Apple Home

Mabie
A red sweet apple of very good general appearance. It belongs in the same group as Victoria Sweet. Season late fall and early winter. A desirable variety of its class.
Historical. This is a local variety which has been grown to a limited extent in southern Rockland county. The following account of its origin is given by M.L. Bell, Sparkill, NY (Letter, 1904): "Mabie has been grown in Southern Rockland county, NY and the adjacent portion of New Jersey for about forty-five years. About fifty years ago the original tree stood in an old stone fence row on the farm of Wm. Mabie. It was propagated in a local nursery and disseminated through the surrounding region where it is generally highly esteemed by those who have tested it."

FRUIT

Fruit above medium to nearly large.
Form roundish or somewhat inclined to oblong, a little irregular, unsymmetrical, not very uniform.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to rather long, moderately thick.
Cavity large, acute to acuminate, moderately deep, wide, often obscurely furrowed, sometimes completely covered with russet which extends over the base of the fruit in broken rays.
Calyx medium to rather large, closed or partly open.
Basin medium size or below, pubescent, saucer-shape, medium in width and depth, a little obtuse to rather abrupt, smooth or slightly furrowed.
Skin very thick, tough, smooth or slightly roughened with russet dots, bright yellow mottled or deeply blushed with bright red, in highly colored specimens rather deep, dark red, obscurely striped with carmine and marked over the base with whitish scarf-skin.
Dots often very small, gray, mingled with others that are large, whitish and areolar with russet center.
Calyx tube short, moderately wide, conical to funnel-form.
Stamens median.
Core medium to rather large, axile to somewhat abaxile; cells closed or somewhat open; core lines clasping.
Carpels roundish to broadly obovate, slightly tufted.
Seeds dark brown, medium to small, plump, broadly acute.
Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, firm, medium grained, somewhat crisp, tender, juicy, sweet, good.
Season late fall and early winter.

McCarty
This appears to be a distinct strain or sport of Pumpkin Sweet. It is discussed under Pumpkin Sweet, page 173.

Mac Donough
References.  1. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:299. 1901.
Synonyms.  None.
A medium sized yellow apple of mild flavor, in season in August and September. We are unacquainted with this variety. Waugh (1) gave the following account of it in 1901: A local variety, said to have originated on Cumberland Head, Clinton county, NY, opposite Grand Isle. A fairly good apple in many ways, but not common and not likely ever to become popular.
"Fruit roundish oblate, size medium, cavity medium deep and broad, waxy, slightly russetted, stem medium straight, basin shallow, corrugated, calyx nearly closed, color greenish-yellow, fine yellow when ripe, dots many, light greenish, bloom waxy, skin smooth, flesh greenish-white, mealy, core medium, closed, flavor neutral, nearly sweet, quality fair to good, season August-September. Tree hardy, rough dark bark, irregular in form, productive.

McIntosh
References.  1.  [***will be added later***]
Synonyms.  Will be added later.
This variety belongs to the 'Fameuse' group. It is adapted to a wider range of localities than is the Fameuse. The fruit is very attractive in appearance, of bright deep red color and good size. The flesh is very tender, perfumed and delicious. It is desirable for local markets and special trade but because of its lack of firmness it is less suitable for general handling. As grown at this Station it begins to ripen in late September or early October. In Western New York it cannot be expected to keep much later than October in ordinary storage without considerable loss but in cold storage it may be held until December or January (31). When grown in more northern or elevated regions it is often held in good condition till midwinter or later. It is susceptible to scab but this may readily be controlled with proper treatment. The crop ripens unevenly and a considerable portion of the fruit is liable to drop before it is ready to pick. On this account it is best to make two or three pickings. In some localities the tree is said to be a somewhat slow grower and not satisfactorily productive, but more often comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper yielding good crops biennially and sometimes annually. It has not been sufficiently tested to demonstrate fully its value for commercial purposes but it is regarded by many as one of the most promising varieties of its class for general cultivation in New York.
Historical. Originated as a chance seedling on the McIntosh homestead, Matilda township, Dundas county, Ontario, where Allan McIntosh began the propagation of this variety in the nursery about 1870 (20). It has been widely disseminated. It is now commonly propagated by nurserymen and its cultivation is on the increase in New York.
Tree.  Tree vigorous with numerous, small, slender laterals.
Form roundish or spreading.
Twigs above medium to short, straight or nearly so, rather slender; internodes long to below medium.
Bark bright reddish-brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, small, oval or elongated, raised.
Buds deeply set in bark, medium to below, plump, obtuse to acute, free, slightly pubescent.

