State of New York- Department of Agriculture

The Apples of New York

[Apples starting with "O"-"Q" -ASC]

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OAKLAND
REFERENCES. 1. Garfield, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1883:120. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1883:12. 3. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 4. Thomas, 1897: 647. 5. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bul., 205:45. 1903. 6. Powell and Fulton, U. S.B. P. I. Bul., 48:51. 1903. 7. Beach and Clark, Y. Sta. Bul., 248:135. 1904.
Synonym. OAKLAND County SEEK-No-FURTHER (1). Oakland County Seek-No-Further (2, 4, 6, 7).
A mildly sweet apple of good medium size, attractive dark red color, pleasant flavor and good quality. In common storage it is in season from late November to midwinter or later; in cold storage it may be held till April (7). The tree is a rather slow grower.. As fruited at this Station it comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper, giving full crops biennially. Probably it would be an advantage to top-work this variety on some more vigorous stock.
Historical. This for many years has been a popular variety in Oakland county, Michigan, where it probably originated. In 1883 it was brought to the notice of the American Pomological Society by Charles W. Garfield (1) and was entered upon the list of that Society’s Catalogue as a promising variety in Michigan (2). It was dropped from the list when the Catalogue was revised in 1897. In 1903 Farrand (5) stated that in some portions of Michigan it is quite largely planted for commercial purposes. It is practically unknown in New York.
TREE.
Tree a slow grower with moderately long and stout branches. Form open, spreading, becoming rather flat-topped. Twigs short, straight, stout; internodes short. Bark clear brown tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous, very small, oval, not raised. Buds small, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

Fruit.
Fruit below medium to large, pretty uniform in size. Form roundish, usually somewhat oblate, sometimes inclined to conic, fairly symmetrical, irregular, often obscurely angular or ribbed. Stem rather slender. Cavity acuminate, moderately wide, moderately deep to deep, angular, sometimes lipped, often partly russeted and with some outspreading russet. Calyx pubescent, rather small, closed. Basin shallow to moderately deep, sometimes abrupt, compressed or furrowed.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, pale green or yellow blushed and mottled with dark red, striped with carmine and overspread with thin bloom; highly colored specimens become deep red and almost purplish. Dots medium in size, light, sometimes mingled with flecks of russet. Prevailing color dark red dulled by bluish bloom.
Calyx tube rather small, narrow, funnel-form. Stamens median to basal.
Core below medium, somewhat abaxile with hollow cylinder at the axis; cells usually symmetrical, partly open or closed; core lines clasping. Carpels smooth, distinctly concave, elliptical, obtusely emarginate, mucronate. Seeds numerous, variable, small to medium, obtuse.
Flesh white, very tender, fine-grained, juicy, sweet, crisp, good.

OCCIDENT.

REFERENCES. 1. Goff, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 2:35. 1883. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:245. 3. Beach, W.N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1896:52. 4. Beach and Clark, N.Y. Sta. Bul., 248:135. 1904.
This fruit is of the Yellow Bellflower type, attractive bright yellow, excellent in quality and a remarkably good keeper. The tree is a little slow in coming into bearing but it is a strong grower, a reliable cropper and very productive. The fruit hangs well to the tree. As grown here it is not large. It sometimes averages above medium and sometimes below medium size. Usually it is pretty uniform for the crop both in size and shape. Apparently it would be a desirable variety for commercial planting in New York were it not somewhat deficient in size.
Historical. Originated by L. J. Fish, Martinez, California. Said to be a seedling of Yellow Bellflower. Scions of it were received in 1883 from Ellwanger and Barry for testing at this Station. It was being then regarded as one of the promising new varieties.
Fruit
Fruit above medium to below medium. Form roundish oblate to roundish conic, often faintly ribbed. Stem long, stout. Cavity rather large, acuminate to acute, deep and moderately broad, sometimes russeted. Calyx closed or somewhat open; lobes long, acuminate, reflexed. Basin small to medium, shallow, medium in width to narrow, often abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin smooth, clear yellow often with a shade of brownish-red, sometimes blushed with bright red. Dots numerous, light or russet.
Calyx tube rather narrow, funnel-form. Stamens median to basal.
Core large, usually abaxile; cells usually wide open as in Yellow Bellflower; core lines clasp the funnel cylinder. Carpels large, broadly roundish, tufted, slightly emarginate. Seeds long, acute, tufted.
Flesh whitish or slightly tinged with yellow, firm, fine-grained, rather tender, crisp, juicy, sprightly, rich subacid, very good.
Season January to May; usual commercial limit in cellar storage, March or April (4).

OEL AUSTIN.
REFERENCES. 1. Heiges, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1894:21. 2. N.Y. Sta. An. Rpt. 15:688. 1806.
Synonyms. OeEL (1). Austin.
An attractive apple of the Blue Pearmain group, of fairly good quality. It varies in size from small to above medium. It is in season from November to March or April. It is said to be very hardy in St. Lawrence county and a good thrifty grower, and it may prove desirable for the home orchard in those sections of the state where superior hardiness is a prime requisite.
Historical. Received here from A. F. Clark, Raymondville, St. Lawrence county, in 1896. The original tree, 16 to 18 inches in diameter, was then standing neglected in an old pasture. Mr. Clark began to propagate the variety about 1891. He believes that it is a seedling of Stone,72 a variety which is highly esteemed locally in St. Lawrence county. It is known locally as Austin.
TREE
Tree rather vigorous. Form upright, somewhat spreading, rather dense.
Twigs medium to long, rather slender to moderately stout, nearly straight, somewhat pubescent; internodes short. Bark clear olive-green tinged with reddish-brown and mottled with gray scarf-skin. Lenticels rather numerous, small, scattering, round, raised but slightly if at all. Buds small, obtuse, appressed, pubescent.
Fruit
Fruit small to above medium. Form broadly ovate to roundish conic, faintly ribbed, nearly regular, symmetrical, uniform. Stem pubescent, medium to long, moderately slender. Cavity small, acuminate, moderately shallow, narrow, sometimes russeted, symmetrical. Calyx medium to small, open to nearly closed; lobes short, narrow, pubescent, converging and somewhat reflexed. Basin moderately abrupt, shallow, narrow, slightly furrowed or wrinkled.
Skin thin, yellow nearly overspread with dull, purplish-red and striped with purplish-carmine. Dots numerous, russet, sunken.
Calyx tube rather narrow, conical or approaching funnel-form. Stamens median.
Core abaxile, medium to large; cells open; core lines meeting or, when the calyx tube is funnel-form, clasping the funnel cylinder.
Flesh yellowish-white sometimes tinged with red next the skin, firm, fine-grained, crisp, juicy, mild subacid, fair to good.

Ogdensburgh
References.  1. Downing, 1869:291.
Synonyms.  None.
Originated with A.B. James, Ogdensburg, NY. According to Elliott's description cited by Downing (1), the fruit is medium size, whitish-yellow with brownish-blush; flesh tender, very mild subacid, very good; season November and December. We are unacquainted with this variety and have received no report concerning it from any of our correspondents.

Ohio Nonpareil
References.  1.  [XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 131.]
Synonyms.  Bellflower of the West (5). Cattell Apple (10, of Pennsylvania 6). Myers Nonpareil (3,6-10,12,14). Red Bellflower of some (5). Rusty Core (6,10). Wells (5). Western Beauty (9, erroneously 10).
A fine fall apple of good color and good quality for either dessert or culinary purposes. The tree is a moderate grower and appears to be hardy and moderately long-lived. It does not come into bearing very young and is not always a reliable cropper. It is regarded as a good variety for home use and some recommend it for commercial planting. Season October and November.
Historical. Originated near Massillon, Ohio. Although this is an old variety having first been described in 1848 (1) we do not find that it has been much disseminated in New York. It is more popular in the Middle West and is still offered by nurserymen in that region (16).

TREE.

Tree medium size, moderately vigorous.
Form rather spreading, not dense.
Twigs medium length, curved, rather stout.
Bark olive-green with some reddish-brown, thinly streaked and mottled with gray scarf-skin.
Lenticels scattering, conspicuous, large, usually round, becoming laterally compressed.
Buds medium to small, obtuse, appressed, pubescent.
[Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases (Burford).]

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large.
Form roundish oblate, often obscurely ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to rather short, rather thick.
Cavity rather large, acute, deep, pretty symmetrical, more of less russeted, the russet sometimes outspreading over the base.
Calyx medium or above, closed or slightly open; lobes medium in length, narrow, acute.
Basin rather small, medium in depth, narrow to moderately wide, somewhat abrupt, rather symmetrical.
Skin pale yellow to deep yellow almost entirely overspread with bright red, mottled and irregularly striped and splashed with carmine.
Dots moderately numerous, small to medium, areolar with russet center or grayish.
Calyx tube moderately short, conical.
Stamens basal to nearly median.
Core small, somewhat abaxile; cells symmetrical, not uniformly developed, nearly closed to somewhat open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels roundish, rather flat, tufted.
Seeds medium size, moderately long, plump, acute, tufted.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, moderately fine, crisp, tender, juicy, agreeable subacid, aromatic, good to very good.
Season October to November.  [Only fair keeper when grown in the South (Burford).]

Ohio Pippin
References.  1. Warder, 1867:484. fig. 2. Downing, 1869:292. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 1881:12. 4. Thomas, 1885:223. 5. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:193. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903:141. 7. Beach and Clark, NY Sta. Bul., 248:135. 1904.
Synonyms.  Buchanan (1). Ernst's Apple (1). Ernst's Pippin (2,4). Shannon (1-3,6).
Fruit of good medium size, quite attractive for a yellow apple, mild in flavor and of good quality. Season late September or October to January; October appears to be its commercial limit in this latitude (7). The tree attains good size, is rather vigorous and healthy, comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper, being almost an annual bearer and often yielding full crops.
Historical. This variety is supposed to have originated in Dayton, Ohio (1,2). It has been disseminated pretty widely in the Middle West but it is scarcely known among New York fruit growers.

TREE.

Tree rather vigorous.
Form open, somewhat roundish or spreading and inclined to droop.
Twigs short, straight, stout; internodes short.
Bark dark dull brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels scattering, medium to below, oblong, not raised.
Buds very deeply set in the bark, medium size, flat, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit above medium to medium.
Form oblate conic to roundish oblate, rather irregular in shape being often somewhat elliptical or obscurely ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) short, slender, usually not exserted.
Cavity rather large, acute or slightly acuminate, varying sometimes to rather obtuse, deep, broad, often furrowed, sometimes lipped, sometimes russeted and with outspreading russet rays.
Calyx medium to large, open; lobes reflexed, rather broad, obtuse, separated at the base.
Basin small and shallow to rather broad, deep and abrupt, sometimes compressed, wrinkled.
Skin smooth, somewhat glossy, attractive bright yellow often with a faint orange or pinkish blush.
Dots whitish, submerged, sometimes russet or areolar with russet point.
Calyx tube short, rather wide above, cone-shape or approaching truncate funnel-form.
Stamens basal or nearly so.
Core small, usually axile; cells symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish, approaching elliptical, but slightly colored, rather small, very plump, obtuse.
Seeds numerous, light colored, rather small, very plump, obtuse.
Flesh whitish or tinged with yellow, firm, firm, tender, crisp, moderately juicy, mild subacid becoming mildly sweet, good.
Season [late September or October to January]

Okabena
References.  1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887:132. 2. Ib., Cat., 1899:19. 3. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1901:97. 4. Hansen, SD Sta. Bul., 76:78.1902. fig. 5. Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. Bul., 106:54. 1902. 6. Munson, ME Sta. An. Rpt., 18:84. 1902. 7. Budd-Hansen, 1903:141. fig.
Synonyms.  Okobena (6).
An autumn apple not particularly attractive in appearance, nor more than moderately good in quality. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. Originated in 1871 near Worthington, Minn., from seed of Oldenburg said to be fertilized by Wealthy (7). Received for testing at this Station in 1892, from the Jewel Nursery Company which introduced this variety. In 1899 it was given a place on the list of the American Pomological Society as a variety of value in Upper Mississippi valley (2). So far as we can learn it has been grown in the East only in an experimental way.

Oldenburg
References.  1. 41. Waugh, VT Sta. An. Rpt., 14:302. 1901.**********tbal*******
Synonyms.  Baroveski (20). Barowiski (20> Borovitsky (20,37,38). Borowicki (20). Borowitski (24). Borowitsky (43). Charlamowiski (24). Charlamonowski d'Automne (20). Charlamowskircher Nalleoid (20). Charlamowsky (43). Duchess (27, 29, 32, 35, 37,38,43). Duchess of Oldenburg (
This Russian apple is known throughout the West either by the name Duchess, or by the full name Duchess of Oldenburg; the American Pomological Society has abbreviated the full name to Oldenburg, but this has not been generally accepted by Western fruit growers. In European nurseries it is propagated under the names of Charlamowsky and Borowitsky. It was early imported into the West, coming to this country by the way of England and it was the extreme hardiness of this variety in the early test winters that kept up the hopes of prairie orchardists in time of great discouragement and led to the importations of more varieties from Russia (42).
Oldenburg is one of the most valuable of the Russian apples thus far introduced into this country. it is of good size and attractive appearance. It is generally highly esteemed for home use on account of its excellent culinary qualities and with some fruit growers it has proved a very profitable variety for the commercial orchard. When properly grown and carefully handled, it stands shipment pretty well and sells well for a variety of its season. In some few localities in Western New York it is grown in sufficient quantities so that it can be shipped in car lots to distant markets, but in very many places it is produced in greater quantities than the local markets can absorb and yet not in quantities large enough so that it can be economically shipped to distant markets. Since the fruit is quite perishable, it does not stand heat well before shipment and goes down rather quickly, particularly if the weather is unfavorable. When sent to distant markets it should be shipped under ice. The fruit ripens in succession so that several pickings are required in order to secure the crop in prime marketable condition. It is in season during late August and September, but it may be used for culinary purposes before it is fully ripe. The tree is highly valued because of its great hardiness. It is vigorous when young when young but with age it becomes a rather moderate or slow cropper, yielding good crops biennially, often with lighter crops alternating. Generally speaking, the trees require good cultivation, thorough fertilizing and careful spraying in order to secure the bes commercial results. The fruit hangs fairly well to the tree till it is ripe. It is quite uniform in size and quality, with but a small percentage of loss from unmarketable fruit. Historical. This is one of the four pioneers among Russian apples in America, the other three being Alexander, Tetofsky, and Red Astrachan (38). These four varieties were imported by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society from the London, England, Horticultural Society about 1835. Oldenburg was brought to England from Russia about twenty years prior to that date. It was tested by Robert Manning, Superintendent of the Test Garden of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society at Salem who published the following description in 1838 (3): "A valuable and handsome apple said to be of Russian origin. The size is middling, form round and rather flat; skin of a beautiful yellow, striped with red; flavor very pleasant and good. It bears well and ripens in September and October." In 1850 Hovey wrote, "Mr. Manning, we believe, first proved the Duchess of Oldenburg and gave a brief account of it in his Book of Fruits. Since then it has been considerably disseminated, and though yet far from being common is to be found in many fine collections of fruit" (9). Later it became disseminated throughout the Middle West and Northwest where it proved to be much superior in hardiness to Baldwin, Rhode Island Greening, Northern Spy and other varieties which have been commonly cultivated in this state. Its ability to withstand severe climates encouraged the importation of other Russian sorts some of which have proved valuable in the northern portion of the apple belt. Oldenburg is commonly listed by nurserymen (31) and its planting both in home orchards and in commercial orchards is increasing in this state.

TREE.

Tree medium in size.
Form at first upright spreading but eventually roundish.
Twigs moderately long, curved, slender; internodes long.
Bark dark brown, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small to medium, oblong, not raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.
FRUITMoscow Mitch
Fruit medium to large, averaging above medium, uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish oblate to oblate, regular, symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) short to sometimes medium, moderately slender.
Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, broad, usually partly covered with greenish-russet.
Calyx medium to rather large, usually closed; lobes rather broad, acute.
Basin moderately deep to deep, wide, abrupt, smooth or with small mammiform protuberances.
Skin moderately thick, tender, smooth, pale greenish-yellow or pale yellow, almost covered with irregular splashes and stripes of bright red mottled and shaded with crimson.
Dots scattering, small, light colored.
Prevailing effect red striped; attractive. Calyx tube moderately long, rather wide, funnel-shape with broad truncate cylinder or approaching urn-shape.
Stamens median.
Core medium to rather large, axile; cells symmetrical, closed or slightly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate, slightly emarginate.
Seeds medium to rather large, wide, obtuse to acute, moderately plump, dark brown.
Flesh tinged with yellow, rather firm, moderately fine, crisp, tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, aromatic, good to very good for culinary purposes. It has too much acidity for a good dessert apple.
Season August and September.

OLIVE

REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1869:204. 2. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul. 248:136. 1904. 3. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:219. 1905.
A smail red apple, rather attractive in color. Unworthy of consideration by New York fruit growers. The tree comes into bearing young and is productive being a reliable annual cropper. The fruit hangs well to the tree.
This is not the Olive of Coxe, (Coxe, 1817: 166.) neither is it the Olive from Vermont noticed by Downing (1) and described in 1860 in Gardeners Monthly (3).
Historical. Originated in Wake county, North Carolina (1). It is there a fall apple but as grown at this Station its season extends to midwinter and often a considerable portion of the fruit remains sound till April or later.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous. Form roundish, or upright spreading, rather dense. Twigs short to above medium, slender, straight but geniculate; internodes long to medium. Bark clear brown with reddish tinge, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent near tips. Lenticels rather conspicuous, quite numerous, small to above medium, oval or elongated, usually not raised.
Buds deeply set in bark, small, plump, obtuse, appressed, not pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit small to nearly medium, fairly uniform in size and shape. Form roundish inclined to conic, varying to obovate, obscurely ribbed, fairly symmetrical. Stem short to above medium. Cavity rather small, acute to acuminate, moderately deep, rather narrow, usually russeted, often somewhat furrowed, often lipped. Calyx medium or above, usually open; lobes often leafy.
Basin abrupt, moderately shallow, moderately narrow to rather wide, often somewhat furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thick, tough, entirely covered with bright, deep, dark red or mottled with red and striped with carmine over a deep yellow ground color, sometimes marked with broken stripes of grayish scarf-skin. Dots numerous, pale, often large, areolar and conspicuous.
Calyx tube short, conical or urn-shape with fleshy pistil point projecting into the base, or approaching funnel-form. Stamens median to basal.
Core medium, somewhat abaxile; cells usually symmetrical and open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels broadly roundish, slightly emarginate if at all, mucronate. Seeds brownish-black, small, rather short, wide, plump, obtuse.
Flesh deeply tinged with yellow, moderately coarse, rather crisp, somewhat tough, juicy, rich, mild subacid or nearly sweet, distinctly aromatic, fair to good in quality.

