Apple Home

Jack
References.  1. (?) Hooper, 1857:46. 2. (?) Downing, 1869:206. 3. (?) Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:334. 1896.
Synonyms.  (Early Jack 1)?. (Jack Apple, 1)? (Oskaloosa 2,3)?
Fruit of good medium size, yellow; flesh very tender, rich, mild subacid. It is highly esteemed for its excellent dessert quality but it is too tender to stand shipping very well and on account of its irregular shape and yellow color it is not sufficiently attractive for market purposes. The tree is not a vigorous grower and has rather slender twigs.
Possibly this is identical with Oskaloosa which has Jack as a synonym, (2,3) but we have been unable to obtain fruit of Oskaloosa and the available descriptions of that variety are so meager that it is impossible to determine whether or not it is identical with the variety described above. Historical. Jack is grown to a very limited extent in East Bloomfield, Ontario county, NY. We have not obtained it from any other locality. We have been unable to learn where it originated, or whether is is the Jack mentioned by Hooper (1).

TREE.

Tree not very vigorous with moderately long, slender, crooked branches.
Form at first upright spreading but becoming roundish and rather dense.
Twigs long, straight, slender; internodes short.
Bark brown or reddish-brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels quite numerous, rather conspicuous, medium size, oblong, slightly raised.
Buds small, plump, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium or above, sometimes rather large, not uniform in shape or size.
Form oblate varying to roundish oblate or to oblate conic, very irregular, obscurely ribbed, often with the sides somewhat furrowed and unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, slender.
Cavity acuminate, usually deep, medium in width, russeted, with concentric russet lines often extending beyond the cavity, sometimes lipped.
Calyx medium size, usually open.
Basin small to medium, rather shallow to moderately deep, narrow to medium in width, unsymmetrical, irregularly furrowed or nearly smooth.
Skin rather thin, waxy, glossy, attractive yellow with shades of green, sometimes faintly tinged with red and marbled with whitish scarf-skin over the base somewhat after the manner of Yellow Newtown.
Dots mostly small and depressed mingled with a few that are larger, scattering and irregular with russet center.
Calyx tube medium in width and length, conical to somewhat funnel-form.
Stamens median or below.
Core medium in size, somewhat abaxile; cells usually symmetrical, somewhat open; core lines clasping.
Carpels elliptical, deeply emarginate.
Seeds medium or below, wide, short, rather flat, obtuse, mingled with light and dark brown.
Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately firm, moderately crisp or breaking, very tender, moderately juicy, very mild and subacid, very good for dessert.
Season October and November.

Jarvis
References.  1. NY Sta. An. Rpt., 11:223. 1892.
Synonyms.  Crandall Seedling (1). No. 25 (1).
Fruit large and when well-colored partly overspread and striped with red; flesh tender, juicy, subacid, pleasant but not superior in flavor or or quality. Season late September to early winter. It is possibly desirable for local market but it is not recommended for general cultivation.
Historical. The original tree is standing near Ithaca, NY on land once owned by a Mr. Jarvis from whom the variety takes its name. It is grown to a limited extent in the vicinity of Ithaca but so far as we know is not cultivated in any other portion of the state. Received for testing at this Station in 1892 from C.B. Crandall.

Jefferis
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Everbearing (20). Grantham (17). Jefferies (10,12,14,17,20). Jeffries (1,2,5,6,8,9,11).
Fruit of medium size, yellow, blushed and splashed with red; flesh tender, mild subacid, delicious. It begins to ripen in September and continues in season till early winter. Commercial limit October (25). It is an excellent variety for the home orchard but not for commercial planting because it ripens unevenly, is apt to be deficient in size and is not especially attractive in color. The tree is a moderately vigorous grower, hardy, healthy, comes into bearing moderately early and is a reliable cropper yielding full crops biennially.
Historical. Originated with Isaac Jefferies, Newlin township, Chester county, PA. It was named after the originator by the Committee of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society which awarded this variety the premium for the best seedling apple exhibited in 1848 (10).

TREE.

Tree medium size, moderately vigorous.
Form upright to roundish, open.
Twigs short, straight, slender; internodes long.
Bark brown mingled with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small, oblong, not raised.
Buds small, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit small to medium, very uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish oblate often inclined to conic, regular or obscurely ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium length, thick to moderately slender.
Cavity acute to acuminate, medium in depth to deep, medium to broad, symmetrical, russeted but slightly if at all.
Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open; lobes short, rather broad, acute.
Basin moderately shallow to rather deep, moderately wide, somewhat abrupt, smooth or nearly so, symmetrical.
Skin thin, tough, greenish-yellow or pale yellow more or less blushed and mottled with moderately dull red overlaid with narrow splashes and stripes of carmine.
Dots small, scattering, inconspicuous, submerged or russet.
Calyx tube narrow, conical to funnel-shape.
Stamens marginal to median.
Core small, axile, or nearly so; cells slightly open; core lines somewhat clasping or meeting.
Carpels elliptical to somewhat obovate, emarginate, sometimes tufted.
Seeds numerous, medium to rather large, wide, long, flat, very irregular, obtuse.
Flesh yellowish-white, firm, fine, crisp, tender, very juicy, mild subacid, very good.
Season September to January.

Jefferson County
References.  1. Horticulturist, 10:254. 1855. fig. 2. Downing, 1857:156. 3. Warder, 1867:723. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 5. Thomas, 1875:201. 6. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292.
Synonyms.  None.
This variety originated in Jefferson county, NY, hence its name (2). The tree is of medium size, moderately vigorous; form somewhat drooping; twigs rather slender. It comes into bearing young and and is a reliable bearer producing some fruit nearly every year, alternating heavy with lighter crops. The fruit is yellow shaded and splashed with red, not very bright in color, in season during October and November. It is particularly suitable for dessert, the flesh being tender, rather firm, crisp, of good flavor and excellent quality but it is not regarded as a good market variety for there is apt to be a rather large amount of small, imperfect or otherwise unmarketable fruit and when the fruit does not color properly, as happens in many cases, it is of poor flavor. It was listed by the American Pomological Society in 1873. It has been sparingly disseminated in various parts of the country but is as yet little known. So far as we can learn it is not being planted in New York.

Jennetting or Juneating
References.  1.
Synonyms. 
This name has been applied by some to White Juneating. For a description of this variety together with Hogg's account of the derivation of the name the reader is referred to White Juneating, page 240.

Jersey Sweet
References.  1.
Synonyms.  American (13). Jersey Sweeting (1-4,6,8,9,14,17).
An early autumn apple of medium size. It does not always color well, but under favorable conditions it is highly colored, rich in flavor, tender and excellent in quality for either dessert or culinary uses. It is one of the best of the sweet apples of its season for planting for home use in New York but it has proved unsatisfactory as a commercial sort because it ripens at a time when there is little demand for fruit of this kind, is not a good keeper, is apt to be scabby and does not always color well. The tree is hardy, long-lived, comes into bearing young and bears nearly every year, yielding moderate to good or sometimes heavy crops. The fruit comes in season late in August or early in September and ripens in succession during a period of several weeks; often some portion may be kept till early winter, but its commercial limit in ordinary storage is September or early October (22).
Historical. Origin unknown. Elliott calls it an American variety (8). It is pretty well known in different parts of New York state, but is now rarely found except in old orchards. It is commonly listed by nurserymen (16) but is now seldom or never planted except occasionally for home use.