Fruit above medium, sometimes large, pretty uniform in shape and size.
Form roundish to somewhat oblate, regular or faintly ribbed, obscurely angular.
Stem short, stout or moderately slender, usually not exerted, often with irregular protuberances.
Cavity large, acuminate or somewhat acute, wide, medium in depth, somewhat broadly furrowed, often partly russeted.
Calyx small, closed or partly open; lobes short to long, narrow, acute.
Basin pubescent, rather small, medium in depth, narrow, abrupt, smooth or obscurely furrowed.
Skin thin, moderately tender, smooth, readily separating from the flesh, clear whitish-yellow or greenish washed and deeply blushed with bright red and striped with carmine; highly colored specimens become dark, almost purplish-red with the carmine stripes obscure or obliterated, overspread with thin, lilac bloom. Often the effect of the deep red is heightened by lively contrast with one or more spots of the clear pale yellow ground color where some twig or leaf pressed closely against the growing fruit.
Dots whitish or yellow, usually very small.
Calyx tube short, conical or funnel-shape with broad limb.
Stamens median to basal.
Core medium size, usually abaxile; cells usually wide open; core lines nearly meeting.
Carpels roundish to elliptical, narrowing toward base and apex, smooth, much concave.
Seeds medium brown, rather large, acute.
Flesh white or slightly tinged with yellow, sometimes veined with red, firm, fine, crisp, tender, very juicy, characteristically and agreeably aromatic, perfumed, sprightly, subacid, becoming mild and nearly sweet when very ripe, very good to best for dessert.
Season October to December or later.
N.Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:399-418. 1899. Ibid., 22:321-386. 1903.

McLellan
References.  1.****tbal**** 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871:8. 11. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc.. Rpt. 1890:204. 12. *******
Synonyms.  Martin (1,2,6,7). McLelan (8,9). McClellan (1,5).
A very choice dessert apple, handsome, fragrant, tender and excellent in quality. It comes into season a little later than Maiden Blush and may keep till January or February. When properly colored it is well adapted for fancy market and fruit-stand trade but when the color remains greenish, as it often does, the flavor is inferior. The fruit shows bruises readily and must be handled with extra care. It drops easily from the tree and on this account should be picked as soon as colored. In some cases it may to make two pickings. The tree comes into bearing young and is a reliable biennial bearer yielding good crops. It is only a moderately vigorous grower and probably it would be an advantage to topwork it upon some more vigorous and longer-lived stock, such as Northern Spy or Baldwin. It is not recommended for extensive commercial planting but in some cases it may be grown to a limited extent with profit.
Historical. The original tree was planted in a seedling orchard in Woodstock, Conn., about 1780 (1,5). It has been sparingly disseminated and is known locally in various parts of New York state, but it is now seldom offered by nurserymen (12) and is little propagated.

TREE.

Tree medium in size, moderately vigorous with long and moderately stout branches.
Form erect, roundish, open.
Twigs medium to long, erect, stout, generally somewhat curved; internodes short to medium.
Bark dull, very heavy scarf-skin; rather heavily pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, not very conspicuous, medium to small, roundish, sometimes a little raised.
Buds above medium to large, rather deeply set in the bark, broad, flat, obtuse to somewhat acute, free, very pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit above medium to large; uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish oblate to roundish conic, rather broad and flat at the base, symmetrical or nearly so, regular to elliptical.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, slender.
Cavity acute to acuminate, rather wide, deep, symmetrical, sometimes a little furrowed, smooth.
Calyx small to medium, partly open or closed; lobes long, acuminate.
Basin medium to rather small, abrupt, moderately shallow to deep, rather narrow to moderately wide, nearly round or sometimes angular, sometimes distinctly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin tough, waxen, pale yellow or greenish, blushed and mottled with bright light red splashed and striped with bright carmine. Highly colored specimens are almost entirely red and very attractive.
Dots numerous but mostly inconspicuous, whitish or russet.
Calyx tube funnel-form with wide limb or sometimes elongated.
Stamens basal to median.
Core below medium to small, axile or nearly so; cells not uniformly developed, usually pretty symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder.
Carpels smooth, roundish to elliptical narrowing toward the base and apex, slightly emarginate.
Seeds rather small, obtuse, smooth, dark.
Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately firm, very tender, moderately fine-grained, juicy, moderately crisp, almost sweet, excellent in flavor, very good for dessert.
Season October to January or February or sometimes to March.

