State of New York- Department of Agriculture
Apples of New York
[Apples starting with "O"-"Q" -ASC]
References. 1. Downing, 1869:291.
Originated with A.B. James, Ogdensburg, NY. According to Elliott's description cited by Downing (1), the fruit is medium size, whitish-yellow with brownish-blush; flesh tender, very mild subacid, very good; season November and December. We are unacquainted with this variety and have received no report concerning it from any of our correspondents.
Synonyms. Bellflower of the West (5). Cattell Apple (10, of Pennsylvania 6). Myers Nonpareil (3,6-10,12,14). Red Bellflower of some (5). Rusty Core (6,10). Wells (5). Western Beauty (9, erroneously 10).
A fine fall apple of good color and good quality for either dessert or culinary purposes. The tree is a moderate grower and appears to be hardy and moderately long-lived. It does not come into bearing very young and is not always a reliable cropper. It is regarded as a good variety for home use and some recommend it for commercial planting. Season October and November.
Historical. Originated near Massillon, Ohio. Although this is an old variety having first been described in 1848 (1) we do not find that it has been much disseminated in New York. It is more popular in the Middle West and is still offered by nurserymen in that region (16).
Tree medium size, moderately vigorous.
Form rather spreading, not dense.
Twigs medium length, curved, rather stout.
Bark olive-green with some reddish-brown, thinly streaked and mottled with gray scarf-skin.
Lenticels scattering, conspicuous, large, usually round, becoming laterally compressed.
Buds medium to small, obtuse, appressed, pubescent.
Fruit medium to large.
Form roundish oblate, often obscurely ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to rather short, rather thick.
Cavity rather large, acute, deep, pretty symmetrical, more of less russeted, the russet sometimes outspreading over the base.
Calyx medium or above, closed or slightly open; lobes medium in length, narrow, acute.
Basin rather small, medium in depth, narrow to moderately wide, somewhat abrupt, rather symmetrical.
Skin pale yellow to deep yellow almost entirely overspread with bright red, mottled and irregularly striped and splashed with carmine.
Dots moderately numerous, small to medium, areolar with russet center or grayish.
Calyx tube moderately short, conical.
Stamens basal to nearly median.
Core small, somewhat abaxile; cells symmetrical, not uniformly developed, nearly closed to somewhat open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels roundish, rather flat, tufted.
Seeds medium size, moderately long, plump, acute, tufted.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, moderately fine, crisp, tender, juicy, agreeable subacid, aromatic, good to very good.
Season October to November.
References. 1. Warder, 1867:484. fig. 2. Downing, 1869:292. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 1881:12. 4. Thomas, 1885:223. 5. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:193. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903:141. 7. Beach and Clark, NY Sta. Bul., 248:135. 1904.
Synonyms. Buchanan (1). Ernst's Apple (1). Ernst's Pippin (2,4). Shannon (1-3,6).
Fruit of good medium size, quite attractive for a yellow apple, mild in flavor and of good quality. Season late September or October to January; October appears to be its commercial limit in this latitude (7). The tree attains good size, is rather vigorous and healthy, comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper, being almost an annual bearer and often yielding full crops.
Historical. This variety is supposed to have originated in Dayton, Ohio (1,2). It has been disseminated pretty widely in the Middle West but it is scarcely known among New York fruit growers.
Tree rather vigorous.
Form open, somewhat roundish or spreading and inclined to droop.
Twigs short, straight, stout; internodes short.
Bark dark dull brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels scattering, medium to below, oblong, not raised.
Buds very deeply set in the bark, medium size, flat, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent.
Fruit above medium to medium.
Form oblate conic to roundish oblate, rather irregular in shape being often somewhat elliptical or obscurely ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) short, slender, usually not exserted.
Cavity rather large, acute or slightly acuminate, varying sometimes to rather obtuse, deep, broad, often furrowed, sometimes lipped, sometimes russeted and with outspreading russet rays.
Calyx medium to large, open; lobes reflexed, rather broad, obtuse, separated at the base.
Basin small and shallow to rather broad, deep and abrupt, sometimes compressed, wrinkled.
Skin smooth, somewhat glossy, attractive bright yellow often with a faint orange or pinkish blush.
Dots whitish, submerged, sometimes russet or areolar with russet point.
Calyx tube short, rather wide above, cone-shape or approaching truncate funnel-form.
Stamens basal or nearly so.
Core small, usually axile; cells symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish, approaching elliptical, but slightly colored, rather small, very plump, obtuse.
Seeds numerous, light colored, rather small, very plump, obtuse.
Flesh whitish or tinged with yellow, firm, firm, tender, crisp, moderately juicy, mild subacid becoming mildly sweet, good.
Season [late September or October to January]
References. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887:132. 2. Ib., Cat., 1899:19. 3. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1901:97. 4. Hansen, SD Sta. Bul., 76:78.1902. fig. 5. Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. Bul., 106:54. 1902. 6. Munson, ME Sta. An. Rpt., 18:84. 1902. 7. Budd-Hansen, 1903:141. fig.
Synonyms. Okobena (6).
An autumn apple not particularly attractive in appearance, nor more than moderately good in quality. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. Originated in 1871 near Worthington, Minn., from seed of Oldenburg said to be fertilized by Wealthy (7). Received for testing at this Station in 1892, from the Jewel Nursery Company which introduced this variety. In 1899 it was given a place on the list of the American Pomological Society as a variety of value in Upper Mississippi valley (2). So far as we can learn it has been grown in the East only in an experimental way.
References. 1. 41. Waugh, VT Sta. An. Rpt., 14:302. 1901.**********tbal*******
Synonyms. Baroveski (20). Barowiski (20> Borovitsky (20,37,38). Borowicki (20). Borowitski (24). Borowitsky (43). Charlamowiski (24). Charlamonowski d'Automne (20). Charlamowskircher Nalleoid (20). Charlamowsky (43). Duchess (27, 29, 32, 35, 37,38,43). Duchess of Oldenburg (
This Russian apple is known throughout the West either by the name Duchess, or by the full name Duchess of Oldenburg; the American Pomological Society has abbreviated the full name to Oldenburg, but this has not been generally accepted by Western fruit growers. In European nurseries it is propagated under the names of Charlamowsky and Borowitsky. It was early imported into the West, coming to this country by the way of England and it was the extreme hardiness of this variety in the early test winters that kept up the hopes of prairie orchardists in time of great discouragement and led to the importations of more varieties from Russia (42).
