Apple Home

Mabie
A red sweet apple of very good general appearance. It belongs in the same group as Victoria Sweet. Season late fall and early winter. A desirable variety of its class.
Historical. This is a local variety which has been grown to a limited extent in southern Rockland county. The following account of its origin is given by M.L. Bell, Sparkill, NY (Letter, 1904): "Mabie has been grown in Southern Rockland county, NY and the adjacent portion of New Jersey for about forty-five years. About fifty years ago the original tree stood in an old stone fence row on the farm of Wm. Mabie. It was propagated in a local nursery and disseminated through the surrounding region where it is generally highly esteemed by those who have tested it."

FRUIT

Fruit above medium to nearly large.
Form roundish or somewhat inclined to oblong, a little irregular, unsymmetrical, not very uniform.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to rather long, moderately thick.
Cavity large, acute to acuminate, moderately deep, wide, often obscurely furrowed, sometimes completely covered with russet which extends over the base of the fruit in broken rays.
Calyx medium to rather large, closed or partly open.
Basin medium size or below, pubescent, saucer-shape, medium in width and depth, a little obtuse to rather abrupt, smooth or slightly furrowed.
Skin very thick, tough, smooth or slightly roughened with russet dots, bright yellow mottled or deeply blushed with bright red, in highly colored specimens rather deep, dark red, obscurely striped with carmine and marked over the base with whitish scarf-skin.
Dots often very small, gray, mingled with others that are large, whitish and areolar with russet center.
Calyx tube short, moderately wide, conical to funnel-form.
Stamens median.
Core medium to rather large, axile to somewhat abaxile; cells closed or somewhat open; core lines clasping.
Carpels roundish to broadly obovate, slightly tufted.
Seeds dark brown, medium to small, plump, broadly acute.
Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, firm, medium grained, somewhat crisp, tender, juicy, sweet, good.
Season late fall and early winter.

Mac Donough
References.  1. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:299. 1901.
Synonyms.  None.
A medium sized yellow apple of mild flavor, in season in August and September. We are unacquainted with this variety. Waugh (1) gave the following account of it in 1901: A local variety, said to have originated on Cumberland Head, Clinton county, NY, opposite Grand Isle. A fairly good apple in many ways, but not common and not likely ever to become popular.
"Fruit roundish oblate, size medium, cavity medium deep and broad, waxy, slightly russetted, stem medium straight, basin shallow, corrugated, calyx nearly closed, color greenish-yellow, fine yellow when ripe, dots many, light greenish, bloom waxy, skin smooth, flesh greenish-white, mealy, core medium, closed, flavor neutral, nearly sweet, quality fair to good, season August-September. Tree hardy, rough dark bark, irregular in form, productive.

Magog
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Magog Red Streak (1-7,9,11).
Fruit of good size, rather attractive appearance and good to very good quality, especially for culinary purposes. Dr. Hoskins, who propagated it for several years, said in 1894: "It is a fair but uneven keeper, and might be well described as not quite valuable enough to retain, yet hardly deserving to be cast aside." It is reported as being very hardy in Northern new York, a good grower and a good bearer. As fruited at this Station, the tree is a moderately good grower, comes into bearing rather young and yields moderate to good crops nearly annually. The keeping quality of the fruit varies in different season but its commercial limit in ordinary storage appears to be October. It remains in season to January or possibly later (11). It is not recommended for planting except perhaps for home use in localities where its superior hardiness give it an advantage over ordinary varieties of its season.
Historical. Originated by Wm. Warren, Newport, VT (1). It has been planted to a considerable extent in portions of Northern New England, Northern New York and the parts of Canada adjoining. It is still propagated in a few nurseries (4).

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading or roundish.
Twigs short to medium, straight or nearly so, rather slender; internodes short to medium.
Bark dark brown or brownish-red, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small, oval, not raised.
Buds small to above medium, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.
FRUIT
Fruit medium to large, averaging above medium, rather uniform in size but variable in shape.
Form roundish to oblong, inclined to conic or somewhat ovate, regular or faintly ribbed; sides often unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to short, moderately thick to rather slender.
Cavity acute or approaching acuminate, medium in depth, medium to rather narrow, usually smooth, occasionally lipped, often irregularly russeted.
Calyx medium to small, closed; lobes medium length, rather narrow, acute to acuminate.
Basin usually medium in width and depth, sometimes rather abrupt, coarsely wrinkled.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, waxy, pale greenish or yellow, lightly washed and mottled with thin brownish-red. sparingly striped and splashed with deeper red.
Dots numerous, light, submerged, areolar, brown and russet.
Prevailing effect: yellow.
Calyx tube medium in width, long, conical to funnel-shape with long cylinder.
Stamens nearly marginal.
Core large to medium, abaxile; cells open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder.
Carpels long ovate to broadly obcordate, sometimes tufted.
Seeds light brown, small to medium, rather wide, short, very plump, obtuse to broadly acute.
Flesh tinged with yellow, rather firm, medium to rather fine-grained, tender, very juicy, sprightly, pleasant subacid, aromatic, good.
Season October to January or later.

Maiden Blush
References.  1.  [XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 111.]
Synonyms.  Lady Blush (36). Red Cheek (11).
This is a beautiful apple of pale lemon-yellow color with crimson cheek. The flesh is white, sprightly, not superior in flavor but good in quality. It is valued especially for market and culinary uses. It makes very white evaporated stock. As grown in Western New York it is in season from September to November or December. Later than this although the fruit may appear sound it is deficient in quality. In cold storage its commercial limit appears to be about December 15th. It does not stand heat well before going into storage. It varies greatly in the time of maturing in different season. The earlier it matures the less satisfactory is it as a keeper (36). It is recognized as a standard market variety and usually sells above the average prices for varieties of its class. In many localities it has proven a very satisfactory variety for the commercial orchard, because the tree is a fine grower, hardy, pretty long-lived, comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper, yielding good to heavy crops biennially or almost annually. In many cases the fruit does not mature uniformly and there is considerable loss from drops unless more than one picking is made in gathering the crop. Usually the fruit is pretty uniform in size but on unthrifty, old trees or under unfavorable circumstances a considerable amount of the fruit may be too small for market. It is sometimes badly injured by scab but this may readily be prevented by proper treatment.
Historical. Coxe described this variety in 1817 as very popular in the Philadelphia market and the best variety of its season for evaporating. He stated that it was named by Samuel Allinson, of Burlington, NJ, who first brought it to notice. In the American Pomological Society's Catalogue of fruits it is reported as either "wholly successful or successful" in nearly all the important apple-growing districts of the United States (33). It has long been well and favorably known in New York and it is still being planted both for commercial purposes and for home use.
TREE.
Tree medium size, moderately vigorous to vigorous.
Form spreading, open.
Twigs long, curved, slender; internodes short.
Bark brown or reddish-brown, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, small, round, not raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.
[Diseases:  Resistant to cedar apple rust, susceptible to fireblight, scab and apple blotch (Burford).]
FRUIT
Fruit medium or above, sometimes large, uniform in size and shape.
Form oblate a little inclined to conic, regular, symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, rather slender.
Cavity rather large, acute to obtuse, medium to wide, moderately deep to shallow, usually symmetrical, sometimes russeted.
Calyx medium size, closed; lobes separated at base, medium length, moderately broad, acute.
Basin moderately shallow, medium to wide, obtuse, regular, smooth or slightly furrowed, symmetrical.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, pale waxen yellow with crimson blush.
Dots numerous, whitish and submerged or aerolar.
Calyx tube small, narrow, conical to funnel-shape.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core medium size, axile or somewhat abaxile, broadly elliptical; cells closed or slightly open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels very broadly ovate.
Seeds medium brown, moderately wide, moderately long, plump, acute.
Flesh white or with slight yellow tinge, fine, moderately crisp, tender, very juicy, subacid, good in quality especially for culinary uses.  [Excellent for drying and also used to make summer cider (Burford).
Season September to November or December.  [Ripens in late summer in Virginia and is a poor keeper (Burford).]
[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

Maiden Favorite
References.  1. Downing, 1857:167. 2. Warder, 1867:725. 3. Thomas, 1875:505.
Synonyms.  Maiden's Apple (1).
A late fall and early winter variety which originated in Stuyvesant, Columbia county, NY. According to Downing it is a desirable amateur variety of delicacy and beauty, medium size or below, whitish or pale waxen yellow sometimes mottled with crimson. Flesh tender, crisp, very delicate, vinous, sweet, good to very good. Tree a rather slow grower with upright, slender branches, and a good bearer. We are not acquainted with this variety. So far as we have been able to learn it is not cultivated outside of the vicinity of its origin and is no longer propagated.

MALA CARLE

REFERENCES. 1. Kenrick, 1832:79. 2. Floy-Lindley, 1833:39. 3. Manning, 1838:61. 4. Downing, 1845:116. 5. Thomas, 1849:182. 6. Cole, 1849:116. 7. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:82. 1851. 8. Elliott, 1854:146. fig. 9. Hooper, 1857:56. 10. Warder, 1867:725. 11. Fitz, 1872:168. 12. Hogg, 1884:144. 13. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1889:10. 14. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:243.
Synonyms. Charles Apple (1, 2, 4, 8). Matcarte (2). Malcarle (1). Mal Carle (7). Mare Carve (4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11). Male Carle (6, 12). Marve Carte (7). MELA Carta (1, 3, 12). Mela Carla (2, 4, 5, 8, 9). Mela dé Carlo (8). Mela di Carlo (4). Pomme de Charles (4, 5, 8). Pomme Finale (1, 4, 8).
A very beautiful delicate skinned apple with white, tender, perfumed flesh. It is well adapted to certain regions of the South (11) but it does not succeed as far north as New York (4).
Historical. This is an old variety of Italian origin. Lindley says of it:
“The Malcarle is a native of the territory of Finale, in Liguria. It is an important article of trade in the whole Genoese territory, and of exportation to Nice, Marseilles, Barcelona and Cadiz. The climate of the Italian territory is so entirely different from that of England, that we cannot expect the delicate Malcarle should succeed here, unless trained against a south or southeast wall, and in a warm and kind soil. Its great beauty in the dessert renders it an interesting object of cultivation” (2).

MALINDA
.
REFERENCES. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1877:46. 2. Van Deman, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1891:390. 3. Craig, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1896:132. 4. Macoun, Can. Hort., 22:396. 1899. 5. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bul., 76:73. 1902. fig. 6. Munson, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:84. 1902. 7. Budd-Hansen, 1903:122. fig. 8. Ragan, U.S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:190. 1905.
Synonym. Melinda (8).
This variety is as yet untested in New York. It originated in Orange county, Vt. and was introduced into Minnesota about 1860. The tree does not come into bearing young. It has done well in Iowa and Minnesota when top-worked on the very hardy Hibernal apple or on the Virginia crab stock (5). The fruit ranks only fair in quality. The variety does not appear worthy of testing for New York except possibly in those regions of the state where hardiness is a prime requisite.
TREE (5)
Tree a slender, straggling grower in the nursery. Twigs medium, rather slender, comparatively blunt at the tips, nearly straight; internodes short to medium. Bark dull brownish-red, uniformly overlaid with thin scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticels rather inconspicuous, rather few, medium or below, elongated or roundish, not raised. Buds rather small, hardly moderately projecting, somewhat pubescent, free from bark or slightly adhering.
Fruit, (5).
Fruit above medium to large. Form sharply conical, somewhat angular and ribbed. Stem short, stout. Cavity acute, medium, regular, with stellate russet. Calyx closed. Basin abrupt, narrow, deep, wavy, wrinkled.
Skin smooth, rich yellow with dull red blush. Dots minute, distinct, numerous, white.
Calyx tube conical. Stamens median.
Core closed; core lines meeting.
Flesh yellowish-white, firm, juicy, very mild subacid with sweet after-taste, fair.
Season late winter.

MANCHESTER.

REFERENCES. 1. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:48. 1903. 2. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:131. 1904.
This variety shows that it is of the Esopus Spitsenburg type by the size and form of the fruit and also by the texture and quality of the flesh. It is much inferior to the Esopus Spitsenburg in color and is not as good in quality. The flesh is liable to have brown discolorations commonly known as the “Baldwin spot.” The fruit is often above medium or large but is not very uniform either in size or shape. The color is quite variable and lacks character, being yellow or dull green partly overspread with red. It is not sufficiently attractive in form and color for a good market fruit. The tree is not very slow in coming into bearing and is a reliable cropper. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. Received here for testing from J. D. Adams, Mapleton, Cayuga county, N. Y., in 1890. We have not learned where or when the variety originated. It is sparingly cultivated in a few localities in Western New York but does not appear to be known in other portions of the state.
TREE,
Tree rather small, only moderately vigorous; lateral branches willowy, slender.
Form roundish or spreading, dense. Twigs below medium to short, rather slender, nearly straight; internodes medium. Bark clear reddish-brown with a light coat of streaked scarf-skin, slightly pubescent near the tips.
Lenticels quite numerous, very small, roundish to oblong, sometimes slightly raised. Buds medium to small, plump, roundish, obtuse to acute, appressed, pubescent, deeply set in bark.
Fruit.
Fruit above medium to large.
Form roundish to oblong, inclined to conic, somewhat angular or elliptical, usually pretty symmetrical.
Stem medium to long. Cavity broad, deep, varying from somewhat obtuse to acuminate, often obscurely furrowed, usually russeted. Calyx small to medium, closed. Basin usually small, often oblique, varying from very shallow and obtuse to moderately deep and abrupt, often irregular, usually distinctly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin slightly rough, dull grass-green varying to a rather deep yellow, thinly blushed with red and sparingly and obscurely striped with dull carmine. Prevailing color yellow. Dots rather numerous, small to medium, pale or russet, often irregular, often submerged.
Calyx tube narrow above, long, approaching cylindrical. Stamens marginal to median.
Core medium to large, varying from decidedly abaxile to nearly axile; cells often closed but sometimes unsymmetrical and wide open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate to roundish, mucronate, emarginate, distinctly tufted. Seeds above medium to rather small, plump, obtuse to acute.
Flesh yellowish, moderately crisp, firm, moderately fine-grained, rather tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, good to very good.
Season December to April or May.

MANN.

REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1872:21 app. fig. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1877:10. 3. Moody, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:124. 4. Barry, 1883:349. 5. Moody, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:27. 6. Thomas, 1885:517. 7. Can. Hort., 11:113. 1888. 8. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:204. 9. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892: 244. 10. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 5:18. 1898. figs. 11. Ib., 6:35. 1899. 12. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Bul., 37:44. 1901. 13. Munson, Me. Sta. Bul., 82:95. 1902. 14. Budd-Hansen, 1903:123. 15. Powell and Fulton, U. S.B. P.I. Bul., 48:48. 1903. 16. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:131. 1904.
Synonym. Deiltz (3).
A hard, green, late-keeping apple used by the trade to some extent as a substitute for Rhode Island Greening late in the season when it often brings good prices. It is decidedly inferior to Rhode Island Greening in quality and does not always have a good clear green color, being sometimes streaked more or less with a network of russet. Its great merits are the productiveness of the tree and the smoothness, uniformity and superior keeping and shipping qualities of the fruit. The tree is superior to Rhode Island Greening and Baldwin in hardiness (5, 8) and usually is a reliable cropper, yielding good to heavy crops biennially or in some localities almost annually. It is a little slow about coming into bearing. In many cases the crops are so heavy that the percentage of loss in undersized fruit is rather high and the trees are damaged by the breaking of the limbs.
Historical. Originated as a chance seedling in the orchard of Judge Mooney of Granby, Oswego county, N. Y. (1), where it was formerly called the Deiltz. It was introduced into Niagara county by Dr. Mann, and on the suggestion of Elisha Moody of Lockport the Western New York Horticultural Society named the apple Mann (3). It is not grown extensively in any portion of the state but it is still being planted to a limited extent by commercial growers.
TREE.
Tree medium to large, moderately vigorous to vigorous. Form at first decidedly upright and rather dense but after bearing heavy crops becomes decidedly spreading with the laterals inclined to droop. Twigs medium to long, nearly straight, rather slender to moderately stout; internodes short. Bark more or less dark dull brown overspread with grayish-green and streaked with gray scarf-skin, slightly pubescent near tips. Lenticels numerous, dull, not very conspicuous, above medium to below, roundish, slightly raised. Buds medium to rather short, plump, obtuse, appressed, pubescent, deeply set in bark.
FRUIT.
Fruit medium to large. Form roundish, somewhat inclined to oblate, symmetrical, usually pretty regular, sometimes faintly ribbed; pretty uniform in size and shape. Stem short to medium, usually not exserted. Cavity acuminate, rather narrow to moderately wide, deep, usually russeted, and often with outspreading broken russet, somewhat furrowed. Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open; lobes medium in length, acute. Basin somewhat abrupt, rather narrow to moderately wide, usually pretty symmetrical, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin moderately thick, tough, at first deep green, often partly overspread with a brownish-red blush tinged with shade of olive-green but late in the season it develops a pronounced yellow color. Dots numerous, large, conspicuous, areolar, whitish with russet center.
Calyx tube moderately wide, cone-shape. Stamens below median to basal.
Core below medium to small, usually axile or nearly so; cells pretty symmetrical, usually closed, sometimes open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels smooth, broad, narrowing towards the base and apex or approaching truncate at the base, but slightly emarginate if at all. Seeds numerous, medium or above, wide, obtuse to acute, dark.
Flesh yellowish, moderately coarse, moderately juicy, at first very hard and firm but later becoming moderately tender and somewhat crisp, subacid, fair to good.
Season. Commercial limit March or April in ordinary storage and May in cold storage (16).

Margaret
References.  1.
Synonyms.  D'Eve (18). Duverson's June (17). Early June of South (13). Early Margaret (4,16,20). Early Red (24). Early Red Juneating (6,7,9,11-13,20). Early Red Margaret (4,6-15,17-21,23). Early Striped Juneating (4-7,20). Eve Apple (7, of Ireland 4,-6,9,12,13,20). Herr's June (17). June of some in Ohio (13). Lammas (3,20). Magdalene (20). Margaret, Early (5). Margaret, Early Red (5). Margaretha Apfel (4,7,9,12,13). Marget Apple (20). Marguerite (5,18,20). Maudlin (18,20). Red Joaneating (22). Red June of South (13). Red Juneating (4-7,9-13,20). Red Juneting (3). Reinette Quarrendon (18). Rother Jacobs (18). Rother Jacobs Apfel (4,7). Striped Juneating (5,9,11-13,18,20). Striped Quarrendon (17). Striped Quarrenden (5,18,20). Summer Traveller (5,17,20). Virginia June (17).
An early summer apple, small to nearly medium, roundish ovate, yellowish striped and marbled with dull red. Flesh pleasant subacid, good; season late July and early August. It is a dessert apple suitable for the home orchard only. The tree is of medium size, moderately vigorous, upright, hardy, long-lived, comes into bearing fairly young and is a pretty reliable biennial cropper.
Historical. This is a very old English variety. Hogg (20). states that "It is without doubt the Margaret of Rea, Worlidge, Ray, and all our early pomologists except Miller." It has long been cultivated in this country, but only to a very limited extent. it is now rarely propagated by our nurserymen and seldom planted.

MARIGOLD

REFERENCES. 1. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:244. 2. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:49. 1903. 3. Beach and Clark, N.Y. Sta. Bul., 248:131. 1904.
Doubtful References. 4. Knight, Pomona Herefordiensis, 1811. (cited by 6). 5. Kenrick, 1832:48. 6. Floy-Lindley, 1833:80. 7. Downing, 1869 :204. 8. Hogg, 1884:164.
Doubtful Synonyms. Isle of Wight Orange (6,7). Isle of Wight Pippin (6, 8). Marigold Pippin (7). Marygold (6). ORANGE Pippin (6, 7, 8).
A good dessert variety of desirable size and rather attractive appearance for a yellowish apple but it does not excel standard varieties of its season in color, size or quality. The tree does not come into bearing very young. It is an annual or nearly annual bearer and yields moderate crops. As grown at this Station the commercial limit of Marigold appears to be November or December in ordinary storage, although some portion of the fruit may be kept till June. The fruit held in cold storage till May has been found still hard, free from decay and but slightly scalded (2, 3).
Historical. Origin uncertain. It has long been known in the vicinity of Oyster Bay, Long Island. For upwards of a century it has been considered a desirable winter apple for that region, (Letter of Isaac Hicks, 1899.) and it has been propagated for years by the Westbury Nurseries. It is known to a limited extent in various localities in Southeastern New York and in Connecticut, but appears to be gradually going out of cultivation.
We have not had the opportunity of determining whether or not this Marigold of Long Island is identical either with the Marigold described by Kenrick (5) or with the Orange Pippin (6, 7, 8) which has Marigold as a synonym. The fruit corresponds pretty closely with Hogg’s description of Orange Pippin except as to its quality and season.
The Marigold of Leroy (Leroy, 1873:457.) is evidently distinct from the Long Island Marigold. Downing recognizes it under the name Creed Marigold (Downing, 1869:137.) under which name Hogg described it in 1859, stating that it originated in Kent from seed of the Scarlet Nonpareil.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous. Form upright, somewhat spreading, rather open.
Twigs rather short, slightly curved, moderately stout; internodes medium to short. Bark brown, tinged with clear reddish-brown, mottled with scarf-skin, pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous, rather conspicuous, slightly raised, oblong or roundish, medium to small. Buds medium to small, broad, plump, obtuse to acute, but slightly pubescent if at all, usually free.
Fruit.
Fruit below medium to nearly large, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish, often a little oblate and inclined to conic, quite regular, usually symmetrical; sides sometimes unequal. Stem rather slender. Cavity acute, deep, broad, symmetrical or somewhat furrowed, usually with greenish russet which often spreads beyond the cavity. Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open. Basin abrupt, shallow to moderately deep, rather narrow, sometimes obscurely furrowed, slightly wrinkled.
Skin nearly smooth, at first green but becoming good yellow with an orange blush which in highly colored specimens deepens to red and is somewhat mottled and splashed with bright carmine. Dots often submerged and yellow; others are large, irregular, russet and mingled with flecks of russet.
Calyx tube rather wide, deep, cone-shape or approaching funnel-form.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core rather small, axile or nearly so; cells usually symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels smooth, elliptical or approaching obcordate, emarginate. Seeds few, often abortive, medium or below, wide, obtuse.
Flesh yellowish, firm, a little coarse, rather tender, juicy, subacid, somewhat aromatic; good for dessert but rather too mild for most culinary uses.
Season variable but usually extends from November to April or May; commercial limit December or January in ordinary storage and about May first in cold storage (3).

MASON ORANGE

REFERENCES. 1. Stayman, Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:75. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1883:12. 3. Ib., Rpt., 1883:135, 136. 4. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:83. 5. Stayman, Rural N. Y., 43:83. 1884. fig. 6. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:244. 7. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bul., 129:30, 42. 1896. 8. Thomas, 1897:644. 9. Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. Bul., 106:54. 1903. 10. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bul., 205: 45. 1903. 11. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:41, 193. 1905.
Synonyms. Belleflower Improved (11). Mason Orange (10). Mason’s Improved (11). Mason's ORANGE (2, 3, 6, 8, 9).
A seedling of the Yellow Bellflower (5) which originated in Kansas (1, 3). Resembles its parent in its fruit which is medium to large, yellow with red cheek, of excellent quality, rather tender for market but valuable for home use. Season November to February (4, 10). It has not been tested sufficiently in New York to determine its value for this region.

MASTEN.
REFERENCES. 1. Horticulturist, 1866. (cited by 4). 2. Downing, 1869:268. 3. Thomas, 1885:517. 4. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:193. 1905.
Synonym. Masten’s SEEDLING (3). Mastens Seedling (2, 4).
A greenish-yellow winter apple of medium size or below, crisp, subacid, and of good quality (2, 3). Originated at Pleasant Valley, Dutchess county, N. Y. (2). It was brought to notice as a new variety about forty years ago (1, 2, 3), but appears to have remained practically unknown outside of the locality where it originated.

MELON.

REFERENCES. 1. Ellwanger and Barry, Albany Cultivator, 2:56. 1845. 2. Ib., Boston Cultivator, Mch., 1845. (cited by 4, 13). 3. Watts, Mag. Hort., 13:104. 1847. 4. Hovey, /b., 13:537. 1847. fig. 5. Ib, 14:12. 1848. 6. Downing, Horticulturist, 2:356. 1848 fig. 7. Thomas, 1849:151. 8 N. Y. Agr. Soc. Rpt., 1848:283, 284. fig. 9. Cole, 1849:124. fig. 10. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:76. 1851. col. pl. and fig. 11. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 12. Elliott, 1854:89. fig. 13. Horticulturist, 9:397. 1854. col. pl. 14. Downing, 1857:87. 15. Warder, 1867:488. fig. 16. Leroy, 1873:503. fig. 17. Barry, 1883:349. 18. Hogg, 1884:145. 19. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 20. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:245. 21. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898: 386. 22. Budd-Hansen, 1903:126. fig. 23. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:49. 1903. 24. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:132. 1904.  [25.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 111.]
Synonyms. Melon (8, 20). Melon Apple (18). Melon de Norton (16). Melon Norton (22). Norton Watermelon (16). Norton’s MELON (1, 2,5, 8, 10). Norton’s Melon (4, 6, 7, 9, 12, 13, 23, 24). Watermelon (4, 6, 7,8,9, 12).
When it is properly developed the Melon is one of the best dessert apples of its season, being crisp, tender and delicious. It is especially adapted for local market, fancy trade and dessert use. Ordinarily it is in season in Western New York from October to midwinter. If kept later than January in ordinary storage it soon loses in flavor and quality (24). Some fruit growers find it profitable but more often it has proved an unsatisfactory variety in the commercial orchard. Under favorable conditions the fruit develops good size and good color and is smooth and decidedly attractive, but in many cases there is a rather high percentage of loss from undersized, poorly colored or otherwise imperfect fruit. In portions of Eastern New York it is reported as being especially susceptible to the attacks of the apple maggot or railroad worm, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh. In some localities the foliage and fruit are both quite subject to the attacks of the apple-scab fungus and the tree is apt to be injured by canker on the limbs and on the body. The tree appears to be fully as hardy and productive as Tompkins King or perhaps more so, and after it attains mature bearing age it is often reliably productive, yielding good crops biennially or in some cases annually. It is an unsatisfactory grower in the nursery and makes but a moderately vigorous growth in the orchard, particularly when grown on its own body. On this account it is advisable to top-work Melon upon some stock that is healthier and more vigorous, such as Golden Russet, Roxbury, Northern Spy, Baldwin or Rhode Island Greening. The tree naturally develops a rather dense top and particular care is required in pruning to keep it sufficiently open.
Historical. Melon originated in East Bloomfield, Ontario county, in the old seedling orchard of Heman Chapin. This orchard was planted about 1800 (Letters, H. G. Chapin and Charles Chapin, 1905.) with seedling trees grown from seed brought to East Bloomfield from Connecticut (3, 4, 6, 13). Melon was introduced to the trade by Ellwanger and Barry about 1845 (1, 2, 4,5, 6,13). It has been pretty widely disseminated but in no portion of the state is it grown extensively. It is now seldom offered by nurserymen (20) and seldom planted.
TREE.
Tree medium in size, moderately vigorous. Form upright, somewhat spreading or roundish. Twigs medium to long, erect or spreading, slender to moderately stout. Bark reddish-brown, lightly mottled with scarf-skin, pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, usually small, round. Buds medium, plump, acute, somewhat pubescent. Leaves rather large, often rather broad.
[Diseases:  Susceptible to scab and somewhat susceptible to the other major diseases (25).] Fruit.
Fruit somewhat variable in size, usually above medium to large. Form roundish conic, sometimes inclined to oblate conic, often more or less elliptical and obscurely ribbed, usually symmetrical. Stem short to medium, slender.
Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, narrow to moderately wide, often russeted and sometimes with outspreading russet rays. Calyx small to above medium, closed or partly open; segments narrow, acuminate. Basin rather small, shallow to moderately deep, narrow to medium in width, rather abrupt, often somewhat furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin pretty smooth, pale yellow or greenish-yellow and when well colored nearly overspread with rather light, bright red striped and splashed with carmine. Dots small, pale yellow or russet, not conspicuous. Prevailing effect red mingled with yellow.
Calyx tube rather small, cone-shape varying to short funnel-form with fleshy pistil point projecting into the base. Stamens median to marginal.
Core medium to small, axile; cells symmetrical, closed; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish or elliptical, sometimes slightly tufted, but slightly emarginate if at all. Seeds below medium to rather large, plump, moderately wide, often irregular or angular, very dark brown, sometimes tufted.
Flesh white slightly tinged with yellow, moderately firm, rather fine-grained, crisp, very tender, juicy, sprightly, somewhat aromatic, pleasantly subacid, very good.  [Not useful other than for fresh-eating (25).
Keeping ability:  Poor (25).]

McAFEE

REFERENCES. 1, Elliott, 1854:158. 2. Downing, 1857:170. 3. Downing, Horticulturist, 16:42. 1861. 4. Warder, 1867:601, 725. 5. Howsley, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1871:76. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871. 7. Downing, 1872:260, 363, 21 app. fig. 8. Fitz, 1872:143. 9. Barry, 1883:349. 10. Thomas, 1885:517. 11. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 12. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:244. 13. Beach, W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. An. Rpt., 41:76. tot. 14. Budd-Hansen, 1903:119. 15. Bruner, N. C. Sta. Bul., 182:27. 1903.
Synonyms. Gray Apple (7). Gray's Keeper (5). Indian Wyandotte (7). Large Striped Pearmain (4). Large Striped Pearmain (1, 5, 6, 7). Large Striped WINTER PEARMAIN (3). Large Striped Winter Pearmain (7, 9). McAfee (7). McAfee Red (14). McAfee’s Nonesuch (8). McAfee’s Nonesuch (5). McAfee’s Nonsuch (2, 7, 9, 10). McAfees ed (5,7). McArrer (4). McArrer’s Nonesucu (6). Missouri Superior (5, 7, 13). New Missouri (5). Nonsuch (7). Park (5). Parks Keeper (5, 7, 13). Snorter (1, 7). Stevenson Pippin (13). Stine (15). Storr’s Wine (5). StrirpED PEARMAIN (1). Striped Sweet Pippin (7). STRIPED WintTER PearMain (7). Valandingham (5). White Crow (5). Winter Pearmain (5). Winter Pippin of some (7). Zeeke (5).
This is an old variety well known in portions of the South and of the Middle West. As grown in Western New York it is a reliable bearer giving moderately heavy crops, the fruit hangs well to the tree, develops good color and is a late keeper but its quality is not very satisfactory. It is not recommended for planting in this state.
Historical. An old variety which originated near Harrodsburg, Kentucky. At first it was called Nonesuch but afterwards became widely known under the name McAfee’s Nonsuch. Dr. Howsley gives an extended account of its origin and of its dissemination under various synonyms (5).
TREE.
Tree medium in size, moderately vigorous to vigorous. Form roundish, somewhat spreading. Twigs medium in length, rather slender with dark bark; slightly pubescent towards the tips; young twigs smooth, dark, reddish- brown.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to large. Form roundish oblate, regular. Stem short to long. Cavity large, wide, acute, rather deep, gently furrowed, often with thin outspreading russet. Calyx small, closed. Basin shallow, usually rather narrow, sometimes broad, sometimes compressed, wrinkled and_ gently furrowed.
Skin rather thin, smooth, yellow faintly washed with red and splashed and striped with carmine, often marked over the base with thin, grayish, mottled or streaked scarf-skin and sometimes with fine, irregularly broken russet lines.
Dots minute, indented, gray or whitish mingled with some that are larger, areolar. Prevailing effect striped red.
Calyx tube funnel-form, sometimes elongated and constricted at the base of the limb, enlarging somewhat below and extending to the core. Stamens median. to basal.
Core medium in size, decidedly abaxile, roundish; cells pretty symmetrical, open; core lines clasp the funnel cylinder. Carpels rather concave, tufted, very broadly obovate or approaching obcordate, narrowing towards the stem. Seeds numerous, large, long, rather wide, obtuse, dark.
Flesh yellowish, somewhat coarse, somewhat breaking, tender, juicy, mild subacid approaching sweet, good to very good.
Season October to February.