McMahon
References.  1.
Synonyms.  McMahan (14,20,27). McMahan White (6,7,15-18). McMahon White (1-5,8-10,12,13,19,21-27).
A large apple of the Aport group, pale yellow or almost white, often with a delicate pink blush. The flesh is juicy, brisk subacid, fair to good in quality, excellent for culinary use. As grown at this Station it ripens unevenly and does not appear well adapted for storage (26). Season October to January or February. The tree comes into bearing rather young and yields good crops biennially. In 1805 Craig wrote concerning McMahon" "Attention is again drawn to some of its merits as an apple of value for regions where Northern Spy, Ribston Pippin and Rhode Island Greening cannot be grown profitably on account of their inability to withstand the severity of the climate. It has proved so far a remarkably vigorous and healthy grower, making probably more well matured wood growth than any other variety in the orchard, and is free from many of the defects characteristic to varieties unadapted to this climate. It has borne moderately heavy crops for the last two years. The fruit is of the largest size, smooth and handsome, though lacking in color as grown in this vicinity and somewhat soft in texture" (18). It is less desirable than standard kinds of its season for growing commercially in New York because it is only moderately attractive in general appearance, its color is such that is readily shows bruises and it does not rank high either in flavor or quality.
Historical. This variety originated about 1860 in Richland county, Wis., and is supposed to be a seedling of the Alexander. It is frequently listed by nurserymen, but it has thus far been but little planted in New York.

TREE.

Tree medium size, vigorous.
Form rather spreading.
Twigs medium size, slender, straight or nearly so; internodes above medium.
Bark dull dark reddish-brown; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, below medium or sometimes medium, elongated, somewhat raised, dull.
Buds medium or below, rather acute, thin, often appressed, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit large or very large.
Form roundish inclined to conic, faintly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium in length, moderately thick.
Cavity remarkably acuminate, very deep, broad, compressed, slightly russeted and with outspreading rays.
Calyx rather small, slightly open; lobes separated at base, short.
Basin moderately deep, rather narrow to moderately wide, abrupt, compressed, slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin pale greenish-yellow or nearly white with irregular stripes and patches of whitish cheek overspread with a thin blush which sometimes is faintly splashed and striped with carmine.
Dots few, inconspicuous, small, greenish or russet.
Calyx tube rather long, wide, broadly conical inclined to funnel-form or cylindrical.
Stamens median to basal.
Core medium to small, slightly abaxile to axile; cells pretty symmetrical, closed or slightly open; core lies nearly meeting or clasping.
Carpels roundish or inclined to elliptical, slightly emarginate.
Seeds rather dark brown, medium or below, moderately plump, obtuse to acute.
Flesh nearly white, nearly fine, tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, fair to good.
Season October to January or February.

Magog
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Magog Red Streak (1-7,9,11).
Fruit of good size, rather attractive appearance and good to very good quality, especially for culinary purposes. Dr. Hoskins, who propagated it for several years, said in 1894: "It is a fair but uneven keeper, and might be well described as not quite valuable enough to retain, yet hardly deserving to be cast aside." It is reported as being very hardy in Northern new York, a good grower and a good bearer. As fruited at this Station, the tree is a moderately good grower, comes into bearing rather young and yields moderate to good crops nearly annually. The keeping quality of the fruit varies in different season but its commercial limit in ordinary storage appears to be October. It remains in season to January or possibly later (11). It is not recommended for planting except perhaps for home use in localities where its superior hardiness give it an advantage over ordinary varieties of its season.
Historical. Originated by Wm. Warren, Newport, VT (1). It has been planted to a considerable extent in portions of Northern New England, Northern New York and the parts of Canada adjoining. It is still propagated in a few nurseries (4).

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading or roundish.
Twigs short to medium, straight or nearly so, rather slender; internodes short to medium.
Bark dark brown or brownish-red, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small, oval, not raised.
Buds small to above medium, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large, averaging above medium, rather uniform in size but variable in shape.
Form roundish to oblong, inclined to conic or somewhat ovate, regular or faintly ribbed; sides often unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to short, moderately thick to rather slender.
Cavity acute or approaching acuminate, medium in depth, medium to rather narrow, usually smooth, occasionally lipped, often irregularly russeted.
Calyx medium to small, closed; lobes medium length, rather narrow, acute to acuminate.
Basin usually medium in width and depth, sometimes rather abrupt, coarsely wrinkled.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, waxy, pale greenish or yellow, lightly washed and mottled with thin brownish-red. sparingly striped and splashed with deeper red.
Dots numerous, light, submerged, areolar, brown and russet.
Prevailing effect: yellow.
Calyx tube medium in width, long, conical to funnel-shape with long cylinder.
Stamens nearly marginal.
Core large to medium, abaxile; cells open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder.
Carpels long ovate to broadly obcordate, sometimes tufted.
Seeds light brown, small to medium, rather wide, short, very plump, obtuse to broadly acute.
Flesh tinged with yellow, rather firm, medium to rather fine-grained, tender, very juicy, sprightly, pleasant subacid, aromatic, good.
Season October to January or later.