Oldenburg is one of the most valuable of the Russian apples thus far introduced into this country. it is of good size and attractive appearance. It is generally highly esteemed for home use on account of its excellent culinary qualities and with some fruit growers it has proved a very profitable variety for the commercial orchard. When properly grown and carefully handled, it stands shipment pretty well and sells well for a variety of its season. In some few localities in Western New York it is grown in sufficient quantities so that it can be shipped in car lots to distant markets, but in very many places it is produced in greater quantities than the local markets can absorb and yet not in quantities large enough so that it can be economically shipped to distant markets. Since the fruit is quite perishable, it does not stand heat well before shipment and goes down rather quickly, particularly if the weather is unfavorable. When sent to distant markets it should be shipped under ice. The fruit ripens in succession so that several pickings are required in order to secure the crop in prime marketable condition. It is in season during late August and September, but it may be used for culinary purposes before it is fully ripe. The tree is highly valued because of its great hardiness. It is vigorous when young when young but with age it becomes a rather moderate or slow cropper, yielding good crops biennially, often with lighter crops alternating. Generally speaking, the trees require good cultivation, thorough fertilizing and careful spraying in order to secure the bes commercial results. The fruit hangs fairly well to the tree till it is ripe. It is quite uniform in size and quality, with but a small percentage of loss from unmarketable fruit. Historical. This is one of the four pioneers among Russian apples in America, the other three being Alexander, Tetofsky, and Red Astrachan (38). These four varieties were imported by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society from the London, England, Horticultural Society about 1835. Oldenburg was brought to England from Russia about twenty years prior to that date. It was tested by Robert Manning, Superintendent of the Test Garden of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society at Salem who published the following description in 1838 (3): "A valuable and handsome apple said to be of Russian origin. The size is middling, form round and rather flat; skin of a beautiful yellow, striped with red; flavor very pleasant and good. It bears well and ripens in September and October." In 1850 Hovey wrote, "Mr. Manning, we believe, first proved the Duchess of Oldenburg and gave a brief account of it in his Book of Fruits. Since then it has been considerably disseminated, and though yet far from being common is to be found in many fine collections of fruit" (9). Later it became disseminated throughout the Middle West and Northwest where it proved to be much superior in hardiness to Baldwin, Rhode Island Greening, Northern Spy and other varieties which have been commonly cultivated in this state. Its ability to withstand severe climates encouraged the importation of other Russian sorts some of which have proved valuable in the northern portion of the apple belt. Oldenburg is commonly listed by nurserymen (31) and its planting both in home orchards and in commercial orchards is increasing in this state.
Tree medium in size.
Form at first upright spreading but eventually roundish.
Twigs moderately long, curved, slender; internodes long.
Bark dark brown, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small to medium, oblong, not raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.
Fruit medium to large, averaging above medium, uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish oblate to oblate, regular, symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) short to sometimes medium, moderately slender.
Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, broad, usually partly covered with greenish-russet.
Calyx medium to rather large, usually closed; lobes rather broad, acute.
Basin moderately deep to deep, wide, abrupt, smooth or with small mammiform protuberances.
Skin moderately thick, tender, smooth, pale greenish-yellow or pale yellow, almost covered with irregular splashes and stripes of bright red mottled and shaded with crimson.
Dots scattering, small, light colored.
Prevailing effect red striped; attractive. Calyx tube moderately long, rather wide, funnel-shape with broad truncate cylinder or approaching urn-shape.
Core medium to rather large, axile; cells symmetrical, closed or slightly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate, slightly emarginate.
Seeds medium to rather large, wide, obtuse to acute, moderately plump, dark brown.
Flesh tinged with yellow, rather firm, moderately fine, crisp, tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, aromatic, good to very good for culinary purposes. It has too much acidity for a good dessert apple.
Season August and September.
References. 1. [***will be added later***]
Synonyms. Will be added later.
Fruit in many respects intermediate in character between its parents, Northern Spy and Wagener. Like Wagener, it is oblate and ribbed; like the Spy, it has a large, deep cavity and its color, when highly developed, is pinkish-red with carmine stripes over a clear, pale yellow background. As grown at this Station, we have not been favorably impressed with it because it is inferior to Northern Spy both in color and quality. In fact, it has been too deficient in color to rank as a good commercial sort. It is in season from November to March or April. So far as tested here it appears to follow Northern Spy in that it shows considerable variation in different seasons in its keeping quality (21). It has been a strictly biennial bearer, yielding heavy crops in alternate years. It appears to be superior to Northern Spy in productiveness, but is less productive than Wagener. It is hardier and longer-lived than Wagener. In portions of Ontario it is regarded as one of the best apples bot for commercial purposes and home use (18). As grown in that region and also in some parts of Michigan, it is on the average larger and more highly colored than we have found it to be at this Station. Doubtless there are localities in New York where it would succeed much better than it does at Geneva. On account of its good record in Canada as to its hardiness and productiveness it is certainly worthy of trial in Northern New York and in those portions of the state where the Spy succeeds best.
Historical. Originated by Charles Arnold, Paris, Ont., by crossing Northern Spy with Wagener.
Fruit large to very large, uniform in size and shape.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, bright pale yellow or greenish more or less washed with brownish-red, faintly splashed with carmine, in highly-colored specimens becoming bright pinkish-red striped with bright carmine; often coated with whitish bloom and mottled and streaked with whitish scarf-skin, particularly over the base.
Dots rather numerous, small, whitish-gray or russet.
Calyx tube .
Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, rather firm, moderately fine or a little coarse, crisp, tender, very juicy, sprightly, rather brisk subacid, more so than Northern Spy, aromatic, good to very good; especially desirable for culinary use.
Season November to March or April.
References. 1. M'Mahon, Am. Gard. Cal., 1806:585. 2. Coxe, 1817:139. 3. Emmons, Nat. Hist. NY 3:91. 1851. 4. Horticulturist, 8:247. 1853. 5. Mag. Hort., 19:172. 1853. 6. Hooper, 1857:67. 7. Downing, 1857:178. 8. Warder, 1867:728. 9. Downing, 1869:294. 10. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:245.
Different varieties of the apple have been known under the name Orange. The Fall Orange has already been described on page 60.
Orange has sometimes been used as a synonym for Lowell which is described on page 128.
ORANGE OF NEW JERSEY (1,2,3,6,-10). Coxe (2) give the following description of this variety: "This is a fine table apple in the fall and early winter months; and is thought to be a good cider fruit; the size is small, the form oblong-- the colour a greenish-yellow-- the flesh yellow, rich, juicy and sprightly; the tree is of moderate size, the growth upright, and its fruitfulness great. It is much cultivated in several of the middle counties of New Jersey as a highly estimable apple." Downing (7,9) states that the tree is vigorous and moderately productive; the fruit pleasant subacid; very good; season September and October.
ORANGE OF PENNSYLVANIA. A variety which originated at Reading, PA was brought to notice under the name Orange by the ad interim report of the Fruit Committee of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society in 1853 (4,5). The fruit is described as medium size, roundish, nearly orange-yellow, sprightly, good (4,5,8,9). We have received no reports concerning this variety from any of our correspondents and so far as we know it is not in cultivation in New York.