TREE.

Tree rather large, moderately vigorous to vigorous; branches long, moderately stout, filled with spurs.
Form upright to roundish, open.
Twigs moderately long, straight, slender; internodes long.
Bark brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent near tips.
Lenticels scattering, medium to small, oblong, not raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, appressed, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium size.
Form roundish ovate incliined to conic or to oblate conic; sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) long to medium length, rather slender.
Cavity acute, usually rather deep, varying to shallow, medium in width, occasionally lipped, sometimes slightly russeted.
Calyx small, closed; lobes medium to long, narrow, acute to acuminate.
Basin rather small, moderately shallow to rather deep, narrow to medium in width, somewhat abrupt, ribbed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, tender, at first greenish-yellow but becoming clear yellow washed and mottled with brownish-red and overlaid with narrow stripes of bright carmine.
Dots inconspicuous, greenish, submerged.
Calyx tube conical to funnel-form, often with fleshy pistil point projecting into the base.
Stamens median.
Core medium or above, axile or nearly so; cells symmetrical, usually closed; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder.
Carpels elongated ovate, tufted.
Seeds medium to large, variable in length and width, acute to acuminate.
Flesh yellowish, moderately firm, fine, crisp, tender, juicy, sweet, good to very good.
Season September to December.

Jonathan
References.  1. Buel, N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:476, Cat. No. 39. 2. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831. 3. Kenrick, 1832:47. 4. Downing, 1845:113. 5. Thomas, 1849:167, 189. fig. 6. Cole, 1849:123. 7. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 16:60. 1850. fig. 8. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:60. 1851. col. pi. No. 25. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1856. 10. Hooper, 1857:48. 11. Reynolds, Horticulturist, 12:51. 1857. 12. Dewey, Ib., 12:198. 1857. 13. Elliott, 1858:86. fig. 14.- Warder, 1867:679. fig. 15. Barry, 1883:348. 16. Hogg, 1884:119. 17. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 18. Meehan, Can. Hort., 14:75. 1891. fig. 19. Wickson, 1891:246. 20. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:242. 21. Stinson, Ark. Sta. An. Rpt., 7:46. 1894. 22. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bul, 118:60. 1895. 23. Ib., 143:200, 202. 1897. 24. Powell, Del. Sta. Bui, 38:18. 1898. 25. Van Deman, Rural N. Y., 59:224. 1900. 26. Kan. Sta. Bul., 106:53. 1902. 27. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bul, 76:61. 1902. 28. Budd-Hansen, 1903:106. fig. 29. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul, 48:45. 1903. 30. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul, 248:127. 1904. [Cummins Nursery.]
Synonyms.  Esopus Spitzenberg (New) (1). King Phillip (4,7,10,11,13). Phillip Rick (4,7,11,13). Ulster Seedling (1). Wine (erroneously 10,13). Winesap (erroneously 10,13).
This is a fruit of the Esopus Spitzenburg class. It is very beautiful, of a brilliant red color, highly flavored and of excellent quality for either dessert or culinary use. It excels its parent in hardiness, productiveness, health and vigor and is adapted to a wider range of territory, but the fruit is not so large nor does it keep as well as that of Esopus Spitzenburg. In New York state it does fairly well in favorable localities if grown on rich soil and given careful attention but even under such circumstances it does not usually attain as good size as it does in certain portions of the valleys of the Ohio, Mississippi and Missouri and in the irrigated districts in the mountain regions farther west. In some localities in these regions it ranks next to Ben Davis in commercial importance. As grown in this state it is ordinarily rather small- with a comparatively high percentage of uneven and irregular fruit, and is not at all adapted to the general trade. At its best it is one of the most desirable varieties for the fancy trade at the holiday season. Its season is about the same as that of Tompkins King. It may be kept through the winter but when held in ordinary storage later than January dark spots are liable to develop in the skin and seriously injure the appearance of the fruit. Handled in this way its commercial limit is December or early January. In cold storage its commercial limit varies from January to March or sometimes later (30).
As grown in New York the tree is but a moderate grower and for this reason it is well to top-work it upon some stock that is more vigorous such as Northern Spy, Baldwin or Rhode Island Greening. It does not grow much above medium size and may be planted more closely than Baldwin. Particular attention should be given to keeping the soil fertile, well supplied with humus and well tilled, and the trees should be thoroughly protected from injurious insects and fungus-diseases. Under favorable conditions the tree is a reliable cropper bearing good crops biennially or in some cases almost annually. It comes into bearing rather young. Usually the fruit hangs pretty well to the tree. It is not recommended for general commercial planting in New York but in some places under good management it has proved a profitable variety.
Historical. [Origin: New York, 1862.- Cummins Nursery] The first published account which we find of the Jonathan is that given by Judge J. Buel, of Albany, in 1826, in an article on "Observations on the utility of a Descriptive Catalogue of Garden and Orchard Fruit," addressed to the members of the New York Horticultural Society, in which he presents "A Descriptive Catalogue of some of the most valuable apples propagated in the nurseries of this state." In this catalogue the Jonathan is listed as the Esopus Spitzenberg (New) with the synonym Ulster Seedling (1). In 1829 Judge Buel sent specimens of the fruit to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society with the statement that it was " An Esopus Seedling and sometimes called the New Spitzenberg." It originated on the farm of Mr. Philip Rick of Woodstock, Ulster county, New York (7). According to Downing the original tree was still alive in 1845. It was at first disseminated under various names, all of which were soon superseded by the name Jonathan which was assigned to it by Judge Buel in honor of Jonathan Hasbrouck by whom his attention was first called to the variety. It has been widely disseminated throughout the apple-growing regions of New York but in none of them is it grown extensively. It is extensively planted in regions farther west and south where, as above stated, it is recognized in many localities as one of the leading commercial varieties.

TREE.

[Tree naturally small. -Cummins Nursery]. Tree medium in size, a moderately vigorous or rather slow grower.
Form roundish or spreading, somewhat drooping, rather dense.
Twigs medium in length, nearly straight, rather slender; internodes short.
Bark dark brownish-red mingled with dark green, and heavily coated with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels usually very scattering, sometimes moderately numerous, small to medium or sometimes large, roundish to oblong, not raised.
Buds medium, plump, rather narrow, acute to obtuse, free, pubescent.
Leaves medium or below, rather narrow.

FRUIT.