Maiden Blush
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Lady Blush (36). Red Cheek (11).
This is a beautiful apple of pale lemon-yellow color with crimson cheek. The flesh is white, sprightly, not superior in flavor but good in quality. It is valued especially for market and culinary uses. It makes very white evaporated stock. As grown in Western New York it is in season from September to November or December. Later than this although the fruit may appear sound it is deficient in quality. In cold storage its commercial limit appears to be about December 15th. It does not stand heat well before going into storage. It varies greatly in the time of maturing in different season. The earlier it matures the less satisfactory is it as a keeper (36). It is recognized as a standard market variety and usually sells above the average prices for varieties of its class. In many localities it has proven a very satisfactory variety for the commercial orchard, because the tree is a fine grower, hardy, pretty long-lived, comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper, yielding good to heavy crops biennially or almost annually. In many cases the fruit does not mature uniformly and there is considerable loss from drops unless more than one picking is made in gathering the crop. Usually the fruit is pretty uniform in size but on unthrifty, old trees or under unfavorable circumstances a considerable amount of the fruit may be too small for market. It is sometimes badly injured by scab but this may readily be prevented by proper treatment.
Historical. Coxe described this variety in 1817 as very popular in the Philadelphia market and the best variety of its season for evaporating. He stated that it was named by Samuel Allinson, of Burlington, NJ, who first brought it to notice. In the American Pomological Society's Catalogue of fruits it is reported as either "wholly successful or successful" in nearly all the important apple-growing districts of the United States (33). It has long been well and favorably known in New York and it is still being planted both for commercial purposes and for home use.

TREE.

Tree medium size, moderately vigorous to vigorous.
Form spreading, open.
Twigs long, curved, slender; internodes short.
Bark brown or reddish-brown, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, small, round, not raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium or above, sometimes large, uniform in size and shape.
Form oblate a little inclined to conic, regular, symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, rather slender.
Cavity rather large, acute to obtuse, medium to wide, moderately deep to shallow, usually symmetrical, sometimes russeted.
Calyx medium size, closed; lobes separated at base, medium length, moderately broad, acute.
Basin moderately shallow, medium to wide, obtuse, regular, smooth or slightly furrowed, symmetrical.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, pale waxen yellow with crimson blush.
Dots numerous, whitish and submerged or aerolar.
Calyx tube small, narrow, conical to funnel-shape.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core medium size, axile or somewhat abaxile, broadly elliptical; cells closed or slightly open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels very broadly ovate.
Seeds medium brown, moderately wide, moderately long, plump, acute.
Flesh white or with slight yellow tinge, fine, moderately crisp, tender, very juicy, subacid, good in quality especially for culinary uses.
Season September to November or December.
[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

Maiden Favorite
References.  1. Downing, 1857:167. 2. Warder, 1867:725. 3. Thomas, 1875:505.
Synonyms.  Maiden's Apple (1).
A late fall and early winter variety which originated in Stuyvesant, Columbia county, NY. According to Downing it is a desirable amateur variety of delicacy and beauty, medium size or below, whitish or pale waxen yellow sometimes mottled with crimson. Flesh tender, crisp, very delicate, vinous, sweet, good to very good. Tree a rather slow grower with upright, slender branches, and a good bearer. We are not acquainted with this variety. So far as we have been able to learn it is not cultivated outside of the vicinity of its origin and is no longer propagated.

Margaret
References.  1.
Synonyms.  D'Eve (18). Duverson's June (17). Early June of South (13). Early Margaret (4,16,20). Early Red (24). Early Red Juneating (6,7,9,11-13,20). Early Red Margaret (4,6-15,17-21,23). Early Striped Juneating (4-7,20). Eve Apple (7, of Ireland 4,-6,9,12,13,20). Herr's June (17). June of some in Ohio (13). Lammas (3,20). Magdalene (20). Margaret, Early (5). Margaret, Early Red (5). Margaretha Apfel (4,7,9,12,13). Marget Apple (20). Marguerite (5,18,20). Maudlin (18,20). Red Joaneating (22). Red June of South (13). Red Juneating (4-7,9-13,20). Red Juneting (3). Reinette Quarrendon (18). Rother Jacobs (18). Rother Jacobs Apfel (4,7). Striped Juneating (5,9,11-13,18,20). Striped Quarrendon (17). Striped Quarrenden (5,18,20). Summer Traveller (5,17,20). Virginia June (17).
An early summer apple, small to nearly medium, roundish ovate, yellowish striped and marbled with dull red. Flesh pleasant subacid, good; season late July and early August. It is a dessert apple suitable for the home orchard only. The tree is of medium size, moderately vigorous, upright, hardy, long-lived, comes into bearing fairly young and is a pretty reliable biennial cropper.
Historical. This is a very old English variety. Hogg (20). states that "It is without doubt the Margaret of Rea, Worlidge, Ray, and all our early pomologists except Miller." It has long been cultivated in this country, but only to a very limited extent. it is now rarely propagated by our nurserymen and seldom planted.

