Apple Home

Apples Descriptions that aren't on the other pages
Cultivar List

A-DE-HI-MN-QRS & TU-Z
'Black Oxford''Ein Sheimer''Idared''Nittany''Rainbow''Shockley''Victoria Limbertwig'
'Burford Redflesh''Empire''Jonagold''Northfield Beauty''Raven''Sierra Beauty''Vine'
'Cameo''Fall Russet''Kearsarge''Nova Easygro''Razor Russet''Skinner's Seedling''Waltana'
'Caney Fork Limbertwig''Fortune''Keener Seedling''Parmar''Red Butterscotch''Spartan''Wheeler's Golden Russet'
'Chehalis''Ginger Gold''Keepsake''Pilot''Redfield''Spencer''Wickson crabapple'
'Chestnut''Golden Nugget''Kentucky Limbertwig''Pink Pearl''Red Limbertwig''Spice of Old Virginia'
'Criterion''Gray Pearmain''King David''Pink Pearmain''Reverend Morgan''Spokane Beauty'
'Davey''Green Pippin''Lodi''Rusty Coat''Strawberry Pippin'
'Discovery''Grove''Manx Codlin''Summer Banana'
'Dorsett Golden''Haralson''Melba''Summer Champion'
'Hauer Pippin''Melrose''Summer Limbertwig'
'Hawaii''Milton''Surprise'
'Hidden Rose''Mollies Delicious''Sweet Sixteen'
'Hoople's Antique Gold''Monark''Tenderskin'
'Hoover'
'Horse'
'Hudson's Golden Gem'


Black Oxford
Breeder(s): None. Chance seedling.
History: Found around 1790 by Nathaniel Haskell in Oxford County, Maine.
Notes: Moderately resistant to the major diseases. A good all-purpose apple, especially good for cider and drying and an excellent keeper. (Burford)
Fruit quality: Reaches its best flavor in late winter after being stored (Burford).  I tasted Black Oxford in a gift box from Indian Creek Farm in upstate New York. Burford compares it to Arkansas Black, but I thought it was quite different in taste. Black Oxford was delicious!
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Very dark purplish-red skin such that it appears almost black. Similar in appearance to 'Arkansas Black'.
Harvest season:  Late Fall in Virginia.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.

Burford Redflesh
Breeder(s): None. Chance seedling.
History: Possibly a seedling of Red Siberian Crab found at the estate of the patriot Patrick Henry's mother in Amherst County, Virginia.
Notes: Resistant to the major diseases. Used to blend with other apples in making cider to impart red color and add acidity.
Fruit quality: Not for fresh eating.
Fruit size: Medium-large.
Fruit appearance: Mottled red over a yellow background.
Harvest season:  Mid-fall in Virginia.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.

Cameo
Breeder(s): None. Chance seedling.
History: Found 1987 by the Caudie family in Dryden, Washington. Possibly a 'Red Delicious' X 'Golden Delicious' cross.
Notes: Moderately resistant to the major diseases. Used for dessert, applesauce, pies and salads and a good keeper. It is especially valued for salads because it doesn't brown quickly after being sliced.
Fruit quality: Firm, crisp and aromatic.
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Conical; looks quite a bit like the old-fashioned 'Red Delicious' with red stripes over an orange background.
Harvest season:  Fall in Virginia.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.

Caney Fork Limbertwig
Breeder(s): None. Chance seedling.
History: Originated somewhere in the Caney Fork region of the Cumberland Mountains in Kentucky.
Notes: Moderately resistant to the major diseases.
Fruit quality: Yellowish flesh is "crisp, crunchy, and juicy".
Fruit size: Medium-large.
Fruit appearance: Some russeting on the top of the fruit, but overall a medium-red over yellow background.
Harvest season:  Early winter in Virginia.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating) and baking.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 38.

Chehalis
Breeder(s): None. Chance seedling.
History: Originated in 1937 in Oakville, WA.
Notes: Resistant to scab and powdery mildew. Tree has a brushy growth habit that requires careful pruning. Branches are stiff and upright.
Fruit quality: "...crisp, and juicy with a medium-fine texture." Low acid. Loses flavor when grown in hot, humid regions.
Fruit size: Large.
Fruit appearance: Yellow with a blush. Will turn greasy in storage, like an 'Arkansas Black'.
Harvest season:  Late summer in Virginia.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), pies and baking.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Poor.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 43.

Chestnut crabapple
Breeder(s): None. Chance seedling.
History: Originated in 1946 as a 'Malinda' X crabapple cross made by the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station.
Notes: Moderately susceptible to scab and fireblight. Somewhat resistant to cedar apple rust. Compact tree bears annually.
Fruit quality: "...crisp, juicy and sweetish."
Fruit size: Small, about golfball sized.
Fruit appearance: Faint red stripes and mottling over yellow.
Harvest season:  Late summer to early Fall in Virginia.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), cider, pickling and applesauce.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Fair.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 45.

Close
Breeder(s): C.P. Close at the US Department of Agriculture Arlington Experimental Farm in Virginia.
History: Originated in the late 1960's in Parker, WA. Introduced in 1938.
Notes: Vigorous, upright, triploid tree. Requires a pollinizer and cannot pollinize other apples. Very hardy and suitable for locations with harsh cold winters.
Fruit quality:  Soft, juicy white flesh. Quite sharp in taste.
Fruit size: Large.
Fruit appearance: Pinkish-red blushed.
Harvest season:  Late fall in Virginia.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating).
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  ?
References: Keeper's Nursery.

Criterion
Breeder(s): None. Chance seedling.
History: Originated in the late 1960's in Parker, WA. Introduced commercially in 1973.
Notes: Susceptible to the major apple diseases and particularly subject to the sooty blotch/ flyspeck complex of fungal diseases. Upright, spreading growth habit.
Fruit quality:  Crisp, and juicy with a mild flavor. Low acid.
Fruit size: Medium-large.
Fruit appearance: Differs widely by region, but in Washington State, where it is most at home, it develops a reddish blush over the greenish-yellow background. Not much color in warmer regions.
Harvest season:  Late fall in Virginia.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), drying and salads. The fact that it is slow to brown when sliced makes it particularly appealing for drying and salads.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 47.

