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RALLS

REFERENCES. 1. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831:22. 2. Kenrick, 1832:59. 3 Mag. Hort., 1:149. 1835. 4. Hovey, [b., 10:207. 1844. 5. Byram, Horticulturist, 2:19. 1847. fig. 6. Springer, Ib., 2:147. 1847. 7. Ib., 2:291, 388, 483. 1847. 8. Mallinckrott, 7b., 3:369. 1848. 9. Phoenix, Jb., 70. 1849. 10. Cole, 1849:136. fg. 11. Thomas, 1849:170. 12. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:63. 1851. 13. Elliott, 1854:100. fig. 14. Downing, 1857:909. 15. Hooper, 1857:75. 16. Mag. Hort., 26:102. 1860. 17. Ib., 27:101. 1861. 18. Ib., 27:262. 1861. 19. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 20. Mag. Hort., 30:162. 1864. 21. Warder, 1867:517. fig. 22. Downing, 1869:321. fig. 23. Howsley, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1871:74. 24. Fitz, 1872:141, 143, 147, 149, 156, 165, 175, 177. 25. Leroy, 1873:713. 26. Downing, 1881:11 index, app. 27. Barry, 1883:353. 28. Wickson, 1889:248. 29. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 30. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:242. 31. Ib., 1892:247. 32. Mathews, Ky. Sta. Bul., 50:32. 1894. 33. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:198. 34. Heiges, Meehan’s Monthly, 6:136. 1896. 35. Gard. and For., 9:310. 1896. 36. Munson, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:95. 1902. 37. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bul., 76:88. 1902. 38. Stinson, Mo. Fr. Sta. Bul., 3:27. 1902. 39. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:53. 1903. 40. Budd-Hansen, 1903:156. fig. 41. Bruner, N. C. Sta. Bul., 182:27. 1903. 42. Beach and Clark, N.Y. Sta. Bul., 248:139. 1904. 43. Ragan, U.S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:10. 1905.  [44.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 145.]
Synonyms. Genet (23). Geneton (21, 23). GEniToN (8). Geniton (30). GENNETIN (4). Genneting (14). Gennetting (42). Ginet (23). Indiana Jannetting (13, 14, 22). Janer (30). Janet (31, 37, 40, 41, 42). Janetting (21). Jefferson Pippin (23, 26). Jeniton (22, 27, 37, 38). Jennett (14,22). Jennette (13). Jenniton (42). Mrissourt Janet (18). Missouri Janet? (22). Never Fail (21). erfail (4, 6, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 22, 33, 37,39, 40, 41, of Ohio 10). Rats GENET (33, 35, 37, 40, 41). Ralls Genet (30,42). Rals Janet (36). Raule Jannet (12). Raule’s Genet (24). Raule’s Janet (13, 15). Raute’s Janetr (5). Raure’s Janerre (10). RAute’s Janner (14). Raule’s Jannette (13). Raule’s Jannetting (14, 22). Raule’s Jennetting (10). Ravt’s GENNETTING (6, 22). Raul’s Gennetting (13). Raw r’s GENET (23, 24, 26). Rawle’s Genet (22). Rawte’s JANET (9, 16, 17, 20, 21, 22, 27, 28, 20, 31, 32, 38). Razwle’s Janet (30, 35). RAWLE’s JANETT (2, 3). Rawte’s Jannet (11). Rawle’s Jannet (22). Rawle’s Jennet (8). Rawle’s Jenneting (11). Rawle’s Jennette (13). Rawl’s Janet (13). Red Neverfail? (22). RockreMaAIn (12). Rockremain (6, 11). Rock Remain (13, 14, 22). Rockrimmon (10). Rock Rimmon (13, 14, 21, 22). Royal Janette (33). Winter Genneting (13). Winter Jannetting (14, 22). Yellow Janette (13). Yellow Janett (14, 22).
Ralls, although a southern variety, often develops pretty good quality when grown as far north as Western New York and Southern Michigan. As grown here it seldom reaches marketable size unless it is thinned and it is rather dull in color being at the best only moderately attractive but it has the merit of being a good keeper and holds its flavor well till late in the season. In ordinary storage it is in season from December to May with April as the commercial limit (42).
In districts farther south and west and, generally speaking, throughout the Ben Davis apple regions it produces fruit of superior quality, is generally held in high esteem for home use and has a recognized standing in market. It has there been cultivated extensively either under the common names of Jeniton or Ralls Janet or under some variation of these names. It has also been grown to a limited extent under the names Neverfail and Rock Rimmon. The younger trees frequently bear annually and yield fruit of fairly good size but with increasing age the trees often become biennial or occasional croppers and in bearing years are apt to be so overloaded that the fruit is small. On account of the lateness of its blooming’ season Ralls frequently sets a good crop of fruit when earlier blooming varieties fail on account of unfavorable weather during the blossoming season.
Ralls is but little known among New York fruit growers and is not recommended for planting in this state.
Historical. The first that is definitely known of this variety is that trees of it were growing on the farm of Mr. Caleb Ralls in Amherst county, Virginia, something over a hundred years ago. There is no evidence to show whether it was a local seedling or an importation from some other section, Howsley (23) states that it was brought from France to President Jefferson by M. Genet at that time the minister from that country. This claim does not seem to have been made in print till about one hundred years after the time of its alleged occurrence and as there are no records to verify it, its truth seems problematical. We regard it as probably a Virginia seedling. Spreading from Virginia it has come into more or less common cultivation southward into the Carolinas and Georgia, northward into Southern Michigan and westward across the Mississippi valley to and beyond the Ozarks, but it remains practically unknown among New York fruit growers.
TREE.
Tree medium in size, moderately vigorous. Form upright becoming spreading and inclined to droop, dense. Twigs short, curved, moderately stout; internodes short. Bark dull brown mingled with. olive-green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticels numerous, small, oblong, not raised. Buds medium in size, broad, plump, obtuse, free or nearly so, slightly pubescent.
[Diseases:  Slightly susceptible to scab and bitter rot. Susceptible to fireblight in the blossoms, but fruit set tends to be high despite it. High resistance to collar rot. (44)] Fruit.Moscow Mitch
Fruit below medium to above, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish oblate varying to roundish inclined to conic, rather symmetrical.
Stem often long and slender. Cavity obtuse to acute, deep, sometimes compressed or somewhat furrowed, often russeted. Calyx small to medium, usually somewhat open. Basin often a little oblique, wide, rather shallow to moderately deep, inclined to abrupt, wrinkled.
Skin smooth, yellow or greenish blushed and mottled with pinkish red, indistinctly striped with dull carmine, overspread with a light bloom which together with broken stripes of thin whitish scarf-skin combine to give the fruit a rather dull appearance. Dots numerous, small, whitish or russet.
Calyx tube broad cone-shape or frequently funnel-shape. Stamens marginal or nearly so.
Core medium in size, axile or slightly abaxile; cells closed or partly open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels rather flat, broadly roundish, emarginate, slightly tufted. Seeds medium or above, narrow, plump, acute, dark.
Flesh whitish, firm, moderately fine-grained, crisp, moderately tender, juicy, subacid with a slight mingling of sweet, aromatic, pleasant, very good for dessert.  [Also useful for pies, frying, apple butter and cider (44).
[Ripens in the fall in Virginia and is an excellent keeper (44).]

RAMBO

REFERENCES. 1. Dom. Encyc., 1804. (cited by 40). 2. Coxe, 1817:116. fig. 3. Thacher, 1822:134. 4. Buel, N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:476. 5. Wilson, 1828:136. 6. Fessenden, 1828:131. 7. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831:28. 8. Kenrick, 1832:37. 9. Manning, Mag. Hort., 7:49. 1841. 10. Downing, 1845: 93. fig. 11. N. Y. Agr. Soc. Trans., 1846:191. fig. 12. Elliott, Horticulturist, 1:388. 1847. 13. Kirtland, Ib., 2:544. 1848. 14. Thomas, 1849:151. 15. Cole, 1849:116. fig. 16. Phoenix, Horticulturist, 4:472. 1850. 17. Humrickhouse, Mag. Hort., 15:28. 1849. fig. 18. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:29. 1851. 19. Elliott, 1854:102. fig. 20. Horticulturist, 10:87. 1855. 21. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1856. 22. Hooper, 1857:73. 23. Ib., 1857:74. 24. Gregg, 1857:57. 25. Horticulturist, 13:144. 1858. 26. Mag. Hort., 30:162. 1864. 27. Warder, 1867: 454. fig. 28. Downing, 1869:319. fig. 29. Fitz, 1872:163. 30. Barry, 1883:352. 31. Hogg, 1884:184. 32. Wickson, 1889:245. 33. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 34. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:247. 35. Mathews, Ky. Sta. Bul., 50: 32. 1894. 36. Burrill and McCluer, Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:337. 1806. 37. Budd-Hansen, 1903:158. fig. 38. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:53. 1903. 39. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:140. 1904. 40. Ragan, U. S.B. P. I. Bul., 56:247. 1905.
Synonyms. American Seek-No-Further (7). Bread and Cheese (27, 40, of New Jersey 18). Bread and Cheese Apple (2, 19, 28, of New Jersey to, 15 and 17). Delaware (28, 40). Fall Romanite (28, 40). Gray Romanite (28, 40). Large Rambo? (28, 40). Rambo (5). Rambouillet (28, 40). RAMBOULETTE (23). Ramboulette? (40). RomManite (5). Romanite (2, 4,7, 8, 15, 19, 28, 40, of New Jersey 10, 14, 17, 18 and 27). Seek-No-Farther (19, of Philadelphia 2). Seek-No-Further (4, 28, 40, of New Jersey 10, 17 and 18, of Pennsylvania 22, of Philadelphia 8 and 15). Striped Rambo (17,28, 40). Terry's Redstreak (19, 28, 40). Trumpington (40, ?28).
The accompanying plate shows the whole fruit of Rambo. The section is shown on the same plate as that which shows the whole fruit of Walbridge.
This fruit belongs in the same group as the Domine. Downing states that “Domine so much resembles the Rambo externally, that the two are often confounded together, and the outline of the latter fruit may be taken as. nearly a facsimile of this. The Domine is, however, of a livelier color, and the flavor and season of the two fruits are very distinct,—the Rambo being rather a high-flavored early winter or autumn apple, while the Domine is a sprightly, juicy, long-keeping winter fruit.” Rambo when well grown is an apple of excellent quality but in this state it does not take first rank for any purpose. It is less attractive in size and color and less desirable for market than Baldwin or Northern Spy. For culinary uses it is easily surpassed by Rhode Island Greening and for dessert by Tompkins King, Hubbardston and other apples of Rambo season. When well colored it is rather attractive, the prevailing color being a good bright red which forms a pleasing contrast with the yellow ground color. Very often, however, the red color is not predominant and the fruit is rather dull and not particularly attractive. Often a considerable portion of the fruit does not reach good marketable size, particularly when borne on old trees that are overloaded. The tree is less hardy than some standard varieties of this region and in unfavorable locations it is sometimes more or less injured by winter. It seems to do particularly well on rather light, rich soils, either sandy or of limestone formation with well-drained subsoil. The wood is rather brittle and the trees often break with heavy crops.
Warder (27) says that “It is a fall and early winter fruit, and some pomologists on the southern borders of its culture object to it that it will not keep long, and that it soon becomes dry and mealy when put away. When grown further north it is smaller, but more solid, and remains juicy until spring. It should be gathered early, even before it is well colored, and kept cool to make it retain its flavor and juiciness.”
As grown at this Station its commercial limit appears to be November, although some of the fruit may be kept till March in apparently good condition. Storage men give its season as ex- tending in cellar storage to November and in chemical cold storage to February. It does not stand heat well before going into storage and goes down quickly, losing in quality and firmness, shriveling, becoming mealy and bursting (39). It was formerly grown to some extent for market in some portions of the state but during the last half century it has gradually lost ground in competition with other better commercial sorts. It is not now recommended for planting in commercial orchards in New York, but on account of the agree- able dessert qualities of the fruit it will doubtless continue to be grown to a limited extent for home use.
Historical. Origin unknown. In 1817 Coxe (2) remarked that it was much cultivated in Delaware, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The extent of its cultivation at that time indicates that it must have originated at least fifty years previous to that date. According to Coxe it takes its name from the families by whom it was brought into notice (2). It was introduced into Ohio by the early settlers from Pennsylvania and its cultivation gradually spread westward with the tide of emigration (27). In many localities in the central portion of the Mississippi valley it is still a favorite fruit. Wickson (32) says that on the Pacific Coast it has failed to sustain the reputation which it gained in the East. Generally speaking, it appears to be less popular and certainly less widely planted to-day than it was a quarter of a century ago.
TREE.
Tree medium size, moderately vigorous to vigorous. Form upright spreading, open. The old bark is peculiarly rough. Twigs medium to long, moderately stout, broad; internodes medium. Bark brownish-red mingled with olive-green, lightly blotched and irregularly streaked with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticels numerous, small to medium, round, not raised.
Buds medium, broad, plump, obtuse, free or nearly so, slightly pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit medium or sometimes large, often averaging no more than medium size, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form usually roundish and somewhat oblate but varies to roundish oblong approaching truncate, symmetrical, usually regular but sometimes faintly ribbed. Stem short to medium in length, rather slender. Cavity pretty regular, moderately wide, rather deep, acute or acuminate, sometimes smooth but usually with some outspreading russet.
Calyx small to medium, usually closed; lobes medium to long, rather narrow, acute to acuminate. Basin wide, moderately deep, rather abrupt, often furrowed and somewhat wrinkled.
Skin thin, a little tough, smooth or slightly roughened with russet dots, pale greenish-yellow, mottled with red, striped with carmine and overspread with grayish bloom. Dots conspicuous, rather large, whitish, gray or russet. In highly colored specimens the red is predominant.
Calyx tube funnel-form, rather long with wide limb. Stamens median to marginal.
Core medium to small, axile; cells closed; core lines clasping. Carpels roundish to broadly obovate, emarginate, slightly tufted.
Seeds medium to rather large, broad, rather flat, obtuse, slightly tufted, light and dark brown.
Flesh whitish with tinge of yellow or green, firm, rather fine, very crisp, tender, juicy, mildly subacid, aromatic, good to very good. Particularly desirable for dessert.