Miller
References.  1. Downing, 1857:172. 2. Horticulturist, 13:530. 1858. 3. Warder, 1867:726. 4. Downing, 1869:275. 5. Leroy, 1873:469. fig. 6. Thomas, 1875:506. 7. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294.
Synonyms.  Miller Seedling (2).
This apple was brought to notice by James O. Miller, Montgomery, Orange county, NY (1). Downing (4) describes the fruit as rather large, roundish oblate inclined to conic, yellow shaded, striped and splashed with light red. Flesh yellowish, crisp, pleasant subacid, good to very good. Season October and November (3). Lyon refers to it as a promising fruit for market and general purposes (7). We are unacquainted with this variety and have received no report concerning it from any of our correspondents.

Milligen
References.  1. NY Sta. An. Rpt., 8:348. 1889. 2. USBPI Bul., 48:49. 1903. 3. Beach and Clark, NY Sta. Bul., 248:132. 1904.
Synonyms.  None.
Fruit of good size, rather attractive in general appearance, yellow striped with red, good to very good. It comes into season in October and some portion of the fruit may be kept in good condition till spring. In common storage there is apt to be a rather high rate of loss during late autumn, so that its commercial limit is October or early November, but it may be held in cold storage till midwinter (3). The tree is a vigorous grower, almost an annual bearer and usually produces good crops. It does not excel standard varieties of its season for any purpose. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. This variety was originated by Mrs. Milligen, near Claysville, Washington county, PA. It was received for testing at this Station from J.R. and R.A. Murdock, Pittsburg, PA in 1888.

Mosher
References.  1. Downing, 1881:97 app. 2. Waugh, VT. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:300. 1901.
Synonyms.  Mosher Sweet (1,2).
A good variety for the home orchard but not attractive enough for market (1). Originated in the orchard of Ephraim Mosher, Washington, NY, many years since. So far as we can learn this variety is not now being propagated by nurserymen and its cultivation appears to be declining. The tree is large, rather vigorous, upright spreading or roundish, a good grower, comes into bearing rather young and yields pretty good crops annually or nearly annually. Fruit medium, oblate conic, ribbed pale yellow or greenish; flesh white, moderately juicy, sweet, aromatic, good; season September and October.

Mother
References.  1.
Synonyms.  American Mother (20). Gardener's Apple (20). Mother Apple (20). Mother of America (23). Queene Anne (12,20).
A beautiful red apple of good size, with tender, rich, aromatic flesh of best dessert quality. It is less desirable for culinary uses, being somewhat lacking in acidity. It resembles Esopus Spitzenburg to a marked degree but ripens earlier and is not so good a keeper. In ordinary storage it does not keep well and November is its safe commercial limit, but in cold storage it may be held till March or later (31). The tree is below medium size and but a moderate grower. In many localities it is rather tender and liable to scald or canker on the trunk and larger branches. On this account it is desirable to topwork it upon Northern Spy or some other hardy, vigorous stock. It does not come into bearing very young and commonly is a biennial cropper yielding moderate to good crops. It cannot be recommended for general commercial planting but it is desirable for the home orchard.
Historical. Thomas described it in 1848 as "a new, handsome late autumn and early winter apple, of the highest quality," and stated that it originated at Bolton, Worcester county, Mass. (2). It is but seldom found in cultivation in New York.

TREE.

Tree below medium size, moderately vigorous or a rather slow grower.
Form upright spreading to roundish, rather open.
Twigs long, curved, moderately stout; internodes long.
Bark brown, mingled with olive-green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels numerous, rather conspicuous, medium size, oval, raised.
Buds prominent, medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit below medium to above, sometimes large, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish or roundish conic to oblong ovate, obscurely and broadly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) long to medium, moderately slender to rather thick.
Cavity acute or approaching acuminate, rather shallow to moderately deep, rather narrow to moderately broad, often russeted, sometimes furrowed or compressed or lipped.
Calyx small, closed or nearly so; lobes medium, narrow, acute.
Basin shallow, narrow, a little abrupt, somewhat furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, smooth, golden yellow nearly covered with bright deep red, marbled and striped with carmine.
Dots rather small, inconspicuous, yellowish or pale and submerged.
Calyx tube rather long, funnel-form with wide limb and narrow cylinder.
Stamens marginal.
Core medium to rather small, abaxile; cells nearly symmetrical, open or partly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate to roundish, emarginate, mucronate.
Seeds rather dark, medium or below, plump, acute to acuminate.
Flesh fine, tender, juicy, very mild subacid, aromatic, very good to best in flavor and quality.
Season late September to January; it is in its prime in November.

Mountain Sweet
References.  1. Warder, 1867:388. 2. Downing, 1869:282.
Synonyms.  Mountaineer (1,2).
Fruit of medium size, fairly good appearance and moderate to good quality, not superior to other varieties of its season and not recommended for planting in this state.
Historical. Origin Pennsylvania (1). It is but little known in New York and its cultivation in this state is not being extended.