McKINLEY.

REFERENCES. I. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 2. Warder, 1867:606. fig. 3. Downing, 1872:261. 4. Thomas, 1885:517. 5. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:244. 6. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:188. 1905.
Synonym. Macxintay (1). MacKinlay (6).
A dessert apple of pretty good size but the color is not very good and the fruit does not keep late. As grown at this Station the tree has come into bearing rather young but it has not been tested here long enough to determine its productiveness. It is not recommended for planting in this state.
It originated in Indiana (6) and is propagated to a limited extent in portions of the Middle West (5). It is practically unknown in New York.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to large, roundish oblate. Stem short to medium, slender.
Cavity rather narrow, deep, thickly russeted. Calyx large, closed or varying to wide open; lobes small. Basin broad, rather abrupt, shallow to moderately deep, slightly furrowed. Skin dull yellow indistinctly blushed and striped with dull red, sprinkled with large areolar dots. Core medium, closed; core lines meeting. Flesh yellowish, rather fine-grained, moderately juicy, subacid, good.
Season December and January.

McKINNEY.

REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1876:56 app. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1873. (cited by 3). 3. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:188. 1905.
Fruit yellow with a shade of brownish-red in the sun, of good size and mild subacid flavor; in season from January to April (1). Originated in Crawford, Ulster county. Evidently unknown outside the locality of its origin.

MAGENTA.

REFERENCE. 1. Leroy, 1873:447. fig.
This is a variety which was brought to notice in France in 1861. It has been but little grown as yet in New York state, at least not under this name. It appears to be identical with Canada Reinette.
Fruit.
Fruit above medium to large. Form oblate conic, broadly angular, irregular. Stem short to very short, moderately thick, not exserted. Cavity large, moderately deep to deep, rather broad, acute or approaching acuminate, usually with outspreading russet. Calyx medium, closed or partly open. Basin often irregular, rather abrupt, medium in width and depth, compressed or furrowed.
Skin yellow or greenish with a bronze blush and roughened with very large stellar or irregular russet dots or patches.
Calyx tube conical or somewhat funnel-form. Stamens median or below.
Core somewhat abaxile, below medium to rather small; cells usually symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping. Carpels roundish ovate, emarginate, somewhat tufted. Seeds medium or above, moderately wide, plump, obtuse, somewhat tufted.
Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, moderately tender, juicy, rich agreeable subacid, good to very good.
Season November to March.

McCarty
This appears to be a distinct strain or sport of Pumpkin Sweet. It is discussed under Pumpkin Sweet, page 173.

McIntosh
References.  1.  [***will be added later***]  [XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 112.]
Synonyms.  Will be added later.
This variety belongs to the 'Fameuse' group. It is adapted to a wider range of localities than is the Fameuse. The fruit is very attractive in appearance, of bright deep red color and good size. The flesh is very tender, perfumed and delicious. It is desirable for local markets and special trade but because of its lack of firmness it is less suitable for general handling. As grown at this Station it begins to ripen in late September or early October. In Western New York it cannot be expected to keep much later than October in ordinary storage without considerable loss but in cold storage it may be held until December or January (31). When grown in more northern or elevated regions it is often held in good condition till midwinter or later. It is susceptible to scab but this may readily be controlled with proper treatment. The crop ripens unevenly and a considerable portion of the fruit is liable to drop before it is ready to pick. On this account it is best to make two or three pickings. In some localities the tree is said to be a somewhat slow grower and not satisfactorily productive, but more often comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper yielding good crops biennially and sometimes annually. It has not been sufficiently tested to demonstrate fully its value for commercial purposes but it is regarded by many as one of the most promising varieties of its class for general cultivation in New York.
Historical. Originated as a chance seedling on the McIntosh homestead, Matilda township, Dundas county, Ontario, where Allan McIntosh began the propagation of this variety in the nursery about 1870 (20). It has been widely disseminated. It is now commonly propagated by nurserymen and its cultivation is on the increase in New York.
Tree.  Tree vigorous with numerous, small, slender laterals.
Form roundish or spreading.
Twigs above medium to short, straight or nearly so, rather slender; internodes long to below medium.
Bark bright reddish-brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, small, oval or elongated, raised.
Buds deeply set in bark, medium to below, plump, obtuse to acute, free, slightly pubescent.
[Diseases:  Burford says that it's "Moderately resistant to the major diseases", but even though I've not grown Mac myself, I beg to differ on the point of apple scab. Mac's susceptiblity to scab was famous enough to inspire two breeding programs involving four universities to breed for Mac-like apples on scab-immune trees! -ASC]
Fruit above medium, sometimes large, pretty uniform in shape and size.
Form roundish to somewhat oblate, regular or faintly ribbed, obscurely angular.
Stem short, stout or moderately slender, usually not exerted, often with irregular protuberances.
Cavity large, acuminate or somewhat acute, wide, medium in depth, somewhat broadly furrowed, often partly russeted.
Calyx small, closed or partly open; lobes short to long, narrow, acute.
Basin pubescent, rather small, medium in depth, narrow, abrupt, smooth or obscurely furrowed.
Skin thin, moderately tender, smooth, readily separating from the flesh, clear whitish-yellow or greenish washed and deeply blushed with bright red and striped with carmine; highly colored specimens become dark, almost purplish-red with the carmine stripes obscure or obliterated, overspread with thin, lilac bloom. Often the effect of the deep red is heightened by lively contrast with one or more spots of the clear pale yellow ground color where some twig or leaf pressed closely against the growing fruit.
Dots whitish or yellow, usually very small.
Calyx tube short, conical or funnel-shape with broad limb.
Stamens median to basal.
Core medium size, usually abaxile; cells usually wide open; core lines nearly meeting.
Carpels roundish to elliptical, narrowing toward base and apex, smooth, much concave.
Seeds medium brown, rather large, acute.
Flesh white or slightly tinged with yellow, sometimes veined with red, firm, fine, crisp, tender, very juicy, characteristically and agreeably aromatic, perfumed, sprightly, subacid, becoming mild and nearly sweet when very ripe, very good to best for dessert.  [Also used for baking and cider (Burford).]
Season October to December or later.  [Ripens in the fall and is a good keeper according to Burford. Again, I disagree with Burford on the keeping point. Southern-grown Macs are tasteless, mushy, mealy blobs that could not possibly be good keepers. Maybe Tom's orchard has enough elevation to reduce the Southern effect a bit, but I just don't think this apple is worth growing further south than the far northern US. -ASC]
N.Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:399-418. 1899. Ibid., 22:321-386. 1903.

McLellan
References.  1.****tbal**** 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871:8. 11. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc.. Rpt. 1890:204. 12. *******
Synonyms.  Martin (1,2,6,7). McLelan (8,9). McClellan (1,5).
A very choice dessert apple, handsome, fragrant, tender and excellent in quality. It comes into season a little later than Maiden Blush and may keep till January or February. When properly colored it is well adapted for fancy market and fruit-stand trade but when the color remains greenish, as it often does, the flavor is inferior. The fruit shows bruises readily and must be handled with extra care. It drops easily from the tree and on this account should be picked as soon as colored. In some cases it may to make two pickings. The tree comes into bearing young and is a reliable biennial bearer yielding good crops. It is only a moderately vigorous grower and probably it would be an advantage to topwork it upon some more vigorous and longer-lived stock, such as Northern Spy or Baldwin. It is not recommended for extensive commercial planting but in some cases it may be grown to a limited extent with profit.
Historical. The original tree was planted in a seedling orchard in Woodstock, Conn., about 1780 (1,5). It has been sparingly disseminated and is known locally in various parts of New York state, but it is now seldom offered by nurserymen (12) and is little propagated.
TREE.
Tree medium in size, moderately vigorous with long and moderately stout branches.
Form erect, roundish, open.
Twigs medium to long, erect, stout, generally somewhat curved; internodes short to medium.
Bark dull, very heavy scarf-skin; rather heavily pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, not very conspicuous, medium to small, roundish, sometimes a little raised.
Buds above medium to large, rather deeply set in the bark, broad, flat, obtuse to somewhat acute, free, very pubescent.
FRUITMoscow Mitch
Fruit above medium to large; uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish oblate to roundish conic, rather broad and flat at the base, symmetrical or nearly so, regular to elliptical.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, slender.
Cavity acute to acuminate, rather wide, deep, symmetrical, sometimes a little furrowed, smooth.
Calyx small to medium, partly open or closed; lobes long, acuminate.
Basin medium to rather small, abrupt, moderately shallow to deep, rather narrow to moderately wide, nearly round or sometimes angular, sometimes distinctly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin tough, waxen, pale yellow or greenish, blushed and mottled with bright light red splashed and striped with bright carmine. Highly colored specimens are almost entirely red and very attractive.
Dots numerous but mostly inconspicuous, whitish or russet.
Calyx tube funnel-form with wide limb or sometimes elongated.
Stamens basal to median.
Core below medium to small, axile or nearly so; cells not uniformly developed, usually pretty symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder.
Carpels smooth, roundish to elliptical narrowing toward the base and apex, slightly emarginate.
Seeds rather small, obtuse, smooth, dark.
Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately firm, very tender, moderately fine-grained, juicy, moderately crisp, almost sweet, excellent in flavor, very good for dessert.
Season October to January or February or sometimes to March.

McMahon
References.  1.
Synonyms.  McMahan (14,20,27). McMahan White (6,7,15-18). McMahon White (1-5,8-10,12,13,19,21-27).
A large apple of the Aport group, pale yellow or almost white, often with a delicate pink blush. The flesh is juicy, brisk subacid, fair to good in quality, excellent for culinary use. As grown at this Station it ripens unevenly and does not appear well adapted for storage (26). Season October to January or February. The tree comes into bearing rather young and yields good crops biennially. In 1805 Craig wrote concerning McMahon" "Attention is again drawn to some of its merits as an apple of value for regions where Northern Spy, Ribston Pippin and Rhode Island Greening cannot be grown profitably on account of their inability to withstand the severity of the climate. It has proved so far a remarkably vigorous and healthy grower, making probably more well matured wood growth than any other variety in the orchard, and is free from many of the defects characteristic to varieties unadapted to this climate. It has borne moderately heavy crops for the last two years. The fruit is of the largest size, smooth and handsome, though lacking in color as grown in this vicinity and somewhat soft in texture" (18). It is less desirable than standard kinds of its season for growing commercially in New York because it is only moderately attractive in general appearance, its color is such that is readily shows bruises and it does not rank high either in flavor or quality.
Historical. This variety originated about 1860 in Richland county, Wis., and is supposed to be a seedling of the Alexander. It is frequently listed by nurserymen, but it has thus far been but little planted in New York.

TREE.

Tree medium size, vigorous.
Form rather spreading.
Twigs medium size, slender, straight or nearly so; internodes above medium.
Bark dull dark reddish-brown; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, below medium or sometimes medium, elongated, somewhat raised, dull.
Buds medium or below, rather acute, thin, often appressed, slightly pubescent.
FRUIT
Fruit large or very large.
Form roundish inclined to conic, faintly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium in length, moderately thick.
Cavity remarkably acuminate, very deep, broad, compressed, slightly russeted and with outspreading rays.
Calyx rather small, slightly open; lobes separated at base, short.
Basin moderately deep, rather narrow to moderately wide, abrupt, compressed, slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin pale greenish-yellow or nearly white with irregular stripes and patches of whitish cheek overspread with a thin blush which sometimes is faintly splashed and striped with carmine.
Dots few, inconspicuous, small, greenish or russet.
Calyx tube rather long, wide, broadly conical inclined to funnel-form or cylindrical.
Stamens median to basal.
Core medium to small, slightly abaxile to axile; cells pretty symmetrical, closed or slightly open; core lies nearly meeting or clasping.
Carpels roundish or inclined to elliptical, slightly emarginate.
Seeds rather dark brown, medium or below, moderately plump, obtuse to acute.
Flesh nearly white, nearly fine, tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, fair to good.
Season October to January or February.

MÉNAGÈRE

REFERENCES. I. Manning, 1838:56. 2. Manning, Mag. Hort., 7:46. 1841. 3. Downing, 1845:117. 4. Thomas, 1849:157. 5. Elliott, 1854:174. 6. Hooper, 1857:59. 7. Warder, 1867:726. 8. Downing, 1869:273. 9. Leroy, 1873:435. to. Barry, 1883:340. 11. Hogg, 1884:146. 12. Bunyard, Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898:356. 13. Van Deman, Rural N. Y., 58:278. 1899. 14. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:132. 1904. 15. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:196. 1905.
Synonyms. Capp Mammoth (13). Combermere Apple (11). Dame de Ménage (9). Femme de Ménage (9). Flanders Pippin (11). Gros Rambour d’Hiver (9). Haus Mütterchen (9). Livre (9). Menace (15). Ménagère (9). Menagerie (5, 15). Mére de Ménage (8, 11, 12). Mére de Ménage (9, 15). Pfund (9). Teller (9).
A very large apple suitable only for exhibition purposes. It is undesirable either for dessert or culinary use, being coarse-grained and only fair in quality. The tree is slow about coming into bearing, usually bears some fruit every year but is unproductive and the fruit drops badly.
Historical. This is an old German variety which is known in England under the name Mére de Ménage (9, 11, 12). The name Ménagère is recognized by certain English and French pomologists only as a synonym, but the variety has been described by so many American writers under this name that it is now best to recognize it as the American name, particularly since German, French and English pomologists are not agreed upon any one name for the variety. It is but little grown in this country.
TREE.
Tree a moderate grower. Form upright. Twigs very short to below medium in length, very slender to medium in thickness, sometimes somewhat bowed and geniculate; internodes long or in the more slender limbs very long.
Bark dull brownish-red with an undertone of olive-green in some specimens, uniformly overlaid with a thick scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticels inconspicuous, only moderately numerous, medium, the larger ones roundish elliptical, the smaller, narrow. Buds medium in size, moderately projecting, rather fleshy, acute, not pubescent, slightly adhering to bark or free.
Fruit.
Fruit large to very large. Form oblate to oblate conic, pretty regular or somewhat ribbed; sides often unequal. Stem very short. Cavity acute, shallow to rather deep, moderately broad and marked with outspreading patches and flecks of russet. Calyx medium, closed or partly open; lobes long and reflexed. Basin somewhat abrupt, rather narrow, moderately deep, often irregular.
Skin pale yellow with faint blush on the exposed side. Dots scattering, light brown.
Calyx tube rather narrow, funnel-form, extending to the core. Stamens basal.
Core small, axile; cells symmetrical, closed; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder.
Flesh white, coarse-grained, moderately juicy, subacid, fair in flavor and quality.
Season October to January; under favorable conditions some portion of the fruit may be kept till spring.