Fruit medium to rather small, rarely large.
Form roundish conic to roundish ovate, often somewhat truncate, regular; pretty uniform in shape and size.
Stem (pedicel) medium to long, rather slender.
Cavity acute to acuminate, deep to very deep, wide, symmetrical, sometimes slightly furrowed.
Calyx small, closed.
Basin deep to very deep, very abrupt, wide to moderately narrow.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, pale bright yellow overlaid with lively red, striped with carmine. When well colored the fruit is almost completely covered with red which deepens to purplish on the sunny side and often shows a beautiful contrasting bit of clear pale yellow about the cavity where a twig or leaf lay in contact with the skin. Less highly colored fruit has more of a striped appearance particularly toward the basin.
Dots minute, usually inconspicuous.
Prevailing effect attractive lively deep red.
Calyx tube rather small, funnel-shape or sometimes conical.
Stamens basal to median.
Core medium or below, axile or nearly so; cells symmetrical but often not uniformly developed, usually closed, sometimes open; core lines clasp the funnel cylinder.
Carpels rather concave, roundish to roundish cordate, emarginate, smooth. Seeds rather large, long, acute to acuminate, dark, numerous.
Flesh whitish or somewhat yellow, sometimes with tinge of red, firm, moderately fine, crisp, tender, juicy, very aromatic, sprightly subacid, very good to best.
Season November to January or later.
[Summary of description from Cummins Nursery and my own experience (with eating them!). Fruit quality: Flavor is refreshing and mild. Texture is juicy and crisp.
Fruit size: medium
Fruit appearance: Attractive striped red with high colour in spots.
Storage characteristics: Good. Can keep till January in common refrigeration.
Diseases: Very susceptible to fireblight.
Precocity: bears young.
Productivity: productive, heavy crops. Partially self-fertile.
Harvest Season October. ]

Judson
References.  1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:17. 2. Ib., Rpt., 1901:49. 3. Hansen, SD Sta. Bul., 76:62. 1902. fig. 4. Budd-Hansen, 1903:108. fig.
Synonyms.  Thomson's Seedling No. 29 (3,4).
Fruit large, green or yellowish, more or less covered with red, not especially attractive in appearance and only fair to good in quality. Season October to December. Not valuable enough to by worthy of trial in New York except perhaps in those districts where superior hardiness is particularly desirable.
Historical. Originated in Grundy county, Iowa, by J.S.B. Thompson.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous with short, moderately stout, somewhat drooping branches.
Form open, roundish to spreading.
Twigs above medium to short, somewhat curved, medium to stout, rather pubescent with large terminal buds; internodes medium or below.
Bark brown or reddish-brown tinged with olive-green, heavily coated with gray scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, rather conspicuous, medium or below, round or irregularly elongated, not raised.
Buds prominent, large to medium, broad, plump, obtuse, free or nearly so, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit large or very, fairly uniform in size but not in shape.
Form roundish conical or a little inclined to oblong, indistinctly ribbed, irregular; sides often unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, thick.
Cavity very acuminate, deep, moderately narrow to rather broad, somewhat furrowed, irregularly russeted, frequently compressed.
Calyx large, usually somewhat open.
Basin moderately deep to deep, medium in width, very abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin smooth, rather tough, clear bright yellow washed with red which sometimes deepens to a pinkish blush, striped and splashed with carmine and mottled over the base with dull scarf-skin.
Dots scattering, small to large, pale gray, conspicuous.
Prevailing effect greenish-yellow; not particularly attractive.
Calyx tube long, wide, funnel-shape.
Stamens variable, but usually median.
Core rather small, usually abaxile; cells sometimes unsymmetrical, wide open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate to elliptical, emarginate, sometimes tufted.
Seeds rather dark brown, small to medium, rather numerous, very short, very plump, obtuse.
Flesh nearly white, firm, rather coarse, crisp, juicy, brisk subacid, fair to good.
Season October to December.

July
References.  1.
Synonyms.  August (4,15, of Cassel, Germany, 3). Fourth of July (2,4,? 5,6,8-15). McAdow's June (4,15). Siberian August (4,15, of Germany 2). Stewart's Nonpariel (15, ? 4). Tetofski (5). Tetofsky, erroneously (4, 15).
This fruit closely resembles Tetofsky and some have considered the two varieties identical (4) but they are quite distinct in tree. It is not recommended for planting in New York because it is not equal to standard varieties of its season.
Historical. Hovey states that, "The Fourth of July apple, in Germany called the Siberian August apple, was sent from the Russian province Liefland, in the year 1807, to the celebrated pomologist, Dr. Diel, and is celebrated, like all our summer apples which originated in Russia, for its great productiveness and hardiness" (2). It was introduced into Columbus, OH, from Cassel, Germany (3). It has been disseminated to a considerable extent in various parts of this country and is still listed by a considerable number of nurserymen (12).

TREE.

Tree vigorous.
Form upright, roundish and rather dense.
Twigs short, straight, stout with large terminal buds; internodes medium.
Bark dull brown tinged with green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small, oblong, not raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit below medium to above, pretty uniform in shape but not in size.
Form usually roundish conical, irregularly ribbed; sides often unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long, moderately slender, often bracted.
Cavity acuminate to acute, moderately deep, medium to narrow, slightly furrowed, thinly russeted.
Calyx medium to large, usually closed; lobes medium in length, moderately narrow, acuminate.
Basin rather shallow to medium in depth, narrow, somewhat abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, rather glossy, pale yellow washed and mottled with red striped and splashed with carmine and overspread with whitish bloom.
Dots small, numerous, submerged, inconspicuous, light, areolar.
Calyx tube variable in length, funnel-shape.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core medium or below, axile; cells closed; core lines slightly clasping or meeting.
Carpels roundish ovate or elongated ovate.
Seeds very dark dull brown, medium size, moderately wide, short, plump, obtuse.
Flesh yellowish, a little coarse, crisp, tender, moderately juicy, sprightly subacid, fair to good.
Season last of July to September.

Kaighn
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Kaighn's Spitzemburg (1). Kaighn's Spitzenberg (3,6,9). Kaighn's Spitzenbergh (2). Kaighn's Spitzenburg (7,12). Kaighn's Spitzenburgh (4,5,8). Kaign's Spitzenburg (10). Lady Finger (erroneously 6,7). Long John (6,7). Long Pearmain (6,7). Ohio Wine (6). Red Pearmain (6,7,8). Red Phoenix (6). Red Pippin (6). Red Spitzenberg (6). Red Spitzenburg (8). Red Winter Pearmain (6). Russam (6). Scarlet Pearmain, erroneously (6). Downing states that Kaign's Spitzenberg and Long Red Permain, for many years considered identical, are in reality distinct varieties in both tree and fruit. He give a long list of synonyms for Long Red Pearmain including all of the synonyms cited above and adds, "The true Kaign's Spitzenburg, so far as I know, has no synonyms" (10).
This old variety of New Jersey origin which has been disseminated through various parts of the West even to the Pacific Coast. The fruit is showy and the tree productive. The tree makes a spreading, straggling growth (1,11). According to Coxe (1) the fruit bears "a faint resemblance to the Esopus Spitzenberg but is more pointed toward the crown; the color is a lively but pale red, faintly streaked and full of white spots; the skin smooth, the stem long and deeply planted, the crown very hollow-- the flesh finely flavored, yellow, juicy and tender." It is now practically obsolete in New York.

