Apple Home

Jack
References.  1. (?) Hooper, 1857:46. 2. (?) Downing, 1869:206. 3. (?) Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:334. 1896.
Synonyms.  (Early Jack 1)?. (Jack Apple, 1)? (Oskaloosa 2,3)?
Fruit of good medium size, yellow; flesh very tender, rich, mild subacid. It is highly esteemed for its excellent dessert quality but it is too tender to stand shipping very well and on account of its irregular shape and yellow color it is not sufficiently attractive for market purposes. The tree is not a vigorous grower and has rather slender twigs.
Possibly this is identical with Oskaloosa which has Jack as a synonym, (2,3) but we have been unable to obtain fruit of Oskaloosa and the available descriptions of that variety are so meager that it is impossible to determine whether or not it is identical with the variety described above. Historical. Jack is grown to a very limited extent in East Bloomfield, Ontario county, NY. We have not obtained it from any other locality. We have been unable to learn where it originated, or whether is is the Jack mentioned by Hooper (1).
TREE.
   Tree not very vigorous with moderately long, slender, crooked branches.
Form at first upright spreading but becoming roundish and rather dense.
Twigs long, straight, slender; internodes short.
Bark brown or reddish-brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels quite numerous, rather conspicuous, medium size, oblong, slightly raised.
Buds small, plump, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent.
FRUIT
   Fruit medium or above, sometimes rather large, not uniform in shape or size.
Form oblate varying to roundish oblate or to oblate conic, very irregular, obscurely ribbed, often with the sides somewhat furrowed and unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, slender.
Cavity acuminate, usually deep, medium in width, russeted, with concentric russet lines often extending beyond the cavity, sometimes lipped.
Calyx medium size, usually open.
Basin small to medium, rather shallow to moderately deep, narrow to medium in width, unsymmetrical, irregularly furrowed or nearly smooth.
Skin rather thin, waxy, glossy, attractive yellow with shades of green, sometimes faintly tinged with red and marbled with whitish scarf-skin over the base somewhat after the manner of Yellow Newtown.
Dots mostly small and depressed mingled with a few that are larger, scattering and irregular with russet center.
Calyx tube medium in width and length, conical to somewhat funnel-form.
Stamens median or below.
Core medium in size, somewhat abaxile; cells usually symmetrical, somewhat open; core lines clasping.
Carpels elliptical, deeply emarginate.
Seeds medium or below, wide, short, rather flat, obtuse, mingled with light and dark brown.
Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately firm, moderately crisp or breaking, very tender, moderately juicy, very mild and subacid, very good for dessert.
Season October and November.

JACKSON

REFERENCES. 1. Smith, Horticulturist, 11:286. 1856. 2. Brinckle, Ib., 12:520. 1857. fig. 3. Downing, 1857:156. 4. Warder, 1867:723. 5. Thomas, 1885:514.
Synonym. Jackson Seedling (1).
A greenish-yellow apple of medium size, not particularly attractive. In season from October to February. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. Origin, Bucks county, Pa. (1, 2, 3). Although it has long been known in Pennsylvania it has not been disseminated to any considerable extent in this state.
TREE. Tree vigorous; branches moderately long, stout, crooked. Form roundish or spreading, rather dense. Twigs long, curved, stout; internodes medium. Bark dark brown lightly streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent near the tips.
Lenticels numerous, small, round, not raised. Buds deeply set in bark, of medium size, broad, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit medium, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish to roundish oblate, symmetrical. Stem medium to rather long, slender. Cavity usually acuminate, deep, narrow to rather broad, often heavily russeted and with outspreading irregular rays. Calyx medium in size, closed or sometimes open; lobes long, rather narrow, acute. Basin abrupt, medium in depth to deep, moderately wide, slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin moderately thick, tender, greenish-yellow with many dark green blotches and gray dots, a very few faint red stripes scarcely perceptible, and on the exposed side a warm mottled brown blush, containing numerous white dots with a central gray speck in each (2).
Calyx tube large, long, conical to funnel-form, extending nearly to core.
Stamens marginal to median.
Core medium in size, abaxile; cells unsymmetrical, wide open; core lines clasping. Carpels smooth, nearly cordate to broadly ovate. Seeds numerous, dark brown, medium in size, plump, obtuse.
Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, fine, crisp, very tender, juicy, very mild subacid mingled with sweet, good.

JACOBS SWEET.

REFERENCES. 1. Manning, Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1880:235. 2. Ib. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:28. 3. Bailey, An. Hort. 1892:242. 4. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:253. 1895. 5. Ib. West. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1896:52. 6. Manning, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 1899:185. 7. Budd-Hansen, 1903:105. 8. Rural N. Y., 62:771. 1903. fig. g. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul. 48:45. 1903. 10. Beach and Clark, NV. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:126. 1904.
Synonyms. Jacobs (4, 5, 9). Jacob’s Sweet (1, 2, 3). Jacobs Sweet (9). Jacob’s WINTER Sweet (3). Jacobs’ Winter Sweet (4).
A large showy apple, green or yellowish often with bright blush. In form, color and texture it somewhat resembles Bough Sweet. It is one of the best sweet apples of its season for baking. The fruit is very tender and liable to crack and spot. It rots on the tree and also in storage. It is an unreliable keeper and rather variable in season but commonly is in season about with Pumpkin Sweet or Tompkins King. Its commercial limit varies from October to December or later in cellar storage and from January to March in cold storage (9, 10). The tree is not a very satisfactory grower in the nursery but in the orchard it is vigorous, comes into bearing moderately young and is almost an annual bearer often yielding rather heavy crops. It is recommended for the home orchard but not for general commercial planting.
Historical. Originated by Charles Sumner Jacobs, Medford, Massachusetts, about 1860 (1, 2). It has been but sparingly disseminated in New York state.
TREE.
Tree medium to large, vigorous. Form spreading. Twigs short to rather long, rather stout, straight or slightly curved; internodes medium to short.
Bark clear light brownish-red with some olive-green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; rather pubescent. Lenticels rather inconspicuous, rather scattering, small, elongated, sometimes raised. Buds lightly attached to the bark or free, medium or below, very prominent, fleshy, broad, obtuse, pubescent.
Fruit.Ditch Moscow Mitch!
Fruit above medium to large or very large. Form roundish often inclined to conic, sometimes slightly oblate, pretty symmetrical. Stem medium to short. Cavity rather wide, moderately deep to deep, acute or approaching acuminate, sometimes slightly furrowed or compressed, seldom russeted.
Calyx medium, closed or partly open. Basin often abrupt, usually round, medium in width and depth.
Skin tough, somewhat waxen, rather glossy, clear yellow or greenish, often with a bright blush. Dots obscure, whitish or russet.
Calyx tube cone-shape or somewhat funnel-form. Stamens median to basal.
Core rather large, somewhat abaxile; cells pretty symmetrical, open or partly closed; core lines slightly clasping. Carpels large, roundish to broadly obovate. Seeds numerous, medium, acute.
Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, moderately firm, moderately coarse, very tender, crisp, juicy, slightly aromatic, very sweet, good.
Season October to March or April.

Jarvis
References.  1. NY Sta. An. Rpt., 11:223. 1892.
Synonyms.  Crandall Seedling (1). No. 25 (1).
Fruit large and when well-colored partly overspread and striped with red; flesh tender, juicy, subacid, pleasant but not superior in flavor or or quality. Season late September to early winter. It is possibly desirable for local market but it is not recommended for general cultivation.
Historical. The original tree is standing near Ithaca, NY on land once owned by a Mr. Jarvis from whom the variety takes its name. It is grown to a limited extent in the vicinity of Ithaca but so far as we know is not cultivated in any other portion of the state. Received for testing at this Station in 1892 from C.B. Crandall.

Jefferis
References.  1.  XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 94.
Synonyms.  Everbearing (20). Grantham (17). Jefferies (10,12,14,17,20). Jeffries (1,2,5,6,8,9,11).
Fruit of medium size, yellow, blushed and splashed with red; flesh tender, mild subacid, delicious. It begins to ripen in September and continues in season till early winter. Commercial limit October (25). It is an excellent variety for the home orchard but not for commercial planting because it ripens unevenly, is apt to be deficient in size and is not especially attractive in color. The tree is a moderately vigorous grower, hardy, healthy, comes into bearing moderately early and is a reliable cropper yielding full crops biennially.
Historical. Originated with Isaac Jefferies, Newlin township, Chester county, PA. It was named after the originator by the Committee of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society which awarded this variety the premium for the best seedling apple exhibited in 1848 (10).

TREE.

Tree medium size, moderately vigorous.
Form upright to roundish, open.
Twigs short, straight, slender; internodes long.
Bark brown mingled with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small, oblong, not raised.
Buds small, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.
[Diseases:  Resistant to powdery mildew and scab (Burford).] FRUITDitch Moscow Mitch
Fruit small to medium, very uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish oblate often inclined to conic, regular or obscurely ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium length, thick to moderately slender.
Cavity acute to acuminate, medium in depth to deep, medium to broad, symmetrical, russeted but slightly if at all.
Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open; lobes short, rather broad, acute.
Basin moderately shallow to rather deep, moderately wide, somewhat abrupt, smooth or nearly so, symmetrical.
Skin thin, tough, greenish-yellow or pale yellow more or less blushed and mottled with moderately dull red overlaid with narrow splashes and stripes of carmine.
Dots small, scattering, inconspicuous, submerged or russet.
Calyx tube narrow, conical to funnel-shape.
Stamens marginal to median.
Core small, axile, or nearly so; cells slightly open; core lines somewhat clasping or meeting.
Carpels elliptical to somewhat obovate, emarginate, sometimes tufted.
Seeds numerous, medium to rather large, wide, long, flat, very irregular, obtuse.
Flesh yellowish-white, firm, fine, crisp, tender, very juicy, mild subacid, very good.
Season September to January.  [Only a fair keeper when grown in the South (Burford).]

Jefferson County
References.  1. Horticulturist, 10:254. 1855. fig. 2. Downing, 1857:156. 3. Warder, 1867:723. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 5. Thomas, 1875:201. 6. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292.
Synonyms.  None.
This variety originated in Jefferson county, NY, hence its name (2). The tree is of medium size, moderately vigorous; form somewhat drooping; twigs rather slender. It comes into bearing young and and is a reliable bearer producing some fruit nearly every year, alternating heavy with lighter crops. The fruit is yellow shaded and splashed with red, not very bright in color, in season during October and November. It is particularly suitable for dessert, the flesh being tender, rather firm, crisp, of good flavor and excellent quality but it is not regarded as a good market variety for there is apt to be a rather large amount of small, imperfect or otherwise unmarketable fruit and when the fruit does not color properly, as happens in many cases, it is of poor flavor. It was listed by the American Pomological Society in 1873. It has been sparingly disseminated in various parts of the country but is as yet little known. So far as we can learn it is not being planted in New York.

Jennetting or Juneating
References.  1.
Synonyms. 
This name has been applied by some to White Juneating. For a description of this variety together with Hogg's account of the derivation of the name the reader is referred to White Juneating, page 240.

Jersey Sweet
References.  1.
Synonyms.  American (13). Jersey Sweeting (1-4,6,8,9,14,17).
An early autumn apple of medium size. It does not always color well, but under favorable conditions it is highly colored, rich in flavor, tender and excellent in quality for either dessert or culinary uses. It is one of the best of the sweet apples of its season for planting for home use in New York but it has proved unsatisfactory as a commercial sort because it ripens at a time when there is little demand for fruit of this kind, is not a good keeper, is apt to be scabby and does not always color well. The tree is hardy, long-lived, comes into bearing young and bears nearly every year, yielding moderate to good or sometimes heavy crops. The fruit comes in season late in August or early in September and ripens in succession during a period of several weeks; often some portion may be kept till early winter, but its commercial limit in ordinary storage is September or early October (22).
Historical. Origin unknown. Elliott calls it an American variety (8). It is pretty well known in different parts of New York state, but is now rarely found except in old orchards. It is commonly listed by nurserymen (16) but is now seldom or never planted except occasionally for home use.
TREE.
Tree rather large, moderately vigorous to vigorous; branches long, moderately stout, filled with spurs.
Form upright to roundish, open.
Twigs moderately long, straight, slender; internodes long.
Bark brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent near tips.
Lenticels scattering, medium to small, oblong, not raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, appressed, pubescent.
FRUITDitch Moscow Mitch!
Fruit medium size.
Form roundish ovate inclined to conic or to oblate conic; sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) long to medium length, rather slender.
Cavity acute, usually rather deep, varying to shallow, medium in width, occasionally lipped, sometimes slightly russeted.
Calyx small, closed; lobes medium to long, narrow, acute to acuminate.
Basin rather small, moderately shallow to rather deep, narrow to medium in width, somewhat abrupt, ribbed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, tender, at first greenish-yellow but becoming clear yellow washed and mottled with brownish-red and overlaid with narrow stripes of bright carmine.
Dots inconspicuous, greenish, submerged.
Calyx tube conical to funnel-form, often with fleshy pistil point projecting into the base.
Stamens median.
Core medium or above, axile or nearly so; cells symmetrical, usually closed; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder.
Carpels elongated ovate, tufted.
Seeds medium to large, variable in length and width, acute to acuminate.
Flesh yellowish, moderately firm, fine, crisp, tender, juicy, sweet, good to very good.
Season September to December.