References. 1. Mag. Hort., 1:396. 1835. 2. Warder, 1867:566. 3. Downing, 1869:295. 4. Thomas, 1885:519.
Synonyms. Orange Russet (2). Orange Sweeting (1,2).
Several varieties are described under this name by Downing (3); one from Ohio, large, greenish-yellow; flesh whitish, tender, sweet, good; season October and November; one from Massachusetts, the fruit medium, oblate, greenish-yellow; the flesh yellowish-white, rather coarse, rich, sweet; season August and September; and one from Maine; fruit medium, roundish ovate, bright yellow with blush; flesh yellowish, tender, sweet, rich; season September and October.
Warder (2) describes under the name Orange Sweeting or Russet "An eastern variety not much cultivate; fruit large, very round, regular, greenish-yellow, bronzy, orange russeted; flesh rather tough, fine-grained, juicy, good; season December."
The name Orange Sweet has also been used as a synonym for both Munson (p. 146) and Golden Sweet (p. 81).
Synonyms. Astravaskoe (12). Ostrakoff Glass (11, 12). Ostrekoff (3,5). Ostrekoff's Glass (1,2). Ostrekovskaya Steklianka (3). Ostrekowskaja Steklianka (1,2). Ostrokoff (6,8,14). Ostrokoff's Glass (4). No. 4 M (4-7,9,11,13,15,16). No. 472 (1,3).
A Russian variety of good size, greenish-yellow, brisk subacid, fair to good quality. Its keeping qualities vary much in different seasons. As grown at this station, it is commonly in its prime from late September into November but a portion of the fruit may often be kept into the winter in very good condition. It is reported as a promising variety for portions of Northern New England and other regions where superior hardiness is a prime requisite. It is of no value where our common standard varieties succeed.
Historical. Described by Budd in 1885 under the name Ostrakoff's Glass and in 1890 under the name Ostrakoff (3,7). It was received in 1884 for testing at this Station from Ellwanger and Barry, Rochester, NY under the name Astravaskoe.
Tree moderately vigorous.
Form spreading or roundish, open.
Twigs short, curved, stout with large terminal buds; internodes medium.
Bark dark brown tinged with gree, heavily streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent near tips.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, round, raised, rather conspicuous.
Buds prominent, large, long, plump, obtuse, free.
Fruit medium or above, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish to somewhat ovate or oblong, somewhat conical, a little angular.
Stem (Pedicel) characteristically long, often curved, twisted or irregularly enlarged or inserted under a fleshy protuberance.
Cavity acute or approaching acuminate, shallow to moderately deep, medium in width to narrow, partly covered with light greenish-russet, often lipped.
Calyx closed or open, rather large, leafy; lobes rather broad, acute to obtuse.
Basin characteristically irregular, medium in width and depth, abrupt, sharply ridged and wrinkled.
Skin moderately thin, rather tough, smooth, pale waxen-yellow sometimes with a faint reddish shade.
Dots very numerous, small, submerged, often areolar.
Calyx tube medium to large, rather wide, conical to peculiarly funnel-form, with broad truncate cylinder.
Stamens basal to median.
Core medium size, axile; cells closed or slightly open; core lines meeting.
Carpels roundish to broadly ovate, emarginate.
Seeds medium brown, large, wide, rather flat, obtuse to acute.
Flesh yellowish-white, firm, rather fine, juicy, brisk subacid, fair to good.
Season late fall and early winter.
References. 1. Van Deman., US Pom. Rpt. 1891:390. 2. Rural NY 50:851. 1891. 3. Hexamer, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 1891:159. 4. Williams, Gard. and For., 5:11. 1892. 5. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 6. Craig, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1896:133. 7. Macoun, Ib., 1901:97.
Palouse is a comparatively new variety which originated in Washington. In color, texture, flavor and aroma it is so much like Tompkins King that some suppose it to be a seedling of that variety. Its form, however, is quite different from that of Tompkins King, typical fruit being oblong, as described by Craig (6) and others (1,2), rather than oblate or roundish oblate, as described by Hexamer (3) and Macoun (7). It is hardly as good a keeper as Tompkins King and would probably be classed as a late fall variety, being in season from October to early winter. It is, however, more productive than Tompkins King and is being much planted in commercial orchards in Washington where many regard it as one of the most valuable of the seedling varieties which have originated in that region. It appears to be worthy of testing in New York.
Historical. Palouse originated in Whitman county, Washington, from seed brought from Illinois in 1879. The original tree is located frive miles east of Colfax (Ruedy, Letter and Circular, 1904). It was introduced about 1892 by George Ruedy, Colfax, Wash, whose attention was first called to the variety in 1889 when it took first premium as the best seedling apple exhibited at the Whitman County Fair. It is as yet but little grown in the East and so far as we can learn it has as yet been planted in New York to but a limited extent and for trial only.
Form oblong conic, ribbed or scalloped.
Stem (Pedicel) long, slender.
Cavity remarkably deep.
Calyx closed or partly open.
Basin rather shallow to deep, distinctly furrowed, the furrows often extending to the cavity.
Skin bright yellow, blushed and more than half covered with crimson, splashed, blotched and dotted with darker red.
Prevailing effect attractive red and yellow.
Flesh yellowish, crisp, firm, tender, juicy, very aromatic, subacid, very good.
Season October and early winter.
References. 1. Downing, 1872:25 app. 2. Bailey, An. Hrot., 1892:246. 3. Beach, NY Sta. An. Rpt., 14:263. 1895. 4. Beach and Clark, NY Sta. Bul., 248:137. 1904.
Synonyms. Imperial White (1). Superior White (1). White Apple (1).
Fruit pale yellow or whitish, waxen, of medium size; quite attractive in appearance for an apple of its class. The flesh is white, juicy, subacid, good in quality for either dessert or culinary use. It follows Yellow Transparent in season, beginning to ripen late in August of early September and continuing in use into or through October (4). The tree comes into bearing young and is an annual cropper, yielding good to very heavy crops. In spite of its remarkable productiveness it makes a pretty good growth. It is worth of trial where an apple of its type is desired.
Historical. Origin unknown. It is supposed to be a Pennsylvania apple. It is occasionally listed by nurserymen (2). It has not yet become known to any considerable extent in New York.
Tree medium size and moderately vigorous.
Form at first upright spreading but after bearing full crops it becomes roundish and somewhat drooping; dense.
Twigs short, curved, stout with large terminal buds; internodes short.
Bark brown tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels quite numerous, rather conspicuous, medium size, round, not raised.
Buds medium to large, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.
Fruit usually medium but varies according to the abundance of the crop from below medium to rather large; quite uniform in size and shape.
Form nearly globular varying to somewhat oblate or slightly inclined to ovate, quite regular.
Stem (Pedicel) above medium to rather short, slender.