Kalkidon
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Kalkidonskoe (1). Kalkidouskoe (5-8). Kalkidovskoe (2). Khalkidonskoe (4,9). Khalikidouskoe (3,10). No. 540 (10). No. 94 (1,2,3,10).
A Russian variety which was received from Ellwanger and Barry, Rochester, NY, in 1884 for testing at this Station. It is an apple of moderately attractive appearance and fair to good quality, in season in September and October. The tree comes into bearing moderately young and is a reliable biennial cropper. It is not recommended for planting in New York because it is inferior to standard varieties of its season.

FRUIT

Fruit large to medium, fairly uniform in size and shape.
Form oblate conical to ovate, regular or faintly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to very short, moderately thick.
Cavity acute to almost acuminate, moderately shallow to deep, medium in width, furrowed and compressed, russeted and with outspreading greenish-russet rays.
Calyx medium to large, closed or partly open; lobes medium in length, broad, acute.
Basin shallow to medium in depth, narrow to medium in width, rather abrupt, slightly furrowed.
Skin thick, rather tough, smooth, greenish or pale yellow, largely washed and mottled with dull red, splashed and striped with carmine.
Dots variable in size, numerous, inconspicuous, submerged.
Calyx tube rather long, moderately wide, conical or funnel-shape.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core small, axile or sometimes abaxile; cells symmetrical, closed or open; core lines clasping.
Carpels ovate to elliptical, slightly emarginate, slightly tufted.
Seeds medium to large, wide, plump, acute to obtuse, dark brown.
Flesh tinged with yellowish-green, moderately fine-grained, tender, rather juicy, mild subacid, fair to good.
Season September to mid-winter.

Karabovka
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Kajabowka (5). Karaboff (1-5). Karabowka (1,2,4). No. 21 M (3,4). No. 205 (2-5). Shro. to Ia. No. 21 (5).
A Russian variety received from Ellwanger and Barry, Rochester, NY in 1884 for testing at this Station. As grown here the tree does not come into bearing very early but when mature yields full crops biennially. The fruit is medium to rather small, not specially attractive in appearance, fair to possibly good in quality being inferior to standard sorts of its season. Season late August and September. It does not agree with the description of Karabovka given by Budd (2).

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous with moderately long, stout, curved branches.
Form rather open, flat, spreading.
Twigs long, curved, stout, with large terminal buds; internodes medium.
Bark dark brown, heavily streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels quite numerous, small to medium, round, slightly raised.
Buds large, prominent, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit small to medium, uniform.
Form oblate, regular, symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) medium in length, moderately thick to rather slender.
Cavity acute to nearly acuminate, moderately deep to deep, narrow to medium in width, occasionally lipped, usually russeted.
Calyx large, open or nearly closed; lobes short, rather broad, acute.
Basin medium in depth, wide, furrowed or wrinkled and with mammiform protuberances.
Skin thin, tender, smooth, rather dull pale greenish-yellow, with scattering narrow stripes of dull dark red, or when highly colored it is largely striped, splashed and shaded with red, and overspread with pinkish bloom.
Dots rather numerous, small, light, obscure, submerged.
Calyx tube large, medium in length, rather wide, broadly conical to funnel-shape.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core medium size, axile; cells closed; core lines clasping.
Carpels elliptical, emarginate.
Seeds very dark brown, medium size, wide, rather short, flat, plump, obtuse.
Flesh nearly white, moderately fine, tender, moderately juicy, mild subacid with peculiar flavor, fair to good in quality.
Season August and September.

Kentish Fillbasket
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Kent Fillbasket (13). Kentish Filbasket (3). Lady de Grey's (2,5,8). Potter's Large (8). Potter's Large Grey Seedling (5). Potter's Large Seedling (2).
A very large, handsome, late autumn apple, desirable for cooking but not for dessert use. Tree a strong grower and a fair cropper. Not recommended for planting in New York.
According to Hogg (8), the Kentish Fillbasket of Miller, Forsyth annd Rogers is a different variety being evidently the Kentish Codlin or common old English Codlin, a lemon-yellow apple which is in season from August to October.
The Kentish Fillbasket of Buel (Buel, NY Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:477) appears to be the same as that of Forsyth (Forsyth, 1803:50).
Historical. This is an old English variety. It has been sparingly cultivated in portions of New York state for many years and has been grown to some extent also in Ontario (12).

FRUIT

Fruit very large.
Form oblate or roundish, ribbed broadly and obscurely if at all, irregular, fairly uniform. [huh? irregular AND fairly uniform? someone needs to explain this to me- anton_agron@gmale.com (remove the underscore and spell "mail" correctly and the address will work)- ASC]
Stem (Pedicel) not exserted, short, medium in thickness.
Cavity acute to somewhat furrowed, green or more often with outspreading russet.
Calyx small to rather large, closed or partly open; lobes broad, obtuse to acute.
Basin pretty abrupt, moderately deep to deep, medium in width to wide, sometimes a little furrowed or wrinkled.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, somewhat waxy, pale yellow with thin brownish blush often deepening to red, somewhat mottled and splashed with carmine.
Dots small usually not conspicuous, dark brown or grayish or submerged and whitish.
Prevailing effect yellow somewhat striped with red.
Calyx tube wide, conical.
Stamens basal to nearly median.
Core abaxile, medium to large; cells unsymmetrical and open, sometimes closed; core lines nearly meeting.
Carpels broadly ovate, mucronate, not emarginate, somewhat tufted.
Seeds medium or below, plump, acute.
Flesh whitish, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, rather tender, juicy, brisk subacid, good.
Season October to December.

Keswick
References.  1.******* Greene, Kan. Sta. Bul., 106:53. 1902. 26. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bul., 205., 205:45. 1903. 27. Budd-Hansen, 1903:110. 28. Beach and Clark, NY Sta. Bul., 248:128. 1904.
Synonyms.  Codlin, Keswick (1,2,24). Keswick Codlin (3-14,16-20,24,25,27,28). Keswick Codling (15). No. 225 (2).
This variety is particularly esteemed on account of its excellence for culinary use. It is not adapted for storage, its commercial limit in ordinary storage being September and early October. It comes into season late in August or early in September and ripens continuously during a period of several weeks. It does not stand heat well before going into storage and goes down quickly (28). The fruit is of good medium size to rather large, greenish-yellow, sometimes with faint blush; flesh brisk subacid. It is grown chiefly for home use and only to a very limited extent for local market. The tree is a good grower, hardy, healthy, long-lived, comes into bearing quite young and yields good to very good crops almost annually.
This is distinct from the Codling or English Codling described by Coxe, Thacher, Forsyth and others.
Historical. Hogg (17) state that: "This excellent apple was first discovered growing among a quantity of rubbish behind a wall at Gleaston Castle, near Ulverstone, and was first brought into notice by one John Sander, a nurseryman at Keswick, who, having propagated it, sent it out under the name of Keswick Codlin.
"In the Memoirs of the Caledonian Horticultural Society, 1813, Sir John Sinclair says: 'The Keswick Codlin tree has never failed to bear a crop since it was planted in the episcopal garden at Rose Castle, Carlisle, twenty years ago.'"
It has long been known in this country and very old trees of it are found in some orchards but it is nowhere extensively cultivated being grown chiefly for home use. It is quite commonly listed by nurserymen (20).