Davey
Breeder(s): None. Chance seedling.
History: Discovered in 1928 by S. Lothrop Davenport near North Grafton, MA.
Notes: Scab resistant, susceptible to the other major apple diseases. Fruit hangs well; little pre-harvest drop.
Fruit quality:  Firm, coarse and similar in flavor to 'Westfield Seek-No-Further'.
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Carmine over green; ribbed.
Harvest season:  Mid-fall in Virginia.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), baking and frying.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 49.

Discovery
Breeder(s): George Dummer, Suffolk, England.
History: Released in 1962 from an open-pollinated Worchester Pearmain growing near a Beauty of Bath tree.
Notes:
Fruit quality: The flesh is white, unless picked late in the season, in which case it is sometimes tinged with red. It is moderately crisp, sprightly.
Fruit size: small.
Fruit appearance: round, wider than tall, yellow background striped with carmine.
References: Discovery website Wikipedia

Dorsett Golden
Breeder(s): None. Chance seedling.
History: Found by Mrs. I. Dorsett in Nassau, Bahamas in 1954 after she planted seed of Golden Delicious. If you’re going to plant just one summer-ripening apple, make it this maniac...".
Notes:
Tree:  Widely adaptable; heat-tolerant; needs no chilling at all, but may leaf out a little late following an extremely low-chill/no-chill winter.  Extremely precocious, often bearing in the second year after planting. One should judiciously remove blossoms and fruit until the tree is large enough to support the crop.  It will continue to blossom and fruit throughout the summer, with a second crop in late fall. Is self-pollinizing, but will produce more and larger apples if pollinized with another fertile apple blooming in the same season, like 'Anna' or 'Shell of Alabama'.
Diseases:  
Fruit quality:  "Crunchy, juicy, sweet-tart with classic apple flavor... best picked a little green."
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Deep red with darker stripes; hangs from a long stem.
Harvest season:  "It ripens in the middle of July heat, but tastes like November." with a second crop in late fall according to Kuffel Creek in Riverside, California.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), pies and cider.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Kuffel Creek Apple Tree Nursery.

Edgewood
Breeder(s): S.A. Beach, Iowa State University.
History: Originated as a 'Salome' X 'Jonathan' cross made in 1906. Introduced in 1921.
Notes:
Tree:
Diseases:  Resistant to Jonathan spot.
Fruit quality:  
Fruit size: .
Fruit appearance:
Harvest season:  
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Better than Jonathan.
References: Magness, J.R. 1937. USDA Yearbook. "Progress in Apple Improvement".
Harry E. Nichols. 1975. Annals of Iowa. 43(2). Apple Varieties Grown in Iowa, 1800-1970 Apple Varieties Grown in Iowa, 1800-1970 p.94.

Ein Sheimer
Breeder(s): Abba Stein in Israel.
History:
Notes:
Fruit quality: Flavor is like 'Golden Delicious', but a little more tart, according to Chestnut Hill Tree Farm. Kuffel Creek has a bit of a different take, saying, "the green apples go from bitter and tart to bland and mealy in 30 minutes. Get 'Dorsett Golden' instead, a much superior apple that ripens the same time."
Fruit size: Small. xxx g/fruit
Fruit appearance: Yellow.
Culinary characteristics:
Storage characteristics:
Harvest season: ?.
Bloom season: ?
Diseases:
Precocity: .
Productivity: ?.
Growth habit:
References:
Chestnut Hill Tree Farm
Kuffel Creek Apple Tree Nursery

Empire
Breeder(s): Cornell University.
History: Resulted from a 'McIntosh' X 'Red Delicious' cross.  First fruited in 1954 and was released by the New York Agricultural Experiment Station in 1966.  Tested as NY 45500-5.
Notes: Highly susceptible to scab, but somewhat resistant to fireblight and powdery mildew. Spurry growth habit and wide crotch angles.
Fruit quality:  "...very crisp, juicy and more sweet than tart".
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Dark red except shaded regions, which are yellow.
Harvest season:  Late fall in Virginia.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), pies and cider.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 52.

Fall Russet
Breeder(s): None. Chance seedling.
History: Originated in 1859 in Franklin, Michigan. Several other apples that are distinct cultivars have this same name, adding to the naming confusion.
Notes: Good resistance to most diseases, making it a good candidate for organic production. Moderate vigor; drooping habit; bears in clusters like crabs.
Fruit quality:  "...crisp with a sweet-tart flavor".
Fruit size: Small.
Fruit appearance: Russet over greenish-yellow.
Harvest season:  Fall in Virginia.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), applesauce, apple butter, drying and cider.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Fair.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 56.

Fortune
Breeder(s): Roger D. Way, Cornell University.
History: Originated in 1962 from a 'Schoharie Spy' X 'Empire' cross. Patent applied for in 1995. Tested as NY429A.
Notes: Susceptible to scab, fireblight and bitter pit.  Vigorous; tends to become biennial bearer if not thinned judiciously.
Fruit quality:  "...spicy with a sweet-tart balance".
Fruit size: Large-Very large.
Fruit appearance: Burgundy-red over green. Overall appearance is red.
Harvest season:  Late fall in Virginia.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), baking and salads.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Very good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 59.

Ginger Gold
Breeder(s): None. Chance seedling.
History: Discovered in 1980 in the orchard of Clyde and Ginger Harvey near Lovingston, Virginia. Registered trade name of Adams County Nursery.
Notes: Susceptible to fireblight and powdery mildew, moderately resistant to the other major apple diseases.  Vigorous; develops wide crotch angles.
Fruit quality:  Crisp, juicy and slow to oxidize.
Fruit size: Medium-large.
Fruit appearance: Overall appearance is yellow.
Harvest season:  About 3 weeks before McIntosh and 6 weeks before 'Golden Delicious'.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), pies and salads.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Poor.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 64.
Adams County Nursery.