OLIVER

REFERENCES. 1. Ark. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1893. 2. Heiges, U. S. Pom. Rpt. 1895:33. 3. Rural N. Y., 54:843. 1805. fig. 4. Gard. and For., 8:520. 1895. 5. Thomas, 1897:268. 6. Van Deman, Amer. Gard., 19:823. 1898. 7. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bul., 49:16. 1808. fig. 8. Beach, Amer. Gard., 20:124, 166. 1899. 9. Ib, W. N.Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1899:90, 138. 10. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bul., 60:130. 1899. 11. Brackett, Amer. Gard., 22:191. 1901. 12. Budd-Hansen, 1903 :143. fig. 13. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:51. 1903.  [14.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 132.]
Synonyms. Oliver (2). Oliver’s Red (6, 7, 10, 11, 12). SENATOR (2, 4, 5). Senator (6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13).
An attractive dark red apple of good size and good quality. It is of desirable shape, smooth and pretty uniform. It appears to coincide pretty closely with Baldwin in season, but it may not keep quite so late. Its commercial season in ordinary storage appears to be December to midwinter; in cold storage it extends to March or April. Among the varieties which have been introduced from Arkansas and Missouri this appears to be one of the most promising for the New York fruit grower, but as yet it has not been sufficiently tested to determine its value in this region. It is doubtful whether it can always be properly ripened in the northern portion of the Baldwin apple belt, but in the southern portion it appears to be more promising. The tree is evidently hardy in Western New York. It is healthy, vigorous, comes into bearing young, is productive and gives promise of being an annual or nearly annual bearer. The fruit hangs well to the tree, and there is little loss from drops or culls.
Historical. This variety has been propagated since about 1873 in Northwestern Arkansas where it has been known as Oliver Red or Oliver. It is supposed to have originated in that region (7, 11). It has been disseminated from the Stark Nurseries, Louisiana, Mo., under the name Senator.
TREE.
Tree medium in size, very vigorous; branches long, rather stocky. Form roundish or somewhat spreading; top open. Twigs stocky, medium in length and thickness; internodes medium in length. Bark dull brown and olive-green, pubescent. Lenticels numerous, large, mostly long, conspicuous, raised.
Buds large, appressed, broad, obtuse, pubescent. Leaves medium or often large, long and rather broad, thick, dark green; foliage rather dense.
[Diseases:  Susceptible to fireblight, crown gall and sunscald. Moderately resistant to scab, powdery mildew and cedar apple rust (14).]
FRUITMoscow Mitch
Fruit large or above medium, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish or somewhat oblate, pretty symmetrical, regular or somewhat elliptical or obscurely angular; sides sometimes unequal. Stem short to moderately long, medium in thickness. Cavity medium to rather large, acute to decidedly acuminate, deep, moderately broad to rather narrow, regular, smooth and green or partly covered with greenish-russet, sometimes with outspreading russet rays. Calyx medium to rather large, usually somewhat open; lobes often separated at the base, short, broad, obtuse, erect or somewhat reflexed.
Basin large, usually saucer-shape, wide and abrupt, sometimes moderately shallow and rather obtuse, somewhat wrinkled.
Skin moderately thin, tough, somewhat waxy, smooth or slightly roughened with large russet dots, green or bright yellow, mottled and striped with red or nearly covered with bright deep red and splashed with purplish-carmine. Dots conspicuous, numerous, gray or russet, rather large, often somewhat elongated or irregular about the cavity.
Calyx tube obtusely cone-shaped, rarely somewhat funnel-form. Stamens below median to basal.

Core distant, rather small, axile or nearly so; cells closed or slit; core lines meeting or when the calyx tube is funnel-form clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels roundish or somewhat elongated, narrowing toward the base and apex, emarginate, mucronate, smooth or nearly so. Seeds irregular, large, numerous, completely filling the cells, moderately long, wide, obtuse, or sometimes acute, dark brown.
Flesh whitish with tinge of yellow or green, moderately fine and crisp, rather tender, breaking, juicy, somewhat sprightly subacid eventually approaching sweet, good or possibly very good.
Season December to March or April.  [A good keeper, even when grown as far south as Virginia (14).]

OLYMPIA

This strain of the Baldwin was discovered growing among some Baldwin trees in a small orchard of Mr. William Shincke, Olympia, Washington. The trees grow like the Baldwin and appear to have the general characteristics of the Baldwin, except that the twigs of one season’s growth as compared with Baldwin twigs have darker bark with less red and more brown or olive-brown color. Other minor differences have been observed, such as shorter internodes, heavier scarf-skin, less conspicuous lenticels and more abundant pubescence-on bark and buds. We have not had opportunity to determine whether these minor differences are constant.
The fruit, so far as we are able to judge from the rather limited quantities which we have had the privilege of examining, averages distinctly larger than Baldwin fruit grown in the same locality, and is clearly superior in color, both the red and the yellow ‘tones being more brilliant. A very careful comparison of the fruit of Olympia with that of Baldwin discloses no constant differences in structural characters. For a technical description of the fruit aside from size and color, the reader is therefore referred to the description of Baldwin on page 59.
Olympia is best known in the vicinity of Olympia and is there regarded as a valuable acquisition. It is attracting favorable attention also throughout the apple-growing districts of the state of Washington. The fact that it is regarded so highly in a region where the Baldwin succeeds well is a good indication that it may succeed equally well in the Baldwin districts of New York. It is therefore recommended as worthy of extended trial by New York fruit growers.
Historical. The following account of this strain of the Baldwin apple has been obtained from correspondence with W. W. Whidden, George Langridge and William Shincke of Olympia, Washington. The original tree from which Olympia was propagated was set forty years or more ago on the place of William Shincke, Sr., in Olympia, Washington. It was evidently planted for a Baldwin as it stood with other Baldwin trees. The fruit was at first sold as Baldwin but Mr. Shincke noticed that it was larger and better colored than that of the common Baldwin. Mr. George Langridge was supplied with scions from this tree and when this stock came into bearing with Mr. Langridge it was found that the fruit from these trees, like that of the original tree from which the scions were taken, was larger and better colored than the fruit of the ordinary Baldwin. About 1890 it was first propagated for sale but under different names, Finally the County Horticultural Society named it Olympia.

OntarioOntario pic
REFERENCES. 1. Horticulturist, 1874:312. (cited by 22). 2. Downing, 1876: 61 app. fig. 3. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1880:100. 4. Brown, Can. Hort., 13: 14, 351. 1890. 5. Ib., 14:138. 1891. 6. Nicol, Can. Hort., 15:117. 1892. 7. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:245. 8. Brown, Amer. Gard., 14:426. 1893. 9. Ont. Fr. Gr. Assn. An. Rpt., 1:65. 1894. 10. Dempsey, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 1:24. 1894. 11. Edwards, Can. Hort., 17:212. 1894. 12, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:78. 13. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 3:11. 1896. figs. 14. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 1897. 15. Can. Hort., 23:23. 1900. 16. Beach, E. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 1900:43. 17. Ib, W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1900:36. 18. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Bul., 37:45. 1901. 19. Budd-Hansen, 1903:143. 20. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:51. 1903. 21. Beach and Clark, N.Y. Sta. Bul., 248:136. 1904. 22. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:220. 1905.
Synonyms.  [None listed- ASC]
Fruit in many respects intermediate in character between its parents, Northern Spy and Wagener.  Like Wagener, it is oblate and ribbed; like the Spy, it has a large, deep cavity and its color, when highly developed, is pinkish-red with carmine stripes over a clear, pale yellow background.  As grown at this Station, we have not been favorably impressed with it because it is inferior to Northern Spy both in color and quality.  In fact, it has been too deficient in color to rank as a good commercial sort. It is in season from November to March or April.  So far as tested here it appears to follow Northern Spy in that it shows considerable variation in different seasons in its keeping quality (21).  It has been a strictly biennial bearer, yielding heavy crops in alternate years.  It appears to be superior to Northern Spy in productiveness, but is less productive than Wagener.  It is hardier and longer-lived than Wagener.  In portions of Ontario it is regarded as one of the best apples bot for commercial purposes and home use (18).  As grown in that region and also in some parts of Michigan, it is on the average larger and more highly colored than we have found it to be at this Station.  Doubtless there are localities in New York where it would succeed much better than it does at Geneva.  On account of its good record in Canada as to its hardiness and productiveness it is certainly worthy of trial in Northern New York and in those portions of the state where the Spy succeeds best.
Historical.  Originated by Charles Arnold, Paris, Ont., by crossing Northern Spy with Wagener.
Tree
Tree medium to large, vigorous. Form upright, becoming spreading. Twigs rather short to moderately long, rather slender to moderately stout, quite pubescent; internodes medium or above. Bark dull, dark reddish-brown over olive-green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin. Lenticels rather numerous, small to medium, or sometimes large, usually oblong. Buds medium size, plump, acute to somewhat obtuse, projecting, pubescent. Leaves usually long and rather large.
Fruit large to very large, uniform in size and shape.
Form oblate to roundish inclined to conic, distinctly ribbed or even angular, pretty symmetrical. Stem medium in length and thickness. Cavity characteristically like that of the Northern Spy, large, acute or approaching acuminate, deep, wide to moderately wide, often thinly russeted and with outspreading rays of russet.
Calyx small to medium, closed or slightly open; lobes rather narrow, acute.
Basin small to medium, deep, narrow to rather wide, abrupt, often furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, bright pale yellow or greenish more or less washed with brownish-red faintly splashed with carmine, in highly colored specimens becoming bright pinkish-red striped with bright carmine; often coated with whitish bloom and mottled and streaked with whitish scarf-skin, particularly over the base. Dots rather numerous, small, whitish, gray or russet.
Calyx tube narrow, funnel-form. Stamens median to basal.
Core usually rather small, abaxile with a rather large hollow cylinder at the axis; cells symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels smooth or nearly so, roundish, narrowing toward the apex, often nearly truncate at the base, slightly emarginate. Seeds medium in size, moderately wide to wide, obtuse to acute, rather dark.
Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, rather firm, moderately fine or a little coarse, crisp, tender, very juicy, sprightly, rather brisk subacid, more so than Northern Spy, aromatic, good to very good; especially desirable for culinary use.
Dots rather numerous, small, whitish-gray or russet.
Season November to March or April.

OPALESCENT.

References. 1. Rural N. Y., 58:224. 1899. 2. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1901. (cited by 4). 3. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1903:12, 4. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul. 56:220. 1905.  [5.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 133.]
When well grown Opalescent is a very attractive apple, being large, shapely, clear yellow, nearly or quite covered with brilliant red, in highly colored specimens becoming deep purplish-red. It has not been tested in New York sufficiently to show whether it may be considered a promising variety for this region. It does not appear to be as good a keeper as Baldwin.
Historical. Introduced about 1890 by McNary and Gaines, Xenia, Ohio.
TREE.
Tree vigorous. Form roundish, open. Twigs long to medium in length, erect, slender to moderately stout, curved or irregularly crooked; internodes short to above medium. Bark dark dull reddish-brown mingled with some olive-green and covered with a heavy coat of mottled scarf-skin, pubescent. Lenticels rather inconspicuous, scattering, medium in size, roundish, sometimes raised. Buds prominent, large to below medium, broad, plump, obtuse to somewhat acute, free or nearly so, pubescent.
[Diseases:  Very susceptible to fireblight (5).]
Fruit.Moscow Mitch
Fruit large to very large. Form roundish conic, symmetrical or sometimes with sides unequal, obscurely ribbed. Stem short to medium, moderately slender. Cavity pretty large, acuminate, very deep, sometimes partly russeted, usually symmetrical but sometimes compressed. Calyx below medium or small, usually partly open; lobes small, obtuse to acute, reflexed. Basin small to medium in size, often oblique with the brim decidedly prominent on one side, narrow to moderately wide, moderately deep to deep, abrupt, sometimes slightly furrowed.
Skin moderately thick, rather tough, glossy, takes a brilliant polish; color bright pale yellow nearly or quite overspread with dark deep red with scarcely perceptible streaks of purplish-carmine. Dots numerous, small to large, red, yellowish or russet, often submerged, frequently mingled with irregular lines and flecks of russet. Prevailing effect brilliant deep red.
Calyx tube medium to rather small, cone-shape or short funnel-form.
Stamens median to basal.
Core small to medium, abaxile; cells sometimes unsymmetrical, closed or open; core lines meeting or nearly meeting. Carpels smooth, roundish or broadly obcordate. Seeds acute, medium in size, form and color.
Flesh distinctly tinged with yellow, rather firm, moderately tender, a little coarse, juicy or moderately juicy, agreeable mild subacid, aromatic, good to very good.  [Also useful for baking (5).
Keeping ability:  Good. Skin becomes waxy in storage (5).]

Orange
References.  1. M'Mahon, Am. Gard. Cal., 1806:585. 2. Coxe, 1817:139. 3. Emmons, Nat. Hist. NY 3:91. 1851. 4. Horticulturist, 8:247. 1853. 5. Mag. Hort., 19:172. 1853. 6. Hooper, 1857:67. 7. Downing, 1857:178. 8. Warder, 1867:728. 9. Downing, 1869:294. 10. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:245.
Synonyms.  None.
Different varieties of the apple have been known under the name Orange. The Fall Orange has already been described on page 60.
Orange has sometimes been used as a synonym for Lowell which is described on page 128.
ORANGE OF NEW JERSEY (1,2,3,6,-10). Coxe (2) give the following description of this variety: "This is a fine table apple in the fall and early winter months; and is thought to be a good cider fruit; the size is small, the form oblong-- the colour a greenish-yellow-- the flesh yellow, rich, juicy and sprightly; the tree is of moderate size, the growth upright, and its fruitfulness great. It is much cultivated in several of the middle counties of New Jersey as a highly estimable apple." Downing (7,9) states that the tree is vigorous and moderately productive; the fruit pleasant subacid; very good; season September and October.
ORANGE OF PENNSYLVANIA. A variety which originated at Reading, PA was brought to notice under the name Orange by the ad interim report of the Fruit Committee of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society in 1853 (4,5). The fruit is described as medium size, roundish, nearly orange-yellow, sprightly, good (4,5,8,9). We have received no reports concerning this variety from any of our correspondents and so far as we know it is not in cultivation in New York.

Orange Sweet
References.  1. Mag. Hort., 1:396. 1835. 2. Warder, 1867:566. 3. Downing, 1869:295. 4. Thomas, 1885:519.
Synonyms.  Orange Russet (2). Orange Sweeting (1,2).
Several varieties are described under this name by Downing (3); one from Ohio, large, greenish-yellow; flesh whitish, tender, sweet, good; season October and November; one from Massachusetts, the fruit medium, oblate, greenish-yellow; the flesh yellowish-white, rather coarse, rich, sweet; season August and September; and one from Maine; fruit medium, roundish ovate, bright yellow with blush; flesh yellowish, tender, sweet, rich; season September and October.
Warder (2) describes under the name Orange Sweeting or Russet "An eastern variety not much cultivate; fruit large, very round, regular, greenish-yellow, bronzy, orange russeted; flesh rather tough, fine-grained, juicy, good; season December."
The name Orange Sweet has also been used as a synonym for both Munson (p. 146) and Golden Sweet (p. 81).

ORNAMENT

REFERENCES, 1. Thompson, Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1842:29. (cited by 2). 2. Leroy, 1873:520. fig. 3. Churchill, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 8:355. 1889. 4. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:590. 1894. 5. Ib., 14:254. 1895. 6. Burrill and McCluer, Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:334. 1896. 7. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:52. 1903.
SYNONYMS. ORNAMENT DE TasLe (4, 5, 6). Ornament de Table (7). ORNEMENT DE TABLE (2).
A rather attractive dessert apple of good form and fairly good color but hardly attractive enough for a good commercial variety. The flesh is tender, juicy and mildly subacid or nearly sweet; good in quality but surpassed by other dessert apples of its season. The tree comes into bearing rather young, is a reliable annual cropper and productive or moderately productive. It does not appear to be worthy of the attention of the fruit growers of New York.
Historical. This is a European variety of uncertain origin (1, 2). It has been disseminated but sparingly in America.
TREE
Tree vigorous. Form roundish or spreading, rather dense. Twigs below medium to short, straight, slender; internodes medium or below. Bark dark brownish-red partly streaked with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticels scattering, small, oblong or roundish, sometimes raised. Buds rather prominent, medium or below, broad, plump, obtuse, free or nearly so, quite pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit medium or above, pretty uniform in shape and size. Form roundish inclined to conic or somewhat oblate, pretty regular and symmetrical. Stem short, rather slender. Cavity medium to rather small, acuminate or nearly so, rather deep, moderately narrow to rather wide, often partly russeted. Calyx medium in size, usually open, pubescent; lobes long, acute, separated at the base, reflexed. Basin often somewhat oblique, shallow and obtuse to moderately deep and somewhat abrupt, slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin rather thin, tough, smooth, clear yellow or greenish washed and mottled with dull red or orange-red and sparingly marked with narrow stripes of carmine. Dots numerous, small, gray or russet, not very conspicuous. Prevailing effect red and yellow, the red usually predominating.
Calyx tube short funnel-form with moderately broad limb. Stamens below median to above.
Core medium or below, axile or nearly so; cells usually closed; core lines clasp the funnel cylinder. Carpels broadly roundish, obtusely emarginate, mucronate. Seeds few, dark, medium or above, wide, rather obtuse, often slightly tufted.
Flesh whitish with slight yellow tinge, firm, fine-grained, tender, moderately juicy, pleasant, mild subacid becoming nearly sweet, good.
Season October to February or March.