TREE.

Tree medium to large, moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading to roundish.
Twigs moderately long, curved, stout; internodes short.
Bark dull brown, heavily coated with gray scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, rather conspicuous, medium to small, round, not raised.
Buds medium to large, prominent, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit above medium to nearly large, not very uniform.
Form roundish conic or inclined to oblong conic, rather broad at the base, distinctly ribbed; sides frequently a little unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to short, slender to rather thick.
Cavity variably acute, medium in depth to shallow, rather narrow to moderately broad, more or less russeted.
Calyx medium size, closed; lobes long, medium in width, nearly acuminate.
Basin shallow, moderately narrow, furrowed or angular, often with fleshy protuberances alternating with the calyx lobes.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, waxy, pale greenish or yellow, sometimes with a faint blush and often with a suture line extending out from the cavity.
Dots submerged, inconspicuous or russet.
Calyx tube medium in length, rather wide, bluntly cone-shape.
Stamens median.
Core variable, large, abaxile; cells wide open; core lines meeting.
Carpels variable, roundish ovate.
Seeds very light brown, very small, medium in width, short, very plump, acute.
Flesh nearly white, fine, tender, very juicy, brisk subacid, good for culinary use, too acid for dessert unless very ripe.
Season August and September.
[Description in 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

Kirkbridge
References.  1. Downing, 1857:160. 2. Mag Hort., 24:108. 1858. 3. Warder, 1867:671. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 1871:8. 5. Downing, 1872:10 index, app. 6. Thomas, 1875:195. 7. Downing, 1881:11 index, app. 8. Ib., 1881:12 index, app. 9. Budd-Hansen, 1903:111.
Synonyms.  Bohannon (2). Conic June (7). Kirkbridge White (1,4-6). White June (5). Yellow Flat (8). Yellow June (6, erroneously 3, of some 5).
Fruit small to medium, oblong conic, pale yellow or whitish; flesh white, fine, tender, juicy, pleasant subacid, good to very good. The tree is a moderately grower, comes into bearing young and is productive. Season August and September. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. In 1867, Warder (3) wrote concerning Kirkbridge White: "This fruit has been pretty extensively cultivated in some parts of the Western states and sometimes it is mistaken for the Yellow June." It is said to be of American origin. It is but little known in New York.

GenericAppleNY
References.  1.
Synonyms. 
XXX
Historical.

TREE.

Tree
Form
Twigs
Bark
Lenticels
Buds

FRUIT

Fruit
Form
Stem (Pedicel)
Cavity
Calyx
Basin
Skin
Dots
Calyx tube
Stamens
Core
Carpels
Seeds
Flesh
Season
[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

Lady Finger
References.  1. Downing, 1869:245.
Synonyms.  None.
Under this name Downing (1) describes an apple which he received from Maryland, the fruit of which is of medium size, yellowish, nearly overspread with deep crimson; flesh white, tender, pleasant subacid, good to very good; season August.
Other varieties have been known under the name Lady Finger several of which have already been mentioned in the discussion of the winter apples. See Vol. I, page 183.

Landsberg
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Landsberger Reinette (2,4-6,8,9,11). Landsburg (6). Landsburger Reinette (6,7). Lansberger Reinette (10). Reinette de Landsberg (2,3,8). Reinette Landsberger (1).
An attractive late autumn and early winter apple of good size and pleasant subacid flavor. The tree is thrifty, comes into bearing rather early and is reliably productive yielding good crops biennially. The fruit has a clear, pale waxen yellow or greenish skin which readily shows bruises. It is a good dessert apple but less desirable for culinary uses because when it is cooked it lacks character in texture, color and flavor. It is easily excelled for any purpose by standard sorts of its season and is not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. Raised from seed about 1840 by Mr. Burkhardt, justice of the peace in Landsberg, Germany (2,4). Imported from Silesia, Germany, in 1883 by Professor Budd for the Iowa State College. (6).

TREE.

Tree vigorous.
Form roundish or spreading, rather open.
Twigs short to medium, nearly straight, rather stout; internodes medium.
Bark olive-green tinged with brownish-red, mottled with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, small, round, not raised.
Buds large to below medium, broad plump, generally obtuse, free, quite pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large, pretty uniform in shape and size.
Form roundish conic to roundish oblate, obscurely angular, pretty regular; sides sometimes unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium.
Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, rather wide, sometimes obscurely furrowed, usually smooth but sometimes russeted.
Calyx segments long, acute, reflexed, sometimes closed.
Basin medium in width and depth, often somewhat furrowed, wrinkled.
Prevailing color pale yellow, rather attractive.
Skin thin, tough, smooth or slightly roughened by russet dots, waxen yellow or pale green,sometimes with attractive crimson blush.
Dots numerous, submerged and whitish, sometimes russet.
Prevailing color pale yellow, rather attractive. Calyx tube large, wide, cone-shape.
Stamens median.
Core abaxile, medium; cells usually symmetrical and wide open; core lines slightly clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate, much concave, narrow toward the apex, nearly smooth.
Seeds numerous, medium in size, broad, obtuse, medium brown, smooth or nearly so.
Flesh nearly white, very tender, crisp, rather fine-grained, mild subacid, agreeable in flavor, good to very good for dessert.
Season mid-October to January (8,9). Some of the fruit keeps apparently sound till March or later but after January it loses in quality.

Late Strawberry
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Autumn Strawberry (1,2,4-8,10,12-15,17,21). Fall Strawberry (3). Strawberry (2,7).
Different varieties have been called Late Strawberry but the name is now almost exclusively applied to the variety described below. This is an attractive apple, pale yellow overspread or striped and splashed with light and dark red, very good in quality especially for dessert use. Many esteen it one of the best dessert apples of its season. It comes into use in September and ripens in succession during a period of several weeks continuing in season till December. While this habit of successive ripening makes the variety more desirable for the home orchard, it renders it less valuable for commercial purposes, since several pickings are required to secure the crop in prime condition. The fruit is hardly as large as is desirable for a good market variety but its attractive appearance and excellent quality render it suitable for local and fancy trade. The tree is medium to rather large, vigorous; form upright spreading to roundish. It is hardy, healthy, long-lived and a regular cropper- yielding moderate to heavy crops biennially or nearly annually.
Historical. Late Strawberry originated at Aurora, Cayuga county, NY (13). In 1848 Thomas described it as a new and newly introduced apple (1).