Golden Nugget
Breeder(s): Selected for release by Dr. C.J. Bishop of the Canadian Department of Agriculture Station in Kentville, Nova Scotia.
History: Resulted from a 'Golden Russet' X 'Cox's Orange Pippin' cross made in 1932. Released in 1964.
Notes: Moderately susceptible to the major apple diseases.  One person in Indiana claimed that it is codling moth resistant, or "bug proof" as he called it. I am skeptical.  Vigorous; early and heavy bearer. Small tree even on standard stock.
Fruit quality:  Crisp, juicy and sweet.
Fruit size: Small-medium.
Fruit appearance: Orange and russet over yellow.
Harvest season:Fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), baking, frying and cider.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Fair.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 67.

Gray Pearmain
Breeder(s): None. Chance seedling.
History: Unclear. Maybe originated in Maine.
Notes:
Tree:  Slow growing; annual bearer.
Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Crisp, dense; sweet-tart balanced, getting sweeter at full ripeness.
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Pale yellow, with a faint rosy blush in the sun.
Harvest season:Late fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating).
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 71.

Green Pippin
Breeder(s): None. Chance seedling.
History: Unclear. Probably originated in the United States. Not to be confused with 'Green Newtown Pippin'.
Notes:
Tree:  Vigorous with a brushy growth habit that requires heavy pruning to maintain fruit quality.
Diseases:  Resistant to the major diseases, but susceptible to the cosmetic fungi causing flyspeck and sooty blotch.
Fruit quality:  Crisp, juicy and aromatic with a tart bite.
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Deep green, round.
Harvest season:Mid-late fall, ripening over several weeks.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), frying, pies and apple butter. Pies are especially desirable when one blends 'Green Pippin' with a sweeter apple.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 72.

Grove
Breeder(s): Missouri State Agricultural Experiment Station.
History: Released in 1935 from an Ingram x Delicious cross.
Notes:
Fruit quality: The flesh is pale cream color, very sweet and juicy.
Fruit size: medium large.
Fruit appearance: conic in shape, having a dull finish, striped orange-red over yellow green.
References: Orange Pippin website

Haralson
Breeder(s): University of Minnesota.
History: Originated from a 'Wealthy' X 'Malinda' cross made in 1913. Released in 1923. Originally the pollen parent was thought to be 'Ben Davis', though it was open-pollinated. DNA testing shows the likely father is 'Wealthy'.
Notes:
Tree:  Extremely precocious, often bearing in the second year after planting. One must judiciously remove blossoms and fruit until the tree is large enough to support the crop.  Late-blooming. Tends towards biennial bearing.
Diseases:  Resistant to fireblight and cedar apple rust, but susceptible to scab.
Fruit quality:  Crisp, juicy, firm and tender with a tart bite.
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Deep red with darker stripes; hangs from a long stem.
Harvest season:Late fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), baking and cider.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 74.

Hauer Pippin
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Originated from a likely cross of 'Yellow Bellflower' and 'Cox's Orange Pippin', though the direction of the cross is unknown. It was found by the road near the summer home of Claus Speckles (this isn't just Speckl-ation) whose yard only had those two cultivars in it around 1890 in Aptos, California.
Notes:
Tree:  Moderate vigor; productive; annual bearing; hangs well; needs a long growing season.
Diseases:  Resistant to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Juicy, sweet, low acidity.
Fruit size: Medium-large.
Fruit appearance: Thick green skin with a red blush.
Harvest season:Late fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating).
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 76.

Hawaii
Breeder(s): William Silva.
History: Originated from a 'Gravenstein' X Golden Delicious' cross. Released around 1945.
Notes:
Tree:  Tends towards biennial bearing, so one must thin and prune judiciously.  Nice wide-angle crotches.
Diseases:  Susceptible to scab and bitter pit, but somewhat resistant to cedar apple rust.
Fruit quality:  Crisp, and exceptionally sweet with a distinctive pineapple flavor when grown in the West, but doesn't really develop much flavor when grown in the Eastern U.S.
Fruit size: Large.
Fruit appearance: Round and waxy with clear yellow skin and a blush on the sunny side.
Harvest season:Late fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), baking.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Fair.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 77.

Hidden Rose
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Originated near Airlie, Oregon before 1960. Two folks claim to have found it, Louis Kimzey & William Schultz, the latter naming it 'Airlie Red Flesh'.  A cage match is scheduled to settle the difference.*
Notes:
Tree:  Variable growth rate by climate.
Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Crisp, juicy, sugary and richly flavored.
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Elongated; yellowish-green a blush on the sunny side.
Harvest season:Fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating).
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 80.
*That's a joke. I hope it can be settled peaceably.

Hoople's Antique Gold
Breeder(s): None.  Sport.
History: Originated as a bud mutation of 'Golden Delicious' in the Hoople Fruit Farm orchard around 1960 in Otway, Ohio. Notable as a distinct sport because the skin is uniformly covered with beautiful russet, like a 'Bosc' pear.
Notes:
Tree:  Round and spreading in habit.
Diseases:  Good resistance to the major diseases according to Burford, but seeing as this is just a sport of 'Golden Delicious', I would be very surprised if its disease resistance is any different than original Goldens.
Fruit quality:  Crisp, juicy, flavorful.
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Oblate; evenly russeted over a yellow background.
Harvest season:Mid-late Fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating).
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 84.

Hoover
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Maybe from Edisto, South Carolina.
Notes:
Tree:  Upright-spreading habit; vigorous; late blooming; leaves hang on long into winter.
Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases. A higher level of resistance to fireblight.
Fruit quality:  Firm, juicy, tender and briskly tart.
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Roundish-oblate; yellowish background almost completely covered in deep red. Colors better in cooler climates.
Harvest season:Late fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), baking and especially good for apple butter.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 85.