Ramsdell Sweet
References.  1.  [XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 145.]
Synonyms.  Avery Sweet (12,14). Avery Sweeting (8). English Sweet (12,14,15,16,18,20). English Sweeting (4,8). Hurlbut (14). Hurlbut Sweet (12). Ramsdale's Sweeting (9). Ramsdell (14,19). Ramsdell's Red (11). Ramsdell Red Sweet (18). Ramsdell's Red Sweeting (1). Ramsdell's Sweeting (3,5-8,12-14). Ramsdel's Red Pumpkin Sweet (2,3,5,7,8,12). Randall's Red Winter (12,14). Red Pumpkin Sweet (3,8,12). Red Pumpkin Sweeting (9). Reindell's Large (14).
This is an attractive red apple of good size and very good quality, in season from midautumn to midwinter. The tree is a pretty good grower and an early bearer, yielding some fruit annually or nearly annually, but in many cases it is not satisfactorily productive and the fruit is not very uniform in size and quality, so that there is a considerable loss from unmarketable fruit. Not recommended for commercial planting in New York.
Historical. This variety was first brought to notice by being exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society by the Rev. H.S. Ramsdell, Thompson, Conn., and was named Ramsdell's Red Sweeting in compliment to him (1). Downing described it in 1845 (3) under the name Ramsdell's Sweeting, but in the 1869 edition (12) it was described under the name English Sweet, the name previously recognized by Elliott (8) but upon what authority we have been unable to learn. In 1862 (10) it was entered on the catalogue of the American Pomological Society under the name Ramsdell Sweet which name has been retained in that catalogue up to the present time. It is also commonly catalogued by nurserymen under the name Ramsdell or Ramsdell Sweet (17).

TREE.

Tree medium size, vigorous or moderately vigorous.
Form upright, open.
Twigs long, curved, moderately stout; internodes medium.
Bark brown, streaked with heavy scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels scattering, small to medium, oval, raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.
[Diseases:  Somewhat susceptible to fireblight, especially at lower elevations in the Southeast; moderately resistant to the other major diseases (Burford).]

FRUIT

Fruit above medium, sometimes nearly large, somewhat variable in size, fairly uniform in shape.
Form oblong conic to roundish conic, often somewhat elliptical and faintly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium in length, moderately slender, often red.
Cavity acuminate, deep, rather broad, quite symmetrical, often with some stellate russet.
Calyx small to medium, closed or slightly open; lobes narrow, acute to acuminate.
Basin rather small, sometimes oblique, medium to rather deep, narrow to medium in width, abrupt, faintly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, rather tough, smooth, yellow nearly overspread with attractive dark red, or entirely red with obscure splashed and stripes of carmine, overspread with blue bloom.
Dots many, distinct, conspicuous, small to rather large, pale yellow or grayish, often submerged.
Prevailing effect red, attractive.
Calyx tube rather large, long, cylindrical to narrow funnel-shape.
Stamens median.
Core small to medium, axile to somewhat abaxile; cells symmetrical but not uniformly developed, closed or slightly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels ovate to nearly roundish.
Seeds below medium, rather narrow, plump, acute.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, fine, tender, juicy, very sweet, good to very good.  [Also useful for baking (Burford).]
Season October to February.  [Fall ripening in Virginia and only a fair keeper when grown there and further south. It gets mealy in storage (Burford).]

Raspberry
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Malinowskoe (1,2,3). No. 288 (3,5,8). Red Cheek (6).
A Russian apple, small, fine dark red, sprightly subacid; season July and August. Hansen states (8,9) that it is exceedingly productive and a good substitute for Red June where that variety winter-kills.

Red and Green Sweet
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Large Red Sweeting (5). Large Red and Green Sweeting (2). Prince's Large Red and Green Sweeting ((1,3). Prince's Red and Green Sweet (3). Red Bough (5). Red and Green Sweeting (3). Saille Sweet (9). Virginia Sweet (9).
This is a very large green apple, striped with red, rather attractive when well colored. It does not rank very high in flavor or quality but is suitable for baking. Season August and September. The fruit does n ot last long after it becomes ripe. The tree is medium to large, moderately vigorous to vigorous, long-lived and a reliable cropper yielding heavy crops annually. Although some find it a profitable apple to grow for local market it is not worthy of being recommended for general planting.
Historical. This is an old variety which was described by Coxe (1). It was formerly grown to a comparatively limited extent in some portions of New York and in adjoining states. Occasionally a tree of it is still found in some of the oldest orchards of the state but it is fast going out of cultivation.

TREE.

Tree large.
Form upright spreading to roundish, open.
Twigs short, straight, stout with large terminal buds; internodes short.
Bark brown mingled with olive-green, heavily coated with gray scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium size, oval, not raised.
Buds large, rather prominent, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit large to very large.
Form oblong conic, rather strongly ribbed; sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, moderately slender.
Cavity nearly acuminate, deep, broad, furrowed, sometimes lipped, sometimes thinly russeted.
Calyx closed or partly open; lobes moderately long, narrow, acute.
Basin medium in depth to rather deep, medium in width to rather narrow, wrinkled.
Skin thin, tender, smooth, green changing to yellow, more or less blushed and partly overspread with pinkish-red irregularly striped and splashed with rather bright carmine.
Dots conspicuous, numerous, large and scattering toward the cavity, small and very numerous toward the calyx.
Calyx tube long, funnel-shape.
Core rather large; cells open; core lines clasping.
Carpels nearly roundish, tufted.
Seeds rather small, plump, acute.
Flesh white, fine, very tender, moderately juicy, of pleasant sweet flavor and fair to good quality.
Season August and September.

Red Astrachan
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Abe Lincoln (31-32-34,48). American Red (4,46). Anglesea Pippin (37). Astracan Rouge (34). Astrachan (23). Astrachan Red (2, 18). Astrachan Rouge (31). Astrakhan Rouge (32). Deterding's Early (31,32). Hamper's American (37). Red Astrakhan (31-32). Vermillion d'Ete (31,32,34). Waterloo (37).
This is a very beautiful early summer apple of good medium size, yellow, largely covered with light and dark red, presenting a striped appearance, and overspread with bluish bloom. It is generally well known throughout the state, being valued particularly for home use. It is fit for culinary purposes before it becomes fully ripe, so that for home use it is in season from late July to September. When fully ripe and mellow it is desirable for dessert use. The tree is of medium size, a good grower, moderately long-lived, comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper, yielding moderate to good crops biennially or sometimes annually. The fruit hangs to the tree pretty well till it is fully ripe, but as the crop matures unevenly there is apt to be considerable loss from the dropping of fruit unless several pickings are made. It is not very uniform in size, and a considerable amount of it is small or otherwise unmarketable. It is very perishable, and on this account not well adapted for shipping to distant markets. It is very common in local markets, but often the supply so much exceeds the demand that prices are consequently low.
Historical. Hogg states that Red Astrachan was imported from Sweden into England in 1816 but Lindley (6) states that "This very beautiful apple was imported from Sweden, and first fruited by William Atkinson, Esq., of Grove End, Paddington, in 1816." It was one of the first of the Russian apples imported into America. It was received by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1835 (8). It has become generally disseminated throughout the apple-growing districts of the continent and is commonly listed from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from Canada to the Gulf states.
TREE.
Tree medium to rather large, moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading to roundish, rather dense.
Twigs medium to long, curved, stout to rather slender; internodes long.
Bark clear brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent near the tips.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium to small, oblong, slightly raised.
Buds medium in size, plump, obtuse to acute, free, pubescent.
FRUIT#MoscowMitch
Fruit medium to sometimes large, not very uniform in size or shape.
Form roundish to roundish oblate, inclined to conical, somewhat ribbed; sides a little unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium, rather slender, bracted.
Cavity acute to sometimes obtuse, medium to deep, moderately broad, often thinly russeted with greenish russet, usually symmetrical, sometimes lipped.
Calyx medium to rather large, open or closed; lobes rather long, moderately broad.
Basin shallow, narrow to medium in width, obtuse, wrinkled.
Skin rather thin, moderately tender, smooth, pale yellow or greenish often nearly or quite overspread with light and dark red splashed and irregularly striped with deep crimson or carmine and covered with rather heavy distinct bluish bloom.
Dots numerous, small, whitish.
Calyx tube long, funnel-form.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core small, somewhat abaxile; cells closed or somewhat open; core lines clasping or sometimes nearly meeting.
Carpels broadly ovate or obovate, slightly tufted.
Seeds small, moderately wide, plump, obtuse.
Flesh white often strongly tinged with red, rather fine, crisp, tender, juicy, brisk subacid, aromatic, sometimes slightly astringent, good to very good.
Season late July to September.
[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