MERRILL.

REFERENCE. 1. Downing, 1869:273.
Synonyms. MERRILL’s (1). Merrill's Apple (1).
Originated in Smyrna, Chenango county, N. Y. A medium sized, yellow apple with bright red cheek; flesh subacid, spicy, good; season December to March (1). This appears to be unknown outside of the place of its origin.

MIDDLE

REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1857:172. 2. Warder, 1867:507. fig.
Synonym. Mittle (1).
This fruit belongs in the same group as the Green Newtown and White Pippin but is less attractive than either. It is at first green and hard, but later in the season becomes crisp and rather tender. It is valued locally because it is an excellent dessert apple and a good keeper. The tree is an upright grower and sometimes bears heavy crops.
Historical. The original tree was.a chance seedling that grew on the land of Peter Bellinger in the village of Herkimer or rather on the line fence dividing two of the original tracts of land granted by the Crown in 1725, and being a tree that neither party could claim it was called the Middle apple tree (Letter, Will E. Kay, 1901.). Charles Downing included a description of it in his first revision of Fruits and Fruit Trees of America in 1857 (1). Warder (2) reports that it was introduced into Ohio by John Ludlow of Springfield in 1854 and propagated at the Oakland nurseries. In New York it remains practically unknown to fruit growers outside the vicinity of its origin.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to nearly large, rather uniform. Form varies from elongated ovate or oblong conic to roundish conic, often elliptical or somewhat angular; axis often somewhat oblique. Stem medium in length, rather slender. Cavity acute to acuminate, usually moderately deep, narrow to moderately broad often compressed or lipped and often with outspreading russet. Calyx medium to rather large, open. Basin often oblique, usually obtuse, shallow to medium in depth, medium in width to narrow, slightly furrowed or wrinkled, sometimes compressed.
Skin rather thin, moderately tender, somewhat rough, at first green but later becoming more or less marbled or shaded with yellow, sometimes lightly mottled with red or having red dots; often roughened at the base with broken russet. Dots numerous, russet.
Calyx tube, small, conical or somewhat funnel-form with truncate cylinder.
Stamens median.
Core medium to rather large, axile; cells symmetrical, closed or sometimes partly open; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels thin, tender, deeply emarginate, roundish or varying to elongated ovate, much tufted. Seeds numerous, small to medium, rather narrow, acute.
Flesh yellowish, breaking, rather fine, crisp, juicy, rather sprightly subacid, somewhat aromatic, very good.
Season December to February or March; often some portion of the fruit may be kept till late spring.

MILAM.

REFERENCES. I. Phoenix, Horticulturist, 4:470. 1850. 2. Kennicott, Ib., 7:431. 1852. 3. Elliott, 1854:174. 4. Robey, Horticulturist, 11:89. 1856. 5. Downing, 1857:217. 6. Hooper, 1857:60. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 8. Warder, 1867:503. fig. 9. Downing, 1869:275. 10. Fitz, 1872:158. 411. Barry, 1883:349. 12. Thomas, 1885:236. 13. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 14. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:244. 15. Budd-Hansen, 1903:127.  [16.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 116.]
Synonyms. Blair (6, 8,9). Harrigan (1, 3, 5,9). Thomas (9). Winter Pearmain of some (1, 3, 5, 9).
A medium sized dessert apple which has something of the appearance of a highly colored Ralls. In season from November to March. The tree is thrifty and in favorable localities becomes productive when it is mature. Thousands of trees of this variety have been propagated from sprouts for it sprouts readily from the roots (1, 8).
   Historical. Origin uncertain. Warder refers to it as “a little Southern favorite” (8). It was formerly quite popular in some portions of the Middle West where it is still propagated by nurserymen although it is not now planted as much as it was formerly (14). It has never been grown much in New York state and remains practically unknown among New York fruit growers.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous, with long, slender, curved branches. Form upright spreading or roundish, rather dense. Twigs above medium to long, slightly curved, rather slender; internodes long to medium. Bark dark brownish-red mingled with olive-green and streaked with grayish scarf-skin; heavily pubescent toward the tips. Lenticels quite numerous, small to rather large, roundish or elongated, slightly raised. Buds small to medium, broad, plump, obtuse to somewhat acute, free, pubescent.
[Diseases:  Moderately susceptible to the major apple diseases (16).]
Fruit.
Fruit small to medium. Form roundish conic or short ovate, regular, not ribbed. Stem pubescent, medium to long, moderately slender. Cavity acute, moderately deep, moderately wide, smooth and green or partly covered with thin brownish russet. Calyx pubescent, medium in size, closed. Basin below medium in size, somewhat abrupt, moderately shallow, rather narrow to medium in width, gently furrowed.
Skin moderately thin, rather tender, smooth, dull yellow or greenish marbled and striped with dull red, in highly colored specimens deepening to crimson in the sun. Dots numerous, conspicuous, gray, often areolar with russet point.
Calyx tube conical to somewhat funnel-form with short truncate cylinder.
Stamens basal.
Core rather small, axile or nearly so; cells symmetrical, closed. Carpels elongated, obovate, mucronate, but slightly emarginate if at all, slightly tufted.
Seeds medium or above, plump, acute, slightly tufted.
Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, a little coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, mild pleasant subacid, good.
Season November to January or later.  [Good keeper (13).]

MILDEN.

Rererences. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 2. Downing, 1876:58 app. fig. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:244. 4. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:133. 5. Ib.,1896:71. 6. Thomas, 1897:645. 7. Beach, W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1900:36. 8. Munson, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:89. 1902. 9. Budd-Hansen, 1903:127. 10. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:49. 1903. 11. Beach and Clark,’ N.Y. Sta. Bul., 248:132. 1904.
Synonym. Milding (3, 5, 7, 8,9). Milding (2, 4, 6, 10, 11).
When well grown Milden is an apple of desirable size, good appearance and pretty good quality. The skin is smooth and glossy and the color is predominantly bright red over an attractive pale yellow or whitish background. It is highly esteemed in portions of New England (5, 8), and is there being planted to some extent both for home use and commercial purposes. It is an excellent nursery tree and a good grower in the orchard. It is hardy, healthy, comes into bearing quite young and is a reliable cropper, yielding good crops biennially. There is some loss from drops, but the fruit averages pretty uniform in size with a rather low percentage of culls. So far as tested in this state it appears to be pretty reliable and satisfactory in color and quality and suitable for general market purposes and culinary use. It is evidently worthy of testing as a commercial variety, particularly in the more elevated and northern portions of the state. In the southeastern part of the state it would probably be classed as a late autumn variety, but as grown at this Station it becomes an early winter or midwinter variety (11).
Historical. Milden is a variety of comparatively recent introduction. It originated at Alton, New Hampshire (2).
TREE.
Tree large, vigorous. Form upright becoming roundish, rather dense.
Twigs below medium to short, straight, moderately stout; internodes short to long. Bark very dark olive-green somewhat tinged with reddish-brown streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous, small to medium, roundish, slightly raised. Buds prominent, below medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit rather large; fairly uniform in size and shape. Form oblate, sometimes inclined to conic, pretty regular, often faintly ribbed; sides sometimes unequal. Stem short to medium, pubescent. Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, rather wide, symmetrical or somewhat furrowed, often russeted and with outspreading russet rays. Calyx large, pubescent; lobes long, acuminate, closed or partly open. Basin obtuse to somewhat abrupt, usually rather shallow, moderately wide, often compressed or furrowed.
Skin waxy, rather thin, tough. Well-colored specimens are beautifully mottled with bright red and striped and splashed with bright carmine over a pale yellow background. Sometimes the red deepens to a solid blush. Dots inconspicuous, few, gray or russet.
Calyx tube rather large, long, cone-shape or somewhat funnel-form, meeting the core. Stamens median.
Core distant, medium or below, abaxile; cells pretty symmetrical, usually open; core lines clasping. Carpels roundish to elongated ovate, acuminate, slightly emarginate, tufted. Seeds variable in size and shape, often about medium size, moderately narrow, obtuse to acute; often some are abortive.
Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, firm, crisp, breaking, moderately coarse, very juicy, subacid, good.
Season November to January or February; it may remain apparently sound till spring but after midwinter it deteriorates in texture and flavor.

Miller
References.  1. Downing, 1857:172. 2. Horticulturist, 13:530. 1858. 3. Warder, 1867:726. 4. Downing, 1869:275. 5. Leroy, 1873:469. fig. 6. Thomas, 1875:506. 7. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294.
Synonyms.  Miller Seedling (2).
This apple was brought to notice by James O. Miller, Montgomery, Orange county, NY (1). Downing (4) describes the fruit as rather large, roundish oblate inclined to conic, yellow shaded, striped and splashed with light red. Flesh yellowish, crisp, pleasant subacid, good to very good. Season October and November (3). Lyon refers to it as a promising fruit for market and general purposes (7). We are unacquainted with this variety and have received no report concerning it from any of our correspondents.

Milligen
References.  1. NY Sta. An. Rpt., 8:348. 1889. 2. USBPI Bul., 48:49. 1903. 3. Beach and Clark, NY Sta. Bul., 248:132. 1904.
Synonyms.  None.
Fruit of good size, rather attractive in general appearance, yellow striped with red, good to very good. It comes into season in October and some portion of the fruit may be kept in good condition till spring. In common storage there is apt to be a rather high rate of loss during late autumn, so that its commercial limit is October or early November, but it may be held in cold storage till midwinter (3). The tree is a vigorous grower, almost an annual bearer and usually produces good crops. It does not excel standard varieties of its season for any purpose. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. This variety was originated by Mrs. Milligen, near Claysville, Washington county, PA. It was received for testing at this Station from J.R. and R.A. Murdock, Pittsburg, PA in 1888.

MILWAUKEE

REFERENCES. I. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1899:77. 2. Ib., Can. Hort., 23:452. 1900. 3. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bul., 76:74. 1902. 4. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bul., 205:45. 1903. 5. Erwin, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1903:252. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903:128. fig. 7. National Nurseryman, March, 1905:52.
Milwaukee is a winter fruit of the Oldenburg group, of good size and when highly colored fairly attractive in appearance, being clear yellow marked with bright red somewhat after the manner of Oldenburg. It is too briskly acid for a good dessert apple, but rather is suitable for culinary use and for market. It would be more desirable for market if it had more red color. It is in season from October to January. Some portion of the fruit may keep till February or March, but in ordinary storage there is a rather high percentage of loss after early winter. The fruit which remains till spring retains well its acidity and quality. The tree is very hardy, healthy, a pretty good grower and a good cropper. It comes into bearing young and is almost an annual bearer. It appears to be worthy of testing in the northern and more elevated regions of the state where hardiness is a prime requisite.
Historical. Originated with George Jeffry, Milwaukee, Wis., from seed of Oldenburg (1, 3, 5, 6).
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous; branches long, slender, crooked. Form open, upright, becoming rather spreading with laterals inclined to droop. Twigs medium to long, varying from irregularly curved to straight, moderately stout; internodes generally long. Bark dark reddish-brown approaching black, streaked with grayish scarf-skin, quite pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous, small to medium, roundish or elongated, not raised. Buds medium or below, plump, obtuse to somewhat acute, free or slightly appressed, pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit usually rather large, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form distinctly oblate, regular or obscurely ribbed; sides often unequal. Stem pubescent, short.
Cavity rather large, acute to acuminate, deep, broad, furrowed, russeted and with outspreading brown russet rays. Calyx pubescent, large, leafy, usually partly open, sometimes closed; lobes wide, long, acute. Basin large, often oblique, deep, wide, abrupt to somewhat obtuse, furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, glossy, pale yellow or whitish more or less blushed with red which in highly colored specimens deepens to a lively pinkish-red, conspicuously mottled and striped with rose-carmine. Dots numerous, small, whitish, often submerged, occasionally russet.
Calyx tube urn-shape to somewhat funnel-form with short cylinder and wide limb. Stamens median.
Core distant, a little abaxile, usually small; cells sometimes unsymmetrical, closed or slightly open; core lines clasping. Carpels elliptical to roundish obcordate, mucronate, but slightly emarginate if at all. Seeds few, often abortive, medium to short, wide, flat, obtuse.
Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, firm, somewhat coarse, crisp, very tender, very juicy, sprightly, brisk subacid, fair to good.

MINISTER.

REFERENCES. 1. Manning, 1838:62. 2. Downing, 1845:116. 3. Ives, Mag. Hort., 14:264. 1848. 4. Thomas, 1849:169. 5. Cole, 1849:124. 6. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:61. 1851. 7. Hovey, 2:95. 1851. fig. and col. pl. 8. Elliott, 1854:147. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1854. 10. Hooper, 1857:61. 11. Warder, 1867:695. 12. Fitz, 1872:145. 13. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 14. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:133. 15. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 1895:193. 16. Burrill and McCluer, Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:332. 1896.
Synonyms. Minister (7). MINISTER APPLE (7).
Fruit similar to Yellow Bellflower in form, pale waxen yellow splashed and striped with bright pale crimson (1, 7, 11). In Middle New England it is in season from November to February or later (1, 5, 7, 14), and is there still regarded with favor in many localities on account of its productiveness and good quality. “In Ohio it becomes an autumn apple and is used only for cooking when we have plenty of others that are preferred” (11). When carelessly handled it rots from bruising or ripens prematurely while too acid, but when properly ripened it loses its brisk acidity and develops excellent quality (5). The tree is healthy, moderately vigorous, a rather early bearer and a regular and abundant cropper (2, 5, 7, 11, 13). It is said to succeed best on good sandy loam (5, 12).
The following account of the tree and fruit is taken from descriptions given by various writers (1, 2, 5, 7, 11, 13).
Historical. Originated on the farm of David Saunders near Rowley, Massachusetts. Introduced bv Robert Manning of Salem, Massachusetts, more than a half century ago (1,7). It has failed to win favorable recognition in New York and is not recommended for planting in this state.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous. Form upright while young but becoming round-headed as it matures. Twigs slender, upright; internodes short. Bark dark reddish-chestnut. Lenticels numerous, gray. Buds small, short, ovate, flattened with prominent shoulders. Leaves medium in size, ovate, acute.
Fruit.
Fruit large to medium. Form roundish ovate to oblong conic, ribbed, irregular, flattened at the base. Stem curved to one side, short to long, slender.
Cavity rather small, acute, shallow to rather deep, rather narrow, irregular, sometimes russeted. Calyx small, closed; lobes short and twisted. Basin rather small, moderately shallow, narrow, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin smooth, waxen, pale yellow or greenish-yellow irregularly splashed and striped with bright red particularly over the base. Dots minute.
Core rather large; cells partly open. Seeds small, plump, obovate.
Flesh yellowish-white, crisp, very tender, breaking, juicy, at first briskly subacid but when properly ripened agreeable in flavor and quality.

MINKLER.