JEWETT RED.

REFERENCES. 1. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 8:250. 1842. 2. Thomas, 1849:149. 3. Cole, 1849:112. 4. Mag. Hort., 21:569. 1855. fig. 5. Downing, 1857:157. 6. Elliott, 1858:140. fig. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 8. Warder, 1867:723. 9. Barry, 1883:347. 10. Hoskins, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1886:274. 11. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292. 12. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:133. 13. Waugh, Vt. Sta. Bul., 61:30. 1897. 14. Budd-Hansen, 1903:106. 15. Beach and Clark, N.Y. Sta. Bul., 248:126. 1904.  [16.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 126.]
Synonyms. Jewett’s Fine Red (5, 8, 9, 10, 14). Jewett’s Fine Red (2,4, 6, 12, 15). Jewett’s Red (2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, 15). Nodhead (3, 4, 5, 6,9, 12, 13, 14, 15).
An early winter apple of medium size and of beautiful dark red color overspread with blue bloom. It is highly esteemed as a dessert fruit in portions of New England, particularly in Maine and New Hampshire where it is grown to some extent commercially. It is of the Blue Pearmain type and one of the best of that group in quality. As fruited at this Station it does not develop as high color nor as good quality as it doés in the region where it originated. The tree comes into bearing rather young but is a slow grower and only moderately productive. As compared with standard varieties like Baldwin and Rhode Island Greening, it evidently requires extra attention in pruning, spraying, fertilizing and tilling in order to secure a good average grade of fruit.
Historical. Origin, Hollis, N. H. (4). It has been known in certain local markets in New England for fifty years or more, but has not yet been grown to any considerable extent in New York.
TREE.
Tree makes a very unsatisfactory growth in the nursery and for that reason does best when top-worked on some thriftier stock. In the orchard it is a rather slow grower and hardly attains medium size; branches rather short and stout with comparatively few laterals and numerous spurs. Form spreading or roundish, somewhat open. Twigs very short to moderately long, nearly straight, rather stout; internodes short. Bark dull dark brownish-green varying to brownish-red mottled and streaked with light scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticels rather scattering, small to medium, roundish, not raised, rather dull in color. Buds rather short, small, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.
[Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases (16).]
Fruit.Ditch Moscow Mitch!
Fruit above medium to less than medium size, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish oblate, sides unequal, obscurely ribbed, often somewhat irregular. Stem short. Cavity variable, acute to acuminate, shallow to medium in depth, moderately wide, furrowed obscurely if at all, green or russeted, sometimes lipped. Calyx small to medium, open or partly closed; lobes broad, short, obtuse. Basin shallow to medium in depth, moderately wide, obtuse, obscurely furrowed and slightly wrinkled.
Skin rather thin, tough, nearly smooth, dark red over yellow background, often deepening to purplish-red and obscurely marked with broken stripes and splashes of carmine. Dots numerous, often conspicuous, pale yellow or whitish. Characteristic bluish-white scarf-skin often more or less overspreads the base. Prevailing effect very attractive, deep red.
Calyx tube moderately narrow, funnel-form or approaching cone-shape.
Stamens median.
Core axile or nearly so; cells sometimes unsymmetrical, closed or sometimes open; core lines clasping. Carpels oval, elongated, emarginate. Seeds numerous, clear reddish-brown, below medium or rather small.
Flesh yellowish, moderately fine, tender, juicy, pleasantly aromatic, mild subacid or nearly sweet, good to very good.
Season October to February (15).  [Only a fair keeper as grown in the South (16).]

Jonathan
References.  1. Buel, N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:476, Cat. No. 39. 2. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831. 3. Kenrick, 1832:47. 4. Downing, 1845:113. 5. Thomas, 1849:167, 189. fig. 6. Cole, 1849:123. 7. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 16:60. 1850. fig. 8. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:60. 1851. col. pi. No. 25. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1856. 10. Hooper, 1857:48. 11. Reynolds, Horticulturist, 12:51. 1857. 12. Dewey, Ib., 12:198. 1857. 13. Elliott, 1858:86. fig. 14.- Warder, 1867:679. fig. 15. Barry, 1883:348. 16. Hogg, 1884:119. 17. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 18. Meehan, Can. Hort., 14:75. 1891. fig. 19. Wickson, 1891:246. 20. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:242. 21. Stinson, Ark. Sta. An. Rpt., 7:46. 1894. 22. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bul, 118:60. 1895. 23. Ib., 143:200, 202. 1897. 24. Powell, Del. Sta. Bui, 38:18. 1898. 25. Van Deman, Rural N. Y., 59:224. 1900. 26. Kan. Sta. Bul., 106:53. 1902. 27. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bul, 76:61. 1902. 28. Budd-Hansen, 1903:106. fig. 29. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul, 48:45. 1903. 30. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul, 248:127. 1904. [  31.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 98.  Cummins Nursery.]
Synonyms.  Esopus Spitzenberg (New) (1). King Phillip (4,7,10,11,13). Phillip Rick (4,7,11,13). Ulster Seedling (1). Wine (erroneously 10,13). Winesap (erroneously 10,13).
This is a fruit of the Esopus Spitzenburg class. It is very beautiful, of a brilliant red color, highly flavored and of excellent quality for either dessert or culinary use. It excels its parent in hardiness, productiveness, health and vigor and is adapted to a wider range of territory, but the fruit is not so large nor does it keep as well as that of Esopus Spitzenburg. In New York state it does fairly well in favorable localities if grown on rich soil and given careful attention but even under such circumstances it does not usually attain as good size as it does in certain portions of the valleys of the Ohio, Mississippi and Missouri and in the irrigated districts in the mountain regions farther west. In some localities in these regions it ranks next to Ben Davis in commercial importance. As grown in this state it is ordinarily rather small- with a comparatively high percentage of uneven and irregular fruit, and is not at all adapted to the general trade. At its best it is one of the most desirable varieties for the fancy trade at the holiday season. Its season is about the same as that of Tompkins King. It may be kept through the winter but when held in ordinary storage later than January dark spots are liable to develop in the skin and seriously injure the appearance of the fruit. Handled in this way its commercial limit is December or early January. In cold storage its commercial limit varies from January to March or sometimes later (30).
As grown in New York the tree is but a moderate grower and for this reason it is well to top-work it upon some stock that is more vigorous such as Northern Spy, Baldwin or Rhode Island Greening. It does not grow much above medium size and may be planted more closely than Baldwin. Particular attention should be given to keeping the soil fertile, well supplied with humus and well tilled, and the trees should be thoroughly protected from injurious insects and fungus-diseases. Under favorable conditions the tree is a reliable cropper bearing good crops biennially or in some cases almost annually. It comes into bearing rather young. Usually the fruit hangs pretty well to the tree. It is not recommended for general commercial planting in New York but in some places under good management it has proved a profitable variety.
Historical. [Origin: New York, 1862.- Cummins Nursery] The first published account which we find of the Jonathan is that given by Judge J. Buel, of Albany, in 1826, in an article on "Observations on the utility of a Descriptive Catalogue of Garden and Orchard Fruit," addressed to the members of the New York Horticultural Society, in which he presents "A Descriptive Catalogue of some of the most valuable apples propagated in the nurseries of this state." In this catalogue the Jonathan is listed as the Esopus Spitzenberg (New) with the synonym Ulster Seedling (1). In 1829 Judge Buel sent specimens of the fruit to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society with the statement that it was " An Esopus Seedling and sometimes called the New Spitzenberg." It originated on the farm of Mr. Philip Rick of Woodstock, Ulster county, New York (7). According to Downing the original tree was still alive in 1845. It was at first disseminated under various names, all of which were soon superseded by the name Jonathan which was assigned to it by Judge Buel in honor of Jonathan Hasbrouck by whom his attention was first called to the variety. It has been widely disseminated throughout the apple-growing regions of New York but in none of them is it grown extensively. It is extensively planted in regions farther west and south where, as above stated, it is recognized in many localities as one of the leading commercial varieties.

TREE.

[Tree naturally small. -Cummins Nursery]. Tree medium in size, a moderately vigorous or rather slow grower.
Form roundish or spreading, somewhat drooping, rather dense.
Twigs medium in length, nearly straight, rather slender; internodes short.
Bark dark brownish-red mingled with dark green, and heavily coated with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels usually very scattering, sometimes moderately numerous, small to medium or sometimes large, roundish to oblong, not raised.
Buds medium, plump, rather narrow, acute to obtuse, free, pubescent.
Leaves medium or below, rather narrow.
[Diseases:  Susceptible to fireblight, podery mildew and cedar apple rust and the OG of Jonathan spot. Somewhat resistant to apple scab (31).] FRUIT.Ditch Moscow Mitch!
Fruit medium to rather small, rarely large.
Form roundish conic to roundish ovate, often somewhat truncate, regular; pretty uniform in shape and size.
Stem (pedicel) medium to long, rather slender.
Cavity acute to acuminate, deep to very deep, wide, symmetrical, sometimes slightly furrowed.
Calyx small, closed.
Basin deep to very deep, very abrupt, wide to moderately narrow.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, pale bright yellow overlaid with lively red, striped with carmine. When well colored the fruit is almost completely covered with red which deepens to purplish on the sunny side and often shows a beautiful contrasting bit of clear pale yellow about the cavity where a twig or leaf lay in contact with the skin. Less highly colored fruit has more of a striped appearance particularly toward the basin.
Dots minute, usually inconspicuous.
Prevailing effect attractive lively deep red.
Calyx tube rather small, funnel-shape or sometimes conical.
Stamens basal to median.
Core medium or below, axile or nearly so; cells symmetrical but often not uniformly developed, usually closed, sometimes open; core lines clasp the funnel cylinder.
Carpels rather concave, roundish to roundish cordate, emarginate, smooth. Seeds rather large, long, acute to acuminate, dark, numerous.
Flesh whitish or somewhat yellow, sometimes with tinge of red, firm, moderately fine, crisp, tender, juicy, very aromatic, sprightly subacid, very good to best.
Season November to January or later.
[Summary of description from Cummins Nursery, Tom Burford and my own experience (with eating them!). Fruit quality: Flavor is refreshing and mild. Texture is juicy and crisp.
Culinary:  Applesauce, baking, pies (best when combined with a sweet apple), frying and cider (31). Fruit size: medium
Fruit appearance: Attractive striped red with high colour in spots.
Storage characteristics: Good. Can keep till January in common refrigeration.  Good keeper (31).
Precocity: bears young.
Productivity: productive, heavy crops. Partially self-fertile.
Harvest Season October. ]

JONATHAN BULER

REFERENCES. 1. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:253. 1895. 2. Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:309, 328. 1896. 3. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:38. 1903. 4. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:127. 1904.
Synonyms. BuLeR (3). Buler (4). JoNATHAN OF BULER (2). Jonathan of Buler (3).
Fruit of good size and decidedly attractive being predominantly of a bright red color. It is hardly good enough in quality to take first rank as a commercial variety and it is excelled by others for dessert and culinary purposes. It probably is not worthy of planting for trial in New York. Tree comes into bearing rather young and is an annual bearer. Sometimes it yields heavy crops but usually it is a moderate cropper. There is considerable amount of fruit lost by dropping.
Historical. Origin uncertain. Tested at the Illinois Experiment Station and reported in 1896 as worthy of further trial. We have no knowledge of its being grown anywhere in New York except at this Station.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous; branches long, moderately stout. Form upright spreading or roundish, dense.
* Twigs medium to short, straight, rather stout with large terminal buds; internodes medium.
Bark brown tinged with red, mottled with scarf-skin, rather pubescent. Lenticels quite numerous, medium or below, oval or elongated, slightly raised. Buds medium to large, broad, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit rather large to medium. Form oblate, fairly symmetrical, broadly and obscurely ribbed, sometimes a little onesided. Stem very short. Cavity acute to acuminate, broad, deep, with radiating red stripes, sometimes thinly russeted.
Calyx small to rather large, closed or partly open; lobes often erect.
Basin usually abrupt, moderately wide to wide, rather deep, sometimes compressed, somewhat furrowed and slightly wrinkled.
Skin smooth, waxen, glossy, whitish-yellow or green largely overspread with bright red being blushed and mottled with light red striped and splashed with deep carmine. Dots whitish or russet, small.
Calyx tube long, meeting the core, varying from slender and funnel-form to wide cone-shape. Stamens basal.
Core small to medium, abaxile; cells often symmetrical and closed, sometimes open and unsymmetrical ; core lines somewhat clasping. Carpels broadly roundish to elliptical and almost truncate. Seeds short, wide, plump, obtuse, dark.
Flesh white, often streaked or stained with red, firm, tender, very crisp, moderately coarse, very juicy, mild subacid with a peculiar aroma which is not altogether pleasing, fair to almost good in quality.
Season November to April but in common storage it is apt to scald after January.