RED CANADA

REFERENCES. 1. Thacher, 1822:131. 2. Fessenden, 1828:131. 3. Manning, Mag. Hort., 7:47. 1841. 4. Hovey, [b., 13:75. 1847. fig. 5. Watts and Downing, Horticulturist, 1:482. 1847. 6. Downing, [b., 2:289. 1847. 7. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 14:124. 1848. 8. Horticulturist, 2:483, 544. 1848. 9. Thomas, 1849:171. fig. 10. Cole, 1849:127. 11. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:101. 1851. col. pl. No. 42. 12. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 13. Mag. Hort., 19:68. 1853. 14. Elliott, 1854:102. fig. 15. Hooper, 1857:76. 16. Downing, 1857:07. fig. 17. Warder, 1867:542. 18. Regel, 1868:465. 19. Barry, 1883:353. 20. Wickson, 1889:247. 21. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:206. 22. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:247. 23. Amer. Gard., 20:104. 1899. 24. Budd-Hansen, 1903:161. fig. 25. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:53. 1903. 26. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:140. 1904.
Synonyms. Bristol of some. Canada Red (25). Canada Redstreak (26). Nonesuch (2). Nonsuch (1, 3, 8,13). Nonsuch (9). OLd Nonsuch (7, 10). Old Nonsuch (6, 9, 14, 15, 21, of Massachusetts 8 and 16). Red Canada (13, of Western New York 8 and 10). Red Winter (26). Richfield Nonsuch (10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 19, of Ohio 9). Steele’s Red Winter (20, 24, 25, 26, of Michigan 16). Steel’s Red (17). Winter Nonsuch (10). Not the Canada Red of some portions of Ontario. See Roseau, page 292.
This is a red winter apple which belongs in the same group with Baldwin and Esopus Spitzenburg. When well grown and in prime condition it is one of the best apples of its season for dessert use on account of its desirable size, attractive form and color and superior quality. It is well adapted to either general or special markets and often brings more than average prices. The quality of the fruit varies much in different seasons and in different localities. When grown on heavy clay soils its quality in some seasons is decidedly inferior to that of Baldwin and would be rated only fair to good; but when grown on certain fertile soils of a gravelly or sandy nature in favorable seasons it develops color, flavor and quality fully equal to that of Esopus Spitsenburg. It stands heat well before going into storage and goes down gradually (26). Its season is somewhat variable: The commercial limit in ordinary storage is January or February, and in cold storage, April. Its season for home use usually extends from November to March or later. Although the fruit may remain apparently sound it is apt to lose much of its high flavor after midwinter. The tree is somewhat lacking in hardiness and is but a moderate grower. It should be top-worked on some hardier and more vigorous variety such as Baldwin or Northern Spy. In some cases it is an annual bearer but more often it is not a sure cropper.
Waugh recognizes Roseau as the correct name for an apple which is commonly known in Ontario under the name of Canada Red. It is quite distinct from the variety above described (Can. Hort., 18:184. 1895. Waugh, Rural N. Y., 62:143. 1903. Rural N. ¥., 62:238,282. 1903.) For further consideration of this matter the reader is referred to Roseau, page 292.
Historical. This variety probably originated in New England but its origin is obscure. Thacher (1) in 1822 described it under the name Nonsuch and later Fessenden (2), Manning (3), Hovey (7) and other New England writers recognized this name for the variety. In 1849 Cole (10) described it as the Old Nonsuch. It appears to have been brought into Western New York from the vicinity of Toronto, Canada, and afterwards cultivated in this region under the name Canada Red. The earliest mention we find of the variety under the name Red Canada or Canada Red, as these names appear to have been used interchangeably, is that of Watts and Downing in 1847 (5). In Michigan it has been often cultivated under the name of Steele’s Red Winter. In some portions of Eastern New York it is grown under the name Bristol. It has been pretty generally distributed throughout the state. In some few localities its cultivation in commercial orchards is increasing but seldom has it been planted to any considerable extent, and, generally speaking, it is found only in old orchards.
TREE.
Tree medium to large, moderately vigorous to vigorous; branches short, stout, curved, crooked. Form upright to roundish, rather dense. Twigs medium in length, straight or nearly so, rather slender to moderately stout; internodes below medium to long. Bark olive-green tinged with reddish-brown, netted or streaked with thin scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticels scattering, not very conspicuous, small, round, slightly raised. Buds prominent, large to medium, long, narrow, plump, acute, free or nearly so, slightly pubescent. Leaves medium to broad, rather thin.
Fruit.Moscow Mitch
Fruit medium to nearly large, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish inclined to conic and somewhat flattened at the base, nearly symmetrical and pretty regular but sometimes elliptical or obscurely ribbed and with sides a little unequal. Stem medium to rather slender, pubescent.
Cavity usually large, acuminate, deep, wide, often partly russeted and with radiating green or russet rays, usually symmetrical, sometimes slightly furrowed. Calyx small, closed or partly open, pubescent. Basin small, usually narrow, shallow to moderately deep and rather abrupt, furrowed and sometimes slightly wrinkled, often somewhat oblique.
Skin tough, nearly smooth especially toward the cavity, slightly rough about the basin, rather clear light yellow or green largely overspread in well-colored specimens with a fine deep. red blush, indistinctly striped with deeper red. Dots conspicuous, grayish or fawn colored. Toward the cavity they are scattering, large and often elongated as in Baldwin and Esopus Spitsenburg, but as they converge toward the apex they become more numerous and smaller.
Prevailing effect very attractive bright deep red.
Calyx tube elongated cone-shape or somewhat funnel-form.
Stamens marginal.
Core sessile, axile or nearly so, medium to rather small; cells symmetrical, closed or slit; core lines clasping. Carpels usually smooth, roundish, narrowing somewhat toward the apex, mucronate, but slightly emarginate if at all.
Seeds very numerous, medium to rather large, angular, long, moderately wide, plump, obtuse.
Flesh whitish with yellow or greenish tinge, firm, crisp, rather fine-grained, tender, juicy, aromatic, rich, agreeably subacid but becoming rather too mild toward the close of the season, good to best.

Red Gravenstein
References.  1. Leroy, 1873:339. fig. 2. Can. Hort., 16:362. 1893. 3. Lucas, Ed., Illustr. Handb.der Obstk., 1893:250.
Synonyms.  Gravenstein Rouge (1). Rother Gravensteiner (1).
Bud sports of the Gravenstein have appeared at different times which bear red fruit. For a statement concerning such sports the reader is referred to Gravenstein, page 84.

Red Hook
This is a large, late summer or early autumn apple which is being grown commercially to a limited extent in the vicinity of Red Hook, Dutchess county, NY. W.S. Teator, of Upper Red Hook, who furnished us with the fruit from which the following description was made, states that the variety originated in this locality and has been known under the name of Red Ox or Striped Ox. As the name Striped Ox has been applied to other varieties he proposes the name Red Hook for this apple. The tree is large, low branching and an annual cropper yielding heavy crops. The fruit is firm, smooth, bright, attractive, quite free from the attacks of fungi and good for culinary use but when overripe it becomes dry and worthless. It stands shipment well and is one of the earliest fruits of that locality that can be shipped to Europe.

FRUIT

Fruit large to very large.
Form roundish to roundish conic, somewhat elliptical, symmetrical, sometimes faintly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) short, thick to rather slender.
Cavity acuminate, deep, broad, gently furrowed, smooth or partly russeted.
Calyx medium to rather small, partly closed; lobes broad, obtuse to acute.
Basin rather small, moderately deep, narrow to medium in width, abrupt.
Skin tough, attractive pale yellow, rather thinly mottled and blushed with lively red, and sparingly striped and splashed with bright carmine.
Dots rather small, numerous, whitish or with russet center.
Calyx tube elongated funnel-shape approaching conical.
Stamens median.
Core medium or below, axile or nearly so; cells pretty symmetrical, closed; core lines clasping the cylinder.
Carpels broadly roundish.
Seeds rather dark brown, medium size, irregular, obtuse.
Flesh firm, coarse, tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, good.
Season late summer or early autumn.

Red June
References.  1.  [***will be added later***]
Synonyms.  Will be added later.
An attractive little apple, deep red over yellow, tender, brisk subacid, very good. The tree is a moderate grower, a pretty reliable bearer, and commonly yields good crops. Some find it profitable because it is handsome and takes well in some markets.
The crop ripens so unevenly that it should have two or three pickings in order to secure the fruit in good condition. The variety is more popular South and West than it is in New York.
STRIPED RED JUNE.
A variety has found its way into cultivation which appears in all respects identical with the Red June except that the fruit is striped. It is supposed to be either a seedling of the Red June or a sport of that variety (11, 12).
Historical.  This is a southern apple which is supposed to have originated in North Carolina. It has long been known in cultivation and is commonly listed by nurserymen, but it has not been planted to any considerable extent in New York.
Tree.  Tree moderately vigorous with short, moderately stout, curved branches.
Form at first upright but becoming spreading or roundish.
Twigs very short, straight, slender; internodes medium size.
Bark dull brown, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small, oblong, not raised.
Buds small, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent.

Fruit small or below medium, uniform in shape and size.#MoscowMitch
Form roundish ovate or a little inclined to oblong, rather regular; sides usually unequal.
Stem variable, usually long, slender.
Cavity small, acuminate to acute, shallow to medium in depth, narrow, slightly symmetrical, sometimes compressed, russeted but slightly if at all.
Calyx medium to large, leafy, closed.
Basin small, shallow, narrow, rather obtuse, smooth or wavy.
Skin thin, tender, smooth, glossy, pale yellow or greenish, nearly overspread with deep purplish-red approaching blacking-purple on the exposed cheek; some specimens are entirely red.
Dots rather numerous, very small, inconspicuous, light.
Calyx tube short, moderately wide, conical to funnel-form.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core large, axile to somewhat abaxile; cells symmetrical, open or sometimes closed; core lines slightly clasping or meeting.
Carpels broadly ovate to elliptical.
Seeds rather dark brown, numerous, small to medium, plump, acute.
Flesh white, fine, tender, juicy, brisk subacid, good to very good.
Season late July to early winter.
[Information from the Southeastern U.S. here.]
[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

RED RUSSET

REFERENCES. 1. Cole, 1849:131. 2. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:95. 1851. 3. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 19:125. 1853. 4. Downing, 1857:97. 5. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 29:260. 1863. fig. 6. Warder, 1867:628. 7. Thomas, 1875:229. 8. Barry, 1883:353. 9. Can. Hort., 11:283. 1888. 10. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 11. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:247. 12. Maynard, Putnam and Fletcher, Mass. Hatch. Sta. Bul., 44:4. 1897. 13. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B.P. I. Bul., 48:53. 14. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:140. 1904.
#MoscowMitch This is one of the russet Baldwins referred to on page 59. It originated as a sport on a Baldwin tree on the farm of Mr. Aaron Sanborn, Hampton Falls, N. H., about 1840. It was introduced to notice by Cole in 1849 (1, 3). It is distinct from the Red Russet of Hooper (Hooper, 1857:78) which is the Golden Pearmain of Elliott (Elliott, 1854:171), Downing (Downing, 1869:194) and other pomological writers. Instances are known where it has borne smooth fruit intermingled on the same twigs with russet fruit73. The Red Russet is almost universally considered less valuable than Baldwin both by fruit growers and fruit dealers. It is known in many parts of New York but is nowhere planted extensively and is gradually going out of cultivation.
For a technical description of the tree and fruit the reader is referred to the description of Baldwin on page 59.

REDSTREAK

REFERENCES. 1. Forsyth, 1803:56. 2. Coxe, 1817:157. fig. 3. Thacher, 1822: 133. 4. Forsyth, 1824:123. 5. Wilson, 1828:136. 6. Floy-Lindley, 1833:81. 7. Downing, 1845:146. 8. Thomas, 1849:171. 9. Cole, 1849:137. 10. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:74. 1851. fig. 11. Townley, Horticulturist, 6:496. 1851. 12. Elliott, 1854:177. 13. Warder, 1867:718, 14. Fitz, 1872:147, 159. 15. Leroy, 1873:781. fig. 16. Pa. Fr. Gr. Soc. Rpt., 1881:65. 17. Hogg, 1884:188.
Synonyms. English RED Streak (16). ENGLISH REDSTREAK (10, 13). Herefordshire Red Streak (7, 12). Herefordshire Redstreak (15, 17). Johnson (17). Red STREAK (1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 11, 12, 17). Red Streak (15). Rouge Rayée (15). Scudamore’s Crab (7, 15, 17). Scudamous Crab (12).
An English cider fruit formerly cultivated extensively in some portions of New York but now practically obsolete here. Downing (7) remarks that it is a capital English cider apple which thrives admirably in this country and is very highly esteemed as it makes a rich, high-flavored, strong liquor, and the tree is a handsome grower and a great bearer. He describes the fruit (7) as of medium size, roundish, with small calyx, rather deep basin, rather slender, short stem; skin streaked with rich red and with a few spots and streaks of yellow; flesh yellow, rich, firm, dry, good.
Coxe published the following description of it in 1817 (2). “This tree was originally brought from England, where it possessed a high reputation as a cider fruit; it has been cultivated extensively in this country, by the descendants of the English settlers in New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The climate of America is supposed to have revived the character of this apple, which had deteriorated in its native soil, from the long duration of the variety—the fruit is rather small; the form is oblong, flattened at both ends, the stem and crown both sunk—the skin is red, faintly streaked and spotted with yellow—the flesh is yellow, rich, firm, and dry; it hangs late, and requires to be matured by housing to make the finest cider. The character of the cider, when properly made and fined, is very high, both for strength and flavour—the apple keeps well through the winter, and is much esteemed as an excellent kitchen fruit in the latter part of the winter. The tree is of handsome, regular growth, and a great bearer; the opinion of dealers is, that this cider is difficult to fine fit for bottling: when perfectly cleared, it ranks among our first fruit liquors.”

Red Transparent
References.  1.
Synonyms.  No. 333 (1-4). Skvosnoi Krasnoi (1,2).
A Russian variety of little value where Primate can be grown. Fruit medium size with pale skin nearly covered with red and overspread with delicate bloom. Basin irregularly wrinkled; calyx prominent, closed; flesh greenish-white, not very crisp; water-cores badly; season late July and early August (6).

Red Wine
References.  1.
Synonyms.  No. 343 (2,4,7). Rother Weinapfel (7). Rotherwein appel (4). Vinnoe Krasnoe Osennee (4). Weinapfel Rother (2,3). Weinappel Rother (1).
A Russian apple of the Lowland Raspberry type (7,8). Fruit medium, waxen-white almost completely covered with bright red. Flesh white, tender, subacid, good. Season August and September.
So far as we know this variety has not been tested in New York.