REFERENCES. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 2. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1865:51. 3. Warder, 1867:444. fig. 4. Ill, Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1869:36. 5. Downing, 1869: 276. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 1875:128. 7. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1875:411. 8. Downing, 1876:59 app. 9. Downing, 1876:11 index, app. 10. Thomas, 1885:518. 11. Am. Pom. Scc. Cat., 1889:10. 12. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:244. 13. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bul., 143:200, 202. 1897. 14. Budd-Hansen, 1903:129. 15. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bul., 205:45. 1903. 16. Powell and Fulton, U.S. B. P. I. Bul. 48:49. 1903. 17. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:132. 1904. 18. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:53, 181, 199, 205. 1905.
Synonyms. Brandywine (18, ?5). Logan’s Northern Pippin (4, 9, 18). Mumper VANDEVERE (6, 8). Mumper Vandevere (18).
The Minkler was brought to notice in Illinois something over forty years ago. Its cultivation is confined almost wholly to that and adjoining states. Like many other varieties of the Middle West it is popular because the tree is a strong grower and a good and regular cropper rather than on account of the quality of its fruit. In appearance the fruit is very good and dealers do not hesitate to take it in reasonable quantities in spite of the fact that it is only fairly good in quality and sometimes scalds badly in storage. It is not a promising variety for New York fruit growers, competing as it does with the Baldwin and other good winter apples.
Historical. The history of this variety is confused with that of several similar, or as some have thought possibly identical, varieties. The Minkler, as such, was first exhibited before the Illinois Horticultural Society something over forty years ago by Mr. S. G. Minkler. Having lost its name he exhibited it for identification. As it was not recognized by any one, the Society named it Minkler, pending further investigation (5). Warder (3) in 1867 states that it very closely resembles Buchanan and Brandywine and adds that Minkler and Buchanan have “an entirely distinct origin,” but there is no evidence that this is the case. In 1869 Galusnia stated that he found Minkler cultivated in some localities in Illinois under the name Logan Northern Pippin and Dunlap found it identical with Brandywine (4) a decision which is approved by some other pomologists. The origin of Brandywine is also unknown (5, 18). Ragan makes Minkler identical with Mumper Vandevere (18) which according to Downing (8) originated on the farm of John Mumper near Dillsbury, Pa.
Minkler is not grown to any considerable extent in New York.
TREE.
Tree large, very vigorous; branches large, strong, forming a very broad angle with the trunk and having a characteristically irregular, zigzag manner of growth. Form very spreading, frequently becoming drooping in old trees.
Twigs short to long, moderately stout to moderately slender; internodes about medium, unequal in length. Bark dull brownish-red or reddish, irregularly overlaid with thin to thick scarf-skin, rather pubescent. Lenticels scattering, moderately conspicuous, raised, medium to small, roundish. Buds medium, moderately projecting, acute or roundish, pubescent, appressed or slightly adhering.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to above, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish inclined to oblate conic, rather regular. Stem medium to short, rather slender. Cavity acute or slightly acuminate, deep, medium in width, greenish or brown, faintly russeted.
Calyx small to above medium, closed or slightly open; lobes medium in length, broad, acute, usually not separated at the base. Basin shallow to medium in depth, wide, obtuse, smooth or slightly wrinkled.
Skin thin, slightly tough, smooth, rather glossy, greenish-yellow changing to pale yellow, almost entirely overspread with rather light pinkish-red obscurely striped and splashed with dark dull carmine. Dots small to medium, yellow, grayish or russet, moderately conspicuous. Prevailing effect rather light red.
Calyx tube moderately short, rather wide, funnel-form with broad limb and narrow cylinder.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core medium to rather large, axile; cells closed or partly open; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels roundish, usually deeply emarginate, tufted. Seeds dark brown, rather large and wide, long, plump or sometimes flat, acute, sometimes tufted.
Flesh strongly tinged with yellow or greenish, very firm, a little coarse, not very crisp, rather juicy, mild subacid, slightly aromatic, fairly good.
Season in common storage November to April; in cold storage till May.

MISSING LINK.

References. 1. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1897:161. 2. Jenkins, Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 45:06. 1902, 3. Shank, Missing Link Nur. Circ., 1903. 4 Erwin, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1903:253. 5 Van Deman, Rural N. Y., 62:369. 1903. fig. 6. Buckman, Ib., 62:418. 1903. 7. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:199. 1905.
A variety of the Willow type recently introduced by Messrs. Shank, Clayton, Illinois (3). Some believe that it is identical with Willow (4, 7), but a comparison of its fruit with that of Willow leads us to endorse the opinion of Van Deman (5) and Buckman (6) that it is a distinct variety. The fruit is of good size, similar in form and appearance to Willow but less highly colored and different in texture and flavor becoming eventually distinctly sweet. It is undoubtedly a long keeper. As might be expected of an apple of this class it does not rank high in quality.
Fruit.
Fruit large. Form roundish, nearly symmetrical, regular; sides somewhat unequal.
Stem medium. Cavity acuminate, moderately broad, deep, somewhat russeted. Calyx large, partly open. Basin slightly oblique, medium in depth to deep, moderately wide, abrupt, ridged, wrinkled.
Skin smooth, glossy, light greenish-yellow or yellow, thinly mottled and striped with red on the exposed cheek. Dots small, fine, mingled with others that are large, conspicuous, irregular and brownish-russet. Prevailing effect green or yellowish.
Core below medium or even small; cells closed; core lines nearly meeting.
Carpels obcordate, tufted. Seeds few, large, dark, flat, tufted.
Flesh yellowish, firm, coarse, tough yet somewhat crisp, moderately juicy, mildly subacid but eventually becoming sweet, fair in quality.

MISSOURI PIPPIN.

REFERENCES. 1. Warder, 1867:656. 2. Downing, 1872:23 app. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 1881:12. 4. Brackett, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1881:145. 5. Barry, 1883:349. 6. Thomas, 1885:518. 7. Coleman, Av. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 1885:28. 8. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:244. 9. Wright, Am. Gard., 17:33. 1896. 10. Powell, Del. Sta. Bul., 38:19. 1898. 11. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1901:97. 12. Dickens and Greene, Kan. Sta. Bul., 106:54. 1902. 13. Budd-Hansen, 1903:130. fig. 14. Bruner, N. C. Sta. Bul., 182:27. 1903. 15. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:49. 1903. 16. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul. 248:132. 1904.  [17.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 111.]
Synonyms. Missouri (15). Missouri KEEper (1). Missouri Keeper (2, 3, 4, 5). Missouri Orange (4). Missouri Pippin (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,10, 11, 12, 14). Missouri Pippin (15).

This is one of the well-known market apples of the Middle West. As grown in that region the tree is short-lived, and in the Mississippi valley in orchards more than twenty years old it is seldom profitable, but it comes into bearing at an early age and is a reliable and heavy cropper. The fruit is of good color but only second rate in quality, and on old trees is inclined to be rather too small for market. It is regarded with favor by fruit dealers because of its attractive appearance and good keeping quality. There has been some complaint of its scalding in storage (16), but this fault does not appear to be serious enough to affect materially its popularity. So far as we have been able to discover it is not grown in New York. It is quite doubtful whether its fruit would commonly develop here to good marketable size even if grown in the southeastern part of New York, where the climatic and soil conditions are more favorable to varieties of this class than they are in the more northern and western portions of the state.
Historical. The Missouri Pippin is supposed to have originated on the farm of Brinkley Hornsby, Kingsville, Johnson county, Missouri, from seed planted about 1840 (2, 4, 7). Shortly after the Civil War it began to be disseminated outside of the locality of its origin and its cultivation spread with such rapidity that in a very few years it was being extensively planted in Missouri, Kansas, Ilinois and adjacent states. The good degree of hardiness and vigor which it possesses, the ease with which it is propagated in the nursery, and particularly its habit of bearing early and abundantly were the qualities which recommended it to the fruit growers of that region. During the early years of fruit production in the prairie sections of that country this variety was more often seen than any other. As the trees became older it was found that they were inclined to overbear with a result that frequently a large percentage of the fruit failed to attain good marketable size. Then Missouri Pippin began to wane in popularity and to-day it is used chiefly as a filler for planting between the rows of permanent trees.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous with long, slender, curved branches, characteristic on account of its numerous, slender twigs and general crab-like appearance.
Form upright becoming roundish or spreading. Twigs moderately long, straight, slender; internodes short. Bark dark brown, mottled with heavy scarf-skin, pubescent. Lenticels scattering, medium, oval to oblong, raised.
Buds deeply set, small, plump, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent.
[Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases (17).]
Fruit.
Fruit medium in size. Form roundish, somewhat inclined to conic. Stem medium in length, rather slender. Cavity acute to nearly acuminate, moderately wide, rather deep, faintly russeted. .Calyx medium in size, closed or nearly so; lobes moderately long, rather narrow. Basin medium to deep, rather wide, abrupt, usually somewhat wrinkled.
Skin thick, tough, smooth, rather glossy, thinly coated with grayish bloom; color pale greenish or yellow overspread with bright red striped with purplish red. Highly colored specimens are almost of a solid red color. Dots conspicuous, russet, or rather large, pale gray.
Calyx tube funnel-form with wide limb, sometimes broadly conical. Stamens median.
Core small, axile, or nearly so; cells symmetrical, slightly open; core lines clasping. Carpels smooth, roundish elliptical to slightly obovate, sometimes emarginate. Secds medium to rather small, moderately long and wide, slightly obtuse, dark brown.
Flesh tinged somewhat with yellow, firm, medium to rather fine-grained, not very tender, not very juicy, briskly subacid, fair to good in quality.  [All-purpose apple (17).]
Season in common storage October to January; in cold storage January to April.  [Good keeper (17).]

MONMOUTH

REFERENCES. 1. Mag. Hort., 14:141. 1848. 2. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:74. 1851. col. pl. No. 57. 3. Barry, Horticulturist, 8:341. 1853. 4. Elliott, 1854:02. fig. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1854. 6. Downing, 1857:88. 7. Hooper, 1857:61. 8. Warder, 1867:577. fig. 9. Barry, 1883:349. 10. Thomas, 1885:245. 11. Wickson, 1889:246. 12. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:204. 13. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:244. 14. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:49. 1903. 5. Budd-Hansen, 1903:131. fig. 16. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:133. 1904.
Synonyms. MonmoutnH Pippin (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13). Monmouth Pippin (16). Red Cheek (4, 8). Red Cheeked Pippin (10). Red Cheek Pippin (4, 7, 11, 12, 15).
An apple of the Rhode Island Greening class, not equal to that variety in quality but more attractive in color, being often distinctly blushed with a lively pinkish-red. As grown at this Station its keeping quality varies much in different years. Sometimes it may be held in good condition through the winter or into the spring, but more often its commercial limit in ordinary storage hardly extends beyond November. When stored in good condition its season in cold storage may extend till June (14, 16). In ordinary storage the percentage of loss often becomes high early in the winter, but sometimes not before March. It appears to be much less subject to scald than Rhode Island Greening. It it a good apple for the home orchard. It is not recommended for general commercial planting, but probably in favorable localities it would prove a profitable variety. The tree appears to be hardy and long-lived. It comes into bearing moderately young and is a reliable cropper, bearing good crops biennially or almost annually, but under ordinary cultivation it is hardly as vigorous as could be desired. The fruit of marketable grades is smooth and attractive in appearance, but there may be a considerable loss in low-grade fruit.
Historical. Monmouth is a native of Monmouth county, N. J. (4). It has long been known in cultivation and is found in scattering localities from the Middle West to the Atlantic, but in none of them is it grown extensively. It is still offered by nurserymen (13) and is planted to a limited extent.
TREE.
Tree of medium size, moderately vigorous; branches short, stout, crooked.
Form roundish spreading, somewhat open. Twigs short to medium, straight, moderately stout or rather slender; internodes short to medium. Bark dark reddish-brown mingled with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, heavily pubescent. Lenticels scattering, small to medium, oblong, slightly raised. Buds small to medium, obtuse to acute, appressed, very deeply set in the bark, somewhat pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit above medium to large. Form oblate to roundish, somewhat inclined to conic, flattened at the base, somewhat irregular, often obscurely ribbed; sides often unequal. Stem short to medium, rather thick. Cavity moderately large, acute to sometimes acuminate, deep, rather broad, somewhat furrowed or compressed, smooth or russeted, sometimes with outspreading russet rays. Calyx large, leafy, pubescent, open or partly closed; lobes often reflexed and separated at the base. Basin large, rather wide and deep, abrupt, often distinctly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin moderately thin, tough, smooth toward the base, the upper half often roughened with russet dots or with capillary russet lines which become concentric toward the calyx, lively green marbled with yellow or becoming pale yellow as the season advances faintly shaded with red or in highly colored specimens blushed with lively pinkish-red. Dots variable, rather numerous, usually greenish and areolar with brown russet point, often elongated about the cavity.
Calyx tube large, wide, conical or urn-shape with fleshy pistil point projecting into the base. Stamens median to basal.
Core rather small, slightly abaxile with hollow cylinder in the axis; cells usually symmetrical and closed; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping.
Carpels roundish or inclined to roundish obcordate, mucronate, slightly tufted.
Seeds few, long, somewhat acute, somewhat tufted.
Flesh decidedly tinged with yellow, firm, moderately coarse, somewhat crisp, tender, juicy, brisk subacid but becoming mild, aromatic, good to very good.

MOON.

REFERENCES. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1877:39. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:244. 3. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:133. 1904.
Fruit of good size, good quality and fairly attractive for a greenish-yellow apple. In the South it ripens its fruit in succession through the summer but as fruited at this Station it is in season from November to April or later. In ordinary storage there is a pretty high percentage of loss in autumn with a low rate of loss through midwinter. On the whole, as grown in this region it appears to be unsatisfactory for handling in common storage, notwithstanding the fact that a considerable portion of the fruit may be kept in good condition till February or later. The tree is not a strong grower but it comes into bearing young, is a reliable cropper and almost an annual bearer alternating light with heavier crops. It does not appear to excel standard sorts of its season for any purpose and is not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. Moon originated as a chance seedling on the farm of Mr. I W. Moon, Monroe, Walton county, Ga. It bore its first fruit in 1873 qa). It appears to be practically unknown among New York fruit growers.
TREE.
Tree rather small with rather short, stout branches. Form roundish upright, open.
Twigs below medium to short, somewhat curved, slender ; internodes medium. Bark olive-green tinged with reddish-brown and streaked with gray scarf-skin, slightly pubescent near the tips. Lenticels quite numerous, medium to small, roundish, slightly raised. Buds medium to small, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.
FRUIT
Fruit above medium, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form rather oblate not quite regular, being either somewhat elliptical or obscurely ribbed. Stem short to medium, rather slender. Cavity acute varying to acuminate, moderately deep to rather shallow, rather broad, nearly symmetrical, usually smooth, sometimes partly russeted. Calyx small to medium, usually partly open; lobes often slender and acuminate, reflexed. Basin obtuse to abrupt, shallow to moderately deep, wide, obscurely furrowed or wrinkled.
Skin tough, smooth, waxy; the color is somewhat similar to that of a highly colored Rhode Island Greening being green mingled with yellow often with a shade of brownish-red deepening sometimes to a distinct red. Dots small, inconspicuous, often pale and submerged, sometimes russet.
Calyx tube cone-shape or approaching funnel-form with wide limb. Stamens median or below.
Core medium to rather small, axile or nearly so; cells usually fairly symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping. Carpels much concave, rather short, elliptical to obcordate, slightly emarginate, mucronate. Seeds numerous, medium or above, wide, obtuse.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, crisp, moderately fine, rather tender, juicy, slightly aromatic, mild subacid becoming sweet, good.