ORTLEY
REFERENCES. 1. Coxe, 1817:169. 2. Lindley, Trans. Royal Hort. Soc. London, 6:415. 1825. (cited by 4, 5). 3. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831:39. 4. Kenrick, 1832:49. 5. Floy-Lindley, 1833:57. 6. Mag. Hort., 1:364. 1835. 7. Manning, 1838:57. 8. Downing, 1845:142. 9. Floy-Lindley, 1846:412 app. 10. Kirtland, Horticulturist, 2:545. 1848. 11. Downing and Ernst, Horticulturist, 4:74. 1849. fig. 12. Horticulturist, 4:144. 1849. 13. Thomas, 1849:183, 188. fig. 14. Cole, 1849:130. 15. Phoenix, Horticulturist, 4:472. 1850. 16. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:78. 1851. col. pl. 17. Elliott, 1854:05. fig. 18. Downing, 1857:90. 19. Hooper, 1857:67. 20. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 27:60. 1861. 21. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 22. Warder, 1867:673. fig. 23. Fitz, 1872:150. 24. Barry, 1883:351. 25. Hogg, 1884:249. 26. Wickson, 1889:246. 27. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 28. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:245. 29. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:252. 30. Burrill and McCluer, Ill. Sta. Bul., 45: 334. 1896. 31. Budd-Hansen, 1903:144.  [32.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 134.]
Synonyms. Crane’s Pippin (11, 17). Detroit (11, 13, 17, 19). Detroit of the West (13, 14). Golden Pippin (11, 19, of some 17). Greasy Pippin (11, 17, 18). Green Bellflower (11, 15, 17). Hollow Core Pippin (11, 17, 19). Hollow Cored Pippin (18). Inman (17). Jersey Greening (13, 17 but not of Coxe 11). Melting Pippin (11, 17). Ohio Favorite (11, 17, 18). Ortley (16, 25).. OrtLey AprLe (5). Ortley Apple (8, 11, 14). OrtTLEY Pippin (7, 19). Ortley Pippin (8, 10, 11, 13, 17, 18). Tom Woodward Pippin (17). Van Dyme (16). Van Dyne (11, 17, 25, of some 8). WARREN Pippin (16). Warren Pippin (11, 13, 17). WHITE BELLEFLEUR (10, 11, 12). White Bellefleur (17, 23). Wuire BELLFLower (15, 29). White Bellflower (11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 26). White Detroit (11, 13, 17, 18, 27). White Pippin (11, 18, erroneously 17); Willow Leaf Pippin (17, 18). Woodman’s Song (18). Woodward's Pippin (11, 17). Woolman’s Lone (8, 14, 23, 25). Woolman’s Long (10, 11, 13, 17, 24). Woorman’s Lone Pippin (1). Woolnary Long (6). Yellow Pippin (11, 17).
A pale yellow apple of the Yellow Bellflower type which has long been known in cultivation. Scattering trees of it are found in some of the very oldest orchards of the state, but it has never been grown. to any considerable extent in New York and is now seldom or never planted, being less successful here than the Yellow Bellflower. It does better farther south and west. As grown in the North the fruit tends to be more oblong, smaller and of a paler yellowish-white color, coarser texture and sprightlier flavor than when grown farther south (17). The fruit has less acidity than Yellow Bellflower and is more pleasant in flavor for dessert use. The skin being whitish and tender, is easily bruised or discolored in handling. It is also apt to be marred on the tree by the chafing of the limbs. The wood is brittle and the bearing limbs are often broken by the weight of the fruit (22). Ortley is quite subject to attacks of various insects and of the scab fungus, and requires thorough treatment to protect it from these troubles.
Historical. This is an old New Jersey variety which Coxe described under the name Woolman’s Long Pippin (1). In 1825 Floy sent fruit of it to the Royal Horticultural Society, London, under the name of Ortley and in the Transactions of the Society for that year Lindley described it under this name giving Woolman’s Long as a synonym. Kenrick (4), Manning (7), Thomas (13), Elliott (17), Charles Downing (18), and other American pomologists have followed Floy instead of Coxe and describe the variety under the name Ortley. Emmons (16) gives Ortley as identical with Warren Pippin of Coxe but it is quite doubtful whether he was correct in this case. In portions of the South and West Ortley is an old favorite for planting in home orchards and has there been known under many different names prominent among which are White Bellflower and White Detroit.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous and medium in size or under favorable conditions large.
Form at first upright with long slender shoots but when mature the tree becomes roundish or spreading. Twigs below medium to above, rather slender, straight, quite pubescent; internodes short. Bark dull reddish-brown often overlaid with thick scarf-skin. Lenticels small and scattering but rather conspicuous, mostly roundish, raised. Buds below medium, moderately projecting, roundish, slightly pubescent, free.
[Diseases:  Scab susceptible; fairly resistant to the other major diseases (32).] Fruit.
Fruit large or medium, not very uniform in size or shape. Form oblong conic and flattened at the base, varying to somewhat roundish conic, regular or obscurely ribbed. Stem long, often slender. Cavity often large, acute or approaching acuminate, deep, varying from moderately narrow to wide, usually partly russeted, somewhat furrowed. Calyx rather small to medium, closed or somewhat open; lobes long, acute, usually converging and reflexed. Basin small to medium, shallow to moderately deep, narrow to moderately wide, usually abrupt and wrinkled or slightly furrowed.
Skin moderately thin, tough, smooth, waxy, pale whitish-yellow varying to rich yellow in well developed fruit, rarely with a faint pinkish-red blush.
Dots inconspicuous, usually whitish and submerged.
Calyx tube funnel-form approaching cylindrical, sometimes constricted at the base of the limb and enlarging below, often characteristically elongated and extending to the core. Stamens median.
Core large, widely abaxile; cells usually symmetrical and wide open, sometimes closed; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels roundish ovate, elongated, emarginate, mucronate. Seeds numerous, characteristically small and pointed, roundish, plump, light to medium brown.
Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, moderately fine, crisp, tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, very good.  [Also useful for baking, apple butter and frying (32).]
Season October to February.  [Good keeper, even when grown in Virginia (32).]

Ostrakoff
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Astravaskoe (12). Ostrakoff Glass (11, 12). Ostrekoff (3,5). Ostrekoff's Glass (1,2). Ostrekovskaya Steklianka (3). Ostrekowskaja Steklianka (1,2). Ostrokoff (6,8,14). Ostrokoff's Glass (4). No. 4 M (4-7,9,11,13,15,16). No. 472 (1,3).
A Russian variety of good size, greenish-yellow, brisk subacid, fair to good quality. Its keeping qualities vary much in different seasons. As grown at this station, it is commonly in its prime from late September into November but a portion of the fruit may often be kept into the winter in very good condition. It is reported as a promising variety for portions of Northern New England and other regions where superior hardiness is a prime requisite. It is of no value where our common standard varieties succeed.
Historical. Described by Budd in 1885 under the name Ostrakoff's Glass and in 1890 under the name Ostrakoff (3,7). It was received in 1884 for testing at this Station from Ellwanger and Barry, Rochester, NY under the name Astravaskoe.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous.
Form spreading or roundish, open.
Twigs short, curved, stout with large terminal buds; internodes medium.
Bark dark brown tinged with gree, heavily streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent near tips.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, round, raised, rather conspicuous.
Buds prominent, large, long, plump, obtuse, free.

FRUIT

Fruit medium or above, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish to somewhat ovate or oblong, somewhat conical, a little angular.
Stem (Pedicel) characteristically long, often curved, twisted or irregularly enlarged or inserted under a fleshy protuberance.
Cavity acute or approaching acuminate, shallow to moderately deep, medium in width to narrow, partly covered with light greenish-russet, often lipped.
Calyx closed or open, rather large, leafy; lobes rather broad, acute to obtuse.
Basin characteristically irregular, medium in width and depth, abrupt, sharply ridged and wrinkled.
Skin moderately thin, rather tough, smooth, pale waxen-yellow sometimes with a faint reddish shade.
Dots very numerous, small, submerged, often areolar.
Calyx tube medium to large, rather wide, conical to peculiarly funnel-form, with broad truncate cylinder.
Stamens basal to median.
Core medium size, axile; cells closed or slightly open; core lines meeting.
Carpels roundish to broadly ovate, emarginate.
Seeds medium brown, large, wide, rather flat, obtuse to acute.
Flesh yellowish-white, firm, rather fine, juicy, brisk subacid, fair to good.
Season late fall and early winter.

PALMER

REFERENCES. 1. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:224. 1905.
Synonym. Parmer or N. Z.
A New Zealand apple received in 1897 for testing here from G. B. Brackett, U. S. Pomologist, Washington, D. C.. The fruit is large or above medium, rather attractive in appearance for a yellow apple, brisk subacid in flavor and good in quality.
TREE.
Tree vigorous with long, moderately stout branches. Form roundish, rather dense. Twigs long, curved, moderately stout; internodes short. Bark dull brown, tinged with green, heavily streaked with scarf-skin, heavily pubescent. Lenticels scattering, small, round, not raised. Buds large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to above or sometimes large. Form roundish varying to roundish oblate or to slightly oblong, irregular. Stem long, moderately thick.
Cavity acuminate, deep, rather broad, sometimes faintly russeted, not symmetrical. Calyx open or nearly so, rather large. Basin deep, wide, abrupt, slightly wrinkled.

Skin rather attractive yellow or greenish-yellow. Dots conspicuous, large and small, russet, sometimes areolar.
Calyx tube long, moderately wide to wide, funnel-shape or urn-shape.
Stamens marginal.
Core large, abaxile; cells symmetrical, open; core lines slightly clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish varying from somewhat elliptical to slightly cordate, tufted. Seeds large, moderately narrow, plump, acute, rather dark brown.
Flesh tinged with yellow or greenish-yellow, moderately coarse, rather tender, breaking, juicy, sprightly, brisk subacid, good.
Season winter.

Palouse
References.  1. Van Deman., US Pom. Rpt. 1891:390. 2. Rural NY 50:851. 1891. 3. Hexamer, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 1891:159. 4. Williams, Gard. and For., 5:11. 1892. 5. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 6. Craig, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1896:133. 7. Macoun, Ib., 1901:97.  [8.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 135.]
Synonyms.  None.
Palouse is a comparatively new variety which originated in Washington. In color, texture, flavor and aroma it is so much like Tompkins King that some suppose it to be a seedling of that variety. Its form, however, is quite different from that of Tompkins King, typical fruit being oblong, as described by Craig (6) and others (1,2), rather than oblate or roundish oblate, as described by Hexamer (3) and Macoun (7). It is hardly as good a keeper as Tompkins King and would probably be classed as a late fall variety, being in season from October to early winter. It is, however, more productive than Tompkins King and is being much planted in commercial orchards in Washington where many regard it as one of the most valuable of the seedling varieties which have originated in that region. It appears to be worthy of testing in New York.
Historical. Palouse originated in Whitman county, Washington, from seed brought from Illinois in 1879. The original tree is located five miles east of Colfax (Ruedy, Letter and Circular, 1904). It was introduced about 1892 by George Ruedy, Colfax, Wash, whose attention was first called to the variety in 1889 when it took first premium as the best seedling apple exhibited at the Whitman County Fair. It is as yet but little grown in the East and so far as we can learn it has as yet been planted in New York to but a limited extent and for trial only.
[Diseases:  Moderately susceptible to the major diseases (8).]

FRUIT

Fruit large.
Form oblong conic, ribbed or scalloped.
Stem (Pedicel) long, slender.
Cavity remarkably deep.
Calyx closed or partly open.
Basin rather shallow to deep, distinctly furrowed, the furrows often extending to the cavity.
Skin bright yellow, blushed and more than half covered with crimson, splashed, blotched and dotted with darker red.
Prevailing effect attractive red and yellow.
Core large.
Flesh yellowish, crisp, firm, tender, juicy, very aromatic, subacid, very good.
Season October and early winter.  [Only a fair keeper when grown in Virginia (8).]

PARAGON
REFERENCES. 1. Van Deman, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1891:123, 159. 2 Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 3. Heiges, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1895:30. 4. Babcock, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:190. 5. Amer. Gard., 16:419. 1895. 6. Ib., 17:12, 28, 33, 42, 65, 97, 146, 152, 104, 210, 306. 1896. fig. 7. Van Deman, Rural N. Y., 55:243. 1896. 8. Watts, Tenn. Sta. Bul., 1:24. 1806. fig. 9. Powell, Del. Sta. Bul., 38:19. 1898. 10. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bul., 49:7. 18908. 11. Bruner, N. C. Sta. Bul., 182:21. 1903. 12. Thomas, 1903:712. 13. Budd-Hansen, 1903:144. fig. 14. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:52. 1903. 15. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:137. 1904.  [16.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.]
Synonyms. Black Twig (8, 14), but erroneously. Mammoth Black Twig (8, 13, 15), but erroneously. Twitty's Paragon (8).
This is a southern variety of the Winesap type. In the apple-growing regions of the South where it has been tested it has proven to be an excellent variety in many respects, but it is not generally regarded by the orchardists of that region as being especially promising for commercial orchards. The fruit evidently does not develop to as high a degree of perfection in New York as it does in more southern latitudes. It is not probable that it will prove successful as a commercial variety here, though it has sufficient merit to make it worthy of testing to a limited extent.
Historical. The Paragon originated on the farm of Major Rankin Toole near Fayetteville, Lincoln county, Tennessee (3, 6, 7, 8). The early history of the tree is not very clear but it probably came from a seed planted about 1830. Grafts from the original tree were taken in 1870 by Mr. Twitty, a local nurseryman, and later introduced to the public. It was badly confused for a while with an Arkansas seedling now properly known by the name of Arkansas but then passing under the name of Mammoth Black Twig. Some believed that the Arkansas was identical with Paragon. An extensive discussion and the testimony of many persons has since brought out the fact that these are two distinct although similar seedlings of Arkansas and Tennessee origin respectively. Many have thought that Paragon may be a seedling of the Winesap crossed by Limbertwig as it possesses some of the characteristics of both of these varieties.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous with rather short, stout, twisted branches. Form roundish to spreading, inclined to droop, rather dense. Twigs medium to rather long, nearly straight, stout to rather slender; internodes short to medium.
Bark very dark reddish-brown, mottled with thin scarf-skin, pubescent. Lenticels scattering, medium in size, roundish to oval, raised. Buds large, prominent, broad, plump, acute to somewhat obtuse, curved, free, generally pubescent. Leaves medium in size, broad.
Fruit.Moscow Mitch, Moscow Mitch
[Diseases:  Moderately susceptible to the major apple diseases (16).] Fruit medium or above, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish or sometimes oblate, slightly conic, rounding toward stem and calyx; sides often a little unequal. Stem medium in length and thickness. Cavity nearly obtuse to acute, medium in width and moderately shallow to sometimes rather wide and deep, usually symmetrical, often furrowed or compressed, occasionally lipped, usually russet and with outspreading russet rays. Calyx rather small, closed. Basin rather shallow and obtuse varying occasionally to abrupt and medium in width and depth, often furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin tough, smooth, grass-green or yellowish, largely covered with rather dull, deep red and indistinctly striped with darker red. Dots gray or whitish, small, sometimes rather conspicuous. Prevailing effect dark red.
Calyx tube rather small, varying from conical to funnel-form. Stamens median to slightly marginal.
Core rather small; cells partly open; core’ lines clasping. Carpels much concave, roundish varying to nearly cordate, slightly emarginate. Seeds rather large, long, acute, dark; often some are abortive.
Flesh greenish or tinged with yellow, firm, a little coarse, rather tender, juicy, mild subacid, somewhat aromatic, good to very good.
Season January to May. [Excellent keeper (16).
Uses:  Dessert, apple butter & cider (16)].

PARK SPICE

REFERENCES. 1. Carpenter, Horticulturist, 19:114. 1864. figs. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1867. (cited by 5). 3- Downing, 1869:298. 4. Thomas, 1897:648. 5. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:225. 1905.
Synonyms. Park (5). Park Apple (3, 4,5). Park Spice (5).
As described by Carpenter, Downing and Thomas (1, 3, 4) the fruit of the Park Spice apple is medium to rather large, yellowish shaded with red and striped with crimson; the flesh is yellowish-white, fine-grained, crisp, juicy, mild subacid, pleasantly aromatic, very good in quality; in season from December to March.
Historical. Originated on the Park farm in Harrison, Westchester county, New York. In 1864 Carpenter stated that the original tree, then supposed to be over a hundred years old, was still vigorous and productive (1). So far as we can learn the variety is now obsolete.