RED WINTER PEARMAIN

REFERENCES. 1. Elliott, 1854:141. fig. 2. Elliott, 1854:115. fig. 3. Downing, 1857:182. 4. Downing, 1869:329. fig. 5. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1870. 6. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:256. 1905.  [7.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 145.]
Red Winter Pearmain is not now accepted by pomologists as the correct name of any apple but it is recognized as a synonym for several different varieties. The following is a list of synonyms as corrected by Ragan (6).
Red Winter Pearmain (3, 4). Synonym of Buncombe.
Red Winter Pearmain (1). Synonym of Long Red.
Red Winter Pearmain (5). Synonym of Milam.
Red Winter Pearmain (2). Synonym of Westfield Seek-No-Further.
[Not clear what apple Burford is talking about, but:
Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases.
Season:  Fall, but only a fair keeper when grown in Virginia or south.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), baking, drying and apple butter.]

Reed
References.  1. Downing, 1869:329.
Synonyms.  None.
A local variety which according to Downing originated with George Reed, Leedsville, Dutchess county, NY. Fruit medium, whitish shaded and mottled with light and dark red; flesh white, a little stained next [to] the skin, pleasant subacid, good; season November.
We are unacquainted with this variety and have received no report concerning it from any of our correspondents.

REINETTE
.
The term Reinette, as designating a certain class of apples, has been introduced into English from the French. Leroy (Leroy, 1873:614) tells us that French horticultural literature shows that the word has been in use about four hundred years. Starting in with only one variety of this name the number has gradually increased until to-day there are several hundred. Leroy thinks they are all descended from the original variety, the Reinette franche or Reinette Blanche, which is the French Reinette of Downing (Downing, 1869:184). The derivation of the word is a disputed point, certain etymologists holding that it is the diminutive form of Reine, or queen, and others thinking that it is a corruption of Rainet, a colloquial French word meaning a small frog. While European pomologists speak of the Reinettes as a distinct type, an examination of the technical descriptions of the various Reinettes does not show that they have any constant characters which are in any way peculiar to themselves. Diel gives the following eight characters by which Reinettes can be recognized (Warder, 1867:370).
“1, They have a fine-grained, delicate, crisp, firm flesh.
“2, They are mostly the ideal of a handsomely shaped apple; in them the convexity or bulge of the middle of the apple towards the eye is the same as that towards the stalk, or not much different.
“3. They are all gray dotted, or have russety patches, or completely covered with russet.
“4. They have rarely an unctuous skin.
“5. They have all the rich, aromatic, sugary, and brisk flavor, which is called the Reinette flavor.
“6. They decay very readily, and must, of all apples, hang longest on the tree.
“7. The really sweet and at the same time aromatic apples belong to the Reinettes, only as regards their shape, their character, and their fine and firm flesh.
“8. Apples with fine, firm, crisp flesh, which cannot of themselves form a distinct class; for instance, the Pippins belong to this class.”
This classification of Diel is evidently an arbitrary one and differs in spirit at least from the conception of Leroy that the Reinettes represent one family descended from a single original variety.

REINETTE PIPPIN.
REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1869:332. 2. Leroy, 1873:724. fig. 3. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:54. 1903. 4. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:140. 1904.
Synonyms. REINETTE PEPIN (2). Reinette Pippin (2).
Fruit pretty uniform in size but often a little unsymmetrical with sides unequal. It is green in autumn but eventually becomes more or less tinged with pale yellow. It is an uncertain keeper in storage. It sometimes keeps well till midwinter but it often shows a high rate of loss during November. Early November is the common commercial limit for handling this variety in ordinary storage, although its season extends from October to March. The commercial limit in cold storage appears to vary from February first to March first. As grown at this Station the tree is healthy, strong and a reliable cropper, yielding moderate to heavy crops annually. In fact it is one of the most productive of the varieties thus far tested here, often bearing so heavily that a considerable portion of the fruit is below medium size. Although Reinette Pippin is excellent in quality, Rhode Island Greening surpasses it for culinary use as it also does in size and symmetry.
Historical. This variety originated in France where it has been known in cultivation for more than one hundred years (2). It appears to be but little known in this country.
TREE.
Tree medium to rather large, vigorous; branches short, curved; laterals willowy, slender and somewhat drooping. Form roundish to upright and rather spreading, open. Twigs medium to short, straight or somewhat curved, stout to moderately slender; internodes medium to short. Bark reddish-brown mingled with olive-green, partly streaked with thin scarf-skin, heavily pubescent. Lenticels scattering, medium, roundish or oblong, slightly raised. Buds very deeply set in bark, below medium to small, broad, flat, very obtuse, appressed, quite pubescent.
Fruit.#MoscowMitch
Fruit above medium, sometimes large or very large, pretty uniform in size but variable in shape. Form oblate, occasionally roundish, rarely slightly inclined to conic, often irregularly elliptical or obscurely angular; sides characteristically unequal as shown in the accompanying colored plate. Stem short to very short. Cavity medium or below, acute or acuminate, deep, moderately wide or rather narrow, often slightly furrowed, sometimes compressed, sometimes with outspreading rays of thin greenish-russet. Calyx small to above medium, open to nearly or quite closed; lobes long, acute to acuminate, reflexed. Basin variable, small to rather large, moderately shallow to rather deep, narrow to rather wide, rather abrupt, slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin moderately thick, tough, smooth, green or pale yellow or often whitish especially toward the cavity, occasionally very slightly blushed. Dots numerous, whitish or russet, areolar.
Calyx tube large, deep, flaring, cone-shape to almost funnel-form. Stamens median to basal.
Core small to nearly medium, usually more or less abaxile; cells irregular in size, sometimes unsymmetrical, partly open or closed; core lines clasping.
Carpels roundish to elliptical, obtusely emarginate, smooth. Seeds variable, irregular, often large, wide, obtuse.
Flesh whitish slightly tinged with yellow, firm, tender, rather crisp, moderately coarse-grained, subacid, rich, juicy, good for either dessert or culinary uses.

Repka
References.  1. Barry, 1883:334. 2. Schroeder, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-87:79. 3. Gibb, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887:57. 4. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:248. 5. Beach, NY Sta. An. Rpt., 13:254. 1894.
Synonyms.  No. 139 (2,3). Riepka (3).
Historical. Origin Russia. Received in 1884 from Ellwanger and Barry, Rochester, NY for testing at this Station. It has been but little disseminated in New York.

TREE.

Tree rather small; not a vigorous grower.
Form spreading or roundish.
Twigs short, straight, stout with large terminal buds; internodes short.
Bark brown or reddish-brown, heavily coated with gray scarf-skin.
Lenticels scattering, medium to small, round, slightly raised.
Buds large, prominent, broad, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium or below.
Form roundish oblate inclined to conic, regular; sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) rather short, moderately slender.
Cavity acute, medium in depth to deep, rather wide, heavily russeted and with outspreading russet rays.
Calyx rather small, closed.
Basin moderately deep, wide, somewhat abrupt, usually furrowed or wrinkled.
Skin moderately thin, tough, clear pale yellow or whitish.
Dots small, white, pale and submerged or russet.
Calyx tube long, narrow, funnel-form.
Core small; cells closed; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish.
Seeds medium size, wide, flat, obtuse.
Flesh white, rather firm, fine, juicy, crisp, rather mild subacid, good.
Season August and September.

REPKA MALENKA.

REFERENCES. 1. Budd, Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1880:525. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:118. 3. Webster, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1883:113. 4 Budd, Ia. Agr. Coll. Bul., 1885:16. 5. Ib., 1890:24. 6. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:248. 7. Taylor, Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1892:57. 8. Harris, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1892:274. 9. Budd, Ja. Sta, Bul., 19:541. 1892. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:20. 11. Ragan, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1g01:49. 12. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bul., 76:92. 1902. fig. 13. Budd-Hansen, 1903:163. fig. 14. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56: 181. 1905. 15. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:260. 1905.
Synonyms. Dept. No. 418 (4). Green Sweet (12). Little REPKA (14). Little SEEDLING (2). Little Seedling (3, 12, 14, 15). No. 410 (1, 5, 9, 12,13). Reipka Melenkaya (14). Repka Malenka (14).
Repka Malenka is said to be one of the best keepers among the Russian varieties but the fruit is too small to be valuable (7).
Hansen (12) gives the following description of this variety: “Fruit below medium, conical to roundish conical, obscurely angular, somewhat irregular and unequal; surface yellow, striped, splashed, mixed and dotted dull red on sunny side; dots obscure, few, very minute, white; cavity regular, obtuse, with considerable radiating russet; stem medium to long; basin abrupt, narrow, shallow, slightly corrugated and wrinkled; calyx open or closed, segments erect convergent, very long. Core closed, clasping; cells round; tube funnel-shaped, sometimes linear (long and very narrow); stamens marginal or median; seeds about ten, large, plump, packed tightly in the small cells; flesh white, firm, mild subacid, good. Late winter and spring.”