Judson
References.  1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:17. 2. Ib., Rpt., 1901:49. 3. Hansen, SD Sta. Bul., 76:62. 1902. fig. 4. Budd-Hansen, 1903:108. fig.
Synonyms.  Thomson's Seedling No. 29 (3,4).
Fruit large, green or yellowish, more or less covered with red, not especially attractive in appearance and only fair to good in quality. Season October to December. Not valuable enough to by worthy of trial in New York except perhaps in those districts where superior hardiness is particularly desirable.
Historical. Originated in Grundy county, Iowa, by J.S.B. Thompson.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous with short, moderately stout, somewhat drooping branches.
Form open, roundish to spreading.
Twigs above medium to short, somewhat curved, medium to stout, rather pubescent with large terminal buds; internodes medium or below.
Bark brown or reddish-brown tinged with olive-green, heavily coated with gray scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, rather conspicuous, medium or below, round or irregularly elongated, not raised.
Buds prominent, large to medium, broad, plump, obtuse, free or nearly so, pubescent.
FRUITDitch Moscow Mitch!
Fruit large or very, fairly uniform in size but not in shape.
Form roundish conical or a little inclined to oblong, indistinctly ribbed, irregular; sides often unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, thick.
Cavity very acuminate, deep, moderately narrow to rather broad, somewhat furrowed, irregularly russeted, frequently compressed.
Calyx large, usually somewhat open.
Basin moderately deep to deep, medium in width, very abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin smooth, rather tough, clear bright yellow washed with red which sometimes deepens to a pinkish blush, striped and splashed with carmine and mottled over the base with dull scarf-skin.
Dots scattering, small to large, pale gray, conspicuous.
Prevailing effect greenish-yellow; not particularly attractive.
Calyx tube long, wide, funnel-shape.
Stamens variable, but usually median.
Core rather small, usually abaxile; cells sometimes unsymmetrical, wide open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate to elliptical, emarginate, sometimes tufted.
Seeds rather dark brown, small to medium, rather numerous, very short, very plump, obtuse.
Flesh nearly white, firm, rather coarse, crisp, juicy, brisk subacid, fair to good.
Season October to December.

July
References.  1.
Synonyms.  August (4,15, of Cassel, Germany, 3). Fourth of July (2,4,? 5,6,8-15). McAdow's June (4,15). Siberian August (4,15, of Germany 2). Stewart's Nonpariel (15, ? 4). Tetofski (5). Tetofsky, erroneously (4, 15).
This fruit closely resembles Tetofsky and some have considered the two varieties identical (4) but they are quite distinct in tree. It is not recommended for planting in New York because it is not equal to standard varieties of its season.
Historical. Hovey states that, "The Fourth of July apple, in Germany called the Siberian August apple, was sent from the Russian province Liefland, in the year 1807, to the celebrated pomologist, Dr. Diel, and is celebrated, like all our summer apples which originated in Russia, for its great productiveness and hardiness" (2). It was introduced into Columbus, OH, from Cassel, Germany (3). It has been disseminated to a considerable extent in various parts of this country and is still listed by a considerable number of nurserymen (12).

TREE.

Tree vigorous.
Form upright, roundish and rather dense.
Twigs short, straight, stout with large terminal buds; internodes medium.
Bark dull brown tinged with green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small, oblong, not raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit below medium to above, pretty uniform in shape but not in size.
Form usually roundish conical, irregularly ribbed; sides often unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long, moderately slender, often bracted.
Cavity acuminate to acute, moderately deep, medium to narrow, slightly furrowed, thinly russeted.
Calyx medium to large, usually closed; lobes medium in length, moderately narrow, acuminate.
Basin rather shallow to medium in depth, narrow, somewhat abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, rather glossy, pale yellow washed and mottled with red striped and splashed with carmine and overspread with whitish bloom.
Dots small, numerous, submerged, inconspicuous, light, areolar.
Calyx tube variable in length, funnel-shape.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core medium or below, axile; cells closed; core lines slightly clasping or meeting.
Carpels roundish ovate or elongated ovate.
Seeds very dark dull brown, medium size, moderately wide, short, plump, obtuse.
Flesh yellowish, a little coarse, crisp, tender, moderately juicy, sprightly subacid, fair to good.
Season last of July to September.

Kaighn
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Kaighn's Spitzemburg (1). Kaighn's Spitzenberg (3,6,9). Kaighn's Spitzenbergh (2). Kaighn's Spitzenburg (7,12). Kaighn's Spitzenburgh (4,5,8). Kaign's Spitzenburg (10). Lady Finger (erroneously 6,7). Long John (6,7). Long Pearmain (6,7). Ohio Wine (6). Red Pearmain (6,7,8). Red Phoenix (6). Red Pippin (6). Red Spitzenberg (6). Red Spitzenburg (8). Red Winter Pearmain (6). Russam (6). Scarlet Pearmain, erroneously (6). Downing states that Kaign's Spitzenberg and Long Red Permain, for many years considered identical, are in reality distinct varieties in both tree and fruit. He give a long list of synonyms for Long Red Pearmain including all of the synonyms cited above and adds, "The true Kaign's Spitzenburg, so far as I know, has no synonyms" (10).
This old variety of New Jersey origin which has been disseminated through various parts of the West even to the Pacific Coast. The fruit is showy and the tree productive. The tree makes a spreading, straggling growth (1,11). According to Coxe (1) the fruit bears "a faint resemblance to the Esopus Spitzenberg but is more pointed toward the crown; the color is a lively but pale red, faintly streaked and full of white spots; the skin smooth, the stem long and deeply planted, the crown very hollow-- the flesh finely flavored, yellow, juicy and tender." It is now practically obsolete in New York.

Kalkidon
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Kalkidonskoe (1). Kalkidouskoe (5-8). Kalkidovskoe (2). Khalkidonskoe (4,9). Khalikidouskoe (3,10). No. 540 (10). No. 94 (1,2,3,10).
A Russian variety which was received from Ellwanger and Barry, Rochester, NY, in 1884 for testing at this Station. It is an apple of moderately attractive appearance and fair to good quality, in season in September and October. The tree comes into bearing moderately young and is a reliable biennial cropper. It is not recommended for planting in New York because it is inferior to standard varieties of its season.

FRUIT

Fruit large to medium, fairly uniform in size and shape.
Form oblate conical to ovate, regular or faintly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to very short, moderately thick.
Cavity acute to almost acuminate, moderately shallow to deep, medium in width, furrowed and compressed, russeted and with outspreading greenish-russet rays.
Calyx medium to large, closed or partly open; lobes medium in length, broad, acute.
Basin shallow to medium in depth, narrow to medium in width, rather abrupt, slightly furrowed.
Skin thick, rather tough, smooth, greenish or pale yellow, largely washed and mottled with dull red, splashed and striped with carmine.
Dots variable in size, numerous, inconspicuous, submerged.
Calyx tube rather long, moderately wide, conical or funnel-shape.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core small, axile or sometimes abaxile; cells symmetrical, closed or open; core lines clasping.
Carpels ovate to elliptical, slightly emarginate, slightly tufted.
Seeds medium to large, wide, plump, acute to obtuse, dark brown.
Flesh tinged with yellowish-green, moderately fine-grained, tender, rather juicy, mild subacid, fair to good.
Season September to mid-winter.

KANSAS GREENING.

REFERENCES. 1. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:261. 1895. 2. Ib., 15:281. 1896. 3. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:127. 1904.
Fruit unattractive, medium to rather small, roundish to roundish conic, grass-green with a dull brownish-red cheek; mild subacid, not high in quality but a good keeper. The tree is not a good grower and does not come into bearing very young. It yields moderate crops biennially. Not worthy of planting in New York.

KANSAS KEEPER.

REFERENCES. 3. Stayman, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1877:44. 2. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:46. 1903. 3- Beach and Clark, N.Y. Sta. Bul. 248:127. 1904.
Synonym. Kansas (2).
Kansas Keeper as grown in Western New York is usually less highly colored than when grown in more southern localities and often is below good marketable size and. rather dull and unattractive in color. It is a very late keeper. The tree comes into bearing moderately young, and bears annually, yielding moderate crops.
Historical, Origin unknown (1). We have not had the opportunity of deciding: whether it is identical with Keeper.71
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous. Form upright. Twigs short to nearly long, rather slender, generally straight; internodes medium. Bark dull reddish or brownish-red, quite uniformly overlaid with a moderately heavy scarf-skin, somewhat pubescent. Lenticels inconspicuous, generally scattering, but on some twigs numerous, small, elongated or roundish. Buds small, acute, somewhat pubescent, lightly attached to the bark or nearly free.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to large, sometimes averaging below medium; pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish or inclined to conic or somewhat oblate, often obscurely ribbed and with sides unequal. Stem rather short. Cavity acuminate, deep, broad to rather narrow, symmetrical, often with outspreading russet rays. Calyx small to medium, closed, varying to large and open.
Basin often oblique, very abrupt, rather narrow, often somewhat furrowed.
Skin smooth, pale yellow or greenish, thinly overspread with orange-red or pinkish-red, becoming clear red on exposed cheek, abundantly striped with bright carmine, mottled with thin gray scarf-skin towards the cavity. Dots whitish, often conspicuous, sometimes with russet point. Prevailing effect in highly colored specimens striped red, bright and attractive.
Calyx tube long, funnel-form with wide limb. Stamens median to basal.
Core somewhat abaxile, rather small; cells closed or partly open; core lines clasp the funnel cylinder. Carpels broad at base, narrow at apex, emarginate, tufted. Seeds dark, medium in size, moderately wide, somewhat acute, tufted.
Flesh whitish, firm, somewhat coarse, moderately crisp, rather tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, fair to good.
Season December to June.

Karabovka
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Kajabowka (5). Karaboff (1-5). Karabowka (1,2,4). No. 21 M (3,4). No. 205 (2-5). Shro. to Ia. No. 21 (5).
A Russian variety received from Ellwanger and Barry, Rochester, NY in 1884 for testing at this Station. As grown here the tree does not come into bearing very early but when mature yields full crops biennially. The fruit is medium to rather small, not specially attractive in appearance, fair to possibly good in quality being inferior to standard sorts of its season. Season late August and September. It does not agree with the description of Karabovka given by Budd (2).

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous with moderately long, stout, curved branches.
Form rather open, flat, spreading.
Twigs long, curved, stout, with large terminal buds; internodes medium.
Bark dark brown, heavily streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels quite numerous, small to medium, round, slightly raised.
Buds large, prominent, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit small to medium, uniform.
Form oblate, regular, symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) medium in length, moderately thick to rather slender.
Cavity acute to nearly acuminate, moderately deep to deep, narrow to medium in width, occasionally lipped, usually russeted.
Calyx large, open or nearly closed; lobes short, rather broad, acute.
Basin medium in depth, wide, furrowed or wrinkled and with mammiform protuberances.
Skin thin, tender, smooth, rather dull pale greenish-yellow, with scattering narrow stripes of dull dark red, or when highly colored it is largely striped, splashed and shaded with red, and overspread with pinkish bloom.
Dots rather numerous, small, light, obscure, submerged.
Calyx tube large, medium in length, rather wide, broadly conical to funnel-shape.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core medium size, axile; cells closed; core lines clasping.
Carpels elliptical, emarginate.
Seeds very dark brown, medium size, wide, rather short, flat, plump, obtuse.
Flesh nearly white, moderately fine, tender, moderately juicy, mild subacid with peculiar flavor, fair to good in quality.
Season August and September.

Kentish Fillbasket
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Kent Fillbasket (13). Kentish Filbasket (3). Lady de Grey's (2,5,8). Potter's Large (8). Potter's Large Grey Seedling (5). Potter's Large Seedling (2).
A very large, handsome, late autumn apple, desirable for cooking but not for dessert use. Tree a strong grower and a fair cropper. Not recommended for planting in New York.
According to Hogg (8), the Kentish Fillbasket of Miller, Forsyth annd Rogers is a different variety being evidently the Kentish Codlin or common old English Codlin, a lemon-yellow apple which is in season from August to October.
The Kentish Fillbasket of Buel (Buel, NY Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:477) appears to be the same as that of Forsyth (Forsyth, 1803:50).
Historical. This is an old English variety. It has been sparingly cultivated in portions of New York state for many years and has been grown to some extent also in Ontario (12).

FRUIT

Fruit very large.
Form oblate or roundish, ribbed broadly and obscurely if at all, irregular, fairly uniform. [huh? irregular AND fairly uniform? someone needs to explain this to me- anton_agron@gmale.com (remove the underscore and spell "mail" correctly and the address will work)- ASC]
Stem (Pedicel) not exserted, short, medium in thickness.
Cavity acute to somewhat furrowed, green or more often with outspreading russet.
Calyx small to rather large, closed or partly open; lobes broad, obtuse to acute.
Basin pretty abrupt, moderately deep to deep, medium in width to wide, sometimes a little furrowed or wrinkled.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, somewhat waxy, pale yellow with thin brownish blush often deepening to red, somewhat mottled and splashed with carmine.
Dots small usually not conspicuous, dark brown or grayish or submerged and whitish.
Prevailing effect yellow somewhat striped with red.
Calyx tube wide, conical.
Stamens basal to nearly median.
Core abaxile, medium to large; cells unsymmetrical and open, sometimes closed; core lines nearly meeting.
Carpels broadly ovate, mucronate, not emarginate, somewhat tufted.
Seeds medium or below, plump, acute.
Flesh whitish, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, rather tender, juicy, brisk subacid, good.
Season October to December.