PARLIN

REFERENCES. I. Heiges, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1894:21. 2. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1899. (cited by 4). 3. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1901:97. 4. Ragan, U.S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:225. 1905.
Synonym. Partin’s Beauty (3). Parlin’s Beauty (4).
An attractive red apple of pretty good quality for dessert but being mildly sweet in flavor is less suitable for culinary uses. It has not as yet been tested sufficiently to determine its value for this region.
Historical. In 1894 the original tree over fifty years old was still standing at Norridgewock, Maine, still vigorous, healthy and productive (1). The variety has as yet been but little disseminated in New York.
TREE.
Tree not a strong grower, below medium size; branches rather short and moderately stout. Form upright and somewhat spreading or roundish. Twigs short, straight, moderately stout with large terminal buds; internodes long to medium. Bark brown tinged with red, partly overlaid with rather thick scarf-skin; pubescent near tips. Lenticels scattering, medium to small, roundish or elongated, raised but slightly if at all. Buds large to medium, prominent, broad, plump, acute, free, pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to large, pretty uniform in size. Form rather variable, roundish to oblate, often inclined to conic, more or less irregular, somewhat angular; sides sometimes unequal. Stem medium or sometimes long, rather slender. Cavity acute, usually deep, moderately wide or wide, often furrowed or compressed, marked with yellowish-russet which sometimes extends beyond the cavity, sometimes lipped. Calyx small, closed or partly open; lobes small, narrow, reflexed. Basin rather small, deep, narrow to moderately wide, very abrupt, nearly symmetrical or slightly furrowed, sometimes wrinkled.
Skin rather thin, tough, smooth, bright pale yellow blushed and mottled with pinkish-red and striped with darker red, highly colored specimens being nearly overspread with bright red becoming on the exposed cheek nearly as dark red as Jonathan or Gano, often irregularly veined with russet. Dots usually small, yellowish or pale gray, sometimes large.
Calyx tube funnel-form.
Core medium to small, axile; cells closed or nearly so; core lines clasping or meeting. Carpels smooth, wide at the middle, emarginate, often approaching obcordate. Seeds below medium or small, irregular, dark, obtuse.
Flesh whitish with yellow tinge, moderately firm, tender, moderately fine-grained, not crisp, moderately juicy, sweet or very mildly subacid, slightly aromatic, good or sometimes very good.
Season October to midwinter or later.

Parry White
References.  1. Downing, 1872:25 app. 2. Bailey, An. Hrot., 1892:246. 3. Beach, NY Sta. An. Rpt., 14:263. 1895. 4. Beach and Clark, NY Sta. Bul., 248:137. 1904.
Synonyms.  Imperial White (1). Superior White (1). White Apple (1).
Fruit pale yellow or whitish, waxen, of medium size; quite attractive in appearance for an apple of its class. The flesh is white, juicy, subacid, good in quality for either dessert or culinary use. It follows Yellow Transparent in season, beginning to ripen late in August of early September and continuing in use into or through October (4). The tree comes into bearing young and is an annual cropper, yielding good to very heavy crops. In spite of its remarkable productiveness it makes a pretty good growth. It is worth of trial where an apple of its type is desired.
Historical. Origin unknown. It is supposed to be a Pennsylvania apple. It is occasionally listed by nurserymen (2). It has not yet become known to any considerable extent in New York.

TREE.

Tree medium size and moderately vigorous.
Form at first upright spreading but after bearing full crops it becomes roundish and somewhat drooping; dense.
Twigs short, curved, stout with large terminal buds; internodes short.
Bark brown tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels quite numerous, rather conspicuous, medium size, round, not raised.
Buds medium to large, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.
FRUITMoscow Mitch

Fruit usually medium but varies according to the abundance of the crop from below medium to rather large; quite uniform in size and shape.
Form nearly globular varying to somewhat oblate or slightly inclined to ovate, quite regular.
Stem (Pedicel) above medium to rather short, slender.
Cavity slightly acuminate, medium to shallow, medium in width, smooth, symmetrical.
Calyx small, closed; lobes medium in length, narrow, acute.
Basin very shallow, moderately narrow to rather broad, obtuse, smooth or slightly wrinkled, symmetrical.
Skin moderately thick, rather tough, waxen yellowish-white or greenish. Occasionally blushed.
Dots medium size to very small, pale or brown, numerous, depressed.
Calyx tube short, narrow, funnel-shape.
Stamens marginal to median.
Core medium to small, abaxile; cells open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels round, emarginate.
Seeds medium or above, acute or inclined to obtuse, light brown.
Flesh white, quite firm, rather fine, tender, juicy, subacid, good.
Season very late August into or through October.

PARSON.

REFERENCES. 1. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 2. Craig, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1896:132.
Synonym. Parson’s Sweet (1). Parson’s Sweet (2).
A large, handsome, dark red, early winter apple of excellent flavor. It has not been sufficiently tested in this vicinity to determine its value for this region. Professor John Craig states that it resembles the Sweet Winesap but is of much purer quality.
Historical. Said to have originated near Springfield, Mass., as a seedling in one of the old orchards of that locality. Fowler Brothers brought the stock to Geneva, New York, about 1880 where it was propagated for their own sales as it was known only locally in the vicinity of Springfield. Mr. A. L. Root, of the Fonthill Nurseries, Welland, Ontario, who obtained the variety from Fowler Brothers, sent scions of it to this Station for testing in 1901.
TREE.
Tree vigorous with long, moderately stout branches. Form upright and somewhat spreading or roundish, open. Twigs long, stout, slightly curved; internodes short. Bark very dark brown lightly streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent. Lenticels numerous, medium in size, oblong, slightly raised, rather conspicuous. Buds deeply set in bark, large, broad, flat, obtuse, appressed, pubescent.
Fruit.
The following is Craig’s description of the fruit (2). “Large, roundish, oblique, conical. Skin moderately smooth; colour, yellow, nearly covered with rich dark red, marked with large white or russet-coloured dots marbled on the shaded side. Cavity, deep, narrow, regular; stem half to three-quarters inch long, deeply inserted, curved, slender. Basin large, slightly ribbed; calyx, large, open. Flesh white, tender, flaky, fairly juicy, very sweet; core small. A large handsome sweet early winter apple. One of the best of the class.”

Patten
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Duchess No. 3 (2,9,10). Patten's Duchess No. 3 (11). Patten Greening (1-11).
A seedling of Oldenburg which, on account of its hardiness, productiveness and the uniformly large size of its fruit is valuable in the northern portions of the apple-growing regions of the country (1,5,6,8-10). It is grown as far north as the Red River valley of Minnesota and North Dakota and in other regions where the winters are correspondingly severe. It is attractive in color for a green apple, has a sprightly subacid flavor and good texture and is very good in quality for culinary use. The tree is a somewhat stronger grower than Oldenburg, with limbs strongly shouldered (2,9,10). As grown at this Station it comes into bearing moderately young and is an annual cropper, yielding moderate to full crops. It is worthy of trial in the colder regions of the state.
Historical. Originated by C.G. Patten, Charles City, IA (2), who states that it is a seedling of the Oldenburg from seed grown near Portage, Wis., and planted by him at Charles City, IA, in the fall of 1869. It was first 1885 when stock of this variety was first offered for sale. In 1899 it was entered in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society as a valuable variety for the Upper Mississippi valley (6). It has as yet been but little disseminated in New York.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous with moderately long, somewhat stout, curved, drooping branches.
Form spreading, dense, flat.
Twigs rather short, somewhat curved, moderately stout or rather slender; internodes medium to long.
Bark brownish-red with some olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small, roundish, sometimes raised.
Buds medium size, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent.
FRUITMoscow Mitch
Fruit medium to large, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form oblate or roundish oblate, sometimes inclined to conic, usually regular, pretty symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) very short to medium in length, moderately thick.
Cavity acuminate, deep or sometimes medium in depth, rather broad or compressed, russeted and with outspreading russet rays.
Calyx large or very large, closed or somewhat open.
Basin deep to medium in depth, medium in width, often abrupt, usually smooth and symmetrical.
Skin moderately thin, tough, smooth, clear pale greenish-yellow, sometimes blushed and occasionally faintly striped.
Dots small, numerous, pale and submerged or brownish.
Calyx tube conical to funnel-shape.
Stamens median to basal.
Core below medium to small, axile or somewhat abaxile; cells sometimes unsymmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels roundish, irregular.
Seeds dark brown, medium or above, plump, obtuse.
Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately firm, a little coarse, rather tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, good in quality especially for culinary purposes.
Season October to January.

PAWPAW.

REFERENCES. 1. Horticulturist, 13:149. 1858. 2. Warder, 1867:728. 3. Downing, 1869:299. 4. Thomas, 1875:508. 5. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 1890:296. 6. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bul., 205:42. 1903.
Synonyms. Ball Apple (3). Pawpaw Seedling (1). Rubicon (3, 5). Western Baldwin (3).
A late-keeping winter apple of medium size, attractive red color and good quality. A hardy, moderate grower and regular bearer; must have suitable soil and good culture (5). It is not recommended for planting in this state.
Historical. Origin Paw Paw, Michigan (1, 3). It has long been cultivated in Michigan to a limited extent, but is practically unknown to New York fruit growers.
Fruit.
Fruit large. Form roundish or somewhat oblong, inclined to conic, faintly ribbed; axis slightly oblique; sides unequal. Stem medium in length, moderately slender. Cavity acuminate, deep, rather broad, compressed, irregularly russeted. Calyx medium in size, slightly open. Basin medium in depth and width, somewhat abrupt, slightly furrowed and wrinkled, compressed.
Skin smooth, rather glossy, yellow overspread and mottled with attractive red irregularly splashed and striped with carmine. Dots moderately numerous, variable in size, russet or light colored, rather conspicuous, often areolar.
Prevailing color red.
Calyx tube short, conical.
Stamens basal.
Core medium in size, axile; cells closed or partly open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels broadly roundish, slightly emarginate, slightly tufted. Seeds numerous, above medium size, rather wide, plump, acute, irregular, somewhat tufted, rather dark brown.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, moderately fine-grained, rather tender, juicy, subacid, good to very good.
Season December to June.

PAYNE.

REFERENCES. I. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 2. Wild, Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1902:203. 3. Stinson, Mo. Fr. Sta. Bul., 3:23. 1902. fig. 4. Budd-Hansen, 1903 :146.
Synonyms. Payne’s Keeper (1, 2, 3). Payne Late Keeper (4).
An attractive apple, valued in the Ozark region because of its excellent keeping qualities. It is somewhat deficient in size, good in quality and nearly sweet. It is duller in color than Ben Davis, but better in flavor and quality. It has not yet been sufficiently tested in New York to indicate its value for this region, but it is probably not well suited to the conditions existing in this state.
Historical. Originated on the Payne farm near Everton, Missouri. It is supposed to have originated from seed brought from North Carolina about 1840.
Fruit.
Fruit below medium to above medium, sometimes rather large. Form roundish conic, somewhat elliptical, ribbed very obscurely if at all. Stem short, usually not exserted, rather slender. Cavity large, remarkably acuminate, very deep, often somewhat furrowed or compressed, usually covered with thin outspreading russet. Calyx small, closed or partly open; lobes often flat and convergent, sometimes separated at the base. Basin commonly very small to medium, often oblique.
Skin smooth, moderately thick, very tough, yellow or greenish washed and blushed with red and pencilled with narrow, obscure, carmine stripes, more or less streaked over the base with thin, dull scarf-skin. Highly colored specimens are almost wholly covered with bright deep red. Dots scattering, moderately conspicuous, rather large, pale gray or whitish often with russet point.
Calyx tube small, funnel-form or nearly so. Stamens median to basal.
Core medium in size, slightly abaxile; cells often not quite uniform in size but usually symmetrical, partly open or closed; core lines clasp the funnel cylinder. Carpels tender, slightly tufted, ovate, mucronate, but slightly emarginate if at all. Seeds medium or above, wide, rather flat, obtuse, tufted, often adhering to the carpels, rather dark.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, a little coarse, moderately juicy to somewhat dry, moderately tender, pleasant in flavor, mild subacid becoming nearly sweet, good to very good.
Season January to June.

PEACH

REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1869:299. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 3. Burrill and McCluer, JI. Sta. Bul., 45:335. 1806. 4. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:137. 1904.
Synonyms. Peach of Kentucky (3). Winter Peach (3).
Fruit white-skinned, often with delicate pink cheek overspread with whitish bloom. In general appearance it is quite attractive, but it does not always average good marketable size. It has a perfumed, subacid flesh of pretty good quality. The tree is long-lived and a pretty reliable biennial cropper, but hardly as uniformly productive as is desirable in a commercial variety. Although it has long been known in cultivation and is considered by some a profitable sort, generally speaking it has won but little recognition among fruit growers. It is not recommended for general planting, but it may be valuable locally.
Historical. Origin unknown (1). It is but very little grown in New York.
TREE.
Tree medium in size, moderately vigorous to vigorous with moderately long, slender, crooked branches. Form roundish or nearly upright, open. Twigs medium to short, straight, moderately stout; internodes medium to short.
Bark brown or somewhat tinged with red, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous but not conspicuous, small, roundish or elongated, not raised. Buds medium to small, plump, obtuse, free or nearly so, pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit below medium to above. Form oblate varying to roundish, flat at base, inclined to conic, somewhat ribbed and often irregularly elliptical; sides often unequal. Stem short to long, sometimes swollen. Cavity rather large, acute, moderately deep, rather broad, furrowed, usually russeted. Calyx small to above medium, closed or partly open. Basin small to medium, shallow to moderately deep, narrow to moderately wide, abrupt to rather obtuse, sometimes furrowed, often wrinkled.
Skin moderately thin, rather tender, smooth, clear pale yellow or whitish, often with a faint blush sometimes deepening in part to pink, mottled about the cavity with whitish scarf-skin and overspread with a white bloom which produces a delicate and beautiful effect. Dots numerous, whitish or areolar with russet point, often submerged.
Calyx tube usually funnel-shape and rather narrow with wide limb, sometimes conical. Stamens basal.
Core medium or below medium in size, abaxile; cells usually symmetrical, sometimes open; core lines clasping or meeting. Carpels elliptical to somewhat obcordate, emarginate, smooth. Seeds few, above medium to rather small, wide, obtuse.
Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, very firm, moderately fine-grained, breaking, tender, very juicy, rather briskly subacid, perfumed, slightly astringent, good or sometimes very good in quality.
Season December to May or June.

Peach (Montreal)

References.  1.
Synonyms.  Canada Peach (14). Montreal Peach (3,14). Peach Apple of Montreal (13). Peach of Montreal (1,2,4-10,12,15). Pomme Peche (1).
Fruit predominantly yellow with some red; in form it somewhat resembles Porter being oval or conical. It is salable in local markets but being easily bruised, it does not stand transportation well (2,3,6,13). The tree is hardy, thrifty and very productive.
According to Hoskins it is a very popular fall apple all through Northern New England and Eastern Canada. It has long been the leading market apple of its season, September, in Montreal and the surrounding territory on both sides of the line. Its season does not extend far into October except by extra care but it forms a very good successor to the Yellow Transparent which it resembles except for its blushed cheek (13).
This variety is but little known in New York. It cannot be expected to displace Oldenburg which is of the same season, more productive (10) and much better known. Historical. Some writers state that this is a variety of French origin (1), but Hoskins considers this doubtful. He states: "Some its characters would indicate it to be a Russian apple which has reached Canada via France, but this is only a conjecture." (13).

Peach Pond
References.  1. Downing, 1845:91. 2. Thomas, 1849:145. fig. 3. Emmons, Nat. Hist. NY., 3:36. 1851. 4. Elliot, 1854:151. fig. 5. Hooper, 1857:68. 6. Warder, 1867:476. fig. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871:8. 8. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 9. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 10. Burrill and McCluer, Ill., Sta. Bul., 45:335. 1896.
Synonyms.  Peach-Pond Sweet (1,2). Peach Pound Sweet (10).
A beautiful autumn sweet apple of excellent quality in season from September to November. The tree is vigorous and spreading. It originated in Dutchess county, NY (1). It was entered in the Catalogue of the American Pomological Society in 1871 and dropped in 1899. Although it has long been in cultivation it has failed to establish itself as a commercial variety in New York and is comparatively little grown for home use.

FRUIT (1,6)

Fruit medium to small.
Form slightly conic, rather flat, angular and a little one-sided.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long, slender, green, sometimes knobbed.
Cavity acute, deep, regular, brown.
Calyx small, closed.
Basin narrow, regular, wrinkled.
Skin smooth, pale yellow lightly covered with mixed striped red and beautifully splashed with crimson.
Flesh yellowish, very mellow, fine-grained, moderately juicy, rich, sweet, agreeable, very good or almost best.
Season September to November.

PEARMAIN

The term Pearmain, like the term Pippin, has been applied to very many different varieties of apples. In this country it is used now much less than it was formerly. Hogg states that it "signifies the Great Pear Apple. In olden times it was variously written Peare-maine or Peare-maine, being the Anglicised equivalent of Pyrus Magnus, just as Charlemagne is of Carolus Magnus. A Pearmain, therefore, ought to be a long or pear-shaped apple.”
Among the varieties described in this volume with the term Pearmain appearing either in the accepted names or in synonyms are those listed below. Synonyms appear in italics.
Autumn Pearmain. See Winter Pearmain.
Blue Pearmain.
Cannon Pearmain.
Cogswell Pearmain. See Cogswell.
Green Winter Pearmain. See Winter Pearmain.
Great Pearmain. See Winter Pearmain.
Hollow Crown Pearmain. See Wine.
Hoopes Pearmain. See Greyhouse.
Large Striped Pearmain. See McAfee.
Large Striped Winter Pearmain. See McAfee.
Lop-sided Pearmain. See Greyhouse.
Old Pearmain. See Winter Pearmain.
Pearmain. See Winter Pearmain.
Pearmain Herefordshire. See Winter Pearmain.
Pryor’s Pearmain. See Pryor.
Red Winter Pearmain. See page 279.
Red Winter Pearmain. See Westfield Seek-No-Further.
Russet Pearmain. See Hunt Russet.
Striped Winter Pearmain. See McAfee.
White Pearmain.
White Winter Pearmain. See White Pearmain.
Winter Pearmain.
Winter Pearmain. See McAfee.
Winter Pearmain, See Milam.

Pearsall
References.  1. Downing, 1869:300. 2. Thomas, 1875:508.
Synonyms.  Pearsall Sweet (1,2).
This variety is supposed to have originated in Queens county, NY. According to Downing, the fruit is a good keeper and valuable for baking. The tree is upright spreading, quite productive. Fruit rather large, yellow, partly covered with light red. Flesh moderately juicy, sweet, good. Season November to January (1).