Rhode Island Greening
References.  1. Coxe, 1817:129. fig. 2. Thacher, 1822:134. 3. Buel, N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:476. 4. Fessenden, 1828:131. 5. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831:32. 6. Kenrick, 1832:52. 7. Floy-Lindley, 1833:37. 8. Ib., 1833:86. 9. Mag. Hort., 1:326, 364. 1835. 10. Manning, 1838:56. 11. Ib., Mag. Hort., 7:51. 1841. 12. Downing, 1845:128. fig. 13. Horticulturist, 1:257. 1846. 14. Ib., 1:361, 407, 431. 1847. 15. Ib., 2:545. 1848. 16. Ib., 3:292. 1848. 17. Thomas, 1849:184. 18. Cole, 1849:123. fig. 19. Elliott, Horticulturist, 3:420. 1849. 20. Phoenix, Ib., 4:472. 1850. 21. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:90. 1851. col. pl. No. 22. 22. Hovey, 2:79. 1851. 23. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 24. Elliott, 1854:104. fig. 25. Bivort, An. de Pom. Beige, 1855:60. 26. Gregg, 1857:58. 27. Hooper, 1857:79. 28. Horticulturist, 13:144. 1858. 29. Ill. Handb. Obst., 1:265. 1858. 30. Warder, 1867:414. fig. 31. Regel, 1868:453. 32. Mas, Le Verger, 1868:11. 33. Leroy, 1873:853. fig. 34. Lauche, 1: col. pl. No. 62. 1882. 35. Barry, 1883:353. 36. Hogg, 1884:194. 37. Rural N. Y., 43:681. 1884. 38. Wickson, 1889:246. 39. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 40. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:248. 41. Bredsted, 1893:171. 42. U.S. Pom. Bui, 7:354. 1898. 43. Adams, Amer. Card., 22:599. 1901. 44. Eneroth-Smirnoff, 1901:425. 45. Budd-Hansen, 1903:163. fig. 46. U.S. Dept. Agr. Yr. Bk., 1903:233. col. pi. No. 26. 47. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul, 48:54. 1903. 48. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul, 248:141. 1904.   [49.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 145.]
Synonyms.  Burlington Greening (1, 6, 12, 24, 33, 36). Greening (17 and common colloquial usage). GREEN NEWTOWN PIPPIN (7) erroneously, corrected by Floy;(36, erroneously 33). Hampshire Greening (24,33). Jersey Greening (1,3,6, 24, 33, 36, ?2 and 12). RHODE ISLAND (47). Verte de Vile de Rhodes (33). VERTE DE RHODE ISLAND (33).
Rhode Island Greening is grown more extensively in New York than any other apple except the Baldwin and in a few sections of the state it surpasses even Baldwin. Its range of distribution on this continent is nearly coextensive with that of Baldwin.
In accordance with the usage of the American Pomological Society (23) the word Greening in the name of this variety is put in italics as the first step toward shortening the name to Rhode Island. "Fruit growers and fruit dealers know the variety very well by the name Rhode Island Greening but commonly call it by the simple name Greening. Among these classes of people it will doubtless continue to be known by the name Greening or Rhode Island Greening as long as it remains in cultivation.
The apple, as the name indicates, is green in color. It is commonly deep grass-green in autumn, and later, as it ripens, develops more or less of a yellow color. It often has a dull blush and occasionally develops a rather bright red cheek but is never striped. Generally it is a reliable cropper and productive. The fruit has a recognized standing both in domestic and foreign markets and sells readily at good prices. It is generally regarded as one of the very best cooking apples grown being almost the peer of Esopus Spitzenburg and decidedly superior to Baldwin for all culinary purposes. It is also very good in quality for dessert use. Hovey well remarks (22): "As a cooking apple, the Greening is unsurpassed; and as a dessert fruit of its season, has few equals. To some tastes it is rather acid; but the tenderness of its very juicy flesh, the sprightliness of its abundant juice, and the delicacy of its rich and fine flavor is not excelled by any of the numerous varieties that we at present possess. In addition to these merits, it ripens up of a fine mellow shade of yellow, and its entire flesh, when well matured, is of the same rich tint." It is a favorite variety in nearly all of the apple-growing sections of the state but it succeeds particularly well in Central and Western New York and in the middle portion of the Hudson valley. When grown farther south it is less desirable for commercial purposes because it ripens earlier and is not so good a keeper. In the North it is a little less hardy than Baldwin. It is a good variety to grow with the Baldwin in commercial orchards because, being a little earlier in season, it can be picked and marketed before it is necessary to pick Baldwin. Moreover it bears good crops some years when there is but a light crop of Baldwins or perhaps none at all. In regions best adapted to its cultivation it thrives on different slopes and on a variety of soils, but generally, it appears to do particularly well on fertile gravelly or sandy loam with well-drained clay subsoil. The tree is long-lived and eventually becomes large although it is not an exceptionally rapid grower. It is hardy, strong, vigorous, and usually pretty healthy but unless thorough preventive treatment is given, both the foliage and the fruit are often injured by the apple-scab fungus. In some locations the limbs are rather susceptible to the disease known as canker (Paddock, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:331. 1899. Ib., 18:342. 1900.). The tree does not come into bearing very young and in many cases it is classed as a biennial cropper, but in favorable locations with good care it becomes almost an annual bearer yielding moderate to heavy crops. The fruit hangs well to the tree until it begins to ripen, but then is apt to drop to a considerable extent especially in high winds. The tree has a tendency to form a rather dense head particularly when the soil is kept fertile and well tilled and the foliage is thoroughly protected from the attacks of insects and fungi. In pruning, special care should be taken to keep the head sufficiently open so that the light may reach the foliage in all parts of the tree. Sometimes the orchardist makes the mistake of cutting out large branches from the center of the tree thereby exposing the remaining limbs to injury by sunscald. A better way is, thin the top every year by removing as many of the smaller branches as may be necessary to make it uniformly open. In training the young tree it is well to form the head rather high because as it matures the branches become long, wide-spreading and more or less drooping, and where the tree is headed low the lower branches eventually are so much in the way that it is necessary to remove them. Moreover when loaded with fruit these bend so close to the ground as to interfere with the free circulation of the air beneath the tree, and thus conditions are produced which favor the development of the apple scab and other fungous diseases. When well grown, Rhode Island Greening produces a large percentage of high-grade fruit that is smooth, uniform and pretty large with little loss from undersized or other low-grade apples. It appears to be somewhat more subject than Baldwin to the attacks of apple scab and unless thorough preventive treatment is given this trouble is apt to cause very serious loss both by direct injury to the fruit and by opening the way to the attacks of other fungi, notably the pink-rot fungus (Eustace, AT. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 22:108. 1903.). In ordinary storage it is in season from October to March or April and its common commercial limit is January or early February. It may be held commercially in cold storage till March or April (48). It ripens rapidly during periods of warm weather in autumn and does not stand heat well before going into storage as this induces scald. If put in cold storage in good condition the fruit keeps well and goes down gradually but if affected by scald or disease it goes down quickly. In going down, it scalds badly in storage, loses in quality, turns yellow, becomes mealy and large specimens are liable to burst (48). The markets of the East prefer the green-colored fruit probably because this color is regarded as an indication that the apples are not over-ripe. In some western markets however the more attractive yellow and blushed fruit sells well. Some fruit growers follow the practice of picking the fruit while it is still quite green in order to hold its green color. Such fruit does not have as good flavor and quality as that which is allowed to become properly ripened on the tree and probably it is more liable to scald but storage men differ in their opinions on this point. It is very important that fruit of this variety which is intended for cold storage should be hurried into storage as soon as it is picked. This practice is more essential with Rhode Island Greening than with the average variety (48).
Historical. The locality of the origin of Rhode Island Greening is not known with certainty but there is little reason to doubt that it originated in the State of Rhode Island and probably in the vicinity of Newport near the place now known as Green's End (43), "where, in olden times, there was a tavern kept by Mr. Green, who raised apple trees from seed. Among the trees thus produced was one which bore a large green apple. The scions of this tree were in such demand by the people who stopped there as guests, that the tree died from excessive cutting and exhaustion. The fruit which resulted from grafting with these scions was known by different names in Rhode Island as the 'apple from Green's Inn,' while in adjoining States it was called the 'Green's Inn apple from Rhode Island.' * * * In the town of Foster, upon the farm of Thomas R. Drowne, at Mt. Hygeia, stands an old Rhode Island Greening tree, which is supposed to be nearly 200 years old. * * * This tree, to the knowledge of members of the family now living, has borne uninterruptedly until within a few years. * * * On the farm of Frederick W. Winslow, a few rods southwest of the lime kiln on the northern verge of Fruit Hill, stands a Rhode Island Greening tree, which is locally known as the 'Daughter Tree' This tree is a limb of the mother tree, which was broken off in the September gale of 1815, and which upon being thrust into the rich moist soil, took root and became an independent tree. The mother tree was planted * * * in 1748. It was, therefore, 141 years old when it was cut down in 1889. * * * Authentic records of trees of this variety that were planted about 150 years ago in the soil of North Providence, on the farm of the late Lemuel Angell, are still in possession of that family. It was introduced into the old Plymouth colony from Newport in 1765; from there (?) it was carried into Ohio in 1796 by General Putnam."
While we have no record of its earliest introduction into this state it is well known that Rhode Island Greening was pretty widely disseminated in the older settled regions of New York during the eighteenth century. It is often found in the very oldest orchards now in existence in New York and it also ranks as one of the most important varieties in recently planted orchards.
Tree.  Tree large or above medium, strong, vigorous.
Form wide-spreading, somewhat drooping, rather dense.
Twigs medium to long, often somewhat crooked, rather stocky ; internodes usually short.
Bark olive-green with reddish-brown tinge, thinly covered with lines of gray scarf-skin, pubescent.
Lenticels scattering but rather conspicuous, medium in size to rather large, usually roundish, raised.
Buds medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse, appressed, pubescent.
Leaves rather large, broad; foliage rather dense.
[Diseases:  Resistant to the major diseases, but fireblight can do some damage to flowers and new growth (49).] Fruit#MoscowMitch Fruit above medium to large or very large, quite uniform in shape and size.
Form roundish to roundish oblate or sometimes slightly inclined to conic, regular or a little inclined to elliptical, sometimes obscurely ribbed, symmetrical or sides slightly unequal.
Stem medium in length and thickness, partly green, pubescent.
Cavity medium in size, acute, medium in depth and width, symmetrical or rarely lipped, usually smooth, sometimes russeted and with narrow, outspreading russet rays.
Calyx below medium to rather large, usually closed, sometimes partly open, pubescent; lobes moderately long, acute.
Basin small to medium, shallow and obtuse to moderately deep and abrupt, regular or slightly furrowed.
Skin moderately thick, tough, smooth, waxy, grass-green varying to rather yellow, sometimes with brownish-red blush which rarely deepens to a distinct bright red (37).
Dots greenish-white or russet, especially numerous toward the basin and often submerged.
Prevailing effect green or yellowish.
Calyx tube rather wide, usually cone-shape with fleshy pistil point projecting into the base but occasionally funnel-form.
Stamens median to basal.
Core medium or below, somewhat abaxile to axile or nearly so; cells pretty uniform, symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines meeting if the calyx tube is cone-shape, otherwise clasping.
Carpels rather thin, flat, emarginate, roundish to roundish cordate, sometimes tufted.
Seeds few; often some are abortive. The plump ones are large, moderately narrow, long, acute to acuminate and sometimes tufted.
Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately fine-grained, crisp, tender, juicy, rich, sprightly subacid, peculiarly flavored, very good in quality. [Also useful for frying, pies and cider (49).
Season:  Late fall in Virginia and a good keeper (49).]
Additional History: This tree on the Drowne farm is supposed by some to be the original Rhode Island Greening tree. An illustrated description of it appeared in the Providence Sunday Journal October 2, 1898. Within recent years a sprout has grown out from the base of this old tree. In 1900 Senator T. R. Drowne very kindly furnished this Station with scions from this sprout and also from the upper branches of the tree. A comparison of the trees propagated from these scions, which are now growing at this Station, shows that the trees from scions taken from the upper branches of the old tree are the true Rhode Island Greening, but those grown from scions taken from the sprout at the base of the old tree are very different, thus demonstrating that the old tree on the Drowne farm is not growing on its own roots and, therefore, is not the original Rhode Island Greening tree.
[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

Ribston Pippin
References.  1.  [***will be added later***]
Synonyms.  Beautiful Pippin (25). Englische Granat-Reinette (40). Essex Pippin (40). Formosa (25). Formosa Pippin (7,10,15,22,32,40). Glory of York (10,15,22,25,32,35,40, of some 7). Granat-Reinette (40). Nonpareille (40). Pepin Ribston (40). Reinette Grenade Anglaise (40). Reinette de Traver (32). Ribston Pippin (1,3-5,7,10,13-19,21,22,25,28,32,34,35,38,41,44-46). Ribston Pepping (40). Ribston's Pepping (40). Ribstone (32). Ribstone Pippin (6,12). Ridge (46 by error). Rockhill's Russet (32). Travers (15,22,25,32). Ravers Apple (7,10,40). Travers Peppin (40). Travers Pippin (35). Travers Reinette (40).
Ribston evidently belongs in the same group as Hubbardston. It is much esteemed for its rich flavor and fine quality and it is desirable either for dessert or culinary uses. The fruit is pretty smooth and uniform but often it averages below medium size and is ordinary in appearance. Heat ripens it quickly and it is not considered a very good keeper. In cold storage, if properly handled before storing, it is possibly equal to 'Tompkins King' or Hubbardston as a keeper (46). Its season in Southern New York extends from late September to November or December, and in the northern and more elevated regions from late fall to early or mid-winter and sometimes a portion of the fruit may be kept till spring in ordinary storage. The tree is pretty hardy, vigorous, healthy and long-lived. It comes into bearing rather young and usually bears some fruit every year. Occasionally the crops are heavy but more often they vary from moderate to rather light. Generally speaking, it is hardly satisfactory as a cropper and 'Hubbardston' is much to be preferred for planting in commercial orchards in New York.
Historical.  Ribston originated more than two hundred years ago in Yorkshire, England (1, 7). In that country it has long been considered the standard of excellence among dessert apples. It has long been known in cultivation in America but has not gained the standing here that it holds in England. It is not grown to any considerable extent in New York but succeeds better farther north, as in portions of Northern New England and of Canada, where it is of some commercial importance (16, 20, 24, 44).
Tree.  medium in size of sometimes rather large, moderately vigorous to vigorous with rather stout, stocky branches.
Form rather upright and spreading or roundish, not very regular.
Twigs medium to rather long, rather slender to moderately stout; internodes medium to long.
Bark bright dark reddish-brown and olive-green, somewhat mottled with grayish scarf-skin.
Lenticels conspicuous, scattering, small to medium, elongated or roundish.
Buds medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse, nearly free, very pubescent.
Foliage rather dense; leaves broad.

Fruit medium or above, pretty uniform in shape and size.#MoscowMitch
Form roundish, rather broad and flattened at the base, narrowing somewhat toward the basin, occasionally a little inclined to roundish oblong, often broadly and obscurely ribbed.
Stem pubescent, medium to short, occasionally moderately slender, more often rather thick, sometimes irregularly swollen or inserted under a lip.
Cavity rather large, acute, moderately shallow to rather deep, wide to moderately narrow, sometimes furrowed or compressed, occasionally smooth and green but often faintly russeted and with some outspreading russet.
Calyx variable, small to rather large, closed or partly open; lobes sometimes separated at the base, erect or converging, tips usually somewhat reflexed.
Basin small to medium, shallow to moderately deep, moderately narrow, more of less abrupt or occasionally obtuse, often slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin smooth or slightly roughened with russet, deep yellow or greenish-yellow more or less overspread with rather dull red which in highly colored specimens deepens to a distinct red with some obscure carmine stripes and splashes.
Dots scattering, conspicuous toward the base, more numerous and smaller toward the basin, pale, sometimes whitish, often areolar with russet center.
Prevailing effect sometimes rather attractive but more often the colors are rather dull. Calyx tube rather wide, cone-shape or sometimes funnel-form. Stamens basal.
Core below medium to small, axile or with a narrow hollow cylinder at the axis; cells pretty regular, closed; core lines clasping to nearly meeting.
Carpels roundish to nearly elliptical, emarginate, slightly tufted.
Seeds variable, some abortive, usually but few are plump, light and dark brown, rather large, moderately narrow to wide, medium to long, obtuse or sometimes approaching acute, sometimes slightly tufted.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, very crisp, medium in texture, juicy, pleasantly aromatic, rich, sprightly subacid, very good.
Season late September to December or later.
[Information from the Southeastern U.S. here.]