Horse
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Unclear where it originated, but probably either North Carolina or Virginia.
Notes:
Tree:  Vigorous; long-lived, spreading habit; late bloomer; tolerates lazy thinning.
Diseases:  Good resistance to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Coarse, tender, tart.
Fruit size: Large.
Fruit appearance: Roundish; thick, yellowish-green skin with a blush on the sunny side.
Harvest season:Mid-late summer.
Uses:  Apple butter, drying, jelly, vinegar.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Fair for a summer apple.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 86.

Hudson's Golden Gem
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Originated in Oregon. Introduced in 1931.
Notes:
Tree:  Naturally small tree even on standard rootstock.  Fruit hangs well.  Productive, annual bearing.
Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases, but less resistant to scab.
Fruit quality:  Crisp, juicy, sugary with some folks comparing the flavor to pears and others to nuts.
Fruit size: Large.
Fruit appearance: Conical; long stem; uniform, smooth russet over yellow.
Harvest season:Late fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), baking, drying, cider.  Dried slices taste good, but are dark because of the rapid oxidation of the sliced fruit.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  ?.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 88.

Idared
Breeder(s): Roger D. Way, Cornell University.
History: Originated in 1962 from a 'Schoharie Spy' X 'Empire' cross. Patent applied for in 1995. Tested as NY429A.
Notes: Susceptible to scab, fireblight and bitter pit.  Vigorous; tends to become biennial bearer if not thinned judiciously.
Fruit quality:  "...spicy with a sweet-tart balance".
Fruit size: Large-Very large.
Fruit appearance: Burgundy-red over green. Overall appearance is red.
Harvest season:  Late fall in Virginia.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), baking and salads.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Very good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 59.

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Jonagold
Breeder(s): Cornell University.
History: Originated from a Jonathan X Golden Delicious cross made in 1943. Introduced in 1968.
Notes:
Tree:  Open, spreading habit.  Very precocious, often bearing in the 3rd year on dwarfing stocks.  Triploid and therefore pollen sterile; Golden Delicious doesn't pollinize it well.
Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases, but less resistant to scab.
Fruit quality:  Crisp, juicy, sugary with some folks comparing the flavor to pears and others to nuts.
Fruit size: Large.
Fruit appearance: Round to conical; long stem; not very aromatic; orange-red blushed and striped over a yellow background.
Harvest season:Fall and ripens over a long period.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), pies, frying, cider.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 97.

Kearsarge
Breeder(s): None. Chance seedling.
History: From Gould Hill Orchard in Hopkinton, New Hampshire. Named for nearby Mount Kearsarge.
Notes:
Tree:  Slow-growing.  Annual bearer.
Diseases:  Moderately susceptible to most of the major diseases, but somewhat resistant to scab.
Fruit quality:  Crisp, juicy, breaking and slightly tart.
Fruit size: Large.
Fruit appearance: Round; thin skin is green with splashes and streaks of light red.
Harvest season:  Late Fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), baking as a whole apple.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 99.

Keener Seedling
Breeder(s): None. Chance seedling.
History: Found around 1880 in Lincoln County, North Carolina.
Notes:
Tree:  Slow-growing.  Early bloomer; fruit hang well.
Diseases:  Highly resistant to the major diseases, good for organic programs.
Fruit quality:  Juicy, fine-grained.
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Round with a flattened calyx end; completely russeted.
Harvest season:  Late Fall- Early winter.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), jelly and drying.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Excellent.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 100.

Keepsake
Breeder(s): University of Minnesota.
History: Northern Spy X MN447 cross made in 1978.
Notes:
Tree:  Easy to manage.  Annual bearer; productive.
Diseases:  Resistant to fireblight and cedar apple rust, but moderately susceptible to the other major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Crisp, spicy, strongly aromatic.
Fruit size: Small-medium.
Fruit appearance: Irregular shape; mostly red.
Harvest season:  Late Fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), baking, applesauce.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Excellent.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 101.

Kentucky Limbertwig
Breeder(s): None. Chance seedling.
History: May be a variation of Red Limbertwig. Originated sometime in the 1800's (which is quite specific on a geological time scale) in Kentucky.
Notes:
Tree:  Vigorous with willow-like branches.  Annual bearer, but requires heavy thinning to size the fruit.
Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Crisp, juicy, with a mild, sweet flavor.
Fruit size: Medium-large.
Fruit appearance: Round-oblate; thin skin is green with splashes and streaks of light red.
Harvest season:  Late Fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), baking, drying and frying.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Very good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 102.

King David
Breeder(s): None. Chance seedling.
History: Found in 1893 by Ben Frost in Durham, Washington county, Arkansas. Introduced by Stark Bro's Nursery in 1902.
Notes:
Tree:  Vigorous; spreading; can get bushy and dense without judicious pruning; fruit hands well.
Diseases:  Good resistance to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Subacid and slightly sweet.  That doesn't sound like a ringing endorsement, but multiple authors have said that this is one of the best eating apples in the world. Wine-like flavor and crunchy texture surpasses 'Winesap' to some. Burford further states that it always ranks in the top ten at apple tastings. Tends to watercore (which is a delicacy to some folks). Best when picked after it is fully-colored.
Fruit size: Small-medium.
Fruit appearance: Round; Usually solid, deep red, but sometimes splashed red over yellow.
Harvest season:  Late Fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), baking.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Very good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 103.

