and of Canada, where it is of some commercial importance (16, 20, 24, 44).
Tree.  medium in size of sometimes rather large, moderately vigorous to vigorous with rather stout, stocky branches.
Form rather upright and spreading or roundish, not very regular.
Twigs medium to rather long, rather slender to moderately stout; internodes medium to long.
Bark bright dark reddish-brown and olive-green, somewhat mottled with grayish scarf-skin.
Lenticels conspicuous, scattering, small to medium, elongated or roundish.
Buds medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse, nearly free, very pubescent.
Foliage rather dense; leaves broad.

Fruit medium or above, pretty uniform in shape and size.
Form roundish, rather broad and flattened at the base, narrowing somewhat toward the basin, occasionally a little inclined to roundish oblong, often broadly and obscurely ribbed.
Stem pubescent, medium to short, occasionally moderately slender, more often rather thick, sometimes irregularly swollen or inserted under a lip.
Cavity rather large, acute, moderately shallow to rather deep, wide to moderately narrow, sometimes furrowed or compressed, occasionally smooth and green but often faintly russeted and with some outspreading russet.
Calyx variable, small to rather large, closed or partly open; lobes sometimes separated at the base, erect or converging, tips usually somewhat reflexed.
Basin small to medium, shallow to moderately deep, moderately narrow, more of less abrupt or occasionally obtuse, often slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin smooth or slightly roughened with russet, deep yellow or greenish-yellow more or less overspread with rather dull red which in highly colored specimens deepens to a distinct red with some obscure carmine stripes and splashes.
Dots scattering, conspicuous toward the base, more numerous and smaller toward the basin, pale, sometimes whitish, often areolar with russet center.
Prevailing effect sometimes rather attractive but more often the colors are rather dull. Calyx tube rather wide, cone-shape or sometimes funnel-form. Stamens basal.
Core below medium to small, axile or with a narrow hollow cylinder at the axis; cells pretty regular, closed; core lines clasping to nearly meeting.
Carpels roundish to nearly elliptical, emarginate, slightly tufted.
Seeds variable, some abortive, usually but few are plump, light and dark brown, rather large, moderately narrow to wide, medium to long, obtuse or sometimes approaching acute, sometimes slightly tufted.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, very crisp, medium in texture, juicy, pleasantly aromatic, rich, sprightly subacid, very good.
Season late September to December or later.
[Information from the Southeastern U.S. here.]

Richard Graft
References.  1. Mag. Hort., 18:492. 1852. 2.*****
Synonyms.  Derrick and Ann (8). Derrick's Graft (2,4). Red Spitzenberg (3). Red Spitzenburgh (2,4,6). Richard (1). Strawberry (2,3). Wine (2,3).
This is a very fine fall apple of superior dessert quality. It begins to ripen during late August or early September; the crop ripens in succession during a period of several weeks, and some portion of the fruit may be kept till late autumn. Several pickings are required in order to secure the fruit in prime condition. The tree is upright, of medium size, moderately vigorous, long-lived and a reliable cropper yielding good crops biennially. It is an excellent variety for home use and is being grown to a limited extent in commercial orchards with profit.
Historical. This variety was originated at Greenport, Columbia county, NY by Richard Delamatter. It was introduced about 1860 by E.G. Studley, anurseryman of Claverack, Columbia county, NY. Its cultivation is being extended somewhat in Columbia county, but as yet it is but little known outside of the Hudson valley.

TREE.

Tree of medium size, moderately vigorous.
Form upright or roundish, open.
Twigs moderately long, curved, moderately stout; internodes medium.
Bark dark brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, round, not raised.
Buds medium size, broad, acute to obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT (2,8)

Fruit medium size.
Form roundish oblate.
Stem (Pedicel) of medium length, slender.
Cavity large.
Calyx small, closed.
Basin medium size.
Skin yellow, nearly covered with stripes and splashes of deep red.
Flesh yellowish, very tender, juicy, aromatic, subacid, very good.
Season September.