Richard Graft
References.  1. Mag. Hort., 18:492. 1852. 2.*****
Synonyms.  Derrick and Ann (8). Derrick's Graft (2,4). Red Spitzenberg (3). Red Spitzenburgh (2,4,6). Richard (1). Strawberry (2,3). Wine (2,3).
This is a very fine fall apple of superior dessert quality. It begins to ripen during late August or early September; the crop ripens in succession during a period of several weeks, and some portion of the fruit may be kept till late autumn. Several pickings are required in order to secure the fruit in prime condition. The tree is upright, of medium size, moderately vigorous, long-lived and a reliable cropper yielding good crops biennially. It is an excellent variety for home use and is being grown to a limited extent in commercial orchards with profit.
Historical. This variety was originated at Greenport, Columbia county, NY by Richard Delamatter. It was introduced about 1860 by E.G. Studley, anurseryman of Claverack, Columbia county, NY. Its cultivation is being extended somewhat in Columbia county, but as yet it is but little known outside of the Hudson valley.

TREE.

Tree of medium size, moderately vigorous.
Form upright or roundish, open.
Twigs moderately long, curved, moderately stout; internodes medium.
Bark dark brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, round, not raised.
Buds medium size, broad, acute to obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT (2,8)

Fruit medium size.
Form roundish oblate.
Stem (Pedicel) of medium length, slender.
Cavity large.
Calyx small, closed.
Basin medium size.
Skin yellow, nearly covered with stripes and splashes of deep red.
Flesh yellowish, very tender, juicy, aromatic, subacid, very good.
Season September.

Ridge

References.  1.Genesee Farmer, 1833. (cited by 10). 2. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:46. 1851. col. pl. No. 55. 3. Downing, 1857:184. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 5. Warder, 1867:536. 6. Thomas, 1875:510. 7. Barry, 1883:354. 8. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:248. 9. Budd-Hansen, 1903:166. 10. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul, 56:262. 1905.
SYNONYMS. RIDGE PIPPIN (1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8). RIDGE Pippin (9,10). RIDGED PIPPIN (2). Not the RIDGE of Bul. 248 of this Station.
Fruit of good yellow color, not particularly attractive in form, a late keeper and good in quality for either dessert or culinary uses. It averages pretty uniform in size with comparatively few culls. The tree is healthy, hardy, long-lived and a reliable cropper yielding good crops biennially. Some growers consider it a fairly profitable variety for local markets.
Since Bulletin 248 was published it has been discovered that the variety therein mentioned under the name of Ridge or Ridge Pippin is in fact Ribston. It appears that the name Ridge Pippin is used by some dealers as a trade synonym for Ribston, and this use of it led us into the error of publishing a duplicate report on Ribston under the name Ridge. Historical. According to Warder (5) this variety originated in the vicinity of Philadelphia but Downing (3) regarded this as uncertain. Although it has long been known in cultivation it has gained but little recognition in New York state either for home or for commercial orchards.
TREE.
Tree large, vigorous. Form upright. Twigs erect, long to below medium, somewhat stout, straight or somewhat bent toward the tip and rather blunt; internodes medium. Bark dull brownish-red overlaid with a thin to rather heavy scarf-skin, quite pubescent. Lenticels not conspicuous, scattering, medium to small, slightly raised, roundish or elongated. Buds medium, moderately projecting, roundish, quite pubescent, appressed.
Fruit.#MoscowMitch
Fruit above medium to large. Form flat at the base, roundish conic to oblong conic, prominently and irregularly ribbed; axis sometimes oblique.
Stem short to long, pubescent. Cavity small to large, acute to acuminate, very shallow to deep, usually furrowed, often with outspreading russet rays.
Calyx small to sometimes medium, usually closed. Basin rather small, often oblique, moderately shallow to rather deep, moderately wide, abrupt, characteristically ridged and wrinkled.
Skin smooth, glossy, clear yellow, often with a faint blush which sometimes deepens to a pinkish-red shade similar to that seen in a highly colored Yellow Newtown, sometimes veined and flecked with russet. Dots numerous, fine to moderately coarse, russet, or pinkish-white and areolar or submerged.
Calyx tube rather large, wide at top, cone-shape to funnel-form. Stamens marginal to median.
Core axile, rather small; cells usually closed; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels roundish, rather wide, broadly emarginate, slightly tufted. Seeds light and dark reddish-brown, short to moderately long, wide, plump, obtuse, sometimes tufted.
Flesh tinged with yellow, very firm, somewhat coarse, crisp, moderately tender, juicy, slightly aromatic, mild subacid, good.
Season February to April or May.

ROCK PIPPIN OF EASTERN NEW YORK.
A variety is grown under this name in Eastern New York, particularly in Dutchess county, which we have been unable to identify as any other named variety. G. B. Brackett, U. S. Pomologist, writes us that it certainly is not Lansingburg of which Rock is given by Downing (Downing, 1881:12 index, app.) as a synonym and adds that he is unable to identify it. It is neither the Rock of New Hampshire, the Rock of Pennsylvania (Downing, 1869:338) nor the Rock Pippin of Ohio (Downing, 1869:338 & Warder, 1867:691). It somewhat resembles Tewksbury but is distinct from that variety. It also bears some resemblance to Yellow Newtown but is smoother and has a redder cheek. It is known to some under the name Winter Blush (Letter, C. H. Deuell, Bangall, N. Y., 1904). All of the descriptions of Winter Maiden Blush or Winter Blush which we have been able to find are brief and unsatisfactory. So far as we can determine none of them refer to the variety under discussion. Fruit of what appears to be the same variety as this Rock Pippin has been sent us from Pullman, Washington, under the name Rock.
W. H. Hart of Poughkeepsie informs us that Rock Pippin is found in many orchards in Dutchess county but in no large blocks. He considers it a good variety to grow for profit because it keeps very late and is a good export apple to succeed the Newtown at the end of the season. In some seasons it is inclined to scab. It does not average as large as Baldwin and grades less No. 1 fruit than that variety. Its commercial season in ordinary storage extends to April and in cold storage to June or July. Mr. Hart reports that the tree is large, very vigorous, upright, with long, erect, stout, yellowish-brown twigs. It is hardy, very healthy, long-lived, a reliable cropper and, if kept free from scab, yields good to heavy crops biennially. The tree does not come into bearing very young. The fruit hangs to the tree exceptionally well.
Fruit.
Fruit below medium to above, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish oblate to roundish, not inclined to conic, regular or nearly so; sides sometimes unequal.
Stem short to medium, moderately thick, pubescent. Cavity small to above medium, acute to somewhat acuminate or sometimes approaching obtuse, moderately deep to deep, narrow to moderately broad, furrowed obscurely if at all, usually somewhat russeted. Calyx medium to small, closed; lobes convergent to connivent. Basin scarcely depressed and very obtuse or varying to moderately deep and abrupt, wide, slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin moderately thick, tough, smooth or slightly roughened with russet dots, rather glossy, green or light yellow thinly washed with pinkish-red often deepening to a distinct bright blush, streaked and mottled with pale scarf-skin toward the cavity. Dots numerous, mostly irregular, submerged and whitish around the basin, sometimes areolar with fine russet point; the russet ones are larger, more irregular and scattering toward the cavity. Prevailing effect pale yellow.
Calyx tube small, conical to funnel-form. Stamens median to basal.
Core medium to small, axile; cells closed; core lines clasping. Carpels thin, broadly roundish to somewhat obcordate, emarginate, somewhat tufted.
Seeds rather dark brown, medium to large, rather wide, acute to obtuse, sometimes tufted, compactly filling the cells.
Flesh whitish or slightly tinged with yellow, very firm, rather hard, a little coarse, somewhat crisp, rather tender, aromatic, juicy, sprightly subacid, good but not high in flavor.

Rolfe
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Macomber (1-4, 7, 9, 14).
Fruit medium to large, of good quality and rather attractive for a yellowish apple. It is in season from late September to December or January. The tree is very hardy, vigorous and a reliable cropper. At the present time it is probably grown more extensively in Maine than in any other section of the country. It is there regarded highly wherever it is known and is gaining popularity among fruit growers (1, 6, 10, 12). It is worthy of testing in those portions of the state where superior hardiness in a variety is a matter of prime importance.
Historical. Originated in the town of Guilford, Maine, about 1820. Said to be a seedling of the Blue Pearmain. It has, as yet, been disseminated but sparingly in this state and is but little known among New York fruit growers.

TREE.

Tree rather large, vigorous.
Form roundish to spreading and drooping, rather dense; laterals slender, willowy.
Twigs rather long, irregularly crooked, slender to moderately stout; internodes long to below medium.
Bark brown to reddish-brown with an occasional tinge of olive-green, overlaid with scarf-skin, pubescent near tips.
Lenticels moderately numerous, of a dull color but rather conspicuous, medium or above, roundish, not raised.
Buds very deeply set in bark, medium in size, broad, flat, obtuse, appressed, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to sometimes large, pretty uniform in shape and size.
Form roundish to roundish oblate, regular or somewhat angular, symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium and rather slender.
Cavity acute to slightly acuminate, moderately deep, rather wide, sometimes slightly furrowed or compressed.
Calyx small to above medium, closed; lobes short to moderately long, rather wide, acute.
Basin below medium to rather large, pretty regular, shallow to moderately deep, narrow to rather wide, a little abrupt, slightly wrinkled.
Skin moderately thin, rather tough, glossy, clear pale yellow, sometimes faintly blushed or in well colored specimens distinctly shaded and striped with lively red.
Dots numerous, inconspicuous, small.
Prevailing effect yellow or yellow and red.
Calyx tube rather narrow, short, funnel-shape.
Stamens median.
Core variable, below medium to large, abaxile; cells usually symmetrical, wide open; core lines clasping.
Carpels often markedly concave, broadly ovate, emarginate, tufted.
Seeds above medium, rather long and narrow, plump, acute or approaching acuminate, light brown.
Flesh whitish with slight tinge of yellow, moderately fine-grained, crisp, tender, juicy, briskly subacid, good.
Season September to December or January.

ROMANITE

REFERENCES. 1. (?) Phoenix, Horticulturist, 4:471. 1850. 2. Downing, 1869:339. fig. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871:8. 4. Fitz, 1872:143. 5. Wickson, 1889:247. 6. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:248. 7. Clayton, Ala. Sta. Bul., 47:6. 1893. 8. Stinson, Ark. Sta. An. Rpt., 7:47. 1894. 9. Budd-Hansen, 1903:166. fig.
Synonyms. Broad River (2). Little Red Romanite. (RED ROMANITE, 1)? Romanite of the South (3, 4). Romanire, SoutH (9). Southern Romanite (2, 8).
The name Romanite has been and is still applied to several different varieties of apples. In the earlier history of orcharding in this country it was applied very generally to the Rambo, but this synonymy has now become practically obsolete. The Gilpin or Carthouse apple has also passed under the name of Romanite and it is still so called in a great many districts. The true Romanite of to-day, according to the accepted nomenclature of the American Pomological Society, is the old southern variety of this name. It is also known in various parts of the South under the name of Little Red Romanite. The fruit of this variety is small but has a good color, is of good quality and keeps remarkably well, this last characteristic being one of its chief recommendations in the South where it is usually quite difficult to get varieties that are late enough for their long seasons. It is not recommended for planting in this state being evidently not well adapted to regions as far north as this.
Historical. The origin of this apple is unknown although it is probable from the region in which it was being grown when it first became known to pomologists that it originated in one of the Carolinas or in Georgia. So far as we know it is not grown in New York.