Lodi
Breeder(s): Cornell University.
History: Cross of 'Yellow Transparent' and 'Autumn Bough' (a.k.a. 'Montgomery Sweet') introduced in 1924.
Notes:
Tree:  Vigorous; spreading; cold hardy; productive; precocious, often bearing on 2-3 year old trees; must be thinned heavily to size fruit.
Diseases:  Resistant to scab and powdery mildew, highly susceptible to fireblight.
Fruit quality:  Crisp, juicy and mild subacid. Bruises easily.
Fruit size: Larger than 'Yellow Transparent'.
Fruit appearance: Round-elongated; greenish-yellow, ripening to clear yellow.
Harvest season:  Early summer, about a week after 'Yellow Transparent'.
Uses:  Applesauce and apple butter.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Poor.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 106.

Lowry
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Discovered on the farm of John Lowry near Afton, Virginia.
Notes:
Tree:  Vigorous; spreading; annual-bearing.
Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major apple diseases.
Fruit quality:  Firm, juicy and sweet.
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Round; greenish-yellow, striped and splashed with red.
Harvest season:  Fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating); cider and apple butter.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Fair.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 107.

Lyman's Large Summer
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Uncertain origin except if originated in North America east of the Rockies.
Notes:
Tree:  Tip-bearer with long, drooping branches. Light crops until tree is mature.
Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major apple diseases.
Fruit quality:  Crisp, juicy with a balanced sweet-tart flavor.
Fruit size: Large.
Fruit appearance: Flattened at the ends; greenish-yellow, ripening to clear yellow.
Harvest season:  Late summer.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating) and cooking.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Fair.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 108.

Macoun
Breeder(s): Cornell University.
History: Originated from a cross of 'McIntosh' and 'Jersey Black' made in 1909. Released in 1923 and named after the Canadian fruit grower W.T. Macoun.
Notes:
Tree:  Blooms late; doesn't get tall.  Not adapted to the South.
Diseases:  Resistant to fireblight; susceptible to scab, powdery mildew (and frogeye leafspot in hot, humid climates).
Fruit quality:  Crisp, juicy, bruises easily.
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Conical to oblate; red stripes and blushes over green.
Harvest season:  Late fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating) and cider.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 109.

Manx Codlin
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Originated by Mr. James Kewley of Ballanard on the Isle of Mann, Great Britain. First fruited in 1815.  Sometimes spelled "Manks Codlin" and has dozens of synonyms.
Notes:
Tree:   Compact tree. Productive, precocious, hardy.
Diseases:  No North American information found thus far.
Fruit quality:  Sweetest of the codlins, but still tart. (A codlin or "codling" is a type of apple that is 1) suitable for cooking while still unripe and 2) has an elongated shape that tapers towards the calyx end.  Karen Meadows adds more interest to this word by reminding us that a type of stewing of apples is also called "coddling", but the origin of the word dates back to the 1400's where "querdlyng" meant an unripe apple.)  The Brits love their gardens and thus I do love the Brits.
Fruit size: Small.
Fruit appearance: Whitish green with a small red blush on the sunny side. Significantly ribbed.
Harvest season:  Midsummer.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating) when fully ripe, but excels when cooked, juiced, or baked.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Information not found.
References: Manx Native Tree Nursery.
Foods of England Project
UK National Fruit Collection.
Karen Meadows.  2018.  The Plot Thickens.

Melba
Breeder(s): Canadian Department of Agriculture Research, Ottawa Station.
History: Originated around 1924 from an open-pollinated 'McIntosh'. Liveland Raspberry is thought to be the pollen parent. Awarded the Silver Wilder Medal by the American Pomological Society in 1927.
Notes:
Tree:  Blooms early; vigorous; somewhat self-fertile; subject to pre-harvest drop.
Diseases:  Susceptible to scab, and moderately susceptible to the other major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Crisp, firm, subacid, peach-like flavor and intense aroma.
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Roundish; red and pink over greenish-yellow.
Harvest season:  Mid-late summer.
Uses:  Baking, frying and to a lesser extend, dessert (fresh-eating).
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Poor.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 113.

Melrose
Breeder(s): Dr. Freeman Howlett, Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Wooster.
History: Originated from a cross of 'Red Delicious' and 'Jonathan' made in 1931. Introduced in 1944.  It is now the official state apple of Ohio.
Notes:
Tree:  Vigorous, even on dwarfing stock; annual bearing unless thinning is neglected severely; spreading and willowy growth habit; flowers often lack petals.
Diseases:  Susceptible to scab, and slightly susceptible to powdery mildew.
Fruit quality:  Juicy, firm, and aromatic.
Fruit size: Medium-large.
Fruit appearance: Oblate to conic; red over greenish-yellow.
Harvest season:  Mid-late summer.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating) and pies.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 115.

Milton
Breeder(s): Cornell University.
History: Originated from a cross of 'McIntosh' and 'Yellow Transparent'. Introduced in 1923.
Notes:
Tree:  Growth habit like and inverted bowl.  
Diseases:  Resistant to cedar apple rust.  Moderately susceptible to the other major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Soft and fine-grained with a sweet, subacid flavor that is sprightlier than McIntosh.
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Round and slightly elongated toward the blossom end; deep red over pale yellow.
Harvest season:  Fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating) and applesauce.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Fair.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 117.

Mollies Delicious
Breeder(s): G.W. Schneider at Rutgers University’s New Jersey Agricultural Experimentation Station.
History: Originated from a crosses involving 'Golden Delicious', 'Edgewood', 'Close', and 'Gravenstein'. Introduced in 1966.
Notes:
Tree:  Growth habit like and inverted bowl.  
Diseases:  Resistant to cedar apple rust.  Moderately susceptible to the other major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Crisp, juicy, mildly sweet and aromatic.
Fruit size: Very large.
Fruit appearance: Slightly conical; red over greenish-yellow.  The ones I saw grown in Georgia had very little red, even when grown in Ellijay.
Harvest season:  Late summer.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating) and applesauce.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Fair.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 119.
Specialty Produce.