Pease
References.  1. Rural NY, 54:776. 1895. fig. 2. Heiges, US Pom. Rpt., 1895:36. 3. Rural NY, 56:222. 1897. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:19. 5. Rural NY, 61:249. 1902. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903:147. 7. J.W. Adams and Co., Springfield, Mass., Cat.
Synonyms.  Pease, Walter (4,6). Walter Pease (1-3,5,7).
A pleasant-flavored apple of good size, attractive appearance and excellent dessert quality, but too mild in flavor to excel for culinary uses. The fruit being rather tender requires careful handling and on this account is better adapted for local than for distant markets. It is worthy of the attention of New York fruit growers where a dessert apple of this type is desired. The crop ripens unevenly. The earliest fruit comes in season the latter part of September or early in October, while a considerable portion of the later ripening fruit may remain sound till midwinter or later. Sometimes there is considerable loss from premature dropping of the fruit during September windstorms. The tree is a good grower, hardy, comes into bearing moderately young and is a pretty reliable cropper, alternating light with heavier crops.
Historical. Originated in the seedling orchard of Walter Pease, Somers, Conn., in the early part of the last century (3). It was at first propagated by the Shakers near the place of its origin and there came to be recognized locally as a valuable variety. Within recent years it has been propagated to a considerable extent by nurserymen and is being more widely disseminated.
TREE.
Tree rather large, moderately vigorous to vigorous.
Form upright to roundish.
Twigs moderately long, a little curved, stout; internodes medium to short.
Bark clear brownish-red, heavily coated with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, below medium to above medium, roundish, slightly raised.
Buds below medium to above, broad, plump, rather obtuse, free or nearly so, slightly pubescent.
FRUITMoscow Mitch
Fruit large or above medium, somewhat variable in size and shape.
Form flattened at base, varying from oblate to roundish oblong and often inclined to conic; sides often unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) below medium to long, slender.
Cavity obtuse to acute, moderately deep to deep, broad, sometimes lipped, often somewhat russeted.
Calyx usually medium to large, closed or nearly so; lobes leafy.
Basin moderately deep or sometimes shallow, rather narrow, abrupt, often compressed or furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, somewhat glossy, with pale green or yellowish ground color which in highly colored specimens is largely covered with bright red, striped with bright carmine and flecked with whitish scarf-skin.
Dots numerous, often submerged, whitish or russet, sometimes areolar.
Prevailing effect greenish-yellow more or less striped with red.
Calyx tube small, conical.
Core small to medium, axile; cells partly open or sometimes closed; core lines meeting.
Carpels small, roundish, somewhat tufted.
Seeds rather large, narrow, long, somewhat tufted, dark; often some are abortive.
Flesh whitish, slightly tinged with yellow, firm, rather fine, crisp, tender, juicy, aromatic, sprightly, mild pleasant subacid, good to very good for dessert.
Season October to midwinter.

Peasgood Nonsuch
References.  1. Downing, 1881.:100 app. 2. Hogg, 1884:170. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 4. Can. Hort., 15:346. 1892. 5. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898:356.
Synonyms.  Peasgood's Nonesuch (1,2,5).
An English culinary apple, very large, green or yellowish, blushed and striped with red, excellent for culinary use. In season during September and October (1). In England it is regarded as one of the valuable varieties introduced in the last fifty years (2,5). It has been but little tested in this country.

PECK PLEASANT

REFERENCES. 1. Kenrick, 1832:50. 2. Bull, Mag. Hort., 6:172. 1840. 3. Downing, 1845:126. fig. 4. Floy-Lindley, 1846:411 app. 5. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 14:249. 1848. 6. Thomas, 1849:183. 7. Horticulturist, 4:344. 1849. 8. Cole, 1849:125. 9. VN. Y. Agr. Soc. Rpt., 1849:355. fig. 10. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:84. 1851. col. pl. and fig. 11. Elliott, 1854:97. fig. 12. Hooper, 1857: 69. 13. Mag. Hort., 26:101. 1860. 14. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 15. Mag. Hort., 30:162. 1864. 16. Warder, 1867:641. fig. 17. Downing, 1869:301. 18. Fitz, 1872:168. 19. Barry, 1883:351. 20. Rural N. Y., 46:202. 1887. 21. Ib. 47:749. 1888. 22. Wickson, 1889:247. 23. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890 296. 24. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 25. Munson, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 1893:133. 26. Taft, Mich. Sta. Bul., 105:109. 1894. 27. Alwood, Va. Sta. Bul., 130:135. 1901. 28. Van Deman, Rural N. Y., 60:37. 1901. 29. Budd-Hansen,1903:147. 30. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. J. Bul., 48:52. 1903. 31. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:137. 1904.  [32.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 137.]
Synonyms. Dutch Greening. Peck (26). Peck’s PLEASANT (1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6, 7, 8, 9, 10, II, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 30). Waltz Apple (17). Watts Apple (12).
This variety evidently belongs in the same group with Green Newtown, Rhode Island Greening and Perry Russet. It is an old favorite for home use in many parts of the state. It is more highly esteemed for dessert than for culinary uses. The flesh is tender, pleasantly flavored and ranks very good to best in quality. The color is good for a yellow apple, being at first predominantly green, but as the fruit approaches full maturity it becomes waxen-yellow with an orange or pinkish blush. The fruit very often scalds in storage, but it is less apt to do so if placed in cold storage immediately after picking. Its season for home use extends from October to March. Ordinarily February is its commercial limit in Western New York, but in cold storage it may be held till April (31). The tree is somewhat subject to root-rot and canker and it is not considered as long-lived nor as healthy as either Baldwin or Rhode Island Greening. It has the reputation of being often a shy bearer. In some localities it may bear pretty regularly, but it is only occasionally that it gives full crops. The better grades of the fruit are of good size and attractive appearance, but there is apt to be a rather high percentage of loss from ill-shapen, undersized or otherwise unmarketable fruit.
It is said to be known locally in some portions of the state under the name Dutch Greening.
Historical. In 1845 Downing expressed the opinion that Peck Pleasant originated in Rhode Island and stated that it had long been cultivated in that state and in Northern Connecticut (3). It has been pretty thoroughly disseminated throughout New York state but it is found chiefly in the older orchards and is now seldom or never planted. In 1890 Lyon (23) reported concerning the status of this variety in Michigan that it was generally and deservedly popular, the fruit being beautiful and excellent, and the tree in habit like Rhode Island Greening but less vigorous.
TREE.
Tree medium in size, moderately vigorous or a rather slow grower. Form upright spreading or roundish, rather dense. Twigs medium to short, nearly straight, moderately stout; internodes medium to short. Bark brown tinged with red often mingled with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips. Lenticels quite numerous, small, oblong or roundish, not raised. Buds very deeply set in bark, medium to small, broad, plump, obtuse to acute, appressed to nearly free, pubescent.
[Diseases:  Moderately resistant to most major diseases (32).]
Fruit.Peck Pleasant pic
Fruit medium to sometimes large, somewhat variable in shape and size.
Form oblate to roundish, sometimes a little inclined to conic, often obscurely ribbed or irregularly elliptical, sometimes with furrow on one side. Stem medium to short and usually thick or fleshy. Cavity variable, obtuse or sometimes acute, rather wide, shallow to deep, nearly symmetrical or a little furrowed, often lipped or compressed, sometimes partly russeted. Calyx pubescent, medium to rather large; lobes long, open or closed, sometimes distinctly separated at the base, rather obtuse. Basin varies from broad to rather narrow, from obtuse to abrupt, and from nearly symmetrical to irregular and furrowed or wrinkled.
Skin moderately thick, tough, smooth, green becoming bright waxen yellow with orange-red blush, sometimes partly deepening to pink. Dots numerous, whitish and submerged or with russet point. Prevailing effect yellow.
Calyx tube funnel-form. Stamens basal.
Core medium to rather small, abaxile to nearly axile; cells not uniformly developed, usually closed or slit; core lines clasp the funnel cylinder. Carpels rather tender, broadly roundish, often nearly truncate, emarginate, mucronate.
Seeds numerous, rather dark, long, narrow, acute, below medium or above, sometimes slightly tufted.
Flesh yellowish, firm, tender, crisp, fine-grained, juicy, pleasant subacid, aromatic, very good to best. Toward the close of the season it becomes inferior in quality although it may appear to be still in good condition.  [Occasionally used for baking (32).
Keeping ability:  Good, but as the appearance improves in storage, the flavor diminishes (32).]

PENNOCK

REFERENCES. 1. Coxe, 1817:145. fig. 2. Thacher, 1822:132. 3. Buel, N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:477. 4. Fessenden, 1828:131. 5. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831:27. 6. Mag. Hort., 1:364. 1835. 7. Manning, /b., 7:47. 1841. 8. Downing, 1845:125. 9. Kirtland, Horticulturist, 2:545. 1847. 10. Longworth, Ib., 3:395. 1848. 11. Phoenix, Ib., 4:470. 1849. 12. Thomas, 1849:170. 13. Cole, 1849:128. 14. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:59. 1851. col. pl. 15. Elliott, 1854:176. 16. Hooper, 1857:68. 17. Horticulturist, 15:183. 1860. 18. Warder, 1867:449. 19. Downing, 1869:302. 20. Hogg, 1884:171. 21. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 22. Bailey, An. Hort. 1892:246.
Synonyms. Big Romanite (15, 16, 19). Gay's Romanite (19). Large Romanite (18, 16, 19). Neisley’s Winter (15). Neisley’s Winter Penick (19). Pelican (19). Penick. Pennick. Pennock (8). Pennock’s RED Winter (2, 5, 6, 8, 10, 13, 16). Pennock’s Red Winter (12, 15, 18, 19, 20). Phoenix (16). Pomme Roye (19, of some West, 15). Prolific Beauty (15,19). Red Ox (19). Red Pennock (15, 19). Romanite (18). Roman Knight (19).
A rather large, red winter apple, pretty uniform in size and shape and attractive in appearance, but only fair to good in quality. It is much subject to the trouble commonly known as "Baldwin Spot,” for which no remedy is known. The tree is hardy, very long-lived and a strong grower. It comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper, usually yielding heavy crops biennially and bearing some fruit every year. Generally speaking it is not regarded with favor as a commercial variety because the fruit ranks but second or third rate in quality and, as above mentioned, is subject to the “Baldwin Spot.” It is not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. This old variety has been long known among New York fruit growers by the names Pennock, Pennick, Penick and Phoenix. The true Phoenix is a distinct variety which apparently has never been known among New York fruit growers. Pennock is said to have been first cultivated by Joseph Pennock, of Springfield township, Delaware county, Pennsylvania. It was formerly grown to a considerable extent in Pennsylvania and New Jersey and was at one time popular in the Philadelphia market (1, 2). In 1867 Warder remarked that it was then universally cultivated in nearly all parts of the country. In New York state it is found principally in old orchards and is now seldom planted.
TREE.
Tree large or medium, often very vigorous. Form regular, symmetrical, upright spreading.
Fruit.#MoscowMitch
Fruit large, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish to oblate or slightly oblong, often inclined to conic, sometimes obscurely ribbed or elliptical but usually pretty regular; axis sometimes oblique. Stem short, moderately thick, not exserted. Cavity medium in size, acute or approaching acuminate, moderately narrow to rather broad, deep, usually symmetrical, green or russeted, sometimes with outspreading russet rays. Calyx medium to rather large, closed or partly open; lobes medium to long, acute, connivent or varying to flat and convergent, pubescent. Basin medium in size, shallow to medium in depth, rather narrow to moderately wide, somewhat abrupt, sometimes obtuse, often a little furrowed or slightly wrinkled.
Skin rather thick, tough, smooth, yellow or greenish washed and mottled with red rather indistinctly striped with carmine and somewhat mottled and streaked with thin scarf-skin. Well-colored specimens are almost wholly covered with bright deep red. Dots numerous, conspicuous, large, gray or yellowish, often areolar with russet point.
Calyx tube rather large, moderately wide, usually conical, sometimes approaching truncate funnel-shape. Stamens basal to nearly median.
Core small, axile; cells uniformly developed, closed; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels ovate to roundish obcordate, emarginate, sometimes tufted. Seeds medium to large, moderately narrow, rather long, plump, somewhat acute, rarely tufted.
Flesh yellowish, firm, somewhat coarse, rather crisp, tender, rather juicy, subacid to mild subacid or nearly sweet; flavor lacking in character; quality fair to good.
Season December to April or May.

Perry Redstreak
References.  1. Horticulturist, 24:157. 1869. 2. Downing, 1876:63 app. 3. Ragan, USBPI Bul., 56:230. 1905.
Synonyms.  Perry Red Streak (1,2,3).
A November apple of medium size and mild flavor. It originated at Lowville, NY with Dr. David Perry (1). The tree is hardy, vigorous and a reliable cropper, alternating heavy with lighter crops. The fruit is of medium size, yellow, shaded, striped and splashed with light and dark red; flesh whitish, fine, tender, juicy, slightly aromatic, mild subacid (2).
This variety is unknown to us and we have received no report concerning it from any of our correspondents.

PERRY RUSSET

REFERENCES. 1. Willey, Horticulturist, 17:168. 1862. 2. Warder, 1867:468. fig. 3. Downing, 1869:303. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 5. Thomas, 1875: 509. 6. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 7. Harris, U. S. Pom. Rpt. 1892:271. 8. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 9. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bul., 76:84. 1902. 10. Budd-Hansen, 1903:149. 11. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul. 248:137. 1904.
Synonyms. Golden Russet (1, 3), but erroneously. Pineapple. Pineapple Russet. Poughkeepsie Russet (1), but erroneously. Rhode Island Russet. Winter Russet (1).
This variety evidently belongs in the same group as Peck Pleasant, Rhode Island Greening and Green Newtown. The fruit is of good size, pretty uniform and fairly attractive in appearance for a yellowish apple. It has a crisp, subacid flavor and easily ranks good in quality for either dessert or culinary purposes. It is in season from December to midwinter or later. Its commercial limit in ordinary storage is November or December; in cold storage it may be held till March. It does not stand heat well before going into storage. In going down it often shrivels, becomes mealy and goes down quickly. It varies greatly in keeping quality in different seasons and in different localities, and is not regarded favorably for storage purposes. The tree is very hardy, healthy, very long-lived and a reliable cropper, giving good crops biennially or in some cases almost annually. The fruit hangs well to the tree, being borne on slender twigs. It is perhaps worthy of attention for planting in the home orchard where very hardy varieties are particularly desired, but is seldom regarded as a profitable commercial variety in New York state.
Historical. This variety has long been cultivated locally in the vicinity of Berwyn, Onondaga county, N. Y., where some trees of it nearly one hundred years old are said to be still very productive. It has always been known there under the name of Rhode Island Russet only (Letters, L. L. Woodford, 1904.) and not until 1904, when it was identified by U. S. Pomologist Brackett, was it discovered that it was identical with Perry Russet. The fact that long before it was known as Perry Russet it had the local name Rhode Island Russet indicates that it was probably known in Rhode Island before it was introduced into New York.
Warder (2) publishes a description which was made from a specimen exhibited by Mr. Utters at a meeting of the Northwestern Fruit Growers in 1850. Willey (1), writing from Madison, Wisconsin, made the following Statement concerning it in 1862, “ Perry Russet is a sort sent from the East under various cognomens, as Winter Russet, Poughkeepsie Russet, Golden Russet, etc. It is universally hardy, succeeding in all locations, and much esteemed everywhere. Tree good grower, forms a round even head; fruit large, fair and excellent; keeps well through the winter. Too many cannot be had, as it is the best of all the Russets.” We are also informed that it has been known under the names Pineapple Russet and Pineapple (Report by F, Newhall and Sons, Chicago, Ill, 1904.). Downing, in 1869 stated that this variety “was many years since carried from Perry, Wyoming county, New York, to the West under the name of Golden Russet, but as it was entirely distinct from the true Golden Russet it soon became known as Perry Russet.”
TREE.
Tree medium to large or eventually very large. Form symmetrical, roundish or spreading. Twigs medium to short, straight, slender; internodes medium.
Bark reddish-brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent. Lenticels scattering, very small, oval. Buds small, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit above medium to nearly large, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish oblate to oblate conic, slightly ribbed. Stem often swollen at base, short, thick or moderately so. Cavity very obtuse to acute, shallow to medium in depth, broad, often thinly russeted and with outspreading russet rays, a little wavy and often rather strongly lipped. Calyx medium in size, somewhat open; lobes often separated at the base, narrow, acute to acuminate.
Basin medium in depth to deep, medium to rather wide, abrupt, somewhat furrowed, not symmetrical, irregular.
Skin thick, tough, nearly smooth or roughened: more or less with russet, rather pale yellow with rather dull blush of bronze or brownish-red and sometimes with obscure dark reddish splashes. Dots very numerous, usually small, sometimes rather large, prominent, russet, irregular and mingled with russet flecks or netted russet. Prevailing color yellowish.
Calyx tube rather wide, short, conical. Stamens median.
Core medium size, axile; cells closed; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate, tufted. Seeds medium, narrow, rather long, acute to acuminate.
Flesh whitish a little tinged with yellow, medium to rather fine-grained, moderately tender or somewhat tough, juicy, with an agreeable subacid russet flavor, sprightly, aromatic, good.

Peter
References.  1. 2. NY Sta. An. Rpt., 7:50, 90. 1888. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246.******tbal******
Synonyms.  None.
This fruit resembles its parent Wealthy so closely that it is very difficult to distinguish between the two. It is similar to Wealthy in season as well as in the appearance and quality of the fruit. In ordinary storage its commercial season is September and October (14). In cold storage it extends to about January 1 (13). Sometimes a portion of the fruit may keep into or through the winter (14). Hansen states that even if really distinct the two varieties are now mixed to a considerable extent. As fruited at this Station the flesh of Peter is not so white as that of Wealthy but somewhat milder and better in quality (4). It has been found that the seeds of Peter are larger, broader, less pointed and a little darker than those of Wealthy. The tree is a moderate grower, comes into bearing young and yields full crops biennially. The fruit does not ripen uniformly and on this account there is apt to be some loss from drops unless more than one picking is made.
Historical. Originated from seed of Wealthy by Peter M. Gideon, Excelsior, Minn. (1), from whom this variety was recieved in 1888 for testing at this Station.

TREE.