MOORE SWEET

REFERENCES. 1. New England Farmer, 1829. (cited by 17). 2. Cole, 1849: 131. 3. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:91. 1851. 4. Elliott, 1854:159. 5. Downing, 1857:218. 6. Hooper, 1857:61. 7. Warder, 1867:396. fig. 8. Fitz, 1872:175. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 10. Barry, 1883:349. 11. Thomas, 1885:518. 12. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:245. 13. Burrill and McCluer, Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:333. 1896. 14. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:49. 1903. 15. Budd-Hansen, 1903:132. 16. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:133. 1904. 17. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:202. 1905.
Synonyms. Black Sweet (7,17). Josie Moore (17). Kelley's Sweet (17). Moore’s Late Sweet (2, 3). Moore’s Late Sweet (17). Moore’s Shanty (17). Moore’s Sweet (8, 10, 12). Moore’s Sweet (17). Moore’s SwEETING (1, 7, 11). Moore’s Sweeting (4, 17). Moor’s Sweeting (6). Polhemus (17). Pound Sweet (of some West 4 and 6, of some 17). Red Sweet Pippin (5, 7, 10, 13, 17, of Indiana 4 and 6). Red Winter Sweet of some (17). Sweet Pippin (4). Sweet Pippin (6, 17).
Fruit fairly uniform, of pretty good size and rather dull red color; general appearance moderately attractive. In some portions of the state it has been valued particularly because it is an excellent keeper and acceptable in quality for culinary use. It is in season from November to May or June. As grown at this Station its commercial limit in ordinary storage is April (16). The tree comes into bearing rather young. It is usually a good cropper, producing rather heavy crops biennially, or in some cases almost annually.
Historical. Originated with J. B. Moore, Concord, Massachusetts. Cole in 1849, speaks of it as a new variety (2) but it had been brought to notice at least twenty years previously (1). It is not grown extensively in any locality and is now seldom planted in this state but it is still occasionally offered by nurserymen (12).
TREE.
Tree medium to large, moderately vigorous; branches short, stout, crooked.
Form open, upright, becoming roundish and somewhat spreading. Twigs short, straight or somewhat geniculate, rather stout with large terminal buds; internodes medium to short. Bark olive-green tinged with reddish-brown, streaked with gray scarf-skin; pubescent near tips. Lenticels inconspicuous, scattering, small, roundish. Buds prominent, large to below medium, broad, plump, free, slightly pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to large, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish, varying from oblate to somewhat conic, sometimes regular and symmetrical but more often somewhat elliptical or ribbed and with sides slightly unequal. Stem short, usually not exserted. Cavity medium to rather large, acuminate, moderately narrow to rather wide, deep, somewhat furrowed, usually russeted and with outspreading russet rays. Calyw rather small, usually closed; lobes acute, erect or somewhat reflexed. Basin rather small, abrupt, narrow to moderately wide, medium in depth, slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin smooth or nearly so, rather pale in color being yellow or greenish largely overspread with a red or pinkish-red blush and dulled by grayish scarf-skin which often produces the effect of faint stripes over the base although the red is not striped. Dots pale russet, scattering. Prevailing effect red.
Calyx tube rather small, conical to funnel-form. Stamens below median to basal.
Core rather small, axile or nearly so; cells symmetrical, not uniform, closed or sometimes open; core lines meeting or clasping. Carpels roundish to elliptical, mucronate, emarginate, somewhat tufted. Seeds few, medium or above, wide, obtuse, somewhat tufted.
Flesh tinged with yellow or green, moderately firm, moderately fine-grained, tender, rather dry, sweet, good.

Mosher
References.  1. Downing, 1881:97 app. 2. Waugh, VT. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:300. 1901.
Synonyms.  Mosher Sweet (1,2).
A good variety for the home orchard but not attractive enough for market (1). Originated in the orchard of Ephraim Mosher, Washington, NY, many years since. So far as we can learn this variety is not now being propagated by nurserymen and its cultivation appears to be declining. The tree is large, rather vigorous, upright spreading or roundish, a good grower, comes into bearing rather young and yields pretty good crops annually or nearly annually. Fruit medium, oblate conic, ribbed pale yellow or greenish; flesh white, moderately juicy, sweet, aromatic, good; season September and October.

Mother
References.  1.  [XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 111.]
Synonyms.  American Mother (20). Gardener's Apple (20). Mother Apple (20). Mother of America (23). Queene Anne (12,20).
A beautiful red apple of good size, with tender, rich, aromatic flesh of best dessert quality. It is less desirable for culinary uses, being somewhat lacking in acidity. It resembles Esopus Spitzenburg to a marked degree but ripens earlier and is not so good a keeper. In ordinary storage it does not keep well and November is its safe commercial limit, but in cold storage it may be held till March or later (31). The tree is below medium size and but a moderate grower. In many localities it is rather tender and liable to scald or canker on the trunk and larger branches. On this account it is desirable to topwork it upon Northern Spy or some other hardy, vigorous stock. It does not come into bearing very young and commonly is a biennial cropper yielding moderate to good crops. It cannot be recommended for general commercial planting but it is desirable for the home orchard.
Historical. Thomas described it in 1848 as "a new, handsome late autumn and early winter apple, of the highest quality," and stated that it originated at Bolton, Worcester county, Mass. (2). It is but seldom found in cultivation in New York.
TREE.
Tree below medium size, moderately vigorous or a rather slow grower.
Form upright spreading to roundish, rather open.
Twigs long, curved, moderately stout; internodes long.
Bark brown, mingled with olive-green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels numerous, rather conspicuous, medium size, oval, raised.
Buds prominent, medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.
[Diseases:  Somewhat susceptible to fireblight and somewhat resistant to scab and most of the other major diseases (Burford).]
FRUITYou think Moscow Mitch cares about you?
Fruit below medium to above, sometimes large, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish or roundish conic to oblong ovate, obscurely and broadly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) long to medium, moderately slender to rather thick.
Cavity acute or approaching acuminate, rather shallow to moderately deep, rather narrow to moderately broad, often russeted, sometimes furrowed or compressed or lipped.
Calyx small, closed or nearly so; lobes medium, narrow, acute.
Basin shallow, narrow, a little abrupt, somewhat furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, smooth, golden yellow nearly covered with bright deep red, marbled and striped with carmine.
Dots rather small, inconspicuous, yellowish or pale and submerged.
Calyx tube rather long, funnel-form with wide limb and narrow cylinder.
Stamens marginal.
Core medium to rather small, abaxile; cells nearly symmetrical, open or partly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate to roundish, emarginate, mucronate.
Seeds rather dark, medium or below, plump, acute to acuminate.
Flesh fine, tender, juicy, very mild subacid, aromatic, very good to best in flavor and quality.  [Distinctive flavor, but not very useful for purposes other than fresh-eating (Burford).]
Season late September to January; it is in its prime in November.  [Only a fair keeper when grown in Virginia (Burford).]

Mountain Sweet
References.  1. Warder, 1867:388. 2. Downing, 1869:282.
Synonyms.  Mountaineer (1,2).
Fruit of medium size, fairly good appearance and moderate to good quality, not superior to other varieties of its season and not recommended for planting in this state.
Historical. Origin Pennsylvania (1). It is but little known in New York and its cultivation in this state is not being extended.

TREE.

Tree medium or below, not a strong grower, with short, stout, curved branches.
Form spreading or roundish, rather dense.
Twigs short, straight, moderately stout; internodes short.
Bark clear brown mingled with green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, small, oblong, slightly raised.
Buds medium size, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit variable, usually medium or above.
Form roundish or roundish oblate, pretty regular, somewhat angular; sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short to rather long, rather slender.
Cavity nearly acuminate to somewhat obtuse, medium in depth, rather broad, russeted and with outspreading russet rays.
Calyx small to rather large, closed or open; lobes separated at base, medium to long, rather narrow, acuminate.
Basin moderately shallow to shallow, narrow to moderately wide, wavy.
Skin thick, rather tough, somewhat rough, clear, pale yellow overlaid with faint pinkish blush and scattering stripes of deeper red.
Dots numerous, inconspicuous, small, russet.
Prevailing effect striped.
Calyx tube medium in length, rather wide, conical to somewhat funnel-form.
Stamens median to basal.
Core medium size, abaxile; cells open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate to elliptical, emarginate.
Seeds very small, rather wide, plump, acute, rather light brown.
Flesh white, moderately fine, very tender, juicy, sweet, good.
Season September to December.

Mouse
References.  1. Downing, 1845:117. 2. Thomas, 1849:182. 3. Emmons, Nat. Hist. NY 3:82.1851. 4. Elliott, 1854:147. 5. Hooper, 1857:62. 6. Warder, 1867:727.
Synonyms.  Moose (1-5).
An old variety which originated in Ulster county, NY where it was formerly popular (1). According to Downing the fruit is large, roundish conical, pale greenish-yellow with brownish blush; flesh very white, fine-grained, delicate, mild subacid; good; season October to November.
This variety is unknown to us and we have received no reports concerning it from any of our correspondents.

MOYER

Rererences. 1. N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:170. 1894. 2. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:205. 1905.
Synonym. Moyer Prize (1). Moyer Prize (2).
A chance seedling received in 1894 from Moyer and Cook, Laketon, Indiana, for testing at this Station. It is a rather large apple of the Yellow Bellflower group, yellow often somewhat blushed with red, hardly equal to the Yellow Bellflower in general appearance, but it appears to stand handling fully as well if not better. The flesh is moderately coarse, crisp, very juicy, mildly subacid eventually becoming sweet or nearly so, good to very good in flavor and quality. As tested here it has come into bearing young and is productive. It is not superior to other varieties of its season for either dessert or culinary uses and the fact that it is a yellow apple makes it of doubtful value for the commercial orchard.

Munson
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Meachem Sweet (5). Munson Sweet (2,3,5,8-17,19,20). Munson Sweeting (1,4,6). Northern Sweeting (1). Orange Sweet (5,9). Ray [Rag?] Apple (5).
In some parts of New York this variety is better known under the names Meachem Sweet or Rag Apple than it is under the correct name of Munson.
The fruit commonly averages about medium size. It is attractive in appearance for a yellow apple, being pale yellow often somewhat blushed; skin characteristically tough separating readily from the tender flesh; season late September to December. It is a desirable variety for home use but is not very satisfactory for growing commercially because there is little demand for a sweet apple of its season except in certain local markets. The tree is a good grower, comes into bearing rather early and is a pretty reliable cropper commonly yielding good crops biennially. Historical. Origin uncertain. Supposed to have originated in Massachusetts. It is still propagated by nurserymen (12), but it is not being planted in New York now as much as it was a generation ago.
TREE.
Tree large, moderately vigorous to vigorous.
Form spreading or roundish, rather dense.
Twigs short to rather long, curved, stout to moderately slender with large terminal buds; internodes short.
Bark dark brown, heavily streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent near tips.
Lenticels quite numerous, rather conspicuous, medium size, roundish, raised.
Buds large, prominent, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.
FRUITDitch Moscow Mitch!
Fruit below medium to rather large, averaging about medium size.
Form roundish oblate, often somewhat elliptical, ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) rather short, moderately thick.
Cavity medium to rather large, acuminate, narrow to medium width, rather unsymmetrical, lightly russeted.
Calyx medium to small, closed; lobes rather narrow, acute.
Basin shallow to very shallow, narrow, obtuse or a little abrupt, furrowed, often unsymmetrical.
Skin rather thick and tough separating readily from the flesh, smooth, greenish-yellow often somewhat blushed.
Calyx tube funnel-shape with long cylinder.
Stamens marginal to median.
Core medium to large, axile or sometimes abaxile' cells often unsymmetrical, closed or somewhat open; core lines clasping the cylinder.
Carpels roundish to elliptical, emarginate, tufted.
Seeds medium size, rather short, flat, obtuse, dark brown.
Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately fine-grained, tender, moderately juicy, sweet, good to very good.
Season late September to December.

NELSON

REFERENCES. 1. Am. Jour. of Hort., 2:16. 1867. 2. Downing, 1872:284. 3. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1879. 4. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:590. 1894. 5. Ib., 14:262. 1895. 6. Ib., 15:282. 1896. 7. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul 248:133. 1904.
Synonym. NeELson Sweet (3, 4, 6).
A good sweet apple of medium size, green with dull blush, in season from February to June. Its commercial limit here in common storage is April or May. The tree is a good grower and a reliable cropper. It comes into bearing rather young and is almost an annual bearer, yielding moderate to rather heavy crops. It is a good variety for the home orchard where a very late-keeping sweet apple is desired, but it is not considered valuable commercially because it is sweet, not large and not very attractive in appearance.
Historical. Nelson was first brought to notice in Illinois but its origin is uncertain. It was first exhibited before the Illinois Horticultural Society at its Champaign meeting, December, 1866 (1). Received in 1889 from Benjamin Buckman, Farmingdale, Illinois, for testing here. It appears to be practically unknown in New York.
TREE.
Tree vigorous to moderately vigorous. Form open, spreading and rather flat. Twigs short to rather long, rather slender to stout with large terminal buds, nearly straight but geniculate; internodes medium to rather long. Bark clear reddish-brown tinged with olive-green, partly streaked with thin scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous, small to medium, round or oval, usually not raised. Buds rather small to large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to above, uniform in’ size and shape. Form roundish to roundish-ovate, sometimes inclined to oblong, pretty regular but sometimes inclined to elliptical and often somewhat ribbed. Stem below medium to above, rather slender, pubescent. Cavity rather small, usually narrow,:moderately deep, acuminate, partly russeted, sometimes lipped. Calyx rather small to medium, usually closed, pubescent; lobes reflexed, long, acute. Basin shallow to moderately deep, often narrow, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin moderately thick, tough, smooth, dull green at first, but eventually becoming more or less tinged with yellow, shaded with a brownish blush which sometimes partly deepens to red. A suture line often extends from the cavity to the basin. Dots numerous, often submerged and whitish, sometimes areolar with russet point; about the cavity they are larger, irregular and often elongated. Prevailing effect green or yellowish.
Calyx tube large, narrow above, funnel-shape, sometimes approaching cylindrical. Stamens median to nearly marginal.
Core medium or above, axile; cells symmetrical, closed; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels elliptical to broadly obcordate, somewhat tufted.
Seeds often abortive, small to medium, plump, obtuse, moderately wide, rather light reddish-brown.
Flesh tinged with yellow or greenish, firm, moderately fine, not crisp but somewhat tough, juicy, sweet to very sweet, with distinct flavor and good quality.
Calyx tube large, narrow above, funnel-shape, sometimes approaching cylindrical. Stamens median to nearly marginal.
Core medium or above, axile; cells symmetrical, closed; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels elliptical to broadly obcordate, somewhat tufted.
Seeds often abortive, small to medium, plump, obtuse, moderately wide, rather light reddish-brown.
Flesh tinged with yellow or greenish, firm, moderately fine, not crisp but somewhat tough, juicy, sweet to very sweet, with distinct flavor and good quality.

NERO

References. 1. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 23:79. 1889. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:245. 3. Brown, Rural N. Y., 55:1. 1806. fig. 4. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:187. 1899. 5 Alm. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:19. 6. Blackwell, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1899:198. 7. Budd-Hansen, 1903:134. 8. Powell and Fulton, U. S.B. P. I. Bul., 48:50. 1903.
This is a variety of the Minkler group. It resembles Minkler in fruit and in the nursery its trees appear to be almost identical with those of the Minkler. The fruit is of good medium size, attractive red color, firm, has a tough skin, handles well and keeps late, but it is inclined to scald considerably after mid-winter unless highly colored (8). It has not yet been sufficiently tested here to demonstrate whether it is a desirable variety for this region but the fact that none of the group of apples to which Nero belongs has become a leading commercial variety in this state indicates that probably it will not be found well adapted to New York conditions.
Historical. Origin Princeton, New Jersey (7). It is regarded with favor in Central New Jersey (6) and has been disseminated to a considerable extent in regions farther west and south. As yet it is practically unknown in New York.
Fruit.
Fruit above medium. Form roundish, a little inclined to conical, pretty regular and symmetrical. Stem short to medium, moderately thick. Cavity acute to somewhat acuminate, medium in depth to deep, medium in width to rather broad, often russeted and with outspreading russet rays. Calyx medium or above, usually closed; lobes pubescent, often erect or convergent, usually not separated at.the base. Basin obtuse to somewhat abrupt, shallow to moderately deep, rather wide, sometimes gently furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin moderately thick, tough, glossy, clear greenish-yellow mostly covered with bright red marked with numerous narrow rather inconspicuous carmine stripes. Dots mostly small, whitish or russet. Prevailing effect good bright red.
Calyx tube short, conical or funnel-shape. Stamens below median to basal.
Core median or inclined to sessile, rather small, axile or nearly so; cells symmetrical, closed; core lines meeting or clasping. Carpels roundish to elliptical, smooth or nearly so, deeply emarginate. Seeds large, moderately narrow, long, irregular, obtuse to acute.
Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately coarse, rather crisp, moderately tender, moderately juicy, mild subacid mingled with sweet, slightly aromatic, good to very good.