Monark
Breeder(s): University of Arkansas.
History: Unrelated to another apple called, 'Monarch'. An early attempt to introduce disease-resistance into quality apples.
Notes:
Tree:  Vigorous, spreading, precocious and annual bearing.
Diseases:  Good resistance to the other major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Firm and crisp with a pleasant tartness.
Fruit size: Large.
Fruit appearance: Round; pinkish-red with darker stripes.
Harvest season:  Midsummer.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating) and pies.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 120.

Nittany
Breeder(s): Penn State University.
History: Originated from a cross of 'Golden Delicious' and 'York' in 1979.
Notes:
Tree:  Growth habit like and inverted bowl.  
Diseases:  Susceptible to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Tart-subacid flavor similar to 'York Imperial'.
Fruit size: Medium-large.
Fruit appearance: Red. Becomes greasy in storage due to production of natural skin waxes.
Harvest season:  Fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), applesauce, apple butter and salads.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Very good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 125.

Northfield Beauty
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Originated in Vermont, but little else is known.
Notes:
Tree:  Productive; annual-bearing.  Fruit hangs well on the tree.
Diseases:  Highly resistant to apple scab.  Moderately susceptible to the other major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Crisp and subacid.
Fruit size: Medium to large.
Fruit appearance: Asymmetrical blocky shape; red over whitish-yellow.
Harvest season:  Late summer to early fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating) and baking.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good for a summer variety.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 128.

Nova Easygro
Breeder(s): Canadian Department of Agriculture, Nova Scotia.
History: Originated from a cross of 'Spartan' and PRI 565. Introduced in 1971.
Notes:
Tree:  Blooms with 'McIntosh'.
Diseases:  Susceptible to cedar apple rust.  Resistant to the other major diseases, especially scab.
Fruit quality:  Firm, crisp, juicy, sweet.
Fruit size: Large.
Fruit appearance: Flattish; reddish stripes over greenish-yellow.
Harvest season:  Late fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating).
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Very good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 130.

Parmar
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Originated sometime in the 1700's, probably in Virginia.
Notes:
Tree:  Productive and annual bearing.
Diseases:  Good resistance to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  This apple is primarily a brandy apple, not intended for fresh-eating.  It has dense, dark yellow flesh and is subacid.
Fruit size: Small.
Fruit appearance: Oblate; dark yellow with irregular russeting.
Harvest season:  Late summer.
Uses:  Cider, brandy, applesauce, pies and apple butter Burford recommends blending it with 'Winesap' to make a distinctive pie and says sauce made from 'Parmar' apples is deep yellow and thick.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Fair.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 130.

Pilot
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Originated on the farm of John Lobban (Lobbin?) at the foot of Pilot Mountain in Nelson County, Virginia.
Notes:
Tree:  Unhappy at lower elevations.
Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Fine-grained, crisp, juicy; mild subacid.
Fruit size: Medium-large.
Fruit appearance: Round; red over yellow with russet specks.
Harvest season:  Late fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), baking, cider and apple butter.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Excellent.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 138.

Pink Pearl
Breeder(s): Albert Etter.
History: Originated from a cross using 'Surprise' as a source of alleles conferring red-flesh.
Notes:
Tree:  Blooms early; large tree with crimson-pink flowers.
Diseases:  Susceptible to scab.  Moderately resistant to the other major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Fine-grained and crisp, with a sweet-tart balance.
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Conical, shaped a bit like 'Yellow Bellflower'; cream and pale green with a crimson cheek on the sunny side.  Flesh color ranges from faint pink to white.
Harvest season:  Late fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating).
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 139.

Pink Pearmain
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Mysterious origin, but discovered in the 1980's by Ram and Marissa Fishman of Greenmantle Nursery in Whale Gulch, California.
Notes:
Tree:  Blooms late.
Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Mildly sweet with a tart finish.
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Narrower at the stem end than the blossom end; rich red over pinkish-yellow.
Harvest season:  Fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), baking and pink applesauce.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 140.

Rainbow
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: May have originated in Missouri or possibly from seed collected by Yetis from apples gathered on the shores of Loch Ness. Nobody knows where this one came from.
Notes:
Tree:  Annual-bearing.
Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Fine-grained, crisp, juicy.
Fruit size: Large.
Fruit appearance: Conical; Scarlet splashes and crimson stripes over yellow background.
Harvest season:  Fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating).
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 146.

Raven
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Unknown origin, probably New England or somewhere in New York.
Notes:
Tree:  Twiggy growth habit.
Diseases:  Susceptible to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Reddish flesh is flavorful, but subject to water coring.
Fruit size: Small-medium.
Fruit appearance: Round; deep red completely covering the apple except the stem end which is russeted.
Harvest season:  Late fall to early winter.
Uses:  Cider (makes quality juice of a red color) and occasionally for drying.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Very poor.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 149.

RazorRusset
Breeder(s): None.  Sport of 'Golden Delicious'.
History: Discovered in the Browning Orchard near Wallingford, Kentucky by William Armstrong, an extension agent with the University of Kentucky.
Notes:
Tree:  Similar to 'Golden Russet' according to Burford... odd, I would think they would most resemble 'Golden Delicious' -ASC.
Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Coarse-textured, rich, spicy, sweet-tart.
Fruit size: Large.
Fruit appearance: Round; russet over golden skin.
Harvest season:  Fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), cider and drying.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 150.

Red Butterscotch
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Unknown.
Notes:
Tree:  Hardy; annual-bearer.
Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Fine-grained, sweet.
Fruit size: Small-medium.
Fruit appearance: Conical; Striking bright red over yellowish-green.
Harvest season:  Fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating).
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Fair for a fall apple.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 151.

Redfield
Breeder(s): Cornell University.
History: Originated as a 'Wolf River' X 'Niedzwetzskayana Red Crab' cross in 1938.
Notes:
Tree:  Hardy; reddish-bronze foliage; large, deep pink flowers.
Diseases:  Resistant to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Dry and very tart.
Fruit size: Medium-large.
Fruit appearance: Oblate-oblique; glossy pink to red.
Harvest season:  Fall.
Uses:  Primarily cider (red, quality juice), but also baking, jelly and applesauce.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Fair.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 152.