Keswick
References.  1.******* Greene, Kan. Sta. Bul., 106:53. 1902. 26. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bul., 205., 205:45. 1903. 27. Budd-Hansen, 1903:110. 28. Beach and Clark, NY Sta. Bul., 248:128. 1904.
Synonyms.  Codlin, Keswick (1,2,24). Keswick Codlin (3-14,16-20,24,25,27,28). Keswick Codling (15). No. 225 (2).
This variety is particularly esteemed on account of its excellence for culinary use. It is not adapted for storage, its commercial limit in ordinary storage being September and early October. It comes into season late in August or early in September and ripens continuously during a period of several weeks. It does not stand heat well before going into storage and goes down quickly (28). The fruit is of good medium size to rather large, greenish-yellow, sometimes with faint blush; flesh brisk subacid. It is grown chiefly for home use and only to a very limited extent for local market. The tree is a good grower, hardy, healthy, long-lived, comes into bearing quite young and yields good to very good crops almost annually.
This is distinct from the Codling or English Codling described by Coxe, Thacher, Forsyth and others.
Historical. Hogg (17) state that: "This excellent apple was first discovered growing among a quantity of rubbish behind a wall at Gleaston Castle, near Ulverstone, and was first brought into notice by one John Sander, a nurseryman at Keswick, who, having propagated it, sent it out under the name of Keswick Codlin.
"In the Memoirs of the Caledonian Horticultural Society, 1813, Sir John Sinclair says: 'The Keswick Codlin tree has never failed to bear a crop since it was planted in the episcopal garden at Rose Castle, Carlisle, twenty years ago.'"
It has long been known in this country and very old trees of it are found in some orchards but it is nowhere extensively cultivated being grown chiefly for home use. It is quite commonly listed by nurserymen (20).
TREE.
Tree medium to large, moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading to roundish.
Twigs moderately long, curved, stout; internodes short.
Bark dull brown, heavily coated with gray scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, rather conspicuous, medium to small, round, not raised.
Buds medium to large, prominent, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.
FRUITDitch Moscow Mitch!
Fruit above medium to nearly large, not very uniform.
Form roundish conic or inclined to oblong conic, rather broad at the base, distinctly ribbed; sides frequently a little unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to short, slender to rather thick.
Cavity variably acute, medium in depth to shallow, rather narrow to moderately broad, more or less russeted.
Calyx medium size, closed; lobes long, medium in width, nearly acuminate.
Basin shallow, moderately narrow, furrowed or angular, often with fleshy protuberances alternating with the calyx lobes.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, waxy, pale greenish or yellow, sometimes with a faint blush and often with a suture line extending out from the cavity.
Dots submerged, inconspicuous or russet.
Calyx tube medium in length, rather wide, bluntly cone-shape.
Stamens median.
Core variable, large, abaxile; cells wide open; core lines meeting.
Carpels variable, roundish ovate.
Seeds very light brown, very small, medium in width, short, very plump, acute.
Flesh nearly white, fine, tender, very juicy, brisk subacid, good for culinary use, too acid for dessert unless very ripe.
Season August and September.
[Description in 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

KING.

Tompkins King, more often called King of Tompkins County, is usually known among fruit growers and fruit dealers as King. For an account of this variety the reader is referred to Tompkins King.
Twenty Ounce Pippin has also been known to a limited extent locally as King, but it is a very different variety from Tompkins King.

KINNAIRD.

REFERENCES. 3. Downing, 1872:18 app. fig. 2 Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1875. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:242. 4. Watts, Tenn. Sta. Bul., 1:15. 1806. fig. 5. Wright, Am. Gard., 17:33. 1896. 6. Thomas, 1897:291. 7. Ragan, U. S. Pom. Bul., 8:18. 1899. 8. Kan. Sta. Bul., 106:53. 1902. 9. Budd-Hansen, 1903:110. fig. 10. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bul., 205:45. 1903. 11. Bruner, N. C. Sta. Bul. 182:25. 1903.  12.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 104.
Synonyms. Kinnaird’s Choice (1, 8). Kinnaird’s Choice (4, 6). Kinnairds Favorite (2). Kinnard (7, 9). Kinnard’s Choice (9).
This is a dark red-winter apple of the Winesap class. When well grown it is of good size, very good quality and attractive in appearance. The tree comes into bearing rather young and yields moderate crops biennially. The fruit hangs well to the tree but is not very uniform in grade and does not produce as large a percentage of marketable fruit as either Baldwin or Rhode Island Greening. It is in season about with Baldwin. It is a variety of Tennessee origin which is highly esteemed in some sections of that state and in other portions of the Middle West (4). So far as tested in New York it does not appear to be adapted to regions as far north as this.
Historical. Origin Franklin, Williamson county, Tennessee. It is practically unknown in New York.
TREE.
Tree medium in size, a moderately vigorous grower; branchlets rather slender. Form rather spreading or roundish, irregular, not dense. Twigs medium to rather long, moderately slender, often irregularly crooked. Bark brownish-red or some portions olive-green, somewhat pubescent; scarf-skin thin, not conspicuous. Lenticels rather numerous, irregular in size, not often large, usually very small, dull, elongated. Buds considerably sunk in the bark, rather broad, obtuse, appressed, quite pubescent.
[Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases (12).] Fruit.
Fruit medium to large. Form oblate inclined to conic, flat at the base, rather obscurely ribbed, nearly regular, sides sometimes unequal. Stem not exserted, short, rather thick. Cavity very wide, deep, acute, sometimes russeted. Calyx small, closed or partly open. Basin moderately wide, deep, abrupt, gently furrowed, often somewhat oblique.
Skin moderately thick, tough, smooth, yellow, mottled and blushed with red, in the sun becoming a lively deep red shading to purplish-red. Dots numerous, small, whitish, becoming somewhat elongated towards the cavity.
Prevailing effect good dark red.
Calyx tube conical and moderately short varying to almost cylindrical and deep, sometimes extending to the core. Stamens nearly marginal.
Core small, axile; cells symmetrical, closed; core lines clasping. Carpels obcordate, emarginate, noticeably concave, tufted. Seeds rather short, wide, plump.
Flesh tinged with yellow, crisp, moderately fine or a little coarse, agreeably subacid, somewhat aromatic, good to very good.  [Also useful for cooking, frying and cider (12).
Keeping ability:  Good (12.)]

KIRKLAND.
REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1881:92 app. 2. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bul., 143:200. 1897.
A fruit of the type of the Yellow Bellflower but with less acidity, valued locally in Central and Eastern New York because it is productive, a good late keeper, fairly acceptable for dessert and good for culinary use. When well grown it is often partly suffused with a lively reddish-pink and late in the spring the ground color becomes a clear rich yellow, giving it a very attractive appearance for a yellow apple. The tree is a vigorous grower and a reliable cropper. The fruit often keeps in ordinary storage till May or June. It is doubtless worthy of more attention from fruit growers in the localities to which it is well adapted.
Historical. Originated in Oneida county, New York, and named after Domine Kirkland, a missionary to the Oneida Indians. It is but little known outside of the Mohawk valley.
TREE.
Tree dwarfish to medium in size, a moderately vigorous grower. Form roundish or spreading. Twigs medium to long, erect or spreading, moderately stout.
Fruit.
Fruit above medium to large. Form broadly ovate or slightly oblong varying to roundish conical, ribbed, somewhat irregular, fairly symmetrical; sides sometimes unequal. Stem short, slender to moderately stout, not exserted.
Cavity moderately narrow to rather wide, deep, acuminate, often partly russeted and sometimes with outspreading russet rays. Calyx small to medium, closed. Basin small to medium, shallow to moderately deep, narrow to moderately wide, somewhat furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin rather thin, tough, smooth, clear pale yellow with a thin blush which in highly colored specimens deepens to reddish-pink. Dots whitish areolar with brownish russet center or whitish and submerged.
Calyx tube rather wide, elongated conical or approaching funnel-form and extending to the core. Stamens basal to nearly median.
Core decidedly abaxile; cells fairly symmetrical, usually wide open; core lines meeting. Carpels mucronate, much concave, broadly roundish to elliptical. Seeds numerous, short, rather small to medium, rather wide, plump, obtuse.
Flesh somewhat tinged with yellow, firm, rather hard, moderately coarse, not very juicy, crisp, subacid, good.

KIT TAGESKEE.
REFERENCES. 1. Warder, 1867:724. 2. Downing, 1872:242. 3. Fitz, 1872:178. 4. Leroy, 1873:416. figs. 5. Thomas, 1885:515. 6. Bailey, An. Hort.,1892:242. 7. Clayton, Ala. Sta. Bul., 47:6. 1893. 8. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:128. 1904.
Synonym. KETTAGESKA (3).
Fruit too small to be valuable for general market purposes, but its quality is excellent and it is attractive in appearance, being of uniform size, symmetrical form and bright yellow color. It is desirable for dessert use, especially because it retains its texture, flavor, quality and color remarkably well till very late in the season. The tree comes into bearing rather young, is an annual bearer or nearly so, yielding from moderate to heavy crops. The fruit hangs well to the tree. In the South it has the reputation of being vigorous, very prolific and almost free from blight. It is recommended for growing on dwarf stock in that region (3). It is reported as ripening in September in Alabama (7). Leroy (4) gives its season in France as December to April. Here at Geneva its season extends to May or June. It is worthy of planting in those cases where a choice late keeping dessert apple is desired for home use.
Historical. Probably originated with the Cherokee Indians in Western North Carolina. Introduced into Georgia about 1851. It was sent to France in 1860 from the Berckmans Nurseries of Augusta, Georgia, and since that time has been continuously propagated there. It is there regarded as a fruit of first quality and the tree is very productive (4). It is grown to a limited extent in the South but is practically unknown in New York.
TREE.
Tree a moderately vigorous or rather slow grower with rather slender branchlets. Form spreading, somewhat open. Twigs medium to rather short; internodes rather short. Bark olive-green with some brownish-red, somewhat pubescent. Lenticels dull, rather conspicuous, moderately numerous, small, roundish, somewhat raised. Buds rather long, narrow, flat, appressed, rather acute, pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit small to sometimes medium, uniform in size and shape. Form varies from roundish ovate or roundish conic to slightly oblate, regular, pretty symmetrical, often obscurely ribbed. Stem usually long and rather slender.
Cavity moderately shallow to rather deep, narrow to rather wide, obtuse to acute; usually it is at least partly russeted and often it has outspreading russet rays. Calyx small to medium, usually closed; lobes acute to acuminate, reflexed. Basin usually very shallow, obtuse, wrinkled and often gently furrowed.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, clear yellow often shaded with a bronze blush.
Dots small, russet or submerged and whitish.
Calyx tube cone-shape, sometimes approaching funnel-form. Stamens median to marginal.
Core medium to rather small, somewhat abaxile; cells fairly symmetrical, usually somewhat open; core lines somewhat clasping to meeting. Carpels very broad and pointed with truncate base varying to broad pointed ovate.
Seeds numerous, dark, medium or below, rather narrow, plump, acute.
Flesh yellowish, firm, very tender, crisp, rather fine-grained, perfumed and aromatic, sprightly, mild subacid becoming nearly sweet, very good for dessert.
Season December to May or June (8).

Kirkbridge
References.  1. Downing, 1857:160. 2. Mag Hort., 24:108. 1858. 3. Warder, 1867:671. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 1871:8. 5. Downing, 1872:10 index, app. 6. Thomas, 1875:195. 7. Downing, 1881:11 index, app. 8. Ib., 1881:12 index, app. 9. Budd-Hansen, 1903:111.
Synonyms.  Bohannon (2). Conic June (7). Kirkbridge White (1,4-6). White June (5). Yellow Flat (8). Yellow June (6, erroneously 3, of some 5).
Fruit small to medium, oblong conic, pale yellow or whitish; flesh white, fine, tender, juicy, pleasant subacid, good to very good. The tree is a moderately grower, comes into bearing young and is productive. Season August and September. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. In 1867, Warder (3) wrote concerning Kirkbridge White: "This fruit has been pretty extensively cultivated in some parts of the Western states and sometimes it is mistaken for the Yellow June." It is said to be of American origin. It is but little known in New York.