NEWARK PIPPIN
REFERENCES. 1. Coxe, 1817:133. fig. 2. Buel, N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826: 476. 3. Downing, 1845:121. 4. Thomas, 1849:183. 5. Elliott, 1854:149. 6. Hooper, 1857:63. 7. Warder, 1867:690. fig. 8. Downing, 1869:285.
Synonyms. French Pippin (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, of East New Jersey 1). Yellow Pippin (1, 3, 5, 8).
This is an apple of the Fall Pippin group, of good size, attractive yellow color and excellent quality. It is easily known by the crooked, irregular growth of the tree and the drooping habit of the branches (3). Coxe’s description of this variety (1) is here given.
“Called the French Pippin in East-Jersey; and in other places denominated the yellow Pippin: this apple, on young trees, is sometimes large; it is usually above the middling size; the form is oblong—full, even and fair, hollowed at both ends—the skin has a greenish cast, turning yellow when fully ripe, with clouds of small black dots—the flesh is firm, very rich, juicy, and highly flavored; in taste and color like the yellow flesh of a pear: it is the finest early winter apple of the Middle States, and continues in full perfection until the maturity of the Newtown Pippin; it is also a much admired cider apple, and an abundant bearer, but apt to drop early in the autumn: the tree is of an irregular growth, the branches crooked and drooping, requiring great attention to pruning, which, when properly done, may be made conducive to the improvement of the natural growth—its excellence will remunerate any expense in rearing the tree, in the best form to promote its growth.”
Historical. Newark Pippin is an old variety which appears to have been well known in portions of New Jersey a century ago (1). It was being cultivated by some fruit growers in New York early in the last century and was highly esteemed for table use and for cider (2). Downing calls it unprofitable (8). Notwithstanding the excellence of its fruit it appears to have become nearly obsolete in this state.
Fruit.
Fruit above medium to rather large, pretty uniform in shape and size.
Form roundish oblong to oblong, often somewhat elliptical or obscurely angular. Stem rather long, moderately slender. Cavity acute to acuminate, rather wide, deep, sometimes faintly russeted. Calyx large, open or sometimes closed. Basin large, wide, abrupt, deep, somewhat furrowed.
Skin smooth or slightly roughened with capillary russet lines, slightly waxy, moderately thin, tough, greenish, eventually developing a rich yellow tone. Dots numerous, varying from minute to rather large, rather conspicuous. Prevailing effect yellow.
Calyx tube large, wide, cone-shape or approaching funnel-form. Stamens median to basal.
Core large, abaxile to nearly axile; cells pretty symmetrical, open or closed; core lines clasping. Carpels broadly roundish to oval, mucronate, tufted.
Seeds numerous, short, wide, medium or below, plump, rather light brown.
Flesh rather deeply tinged with yellow, tender, rather fine-grained, breaking, rich, juicy, subacid, aromatic, sprightly, very good to best for either dessert or culinary use.

NEWMAN

REFERENCES. 1. Churchill, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 9:346. 1890. 2. Beach, Ib., 15:274. 1896. 3. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:50. 1903. 4. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:134. 1904.
Synonym. NewMan SEEDLING (1, 2).
Newman is a fruit of the Yellow Bellflower group. When it is well grown and properly colored it is rather attractive for a green or yellow apple. It is somewhat deficient in size for a good market apple and does not excel in quality, but late in the season is acceptable for dessert and very good for culinary uses. It is a good keeper and may perhaps be grown with profit to a limited extent but is not recommended for general planting in New York. The tree is a fairly good grower, comes into bearing young and is a reliable cropper, bearing full crops biennially. The fruit hangs well to the tree.
Historical. Received from George Townsend, Gordon, Ohio, in 1890, for testing at this Station. It is as yet practically unknown in New York.
TREE.
Tree rather vigorous with very long, moderately stout, curved branches.
Form upright becoming spreading and rather flat, open. Twigs short to rather long, curved, crooked, stout, with thick tips and large terminal buds; internodes short to rather long. Bark blackish-brown tinged with red and mingled with olive-green, slightly streaked with scarf-skin, heavily pubescent. Lenticels very conspicuous, quite numerous, medium to large, roundish to oval, raised. Buds prominent, large to rather small, broad, plump, obtuse to acute, free, pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit below medium to rather large.
Form oblong inclined to conic, sometimes oblique, often faintly ribbed; sides unequal; pretty uniform in size and shape. Stem short to medium, rather slender. Cavity moderately shallow to deep, narrow to medium in width, symmetrical or sometimes compressed or slightly furrowed, russeted, occasionally with outspreading rays of russet, rarely lipped. Calyx medium, closed or somewhat open. Basin small, somewhat abrupt, shallow to medium in depth, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin green changing to clear yellow with a faint shade of red or in highly colored specimens distinctly blushed with light red. Dots small to medium, green or dark, scattering, often areolar or red areolar.
Calyx tube short and conical varying to funnel-form. Stamens median or above.
Core large, abaxile; cells open or partly closed; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels rather long, roundish, emarginate, slightly tufted.
Seeds medium, acute, slightly tufted.
Flesh whitish, very firm, moderately fine-grained, rather tender, crisp, moderately juicy, subacid becoming nearly sweet, slightly aromatic, fair to good. Season December to May or June.

NEWTOWN SPITZENBURG.

REFERENCES. 1. Coxe, 1817:126. 2. Thacher, 1822:137. 3. Buel, N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:476. 4. Lindley, Pom. Mag., 3: No. 144. 1830. col. pl. 5. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831:36. 6. Ronalds, 1831:19. 7. Floy-Lindley, 1833: 40. 8. Manning, 1838:58. 9. Downing, 1845:139. 10. Downing, Horticulturist, 1:341. 1847. 11. Thomas, 1849:173. 12. Cole, 1849:125. 13. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 15:539. 1849. fig. 14. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:73. 1851. col. pl. fig. 15. Ib., 3:63. 1851. 16. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 17. Elliott, 1854: 04. fig. 18. Hooper, 1857:65. 19. Warder, 1867:445. 20. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871:8, 21. Fitz, 1872:121, 149, 153. 22. Downing, 1872:285. 23. Barry, 1883:350. 24. Hogg, 1884:156. 25. Wickson, 1889:246. 26. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 27. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:245. 28. Powell and Fulton, U.S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:50. 1903. 29. Budd-Hansen, 1903:134. fig. 30. Bruner, N. C. Sta. Bul., 182:21. 1903. 31. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:134. 1904.  [32.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 111.]
Synonyms. Barretts Spitzenburgh (22). Burlington (22). Burlington Spitzemberg (1). Burlington Spitzenberg (9, 17, 24). English Spitzemberg (1). English Spitzenberg (3, 24). Flushing (18) but incorrectly. Joe Berry (17, 19, 22). Kountz (17, 22). Matchless (4, 7, 9, 17, 22, 24). Newton Spitzemberg (1). Newton Spitszenburgh (2). Newtown SPITZEMBERG (7). Newtown Spitzenberg (3, 4, 12, 17, 19, 20, 24). Newtown SpitzenBERGH (10). Newtown SPITZENBURGH (15, 22, 23). Newtown Spitzenburgh (25). Ox Eye (17, 19, 22). Spiced Ox Eye (22). Spitzenberg, Newtown (9). Spitzenburgh, Newtown (11). Spitzenburgh (22). Staalclubs (13) but erroneously. VANDEVERE (13, 21, 25). Vandevere of New York (20, 22,23, 26). VANDERVERE (14, 16). Vandervere of New York (19). Wine (erroneously, 22).
   This is the old Vandevere of New York, but it is not the true Vandevere. It is quite different also from the Esopus Spitzenburg which is commonly known among New York fruit growers by the simple name of Spitzenburg. The Newtown Spitzenburg is not a good commercial sort because it is an unreliable cropper, has too large a percentage of fruit of unmarketable size, and is not especially attractive in general appearance on account of its rather dull color. It is crisp, aromatic, rich, and mildly subacid mingled with sweet. Downing remarks that it is a most excellent fruit, suited to more tastes than any other apple of its season (22).
Historical. This variety originated in Newtown, Long Island. It was at one time quite popular in some sections of this state, particularly in the districts along the Hudson, but is now seldom planted and is gradually going out of cultivation.
TREE.
   Tree medium to large, vigorous or moderately vigorous with long, moderately stout, curved branches. Form spreading or roundish, rather dense.
Twigs moderately long to short, straight, rather erect, geniculate, slender to moderately stout; internodes medium to long. Bark dull brown, rather heavily streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent in spots. Lenticels rather inconspicuous, quite numerous, small to medium, oblong or roundish, slightly raised. Buds medium to small, wide, plump, obtuse, free, with little pubescence or none.
[Diseases:  Susceptible to the major diseases (32).] Fruit.
Fruit about medium size. Form roundish approaching cylindrical or somewhat oblate; pretty regular and uniform in shape and size. Stem very short to rather long, rather slender, pubescent. Cavily acute, deep, broad, indistinctly furrowed, sometimes russeted. Calyx small, closed, sometimes partly open; lobes broad, obtuse. Basin small to medium, wide to rather narrow, shallow and obtuse to rather deep and abrupt, slightly furrowed.
Skin smooth, tough, eventually becoming deep yellow blushed and mottled with dull red striped with carmine, streaked with grayish scarf-skin and often overspread with a light bloom giving it a peculiarly bluish cast. Dots characteristic, conspicuous, very numerous, yellowish or peculiarly gray; often with russet center, small, very numerous and crowded about the basin but less numerous, larger and irregular toward the cavity.
Calyx tube cone-shape or approaching funnel-form with short, truncate cylinder. Stamens median.
Core above medium to rather small, more or less abaxile; cells usually pretty symmetrical and partly open, sometimes closed; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels smooth or nearly so, approaching elliptical, often nearly truncate at the base and narrowing somewhat toward the apex.
Seeds numerous, below: medium to rather large, rather narrow, plump, acute.
Flesh yellowish, firm, fine-grained, crisp, tender, juicy, mild subacid mingled with sweet, rich, aromatic, very good to best in flavor and quality.  [Also used sometimes for baking (32).]
Season in Southeastern New York late fall or early winter; in Western New York it is easily kept till February or March in ordinary storage and often some portion of the fruit remains in fairly good condition till the close of April (31).  [Only a fair keeper when grown in the South (32).]
[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

NEW WATER.

REFERENCES. 1. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:50. 1903. 2. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:134. 1904. 3. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:211. 1905.
A large winter apple, striped red, moderately attractive, of mild flavor and good quality. It is more suitable for dessert than for any other use. As grown in this locality it comes into bearing moderately young and is a reliable cropper yielding full crops biennially with occasional lighter crops in alternate years. It does not-appear to be superior to standard varieties of its season either for home use or for market and for this reason it is not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. Received from Josiah G. Youngken, Richlandtown, Pennsylvania, in 1893 for testing at this Station.
FRUIT

Fruit large or above medium. Form flat at base, oblate, narrowing and often somewhat ribbed toward the basin, often oblique. Stem short. Cavity large, acute, deep to very deep, broad, occasionally lipped, sometimes russeted.
Calyx large to medium, usually open, sometimes closed; lobes leafy, broad, long, acute. Basin usually rather large, sometimes oblique, moderately deep, varying from narrow or compressed to moderately wide, abrupt, often somewhat furrowed and irregular.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, rather glossy, yellow or greenish blushed with orange-red and mottled and striped with pinkish-red over a large part of the surface. Dots inconspicuous, medium to small, pale gray or russet. Prevailing effect striped red.
Calyx tube remarkably large, varying from conical to long funnel-form and extending to the core. Stamens basal or nearly so.
Core very small to nearly medium, varying from axile to somewhat abaxile; cells sometimes unsymmetrical and open but usually closed; core lines meeting when the calyx tube is conical but clasping if it is funnel-form. Carpels roundish, slightly emarginate. Seeds few, dark, medium in size, wide, sometimes slightly tufted.
Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, firm, moderately fine-grained, crisp, tender, juicy or very juicy, mild subacid becoming nearly sweet, aromatic, good.
Season October to February or March; commercial limit January.

NICKAJACK.

References. 1. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 19:565. 1853. 2. Stanford, Horticulturist, 11:255. 1856. fig. 3. Downing, 1857:175. fig. 4. Hooper, 1857:65. 5. Downing, Horticulturist, 16:40. 1861. fig. 6. Warder, 1867:445. fig. 7. Downing, 1869:286. fig. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871:8. g. Fitz, 1872:143, 156, 166, 172. 10, Leroy, 1873:488. fig. 11. Barry, 1883:351. 12. Thomas, 1885:237. 13. Wickson, 1889:248. 14. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 15. Bailey, 4n. Hort., 1892:245. 16. Budd-Hansen, 1903:136. fig.  [17.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 124.]
Synonyms. Aberdeen (5,7). Accidental (5,7). Alleghany (5,7). Berry (5, 7, 10, 12). Big Hill (5, 6, 7). Carolina (5, 6, 10). Carolina Spice (5, 7, 10, 12). Caroline (7). Chatham Pippin (7). Chaltram Pippin (5, 7). Cheatan Pippin (5, 7). Cheataw (7). Dahlonega (5). Edwards (12). Edward Shantee (7). Forsythe’s Seedling (7). Gowden (7). Gowdie (5). Graham’s Red Warrior (7). Howard (5,7). Hubbard (5, 7, 10). Jackson Red (5, 6, 7). Leanham (7). Missouri Pippin (7). Missouri Red (7). Mobbs (5, 7). Nickejack (1). North Carolina (13). Pound (5,7). Red Hazel (7, 12). Red Pippin (5,7). Red Warrior (5,7). Rickmans Red (5). Ruckman (5). Ruckmans Red (7). SuMMEROUR (1). Summerour (3, 5,6, 7, 12). Treanham (5). Trenham (7). Walb (7). Wall (5, 7, 10). Wander (7). Winter Horse (7). Winter Rose (5, 7, 11). Wonder (3, 5). Worlds Wonder (7).
This variety has long been known in various portions of the South and Southwest. Its popularity in those regions is attested by its host of synonyms. It is said to have the habit of reproducing itself so nearly from seed that its seedlings in some cases can hardly be distinguished from the parent (7). In localities favorable to its proper development the tree is a strong grower and very productive and the fruit is large and sometimes well colored and showy but usually it is rather dull colored and not very attractive. It ranks only second rate in quality but it is a remarkably good keeper. It is evidently not well adapted for regions as far north as this. It has failed to gain favorable recognition among New York fruit growers and has been planted but sparingly in this state.
Historical. This variety is supposed to have originated near a stream of the same name in Macon county, N. C.,41 among the Cherokee Indians (1, 2,3, 6, 7). The time of its origin is not definitely known but the fact that in 1861 it is referred to as an old variety cultivated in at least three states and having over twenty synonyms (5) indicates that it has probably been under cultivation for a century or more. Colonel Summerour of Lincoln county, N. C., early disseminated this variety under the name of Winter Rose (7), but Silas McDowell of Franklin, N. C., at about the middle of the last century brought it to notice under the name Nickajack (2), which has now become the generally accepted name for the variety.
TREE.
Tree large, very vigorous. Form upright, moderately spreading. Twigs rather short, slender to rather stout, nearly straight, heavily pubescent; internodes medium to long. Bark smooth, of a rather clear dark red with some olive-green. Lenticels moderately conspicuous, quite narrow, small, raised.
Buds small, rather projecting, sharply acute, appressed, moderately pubescent.
[Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases, but more susceptible than most to the flyspeck/sooty blotch complex. In some years the leaves yellow and drop without affecting fruit production (17).]
Fruit.Moscow Mitch + Rusal = Swamp Love
Fruit above medium to large, rather uniform in size and shape. Form inclined to roundish conic varying sometimes to roundish oblate or rarely to roundish oblong; sides usually somewhat unequal; axis often slightly oblique.
Stem usually short and thick. Cavity acuminate to acute, deep, rather broad, obscurely furrowed and partly covered with thin greenish-russet. Calyx rather large to below medium, closed or somewhat open; lobes short to medium in length, rather broad, acute. Basin often oblique, rather shallow, medium in width to wide, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, obscurely furrowed and slightly wrinkled.
Skin thick, tough, rather smooth, sometimes a little glossy, yellow or greenish, mottled and shaded with orange-red or red, irregularly splashed and streaked with bright carmine and somewhat flecked with russet. It is usually streaked over the base with grayish scarf-skin and overspread with thin bloom, giving it a rather dull appearance. Dots numerous, usually irregular in shape and of variable size, very conspicuous, pale or russet. Prevailing effect grayish-red.
Calyx tube rather large, wide, varying from short and urn-shape or cone-shape to very long, approaching funnel-form. Stamens median to marginal.
Core medium or above, axile; cells closed or partly open; core lines clasping. Carpels rather concave, broadly ovate approaching roundish, tufted.
Seeds below medium to above, light to dark brown, rather short and wide, plump, acute to somewhat obtuse, tufted.
Flesh yellowish, very firm, somewhat coarse, rather crisp, moderately tender, juicy, mildly subacid becoming nearly sweet, slightly aromatic. It ranks good but not high in flavor and quality.
Season December to May.  [Good keeper (17).]