Cavity slightly acuminate, medium to shallow, medium in width, smooth, symmetrical.
Calyx small, closed; lobes medium in length, narrow, acute.
Basin very shallow, moderately narrow to rather broad, obtuse, smooth or slightly wrinkled, symmetrical.
Skin moderately thick, rather tough, waxen yellowish-white or greenish. Occasionally blushed.
Dots medium size to very small, pale or brown, numerous, depressed.
Calyx tube short, narrow, funnel-shape.
Stamens marginal to median.
Core medium to small, abaxile; cells open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels round, emarginate.
Seeds medium or above, acute or inclined to obtuse, light brown.
Flesh white, quite firm, rather fine, tender, juicy, subacid, good.
Season very late August into or through October.
Synonyms. Duchess No. 3 (2,9,10). Patten's Duchess No. 3 (11). Patten Greening (1-11).
A seedling of Oldenburg which, on account of its hardiness, productiveness and the uniformly large size of its fruit is valuable in the northern portions of the apple-growing regions of the country (1,5,6,8-10). It is grown as far north as the Red River valley of Minnesota and North Dakota and in other regions where the winters are correspondingly severe. It is attractive in color for a green apple, has a sprightly subacid flavor and good texture and is very good in quality for culinary use. The tree is a somewhat stronger grower than Oldenburg, with limbs strongly shouldered (2,9,10). As grown at this Station it comes into bearing moderately young and is an annual cropper, yielding moderate to full crops. It is worthy of trial in the colder regions of the state.
Historical. Originated by C.G. Patten, Charles City, IA (2), who states that it is a seedling of the Oldenburg from seed grown near Portage, Wis., and planted by him at Charles City, IA, in the fall of 1869. It was first 1885 when stock of this variety was first offered for sale. In 1899 it was entered in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society as a valuable variety for the Upper Mississippi valley (6). It has as yet been but little disseminated in New York.
Tree moderately vigorous with moderately long, somewhat stout, curved, drooping branches.
Form spreading, dense, flat.
Twigs rather short, somewhat curved, moderately stout or rather slender; internodes medium to long.
Bark brownish-red with some olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small, roundish, sometimes raised.
Buds medium size, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent.
Fruit medium to large, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form oblate or roundish oblate, sometimes inclined to conic, usually regular, pretty symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) very short to medium in length, moderately thick.
Cavity acuminate, deep or sometimes medium in depth, rather broad or compressed, russeted and with outspreading russet rays.
Calyx large or very large, closed or somewhat open.
Basin deep to medium in depth, medium in width, often abrupt, usually smooth and symmetrical.
Skin moderately thin, tough, smooth, clear pale greenish-yellow, sometimes blushed and occasionally faintly striped.
Dots small, numerous, pale and submerged or brownish.
Calyx tube conical to funnel-shape.
Stamens median to basal.
Core below medium to small, axile or somewhat abaxile; cells sometimes unsymmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels roundish, irregular.
Seeds dark brown, medium or above, plump, obtuse.
Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately firm, a little coarse, rather tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, good in quality especially for culinary purposes.
Season October to January.
Synonyms. Canada Peach (14). Montreal Peach (3,14). Peach Apple of Montreal (13). Peach of Montreal (1,2,4-10,12,15). Pomme Peche (1).
Fruit predominantly yellow with some red; in form it somewhat resembles Porter being oval or conical. It is salable in local markets but being easily bruised, it does not stand transportation well (2,3,6,13). The tree is hardy, thrifty and very productive.
According to Hoskins it is a very popular fall apple all through Northern New England and Eastern Canada. It has long been the leading market apple of its season, September, in Montreal and the surrounding territory on both sides of the line. Its season does not extend far into October except by extra care but it forms a very good successor to the Yellow Transparent which it resembles except for its blushed cheek (13).
This variety is but little known in New York. It cannot be expected to displace Oldenburg which is of the same season, more productive (10) and much better known. Historical. Some writers state that this is a variety of French origin (1), but Hoskins considers this doubtful. He states: "Some its characters would indicate it to be a Russian apple which has reached Canada via France, but this is only a conjecture." (13).
References. 1. Downing, 1845:91. 2. Thomas, 1849:145. fig. 3. Emmons, Nat. Hist. NY., 3:36. 1851. 4. Elliot, 1854:151. fig. 5. Hooper, 1857:68. 6. Warder, 1867:476. fig. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871:8. 8. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:296. 9. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 10. Burrill and McCluer, Ill., Sta. Bul., 45:335. 1896.
Synonyms. Peach-Pond Sweet (1,2). Peach Pound Sweet (10).
A beautiful autumn sweet apple of excellent quality in season from September to November. The tree is vigorous and spreading. It originated in Dutchess county, NY (1). It was entered in the Catalogue of the American Pomological Society in 1871 and dropped in 1899. Although it has long been in cultivation it has failed to establish itself as a commercial variety in New York and is comparatively little grown for home use.
Fruit medium to small.
Form slightly conic, rather flat, angular and a little one-sided.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long, slender, green, sometimes knobbed.
Cavity acute, deep, regular, brown.
Calyx small, closed.
Basin narrow, regular, wrinkled.
Skin smooth, pale yellow lightly covered with mixed striped red and beautifully splashed with crimson.
Flesh yellowish, very mellow, fine-grained, moderately juicy, rich, sweet, agreeable, very good or almost best.
Season September to November.
References. 1. Downing, 1869:300. 2. Thomas, 1875:508.
Synonyms. Pearsall Sweet (1,2).
This variety is supposed to have originated in Queens county, NY. According to Downing, the fruit is a good keeper and valuable for baking. The tree is upright spreading, quite productive. Fruit rather large, yellow, partly covered with light red. Flesh moderately juicy, sweet, good. Season November to January (1).
References. 1. Rural NY, 54:776. 1895. fig. 2. Heiges, US Pom. Rpt., 1895:36. 3. Rural NY, 56:222. 1897. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:19. 5. Rural NY, 61:249. 1902. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903:147. 7. J.W. Adams and Co., Springfield, Mass., Cat.
Synonyms. Pease, Walter (4,6). Walter Pease (1-3,5,7).
A pleasant-flavored apple of good size, attractive appearance and excellent dessert quality, but too mild in flavor to excel for culinary uses. The fruit being rather tender requires careful handling and on this account is better adapted for local than for distant markets. It is worthy of the attention of New York fruit growers where a dessert apple of this type is desired. The crop ripens unevenly. The earliest fruit comes in season the latter part of September or early in October, while a considerable portion of the later ripening fruit may remain sound till midwinter or later. Sometimes there is considerable loss from premature dropping of the fruit during September windstorms. The tree is a good grower, hardy, comes into bearing moderately young and is a pretty reliable cropper, alternating light with heavier crops.