LACKER

REFERENCES. 1. Watts, Horticulturist, 1:482, 483. 1847. 2. Thomas, 1849:168. 3. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:101. 1851. fig. 4. Elliott, 1854:142. 5. Downing, 1857:163. 6. Hooper, 1857:53. 7 Warder, 1867:443.
Synonyms. Lacker (2, 4). Lacourer (1). Laguter (2, 3,6). Laquier (4, 5). LecKxer (4).
A red-striped winter apple evidently of the Rambo class. Fifty years ago in some sections of Western New York it was held to be one of the most desirable apples for that region (1, 2), but it has made little headway as a commercial variety and is gradually passing out of cultivation. It keeps rather better than Baldwin but is less attractive in appearance having a rather dull red color as it comes from the tree. It has been valued because of its fine dessert quality particularly in the,spring but as it has a rather mild flavor it is less highly esteemed for culinary use. The tree is somewhat subject to canker. It bears biennially or in some cases almost annually and yields good crops. The fruit hangs well to the tree.
Historical. Disseminated from Lancaster, Pa. (4), and formerly planted to some extent in some portions of New York and the Middle West (1, 2,3, 4, 6, 7). Occasionally very old trees of the variety are found still growing in New York in old orchards, but we have no knowledge of its being planted within recent years.
TREE.
Tree medium in size, a moderately vigorous grower. Form erect. Twigs medium in length, rather stout, rather thick at tips, straight or nearly so; internodes short. Bark dull reddish-brown, uniformly overlaid with a thin scarf-skin; heavily pubescent. Lenticels scattering, conspicuous, below medium in size, round, somewhat raised. Buds medium, moderately projecting, roundish, adhering, very pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to large. Form varies from oblate to roundish, often tending to elliptical and somewhat ribbed; sides usually a little unequal; fairly uniform in shape and size. Stem short, not exserted. Cavity somewhat furrowed, sometimes compressed, narrow to moderately wide, rather deep, acuminate, green or russet, often lipped. Calyx closed or partly open; lobes pubescent. Basin somewhat variable, usually obtuse but sometimes rather abrupt, medium in width and depth, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thick, tough, smooth, light yellow or greenish nearly covered with red, mottled and striped with crimson and conspicuously marked with grayish areolar dots which are mingled with smaller, whitish or russet dots. Prevailing color striped red, sometimes clear and bright but more often dulled by a waxy coating of bluish bloom.
Calyx tube inclined to funnel-form. Stamens median.
Core medium to rather small, somewhat abaxile; cells usually pretty symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines somewhat clasping. Carpels broadly roundish, emarginate, somewhat tufted. Seeds tufted, medium or below, obtuse to acute, plump, numerous.
Flesh white or nearly so, firm, tender, crisp, juicy, mild subacid, agreeably aromatic, good to very good for dessert, less desirable for culinary uses.
Season December to May.

LADY.

REFERENCES. 1. Duhamel, 1768:309. 2. Knoop, 1771:68. 3. Forsyth, 1803: 49. 4. Coxe, 1817:117. fig. 5. Thacher, 1822:129. 6. Ronalds, 1831:63. 7. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831. 8. Kenrick, 1832:47. 9. Floy-Lindley, 1833: 87. 10. Manning, 1838:59. 11. Downing, 1845:115. fig. 12. Cole, 1849:130. 13. Thomas, 1849:181, 189. fig. 14. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:89. 1851. col. pl. No. 47. 15. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 1852. 16. Elliott, 1854:87. 17. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 20:29. 1854. 18. Hooper, 1857:52. 19. Lucas, 1859:557. 20. Warder, 1867:411. 21. Fitz, 1872:166. 22. Downing, 1872:244. 23. Leroy, 1873:65. fig. 24. Barry, 1883:348. 25. Hogg, 1884:8. 26. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 27. Wickson, 1891:248. 28. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:243. 29. Bredsted, 2:210. 1893. 30. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 3:10. 1896. figs. 31. Budd-Hansen, 1903:111. fig. 32. Beach and Clark, N.Y. Sta. Bul., 248:128. 1904.
Synonyms, Almindelig (29). Api (1, 23, 25, 29, 30). Api (11, 16, 18, 22, 31). Api eller (29). Api Fin (23). Api Ordinaire (23). Api Petit (11, 12, 20, 22, 25). Api Rose (23). Api Rouge (25). Apy Rouge (23).. Cardinale (23). Christmas Apple (32). Gros Api Rouge (11, 16, 22). KLEINER Apt (19). Lady AppLe (5, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 21, 22, 24). Lady Apple (4, 10, 23, 25). Lille Api (29). Long Bois (23). Petit Apr (6, 7). Petit Api (16, 18). Petit Apis (23). Petit Api Rose (23). Petit Api Rouge (11, 16, 22, 23, 25). PoMME d’Api (2, 3). Pomme d’Api (8). 9,43; 16,21; 25). Pomme d’Api Rouge (11, 16, 22). PomMer d’APIS (4). Pomme Rose (11, 16, 18, 22). Pomone d’Apis (5).
A strikingly beautiful little apple especially suitable for decorative use and for dessert. In New York it is grown to a limited extent only and in restricted localities. It is in some cases grown with profit and often sells at very high prices. It does fairly well on any good apple soil, but a warm, gravelly or sandy loam seems to suit it best, developing to a marked degree the characteristically beautiful color and delicate high flavor of this variety, upon which its value chiefly depends. The upright habit of the limbs, together with the smallness of the apples, makes the picking of the fruit unusually expensive. The branches are full of short spurs upon which the fruit is borne in clusters. The fruit hangs well to the tree. The tree is but a moderate grower and does not come into bearing young, but in favorable locations, after it reaches maturity, it is a reliable cropper, bearing heavy crops biennially or in rare instances nearly annually. In order to grow Lady most successfully, particular pains must be taken to protect it from the attacks of insects and fungi, particularly from the apple scab fungus, by which it is often seriously damaged. When well grown, the crop is pretty uniform in size and shape and satisfactory in color and quality. It does not always color properly, and is then of little value for anything but cider, being too small either for general market purposes or for culinary use. Properly handled, it may be held in cold storage till summer, but there is little demand for it after the holiday season, and as it keeps well enough in ordinary storage till midwinter there is but little occasion for holding it in cold storage.
Historical. According to Leroy, who gives an excellent historical account of this variety, the Lady apple, or as it is there known, Api, has been in cultivation in France for at least three hundred years. It has been sparingly disseminated throughout this country from the Atlantic to the Pacific. It has long been recognized in the New York market as one of the most desirable apples for fancy trade at the holiday season.
TREE.
Tree at first moderately vigorous, eventually becomes a rather slow grower; size medium or somewhat dwarfish; branches erect, rather slender. Form rather dense, erect. Twigs long and slender, or on old trees rather short; internodes short. Bark bright brown approaching black, partly overlaid with thin scarf-skin, slightly pubescent towards the tips. Lenticels numerous, conspicuous, round or sometimes elongated, usually medium to small, sometimes large. Buds usually large, rather narrow, acute to acuminate, plump, quite pubescent, free. Leaves not large, rather narrow.
Fruit.
Fruit small to very small, uniform in size and shape. Form usually oblate but varies to roundish inclined to conic, often obscurely ribbed, symmetrical.
Stem medium, slender. Cavity pretty large and wide, obtuse to acute, moderately shallow to deep, gently furrowed, sometimes thinly russeted. Calyx small, closed; lobes small, acute. Basin rather wide, shallow to moderately deep, obtuse, narrowly ridged and wrinkled.
Skin moderately thick, tough, smooth, glossy with a deep red blush which is often irregular and sharply outlined against the clear pale yellow or whitish ground color. Dots whitish or with russet point, inconspicuous. Prevailing effect beautiful bright red and yellow.
Calyx tube conical or somewhat funnel-form with short truncate cylinder.
Stamens marginal.
Core small, axile; cells symmetrical, closed; core lines clasping. Carpels smooth, roundish or inclined to elliptical, emarginate, mucronate. Seeds plump, wide, obtuse, completely filling the cells.
Flesh white, firm, fine-grained, crisp, rather tender, juicy, pleasantly aromatic, mild subacid becoming nearly sweet, good to very good for dessert.
Season December to May.

OTHER VARIETIES OF THE LADY Group.

The Lady often produces seedlings which have a general similarity to the parent. Some of these have found their way into cultivation but up to the present time none of them has superseded the Lady.
Downing (22) mentions besides the Lady four other varieties of the Lady group, namely: the Black Lady Apple (Api Noir), the Star Lady APPLE (Api Etoile), the Large Lady Appie (Api Gros), and the Rose-Colored Lady Apple (Api Gros Pomme de Rose). Of these the Large Lady apple appears to be the only one which has been disseminated to any considerable extent in this state. It is seldom or never intentionally planted by the fruit grower but sometimes it has been cultivated by mistake in place of the true Lady. It is easily distinguished from the true Lady because the bark of the twigs is not so nearly black, the fruit is more nearly round, has a very shallow basin and is a little larger and less highly colored than the Lady. It is an undesirable variety.
Seedlings. Fruits of different seedlings of the Lady have from time to time been received at this Station. None of these has been sufficiently tested as yet to show whether it is worthy of being introduced into general cultivation. One of the most remarkable lot of Lady seedlings which has come to our attention is that originated by Le Grand M. Smith of Nyack, N. Y., a brief notice of which was published in 1895.1 Some of these may be as desirable as the Lady.
HELEN is an apple of the Lady class much larger than Lady and fully as attractive in color. The flesh is very white, crisp, juicy and of mild agreeable flavor. It is grown by R. N. Lewis of Red Hook, Dutchess county, N. Y., who reports that the tree is productive and that the fruit keeps late and brings good prices.
Highland Beauty, another Lady seedling, is described on a previous page.
[Description in the 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

LADY FINGER.

REFERENCES. 1. Coxe, 1817:146. fig. 2. Thacher, 1822:120. 3. Elliott, 1854:173. 4. Hooper, 1857:52. 5. Warder, 1867:724. 6. Downing, 1869:245, 329. 7. Ib., 1876:55 app. 8. Hogg, 1884:127. 9. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892 :243. 10. Thomas, 1897:642.
Several different varieties of apples are known in cultivation under the name Lady Finger but none of these is grown to any considerable extent in New York.
Coxe (1) describes Lady Finger or Long Pippin as a variety of very delicate growth with small limbs, fruit remarkably long, skin greenish-yellow, season early winter.
Thacher’s (2) description of Lady Finger is that it “is a long, tapering fruit, of a beautiful yellow and red color. It is well flavored, keeps till June. The tree bears abundantly.”
Elliott (3) describes Lady Finger, synonym Sheepnose, “as medium, oblong, pale yellow, often blushed. Flesh firm, watery. Season November, December”
Hooper (4) recognizes Lady Finger as a synonym of Kaighn, but erroneously, according to Downing, who gives Red Winter Pearmain as the correct name for this variety.
Warder (5) gives Red Lady Finger as a synonym of Red Winter Pearmain and Lady Finger Pippin as a synonym of Red Winter Pippin.
Downing (6, 7) recognizes the varieties described under the name Lady Finger by Hogg, Coxe, and Elliott as mentioned above and adds the description of still another variety which he received under this name from Maryland, the fruit of which is roundish conical, yellowish, shaded with deep crimson, subacid, good to very good; season August. He also gives Lady Finger as an erroneous synonym for Kaighn and Red Lady Finger as a synonym for Red Winter Pearmain.
Hogg (8) describes a red cider apple under the name Lady’s Finger of Hereford and a greenish-yellow culinary apple in season from November to March under the name Lady’s Finger of Lancaster. He also gives Lady’s Finger of Kent as a synonym for Smart's Prince Arthur, and Lady’s Finger as a synonym for White Paradise.
Thomas (10) gives Lady Finger as a synonym of White Paradise.

Lady Finger
References.  1. Downing, 1869:245.
Synonyms.  None.
Under this name Downing (1) describes an apple which he received from Maryland, the fruit of which is of medium size, yellowish, nearly overspread with deep crimson; flesh white, tender, pleasant subacid, good to very good; season August.
Other varieties have been known under the name Lady Finger several of which have already been mentioned in the discussion of the winter apples. See Vol. I, page 183.

LADY SWEET.