Roman Stem
References.  1.
Synonyms.  French Pippin of some (9).
Fruit about medium size, whitish-yellow, often somewhat blushed. The flesh is juicy, aromatic, subacid and very good in quality, particularly for dessert use. It is in season from midautumn to midwinter. "A good fruit but in a great measure superseded by other sorts" (15). The tree is moderately vigorous, spreading, irregular, very hardy and very productive. In the trying climate of the upper Mississippi valley it has proved hardier than most of the old varieties from the East and has succeeded well where the varieties of the grade of hardiness of Baldwin and Rhode Island Greening have failed. It is not well suited for commercial purposes because it is yellow, lacks good size and is not a late keeper.
Historical. Coxe published the following description of Roman Stem in 1817: "This apple was first propagated in the neighbourhood of Burlington, New Jersey, where the original tree is now standing. It is an excellent early winter fruit, much admired for its tender, mild, juicy and agreeable properties; the size is small, the form round, the stalk of singular appearance, from a fleshy protuberance of the neighboring part, resembling an aquiline nose, whence the apple derives its name-- the skin is rough, the color yellow, with black clouds and spots-- the tree is of handsome and vigorous growth, with long shoots, and great fruitfulness; it is in every respect deserving of extensive cultivation."
Roman Stem has been pretty widely disseminated and considerably cultivated in various parts of the Southern, Central and Western states but it is now generally superseded by other kinds. It is but little grown in New York.

ROME

References. 1. Ohio Convention of Fr. Gr. Rpt., 1848. (cited by 2). 2. Hodge, Horticulturist, 6:181. 1851. 3. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:102. 1851. fig. 4. Elliott, 1854:106. fig. 5. Horticulturist, 9:193. 1854. 6. Mag. Hort., 20: 241. 1854. 7. [b., 22:130. 1856. 8. Wood, Horticulturist, 12:149. 1857. 9. Downing, 1857:102. fig. 10. Gregg, 1857:57. 11. Hooper, 1857:81. 12. Mag. Hort., 26:101. 1860. 13. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 14. Warder, 1867:458. fig. 15. Fitz, 1872:172, 175. 16. Leroy, 1873:124. fig. 17. Thomas, 1875:221. 18. Barry, 1883:341. 19. Wickson, 1889:248. 20. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt, 1890:290. 21. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:248. 22. Mathews, Ky. Sta. Bul., 50: 32. 1894. 23. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:254. 1895. 24. Rural N. Y., 55:1. 1896. 25. Ib., 56:244. 1897. 26. Massey, N. C. Sta. Bul., 149:317. 1898. 27. Beach, W. N.Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1900:36. 28. Lazenby, Columbus Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1900:138. 29. Beach, W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 1901:76. 30. Van Deman, Rural N. Y., 60:209. 1901. 31. Coxe, Ib., 60:266. 1901. 32. Alwood, Va. Sta. Bul. 130:136. 1901. 33. Black, Rural N. Y., 61:185. 1902. 34. Stinson, Mo. Fr. Sta. Bul., 3:27. 1902. 35. Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. Bul, 106:55. 1902. 36. Budd-Hansen, 1903:167. fig. 37. Powell and Fulton, U. S.B. P. I. Bul., 48:54. 1903. 38. Bruner, N. C. Sta. Bul., 182:22. 1903. fig. 39. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:142. 1904.  [40.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 145.]
Synonyms. BELLE de Rome (16). Faust’s Rome Beauty (23). Gillett’s Seedling (4, 9, 14, 16). Phoenix, erroneously (29). Roman Beauty (4, 16). Rome Beauty (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, II, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35). Rome Beauty (16, 27, 37, 39). Rome Beauty (36, 38).
When well grown this fruit is of good size, uniform, fair, smooth and handsomely colored. It is thick-skinned, stands handling remarkably well and is a good keeper. It is held in cold storage till May or later. It goes down gradually in storage and if properly colored is not subject to scald (39). It has an established reputation in market and sells at good prices. As compared with Baldwin it is not quite so good in quality either for dessert or for culinary uses but the tree comes into bearing at a much earlier age and under right conditions is more nearly an annual cropper. It is not as well adapted as Baldwin for general cultivation in New York state, the fruit often being less reliable and less satisfactory in size and color, the foliage less healthy and the tree less vigorous and not so large. Although it is an old variety it has not been sufficiently tested in New York to determine the range of its proper cultivation. Generally speaking it succeeds better farther south, as, for example, in some districts in New Jersey and along the Ohio river. It appears to be better adapted to bottom lands and to fertile sandy or gravelly loams than to heavy clay soils. Evidently it develops proper size, color and quality more often when grown in Southeastern New York than it does in cooler and more elevated regions in the interior of the state yet in some localities in Western New York on warm, fertile, well-drained soils it attains good size and good color and gives promise of being satisfactory in commercial orchards. The tree is apt to overbear and in unfavorable locations as it advances in maturity there is often a considerable loss in undersized or poorly colored fruit. Although it is a good grower there appears to be some advantage in top-grafting it upon some more vigorous stock. When top-worked on bearing trees it usually produces some fruit within two or three years from the time of grafting or budding. The fruit is supported by a long stem and usually hangs to the tree remarkably well even in high winds. It is somewhat subject to the attacks of the scab and requires thorough and careful preventive treatment in order to protect it from injurious insects and diseases.
Historical. Originated by H. N. Gillett in Lawrence county, Ohio. Brought to the notice of the Ohio Convention of fruit growers in 1848 as a new variety (1, 14). It is holding its own as a profitable commercial variety in that section of the country (31) and also in certain other southern apple-growing districts (30, 34, 38), but Stinson reports that in Missouri it is an uncertain bearer and not a safe variety to recommend for general planting although some Missouri fruit growers recommend it for planting in some locations (34). Although occasionally old trees of this variety are found in New York, Rome is as yet but little known among New York fruit growers. Within recent years it has been planted or grafted in commercial orchards to a limited extent and for the most part in an experimental way.
TREE.
Tree not a very strong grower in the nursery but in the orchard it is rather vigorous and attains good medium size. Form at first upright but later it is roundish to somewhat spreading and drooping, with rather slender lateral branches. Twigs moderately stout, sometimes slender, moderately long; internodes short. Bark mottled brownish-red and green, rather bright. Lenticels medium to large, scattering, conspicuous, round to oblong, raised. Buds deeply set in bark, very short, broad, obtuse, appressed. Leaves rather long; foliage not particularly robust.
[Diseases:  Moderately susceptible to the major diseases (40).] Fruit.#MoscowMitch
Fruit medium to very large, usually averaging above medium, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish to roundish conic or slightly oblong, regular or faintly ribbed, usually symmetrical but sometimes with sides unequal.
Stem characteristically long, slender, and often oblique.
Cavity medium to rather large, characteristically obtuse and smooth, moderately shallow to rather deep, wide, sometimes compressed or lipped, often gently furrowed, green or red, never russeted. Calyx rather small to medium, closed or somewhat open; lobes usually converging above but slightly separated toward the base. Basin small to medium, shallow to moderately deep, narrow to medium in width, sometimes abrupt, usually a little furrowed or wrinkled.
Skin thick, tough, smooth, yellow or greenish, more or less mottled with bright red which in highly colored specimens deepens to almost solid red on the exposed cheek, striped with bright carmine. Dots rather numerous, whitish or brown, small. Prevailing effect red or red mingled with yellow.
Calyx tube cone-shape or approaching short truncate funnel-form, often with fleshy pistil point projecting into the base. Stamens marginal to median.
Core medium to large, abaxile; cells sometimes unsymmetrical, open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels roundish to ovate, narrowing both toward base and apex, sometimes obtusely emarginate, mucronate. Seeds numerous, medium in size, plump, acute to somewhat obtuse, slightly tufted, light and dark brown.
Flesh nearly white with slight tinge of yellow or green, firm, moderately fine-grained to a little coarse, rather crisp, juicy, slightly aromatic, agreeable mild subacid, commonly good but not high in quality.  [Also useful for baking and drying according to Burford (43). I've just about had it with the 'Rome Beauty' worship. It's a baking apple because it ain't worth a damn for eating and it becomes marginally edible when baked. It's not an excellent eating experience in any regards. Sure, it's a beautiful apple to look at, but it's like Paris Hilton, pretty, but would you want to EAT it? -ASC]
Season November to April or May.

Romna
References.  1.
Synonyms.  No. 11 M (1,2,6,7,9). No. 599 Dept. (1-4, 6-9, 17, 18). Omensk (4). Romenskoe (1-5, 8, 17, 18). Romnenskoe (3-5).
A Russian variety received from Dr. T.H. Hoskins, Newport, Vermont, in 1888 for testing at this Station. It was described in 1896 (12) as being in season that year during the last of August and the first of September. This statement was erroneous because it was incomplete. While the fruit began to come in season during the last of August and the first of September, some portion of it was kept in ordinary storage till midwinter. In a subsequent report (19), it was correctly stated that as fruited at this Station the commercial limit of this variety is early October and its season in ordinary storage extends from September to January. It is properly classed as a fall and early winter apple here. The tree is vigorous, hardy, comes into bearing rather young and yields good crops biennially. It does not appear to be worthy of the attention of fruit growers in New York except possibly where superior hardiness is a prime requisite. The fruit corresponds very closely with the illustrated description given by Troop (10, 16) and Waugh (14) but it varies considerably from the descriptions of Budd and Hansen (3,6,9,11,15,17,18) particularly in that it is usually oblate conic and is in season during the autumn and early winter instead of late winter and spring.
The following is one of Budd's descriptions of Romna (9,11). "This succeeds best on dry soil where its roots run very deep. Fruit medium in size, conical, smooth, handsomely colored. Flesh white, firm, quite acid and best for cooking, but when matured it is much better for desert use than Willow or Missouri Pippin or other coarse sorts found in our markets. Season, midwinter here, and late winter north of 43rd parallel."

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous to vigorous; branches short, stout, curved, crooked and drooping.
Form spreading, drooping, flat.
Twigs short to medium, straight, moderately slender to stout, with large terminal buds; internodes medium to long.
Bark brown, somewhat tinged with red, streaked with grayish scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels scattering, small to medium, roundish or oval, slightly raised.
Buds moderately small to very large and prominent, broad, very plump, acute, free or nearly so, scarcely pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium or sometimes rather large, not very uniform in shape or size.
Form usually oblate conic, irregularly elliptical or broadly and obscurely angular, often unsymmetrical with sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium length to short and stout, pubescent.
Cavity medium to rather large, acute or sometimes nearly obtuse, medium in depth to rather deep, rather wide to narrow, somewhat furrowed, occasionally lipped, russeted and often with conspicuous, outspreading russet.
Calyx above medium to large, open or partly closed; lobes often separated at the base, medium in length, rather broad, acute.
Basin medium to large, often oblique, moderately narrow to wide, sometimes compressed, abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thick, tough, smooth or partly roughened with flecks of russet; color greenish becoming yellow more or less blushed and overspread with thin bloom.
Dots small, numerous, pale yellow or grayish, sometimes rather conspicuous.
Calyx tube rather long, wide, funnel-shape.
Stamens median.
Core medium to small, axile or nearly so; cells closed; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels roundish ovate, somewhat emarginate, slightly tufted.
Seeds medium to small, rather short, narrow, plump, obtuse to acute, rather dark brown.
Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately coarse, juicy, briskly subacid, slightly astringent, fair to good.
Season September to January (19).

Ronk
References.  1. Rural NY 48:279. 1889. fig. 2. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bul., 143:201. 1897. 3. Farrand, Ib., 205:46. 1903. 4. Beach and Clark, NY Sta. Bul., 248:142. 1904.
Synonyms.  None.
Fruit of the Vandevere type, medium or above, rather dull red, pleasant subacid, good; season October to late winter. Commercial limit in ordinary storage January (4). The tree comes into bearing rather young and is moderately productive. It has not been sufficiently tested to determine its value for this state.
Historical. Originated about 1860 with Mr. Ronk, Boone county, Indiana. It is supposed to be a seedling of Vandevere which it much resembles (1).

Rose Red
References.  1. Rural NY 1871 (cited by 5). 2. Downing, 1872:30 app. fig. 3. Thomas, 1875:511. 4. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 5. Ragan, U.S.P.B.I. Bul., 56:267. 1905.
Synonyms.  Autumn Rose (4).
A variety of unknown origin. It is supposed to have originated in Egypt, Monroe county, NY. According to Downing (2) the tree is thrifty, a reliable cropper and very productive; the fruit medium, roundish oblate, whitish, striped, and splashed with light and dark red; flesh yellowish, very tender, lively subacid, very good; in season during late September, October and November.
We are unacquainted with this variety and have received no report concerning it from any of our correspondents.

ROSEAU.