Red Limbertwig
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Nobody knows squat.
Notes:
Tree:  Long, drooping branches.
Diseases:  Moderately susceptible to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Firm with the classic rich flavor characteristic of all Limbertwigs... it's actually the flavor profile, not the growth habit that makes a Limbertwig a Limbertwig.
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Oblate; dull red over greenish-yellow.
Harvest season:  Late fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), jelly, drying and apple butter.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Excellent.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 154.

Reverend Morgan
Breeder(s): Reverend T. Morgan.
History: Originated in Houston, Texas from an open-pollinated seed of 'Granny Smith'.
Notes:
Tree:  Annual bearer; loses leaves early in the fall in Virginia.
Diseases:  Somewhat resistant to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Fine-grained, rich and complex flavor.
Fruit size: Medium-large.
Fruit appearance: Round, tapering at the blossom end; pinkish-red over yellow.
Harvest season:  Late summer.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), frying.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Fair.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 156.

Rusty Coat
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Unknown, but this name has been attached to just about every russeted apple, so it don't mean JACK.
Notes:
Tree:  It's a tree, alright!.
Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Crisp, dry, sweet-tart balanced.
Fruit size: Varies all over the place.
Fruit appearance: Russeted.
Harvest season:  Fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), drying, cider.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 160.

Shockley
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Probably originated in Jackson County, Georgia and was introduced in 1852.
Notes:
Tree:  Annual-bearing; productive; vigorous, upright habit.
Diseases:  Susceptible to cedar apple rust.  Tolerant of the other major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Sweet, rich, slightly vinous.
Fruit size: Small, but highly variable with some fruit being large.
Fruit appearance: Highly variable in shape. Smooth skin is blushed and striped red over a yellowish-green background.
Harvest season:  Late fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), jelly.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Excellent.  As grown in Virginia, they will keep till June.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 163.

Sierra Beauty
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Originated 1890 on a slope of the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California.
Notes:
Tree:  Upright and vigorous; hardy; biennial-bearing.
Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Firm, crisp and juicy. Flavor well-balanced with a tart finish.  Not adapted to the Southeastern U.S. Flavor and color don't develop there.
Fruit size: Medium-large.
Fruit appearance: Round and blocky; greenish-yellow skin netted with russet and red stripes and patches overlaid.
Harvest season:  Late fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), and especially good for preserves and pies. Slices hold their shape when cooked.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good, even without refrigeration.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 164.

Skinner's Seedling
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Originated around 1887 by Judge H.C. Skinner who found it in Coyote Creek, east of San Jose, California.
Notes:
Tree:  Productive.
Diseases:  Susceptible to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Juicy, tender, sprightly and mildly tart.
Fruit size: Large-Very large.
Fruit appearance: Conic, flattened shape; Irregular red over yellow.
Harvest season:  Late summer.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), applesauce.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Poor.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 165.

Spartan
Breeder(s): Canadian Department of Agriculture, Summerland, British Columbia.
History: Originated from a of 'McIntosh' X o.p. (maybe Yellow Newtown Pippin) cross. Introduced in the 1920's.
Notes:
Tree:  Annual-bearing.
Diseases:  Resistant to scab, fairly resistant to mildew. Susceptible to canker.
Fruit quality:  Sweet, vinous. Straight from the tree the flesh is very crisp and juicy.
Fruit size: Small.
Fruit appearance: Bright crimson skin and whiter-than-white flesh.
Harvest season:  Late fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), apple juice.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Poor.
References: Orange Pippin.

Spencer
Breeder(s): Canadian Department of Agriculture, Summerland, British Columbia.
History: Originated from a cross of 'McIntosh' and 'Golden Delicious' made in 1926. Introduced in 1959.
Notes:
Tree:  Annual-bearing; slow to come into bearing; spreading growth habit.
Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Soft texture; sweet and tangy.
Fruit size: Medium-large.
Fruit appearance: Tall and varies from round to conical in shape. Orange-red to red over yellow.
Harvest season:  Early fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating).
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good for its ripening season.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 168.

Spice of Old Virginia
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Unclear origin. May have been grown since the 1600's.
Notes:
Tree:  Annual-bearing; brushy growth habit that requires careful pruning.
Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Firm, crisp, juicy with a sprightly, memorable flavor.
Fruit size: Small-medium.
Fruit appearance: Elongated; reddish-orange over yellow.
Harvest season:  Late fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), applesauce, drying and apple butter.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 169.

Spokane Beauty
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Originated from seed planted by Stephen Maxon Sr., just west of Walla Walla, Washington around 1859.
Notes:
Tree:  Tip-bearing; vigorous.
Diseases:  Moderate resistance to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Crisp and juicy with a distinctive flavor.
Fruit size: Very large.
Fruit appearance: Often lopsided, like 'York Imperial'.  Bright red over yellow skin is smooth.
Harvest season:  Late fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), baking, drying.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 170.

Spartan
Breeder(s): Canadian Department of Agriculture, Summerland, British Columbia.
History: Originated from a of 'McIntosh' X o.p. (maybe Yellow Newtown Pippin) cross. Introduced in the 1920's.
Notes:
Tree:  Annual-bearing.
Diseases:  Resistant to scab, fairly resistant to mildew. Susceptible to canker.
Fruit quality:  Sweet, vinous.
Fruit size: Small.
Fruit appearance: Bright crimson skin and whiter-than-white flesh. Straight from the tree the flesh is very crisp and juicy.
Harvest season:  Late fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), apple juice.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Poor.
References: Orange Pippin.

Strawberry Pippin
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Origin is unclear.
Notes:
Tree:  Upright growth habit.
Diseases:  Moderate resistance to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Very sweet, crisp, juicy.
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Round; Various shades of red almost completely cover the yellow background; prominent lenticels give it a vaguely similar visual appearance to a strawberry.
Harvest season:  Fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating).
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 173.