REFERENCES. I. Downing, 1845:136. fig. 2. Cole, 1849:132. fig. 3. Downing, Horticulturist, 3:578. 1849. 4. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. V., 3:75. 1851. 5. Hovey, 2:87. 1851. col. pl. and fig. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1854. 7. Elliott, 1854:88. 8. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 21:566. 1855. fig. 9. Hooper, 1857:52. 10. Warder, 1867:561. fig. 11. Fitz, 1872:166. 12. Downing, 1872:246. fig. 13. Barry, 1883:348. 14. Thomas, 1885:227. fig. 15. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 16. Bailey, An. Hort. 1892:243. 17. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bul. 205:42. 1903. 18. Budd-Hansen, 1903:112. 19. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B.P. I. Bul., 48:46. 1903. 20. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:128. 1904.
Synonyms. Ladies Sweet (11). Ladies SwEETING (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8, 9, 10, 14). Lapy’s Sweet (12, 13). Lady’s Sweeting (20). Pommeroy (12, 20). Roa Yon (12).
This is one of the most desirable of the sweet apples for commercial planting. When well grown, the fruit is of good size, fine red color and excellent quality and keeps very late. It has an established reputation in market and is well known to fruit growers in many parts of the state, and often under the synonym Pommeroy. Doubtless it would be grown more extensively were it not for the fact that at present the market demand for sweet apples is quite limited. It ships well, stores well and usually sells well. It is also a good variety for the home orchard because the tree comes into bearing young, is a regular bearer, yields heavy crops, and the fruit is attractive in color and excellent either for dessert or for culinary uses. When grown as far north as Lake Ontario its season for home use extends from late autumn to late spring. Generally the tree is not a remarkably strong grower and is but moderately long-lived. In some locations it is not quite hardy, and sometimes it is injured by bark-bursting. These deficiencies are in part overcome by top-working the variety upon some hardier and more vigorous sort. The variety is somewhat susceptible to the attacks of the scab fungus and requires thorough treatment to protect it from this disease. It is a reliable cropper, bearing biennially, or in some cases almost annually, and the fruit hangs well to the tree. When it over-bears, as it often does, there is apt to be a considerable portion of undersized and poorly colored fruit. This difficulty may be remedied in part by pruning so as to restrict the amount of bearing wood and permit free access of light and air to all parts of the tree.
Historical. This variety originated in the vicinity of Newburg where it established an excellent local reputation. It was first introduced into more general cultivation by the Downing Nurseries of that place (1, 3, 5). It is now propagated in the North Atlantic States, the Middle West and the Pacific region (16).
TREE.
Tree in the nursery is a slim, slow grower with tender foliage and soft wood and should be top-worked. In the orchard under favorable conditions it becomes moderately vigorous or in some cases a rather strong grower.
Form rather upright becoming roundish and somewhat spreading. Twigs medium to rather short, slender; internodes medium to short. Bark dull olive-green or reddish-brown with thin scarf-skin; pubescent particularly toward the tips. Lenticels rather inconspicuous, scattering, very small, elongated or roundish, raised. Buds medium to small, obtuse, closely appressed, slightly pubescent; ends often swollen so that the bud sets on an eminence. Leaves rather narrow, medium to small, ovate.
Fruit.Ditch Richard Neal!
Fruit large to medium, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish conic, often approaching oblong conic, irregularly elliptical, often ribbed, nearly symmetrical. Stem short to very short. Cavity acute or approaching acuminate, deep, usually rather narrow, sometimes wide, gently furrowed, often partly russeted, sometimes lipped. Calyx small, closed, pubescent.
Basin small, narrow, rather shallow to moderately deep, abrupt, furrowed.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, yellow or greenish, in highly colored specimens almost entirely overspread with bright red splashed with carmine. It is mottled and striped with whitish scarf-skin about the cavity. Dots rather conspicuous, small to rather large, pale areolar with russet point or submerged, numerous toward the basin.
Calyx tube conical varying to funnel-shape. Stamens basal to median.
Core small to above medium, axile to somewhat abaxile; cells not uniformly developed, closed; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels broad, roundish to roundish ovate, mucronate, sometimes slightly emarginate, somewhat tufted. Seeds dark, large, rather narrow, long, acute, slightly tufted, often abortive.
Flesh whitish or with slight yellow tinge, rather firm, moderately fine, crisp, tender, juicy, sweet with a distinct and pleasant aroma, very good to best.
Season November to April or May; in cold storage to May or June.

LANDON

REFERENCES. 1. Warder, 1867:724. 2. Downing, 1872:248. 3. Thomas, 1885:515. 4. Macomber, Am. Gard., 11:141. 1890. Fruit attractive in color, of good marketable size and a good keeper. On account of its mild flavor it is better suited for dessert than for culinary use. The record which it has made at this Station confirms the statement of Macomber (4) that it is a rather shy bearer.
Historical. Brought to notice by Buel Landon, South Hero, Vermont, about forty years ago (1, 2, 4). It appears to be but little known outside of that locality.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous or rather slow-growing; branches slender. Form spreading, dense, dwarfish with rather flat top. Twigs short to medium, nearly straight but somewhat geniculate, moderately slender; internodes short to medium. Bark clear light brown mingled with red, irregularly marked and mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent. Lenticels conspicuous, small to rather large, roundish or elongated, raised. Buds medium or below, plump, roundish, obtuse, free or nearly so, pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to large, averaging above medium, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish oblate to roundish conic, sometimes obscurely ribbed. Stem short.
Cavity large, acute, moderately deep to deep, slightly furrowed, sometimes slightly russeted. Calyx small to medium, partly open or sometimes closed. Basin shallow to moderately shallow, rather obtuse, somewhat furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin thin, tough, nearly smooth, yellow mostly washed and mottled with red and distinctly striped with carmine, often becoming deep crimson or purplish on the side exposed to the sun. Dots conspicuous, whitish, large and irregular, especially about the cavity, or areolar with russet point.
Calyx tube elongated funnel-shape, constricted just below the limb and often extending to the core. Stamens median.
Core medium or above, abaxile; cells open or partly open; core lines clasping. Carpels broad at the base approaching truncate, rounding toward apex, slightly emarginate. Seeds medium or above, rather wide, flat, obtuse.
Flesh yellowish, sometimes tinged with red next the skin, firm, a little coarse, crisp, moderately tender, juicy, aromatic, mild subacid becoming nearly sweet late in season, good to very good.
Season December to May.

Landsberg
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Landsberger Reinette (2,4-6,8,9,11). Landsburg (6). Landsburger Reinette (6,7). Lansberger Reinette (10). Reinette de Landsberg (2,3,8). Reinette Landsberger (1).
An attractive late autumn and early winter apple of good size and pleasant subacid flavor. The tree is thrifty, comes into bearing rather early and is reliably productive yielding good crops biennially. The fruit has a clear, pale waxen yellow or greenish skin which readily shows bruises. It is a good dessert apple but less desirable for culinary uses because when it is cooked it lacks character in texture, color and flavor. It is easily excelled for any purpose by standard sorts of its season and is not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. Raised from seed about 1840 by Mr. Burkhardt, justice of the peace in Landsberg, Germany (2,4). Imported from Silesia, Germany, in 1883 by Professor Budd for the Iowa State College. (6).
TREE.
Tree vigorous.
Form roundish or spreading, rather open.
Twigs short to medium, nearly straight, rather stout; internodes medium.
Bark olive-green tinged with brownish-red, mottled with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, small, round, not raised.
Buds large to below medium, broad plump, generally obtuse, free, quite pubescent.
FRUITDitch Moscow Mitch!
Fruit medium to large, pretty uniform in shape and size.
Form roundish conic to roundish oblate, obscurely angular, pretty regular; sides sometimes unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium.
Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, rather wide, sometimes obscurely furrowed, usually smooth but sometimes russeted.
Calyx segments long, acute, reflexed, sometimes closed.
Basin medium in width and depth, often somewhat furrowed, wrinkled.
Prevailing color pale yellow, rather attractive.
Skin thin, tough, smooth or slightly roughened by russet dots, waxen yellow or pale green,sometimes with attractive crimson blush.
Dots numerous, submerged and whitish, sometimes russet.
Prevailing color pale yellow, rather attractive. Calyx tube large, wide, cone-shape.
Stamens median.
Core abaxile, medium; cells usually symmetrical and wide open; core lines slightly clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate, much concave, narrow toward the apex, nearly smooth.
Seeds numerous, medium in size, broad, obtuse, medium brown, smooth or nearly so.
Flesh nearly white, very tender, crisp, rather fine-grained, mild subacid, agreeable in flavor, good to very good for dessert.
Season mid-October to January (8,9). Some of the fruit keeps apparently sound till March or later but after January it loses in quality.

LANKFORD.

REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1881:92 app. 2. Van Deman, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1891:390. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:243. 4. Van Deman, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:72. 5. Rural N. Y., 55:1, 122, 195. 1806. fig. 6. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bul., 43:103. 1896. 7. Powell, Del. Sta. Bul., 38:19. 1808. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:18. 9. Alwood, Va. Sta. Bul., 130:133. 1901. fig. 10. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:47. 1903. 11. Budd-Hansen, 1903:113. 12. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:128. 1904.
Synonyms. Lancrorp (5). Langford (5, 12). LANKFORD’s SEEDLING (6). Vickers (1, 12).
Lankford, as fruited at this Station, is a dull red apple of good size and fairly good quality. It is easily excelled by the standard varieties. It is in season from December to May but scalds badly after midwinter (10, 12).
The tree makes a tall, slim growth in the nursery. In the orchard it is a strong grower and comes into bearing rather young, but although it occasion- ally bears a full crop it has not proved a reliable cropper at this Station. Although in some parts of the South fruit growers regard it with favor it does not appear to be well adapted to regions as far north as New York and is not recommended for planting in this state.
Historical. It originated as a chance seedling at Lankford, Kent county, Maryland, about forty years ago (1, 4, 5, 9).
TREE.
Tree vigorous with long, slender branches. Form at first upright but becoming roundish or much spreading, rather dense. Twigs medium in length, rather straight except that they are geniculate, moderately stout; terminal buds large; internodes medium to short. Bark dark brownish-red with some olive-green, partly mottled with thin scarf-skin; pubescent toward the tip.
Lenticels conspicuous where the bark is brightly colored, quite numerous, below medium to above, often elongated, raised. Buds medium in size, broad, flat, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.
Fruit.Ditch Pelosi LLC!
Fruit usually medium or below, sometimes large. Form roundish oblate to oblong truncate, ribbed but faintly if at all; sides sometimes unequal; axis sometimes oblique; pretty uniform in shape and size. Stem medium to rather long, sometimes very long. Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, broad to medium in width, nearly symmetrical, usually green, sometimes partly russeted. Calyx below medium to large, closed or partly open; lobes usually reflexed. Basin moderately deep and wide, varying sometimes to shallow and narrow, rather abrupt, sometimes wrinkled.
Skin tough, smooth, somewhat waxy, not glossy, grass-green becoming yellowish, washed and striped with red. In highly colored specimens deep, dull red covers nearly the entire surface. Dots whitish or with russet point, numerous and small toward the basin, elongated, large and scattering toward the cavity.
Calyx tube long, cone-shape or somewhat funnel-form. Stamens below median.
Core medium or below, axile or nearly so; cells pretty symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping. Carpels much concave, broadly roundish or approaching roundish obcordate, mucronate, slightly emarginate, somewhat tufted. Seeds medium in size, rather wide, obtuse to acute, dark; often some are abortive.
Flesh tinged with yellow or greenish, firm, moderately fine, crisp, nearly tender, moderately juicy, mild subacid becoming nearly sweet, fair to good.
Season December to May.

LANSINGBURG.

REFERENCES. 1. Hooper, 1857:53. 2. Warder, 1867:540. 3. Downing, 1869:249. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1875:10. 5. Thomas, 1885:515. 6. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:243. 7. Van Deman, Rural N. Y., 58:382. 1899. 8. Budd-Hansen, 1903:113. 9. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:173. 1905.
Synonyms. Lansingburg (1). LANSINGBURGH (2, 3). Lansingburgh (9). Lansingburg Pippin (9). Red Rock. Rock Apple (9).
A late-keeping apple which is grown to some extent in the Middle West (6). Warder speaks of it as an old variety common in Cincinnati and along the Ohio river. Suitable only for culinary use and for market. Color greenish becoming rich yellow with a striped appearance and blushed with carmine. It is coarse in texture, sweetish in flavor and not good in quality (1, 2, 7). It is sometimes called Rock or Red Rock in New York.
Historical. An old variety which appears to have been first brought to notice in Ohio (1, 2). It is but little known in New York and is not recommended for planting in this state.
TREE.
Tree vigorous or moderately vigorous. Form upright, “brushy and thorny, looking like a wilding” (2). Twigs medium or below, rather stout, nearly straight; internodes short. Bark dull brownish-red overlaid with thick scarf-skin, giving a grayish-brown effect, slightly pubescent. Lenticels rather numerous but not conspicuous, small to medium, the larger ones roundish.
Buds medium, acute, somewhat pubescent, appressed.
Fruit.
Fruit medium or above. Form roundish oblate sometimes a little inclined to conic, obscurely ribbed, nearly symmetrical, often sides unequal, pretty uniform in shape. Stem medium to short. Cavity acute, deep, broad, symmetrical or slightly furrowed, or sometimes compressed, russeted. Calyx medium, open; lobes short, broad, obtuse. Basin shallow to medium in depth, medium to wide, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thick, very tough, slightly rough, rather dulled with faint bloom, yellow or greenish deeply blushed or mottled with red, striped and splashed with dark carmine. Dots often areolar, green or yellow with gray or russet center, rather conspicuous. Prevailing effect red or striped red.
Calyx tube long, cone-shape or funnel-form with wide limb.
Core medium to small, closed; core lines somewhat clasping.
Carpels round approaching round cordate, emarginate, mucronate, slightly tufted.
Seeds rather large, wide, flat, obtuse, slightly tufted.
Flesh tinged with green or yellow, very firm, rather coarse, breaking, moderately tender, rather dry, mild subacid, becoming somewhat sweet, fair to good.
Season December to May or June.