TREE.

Tree
Form
Twigs
Bark
Lenticels
Buds

FRUIT

Fruit below medium to above, uniform in size and fairly uniform in shape.
Form roundish to slightly oblong conic, sometimes quite strongly ribbed, rather irregular.
Stem (Pedicel) long, rather slender, often curved.
Cavity acuminate, deep, usually broad, furrowed, sometimes with radiating streaks of light russet mingled with carmine.
Calyx large, open or partly open; lobes often separated at base, rather short, acute, erect or reflexed.
Basin deep, moderately narrow to rather wide, abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin attractive pale yellow often almost entirely overspread with bright pinkish-red, dotted and streaked with purplish-carmine.
Dots small, not very numerous, inconspicuous light colored.
Prevailing effect bright striped red.
Calyx tube rather wide, conical to slightly funnel-shape.
Stamens basal.
Core rather small, nearly axile to somewhat abaxile; cells closed or somewhat open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels obovate.
Seeds rather large, flat, obtuse.
Flesh yellowish-white, fine, crisp, tender, juicy, somewhat sprightly aromatic, subacid, very good.
Season September to December.

Latham
References.  1. Downing, 1869:251.
Synonyms.  None.
This is a variety which we have not seen; so far as we can learn it is no longer cultivated. According to Downing it originated in Sag Harbor, Sufflok county, NY; tree very productive; fruit medium size, yellow mostly covered with light and dark red; flesh white, juicy, mild subacid, good; season November and December (1).

Lead
References.  1.
Synonyms.  No. 3 M (2,4,7,8,10,14,15). No. 277 (2,4,5,10). Svinsovka (1). Swinez (3). Swinzovska (5).
As noted below, two distinct Russian varieties have been disseminated under the name Lead. Some of the references cited above refer to one of these varieties and some to the other.
A Russian variety was received from the Iowa Agricultural College in 1890 for testing at this Station, the fruit of which is pale greenish-yellow with a blushed cheek and carmine splashes, medium size or above; flesh tender, rather juicy, subacid, fair quality; season late August and September. The tree does not come into bearing very young. It is an annual cropper but only moderately productive. It is not worthy of further testing for this region.
This appears to be the same variety as that described by Hansen under the name Lead with the synonym No. 362 (14). This he says is not the true Lead. He describes the true Lead with synonym No. 3 M as a Russian variety, large, heavy, roundish, greenish-yellow with dull blush; flesh greenish-white, sharp subacid, good in quality; season early winter.

Lincoln Pippin
References.  1. Downing, 1881:93 app. fig.
Synonyms.  None.
Fruit medium to large, yellow with no blush, subacid, excellent for either dessert or culinary uses; season November and December. Under favorable conditions some portion of the fruit may be kept through the winter. The tree is large, spreading, somewhat open, moderately vigorous with rather short, stout twigs, hardy, long-lived. It does not come into bearing very young but when mature is a pretty reliable annual bearer, ripening the crop evenly. The fruit is fair, averages pretty uniform in size and shape and is reliable and satisfactory in color and quality. Downing describes it as "medium to large, roundish oblate, slightly conical, slightly angular, sides sometimes a little unequal; skin pale greenish-yellow, moderately sprinkled with grayish dots; stalk short to long, slender; cavity large, deep, calyx small, closed; basin small or medium, slightly corrugated; flesh half fine, pale whitish-yellow, tender, juicy, subacid, slightly aromatic; very good; core rather large. October, December" (1).
Historical. So far as we can learn this variety is cultivated only in the vicinity of Syracuse. Downing states that it is an old variety, said to have been brought to Syracuse from Connecticut; the original name having been lost it was named Lincoln after Reuben Lincoln who brought it into notice (1).

Lindenwald
References.  1. Downing, 1869:254. 2. Burrill and McCluer, Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:330. 1896.
Synonyms.  None.
A variety which originated with J.F. Sickles, Stuyvesant, Columbia county, NY. Downing describes the fruit as of medium size, yellow with light shades of red; flesh crisp, juicy, pleasant subacid, good to very good; season September (1).
We have received no report of this being grown outside of the locality of its origin.

Longfield
References.  1.
Synonyms.  English Pippin (26). 587 (26). 57 M (16). 56 M (2,3,6,10). Good Peasant (9). Langerfeldskoe (1,4,5,7,8,13). Longfield's Apple (1,5). No. 161 (2,3,6,8,16,24,29,37).
The fruit of Longfield is usually below medium size but decidedly attractive in appearance for a yellow apple, being clear waxen yellow, lightly blushed with bright red. Its flesh is white, crisp, fine, very tender and of pleasant quality. It may well be classed among the fancy dessert apples; it is good also for culinary uses. In marketing this fruit it is necessary to handle it with great care because ordinarily its texture is so very tender and its color so delicate that it shows bruises very readily. It is not well adapted for holding outside of cold storage. In ordinary storage its commercial limit at Geneva is late September or early October (42); and in cold storage it may be kept till December(42); but as grown further north it may be kept through the winter (26). The tree is a moderate grower, very hardy and very productive; in fact it bears such heavy crops that the fruit is liable to be deficient in size. On account of the hardiness and productiveness of the tree and the beauty and good quality of the fruit, Longfield is recommended for planting for home use and for local and special markets.
Historical. Longfield was first imported from Russia by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1870; later it was imported from various European sources for the Iowa Agricultural College by Professor Budd. It is now frequently listed by nurserymen (20) and is being planted to a limited extent in various parts of the state, but it has not yet come to be commonly known among New York fruit growers.

TREE.

Tree medium in size with short, moderately stout, crooked branches and drooping laterals filled with small spurs.
Form roundish or spreading, dense, rather low.
Twigs medium in length, curved, moderately stout; terminal buds large; internodes short.
Bark dark brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium size, oval, not raised.
Buds medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to small, usually below medium; uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish conic, slightly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to short, rather slender.
Cavity acuminate to acute, medium to rather deep, narrow, quite symmetrical, usually slightly russeted.
Calyx small, leafy closed or partly open; lobes long, rather narrow, acute to acuminate.
Basin small, shallow to medium in depth, narrow, somewhat abrupt, slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, tender, smooth, glossy, pale waxen yellow or whitish usually with a lively pinkish blush but not striped.
Dots few, small, inconspicuous, whitish, usually submerged.
Prevailing effect attractive bright pale yellow partly blushed with lively red.
Calyx tube narrow and elongated, often extending to the core.
Stamens basal to median.
Core medium to above, axile or nearly so; cells symmetrical, not uniformly developed, closed or partly open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder.
Carpels roundish, slightly emarginate.
Seeds rather large, moderately dark brown, long, acute approaching acuminate.
Flesh nearly white, fine, crisp, very tender, juicy, subacid, sprightly, aromatic, good to very good.
Season September to October or later.