REFERENCES. 1, North American Pomological Convention, 1849. (cited by 6). 2. Downing, 1869:340. 3. Plumb, Can. Hort., 18:184, 1895. 4. Waugh, Rural N. Y., 62:141, 143, 282. 1903. figs. under name Canada Red. 5. Rural N. Y., 62:238. 1903. 6 Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:267. 1905.
Synonyms. Baltimore (3). Canada Rep (5). Canada Red of Ontario, not Rep Canada of Western New York (4). FLUSHING SPITZENBURG (3). French Spitzenburg of Vermont (4). Pomme de Fer of Quebec (4). Red Canada of Ontario, not Red Canada of Western New York (3). Rosseau (6). Winesap of Vermont (4).
A variety is known in portions of Ontario under the name of Red Canada or Canada Red which is said to be quite different from the Red Canada of Western New York described on page 275. Waugh identifies this variety as the Roseau of Downing and remarks that it is really an important apple. He states that it is known in some parts of Vermont as the Winesap and that it is the Pomme de Fer of Quebec (4). Plumb (3) gives Flushing Spitzenburg as its correct name and calls it identical with the variety described by Downing under the name Baltimore. We have not had an opportunity of verifying the conclusions of either Waugh or Plumb with regard to this matter.
The following is Waugh’s description of the variety.
“The distinguishing good qualities of this variety are its peculiarly firm, solid flesh, making it a late keeper and a good shipper, and its fine solid red color, which makes it attractive in the barrel. It is unusually hardy in tree, so that it may be grown in northern latitudes with great success. So far as I know it is as hardy as Duchess of Oldenburg. Here is the technical description of the variety made from Vermont specimens: Fruit irregular, oblate, size medium to large, cavity irregular, medium deep, stem medium long, basin shallow, usually smooth, calyx small, closed, color two shades of dull red, mottled and splashed, nearly covering dull green ground, dots many, yellowish, very conspicuous, bloom thin, skin tough, flesh white, core medium, slightly open, flavor subacid, quality good, season midwinter.”

ROXBURY.

REFERENCES. 1. Thacher, 1822:136. 2. Fessenden, 1828:130. 3. Kenrick, 1832:53. 4. Mag. Hort., 1:364. 1835. 5. Manning, 1838:62. 6. Mag. Hort., 7:48. 1841. 7. Downing, 1845:133. fig. 8. Floy-Lindley, 1846:411 app. 9. Horticulturist, 1:52, 341, 361. 1846-47. 10. Ib., 2:483. 1848. 11. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 14:112, 173. 1848. 12. Thomas, 1849:185, 190. fig. 13. Cole, 1849: 135. fig. 14. Phoenix, Horticulturist, 4:472. 1850. 15. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N.Y., 3:96. 1851. col. pl. No. 18. 16. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 17. Elliott, 1854:106. 18. Hooper, 1857:73, 82. 19. Gregg, 1857:59. 20. Horticulturist, 13:144. 1858. 21. Mag. Hort., 26:6, tot. 1860. 22. I[b., 29:437. 1863. 23. Ill. Handb. der Obstk., 8:157. 1865. 24. Warder, 1867:25, 491. fig. 25. Regel, 1868:444. 26. Thompson, Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1:31. 1870. 27. Leroy, 1873:153. fig. 28. Gardiner, Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1882. (cited by 35). 29. Barry, 1883:354. 30. Hogg, 1884:27. 31. Wickson, 1889:245. 32. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 33. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:248. 34. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:133. 35. Kncwlton, Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1894:126. 36. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bul., 118:62. 189. 37. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt. 3:13. 18096. fig. 38. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898:356. 39. Eneroth-Smirnoff, 1901 :434. 40. Budd-Hansen, 1903:169. fig. 41. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:55. 1903. 42. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul.,248:142. 1904.  [43.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 145.]
Synonyms. Belpre Russet (17, 18, 27). Boston Russet (25, 27, 30). Boston Russet (9, 12, 13, 15, 17, 18, 24, 37). Marietta Russet (17, 18, 27). Putman’s Russet (27, 30). Putnam Russet (23, 39). Putnam Russet (9, 10,11, 17, 18, 24, 27, of Ohio 12, 13 and 15). Roxbury Russet (4, 5, 6, 8,6, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 20, 31, 32, 33, 34). Roxbury Russet (3, 27, 30, 40, 41, 42). Roxbury Russeting (1, 2, 3). Roxbury Russeting (7, 27). Rox or Rox Russet (colloquial). Russet, Boston OR Roxbury (7). Russet (27). Shippen’s Russet (27, 30). Sylvan Russet (17, 18,27).
The Roxbury is the most popular russet apple cultivated in New York. When well grown it is of good marketable size, and rather attractive for a russet, but it varies greatly in size and appearance in different localities. Being an excellent keeper it is well liked for southern trade. It also sells well in western and northwestern markets. The recent increase in cold storage facilities has had the effect of lessening the demand for long-keeping russet apples, and neither the Roxbury nor the Golden Russet is being planted as extensively as they once were, but within recent years there has been increasing demand for them for export. Roxbury fruit that is grown in Central and Western New York keeps better than that produced in more southern localities, and for this reason is preferred by fruit buyers. This variety has consequently been planted more extensively in this region than in any other. It generally has the reputation of being a biennial bearer and when grown on rich soils in favorable locations it is a pretty reliable cropper, but in many places it has proved but a moderate cropper and not very satisfactory.
Historical. It is generally supposed that this variety originated in Roxbury, Massachusetts, early in the seventeenth century. Soon after 1649 it was taken to Connecticut. About 1797 it was introduced from Connecticut into Ohio and afterwards disseminated there under the name Putnam Russet, Marietta Russet, etc. (9, 11, 24).
TREE.
Tree medium to large, moderately vigorous to vigorous. Form roundish spreading or flat. Twigs above medium to short, straight or nearly so, stout, often with large blunt terminal buds; internodes medium to rather long. Bark rather light, dull, reddish-brown and olive-green, streaked lightly with grayish scarf-skin, much pubescent. Lenticels not conspicuous, scattering, medium to above, roundish, oval or elongated, sometimes raised. Buds large, broad, plump, obtuse, free or nearly so, slightly pubescent.
[Diseases:  Resistant to scab and powdery mildew; moderately susceptible to fireblight and cedar apple rust (43).] Fruit.#MoscowMitch#MoscowMitch
Fruit usually above medium to nearly large, sometimes large, variable in size and shape. Form oblate to oblate inclined to conic, often broadly and obscurely angular and sometimes remarkably elliptical as shown in the accompanying half-tone illustration; sides sometimes unequal. Stem short to medium rather thick or swollen, pubescent, often red on one side. Cavity acute rarely acuminate, rather deep, medium in width to rather wide, sometimes lipped.
Calyx sometimes small but usually medium to rather large, pubescent, closed or partly open; lobes variable; medium to rather large and long; sometimes short, obtuse or acute. Basin variable, usually medium in width and depth, varying from narrow to rather wide, and from obtuse to abrupt, furrowed and often slightly wrinkled.
Skin tough or moderately tender, sometimes almost smooth, but usually largely covered with greenish to yellowish-brown russet. Highly colored specimens develop a bronze blush which rarely deepens to red. Dots russet or gray.
Calyx tube rather large, moderately wide, with fleshy pistil point projecting into the base, usually conical, sometimes funnel-shape. Stamens basal to median.
Core above medium to small, axile; cells usually symmetrical, closed, rarely partly open; core lines meeting if the calyx tube is conical but clasping if it is funnel-shape. Carpels rather flat, elongated and narrowing toward the apex, or roundish ovate, sometimes slightly emarginate, mucronate, tufted.
Seeds few, often abortive, medium or above, long, plump, acute, tufted.
Flesh tinged with yellow or greenish, firm, somewhat coarse, moderately tender, breaking, juicy, sprightly subacid, good to very good.  [Also good for pies, cider, and drying even though the dried slices are dark, they are delicious (43).]
Season December to May or in cold storage to July (42).  [Ripens in the fall in Virginia and even earlier further south, but is still a good keeper (43).]
Roxsbury COMPARED WITH GOLDEN RUSSET.
As compared with the Golden Russet the Roxbury tree is larger, more spreading and more productive. The dots on the shoots of the Golden Russet are more conspicuous and more numerous than on the Roxbury. The fruit of Roxbury is larger, more oblate and it may be characteristically elliptical as shown in the accompanying half-tone plate; that of the Golden Russet is less variable in color and more uniform in size and shape. The Roxbury stem is thicker than that of Golden Russet, often tinged with red on one side and often swollen. The stem of the Golden Russet is usually shorter, not swollen and not tinged with red. The cavity of Roxbury is more often furrowed; that of the Golden Russet more often green and marked with greenish-gray dots. The flesh of the Golden Russet is more sprightly subacid, finer-grained and of richer flavor, that of the Roxbury being rather coarser, yellower, and more mildly subacid. The seeds of the Golden Russet are shorter than those of Roxbury and not so dark colored.

RUSSIAN BALDWIN.

References. 1. Hoskins, Rural N. Y., §3:573. 1804. 2. Can. Hort., 18:222, 266. 1895 3. Heiges, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1895:32. 4. Can. Hort., 20:242. 1897. 5. Budd-Hansen, 1903:170.
A Russian apple commended very highly by Dr. T. H. Hoskins, Newport, Vermont, who was instrumental in introducing Yellow Transparent and Scott. He believed this to be worth more than both of the others and said of it (Letter, 1897) “The Russian Baldwin has all the merits with none of the defects of the old Baldwin—being as large and handsome, as good a bearer, better quality, and a much better keeper.”
Fruit.
Fruit medium or above medium. Form roundish oblate, faintly ribbed.
Stem short, moderately thick. Cavity deep, narrow to moderately wide, russeted, somewhat furrowed, sometimes lipped. Calyx above medium to small, usually partly open; lobes short, wide. Basin small, shallow, narrow, somewhat furrowed.
Skin thin, smooth, almost entirely mottled and splashed with bright red over a clear yellow background, becoming deep red on the exposed cheek with some indistinct streaks of purplish-carmine. Dots small, pale or russet.
Core above medium to large, wide; cells partly open; core lines clasping.
Seeds numerous, small, plump, dark brown.
Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, moderately fine, crisp, moderately juicy, mild subacid, good.

RUTLEDGE.

REFERENCES. 1. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:248. 2. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:223. 1892. 3. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:272. 1905.
This evidently belongs in the same group as the Bethel and Blue Pearmain. Its affinity to the Blue Pearmain group is shown by the texture, flavor and quality of the flesh and by the bloom, conspicuous dots and characteristic yellow and red colors of the skin. It is less highly colored than either Blue Pearmain or Bethel but is a better keeper than either. The fruit is pretty uniformly of good size and desirable form. The tree is a good strong grower, does not come into bearing very young, but is an annual cropper, yielding moderately heavy to good crops. It does not appear to be of sufficient value for New York state to be worthy of testing except perhaps in those regions where Bethel and Blue Pearmain are most valued.
Historical. Received for testing at this Station from T. V. Munson, Denison, Texas, in 1892 (2).
TREE.
Tree vigorous with very long and moderately stout branches; laterals characteristically covered with numerous small spurs. Form upright spreading or roundish, dense. Twigs short to rather long, curved or nearly straight, moderately stout; terminal buds large; internodes medium to long. Bark olive-green washed with reddish-brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; heavily pubescent. Lenticels numerous, small to medium, round or slightly elongated, slightly raised. Buds medium in size, plump, acute, free, pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit above medium, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form nearly globular varying to roundish oblate or to slightly oblong, regular or somewhat ribbed, usually symmetrical. Stem short to medium, moderately slender to thick, sometimes inserted under a lip. Cavity medium in size, acute to slightly acuminate, deep, rather’ broad or somewhat compressed, often slightly furrowed, sometimes partly russeted. Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open; lobes moderately narrow, acute to acuminate. Basin small to medium, often oblique, very shallow and obtuse to moderately shallow and somewhat abrupt, narrow to moderately wide, somewhat furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin rather thick, tough, smooth about the cavity but somewhat roughened toward the basin with russet dots and fine capillary russet lines, yellow or greenish largely overspread with orange-red, in well colored specimens becoming rather dull deep red, mottled and narrowly striped with purplish-carmine, often faintly marked with grayish scarf-skin toward the cavity and covered with a thin bloom which gives the fruit a dull appearance. Dots scattering, conspicuous, large, areolar, pale gray or russet toward the cavity but numerous and smaller about the basin. Prevailing effect red and yellow.
Calyx tube urn-shape. Stamens median to marginal.
Core small to medium, abaxile; cells not uniform in size, usually symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping. Carpels broadly roundish or sometimes inclined to ovate, usually smooth.
Seeds small to nearly medium, obtuse to somewhat acute, plump, sometimes slightly tufted, light and dark brown.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, a little coarse, not very crisp, rather tender, moderately juicy, somewhat aromatic, mild subacid becoming nearly sweet, fair to good in quality.
Season January to May.