Ridge
References.  1.Genesee Farmer, 1833. (cited by 10). 2. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:46. 1851. col. pl. No. 55. 3. Downing, 1857:184. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 5. Warder, 1867:536. 6. Thomas, 1875:510. 7. Barry, 1883:354. 8. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:248. 9. Budd-Hansen, 1903:166. 10. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul, 56:262. 1905.
SYNONYMS. RIDGE PIPPIN (1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8). RIDGE Pippin (9,10). RIDGED PIPPIN (2). Not the RIDGE of Bul. 248 of this Station.
Fruit of good yellow color, not particularly attractive in form, a late keeper and good in quality for either dessert or culinary uses. It averages pretty uniform in size with comparatively few culls. The tree is healthy, hardy, long-lived and a reliable cropper yielding good crops biennially. Some growers consider it a fairly profitable variety for local markets.
Since Bulletin 248 was published it has been discovered that the variety therein mentioned under the name of Ridge or Ridge Pippin is in fact Ribston. It appears that the name Ridge Pippin is used by some dealers as a trade synonym for Ribston, and this use of it led us into the error of publishing a duplicate report on Ribston under the name Ridge. Historical. According to Warder (5) this variety originated in the vicinity of Philadelphia but Downing (3) regarded this as uncertain. Although it has long been known in cultivation it has gained but little recognition in New York state either for home or for commercial orchards.

Rolfe
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Macomber (1-4, 7, 9, 14).
Fruit medium to large, of good quality and rather attractive for a yellowish apple. It is in season from late September to December or January. The tree is very hardy, vigorous and a reliable cropper. At the present time it is probably grown more extensively in Maine than in any other section of the country. It is there regarded highly wherever it is known and is gaining popularity among fruit growers (1, 6, 10, 12). It is worthy of testing in those portions of the state where superior hardiness in a variety is a matter of prime importance.
Historical. Originated in the town of Guilford, Maine, about 1820. Said to be a seedling of the Blue Pearmain. It has, as yet, been disseminated but sparingly in this state and is but little known among New York fruit growers.

TREE.

Tree rather large, vigorous.
Form roundish to spreading and drooping, rather dense; laterals slender, willowy.
Twigs rather long, irregularly crooked, slender to moderately stout; internodes long to below medium.
Bark brown to reddish-brown with an occasional tinge of olive-green, overlaid with scarf-skin, pubescent near tips.
Lenticels moderately numerous, of a dull color but rather conspicuous, medium or above, roundish, not raised.
Buds very deeply set in bark, medium in size, broad, flat, obtuse, appressed, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to sometimes large, pretty uniform in shape and size.
Form roundish to roundish oblate, regular or somewhat angular, symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium and rather slender.
Cavity acute to slightly acuminate, moderately deep, rather wide, sometimes slightly furrowed or compressed.
Calyx small to above medium, closed; lobes short to moderately long, rather wide, acute.
Basin below medium to rather large, pretty regular, shallow to moderately deep, narrow to rather wide, a little abrupt, slightly wrinkled.
Skin moderately thin, rather tough, glossy, clear pale yellow, sometimes faintly blushed or in well colored specimens distinctly shaded and striped with lively red.
Dots numerous, inconspicuous, small.
Prevailing effect yellow or yellow and red.
Calyx tube rather narrow, short, funnel-shape.
Stamens median.
Core variable, below medium to large, abaxile; cells usually symmetrical, wide open; core lines clasping.
Carpels often markedly concave, broadly ovate, emarginate, tufted.
Seeds above medium, rather long and narrow, plump, acute or approaching acuminate, light brown.
Flesh whitish with slight tinge of yellow, moderately fine-grained, crisp, tender, juicy, briskly subacid, good.
Season September to December or January.

Roman Stem
References.  1.
Synonyms.  French Pippin of some (9).
Fruit about medium size, whitish-yellow, often somewhat blushed. The flesh is juicy, aromatic, subacid and very good in quality, particularly for dessert use. It is in season from midautumn to midwinter. "A good fruit but in a great measure superseded by other sorts" (15). The tree is moderately vigorous, spreading, irregular, very hardy and very productive. In the trying climate of the upper Mississippi valley it has proved hardier than most of the old varieties from the East and has succeeded well where the varieties of the grade of hardiness of Baldwin and Rhode Island Greening have failed. It is not well suited for commercial purposes because it is yellow, lacks good size and is not a late keeper.
Historical. Coxe published the following description of Roman Stem in 1817: "This apple was first propagated in the neighbourhood of Burlington, New Jersey, where the original tree is now standing. It is an excellent early winter fruit, much admired for its tender, mild, juicy and agreeable properties; the size is small, the form round, the stalk of singular appearance, from a fleshy protuberance of the neighboring part, resembling an aquiline nose, whence the apple derives its name-- the skin is rough, the color yellow, with black clouds and spots-- the tree is of handsome and vigorous growth, with long shoots, and great fruitfulness; it is in every respect deserving of extensive cultivation."
Roman Stem has been pretty widely disseminated and considerably cultivated in various parts of the Southern, Central and Western states but it is now generally superseded by other kinds. It is but little grown in New York.