Long Island Pearmain
References.  1. Coxe, 1817:144 fig. 2. Warder, 1867:682. 3. Downing, 1869:255.
Synonyms.  Autumn Pearmain (2). Hollow Crown Pearmain (3). Winter Pearmain (2).
This is an old variety which Coxe (1) thus describes: "A handsome large apple, of an oblong form, about the size of a Priestly-- the stem is so short, dot deeply planted; the crown large and hollow; the skin streaked with large blotches of red on a rich yellow ground, with faint russet spots-- the flesh is tender, coarse and pleasant, partaking of that dryness characteristic of all the varieties of the pearmain-- it ripens in October and keeps till March." Downing (3) states that it has sometimes been confused with Winter Pearmain which is an entirely different fruit. So far as we can discover, Long Island Pearmain is now obsolete in New York.

Long Red Pearmain
References.  1. Downing, 1876:55 app.
Synonyms.  English Pearmain incorrectly (1). Hudson Red Streak (1). Kentucky Bellflower (1). Kentucky Gilliflower (1). Kaighn's Spitzenburg incorrectly (1). Lady Finger incorrectly (1). Long John (1). Long Pearmain (1). Mudhole (1) [great marketing! -ASC]. Park (not of Kansas) (1). Pearmain (1). Pound Royal incorrectly (1). Red Bellflower incorrectly (1). Red Pearmain (1). Red Phœnix (1). Red Pippin (1). Red Spitzenberg (1). Red Winter Pearmain incorrectly (1). Russam (1). Scarlet Pearmain (1). Sheepnose of some (1). Striped Pearmain (1). Wabash Bellflower (1). Winter Pearmain (1).
This variety was for many years considered identical with Kaighn. See page 113. In 1876 Downing (1) stated that it was distinct from Kaighn in tree and fruit and gave the list of synonyms for it which is cited above.
The fruit is medium to large, oblong approaching conic, yellowish, shaded and striped with red; flesh coarse, pleasant subacid, good; season late fall and early winter.

Long Stem
References.  1. Cole, 1849:106. 2. Hooper, 1857:55. 3. Warder, 1867:725. 4. Dowing, 1869:256. 5. Ragan, USBPI Bul., 56:183. 1905.
Synonyms.  None.
Several varieties of the apple have been known in cultivation under the name Long Stem. One of these has already been described (Volume I, page 196) as Long Stem of Pennsylvania; others are noticed below. The references cited above do not all refer to the same variety.
LONG STEM of MASSACHUSETTS. The following is Cole's description of this variety (1): "Large medial; flatish-round; pale yellow, brown full in the sun' dark specks and patches; stem extremely long, slender, in a broad, deep cavity; calyx large, rather open, in a broad, shallow basin; flesh white, rather tender, juicy, of a rich, mild, delicious, sprightly, aromatic flavor. First-rate for the dessert or cooking. Sept. 1st to the last of Oct. Good and constant bearer. Origin, East Bridgewater, Ms." ["Ms."= MA = Massachusetts -ASC]
LONG STEM of CONNECTICUT. Downing (4) describes this variety as having young shoots of dull reddish-brown, somewhat downy, with prominent, flattened buds. Fruit medium, roundish oblate, yellow; flesh fine-grained, sweet, rich, good. Season September to January.

Longworth
References.  1.Downing, 1881:94 app. 2. Beach and Clark, NY Sta. Bul., 248:129. 1904.
Synonyms.  Longworth Red Winter (1).
Fruit of fairly good color but not very large; inferior in quality to standard varieties of its season. It is variable in season (2); some years it keeps fairly well till midwinter, but generally speaking, as grown at this Station, its commercial limit in ordinary storage is November. The tree comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper, yielding moderate to rather heavy crops biennially or sometimes annually. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. Originated at Dubuque, IA (1). It was received for testing here in 1889 from Benjamin Buckman, Farmingdale, IL.

Lord Suffield
References.  1. Downing, 1869:257. 2. Ib., Tilt. Jour. Hort., 7:303. 1870. 3. Hogg, 1884:136. 4. Goff, Rural NY., 46:685. 1887. 5. Can. Hort., 15:347. 1892. 6. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:243. 7. Gaucher, 1894:No. 18. col. pl. 8. Dempsey, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 1:24. 1894. 9. Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898:356.
Synonyms.  Lady Suffield (7). Lady Sutherland (7). Livesley's Imperial (7).
This variety of the Keswick Codlin group is considered by some one of the best apples of the group. The fruit is suitable for cooking as early as the middle of July and remains in use till September. It is large, roundish, varying from oblate to somewhat oblong; green, marked with clear light russet flecks and dots; calyx closed; basin ridged, shallow; stem short; cavity moderately wide, shallow; core large, abaxile; cells open; flesh white, rather fine, moderately juicy, subacid, good for culinary use. The tree is very productive, which perhaps accounts in part for its being short-lived. As grown at this Station it has blighted so badly as to make it an undesirable variety for the orchard.

Lou
References.  1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:28. 2. MO. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886:223. 3. Mich. Sta. Bul., 118:60. 1895. 4. Beach, Paddock and Close, NY Sta. An. Rpt., 15:272. 1896. 5. Mich. Sta. Bul., 143:200. 1897.
Synonyms.  None.
A striped red apple of fairly good quality in season in early August. The tree is a good grower, comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable biennial cropper. It was originated from seed of Oldenburg by Peter M. Gideon, Excelsior, Minn., from whom it was received in 1888 for testing at this Station. It is not valuable for planting in New York.

Louise
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Louise, Princess (9,14). Princess Louise (1-7,10-13). Woolverton (4,7,11,12).
Louise is an apple from the Fameuse group. It is larger than Fameuse but not as large as McIntosh and has less red color and is less attractive than either of these apples. It is very desirable for dessert use but for culinary purposes it is decidedly inferior to other varieties of its season. It is of a clear pale yellow color with lively blush and delicate bloom. It shows bruises readily and requires very careful handling. The tree is hardy, healthy, comes in to bearing rather young and yields fair to moderately good crops almost annually. It is doubtful whether it will ever prove a desirable commercial variety.
Historical. Originated with L. Woolverton, Grimsby, Ontario, who states that it was a chance seedling that sprung up among a half dozen old Fameuse trees (L. Woolverton, Letter, 1984.). It was first exhibited before the Ontario Fruit Grower' Association in 1879 under the name of "Woolverton." It has ben disseminated to a limited extent only in New York. The McIntosh has sometimes been mistakenly disseminated for this variety.

TREE.