Summer Banana
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Originated in the late 1800's in Marion County, South Carolina.  Named for its aroma, which some say is like a ripe banana and others say is completely imperceptible.
Notes:
Tree:  
Diseases:  Moderate resistance to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Fine-grained, crisp and aromatic when grown in warm climates.
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Round; Faint pink and red stripes over a deep yellow skin.
Harvest season:  Late summer to early fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), frying.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Poor.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 175.

Summer Champion
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Originated in Weatherford, Texas at the home of J.W. Kincaid in 1923.
Notes:
Tree:  Very productive and precocious.
Diseases:  Susceptible to fireblight and somewhat susceptible to the other major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Crisp & juicy.
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Round to slightly conical; Pink and red stripes mostly cover the yellow background.
Harvest season:  Midsummer.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), applesauce.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Poor.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 176.

Summer Limbertwig
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Thought to have originated around Greensboro, North Carolina in the early-mid 1800's.
Notes:
Tree:  Annual-bearing.
Diseases:  Moderate resistance to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Tender, juicy, white flesh; fine-grained and aromatic with the characteristic Limbertwig flavor.
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Round-oblate; light red stripes and light netting of russet overlay the pale yellow background.
Harvest season:  Late summer to early fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), baking, drying.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Fair for a summer apple.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 177.

Surprise
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Originated in England around 1831.
Notes:
Tree:  Slow-growing; requires careful pruning; hardy; annual-bearing.
Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Juicy; more tart than sweet.  Pinkish-red flesh needs cool temperatures to develop.  In warmer climates, the flesh has little to no red coloration.
Fruit size: Small.
Fruit appearance: Round; rich yellow with a red blush on the sunny side.
Harvest season:  Fall.
Uses:  Applesauce, pies and tarts.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 181.

Sweet Sixteen
Breeder(s): University of Minnesota.
History: Originated from a of 'Malinda' X 'Northern Spy' cross made in 1973. Introduced in the 1978.
Notes:
Tree:  Late-blooming; precocious; subject to pre-harvest drop.
Diseases:  Resistant to scab and fireblight; moderate resistance to the other major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Sweet with a hint of spice and a slightly tart aftertaste; texture is crisp and coarse.
Fruit size: Large.
Fruit appearance: Conical with some longitudinal ridges; Red striped on a greenish-yellow background.
Harvest season:  Fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), baking.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 183.

Tenderskin
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Originated somewhere in South Carolina before 1858.
Notes:
Tree:  Annual-bearing; bears in clusters; resistant to pre-harvest drop.
Diseases:  Resistant to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Very tender, juicy, sprightly subacid.
Fruit size: Small-medium.
Fruit appearance: Almost rectangular to conical; Pink-red over yellow and covered with a fairly heavy gray bloom.
Harvest season:  Late fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), cider.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Fair.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 186.

Victoria Limbertwig
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Originated in either Grundy County or Warren County in Tennessee before 1860.  Despite many points of commonality in the descriptions, it is distinct from another apple named 'Victoria'.
Notes:
Tree:  Annual-bearing; vigorous.
Diseases:  Moderate resistance to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Crisp, sweet and fine-grained.
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Oblate-conic; Deep red over yellow and prominent yellowish-brown lenticels making the apple one of the most strikingly beautiful apples grown.
Harvest season:  Fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating).
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 190.

Vine
Breeder(s): None.  Chance seedling.
History: Originated in Patrick County, Virginia around 1895.
Notes:
Tree:  Long-lived; branches are thin and sinewy.
Diseases:  Moderate susceptibility to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Juicy, crisp.
Fruit size: Medium.
Fruit appearance: Round to conical; Red over yellow in cool climates and just yellow in warm ones.
Harvest season:  Late fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), drying.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 191.

Waltana
Breeder(s): Albert Etter.
History: Originated in California, probably as a 'Wagener X 'Manx Codlin' cross made around 1860.
Notes:
Tree:  Annual-bearing; vigorous, productive.
Diseases:  Resistance is "moderate". (Tom only skimps on this description and that of 'Wagener'... must have been tired when those pages were written.)
Fruit quality:  Dense and crisp texture; subacid.  So highly prized by its originator that they top-worked an entire orchard to it, but Burford was underwhelmed by it. I've not tried it, so have no personal opinion.
Fruit size: Medium-large.
Fruit appearance: Variable shaped; Thin, pale, red stripes over greenish-yellow background.
Harvest season:  Late fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), baking, cider.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Excellent; considered to be one of the best keepers.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 193.

Wheeler's Golden Russet
Breeder(s): None.  Sport.
History: Found in the orchard of Sidney Wheeler of Belchertown, Massachusetts.
Notes:
Tree:  Growth habit is similar to 'Roxbury Russet'.
Diseases:  Good resistance to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Crisp and juicy with a spicy, sprightly acid bite.
Fruit size: Large.
Fruit appearance: Round with flattened ends; Yellow skin is almost covered with a fawn russet.
Harvest season:  Fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), cider, baking and drying.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Good.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 198.

Wickson crabapple
Breeder(s): Albert Etter.
History: Originated in California from a cross of 'Newtown Pippin' and 'Esopus Spitzenburg' and was selected in 1944.
Notes:
Tree:  Very precocious, often bearing the first or second year after planting; bears in clusters.
Diseases:  Moderate resistance to the major diseases.
Fruit quality:  Dense flesh is very sweet (up to 25° Brix!), but with a tangy aftertaste.
Fruit size: Very small. Even though its parents were full-sized apples, it is more the size of a crabapple (1-2 inches in diameter).
Fruit appearance: Round with slightly flattened ends; red striped over yellow.
Harvest season:  Fall.
Uses:  Dessert (fresh-eating), pickling, cider.
Keeping ability in common storage (refrigerator crisper/ root cellar):  Fair.
References: Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 200.