Historical. Originated in the seedling orchard of Walter Pease, Somers, Conn., in the early part of the last century (3). It was at first propagated by the Shakers near the place of its origin and there came to be recognized locally as a valuable variety. Within recent years it has been propagated to a considerable extent by nurserymen and is being more widely disseminated.
Tree rather large, moderately vigorous to vigorous.
Form upright to roundish.
Twigs moderately long, a little curved, stout; internodes medium to short.
Bark clear brownish-red, heavily coated with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, below medium to above medium, roundish, slightly raised.
Buds below medium to above, broad, plump, rather obtuse, free or nearly so, slightly pubescent.
Fruit large or above medium, somewhat variable in size and shape.
Form flattened at base, varying from oblate to roundish oblong and often inclined to conic; sides often unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) below medium to long, slender.
Cavity obtuse to acute, moderately deep to deep, broad, sometimes lipped, often somewhat russeted.
Calyx usually medium to large, closed or nearly so; lobes leafy.
Basin moderately deep or sometimes shallow, rather narrow, abrupt, often compressed or furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, somewhat glossy, with pale green or yellowish ground color which in highly colored specimens is largely covered with bright red, striped with bright carmine and flecked with whitish scarf-skin.
Dots numerous, often submerged, whitish or russet, sometimes areolar.
Prevailing effect greenish-yellow more or less striped with red.
Calyx tube small, conical.
Core small to medium, axile; cells partly open or sometimes closed; core lines meeting.
Carpels small, roundish, somewhat tufted.
Seeds rather large, narrow, long, somewhat tufted, dark; often some are abortive.
Flesh whitish, slightly tinged with yellow, firm, rather fine, crisp, tender, juicy, aromatic, sprightly, mild pleasant subacid, good to very good for dessert.
Season October to midwinter.
References. 1. Downing, 1881.:100 app. 2. Hogg, 1884:170. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246. 4. Can. Hort., 15:346. 1892. 5. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898:356.
Synonyms. Peasgood's Nonesuch (1,2,5).
An English culinary apple, very large, green or yellowish, blushed and striped with red, excellent for culinary use. In season during September and October (1). In England it is regarded as one of the valuable varieties introduced in the last fifty years (2,5). It has been but little tested in this country.
References. 1. Horticulturist, 24:157. 1869. 2. Downing, 1876:63 app. 3. Ragan, USBPI Bul., 56:230. 1905.
Synonyms. Perry Red Streak (1,2,3).
A November apple of medium size and mild flavor. It originated at Lowville, NY with Dr. David Perry (1). The tree is hardy, vigorous and a reliable cropper, alternating heavy with lighter crops. The fruit is of medium size, yellow, shaded, striped and splashed with light and dark red; flesh whitish, fine, tender, juicy, slightly aromatic, mild subacid (2).
This variety is unknown to us and we have received no report concerning it from any of our correspondents.
References. 1. 2. NY Sta. An. Rpt., 7:50, 90. 1888. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:246.******tbal******
This fruit resembles its parent Wealthy so closely that it is very difficult to distinguish between the two. It is similar to Wealthy in season as well as in the appearance and quality of the fruit. In ordinary storage its commercial season is September and October (14). In cold storage it extends to about January 1 (13). Sometimes a portion of the fruit may keep into or through the winter (14). Hansen states that even if really distinct the two varieties are now mixed to a considerable extent. As fruited at this Station the flesh of Peter is not so white as that of Wealthy but somewhat milder and better in quality (4). It has been found that the seeds of Peter are larger, broader, less pointed and a little darker than those of Wealthy. The tree is a moderate grower, comes into bearing young and yields full crops biennially. The fruit does not ripen uniformly and on this account there is apt to be some loss from drops unless more than one picking is made.
Historical. Originated from seed of Wealthy by Peter M. Gideon, Excelsior, Minn. (1), from whom this variety was recieved in 1888 for testing at this Station.
Tree a fairly strong grower in the nursery; in the orchard it makes a moderately vigorous growth and eventually becomes rather large with moderately stout,
somewhat drooping branches.
Form upright spreading to roundish, open.
Twigs short, straight, slender, with large terminal buds; internodes medium.
Bark brown tinged with red, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent near tips.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, oval, not raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.
Fruit medium or above, uniform in size and shape.
Form oblate or roundish oblate, a little inclined to conic, regular.
Stem (Pedicel) long to medium, sometimes short, slender.
Cavity acuminate, deep, medium to rather broad, compressed, lightly russeted or nearly smooth.
Calyx small, closed; lobes medium in length, rather broad, acute.
Basin deep to moderately deep, narrow to medium in width, abrupt, gently furrowed, sometimes compressed.
Skin thin, moderately tough, nearly smooth, clear pale yellow washed and mottled with bright red conspicuously striped and splashed with deep carmine.
Dots medium size, scattering brown, mingled with some that are whitish and submerged.
Prevailing effect red or striped red.
Calyx tube small, funnel-shape.
Stamens Stamens median to marginal.
Core medium to below, usually axile; cells symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels roundish, emarginate.
Seeds above medium to large, moderately wide, long, flat, moderately acute.
Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, sometimes stained with red, firm, medium-grained, tender, juicy, with a pleasant, mild subacid, somewhat aromatic flavor, good to very good.
Season September and October or later (14).
Synonyms. Plum Cider (10,11).
This variety has been received with some favor in many parts of the country on account of its hardiness and productiveness. The fruit is of good medium size, fairly attractive in color, yellowish shaded and splashed with red. As grown in New York state it is inferior to standard varieties of its season.
Historical. Origin unknown. It was brought from Ohio in 1844 to Wisconsin by Mr. Plumb, where it proved to be a good grower, hardy and productive (5).
FRUIT (5,13, 14).
Fruit above medium.
Form round-ovate, slightly conic in some specimens.
Stem (Pedicel) stout, short.
Cavity shallow, narrow.
Calyx very small, closed.
Basin very narrow and shallow, slightly plaited.
Skin yellowish shaded with pale red and somewhat striped with brighter red.
Dots few, fine, gray.
Calyx tube long, very narrow, funnel-form.
Stamens extremely marginal touching the segments, a marked characteristic.
Core little above medium; cells open; core lines clasping.
Seeds pale brown, short, plump, pointed.
Flesh of a greenish cast, firm, fine, breaking, juicy, brisk subacid, good.
Season October to January.
References. 1. Downing, 1869:135. 2. Leroy, 1873:248. fig. 3. Hogg, 1884:55. 4. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:237. 5. Beach, NY Sta. An. Rpt., 13:579. 1894. 6. Ib., Gard and For., 8:428. 1895. 7. Ib., Can. Hort., 20: 183. 1897. 8. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898:356. 9. Beach and Clark, NY Sta. Bul, 248:139. 1904.