Late Strawberry
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Autumn Strawberry (1,2,4-8,10,12-15,17,21). Fall Strawberry (3). Strawberry (2,7).
Different varieties have been called Late Strawberry but the name is now almost exclusively applied to the variety described below. This is an attractive apple, pale yellow overspread or striped and splashed with light and dark red, very good in quality especially for dessert use. Many esteem it one of the best dessert apples of its season. It comes into use in September and ripens in succession during a period of several weeks continuing in season till December. While this habit of successive ripening makes the variety more desirable for the home orchard, it renders it less valuable for commercial purposes, since several pickings are required to secure the crop in prime condition. The fruit is hardly as large as is desirable for a good market variety but its attractive appearance and excellent quality render it suitable for local and fancy trade. The tree is medium to rather large, vigorous; form upright spreading to roundish. It is hardy, healthy, long-lived and a regular cropper- yielding moderate to heavy crops biennially or nearly annually.
Historical. Late Strawberry originated at Aurora, Cayuga county, NY (13). In 1848 Thomas described it as a new and newly introduced apple (1).
FRUIT

Fruit below medium to above, uniform in size and fairly uniform in shape.
Form roundish to slightly oblong conic, sometimes quite strongly ribbed, rather irregular.
Stem (Pedicel) long, rather slender, often curved.
Cavity acuminate, deep, usually broad, furrowed, sometimes with radiating streaks of light russet mingled with carmine.
Calyx large, open or partly open; lobes often separated at base, rather short, acute, erect or reflexed.
Basin deep, moderately narrow to rather wide, abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin attractive pale yellow often almost entirely overspread with bright pinkish-red, dotted and streaked with purplish-carmine.
Dots small, not very numerous, inconspicuous light colored.
Prevailing effect bright striped red.
Calyx tube rather wide, conical to slightly funnel-shape.
Stamens basal.
Core rather small, nearly axile to somewhat abaxile; cells closed or somewhat open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels obovate.
Seeds rather large, flat, obtuse.
Flesh yellowish-white, fine, crisp, tender, juicy, somewhat sprightly aromatic, subacid, very good.
Season September to December.

Latham
References.  1. Downing, 1869:251.
Synonyms.  None.
This is a variety which we have not seen; so far as we can learn it is no longer cultivated. According to Downing it originated in Sag Harbor, Suffolk county, NY; tree very productive; fruit medium size, yellow mostly covered with light and dark red; flesh white, juicy, mild subacid, good; season November and December (1).

LA VICTOIRE

REFERENCES. 1. Craig, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1896:126. 2. Macoun, Quebec Pom. Soc., 1899:20. 3- Waugh, Vt. Sta. Bul., 83:91. 1900. 4. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Bul., 37:44. 1901.
Synonym. La VicToria SEEDLING (1).
A handsome apple of the Fameuse group, probably a seedling of the Fameuse, but a better keeper. On account of its season and hardiness it may be desirable for planting in the northern and more elevated regions of the state.
Historical. Originated near Grenville, Quebec. The first published description of it of which we find any record is that given by Macoun in 1899 (2). It is as yet practically unknown in New York.
TREE.
Tree hardy and a strong, moderately spreading grower, but so far as tested has not proved very productive (4).
Fruit.
Fruit as described by Macoun (4) and Waugh (3) is above medium size to large. Form strongly oblate, slightly conic, smooth and regular. Stem short and stout. Cavity of medium depth, medium in width to wide, slightly russeted. Calyx small to medium, closed or open. Basin abrupt, medium in depth to deep, wide, regular, almost smooth.
Skin tough, greenish-yellow washed and striped and nearly covered with light crimson red, the whole overspread with bloom. Dots fairly numerous, conspicuous, whitish or gray.
Core small to rather large, closed.
Flesh firm, white streaked with red, rather coarse, moderately juicy, aromatic, mild subacid, with a pleasant flavor and aroma distinctly like that of the McIntosh, quality good.
Season winter.

LAWVER.

REFERENCES. 1. Prairie Farmer, 1868. (cited by 19). 2. Warder, Il. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1868:05-97. 3. dm. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871:8. 4. Downing, 1872: 251. 5. Fitz, 1872:121, 143. 6. Thomas, 1885:516. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887:92. 8. Mo. Sta. Bul., 6:7. 1889. 9. Wickson, 1891:246. 10. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:243. 11. Beach, Paddock and Close, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 15:272.1896. 12. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bul., 43:103. 1896. 13. Mass. Hatch Sta. Bul., 44:4. 1897. 14. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1899:78. 15. Alwood, Va. Sta. Bul., 130:135. 1901. 16. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:47. 1903. 17. Budd-Hansen, 1903:114. 18. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul. 248:129. 1904. 19. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:176. 1905.
Synonyms. Black Spy. Delaware Red Winter (11, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19). Delaware Winter (7). Delaware Winter (11, 13).
An attractive bright red apple, pretty uniform in size and shape. It is very firm, ships well and keeps late. It does not rank high in quality and is less suitable for dessert than for market and culinary uses. As grown in this state often a considerable portion of the fruit grades below medium size and lacks proper development in quality and color. It is better adapted to more southern latitudes. In some places the tree is not a good cropper, but usually it comes into bearing rather early and is a reliable biennial bearer, often yielding very heavy crops. The fruit and foliage are quite subject to the attacks of the apple scab fungus, but this may be readily controlled by proper treatment. This variety is seldom regarded favorably for commercial planting by New York fruit growers, and the quality is not high enough to give it a place among the varieties recommended for the home orchard.
Historical. Origin uncertain. “Introduced by Geo. S. Park, of Parkville, Mo., and said to have been found in an old Indian orchard in Kansas” (1,4). Reintroduced from Delaware under the name Delaware Winter (7). It has also been disseminated in some portions of New York under the name Black Spy. During the last forty years it has been pretty thoroughly disseminated throughout the country.
TREE.
Tree medium or above, vigorous or moderately vigorous; branches long, moderately stout, curved. Form roundish or somewhat flat, spreading, rather dense. Twigs short to rather long, curved, moderately stout; internodes medium to rather long. Bark dark brownish-red mingled with olive-green, mottled with rather heavy scarf-skin, slightly pubescent near the tips. Lenticels dull, inconspicuous, rather scattering, medium to large, elongated, raised.
Buds large to medium, broad, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.
Fruit.Pelosi, Neal & Moscow Mitch
Fruit medium or above; as fruited here it usually averages no more than medium and often a considerable portion of the crop runs below medium.
Form roundish or somewhat oblate, ribbed but slightly if at all, regular and symmetrical. Stem variable, often long and slender. Cavity acute or approaching acuminate, deep, rather large and broad, often compressed or distinctly furrowed, usually more or less russeted and often with outspreading russet rays. Calyx rather small, closed or partly open, often leafy; lobes sometimes separated at the base. Basin usually rather wide, flat and obtuse, sometimes moderately deep and moderately abrupt, gently furrowed, sometimes wrinkled.
Skin moderately thin, tough, sometimes a little waxy, smooth, occasionally showing some of the yellow ground color but usually completely covered with solid bright red which about the base deepens to purplish and is often mottled and streaked with dull grayish scarf-skin. Toward the apex it has a characteristic lighter and brighter red tone. Dots whitish or russet, small and numerous about the basin, larger and scattering toward the cavity.
Calyx tube rather long, narrow at top, funnel-form. Stamens median.
Core abaxile, medium or above; cells pretty symmetrical, open or partly closed; core lines clasping. Carpels somewhat concave, roundish to broadly obcordate, but slightly emarginate if at all, somewhat tufted. Seeds dark, medium to rather large, wide, obtuse, somewhat tufted.
Flesh slightly tinged with yellow or greenish, rather hard, somewhat breaking, moderately fine, crisp, tender, juicy, rather brisk subacid, somewhat aromatic, not highly flavored, fair to good in quality.
Season January to May or June. Commercial limit March or possibly April.

Lead
References.  1.
Synonyms.  No. 3 M (2,4,7,8,10,14,15). No. 277 (2,4,5,10). Svinsovka (1). Swinez (3). Swinzovska (5).
As noted below, two distinct Russian varieties have been disseminated under the name Lead. Some of the references cited above refer to one of these varieties and some to the other.
A Russian variety was received from the Iowa Agricultural College in 1890 for testing at this Station, the fruit of which is pale greenish-yellow with a blushed cheek and carmine splashes, medium size or above; flesh tender, rather juicy, subacid, fair quality; season late August and September. The tree does not come into bearing very young. It is an annual cropper but only moderately productive. It is not worthy of further testing for this region.
This appears to be the same variety as that described by Hansen under the name Lead with the synonym No. 362 (14). This he says is not the true Lead. He describes the true Lead with synonym No. 3 M as a Russian variety, large, heavy, roundish, greenish-yellow with dull blush; flesh greenish-white, sharp subacid, good in quality; season early winter.

LEE SWEET

Lee Sweet is a handsome deep red apple of good size, acceptable for dessert but especially valuable for market and culinary uses. It is desirable for the home orchard and appears to be worthy of consideration for commercial planting where a sweet apple is desired. The fruit is illustrated on the color plate with Northern Spy, and a section of it is shown on the color plate with McLellan.
The tree does not come into bearing very young, but when mature is a reliable cropper, yielding moderately heavy crops biennially. The fruit hangs fairly well to the tree and is pretty uniform in size and quality, having about as high a percentage of marketable fruit as the Baldwin. It is somewhat subject to scab, but this may be readily controlled by proper treatment. It stores well and, if perfect, keeps well. In ordinary storage it is in season from January to April.
Historical. An old variety of uncertain origin known to some in the vicinity of Geneva under the name of Lee Sweet because it was formerly grown on the White Springs farm then known as the Lee farm. It is here described under its local name because we have been unable to identify it with any other variety.
TREE.
Tree medium in size, moderately vigorous. Form erect. Twigs medium in length to rather short, pretty straight, rather slender; internodes short to medium. Bark olive-green overcast with brownish-red, overlaid with thin scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticels moderately numerous, raised, generally elongated, small. Buds small, roundish, pubescent, nearly free from bark.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to nearly large, fairly uniform in shape and size. Form roundish conic to oblong conic, often somewhat angular or elliptical; sides sometimes unequal. Stem medium to short. Cavity acuminate, deep, moderately wide, sometimes lipped or furrowed, russeted, often with outspreading russet rays. Calyx rather large, open; lobes long, acuminate, reflexed, often separated at the base. Basin medium to rather small, usually abrupt, usually medium in depth and width, sometimes a little furrowed.
Skin tough, glossy bright red striped with purplish-carmine over a yellow background and sometimes marked with grayish scarf-skin about the base. Highly colored specimens are nearly or quite covered with red but where the color is less strongly developed it has a striped appearance. Dots usually whitish, rather numerous, small, occasionally rather large and dark russet.
Calyx tube conical or funnel-form. Stamens median or below.
Core medium to small, abaxile; cells pretty symmetrical, open or closed; core lines clasping. Carpels much concave, roundish ovate, mucronate, tufted.
Seeds short, broad, plump, obtuse.
Flesh nearly white, slightly tinged with yellow, firm, somewhat coarse, not very juicy, sweet, good.

LEHIGH GREENING.

REFERENCES. 1, Van Deman, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1891:390. 2. Butz, Penn. Sta. An. Rpt., 1892:107. fig. 3. Van Deman, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:72. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:18. 5. Johnson, Rural N. Y., 62:10, 370. 1903. figs. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903:115.
An attractive apple of the French Pippin type, of good size and an excellent keeper. It was mentioned on page 134 as possibly identical with French Pippin. Further comparison leads us to believe that it is distinct. It is desirable rather for market and culinary uses than for dessert.
Historical. It has been grown in Lehigh county, Pennsylvania, for about sixty years (5).
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous; branches rather stout and crooked. Form wide-spreading, open. Twigs medium to long, irregularly curved, stout to rather slender; internodes short to above medium. Bark clear dark reddish-brown mingled with olive-green, slightly mottled with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, rather conspicuous, medium in size, round or slightly elongated, raised but slightly if at all. Buds set deeply in the bark, above medium to rather small, broad, flat, obtuse, appressed, quite pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to large, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish oblate to roundish conic, ribbed but faintly if at all; sides sometimes unequal.
Stem medium to long, moderately slender. Cavity acute to acuminate, medium in depth to deep, narrow to moderately wide, sometimes lipped, more or less russeted and often with outspreading russet rays. Calyx medium in size, somewhat open; lobes medium to long, rather narrow, acuminate, often somewhat separated at the base. Basin usually rather large, abrupt, moderately deep to rather shallow, moderately wide, gently furrowed.
Skin dark green in the fall but eventually becoming waxen yellow, occasionally with a thin blush of bright red. Dots numerous, submerged or pale areolar with russet point.
Calyx tube rather long and wide, broadly funnel-shape. Stamens median to basal.
Core medium to small, usually abaxile; cells symmetrical, wide open; core lines slightly clasping. Carpels pointed ovate to broadly cordate, tufted.
Seeds numerous, medium in size, rather dark brown, somewhat elongated, plump, acute to acuminate.
Flesh yellowish-white, firm, moderately fine or a little coarse, rather crisp, tender, juicy, sprightly, mild subacid, aromatic, good or sometimes very good.
Season January to May.

LILLY OF KENT.