Tree a fairly strong grower in the nursery; in the orchard it makes a moderately vigorous growth and eventually becomes rather large with moderately stout, somewhat drooping branches.
Form upright spreading to roundish, open.
Twigs short, straight, slender, with large terminal buds; internodes medium.
Bark brown tinged with red, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent near tips.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, oval, not raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium or above, uniform in size and shape.
Form oblate or roundish oblate, a little inclined to conic, regular.
Stem (Pedicel) long to medium, sometimes short, slender.
Cavity acuminate, deep, medium to rather broad, compressed, lightly russeted or nearly smooth.
Calyx small, closed; lobes medium in length, rather broad, acute.
Basin deep to moderately deep, narrow to medium in width, abrupt, gently furrowed, sometimes compressed.
Skin thin, moderately tough, nearly smooth, clear pale yellow washed and mottled with bright red conspicuously striped and splashed with deep carmine.
Dots medium size, scattering brown, mingled with some that are whitish and submerged.
Prevailing effect red or striped red.
Calyx tube small, funnel-shape.
Stamens Stamens median to marginal.
Core medium to below, usually axile; cells symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels roundish, emarginate.
Seeds above medium to large, moderately wide, long, flat, moderately acute.
Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, sometimes stained with red, firm, medium-grained, tender, juicy, with a pleasant, mild subacid, somewhat aromatic flavor, good to very good.
Season September and October or later (14).

PEWAUKEE

REFERENCES. 1. Willey, Horticulturist, 1870. (cited by 2 and 20). 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1871:51. 3. Downing, 1872:26 app. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1875:12. 5. Barry, 1883:351. 6. Thomas, 1885:520. 7. Can. Hort., 14:130. 1891. 8. Ib., 14:260. 1891. 9. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 10. Can. Hort., 17:69. 1894. 11. [b., 17:251. 1894. 12. Ib., 18:379. 1895. 13. Munson, Me. Sta. An, Rpt., 1896:71. 14. Waugh, Vt. Sta. Bul. 61:31. 1897. 15. Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. Bul., 106:54. 1902, 16. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bul., 76:85. 1902. 17. Budd-Hansen, 1903:150. fig. 18. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:52. 1903. 19. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:137. 1904. 20. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:231. 1905.
Synonym. PEEWAUKEE (7, 10).
Fruit above medium to large; often it is poorly colored, being greenish striped with dull red. When well colored it is of fairly good yellow color largely washed and mottled with red and splashed with dark carmine. It is overspread with a heavy bluish bloom which produces a rather dull effect, but it becomes bright and glossy when polished. Its quality ranks fair to good for either culinary or dessert uses.
Pewaukee varies much in keeping qualities in different seasons (19). In ordinary storage its commercial limit varies from November to January, or under favorable conditions till February. The rate of loss in the stored fruit is often high in November, then becomes lower till midwinter, after which it rises again. Its season in cold storage is variously reported as extending from November to February or March, or exceptionally to May (19).
This variety was produced by crossing Oldenburg with Northern Spy. As might be expected from its parentage, it is very hardy, although it has not proven as hardy in the North and Northwest as was at first expected, being inferior to Wealthy in this respect (16, 19).
Pewaukee makes a moderately vigorous root development in the nursery, but in the orchard it becomes a good, strong grower and succeeds well under ordinary care. Usually it is healthy and long-lived, but in some localities it is said to suffer from canker. The tree comes into bearing rather early and is a reliable cropper, bearing biennially or almost annually and often yielding heavy crops. It is not generally considered a desirable variety for commercial planting in New York, except in those portions of the state where hardiness is a prime requisite, for in spite of its vigor, hardiness and productiveness it is usually found less profitable than standard commercial varieties because it is deficient in color and in quality and generally is not very well known in market.
Historical. Originated by George P. Peffer, Pewaukee, Wisconsin, by crossing Oldenburg with Northern Spy. It was first brought to the notice of fruit growers about 1870 (1, 2, 3). It has been sparingly disseminated through this state but has not been cultivated largely in any locality and its planting does not appear to be increasing.
TREE.
Tree vigorous or moderately vigorous, medium to large, with stout curved branches. Form upright spreading or roundish, open. Twigs long to below medium, curved or irregularly bent, moderately stout; internodes long.
Bark clear dark reddish-brown lightly mottled and streaked with gray scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips. Lenticels conspicuous being of a clear light color, scattering, usually medium or below, elongated, not raised. Buds large, broad, plump, obtuse, free or nearly so, much pubescent; the shoulder of the bud is flattened so that it bulges slightly on the sides.
Fruit.Pewaukee pic
Fruit above medium, often large, fairly uniform in size but not in shape.
Form roundish oblate, sometimes approaching roundish ovate, characteristically rounded toward the cavity, ribbed, more or less irregularly elliptical. Stem usually short, often fleshy and often inserted under a lip. Cavity varies from moderately large to small, sometimes being scarcely at all developed, narrow to wide, very shallow to moderately deep, often furrowed and sometimes thinly russeted. It is acuminate at the insertion of the stem but the outer portion is often moderately obtuse. Calyx below medium to large, partly open or sometimes closed. Basin medium in depth and width, usually somewhat abrupt, wrinkled.
Skin smooth, moderately thin, rather tough, grass-green becoming yellow washed and mottled with orange-red or red, striped and splashed with carmine, often covered with bloom. Dots moderately conspicuous, pale gray or whitish, some being large, obscurely defined and areolar.
Calyx tube funnel-form varying to cone-shape. Stamens median to basal.
Core below medium to large, axile to somewhat abaxile; cells irregularly developed, usually closed or slit; core lines clasp the funnel cylinder. Carpels obcordate, tufted. Seeds numerous, medium to large, rather long, moderately narrow, acute, plump, tufted, light brown.
Flesh nearly white, moderately firm, slightly coarse, rather tender, very juicy, subacid, slightly aromatic, fair to good.
Season variable; commonly November to April in Northern and Western New York.

PICKARD RESERVE

REFERENCES. 1. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1863. (cited by 9). 2. Warder, 1867:413. fig. 3. Downing, 1869:304. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 5. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 6. Burrill and McCluer, Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:335. 1806. 7. Thomas, 1897:648. 8. Sharpe, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1901:543. 9. Ragan, U.S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:232. 1905.
Synonyms. Picard (7). Picard’s Reserve (7). Pickard (4). Pickard’s Reserve (9).
A large, green or yellow fruit with reddish-bronze cheek which in highly colored specimens becomes in part pinkish-red. It is evidently allied to the Green Newtown group of apples. This is indicated by the elliptical form, occasional oblique axis, truncate base, the color and markings of the skin, particularly the outspreading russet rays about the cavity, the gray dots and the brownish-pink blush; also by the texture, aroma and quality of the flesh. Although inferior to Green Newtown in aroma and quality it is excellent in both. It does not appear to show any marked resemblance to the group which includes Ortley and Yellow Bellflower and it is strikingly different from this group in its core characters.
As fruited at this Station the tree has not come into bearing very young but with advancing maturity has proved a reliable bearer giving full crops in alternate years. So far as we can learn it has not been sufficiently tested in New York to determine its value for this region either for the home or for market purposes but so far as it has been tried it has proved desirable for home use, and it appears worthy of trial for commercial planting where a yellow fruit of this class is desired. Its culture in the Middle West is said to have declined in recent years on account of the susceptibility of the variety to the attacks of the apple scab. We have found no difficulty in protecting it from this disease by the ordinary line of treatment with bordeaux mixture.
Historical. Originated in Park county, Indiana, from seed brought from North Carolina (2). Professor W. H. Ragan has kindly supplied the following statement concerning its history and habits of growth in Indiana. “It originated with the late Wm. Pickard, of Park county, Ind., and about 40 miles from the place of my birth. Wm. Pickard was a Friend (Quaker) and had a pioneer seedling orchard. By chance he had several fairly good varieties and he boasted that he had as good fruit as those of his neighbors who had cultivated varieties. To convince them of this fact he invited his friends to a test of his varieties. To them he presented several varieties which in turn were pronounced good, bad and worse. Finally he brought out his ‘best,’ that is in his own opinion, but only announced that this was the last. On testing it they were all charmed with its high quality and it was suggested that this was ‘ Pickard’s Reserve,’ it having been reserved until the last of the feast.
“Your inquiry concerning its quality, and your mention in that connection of Grimes Golden indicates that you know of its high character as a fruit. There is no mistake on this point, and yet I am hardly prepared to claim that it is the equal of that fine variety. But it ranks ‘very good’ if not quite 'best.’
“The tree is upright and inclines to make splitting forks that are liable to split down and thus destroy the tree. It is fruitful almost to a fault, and if not overloaded, the fruit is of good size, averaging about with Yellow Newtown in this particular, which it somewhat resembles in appearance. Its flesh is, however, much more tender and less acid than the Yellow Newtown. Its parentage is not certainly known, though it has been suggested that it may have been from seed of ‘Ortley.’ It was one of the very first (along with the Ortley itself) to yield to the attack of the apple scab, when it first invaded our country, and hence its culture has been largely discontinued with us.”
TREE.
Tree vigorous; branches long, moderately stout, liable to split at the forks.
Form upright spreading, open. Twigs moderately long, straight, rather stout; internodes medium to short. Bark dull brown tinged with red, heavily coated with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticels rather conspicuous, numerous, medium size, somewhat elongated, slightly raised. Buds medium to below medium, broad, plump, obtuse to somewhat acute, free or nearly so, pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit large, fairly uniform in shape and size. Form inclined to oblate, rather irregularly elliptical, sometimes broadly or obscurely ribbed, often lopsided or with one side bulging; axis often oblique. Stem short, usually rather slender. Cavity pretty large, acuminate, irregular, wide, very deep, often compressed and sometimes lipped, russeted and with very conspicuous, outspreading russet rays. Calyx small to medium, partly closed or sometimes open; lobes acuminate, reflexed. Basin small to medium, narrow to rather wide, deep, rather abrupt, furrowed, slightly wrinkled.
Skin smooth or slightly roughened with russet dots, green changing to yellow when fully ripe, often with faint streaks of brownish or pinkish blush. Bright and rather attractive for a yellowish apple.
Dots russet and gray.
Calyx tube conical or approaching truncate funnel-form. Stamens median to basal.
Core small to medium, usually axile or nearly so; cells often not uniform in size but symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines meeting when the calyx tube is cone-shape, clasping when it is funnel-form. Carpels elongated, pointed ovate, smooth or nearly so. Seeds acute to slightly obtuse, long, medium size, brown, sometimes tufted.
Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately fine-grained, crisp, tender, juicy, subacid becoming mild subacid, somewhat aromatic, sprightly, very good.
Season in Western New York November to February or March.

PIFER.

REFERENCES. 1. Mag. Hort. 19:210. 1853. 2. Horticulturist, 8:342. 1853. 3. Warder, 1867:728. 4. Downing, 1869:304. 5. Burrill and McCluer, Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:336. 1806. 6. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:52. 1903. 7. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:138. 1904.
Synonyms. Pfeifer (4,7). PFEIFFER (1, 2, 3). PIPER (6).
A dull red fruit of medium size and fair quality. Its chief merit is that it keeps fresh and firm till very late in the season. The tree does not come into bearing very young but so far as tested here it appears to be a reliable bearer yielding full crops biennially. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. Originated in Springfield township, Pennsylvania. Brought to the attention of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society in 1853 (1, 2). It does not appear to be known among New York fruit growers.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous with moderately long, slender, curved branches.
Form upright to roundish, rather dense. Twigs medium in length to very short, straight or nearly so, slender, with large terminal buds; internodes rather short. Bark clear reddish or olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous, small to very small, elongated, usually not raised. Buds rather small, plump, acute, appressed, slightly pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit below medium to above, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish inclined to oblate, regular or sometimes obscurely ribbed, usually symmetrical; sides sometimes unequal. Stem short to medium, rather slender. Cavity acute to acuminate, rather shallow to moderately deep, moderately broad, smooth and greenish or occasionally slightly russeted. Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open; lobes long, recurved. Basin varies from moderately deep and abrupt to rather shallow and obtuse, rather narrow to moderately wide, slightly furrowed or wrinkled.
Skin tough, leathery, smooth, dull greenish-yellow blushed with dull red, becoming deep pinkish-red in highly colored specimens, with numerous narrow stripes of dark carmine, and overspread with a thin bloom which gives a dull effect. Dots small, gray.
Calyx tube long, very narrow below, funnel-shape. Stamens median to basal.
Core medium in size, axile or nearly so; cells usually partly open; core lines clasping. Carpels obcordate, emarginate. Seeds numerous, medium or above, rather wide, plump, somewhat acute.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, hard, pretty coarse, somewhat crisp, not tender, juicy, mild subacid, somewhat aromatic, fair or possibly good.
Season January to July.

PINE STUMP.

REFERENCES. 1. Berckmans, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1891:160. 2. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bul., 143:201. 1897. 3. Massey, N. C. Sta. Bul., 149:318. 1898.
As fruited at this Station this is a dull red apple hardly medium in size. It is in season from November to February. It originated in Granville county, North Carolina. In that region it is in season from the middle of September to early winter and it is said to be a very showy fruit and an excellent market apple of fine flavor and good quality (1, 3). It does not appear to be adapted to New York conditions and is not recommended for planting in this state.

PIPPIN.

The word Pippin, from the old English word Pippin, a seed, or the French Pepin, a pip or kernel, formerly signified a seedling apple in distinction from a budded or grafted tree. Hogg remarks that, “ Leonard Maseal, writing in 1572, says, ‘Then shall you cover your seedes or pepins with fine erth so sifting al over them’; and “when the winter is past and gone, and that ye see your Pepins rise and growe’; and again, ‘When so euer ye doe replante or change your Pepin trees from place to place, in so remouing often the stocke the frute there of shall also change; but the frute which doth come of Graffing doth always kepe the forme and nature of the tree whereof he is taken’.
“Tt is evident from this last quotation that Pippin is synonymous with seedling, and is used to distinguish a tree raised directly from seed from one that has been raised from grafts or cuttings. The Golden Pippin, which, by the way, was raised in Sussex, where Mascal also was born, means simply Golden Seedling.
"But there was another meaning attached to the word. In Henry IV., Shallow says to Falstaff, ‘ Nay, you shall see mine orchard; where in an arbour we will eat a last year’s pippin of my own gtaffing.’ And this is interpreted by what Sir Paul Neile says in his Discourse of Cider, written in the time of the Commonwealth, wherein speaking of ‘pippin cider,’ he says, ‘For by that name I shall generally call all sorts of cider that is made of apples good to eat raw,’ and that is evidently the signification in the above quotation from Shakspeare.
“Coming to more modern times, we have the word kernel, which is the English equivalent of Pepin, also used to signify a seedling apple tree; as, for example, Ashmead’s Kernel, the seedling raised by Dr. Ashmead, of Gloucester ; Cook’s Kernel, Knott's Kernel, and many others.”
In this country the term Pippin has been applied to very many different varieties of apples. In Eastern and Southeastern New York when this word is used alone it signifies either the Green Newtown or Yellow Newtown specifically, or the group of green or yellow skinned apples to which these belong, while in Central and Western New York it refers to either the Fall Pippin specifically or to the group to which that variety belongs. In certain portions of the Middle West it is understood as referring to Missouri Pippin.

Plumb Cider
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Plum Cider (10,11).
This variety has been received with some favor in many parts of the country on account of its hardiness and productiveness. The fruit is of good medium size, fairly attractive in color, yellowish shaded and splashed with red. As grown in New York state it is inferior to standard varieties of its season.
Historical. Origin unknown. It was brought from Ohio in 1844 to Wisconsin by Mr. Plumb, where it proved to be a good grower, hardy and productive (5).

FRUIT (5,13, 14).

Fruit above medium.
Form round-ovate, slightly conic in some specimens.
Stem (Pedicel) stout, short.
Cavity shallow, narrow.
Calyx very small, closed.
Basin very narrow and shallow, slightly plaited.
Skin yellowish shaded with pale red and somewhat striped with brighter red.
Dots few, fine, gray.
Calyx tube long, very narrow, funnel-form.
Stamens extremely marginal touching the segments, a marked characteristic.
Core little above medium; cells open; core lines clasping.
Carpels cordate.
Seeds pale brown, short, plump, pointed.
Flesh of a greenish cast, firm, fine, breaking, juicy, brisk subacid, good.
Season October to January.