Romna
References.  1.
Synonyms.  No. 11 M (1,2,6,7,9). No. 599 Dept. (1-4, 6-9, 17, 18). Omensk (4). Romenskoe (1-5, 8, 17, 18). Romnenskoe (3-5).
A Russian variety received from Dr. T.H. Hoskins, Newport, Vermont, in 1888 for testing at this Station. It was described in 1896 (12) as being in season that year during the last of August and the first of September. This statement was erroneous because it was incomplete. While the fruit began to come in season during the last of August and the first of September, some portion of it was kept in ordinary storage till midwinter. In a subsequent report (19), it was correctly stated that as fruited at this Station the commercial limit of this variety is early October and its season in ordinary storage extends from September to January. It is properly classed as a fall and early winter apple here. The tree is vigorous, hardy, comes into bearing rather young and yields good crops biennially. It does not appear to be worthy of the attention of fruit growers in New York except possibly where superior hardiness is a prime requisite. The fruit corresponds very closely with the illustrated description given by Troop (10, 16) and Waugh (14) but it varies considerably from the descriptions of Budd and Hansen (3,6,9,11,15,17,18) particularly in that it is usually oblate conic and is in season during the autumn and early winter instead of late winter and spring.
The following is one of Budd's descriptions of Romna (9,11). "This succeeds best on dry soil where its roots run very deep. Fruit medium in size, conical, smooth, handsomely colored. Flesh white, firm, quite acid and best for cooking, but when matured it is much better for desert use than Willow or Missouri Pippin or other coarse sorts found in our markets. Season, midwinter here, and late winter north of 43rd parallel."

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous to vigorous; branches short, stout, curved, crooked and drooping.
Form spreading, drooping, flat.
Twigs short to medium, straight, moderately slender to stout, with large terminal buds; internodes medium to long.
Bark brown, somewhat tinged with red, streaked with grayish scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels scattering, small to medium, roundish or oval, slightly raised.
Buds moderately small to very large and prominent, broad, very plump, acute, free or nearly so, scarcely pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium or sometimes rather large, not very uniform in shape or size.
Form usually oblate conic, irregularly elliptical or broadly and obscurely angular, often unsymmetrical with sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium length to short and stout, pubescent.
Cavity medium to rather large, acute or sometimes nearly obtuse, medium in depth to rather deep, rather wide to narrow, somewhat furrowed, occasionally lipped, russeted and often with conspicuous, outspreading russet.
Calyx above medium to large, open or partly closed; lobes often separated at the base, medium in length, rather broad, acute.
Basin medium to large, often oblique, moderately narrow to wide, sometimes compressed, abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thick, tough, smooth or partly roughened with flecks of russet; color greenish becoming yellow more or less blushed and overspread with thin bloom.
Dots small, numerous, pale yellow or grayish, sometimes rather conspicuous.
Calyx tube rather long, wide, funnel-shape.
Stamens median.
Core medium to small, axile or nearly so; cells closed; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels roundish ovate, somewhat emarginate, slightly tufted.
Seeds medium to small, rather short, narrow, plump, obtuse to acute, rather dark brown.
Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately coarse, juicy, briskly subacid, slightly astringent, fair to good.
Season September to January (19).

Ronk
References.  1. Rural NY 48:279. 1889. fig. 2. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bul., 143:201. 1897. 3. Farrand, Ib., 205:46. 1903. 4. Beach and Clark, NY Sta. Bul., 248:142. 1904.
Synonyms.  None.
Fruit of the Vandevere type, medium or above, rather dull red, pleasant subacid, good; season October to late winter. Commercial limit in ordinary storage January (4). The tree comes into bearing rather young and is moderately productive. It has not been sufficiently tested to determine its value for this state.
Historical. Originated about 1860 with Mr. Ronk, Boone county, Indiana. It is supposed to be a seedling of Vandevere which it much resembles (1).

Rose Red
References.  1. Rural NY 1871 (cited by 5). 2. Downing, 1872:30 app. fig. 3. Thomas, 1875:511. 4. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 5. Ragan, U.S.P.B.I. Bul., 56:267. 1905.
Synonyms.  Autumn Rose (4).
A variety of unknown origin. It is supposed to have originated in Egypt, Monroe county, NY. According to Downing (2) the tree is thrifty, a reliable cropper and very productive; the fruit medium, roundish oblate, whitish, striped, and splashed with light and dark red; flesh yellowish, very tender, lively subacid, very good; in season during late September, October and November.
We are unacquainted with this variety and have received no report concerning it from any of our correspondents.