Synonyms. Cox's Pomona (1-9). Dean's Codlin (2).
Fruit frequently large and when highly colored rather attractive, being mottled and striped with crimson over a clear pale yellow ground color. The fruit is not very uniform in size, often unsymmetrical, tender, easily bruised and not a very good keeper. In ordinary storage its commercial limit is October (9). The tree is a good grower, comes into bearing young, and is an annual cropper, or nearly so, but only moderately productive. It is not recommended for commercial planting in New York.
Historical. Originated by Mr. Cox, Colnbrook Lawn near Slough, Bucks, England, who also originated Cox Orange (3).
Tree medium size, moderately vigorous with branches moderately stout, spreading and often drooping.
Twigs straight, stocky, long; internodes medium.
Bark rather bright reddish-brown mingled with olive-green, thinly overlaid with narrow streaks of gray scarf-skin.
Lenticels rather numerous, conspicuous, medium to sometimes large, roundish or sometimes elongated.
Buds medium to large, broad, obtuse, appressed, somewhat pubescent.
Leaves rather large, broad, dark green; base of petioles red.
Fruit medium to very large, fairly uniform in size [inconsistent- ASC] but not in shape.
Form oblate conic, very irregular, ribbed; sides usually unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) usually short, moderately thick.
Cavity large, acuminate to acute, deep, broad, rather symmetrical or sometimes compressed, irregularly russeted.
Calyx medium size, open or nearly closed; lobes separated at base, short, rather broad, obtuse to acute, reflexed.
Basin deep, medium in width to rather wide, abrupt, smooth or ridged, slightly wrinkled.
Skin thin, rather tender, waxy, smooth, greenish-yellow or pale yellow partly blushed with crimson, and mottled and narrowly striped with carmine.
Dots scattering, small, inconspicuous, usually whitish and submerged, sometimes gray or russet.
Calyx tube wide, conical, sometimes extending to the core.
Stamens median to nearly marginal.
Core medium to small, somewhat abaxile; cells open or closed, symmetrical; core lines clasping.
Carpels ovate to broadly roundish or elliptical, emarginate.
Seeds medium to small, wide, short, very plump, flat, obtuse, dark brown.
Flesh whitish, not very firm, rather fine, crisp, tender, juicy, subacid, sprightly, good to very good for culinary use.
Season September and October.
[Not to be confused with the fine hobbyist publication about fruit and fruit-growing published by the North American Fruit Explorers (NAFEX). -ASC]
Synonyms. Jennings (23). Yellow Summer Pearmain (23).
This fruit is of very fine dessert quality. it is also highly esteemed for canning and other culinary uses, because when it is cooked it is not only excellent in quality but it retains its form remarkably well. The fruit is yellow, faintly marked with red, decidedly attractive for an apple of its class. It does not stand shipping very well because the skin is rather tender and readily shows marks of handling. Since it is quite variable in its season of ripening there is apt to be considerable loss from dropping unless more than one picking is made. It varies in size from large to small, with a considerable percentage of the crop undersized or otherwise unmarketable. The tree is vigorous, compact, hardy, comes into bearing early and is a pretty reliable biennial cropper. Fifty years ago it was the principal September apple in the Boston market (1,3,5,9,18,19), and in spite of the fact that it is not red it continues to sell well in that market (29). It is also in good demand in many local markets. It is desirable for planting for home use or for some local markets, but generally it is not regarded as a profitable commercial variety by New York fruit growers.
Historical. Originated about 1800 with Rev. Samuel Porter, Sherburne, Mass. (1,3,5,14), and up to about 1850 its cultivation was confined principally to the vicinity of its origin. It gradually became very widely known and has become well disseminated in many of the more important apple-growing regions of the country. Old trees of it are occasionally found in New York orchards but it is now seldom planted here.
Tree medium to large, vigorous.
Form roundish or somewhat spreading.
Twigs rather slender, very short-jointed, with prominent shoulders (14).
Buds medium in size.
Fruit small to large, usually rather large.
Form oblong inclined to conic, rather truncate at base and with apex oblique and somewhat ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to rather short, moderately thick to slender, sometimes knobbed, curved.
Cavity acute to acuminate, medium to deep, medium in width to rather narrow, symmetrical or compressed, sometimes lipped, usually faintly russeted.
Calyx rather large, closed or partly open; lobes usually separated at base, short, rather narrow, broadly acute.
Basin moderately deep to shallow, rather narrow, abrupt, broadly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin moderately thin, smooth, rather glossy, clear bright yellow with a faint blush, usually rather obscurely striped with darker red marked with scattering red dots.
Dots usually medium to very small, often submerged, green with whitish center, sometimes russet.
Calyx tube rather short, wide, broadly conical.
Stamens median to basal.
Core medium to large, axile to somewhat abaxile; cells partly open to wide open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate to elliptical, mucronate.
Seeds below medium to rather large, plump, rounded, acute.
Flesh yellow, fine, crisp, tender, juicy, subacid, agreeably, aromatic, sprightly, good to very good for either dessert or culinary uses.
Season It begins to ripen in September and continues in use till November or later.
References. 1.Downing, 1869:311.
This name has been applied to several varieties of large sweet apples. Downing mentions one which is large, roundish conic, greenish-yellow with slight red in sun; flesh yellowish, tender, moderately juicy, sweet; season September and October; and another which is large, roundish, red; flesh whitish, moderately juicy, aromatic, sweet (1). Others are described by other authors and some which are known locally by this name have perhaps never been described in any publication.
The variety most commonly known in Central and Western New York under the name Pound Sweet is large, globular, marbled with yellow and green and streaked with whitish scarf-skin. It is described under its correct name, Pumpkin Sweet, on page 171.
References. 1. Cowles, Mag. Hort., 16:450. 1850. fig. 2. Ib., 17:506. 1851. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1854. 4. Mag. Hort., 20:241. 1854. 5. Elliott, 1854:153. fig. 6. Mag. Hort., 21:62. 1855. 7. Gregg, 1857:38. 8. Downing, 1857:93. fig. 9. Horticulturist, 14:471. 1859. 10. Mag. Hort.,
Synonyms. Belle Rose (17). Early Baldwin (17). Early Tart Harvest (14). Harvest (2). Highland Pippin (17). July Apple (14). North American Best (9,14). Powers (2,14). Rough and Ready (1,2,5,7,8,14). Scott (14). Sour Harvest (9,14). Zour Bough (9,14).