POMME GRISE

REFERENCES. 1. Forsyth, 1803:53. 2- Ronalds, 1831:32. 3. Manning, Mag. Hort., 7:51. 1841. 4. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1842. 5. Downing, 1845:124. 6. Thomas, 1849:184. 7. Cole, 1849:129. 8. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 17:17. 1851. fig. 9. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:94. 1851. fig., col. pl. No. 77. 10. Elliott, 1854:99. 11. Hooper, 1857:70. 12. Downing, 1857:180. 13. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 14. Warder, 1867:469. fig. 15. (?) Leroy, 1873:684. figs. 16. Barry, 1883:352. 17. Hogg, 1884:179. 18. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890: 296. 19. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 20. Dempsey, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 2:34. 1895. 21. Budd-Hansen, 1903:152. fig. 22. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:138. 1904.
Synonyms. (Bec de Lievre, 15)? (Belle Fille, 15)? (De Cuir, 15)? French Russet (22). Gray Apple (5, 6, 10, 12, 21). Grise (5, 8, 10, 12). Leather Apple of Turic (12). (Leder, 15)? (De Maroquin, 15)? (De Peau, 15)? Pomme de Cuir (12). PoMMre Gree (1). PomME Gris (3, 9, 13, 18, 19, 20, 21). (Prager Reinette Franche de Grandville, 15)? (Reinette de Darnetal, 15)? (REINETTE GRISE, 15)? (Reinette Grise de Darnetal, 15)? (Reinette Grise Double, 15)? (Reinette Grise extra, 15)? (Reinette Grise Francaise, 15)? (Reinette Grise de Grandville, 15)? (Reinette Grise d’Hiver, 15)? (Reinette toute Grise, 15)?
A little russet apple valued only because of its excellent dessert quality. Its keeping quality varies much in different seasons. In cold storage its season extends from December to February or March, and in ordinary storage, from the middle of October to January or possibly February. After midwinter it is apt to deteriorate in quality, although it may remain apparently in good condition till March or April. It has the reputation of developing particularly fine flavor when grown in the St. Lawrence valley. In New York it is seldom produced profitably in large quantities for the general market, not being attractive enough in size and color to command remunerative prices, but it is sometimes grown successfully to a limited extent for local or special trade. It is recommended for home use because of its juiciness and fine dessert quality. The tree is hardy, healthy and moderately long-lived. In favorable locations it is a pretty good bearer, the fruit hangs well to the tree and is fairly uniform in size and appearance.
The Swazie is an apple of the Pomme Grise type. It is described on a subsequent page.
Historical. The Pomme Grise or fruit of this type has long been known in cultivation among the French in the vicinity of Montreal and in other portions of the St. Lawrence valley. According to Forsyth (17) it was introduced into England from Canada. Possibly it is identical with the Reinette Grise of Leroy (15) but we have not had the opportunity of determining this point definitely. If it is in fact the Reinette Grise it has been cultivated in Europe for more than 250 years.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous. Form dense, roundish or spreading. Twigs short, straight, rather slender with large terminal buds; internodes short to medium.
Bark clear reddish-brown mingled with olive-green lightly streaked with gray scarf-skin, pubescent. Lenticels clear in color, quite numerous, medium to small, generally elongated, slightly raised. Buds rather prominent, medium in size, broad, plump, obtuse to acute, free, pubescent.
FRUITMoscow Mitch
Fruit below medium to small, fairly uniform in size and shape. Form oblate varying to roundish, sometimes inclined to conic, slightly ribbed, pretty symmetrical. Stem usually slender, much pubescent, often bracted and streaked with reddish-brown. Cavity pretty large, obtuse, deep, usually rather wide, often compressed or gently furrowed. Calyx small to medium, usually closed; lobes long, narrow, acuminate, pubescent. Basin variable, pubescent, often somewhat saucer-shaped, narrow to rather wide, moderately shallow, obtuse to moderately abrupt, furrowed.
Skin moderately thick, rather tough, deep yellow or greenish partly or entirely covered with russet. In highly colored specimens the cheek is often partly smooth and yellowish-brown mottled and striped with bright dark red.
Dots gray or whitish, scattering and usually inconspicuous.
Calyx tube cone-shape. Stamens basal or nearly so.
Core medium in size, slightly abaxile; cells symmetrical, usually closed or partly so; core lines clasping. Carpels roundish, narrowing toward the apex, slightly emarginate, mucronate, smooth or slightly tufted. Seeds medium in size, plump, irregular, moderately obtuse, slightly tufted.
Flesh yellowish, firm, crisp, moderately fine-grained, juicy, rich, subacid, aromatic, very good to best.

Pomona
References.  1. Downing, 1869:135. 2. Leroy, 1873:248. fig. 3. Hogg, 1884:55. 4. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:237. 5. Beach, NY Sta. An. Rpt., 13:579. 1894. 6. Ib., Gard and For., 8:428. 1895. 7. Ib., Can. Hort., 20: 183. 1897. 8. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898:356. 9. Beach and Clark, NY Sta. Bul, 248:139. 1904.
Synonyms.  Cox's Pomona (1-9). Dean's Codlin (2).
Fruit frequently large and when highly colored rather attractive, being mottled and striped with crimson over a clear pale yellow ground color. The fruit is not very uniform in size, often unsymmetrical, tender, easily bruised and not a very good keeper. In ordinary storage its commercial limit is October (9). The tree is a good grower, comes into bearing young, and is an annual cropper, or nearly so, but only moderately productive. It is not recommended for commercial planting in New York.
Historical. Originated by Mr. Cox, Colnbrook Lawn near Slough, Bucks, England, who also originated Cox Orange (3).

TREE.

Tree medium size, moderately vigorous with branches moderately stout, spreading and often drooping.
Form roundish.
Twigs straight, stocky, long; internodes medium.
Bark rather bright reddish-brown mingled with olive-green, thinly overlaid with narrow streaks of gray scarf-skin.
Lenticels rather numerous, conspicuous, medium to sometimes large, roundish or sometimes elongated.
Buds medium to large, broad, obtuse, appressed, somewhat pubescent.
Leaves rather large, broad, dark green; base of petioles red.
FRUITMoscow Mitch
Fruit medium to very large, fairly uniform in size [inconsistent- ASC] but not in shape.
Form oblate conic, very irregular, ribbed; sides usually unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) usually short, moderately thick.
Cavity large, acuminate to acute, deep, broad, rather symmetrical or sometimes compressed, irregularly russeted.
Calyx medium size, open or nearly closed; lobes separated at base, short, rather broad, obtuse to acute, reflexed.
Basin deep, medium in width to rather wide, abrupt, smooth or ridged, slightly wrinkled.
Skin thin, rather tender, waxy, smooth, greenish-yellow or pale yellow partly blushed with crimson, and mottled and narrowly striped with carmine.
Dots scattering, small, inconspicuous, usually whitish and submerged, sometimes gray or russet.
Calyx tube wide, conical, sometimes extending to the core.
Stamens median to nearly marginal.
Core medium to small, somewhat abaxile; cells open or closed, symmetrical; core lines clasping.
Carpels ovate to broadly roundish or elliptical, emarginate.
Seeds medium to small, wide, short, very plump, flat, obtuse, dark brown.
Flesh whitish, not very firm, rather fine, crisp, tender, juicy, subacid, sprightly, good to very good for culinary use.
Season September and October.
[Not to be confused with the fine hobbyist publication about fruit and fruit-growing published by the North American Fruit Explorers (NAFEX). -ASC]

Porter
References.  1.  [XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 141.]
Synonyms.  Jennings (23). Yellow Summer Pearmain (23).
This fruit is of very fine dessert quality. it is also highly esteemed for canning and other culinary uses, because when it is cooked it is not only excellent in quality but it retains its form remarkably well. The fruit is yellow, faintly marked with red, decidedly attractive for an apple of its class. It does not stand shipping very well because the skin is rather tender and readily shows marks of handling. Since it is quite variable in its season of ripening there is apt to be considerable loss from dropping unless more than one picking is made. It varies in size from large to small, with a considerable percentage of the crop undersized or otherwise unmarketable. The tree is vigorous, compact, hardy, comes into bearing early and is a pretty reliable biennial cropper. Fifty years ago it was the principal September apple in the Boston market (1,3,5,9,18,19), and in spite of the fact that it is not red it continues to sell well in that market (29). It is also in good demand in many local markets. It is desirable for planting for home use or for some local markets, but generally it is not regarded as a profitable commercial variety by New York fruit growers.
Historical. Originated about 1800 with Rev. Samuel Porter, Sherburne, Mass. (1,3,5,14), and up to about 1850 its cultivation was confined principally to the vicinity of its origin. It gradually became very widely known and has become well disseminated in many of the more important apple-growing regions of the country. Old trees of it are occasionally found in New York orchards but it is now seldom planted here.
TREE.
Tree medium to large, vigorous.
Form roundish or somewhat spreading.
Twigs rather slender, very short-jointed, with prominent shoulders (14).
Buds medium in size.
[Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major apple diseases (Burford).]
FRUIT#MoscowMitch
Fruit small to large, usually rather large.
Form oblong inclined to conic, rather truncate at base and with apex oblique and somewhat ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to rather short, moderately thick to slender, sometimes knobbed, curved.
Cavity acute to acuminate, medium to deep, medium in width to rather narrow, symmetrical or compressed, sometimes lipped, usually faintly russeted.
Calyx rather large, closed or partly open; lobes usually separated at base, short, rather narrow, broadly acute.
Basin moderately deep to shallow, rather narrow, abrupt, broadly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin moderately thin, smooth, rather glossy, clear bright yellow with a faint blush, usually rather obscurely striped with darker red marked with scattering red dots.
Dots usually medium to very small, often submerged, green with whitish center, sometimes russet.
Calyx tube rather short, wide, broadly conical.
Stamens median to basal.
Core medium to large, axile to somewhat abaxile; cells partly open to wide open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate to elliptical, mucronate.
Seeds below medium to rather large, plump, rounded, acute.
Flesh yellow, fine, crisp, tender, juicy, subacid, agreeably, aromatic, sprightly, good to very good for either dessert or culinary uses.  [Good all-purpose apple, especially for baking and pies (Burford).]
Season It begins to ripen in September and continues in use till November or later.  [Ripens in late summer in Virginia and unsurprisingly is only a fair keeper when grown there (Burford).]

POUND SWEET.
The apple most commonly known in Central and Western New York under the name of Pound Sweet is large, roundish, marbled with light and dark green, eventually becoming more or less yellow and conspicuously streaked over the base with whitish scarf-skin, It is in season from October to January. The name now generally accepted by pomologists for this variety is Pumpkin Sweet. It is also known by some as the Lyman Pumpkin Sweet. It is described under the name Pumpkin Sweet in the succeeding volume.
Several distinct varieties of apples have been known in cultivation under the name Pound Sweet, but so far as we have been able to discover only the one above referred to is green, all others being either more or less russeted or marked with distinct red.

Pound Sweet

References.  1.Downing, 1869:311.
Synonyms.  None.
This name has been applied to several varieties of large sweet apples. Downing mentions one which is large, roundish conic, greenish-yellow with slight red in sun; flesh yellowish, tender, moderately juicy, sweet; season September and October; and another which is large, roundish, red; flesh whitish, moderately juicy, aromatic, sweet (1). Others are described by other authors and some which are known locally by this name have perhaps never been described in any publication.
The variety most commonly known in Central and Western New York under the name Pound Sweet is large, globular, marbled with yellow and green and streaked with whitish scarf-skin. It is described under its correct name, Pumpkin Sweet, on page 171.

PRATT SWEET
REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1869:312. 2. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:241. 1905.
Synonyms. Pratt (2). Pratt Sweet (2).
A sweet winter apple which originated on the farm of Daniel Pratt, Richland, Oswego county, N. Y. We have not seen this variety. According to Downing (1) the tree is vigorous and annually productive; the fruit large, roundish conical, yellow striped and shaded with clear pinkish-red; the flesh is yellowish-white, breaking, tender, juicy, rich and very good in quality. So far as we can discover it is not now known among New York fruit growers, nor do we find any record of its having been grown outside of the locality of its origin. Humrickhouse, in a list of new American seedling apples published in 1853, mentions a fall variety under the name of Pratt (Mag. Hort., 19: 164. 1853.). Since Pratt Sweet appears to have been but a local variety and since it was not brought to notice in New York till 1869, and since its season is given as December to March, it would seem that it is distinct from the Pratt of Humrickhouse. Ragan at first listed them as identical (2) but now considers them as "possibly identical" (Letter, 1905).

PRIESTLY

REFERENCES. 1. Coxe, 1817:146. fig. 2. Thacher, 1$22:132. 3. Buel, N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:476. 4. Wilson, 1828:136. 5. Kenrick, 1832:51. 6. Downing, 1845:126. 7. Horticulturist, 2:483. 1848. 8. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:72. 1851. g. Elliott, 1854:176. 10. Hooper, 1857:72. 11. Warder, 1867:720.
Synonyms. PRIESTLEY (3, 5, 10). Priestley’s American (6,9). Red Cathead (9).
Fruit medium to large, blushed or faintly striped with red. Although it ranks only fair to good in quality it is an agreeable dessert apple especially in the spring when it is fresh, juicy and mildly subacid. It is less desirable for culinary uses because it Jacks acidity. The tree is a pretty vigorous grower, hardy, healthy, long-lived and commonly bears good crops annually. The fruit hangs well to the tree. It is surpassed by standard varieties of its season and is not recommended for planting.
The following is Coxe’s description of this variety: “This apple is said to be a native of the county of Bucks in Pennsylvania, where it was first cultivated by a person from whom it has obtained its name. The tree has a handsome, upright form, vigorous growth, and large leaves; it is well suited to light soils—the fruit is large, of an oblong form—the skin smooth, the colour usually a dull red, streaked faintly with green, with spots of the same colour; the flesh is white, has a pleasant spicy taste—it is an excellent table and kitchen apple; hangs late on the tree; is an abundant bearer, and makes good cider late in the season, but not of the first quality.”
Fruit.
Fruit large to medium. Form roundish oblate to roundish oblong, usually quite regular and symmetrical. Stem long, usually rather slender. Cavity acute to acuminate, moderately deep to very deep, broad, russeted and with outspreading russet rays, sometimes faintly furrowed. Calyx large, usually closed, sometimes partly open; lobes connivent, erect or reflexed, broad, acute.
Basin very shallow to moderately deep, wide, obtuse or somewhat abrupt, distinctly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin tough, smooth, green or yellow washed and blushed with red and inconspicuously striped with dark carmine; highly colored specimens are nearly covered with deep red. Dots rather numerous toward basin, larger and more scattering toward cavity, gray or russet.
Calyx tube rather wide, conical. Stamens median or below.
Core medium to small, axile; cells symmetrical, closed; core lines meeting or clasping. Carpels roundish, emarginate. Seeds large, wide, flat, obtuse to somewhat acute, very dark brown.
Flesh yellowish, firm, rather coarse, crisp, juicy, agreeable mild subacid, somewhat aromatic, medium to good in quality.
Season December to April.

Primate
References.  1. Cowles, Mag. Hort., 16:450. 1850. fig. 2. Ib., 17:506. 1851. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1854. 4. Mag. Hort., 20:241. 1854. 5. Elliott, 1854:153. fig. 6. Mag. Hort., 21:62. 1855. 7. Gregg, 1857:38. 8. Downing, 1857:93. fig. 9. Horticulturist, 14:471. 1859. 10. Mag. Hort.,
Synonyms.  Belle Rose (17). Early Baldwin (17). Early Tart Harvest (14). Harvest (2). Highland Pippin (17). July Apple (14). North American Best (9,14). Powers (2,14). Rough and Ready (1,2,5,7,8,14). Scott (14). Sour Harvest (9,14). Zour Bough (9,14).
A dessert apple, pale yellow or whitish, often slightly blushed; in season in August and September. It is well known throughout the state, but not much grown except for home use. It is commonly considered the best apple of its season for the home orchard because the tree is a pretty good grower and a reliable cropper, and the fruit ripens in succession during a period of several weeks and is of fine flavor and excellent quality, particularly for dessert use. Being less attractive than a red apple it is in demand in market only where its fine quality is known. The fruit ripens unevenly and it should be picked from time to time as it matures to prevent loss from the dropping of the fruit. In some localities, the tree has proved somewhat tender, not very long-lived and rather susceptible to the attacks of the apple canker, but, generally speaking, as grown throughout Central and Western New York, particularly where it has been topworked upon good thrifty stock, the tree is a pretty good grower, moderately long-lived and reliably productive. Often it yields very heavy crops biennially with lighter crops, or none, on alternate years, but in some localities it is almost an annual bearer.
Historical. This variety was disseminated by traveling grafters in Central and Western New York as much as fifty years ago. In 1850, Charles P. Cowles of Syracuse in a communication to the Magazine of Horticulture stated: "As it is not known in this place, nor state, by the best judges, I safely think it is a seedling. I found a few trees in Onondaga county in a town of the same name which had been circulated by grafts but nothing further could be traced of its origin. ***I propose to call it 'Rough and Ready' from the fact of its being first tested during that campaign. ***Messrs. Downing, Barry and Thomas think it a new variety. ***It is but little known as yet but where it is, its qualities are much esteemed" (1). The following year Mr. A. Fahnstock, a nurseryman of Monroe counties as well as in Onodaga county and that it was generally known by the name of Primate. Recently, John T. Roberts of Syracuse has taken the trouble to look up the history of this variety and is convinced that the original seedling tree grew in the town of Camillus, Onondaga county, and through his efforts a bronze tablet has been erected to mark the spot. The tablet bears the following inscription: "On this farm Calvin D. Bingham about 1840 produced the marvelous Primate apple, named by Charles P. Cowles. God's earth is full of love to man" (27). In 1854 it was listed by the American Pomological Society (3) as a valuable variety. It is listed by various nurserymen in the region from the Atlantic to the Middle West but apparently is but little known either in the Southwest or the Northwest (22).
TREE.
Tree below medium to rather large, usually moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading to roundish, rather dense.
Twigs short, straight, stout with large terminal buds; internodes short.
Bark dull brown mingled with green, heavily streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent and rather rough.
Lenticels scattering, medium size, oblong, raised.
Buds prominent, large, broad, plump, acute, pubescent.
FRUIT
Fruit medium or above, sometimes large.
Form roundish conic to oblate conic, often distinctly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, thick.
Cavity acute, deep, broad, distinctly furrowed.
Calyx medium size, closed; lobes long, narrow.
Basin moderately shallow to rather deep, medium in width to rather narrow, abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, moderately tender, smooth, light green, often changing to whitish, sometimes with faint yellowish tinge, often slightly blushed but not striped.
Dots scattering, numerous, rather small, submerged or russet.
Calyx tube rather large, rather long, broadly conical to somewhat funnel-shape.
Stamens median.
Core medium to large, nearly axile to somewhat abaxile with hollow cylinder in the axis; cells symmetrical, open; core lines clasping.
Carpels cordate.
Seeds medium to rather large, moderately wide, plump, acute.
Flesh whitish, fine, crisp, very tender, juicy, subacid, aromatic, sprightly, very good to best.
Season August and September.