Northern Spy
References.  1. Mag. Hort., 10:275. 1844. 2. Albany Cultivator, 2:41, 56. 1845. 3. Genesee Farmer, 1845. (cited by 6). 4. Downing, 1845:120. 5. Horticulturist. 1:30, 144. 1846. 6. Ib., 1:386, 482. 1847. 7. Hovey and Watts, Mag. Hort., 13:72, 104, 538. 1847. fig. 8. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 14:530. 1848. 9. Thomas, 1849:169, 174. fig. 10. Cole, 1849:134. fig. 11. Allen, Horticulturist, 6:351. 1851. 12. Emmons, Nat. Plist. N. Y., 3:70. 1851. col. pl. No. 23. 13. Hovey, 1:19. 1851. col. pl. and fig. 14. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 15. Mag. Hort., 19:68. 1853. 16. Elliott, 1854:94. fig. 17. Smith, Horticulturist, 11:242. 1856. 18. Hooper, 1857:66. 19. Hoffy, N. A. Pom., 1860. col. pl. 20. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 29:459. 1863. 21. Warder, 1867:541. fig. 22. Downing, 1869:289. fig. 23. Fitz, 1872:166. 24. Leroy, 1873:501. fig. 25. Barry, 1883:351. 26. Hogg, 1884:161. 27. Wickson, 1889:248. 28. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 29. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:245. 30. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:192. 31. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 3:15. 1896. figs. 32. Bruner, N. C. Sta. Bul., 182:21. 1903. figs. 33. Budd-Hansen, 1903:137. fig. 34. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:51. 1903. 35. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:134. 1904.  [36.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 111.]
Synonyms.  Spy (1,19,31).
Northern Spy is often known among fruit growers and fruit buyers by the simple name of Spy. It ranks third in commercial importance among New York apples, being surpassed in this respect by Baldwin and Rhode Island Greening. When it is well grown it is superior to either of these in flavor and quality and easily ranks among the very best winter apples of New York. The fruit is large and attractive, being of a bright red color, overspread with a delicate bloom. The flesh is very juicy, crisp, tender and most excellent for either dessert or culinary uses. It is not a good variety for evaporating because it is too juicy and tender. It is well adapted for either local, general or fancy trade. It has a well-established reputation in market, and because of its size, beauty, fine flavor and high quality it often sells at more than average prices. It is ready for use in November and December, and retains its crispness and high flavor remarkably well until the close of the season (35). Its thin skin and juicy, tender flesh render careful handling absolutely necessary, otherwise there is much shrinkage in storage (35). It is particularly susceptible to attack from blue mold (Penicillium glaucum Link) in storage, especially if bruised or delayed in reaching storage. If well colored, picked, packed and handled with great care and stored soon after picking, it may be carried in storage as long as most winter varieties (34). Its keeping quality varies considerably in different seasons and in different locations. In ordinary cellar storage its season sometimes closes in February, but more often extends to March or April, and if the temperature is very carefully regulated it may sometimes be held till May. It stands heat fairly well, but after being picked it should go into storage as soon as possible. Poorly colored fruit of this variety is not good in flavor and does not keep as well as well-ripened and highly colored fruit. In some localities it appears to require from two to three weeks longer than Rhode Island Greening to ripen properly.
Both the foliage and fruit of Northern Spy are noticeably susceptible to injury by the scab and thorough treatment is required to prevent loss from this disease. It comes into bloom remarkably late. On this account its blossoms sometimes escape destruction by late frosts when earlier-blooming varieties are much injured. Often it produces many small apples which are seedless or nearly so. This indicates an improper fertilization of the blossoms. It remains to be demonstrated whether or not this fault may be remedied by planting near the Northern Spy some other late-blooming variety bearing an abundance of fertile pollen.
Northern Spy is not as well adapted for general cultivation as is either Baldwin or Rhode Island Greening because it is more or less variable in season and quality, and in some sections is an unreliable cropper. Usually it is rather slow in coming into bearing, although under favorable conditions it has been known to yield profitable crops within seven years from the time of planting. The young trees increase in productiveness as they advance in maturity. In favorable locations, under good care, they usually become reliable croppers yielding from moderate to heavy crops biennially, or in some cases almost annually. This variety succeeds better in the cooler regions of the interior of the state than it does on the warm slopes south of the Fishkill mountains and on the coastal plain. It generally does well on the hills and well-drained slopes in the more elevated regions from Chautauqua lake eastward to the Catskills, along the Champlain valley and in the uplands east of the Hudson as far south as the Fishkill mountains. In some portions of the regions just named it has become the leading variety in commercial orchards, but its cultivation is by no means confined to these regions, for it is grown quite extensively in many other localities and is generally well known throughout the state. Experienced fruit growers frequently express a preference for warm, fertile soil, either gravelly loam or clay loam, with well-drained subsoil, upon which to plant Northern Spy, although in some few districts there is a decided preference for rather heavy clay loam. In the territory best adapted to its cultivation it is grown satisfactorily upon different slopes and different soils. When grown in sod the trees may be less productive, but the fruit doubtless colors better and keeps better than when the orchard is given frequent and thorough tillage during the growing season.
The tree is very hardy and healthy, develops a strong root system both in the nursery and in the orchard, and has an upright, free- growing habit. For these reasons it is much in favor as a stock upon which to top-work varieties that are less vigorous, less hardy or less healthy. The top tends to become dense and must be pruned regularly and thoroughly to keep it sufficiently open to admit light and air to the foliage in all parts of the tree; otherwise, especially on the older trees, much of the fruit is apt to be poorly matured and poorly colored. Pruning for this purpose should be done by removing the laterals and limbs that cross, being careful to leave the smaller twigs and spurs, as these are the ones upon which the most of the fruit is borne.
The head of the young orchard tree should be formed with great care. In the words of one of our correspondents (E. W. Lament, Cobleskill. N. Y.), the wood of this variety is very straight-grained and the tree is liable to split when heavily loaded. To guard against this, when the head of the small tree is formed no two limbs should be left opposite or nearly opposite each other, but the three or four branches which are selected for forming the head of the tree should be distributed along the main stem at some little distance apart. This distributes the load upon the trunk and gives more spring to the body of the tree, thus tending to prevent its splitting with heavy loads. Standard orchard trees of Northern Spy should stand forty to fifty feet apart in order to prevent their becoming too much crowded when fully matured.
Historical. Originated in a seedling orchard at East Bloomfield, N. Y., which is famous for the production of this variety, the Early Joe and the Melon. This orchard was planted by Heman Chapin with seedling trees grown from seeds brought from Salisbury, Connecticut, about the year 1800 (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 1 8). Sprouts from the original tree were taken up and planted by Roswell Humphrey and by him the first fruit of the Northern Spy was raised as the original tree died before bearing. In 1847 nine of the trees set out by Humphrey were still living (6). The variety was confined to the vicinity of its origin for many years and it was not till about 1840 that it began to attract the attention of fruit growers in other localities (6, 12). Its great value then came to be more widely recognized and in 1852 the American Pomological Society not only listed it as a new variety of promise but also as a variety worthy of general cultivation. Since that time it has become extensively planted not only in New York but in various other portions of the more northern apple-growing regions.
TREE. Tree large, vigorous: branches long, moderately stout, curved.
Form upright, dense, becoming roundish with willowy, slender laterals somewhat inclined to droop.
Twigs long to medium in length, erect, straight or somewhat crooked, slender to moderately stout; internodes long to rather short.
Bark dull, dark brownish-red mingled with olive-green lightly streaked with thick scarf-skin; heavily pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, conspicuous, small, roundish or oblong, slightly raised.
Buds deeply set in bark, medium to small, broad, plump, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent.
[Diseases:  Susceptible to bitter pit and fireblight in the blossoms, but somewhat blight resistant in the wood (36).] FRUITMoscow Mitch + Rusal = KY Jobs! (as Russian slaves)
Fruit except when it is seedless is usually large or very large.
Form roundish conical, sometimes inclined to oblong, often noticeably flattened at the base, nearly symmetrical, sometimes regular but often noticeably ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long, moderately thick.
Cavity large, acute, very wide and deep, often broadly furrowed, usually with greenish-russet radiating upwards to the brim.
Calyx usually small, closed, sometimes partly open; lobes short, broad, obtuse.
Basin small to medium, narrow to medium in width, moderately deep, abrupt, usually somewhat furrowed.
Skin thin, tender and smooth. In highly colored specimens it is glossy and the clear pale yellow ground color is nearly concealed with bright pinkish-red mottled and splashed with carmine and overspread with a thin delicate bloom.
Dots medium to small, not conspicuous, scattering, whitish, gray or russet.
Prevailing effect bright red or striped red. Rarely the yellow or green color predominates. In such cases the quality of the fruit is low.
Calyx tube sometimes large, long, cone-shape but more often narrow and somewhat funnel-form with very narrow cylinder.
Stamens basal or nearly so.
Core usually large, sometimes medium, abaxile; cells pretty symmetrical, open or nearly closed, often not uniformly developed; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder.
Carpels much concave, broadly roundish, emarginate, slightly tufted.
Seeds small to medium, wide, often abortive and few but sometimes numerous, plump, obtuse, dark, somewhat tufted.
Flesh yellowish, rather firm, moderately fine-grained, very tender, crisp, very juicy, sprightly, aromatic, subacid, very good to best.  [Also good for pies, frying, apple butter, cider and brandy (36).]
Season [November to April.]  [Excellent keeper (36)].

Northern Sweet
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Golden Sweet (8,10,13). Northern Golden Sweet (2,5,7,8,13). Northern Golden Sweeting (10). Northern Sweet (1-4,6-8,10-18). Northern Sweeting (9).
Fruit yellow or sometimes with a crimson cheek. Flesh whitish, fine, tender, juicy, sweet, very good; season midautumn. It is a good apple for the home orchard but not desirable for commercial purposes.
Historical. Supposed to be a native of Chittenden county, Vermont. Brought to notice by Jonathan Battey, Keeseville, Clinton county, NY about 1849, who stated that it had then been cultivated in the vicinity of its origin for about fifty years (2). It has probably been grown more in the Champlain valley than in any other section of the state. It is still occasionally listed by nurserymen (16) but is now seldom planted.

NORTHWESTERN GREENING
REFERENCES. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:27. 2. Rural N. Y., 44:150. 1885. figs. 3. Van Deman, U.S. Pom. Rpt., 1886:271. 4. Bailey, An. Hort. 1892:245. 5. Shepherd, Can. Hort., 16:205. 1893. 6. Ib., 17:84. 1804. figs. 7. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt. 14:254. 1895. 8. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bul., 76:77. 1902. fig. 9. Munson, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:84, 90. 1902. 10. Thomas, 1903:343. 11. Budd-Hansen, 1903:138. fig. 12. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1903:95. 13. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:51. 1903. 14. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:135. 1904.  [15.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 129.]
Synonyms. North West GREENING (5, 6). NORTHWESTERN GREENING (1,3, 4,7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13).
Attractive in color for a green or yellowish apple but apt to be variable in size and not uniform in shape. It is hardier than Rhode Island Greening and on that account some consider it worthy of cultivation in districts where the climate is too severe for the Rhode Island Greening. The fruit has a serious fault in that the flesh within the core lines is apt to be corky and discolored. It cooks evenly and quickly and when cooked has a fine yellow color but is not of high flavor or quality being much inferior in this respect to Rhode Island Greening. As a dessert apple it ranks fair to good in quality. At this Station it has not been a satisfactory keeper in common storage, the rate of loss being high in November and sometimes in December, moderate through the winter and gradually rising to high or very high in the closing weeks of its season. A large part of the fruit does not reach prime condition before January, a considerable portion of it remains sound at the close of the winter and some of it may keep till June. The tree is hardy, vigorous, a fine erect grower in the nursery, and a good strong grower in the orchard. It does not come into bearing very early but eventually becomes productive and is a reliable biennial cropper.
Historical. Originated in Waupaca county, Wisconsin. Introduced in 1872 by E. W. Daniels (1, 11). It has been pretty widely disseminated throughout the northern portions of the apple belt where very hardy trees are desired (1, 4, 5, 8, 11). It has as yet been planted but very little in New York.
TREE.
Tree vigorous with moderately long, stout, crooked branches.
Form upright becoming quite roundish or spreading, inclined to droop, dense. Twigs moderately long, curved, stout with large terminal buds; internodes medium to long. Bark clear reddish-brown, lightly mottled with scarf-skin, lightly pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous, medium to large, oval or elongated, raised, very conspicuous, pale and contrasting clearly with the bright smooth bark. Buds large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, projecting, slightly pubescent.
[Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases (15).]] Fruit.
Fruit medium to large or very large, variable in size and form. Form commonly roundish but varying to oblong or to oblate and often inclined to conic, more or less irregular, sometimes elliptical, sometimes ribbed. Stem medium to short. Cavity rather small to large, acute to acuminate, moderately narrow to wide, deep, often compressed or lipped, often with outspreading russet.
Calyx variable, small to large, closed or open. Basin small to large, narrow to wide, usually abrupt, moderately deep, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin smooth, somewhat waxy, clear pale yellow or greenish, sometimes faintly blushed. Dots varying from small to large and irregular, usually whitish and submerged, sometimes gray with russet point. Prevailing effect clear yellow or greenish.
Calyx tube moderately wide, conical or approaching urn-shape. Stamens median.
Core medium or above, usually axile or nearly so; cells usually symmetrical, closed or sometimes open; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels broadly roundish, truncate at base, narrowing toward the apex, mucronate, but slightly emarginate if at all. Seeds very small, variable in shape; often some are abortive.
Flesh tinged with yellow, medium in texture, crispness and firmness, juicy, with slight aroma, mild subacid, fair to good.  [Also useful for baking and pies (15).
Keeping ability:  Good and the taste improves after a few months of storage (15).]