TREE.

Tree medium or below, not a strong grower, with short, stout, curved branches.
Form spreading or roundish, rather dense.
Twigs short, straight, moderately stout; internodes short.
Bark clear brown mingled with green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, small, oblong, slightly raised.
Buds medium size, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit variable, usually medium or above.
Form roundish or roundish oblate, pretty regular, somewhat angular; sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short to rather long, rather slender.
Cavity nearly acuminate to somewhat obtuse, medium in depth, rather broad, russeted and with outspreading russet rays.
Calyx small to rather large, closed or open; lobes separated at base, medium to long, rather narrow, acuminate.
Basin moderately shallow to shallow, narrow to moderately wide, wavy.
Skin thick, rather tough, somewhat rough, clear, pale yellow overlaid with faint pinkish blush and scattering stripes of deeper red.
Dots numerous, inconspicuous, small, russet.
Prevailing effect striped.
Calyx tube medium in length, rather wide, conical to somewhat funnel-form.
Stamens median to basal.
Core medium size, abaxile; cells open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate to elliptical, emarginate.
Seeds very small, rather wide, plump, acute, rather light brown.
Flesh white, moderately fine, very tender, juicy, sweet, good.
Season September to December.

Mouse
References.  1. Downing, 1845:117. 2. Thomas, 1849:182. 3. Emmons, Nat. Hist. NY 3:82.1851. 4. Elliott, 1854:147. 5. Hooper, 1857:62. 6. Warder, 1867:727.
Synonyms.  Moose (1-5).
An old variety which originated in Ulster county, NY where it was formerly popular (1). According to Downing the fruit is large, roundish conical, pale greenish-yellow with brownish blush; flesh very white, fine-grained, delicate, mild subacid; good; season October to November.
This variety is unknown to us and we have received no reports concerning it from any of our correspondents.

Munson
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Meachem Sweet (5). Munson Sweet (2,3,5,8-17,19,20). Munson Sweeting (1,4,6). Northern Sweeting (1). Orange Sweet (5,9). Ray [Rag?] Apple (5).
In some parts of New York this variety is better known under the names Meachem Sweet or Rag Apple than it is under the correct name of Munson.
The fruit commonly averages about medium size. It is attractive in appearance for a yellow apple, being pale yellow often somewhat blushed; skin characteristically tough separating readily from the tender flesh; season late September to December. It is a desirable variety for home use but is not very satisfactory for growing commercially because there is little demand for a sweet apple of its season except in certain local markets. The tree is a good grower, comes into bearing rather early and is a pretty reliable cropper commonly yielding good crops biennially. Historical. Origin uncertain. Supposed to have originated in Massachusetts. It is still propagated by nurserymen (12), but it is not being planted in New York now as much as it was a generation ago.

TREE.

Tree large, moderately vigorous to vigorous.
Form spreading or roundish, rather dense.
Twigs short to rather long, curved, stout to moderately slender with large terminal buds; internodes short.
Bark dark brown, heavily streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent near tips.
Lenticels quite numerous, rather conspicuous, medium size, roundish, raised.
Buds large, prominent, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit below medium to rather large, averaging about medium size.
Form roundish oblate, often somewhat elliptical, ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) rather short, moderately thick.
Cavity medium to rather large, acuminate, narrow to medium width, rather unsymmetrical, lightly russeted.
Calyx medium to small, closed; lobes rather narrow, acute.
Basin shallow to very shallow, narrow, obtuse or a little abrupt, furrowed, often unsymmetrical.
Skin rather thick and tough separating readily from the flesh, smooth, greenish-yellow often somewhat blushed.
Calyx tube funnel-shape with long cylinder.
Stamens marginal to median.
Core medium to large, axile or sometimes abaxile' cells often unsymmetrical, closed or somewhat open; core lines clasping the cylinder.
Carpels roundish to elliptical, emarginate, tufted.
Seeds medium size, rather short, flat, obtuse, dark brown.
Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately fine-grained, tender, moderately juicy, sweet, good to very good.
Season late September to December.

Newtown Spitzenberg
References.  1.
Synonyms. 
XXX
Historical.

TREE.