PRINCE ALBERT
REFERENCES. I. Hogg, 1884:128. 2. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898: 356, 359. 3. Can. Hort., 12:10, 1889. 4. Garden, 64:322. 1903. fig. 5. Ragan, U.S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:172. 1905.
Synonyms. Lane ALBert (5). Lane’s Prince ALBERT (1, 2, 3). Lane Prince Albert (5). Prince Albert (LANE) (2).
Fruit large, grass-green eventually becoming yellowish with part of the exposed cheek covered with a thin blush and splashed with bright carmine. The general appearance is rather attractive for a green apple. It is too briskly subacid in flavor for a dessert apple but is valued for culinary uses. So far as tested at this Station the tree sustains the reputation which it has gained in England of coming into bearing young and being a reliable cropper and very productive (1, 4). Its season has not been proved here but it evidently extends from midautumn to midwinter. Hogg gives its season as December to March. Further testing is required to determine whether it is a desirable variety for this region.
This variety is found in common cultivation in some parts of England and it is there usually called the Lane Prince Albert (4). Bunyard lists it first as Prince Albert (Lane) and afterwards as Lane Prince Albert (2). Ragan has abbreviated the name to Lane Albert (5). We prefer to follow Bunyard in calling it Prince Albert as that appears to approach more closely to the name by which it is commonly known in England.
Sharpe lists a Prince Albert of Prussia which is distinct from Prince Albert (Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1900:457 and letter, 1905.).
Historical. Introduced by H. Lane & Son, Berkhampstead, England, and exhibited by them at a meeting of the British Pomological Society, October 26, 1857 (1, 4). The original tree was still in existence in a Berkhampstead garden in 1903 (4). In 1881 Prince Albert received a first-class certificate from the Royal Horticultural Society (2). In an article on “ Progress in Fruit Culture in Queen Victoria’s Reign 1837-1897,” Bunyard presents a list of fruits introduced into cultivation in England in the last sixty years likely to prove permanent additions which includes but ten varieties of apples and one of them is Prince Albert (2). This variety is but little known as yet in America.
TREE.
Tree very vigorous. Form spreading, rather dense. Twigs stocky, moderately long. Bark dark greenish-brown. Lenticels numerous, roundish, medium in size, conspicuous. Buds large, plump, obtuse, pubescent. Leaves large, broad; foliage dense.
Fruit.
Fruit pretty uniformly large, sometimes very large. Form roundish somewhat flattened at the base and inclined to conic with broad obtuse ribs toward the basin, somewhat irregular. Stem medium to short, moderately thick.
Cavity acute, varying from slightly obtuse to slightly acuminate, medium in depth or sometimes deep, rather broad, somewhat furrowed, frequently compressed, sometimes faintly russeted. Calyx below medium to above, closed or slightly open; lobes rather short and wide, inclined to acute. Basin usually below medium in size, often oblique, medium in depth to rather deep, rather narrow to medium in width, abrupt, irregular, deeply furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin smooth, moderately thick, tough, grass-green becoming yellowish with part of the exposed cheek shaded with red and striped with carmine, mottled and streaked with scarf-skin. Dots small, often submerged, whitish or sometimes with russet point, numerous toward the basin, larger and more scattering toward the cavity.
Calyx tube rather short, moderately wide, cone-shape or approaching funnel-shape. Stamens median to basal.
Core large to very large, abaxile; cells usually symmetrical, open or sometimes closed; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels elongated or broadly roundish, obtusely emarginate, often tufted. Seeds numerous, medium or above, moderately narrow to rather wide, obtuse to acute, rather dark.
Flesh tinged with yellow or green, firm, moderately fine, crisp, tender, very juicy, briskly subacid or sour; suitable for culinary uses but has too much acidity for a good dessert apple.

Prolific Sweeting
References.  1. ***9. Munson, ME Sta. Rpt., 1896:71. 10. Waugh, VT Sta. An. Rpt., 14:304. 1901. 11. Munson, ME Sta. Rpt., 1902:84, 86, 88. 12. Hansen, SD Sta. Bul., 76:88. 1902. fig. 13. Budd-Hansen, 1903:154.
Synonyms.  No. 351 (3,4,12). Plodowitka Cuadkaja (1,3). Prolific Sweet (1,10).
A Russian variety which in size and color resembles Yellow Transparent but in form is roundish oblate and somewhat irregular. It has proved to be a valuable sweet apple for autumn use in Northern New England (5,11-13). Worthy of trial when a variety of this class is desired.
Historical. Imported from Russia by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1870. It was received for testing at this Station from Dr. T.H. Hoskins, Newport, VT in 1888 (6). It has thus far been but little disseminated in this state.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading to roundish, open.
Twigs long, curved, stout; internodes short.
Bark brown, tinged with green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium size, round, not raised.
Buds medium size, broad, flat, obtuse, appressed, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium or above.
Form roundish oblate, somewhat irregular.
Stem (Pedicel) medium size.
Cavity deep, acute to acuminate, ribbed, russeted and with some outspreading russet rays.
Calyx closed.
Basin shallow, wide, wrinkled.
Flesh white, crisp, fine-grained, mildly sweet, good.
Season late August, September and October.

PRYOR

REFERENCES. I. Kenrick, 1832:59. 2. Mag. Hort., 10:207. 1844. 3. Byram, Horticulturist, 2:18. 1847. 4. Rice, /b., 4:289. 1849. 5. Phoenix, Ib., 4:471. 1849. 6. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:67. 1851. 7. Horticulturist, 6:181. 1851. 8 Mag. Hort., 19:242. 1853. 9g. Elliott, 1854:99. fig. 10. Downing, 1857:96. 11. Hooper, 1857:72. 12. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1860. 13. Downing, Horticulturist, 16:42. 1861. 14. Mag. Hort., 30:162. 1864. 15. Warder, 1867: 627. fig. 16. Fitz, 1872:143, 149, 172. 17. Leroy, 1873:780. fig. 18. Barry, 1883:352. 19. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:247. 20. Clayton, Ala. Sta. Bul., 47:8. 1893. 21. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:52. 1903. 22. Bruner, N.C. Sta. Bul., 182:21. 1903. 23. Budd-Hansen, 1903:155. fig. 24. Ragan, U.S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:244. 1905.
Synonyms. Bersford (24). Big Hill (9, 10, 17, 24). Bonford (24). Conford (24). Pitzer Hill (9, 10, 17, 24). Prior’s Red (10). Prior’s Red (3,9, 24). Prior’s Late Red (24). Pryor’s Pearmain (24). Pryor’s Rep (1, 2,3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19). Pryor Rep (23). Pryor Red (17, 24). Red Russet (of some 24). Rouge de Pryor (17).
A southern apple of good size and rich subacid flavor; in season from December to February. Although it has long been known in cultivation it is seldom found in New York orchards, which is evidence that it is not well adapted to this region (13).
Historical. This is said to have originated in Virginia (4, 12). Hooper remarks that “it varies much in its appearance, being sometimes green russeted, then sometimes dull orange-russet with a trace of red, and again deeply red or striped, and sometimes almost black with depth of color” (11). Warder (15) remarks “it is singularly affected by change of soil and climate; thus, on the Ohio River, it is seen quite flat and regular, with a dull green russeted skin, becoming yellow and ruddy; in one part of the state of Indiana, on limestone, it is gibbous, round, often very large, and covered with a rich cinnamon russet, while on the coal measures, west of the center of the state, it is smaller, regular, and distinctly striped deep red on red, with very little russet. Specimens from Rochester, New York, have been shown with scarcely a trace of russet, and having the stripes as distinct and almost as beautiful as those of a Dutchess of Oldenburgh, so that no southern or western man would have recognized it for his home favorite. The distinctive leather-cracking about the eye was present, however, in all.”
TREE.
The tree as described by Byram (3), Warder (15), Downing (10, 23), Rice (4), and others attains large size and is productive when old, requiring a deep, rich soil and a warm season or southern climate for its proper development. Form upright, somewhat spreading, twiggy; branches sometimes form peculiarly acute angles. Twigs slender, clear reddish-brown with some olive-green. Lenticels large, conspicuous, gray. Foliage scattering, folded, grayish-green, subject to leaf-blight.
Fruit.
The following description of the fruit is taken from Byram (3), Elliott (9), Downing (10), Hooper (11), and Warder (15).
Fruit medium to large. Form variable but usually roundish oblate; axis often oblique and sides unequal. Stem short, thick to moderately thick. Cavity small, acute to acuminate, often lipped, russeted and with some outspreading brownish-russet. Calyx small, closed. Basin small, shallow, regular.
Skin thick, greenish to brownish-yellow tinged with dull red, rather indistinctly striped with dark crimson, slightly russeted. Dots numerous, large, gray or greenish.
Core closed; core lines meeting. Seeds numerous, angular, acute.
Flesh yellowish-white, tender, fine-grained, juicy to rather dry, subacid, very good to best.
Season December to March.

Pumpkin Russet
References.  1.  [XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 144.]
Synonyms.  Flint Russet (3,6). Kingsbury Russet (90. Pumpkin Sweet (3,5). Pumpkin Sweeting (2). Pumpkin Sweeting of New England (1). Sweet Russet (3,4,6). York Russet (6).
This is a very large, round, yellowish-russet apple, sweet, rich, very good for baking but of little value for other purposes. The tree is a vigorous, rapid grower, hardy, moderately long-lived and yields fair to good crops biennially or in some cases almost annually. It is not a profitable commercial variety and is now seldom cultivated, even for home use.
Historical. Pumpkin Russet is an old New England variety. Kenrick (1) in 1832 described it under the name Pumpkin Sweeting of New England. In 1849 Cole (5) described it under the name Pumpkin Sweet giving Pumpkin Russet as a synonym. In 1845 it was described by Downing (3) under the name Pumpkin Russet which is the name now generally accepted for it by pomologists. It is still occasionally listed by nurserymen but is now seldom planted in New York.

TREE.

Tree large, vigorous or very vigorous.
Form at first upright, but eventually becoming roundish or spreading, open; branches long, stout, curved.
Twigs short, curved, stout; internodes long.
Bark dark reddish-brown tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, oblong, slightly raised.
Buds large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.
[Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases (Burford).]

FRUIT

Fruit large, fairly uniform in size and shape.
Form oblate or somewhat inclined to conic, sometimes irregular, faintly ribbed, often compressed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to short, moderately slender to thick.
Cavity acute to acuminate, usually deep, moderately broad to rather narrow, nearly smooth, sometimes slightly furrowed.
Calyx large, closed or slightly open; lobes long, narrow, acute to acuminate.
Basin small to medium, rather shallow to moderately deep, medium in width, somewhat abrupt, slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thick, rather tough, greenish or yellowish sometimes with bronze blush on exposed cheek, more or less covered with russet patches or netted veins of russet.
Dots large and small, scattering, usually russet, irregular.
Calyx tube short, wide, broadly conical to nearly urnshape.
Stamens median to basal.
Core above medium to below, abaxile; cells usually open, symmetrical but not uniformly developed; core lines slightly clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate, very slightly emarginate, sometimes tufted.
Seeds moderately light brown, rather large, wide, flat, acute.
Flesh greenish-white or yellowish, firm, rather coarse, tender, juicy, sweet, good.  [Also useful for baking, apple butter and cider.  This was the country's main baking apple before 'Rome Beauty' supplanted it (Burford) (undeservedly, in my opinion -ASC).]
Season September and October or in cold storage extending to January 1 (12).  [Good keeper, even when grown as far south as Virginia (Burford).]

Pumpkin Sweet
References.  1. N.E. Farmer, 1834 (cited by 20). ***tbal***  [XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 145.]
Synonyms.  Lyman's Large Yellow (20). Lyman's Pumpkin Sweet (2,3,6,9,10,11). Lyman's Pumpkin Sweet (5,14,17,19,20). Pound Sweet (9,11,12,14,17-19). Pumpkin Sweeting (20). Rhode Island Sweet (20). Round Sweet (20). Sweet Lyman's Pumpkin (20). Vermont Pumpkin Sweet (10,20). Vermont Sweet (20). Yankee Apple (5,20).
Fruit large to very large, marbled with light and dark green and streaked over the base with whitish scarf-skin; well colored specimens eventually become quite yellow and sometimes are faintly bronzed on the exposed cheek. It is never marked with red, nor is it russeted except about the cavity. So far as we know, all other varieties which have been cultivated under the name Pumpkin Sweet are either russeted or marked with red.
This is the variety generally known in Central and Western New York as Pound Sweet, and it commonly appears under this name in market quotations. By many it is esteemed as one of the best sweet apples of its season for baking and for canning or stewing with quinces, but generally it is not valued for dessert because it is rather coarse and has a peculiar flavor. It often sells well in local or special markets, and there is a limited demand for it in the general trade. Its keeping qualities differ greatly in different localities and in different seasons. As grown in Western New York, it comes in season early in October. The rate of loss in ordinary storage is usually high during the fall, and the season closes in December or early January, although in some years a considerable portion of the fruit may remain sound till midwinter or later (19).
The tree is a good strong grower, rather long-lived, fairly hardy and generally healthy, but it sometimes suffers from winter injury, sunscald and canker. It appears to thrive particularly well on well fertilized gravelly or sandy loam, with well drained subsoil. Under right conditions, it is a pretty reliable cropper, yielding good crops biennially. The crop ripens somewhat unevenly and often there is considerable loss from water-cored fruit and from windfalls, but on the other hand, there is a small percentage of loss in undersized or deformed apples. In order to lessen the loss in undersized or deformed apples. In order to lessen the loss from windfalls it is well to plant this variety in a location that is sheltered from prevailing winds.
Historical. Originated in the orchard of S. Lyman, Manchester, Conn. (9). It has been distributed throughout this state for more than fifty years, but nowhere has it been largely planted. Generally speaking it is not grown so extensively now as it was formerly, but in a few localities its cultivation for commercial purposes is increasing somewhat.

McCarty is identical with Pumpkin Sweet in general characters and is sold as Pumpkin Sweet, but it appears to differ enough from the type in certain characteristics to entitle it to recognition as a distinct strain. As compared with typical Pumpkin Sweet the fruit of McCarty averages smaller, is not so yellow and keeps longer. B.J. Case, Sodus, NY, who grows McCarty commercially, reports: "The tree does not produce any water-cored fruit except when the crop is light. It appears to be fully as productive as Pumpkin Sweet. In common storage it is not unusual to keep McCarty later than January. In quality it is not so good as Pumpkin Sweet. The origin of this type is unknown."

TREE.

Tree medium to large, vigorous, with long, moderately stout branches.
Form upright spreading or roundish, open.
Twigs medium to short, straight or nearly so, stout to moderately slender; internodes short to medium.
Bark reddish olive-green varying to brownish red, uniformly mottled with thin scarf-skin, pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, rather inconspicuous, small, roundish, not raised.
Buds medium or below, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent.
FRUITAliens are melting usMoscow Mitch Fruit large to very large, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form globular to roundish conic, sometimes irregularly elliptical or prominently ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) very short, stout, often inserted under a lip or having itself a fleshy protuberance.
Cavity acuminate, moderately shallow to rather deep, narrow to moderately wide, often somewhat furrowed or lipped, sometimes russeted and with outspreading russet.
Calyx medium to rather large, open; lobes often separated at the base, short, broad, acute.
Basin small to medium in size, moderately shallow to rather deep, narrow to moderately wide, abrupt to somewhat obtuse, often slightly furrowed or wrinkled.
Skin rather thin, tough, smooth, at first green but eventually clear yellow marbled with greenish-yellow. Stripes of whitish scarf-skin radiate from the cavity. Well colored specimens occasionally show a brownish-red blush but never a distinct red color.
Dots conspicuous, whitish, often areolar with russet center.
Calyx tube rather wide, conical or elongated cone-shape or sometimes slightly funnel-form.
Stamens median to basal.
Core medium to rather large, axile; cells symmetrical, closed or somewhat open, not uniformly developed; core lines clasping.
Carpels thin, broadly roundish, but slightly emarginate if at all, often tufted.
Seeds medium to rather small, wide, plump, acute, light brown, tufted.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, medium in texture, crispness and juiciness, decidedly sweet with a peculiar flavor; good for culinary use and especially esteemed for baking.  [Also useful for apple butter, frying, drying and Burford adds that it is sometimes eaten fresh.]
Season: October to January.  [Ripens in the fall in Virginia and is a poor keeper as grown there and further south (Burford).]
[Notes from a Canadian grower can be found at the Orange Pippin website. For instance, it is a triploid, which suggests that it cannot pollenize other cultivars.- ASC]

(I) Quince (of Cole)
References.  1.[XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5. p.46]
Synonyms.  Cole's Quince (1-6,10). Quince (3,5,6). Turn Off Lane (10).
This is a very good variety for home use and is considered by some New York fruit growers fairly profitable in commercial orchards. The fruit is large, angular, yellow with white aromatic subacid flesh of very good quality; in season in late summer and early autumn. Commercial limit in cold storage, November 1 (9). The tree is of good medium size, spreading, a good grower, very hardy, comes into bearing moderately young, and is a reliable cropper. It is not extensively cultivated in New York.
Historical. Originated at Cornish, ME from whence it was disseminated about fifty years ago (1).

[Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases (Burford).]

FRUIT

Fruit Cole gave the following description of this fruit in 1849 (1): "Fruit large to very large; flattish-conical; ribbed; bright yellow, seldom a brown cheek, stem short, in a deep cavity; calyx large, in a deep basin; flesh when first ripe, firm, juicy, pleasant acid, and first-rate for cooking. When very mellow, remarkably tender, of a mild, rich, high quince flavor and aroma. When in perfection we have never seen its superior. July to September."
[Other notes gleaned from Burford: Ripens late summer in Virginia; only fair keeper; good for baking, frying and dessert.]

(II) Quince (of Coxe)
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Pear apple (8,11). Quince (1-3,5,6,8-10). Quince Apple (11). Seneca Favorite (10). Seneca Spice (11, ?8).
A variety which is distinct from the Quince of Cole was described by Coxe in 1817. According to Downing, it is in appearance much like a large Yellow Newtown, and the young wood is of a different shade of color from that of the Quince of Cole, being dull reddish-brown instead of clear reddish-brown, with buds small, reddish and pointed, instead of short, abrupt and prominent. The following is the description of the fruit given by Coxe (2): "The size of the apple is large; the shape flat; the skin, when fully ripe, is yellow; the flesh rich, yellow and juicy-- in appearance it somewhat resembles a large yellow Newtown Pippin. It came originally from the state of New York; ripens in November."
This variety is unknown to us, and we have received no report concerning it from any of our correspondents.