A dessert apple, pale yellow or whitish, often slightly blushed; in season in August and September. It is well known throughout the state, but not much grown except for home use. It is commonly considered the best apple of its season for the home orchard because the tree is a pretty good grower and a reliable cropper, and the fruit ripens in succession during a period of several weeks and is of fine flavor and excellent quality, particularly for dessert use. Being less attractive than a red apple it is in demand in market only where its fine quality is known. The fruit ripens unevenly and it should be picked from time to time as it matures to prevent loss from the dropping of the fruit. In some localities, the tree has proved somewhat tender, not very long-lived and rather susceptible to the attacks of the apple canker, but, generally speaking, as grown throughout Central and Western New York, particularly where it has been topworked upon good thrifty stock, the tree is a pretty good grower, moderately long-lived and reliably productive. Often it yields very heavy crops biennially with lighter crops, or none, on alternate years, but in some localities it is almost an annual bearer.
Historical. This variety was disseminated by traveling grafters in Central and Western New York as much as fifty years ago. In 1850, Charles P. Cowles of Syracuse in a communication to the Magazine of Horticulture stated: "As it is not known in this place, nor state, by the best judges, I safely think it is a seedling. I found a few trees in Onondaga county in a town of the same name which had been circulated by grafts but nothing further could be traced of its origin. ***I propose to call it 'Rough and Ready' from the fact of its being first tested during that campaign. ***Messrs. Downing, Barry and Thomas think it a new variety. ***It is but little known as yet but where it is, its qualities are much esteemed" (1). The following year Mr. A. Fahnstock, a nurseryman of Monroe counties as well as in Onodaga county and that it was generally known by the name of Primate. Recently, John T. Roberts of Syracuse has taken the trouble to look up the history of this variety and is convinced that the original seedling tree grew in the town of Camillus, Onondaga county, and through his efforts a bronze tablet has been erected to mark the spot. The tablet bears the following inscription: "On this farm Calvin D. Bingham about 1840 produced the marvelous Primate apple, named by Charles P. Cowles. God's earth is full of love to man" (27). In 1854 it was listed by the American Pomological Society (3) as a valuable variety. It is listed by various nurserymen in the region from the Atlantic to the Middle West but apparently is but little known either in the Southwest or the Northwest (22).
Tree below medium to rather large, usually moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading to roundish, rather dense.
Twigs short, straight, stout with large terminal buds; internodes short.
Bark dull brown mingled with green, heavily streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent and rather rough.
Lenticels scattering, medium size, oblong, raised.
Buds prominent, large, broad, plump, acute, pubescent.
Fruit medium or above, sometimes large.
Form roundish conic to oblate conic, often distinctly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, thick.
Cavity acute, deep, broad, distinctly furrowed.
Calyx medium size, closed; lobes long, narrow.
Basin moderately shallow to rather deep, medium in width to rather narrow, abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, moderately tender, smooth, light green, often changing to whitish, sometimes with faint yellowish tinge, often slightly blushed but not striped.
Dots scattering, numerous, rather small, submerged or russet.
Calyx tube rather large, rather long, broadly conical to somewhat funnel-shape.
Core medium to large, nearly axile to somewhat abaxile with hollow cylinder in the axis; cells symmetrical, open; core lines clasping.
Seeds medium to rather large, moderately wide, plump, acute.
Flesh whitish, fine, crisp, very tender, juicy, subacid, aromatic, sprightly , very good to best.
Season August and September.
References. 1. ***9. Munson, ME Sta. Rpt., 1896:71. 10. Waugh, VT Sta. An. Rpt., 14:304. 1901. 11. Munson, ME Sta. Rpt., 1902:84, 86, 88. 12. Hansen, SD Sta. Bul., 76:88. 1902. fig. 13. Budd-Hansen, 1903:154.
Synonyms. No. 351 (3,4,12). Plodowitka Cuadkaja (1,3). Prolific Sweet (1,10).
A Russian variety which in size and color resembles Yellow Transparent but in form is roundish oblate and somewhat irregular. It has proved to be a valuable sweet apple for autumn use in Northern New England (5,11-13). Worthy of trial when a variety of this class is desired.
Historical. Imported from Russia by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1870. It was received for testing at this Station from Dr. T.H. Hoskins, Newport, VT in 1888 (6). It has thus far been but little disseminated in this state.
Tree moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading to roundish, open.
Twigs long, curved, stout; internodes short.
Bark brown, tinged with green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium size, round, not raised.
Buds medium size, broad, flat, obtuse, appressed, pubescent.
Fruit medium or above.
Form roundish oblate, somewhat irregular.
Stem (Pedicel) medium size.
Cavity deep, acute to acuminate, ribbed, russeted and with some outspreading russet rays.
Basin shallow, wide, wrinkled.
Flesh white, crisp, fine-grained, mildly sweet, good.
Season late August, September and October.
Synonyms. Flint Russet (3,6). Kingsbury Russet (90. Pumpkin Sweet (3,5). Pumpkin Sweeting (2). Pumpkin Sweeting of New England (1). Sweet Russet (3,4,6). York Russet (6).
This is a very large, round, yellowish-russet apple, sweet, rich, very good for baking but of little value for other purposes. The tree is a vigorous, rapid grower, hardy, moderately long-lived and yields fair to good crops biennially or in some cases almost annually. It is not a profitable commercial variety and is now seldom cultivated, even for home use.
Historical. Pumpkin Russet is an old New England variety. Kenrick (1) in 1832 described it under the name Pumpkin Sweeting of New England. In 1849 Cole (5) described it under the name Pumpkin Sweet giving Pumpkin Russet as a synonym. In 1845 it was described by Downing (3) under the name Pumpkin Russet which is the name now generally accepted for it by pomologists. It is still occasionally listed by nurserymen but is now seldom planted in New York.
Tree large, vigorous or very vigorous.
Form at first upright, but eventually becoming roundish or spreading, open; branches long, stout, curved.
Twigs short, curved, stout; internodes long.
Bark dark reddish-brown tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, oblong, slightly raised.
Buds large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.
Fruit large, fairly uniform in size and shape.
Form oblate or somewhat inclined to conic, sometimes irregular, faintly ribbed, often compressed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to short, moderately slender to thick.
Cavity acute to acuminate, usually deep, moderately broad to rather narrow, nearly smooth, sometimes slightly furrowed.
Calyx large, closed or slightly open; lobes long, narrow, acute to acuminate.
Basin small to medium, rather shallow to moderately deep, medium in width, somewhat abrupt, slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thick, rather tough, greenish or yellowish sometimes with bronze blush on exposed cheek, more or less covered with russet patches or netted veins of russet.
Dots large and small, scattering, usually russet, irregular.
Calyx tube short, wide, broadly conical to nearly urnshape.
Stamens median to basal.
Core above medium to below, abaxile; cells usually open, symmetrical but not uniformly developed; core lines slightly clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate, very slightly emarginate, sometimes tufted.
Seeds moderately light brown, rather large, wide, flat, acute.
Flesh greenish-white or yellowish, firm, rather coarse, tender, juicy, sweet, good.
Season September and October or in cold storage extending to January 1 (12).