Tree
Form
Twigs
Bark
Lenticels
Buds

FRUIT

Fruit
Form
Stem (Pedicel)
Cavity
Calyx
Basin
Skin
Dots
Calyx tube
Stamens
Core
Carpels
Seeds
Flesh
Season
[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

Northern Spy
References.  1. Mag. Hort., 10:275. 1844. 2. Albany Cultivator, 2:41, 56. 1845. 3. Genesee Farmer, 1845. (cited by 6). 4. Downing, 1845:120. 5. Horticulturist. 1:30, 144. 1846. 6. Ib., 1:386, 482. 1847. 7. Hovey and Watts, Mag. Hort., 13:72, 104, 538. 1847. fig. 8. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 14:530. 1848. 9. Thomas, 1849:169, 174. fig. 10. Cole, 1849:134. fig. 11. Allen, Horticulturist, 6:351. 1851. 12. Emmons, Nat. Plist. N. Y., 3:70. 1851. col. pl. No. 23. 13. Hovey, 1:19. 1851. col. pl. and fig. 14. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 15. Mag. Hort., 19:68. 1853. 16. Elliott, 1854:94. fig. 17. Smith, Horticulturist, 11:242. 1856. 18. Hooper, 1857:66. 19. Hoffy, N. A. Pom., 1860. col. pl. 20. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 29:459. 1863. 21. Warder, 1867:541. fig. 22. Downing, 1869:289. fig. 23. Fitz, 1872:166. 24. Leroy, 1873:501. fig. 25. Barry, 1883:351. 26. Hogg, 1884:161. 27. Wickson, 1889:248. 28. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 29. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:245. 30. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:192. 31. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 3:15. 1896. figs. 32. Bruner, N. C. Sta. Bul., 182:21. 1903. figs. 33. Budd-Hansen, 1903:137. fig. 34. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:51. 1903. 35. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:134. 1904.
Synonyms.  Spy (1,19,31).
Northern Spy is often known among fruit growers and fruit buyers by the simple name of Spy. It ranks third in commercial importance among New York apples, being surpassed in this respect by Baldwin and Rhode Island Greening. When it is well grown it is superior to either of these in flavor and quality and easily ranks among the very best winter apples of New York. The fruit is large and attractive, being of a bright red color, overspread with a delicate bloom. The flesh is very juicy, crisp, tender and most excellent for either dessert or culinary uses. It is not a good variety for evaporating because it is too juicy and tender. It is well adapted for either local, general or fancy trade. It has a well-established reputation in market, and because of its size, beauty, fine flavor and high quality it often sells at more than average prices. It is ready for use in November and December, and retains its crispness and high flavor remarkably well until the close of the season (35). Its thin skin and juicy, tender flesh render careful handling absolutely necessary, otherwise there is much shrinkage in storage (35). It is particularly susceptible to attack from blue mold (Penicillium glaucum Link) in storage, especially if bruised or delayed in reaching storage. If well colored, picked, packed and handled with great care and stored soon after picking, it may be carried in storage as long as most winter varieties (34). Its keeping quality varies considerably in different seasons and in different locations. In ordinary cellar storage its season sometimes closes in February, but more often extends to March or April, and if the temperature is very carefully regulated it may sometimes be held till May. It stands heat fairly well, but after being picked it should go into storage as soon as possible. Poorly colored fruit of this variety is not good in flavor and does not keep as well as well-ripened and highly colored fruit. In some localities it appears to require from two to three weeks longer than Rhode Island Greening to ripen properly.
Both the foliage and fruit of Northern Spy are noticeably susceptible to injury by the scab and thorough treatment is required to prevent loss from this disease. It comes into bloom remarkably late. On this account its blossoms sometimes escape destruction by late frosts when earlier-blooming varieties are much injured. Often it produces many small apples which are seedless or nearly so. This indicates an improper fertilization of the blossoms. It remains to be demonstrated whether or not this fault may be remedied by planting near the Northern Spy some other late-blooming variety bearing an abundance of fertile pollen.
Northern Spy is not as well adapted for general cultivation as is either Baldwin or Rhode Island Greening because it is more or less variable in season and quality, and in some sections is an unreliable cropper. Usually it is rather slow in coming into bearing, although under favorable conditions it has been known to yield profitable crops within seven years from the time of planting. The young trees increase in productiveness as they advance in maturity. In favorable locations, under good care, they usually become reliable croppers yielding from moderate to heavy crops biennially, or in some cases almost annually. This variety succeeds better in the cooler regions of the interior of the state than it does on the warm slopes south of the Fishkill mountains and on the coastal plain. It generally does well on the hills and well-drained slopes in the more elevated regions from Chautauqua lake eastward to the Catskills, along the Champlain valley and in the uplands east of the Hudson as far south as the Fishkill mountains. In some portions of the regions just named it has become the leading variety in commercial orchards, but its cultivation is by no means confined to these regions, for it is grown quite extensively in many other localities and is generally well known throughout the state. Experienced fruit growers frequently express a preference for warm, fertile soil, either gravelly loam or clay loam, with well-drained subsoil, upon which to plant Northern Spy, although in some few districts there is a decided preference for rather heavy clay loam. In the territory best adapted to its cultivation it is grown satisfactorily upon different slopes and different soils. When grown in sod the trees may be less productive, but the fruit doubtless colors better and keeps better than when the orchard is given frequent and thorough tillage during the growing season.
The tree is very hardy and healthy, develops a strong root system both in the nursery and in the orchard, and has an upright, free- growing habit. For these reasons it is much in favor as a stock upon which to top-work varieties that are less vigorous, less hardy or less healthy. The top tends to become dense and must be pruned regularly and thoroughly to keep it sufficiently open to admit light and air to the foliage in all parts of the tree; otherwise, especially on the older trees, much of the fruit is apt to be poorly matured and poorly colored. Pruning for this purpose should be done by removing the laterals and limbs that cross, being careful to leave the smaller twigs and spurs, as these are the ones upon which the most of the fruit is borne.
The head of the young orchard tree should be formed with great care. In the words of one of our correspondents (E. W. Lament, Cobleskill. N. Y.), the wood of this variety is very straight-grained and the tree is liable to split when heavily loaded. To guard against this, when the head of the small tree is formed no two limbs should be left opposite or nearly opposite each other, but the three or four branches which are selected for forming the head of the tree should be distributed along the main stem at some little distance apart. This distributes the load upon the trunk and gives more spring to the body of the tree, thus tending to prevent its splitting with heavy loads. Standard orchard trees of Northern Spy should stand forty to fifty feet apart in order to prevent their becoming too much crowded when fully matured.
Historical. Originated in a seedling orchard at East Bloomfield, N. Y., which is famous for the production of this variety, the Early Joe and the Melon. This orchard was planted by Heman Chapin with seedling trees grown from seeds brought from Salisbury, Connecticut, about the year 1800 (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 1 8). Sprouts from the original tree were taken up and planted by Roswell Humphrey and by him the first fruit of the Northern Spy was raised as the original tree died before bearing. In 1847 nine of the trees set out by Humphrey were still living (6). The variety was confined to the vicinity of its origin for many years and it was not till about 1840 that it began to attract the attention of fruit growers in other localities (6, 12). Its great value then came to be more widely recognized and in 1852 the American Pomological Society not only listed it as a new variety of promise but also as a variety worthy of general cultivation. Since that time it has become extensively planted not only in New York but in various other portions of the more northern apple-growing regions.