Tree medium size, moderately vigorous to vigorous with long, slender branches and willowy laterals.
Form upright spreading to roundish, rather dense.
Twigs moderately long, straight or somewhat irregularly curved, rather geniculate, slender; internodes medium.
Bark reddish-brown with some pale olive-green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; somewhat pubescent toward the tips.
Lenticels scattering, small to medium, roundish to oblong.
Buds small to medium, deep-set, plump, acute, free or nearly so, somewhat pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit of goodmedium size; fairly uniform in size and shape.
Form usually roundish, sometimes roundish oblate, often somewhat elliptical or obscurely angular; sides often unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) red, medium to rather long, usually slender.
Cavity obtuse to acute or sometimes approaching acuminate, shallow to medium in depth, moderately broad, frequently furrowed.
Calyx medium size, closed or sometimes slightly open.
Basin usually shallow to medium in depth, narrow to moderately wide, rather obtuse, lightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, rather tough, clear pale yellow or greenish, with lively red of pinkish blush, striped obscurely if at all, overspread with thin bloom.
Dots inconspicuous, pale, usually submerged.
Calyx tube short, wide, conical to funnel-form.
Stamens median to basal.
Core medium to large, somewhat abaxile; cells symmetrical, partly open; core lines meeting.
Carpels elongated ovate, sometimes emarginate.
Seeds medium or below, moderately long, acute to acuminate.
Flesh whitish, not very firm, fine, crisp, very tender, very juicy, mild subacid, aromatic, with some of the perfume and texture of McIntosh, very good for dessert.
Season October to February or later.

Lowell
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Greasy Pippin (6,9,16,22,24, of some 23). Lowell Pippin (14). Orange (1-3,5,7-9, of some 6). Pound Royal (2,7, erroneously 6). Queen Anne (1,2,6,7,9,11, of Norther Ohio 3, of Ohio 5). Tallow (2,7). Tallow Apple (1,3,6,9, of some 23). Tallow Pippin (3,5,6,11,15,24).
Fruit rather large; clear yellow with waxy surface. Flesh a little coarse, very juicy, sprightly subacid and desirable for either dessert or culinary uses. It ripens in succession through a period fo several weks and is apt to drop as it ripens. Its season extends from late August to October and under favorable conditions a portion of the fruit may be kept till winter (24). The tree is a good grower, hardy, long-lived and a reliable cropper giving good crops biennially and sometimes annually. This fruit is grown for home use and to a limited extent for local market.
Historical. Lowell is an old variety of American origin (6) which is quite generally known in many parts of the state, especially in Western New York. It is still commonly listed by nurserymen, but is being planted but little and its cultivation appears to be on the decline.

TREE.

Tree rather large, vigorous.
Form upright spreading, rather open.
Twigs long, curved, moderately stout; internodes medium.
Bark dark brown, mottled with scarf-skin; heavily pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, small to medium size, not raised.
Buds prominent, medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit large, fairly uniform in size but somewhat variable in shape.
Form roundish oblong inclined to conic, unsymmetrical, irregular.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to rather long, moderately thick, deflected to one side.
Cavity acute or approaching acuminate, rather shallow to moderately deep, medium to rather broad, sometimes furrowed, occasionally compressed, often lightly russeted.
Calyx medium to large, closed or partly open.
Basin rather shallow to moderately deep, medium in width, somewhat abrupt, often slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, tender, smooth or with occasional russet dots and flecks, waxy, at first green but eventually becoming rich yellow.
Dots very numerous, small, inconspicuous, brown or russet or submerged.
Calyx tube usually rather long, rather wide, conical appraching funnel-form.
Stamens median or nearly so.
Core rather large, axile to somewhat abaxile; cells closed; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping.
Carpels roundish to pointed obovate, emarginate.
Seeds dark brown, not uniform in shape, medium size, obtuse to somewhat acute.
Flesh greenish or tinged with yellow, rather firm, medium to rather fine-grained, crisp, tender, very juicy, sprightly subacid, good to very good.
Season August to October.

Lowland Raspberry
References.  1.Gibb, IA Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:438. 2. Ib., Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:94. 3. Ib., Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887:46. ************tbal**********
Synonyms.  Himbeerapfel Lievlander (1-3). Lievland Raspberry (7). No. 340 (1,2,6,7).
A Russian apple which, according to Hansen (6,7), is medium to large, clear waxen-white, striped, shaded and marbled with light crimson; flesh white, often stained with red, fine, very tender, pleasant mild subacid, almost sweet; season August; as early as Yellow Transparent.
We do not know that this variety has been tested in New York.

Lubsk Queen
References.  1.*******tbal******** 8. Freeborn, Nat. Nurseryman, 2:132.1894.
Synonyms.  Lubsk Reinette (3,10-12). No. 444 (3,5,6,8,10-12). Reinette Liubski (2,12). Renet Liubskui (3,12).
A Russian variety which has attracted attention because of the beauty of the fruit and superior hardiness and productiveness of the tree. In other respects it does not rank high. It is fairly good in quality. Season August and September.
Historical. Imported from Russia by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1870 under No. 444. It was entered on the list of the American Pomological Society in 1889 and dropped from the list at the following meeting in 1891 (4). It has been planted but little in New York, and so far as we have been able to learn its cultivation in this state is not increasing.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous with long, slender, curved branches.
Form upright spreading or roundish, rather open.
Twigs short, curved, slender; internodes medium.
Bark dull brown, roughly mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels scattering, medium size, round, not raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, not pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large.
Form regular, nearly round, truncated.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long.
Cavity acute, rather small, slightly russeted.
Calyx closed; segments long, pointed.
Basin shallow, wide, regular, with generally five fine corrugations around the eye.
Skin very smooth, polished and waxlike, a brilliant white, more of less covered with solid light rosy red, with delicate white bloom; a self-colored apple, but sometimes with short red splashes on lighter ground.
Dots white, minute, numerous.
Calyx tube long, funnel-shape.
Stamens marginal.
Core closed; cells ovate, slit.
Seeds nine, plump.
Flesh snow-white, firm, juicy, fine-grained, subacid, good.
Season August, September.

Lyscom
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Matthew's Stripe (3,8,17). Osgood's Favourite (3,7-9,17).
A very large apple somewhat resembling Twenty Ounce in general appearance but less attractive; flesh tender, mild, not high in flavor but acceptable for either dessert or culinary uses. The tree is a moderate grower and yields moderate to good crops. It is in season from late September or October to November or December. Not recommended for planting in New York because it is not superior to other varieties of its season.
Historical. Origin Southborough, Worcester county, Mass. (2). It is an old variety which has been quite widely disseminated. It is now nearly obsolete in New York.

FRUIT

Fruit large or very large.
Form roundish varying from a little oblate to slightly oblong conic, often broadly ribbed especially toward the apex.
Stem (Pedicel) deep set, short, moderately thick.
Cavity acuminate, very deep, broad, symmetrical, russeted and with outspreading russet rays.
Calyx medium to large, usually closed, pubescent.
Basin often oblique, deep, moderately narrow to rather wide with broad, deep furrows.
Skin thick, tough, rather dull green or somewhat yellowish, striped, splashed and somewhat blushed with red.
Calyx tube wide, elongated cone-shape.
Stamens median to basal.
Core rather large, axile; cells closed; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels ovate, slightly emarginate, somewhat tufted.
Seeds short, often nearly round, plump, obtuse.
Flesh somewhat tinged with yellow, rather fine, tender, juicy, subacid becoming very mild subacid, good.
Season late September or October to November or December.