References. 1. N.E. Farmer, 1834 (cited by 20). ***tbal***
Synonyms. Lyman's Large Yellow (20). Lyman's Pumpkin Sweet (2,3,6,9,10,11). Lyman's Pumpkin Sweet (5,14,17,19,20). Pound Sweet (9,11,12,14,17-19). Pumpkin Sweeting (20). Rhode Island Sweet (20). Round Sweet (20). Sweet Lyman's Pumpkin (20). Vermont Pumpkin Sweet (10,20). Vermont Sweet (20). Yankee Apple (5,20).
Fruit large to very large, marbled with light and dark green and streaked over the base with whitish scarf-skin; well colored specimens eventually become quite yellow and sometimes are faintly bronzed on the exposed cheek. It is never marked with red, nor is it russeted except about the cavity. So far as we know, all other varieties which have been cultivated under the name Pumpkin Sweet are either russeted or marked with red.
This is the variety generally known in Central and Western New York as Pound Sweet, and it commonly appears under this name in market quotations. By many it is esteemed as one of the best sweet apples of its season for baking and for canning or stewing with quinces, but generally it is not valued for dessert because it is rather coarse and has a peculiar flavor. It often sells well in local or special markets, and there is a limited demand for it in the general trade. Its keeping qualities differ greatly in different localities and in different seasons. As grown in Western New York, it comes in season early in October. The rate of loss in ordinary storage is usually high during the fall, and the season closes in December or early January, although in some years a considerable portion of the fruit may remain sound till midwinter or later (19).
The tree is a good strong grower, rather long-lived, fairly hardy and generally healthy, but it sometimes suffers from winter injury, sunscald and canker. It appears to thrive particularly well on well fertilized gravelly or sandy loam, with well drained subsoil. Under right conditions, it is a pretty reliable cropper, yielding good crops biennially. The crop ripens somewhat unevenly and often there is considerable loss from water-cored fruit and from windfalls, but on the other hand, there is a small percentage of loss in undersized or deformed apples. In order to lessen the loss in undersized or deformed apples. In order to lessen the loss from windfalls it is well to plant this variety in a location that is sheltered from prevailing winds.
Historical. Originated in the orchard of S. Lyman, Manchester, Conn. (9). It has been distributed throughout this state for more than fifty years, but nowhere has it been largely planted. Generally speaking it is not grown so extensively now as it was formerly, but in a few localities its cultivation for commercial purposes is increasing somewhat.
McCarty is identical with Pumpkin Sweet in general characters and is sold as Pumpkin Sweet, but it appears to differ enough from the type in certain characteristics to entitle it to recognition as a distinct strain. As compared with typical Pumpkin Sweet the fruit of McCarty averages smaller, is not so yellow and keeps longer. B.J. Case, Sodus, NY, who grows McCarty commercially, reports: "The tree does not produce any water-cored fruit except when the crop is light. It appears to be fully as productive as Pumpkin Sweet. In common storage it is not unusual to keep McCarty later than January. In quality it is not so good as Pumpkin Sweet. The origin of this type is unknown."
Tree medium to large, vigorous, with long, moderately stout branches.
Form upright spreading or roundish, open.
Twigs medium to short, straight or nearly so, stout to moderately slender; internodes short to medium.
Bark reddish olive-green varying to brownish red, uniformly mottled with thin scarf-skin, pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, rather inconspicuous, small, roundish, not raised.
Buds medium or below, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent.
Fruit large to very large, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form globular to roundish conic, sometimes irregularly elliptical or prominently ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) very short, stout, often inserted under a lip or having itself a fleshy protuberance.
Cavity acuminate, moderately shallow to rather deep, narrow to moderately wide, often somewhat furrowed or lipped, sometimes russeted and with outspreading russet.
Calyx medium to rather large, open; lobes often separated at the base, short, broad, acute.
Basin small to medium in size, moderately shallow to rather deep, narrow to moderately wide, abrupt to somewhat obtuse, often slightly furrowed or wrinkled.
Skin rather thin, tough, smooth, at first green but eventually clear yellow marbled with greenish-yellow. Stripes of whitish scarf-skin radiate from the cavity. Well colored specimens occasionally show a brownish-red blush but never a distinct red color.
Dots conspicuous, whitish, often areolar with russet center.
Calyx tube rather wide, conical or elongated cone-shape or sometimes slightly funnel-form.
Stamens median to basal.
Core medium to rather large, axile; cells symmetrical, closed or somewhat open, not uniformly developed; core lines clasping.
Carpels thin, broadly roundish, but slightly emarginate if at all, often tufted.
Seeds medium to rather small, wide, plump, acute, light brown, tufted.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, medium in texture, crispness and juiciness, decidedly sweet with a peculiar flavor; good for culinary use and especially esteemed for baking.
Season October to January.
[Notes from a Canadian grower can be found at the Orange Pippin website. For instance, it is a triploid, which suggests that it cannot pollenize other cultivars.- ASC]
(I) Quince (of Cole)
Synonyms. Cole's Quince (1-6,10). Quince (3,5,6). Turn Off Lane (10).
This is a very good variety for home use and is considered by some New York fruit growers fairly profitable in commercial orchards. The fruit is large, angular, yellow with white aromatic subacid flesh of very good quality; in season in late summer and early autumn. Commercial limit in cold storage, November 1 (9). The tree is of good medium size, spreading, a good grower, very hardy, comes into bearing moderately young, and is a reliable cropper. It is not extensively cultivated in New York.
Historical. Originated at Cornish, ME from whence it was disseminated about fifty years ago (1).
Fruit Cole gave the following description of this fruit in 1849 (1): "Fruit large to very large; flattish-conical; ribbed; bright
yellow, seldom a brown cheek, stem short, in a deep cavity; calyx large, in a deep basin; flesh when first ripe, firm, juicy, pleasant acid, and first-rate for cooking.
When very mellow, remarkably tender, of a mild, rich, high quince flavor and aroma. When in perfection we have never seen its superior. July to September."
(II) Quince (of Coxe)
Synonyms. Pear apple (8,11). Quince (1-3,5,6,8-10). Quince Apple (11). Seneca Favorite (10). Seneca Spice (11, ?8).
A variety which is distinct from the Quince of Cole was described by Coxe in 1817. According to Downing, it is in appearance much like a large Yellow Newtown, and the young wood is of a different shade of color from that of the Quince of Cole, being dull reddish-brown instead of clear reddish-brown, with buds small, reddish and pointed, instead of short, abrupt and prominent. The following is the description of the fruit given by Coxe (2): "The size of the apple is large; the shape flat; the skin, when fully ripe, is yellow; the flesh rich, yellow and juicy-- in appearance it somewhat resembles a large yellow Newtown Pippin. It came originally from the state of New York; ripens in November."
This variety is unknown to us, and we have received no report concerning it from any of our correspondents.