TREE.

Tree large, vigorous: branches long, moderately stout, curved.
Form upright, dense, becoming roundish with willowy, slender laterals somewhat inclined to droop.
Twigs long to medium in length, erect, straight or somewhat crooked, slender to moderately stout; internodes long to rather short.
Bark dull, dark brownish-red mingled with olive-green lightly streaked with thick scarf-skin; heavily pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, conspicuous, small, roundish or oblong, slightly raised.
Buds deeply set in bark, medium to small, broad, plump, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit except when it is seedless is usually large or very large.
Form roundish conical, sometimes inclined to oblong, often noticeably flattened at the base, nearly symmetrical, sometimes regular but often noticeably ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long, moderately thick.
Cavity large, acute, very wide and deep, often broadly furrowed, usually with greenish-russet radiating upwards to the brim.
Calyx usually small, closed, sometimes partly open; lobes short, broad, obtuse.
Basin small to medium, narrow to medium in width, moderately deep, abrupt, usually somewhat furrowed.
Skin thin, tender and smooth. In highly colored specimens it is glossy and the clear pale yellow ground color is nearly concealed with bright pinkish-red mottled and splashed with carmine and overspread with a thin delicate bloom.
Dots medium to small, not conspicuous, scattering, whitish, gray or russet.
Prevailing effect bright red or striped red. Rarely the yellow or green color predominates. In such cases the quality of the fruit is low.
Calyx tube sometimes large, long, cone-shape but more often narrow and somewhat funnel-form with very narrow cylinder.
Stamens basal or nearly so.
Core usually large, sometimes medium, abaxile; cells pretty symmetrical, open or nearly closed, often not uniformly developed; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder.
Carpels much concave, broadly roundish, emarginate, slightly tufted.
Seeds small to medium, wide, often abortive and few but sometimes numerous, plump, obtuse, dark, somewhat tufted.
Flesh yellowish, rather firm, moderately fine-grained, very tender, crisp, very juicy, sprightly, aromatic, subacid, very good to best.
Season [November to April.]

Northern Sweet
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Golden Sweet (8,10,13). Northern Golden Sweet (2,5,7,8,13). Northern Golden Sweeting (10). Northern Sweet (1-4,6-8,10-18). Northern Sweeting (9).
Fruit yellow or sometimes with a crimson cheek. Flesh whitish, fine, tender, juicy, sweet, very good; season midautumn. It is a good apple for the home orchard but not desirable for commercial purposes.
Historical. Supposed to be a native of Chittenden county, Vermont. Brought to notice by Jonathan Battey, Keeseville, Clinton county, NY about 1849, who stated that it had then been cultivated in the vicinity of its origin for about fifty years (2). It has probably been grown more in the Champlain valley than in any other section of the state. It is still occasionally listed by nurserymen (16) but is now seldom planted.