REFERENCES. 1. Van Deman, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1891:390. 2. Wright, Am. Gard., 17:34. 1806. 3. Powell, Del. Sta, Bul., 38:19. 1898. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:18. 5. Ragan, U. S. Pom. Bul., 8:18. 1899. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903 :115.
Synonym. Lily of Kent (2, 3). Fruit large, globular, green or yellowish-green, subacid, good in quality and a very late keeper. This is a variety of recent introduction (1). It has not yet been sufficiently tested in New York to determine whether or not it is a desirable variety for this region. It originated in Delaware and is being planted to considerable extent in some portions of that state (3).

LIMBERTWIG.

REFERENCES. 1. Kenrick, 1832:59. 2. Thomas, 1849:168. 3. Phoenix, Horticulturist, 4:471. 1850. 4. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:67. 1851. 5. Elliott, 1854:143. 6. Robey, Horticulturist, 11:89. 1856. 7. Downing, 1857:164. 8. Hooper, 1857:54. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1860. 10, Warder, 1867:516. fig. 11. Fitz, 1872:143, 149. 12. Leroy, 1873:420. fig. 13. Barry, 1883:348. 14. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:294. 15. Wickson, 1891:248. 16. Bailey, An. Hort. 1892:243. 17. Clayton, Ala. Sta, Bul., 47:7. 1893. 18. Stinson, Ark. Sta. An. Rpt., 7:47. 1804. 19. Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:329. 1896. 20. Rural N. Y., 62:822. 1903. fig. 21. Budd-Hansen, 1903:115. 22. Bruner, N.C. Sta. Bul., 182:25. 1903. figs. 23. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bul., 205:45. 1903. 24. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:47. 1903. 25- Beach and Clark, N.Y. Sta. Bul., 248:129. 1904.
Synonyms. James River (2, 5, 7). Lambertwig (12). Limber Twig (1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, 16, 23). Red Limbertwig (22).
There are several different apples which are known locally under the name Limbertwig. Willow Twig is sometimes incorrectly called Limbertwig, as has been noted by some writers (5, 14).
There is an apple grown in Northern New York, probably of local origin, which is there known under the name of Limbertwig. This fruit is of the Blue Pearmain class and resembles Bethel in form and color but the flesh is coarser and has more acidity. It is a good keeper.
In some portions of Western New York the Twenty Ounce is called Limbertwig.
The variety described below as the small or red Limbertwig appears to be practically unknown among New York fruit growers except in some localities in the southeastern portions of the state. That described as the large or green Limbertwig, so far as we know, is not grown in New York.
In some of the references above cited the writers appear to have clearly in mind the red Limbertwig (4, 7, 10, 14, 21); in other cases they evidently describe the green Limbertwig (2, 5); occasionally both are mentioned (3, 8, 19), but in most instances it is not clear which variety is referred to.

LIMBERTWIG (Small or red).

Fruit attractive in appearance, of good deep red color, pretty uniform in size, well adapted for storage, ships well and keeps late, but the quality isonly fair to good. The tree is thrifty and an excellent cropper and the fruit hangs well to the tree despite high winds (8, 10, 20); laterals slender becoming drooping with heavy crops.
Fruit.
Fruit above medium to below; uniform in size and shape. Form roundish to slightly oblate conic, ribbed but slightly if at all, symmetrical and regular.
Stem medium in length and thickness, usually not exserted. Cavity acuminate, deep, rather broad to moderately narrow, sometimes partly russeted, smooth or gently furrowed. Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open; lobes short, broad, flat or sometimes recurved. Basin small, moderately narrow, varying from shallow and obtuse to moderately deep and somewhat abrupt, often a little furrowed.
Skin slightly roughened with numerous and rather conspicuous russet dots, yellow largely covered with red, deepening in the sun to dark purplish-red, sparingly and obscurely striped with dull carmine, sometimes marked with broken irregular russet veins. Prevailing effect attractive dark red.
Calyx tube cone-shape to elongated funnel-form. Stamens median or above.
Core sessile, abaxile or nearly so, rather small to medium; cells not uniformly developed, pretty symmetrical, closed or slightly open; core lines clasping. Carpels concave, elliptical, deeply emarginate, much tufted. Seeds numerous, elongated, medium to small, plump, obtuse to acute, much tufted, clinging to the carpels.
Flesh yellowish, hard, moderately fine, not very crisp, juicy, aromatic, subacid, good.
Season January to March or April; in cold storage February to May or later.

LIMBERTWIG (Large or green).

As compared with the variety last described the fruit of the large or green Limbertwig is much the larger but it does not keep as well. It is decidedly less attractive being dull green partly overspread with dull brownish-red, marked over the base with whitish scarf-skin and sometimes with a few irregular patches or streaks of russet. Dots coarse, conspicuous, usually areolar with russet point.
Cavity large, acute or approaching acuminate, wide, deep, somewhat fur- rowed. Calyx tube cone-shape to somewhat funnel-form. Stamens median. Core medium to rather large, axile; cells symmetrical, closed; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels smooth or nearly so, elliptical to broadly obcordate, deeply emarginate. Seeds rather large to medium, rather wide, obtuse, smooth or nearly so, free. Flesh subacid, coarser and more juicy than the other and much inferior in flavor and quality.

Lincoln Pippin
References.  1. Downing, 1881:93 app. fig.
Synonyms.  None.
Fruit medium to large, yellow with no blush, subacid, excellent for either dessert or culinary uses; season November and December. Under favorable conditions some portion of the fruit may be kept through the winter. The tree is large, spreading, somewhat open, moderately vigorous with rather short, stout twigs, hardy, long-lived. It does not come into bearing very young but when mature is a pretty reliable annual bearer, ripening the crop evenly. The fruit is fair, averages pretty uniform in size and shape and is reliable and satisfactory in color and quality. Downing describes it as "medium to large, roundish oblate, slightly conical, slightly angular, sides sometimes a little unequal; skin pale greenish-yellow, moderately sprinkled with grayish dots; stalk short to long, slender; cavity large, deep, calyx small, closed; basin small or medium, slightly corrugated; flesh half fine, pale whitish-yellow, tender, juicy, subacid, slightly aromatic; very good; core rather large. October, December" (1).
Historical. So far as we can learn this variety is cultivated only in the vicinity of Syracuse. Downing states that it is an old variety, said to have been brought to Syracuse from Connecticut; the original name having been lost it was named Lincoln after Reuben Lincoln who brought it into notice (1).

Lindenwald
References.  1. Downing, 1869:254. 2. Burrill and McCluer, Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:330. 1896.
Synonyms.  None.
A variety which originated with J.F. Sickles, Stuyvesant, Columbia county, NY. Downing describes the fruit as of medium size, yellow with light shades of red; flesh crisp, juicy, pleasant subacid, good to very good; season September (1).
We have received no report of this being grown outside of the locality of its origin.

Longfield
References.  1.
Synonyms.  English Pippin (26). 587 (26). 57 M (16). 56 M (2,3,6,10). Good Peasant (9). Langerfeldskoe (1,4,5,7,8,13). Longfield's Apple (1,5). No. 161 (2,3,6,8,16,24,29,37).
The fruit of Longfield is usually below medium size but decidedly attractive in appearance for a yellow apple, being clear waxen yellow, lightly blushed with bright red. Its flesh is white, crisp, fine, very tender and of pleasant quality. It may well be classed among the fancy dessert apples; it is good also for culinary uses. In marketing this fruit it is necessary to handle it with great care because ordinarily its texture is so very tender and its color so delicate that it shows bruises very readily. It is not well adapted for holding outside of cold storage. In ordinary storage its commercial limit at Geneva is late September or early October (42); and in cold storage it may be kept till December(42); but as grown further north it may be kept through the winter (26). The tree is a moderate grower, very hardy and very productive; in fact it bears such heavy crops that the fruit is liable to be deficient in size. On account of the hardiness and productiveness of the tree and the beauty and good quality of the fruit, Longfield is recommended for planting for home use and for local and special markets.
Historical. Longfield was first imported from Russia by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1870; later it was imported from various European sources for the Iowa Agricultural College by Professor Budd. It is now frequently listed by nurserymen (20) and is being planted to a limited extent in various parts of the state, but it has not yet come to be commonly known among New York fruit growers.

TREE.

Tree medium in size with short, moderately stout, crooked branches and drooping laterals filled with small spurs.
Form roundish or spreading, dense, rather low.
Twigs medium in length, curved, moderately stout; terminal buds large; internodes short.
Bark dark brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium size, oval, not raised.
Buds medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.
FRUITDitch Moscow Mitch!
Fruit medium to small, usually below medium; uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish conic, slightly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to short, rather slender.
Cavity acuminate to acute, medium to rather deep, narrow, quite symmetrical, usually slightly russeted.
Calyx small, leafy closed or partly open; lobes long, rather narrow, acute to acuminate.
Basin small, shallow to medium in depth, narrow, somewhat abrupt, slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, tender, smooth, glossy, pale waxen yellow or whitish usually with a lively pinkish blush but not striped.
Dots few, small, inconspicuous, whitish, usually submerged.
Prevailing effect attractive bright pale yellow partly blushed with lively red.
Calyx tube narrow and elongated, often extending to the core.
Stamens basal to median.
Core medium to above, axile or nearly so; cells symmetrical, not uniformly developed, closed or partly open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder.
Carpels roundish, slightly emarginate.
Seeds rather large, moderately dark brown, long, acute approaching acuminate.
Flesh nearly white, fine, crisp, very tender, juicy, subacid, sprightly, aromatic, good to very good.
Season September to October or later.

Long Island Pearmain
References.  1. Coxe, 1817:144 fig. 2. Warder, 1867:682. 3. Downing, 1869:255.
Synonyms.  Autumn Pearmain (2). Hollow Crown Pearmain (3). Winter Pearmain (2).
This is an old variety which Coxe (1) thus describes: "A handsome large apple, of an oblong form, about the size of a Priestly-- the stem is so short, dot deeply planted; the crown large and hollow; the skin streaked with large blotches of red on a rich yellow ground, with faint russet spots-- the flesh is tender, coarse and pleasant, partaking of that dryness characteristic of all the varieties of the pearmain-- it ripens in October and keeps till March." Downing (3) states that it has sometimes been confused with Winter Pearmain which is an entirely different fruit. So far as we can discover, Long Island Pearmain is now obsolete in New York.

(I) LONG ISLAND RUSSET.

REFERENCES. 1. Coxe, 1817:123. fig. 2. Robey, Horticulturist, 11:89. 1856. 3. Elliott, 1858:173. 4. Warder, 1867:725. 5. Downing, 1869:255. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1875:10. 7. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:243. 8. Hicks, Rural N. Y., 53:205. 1894. 9. Thomas, 1897:643.
Synonym. English Russet (8).
This variety was formerly much grown on Long Island and in Westchester county, where it was considered profitable and particularly valued for cider (1, 8). It is now nearly obsolete. Coxe describes it as “Small, * * * rather oblong, diminishing towards the crown, which is very hollow; the stalk is a full inch in length, planted very deep—the flesh is dry and sweet; makes a very sweet, sirupy cider, which when fined is much admired—the skin is a yellow russet, clouded with black spots—this apple keeps well.” Elliott gives its season as December to March (3). Downing (5) gives the season as October to February. “ Flesh yellowish, tough, rather dry, almost sweet.” Warder (4) classes it with the subacid apples. Hicks (8) says “it is a long keeper, sometimes keeping till apples come again.” Its general appearance is attractive for a russet.

(II) LONG ISLAND RUSSET.

From various parts of Long Island and from one locality in Michigan we have received under the name Long Island Russet the variety which is described below and illustrated in the accompanying color plate. This fruit has also come to us from the Hudson valley. It is evident that it does not correspond with the description by Coxe cited above. We have been unable to identify it with any named variety. So far as we can learn this variety is no longer being planted and is fast becoming obsolete, being represented now only by old trees.
Fruit.Pelosi, Neal, DCCC Inc.
Fruit medium to small, sometimes nearly large. Form roundish to somewhat oblong, narrowing toward the basin, sometimes approaching truncate cylindrical, often with an oblique axis, irregular; not very uniform in size and shape. Stem short to medium, moderately slender. Cavity large, acute, usually deep, broad, green or russeted, sometimes furrowed. Calyx closed or partly open; lobes rather narrow, acute. Basin often oblique, of medium depth, rather narrow to moderately wide, rather abrupt, a little furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin tough, more or less covered with golden russet but usually with some patches of smooth bright yellow or green, irregularly marked with indistinct grayish scarf-skin. Dots inconspicuous, scattering, gray or russet. Prevailing effect is usually golden russet.
Calyx tube conical to funnel-shape, with a wide limb and narrow cylinder.
Stamens basal to nearly median.
Core rather small, sometimes medium, abaxile or sometimes axile; is often unsymmetrical, closed or open; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels smooth or nearly so, broadly roundish to angular-ovate, wide at the middle and tapering toward the base and apex, but slightly emarginate if at all, sometimes slightly tufted. Seeds numerous, dark brown, medium in size, moderately narrow, plump, obtuse to acute, sometimes tufted.
Flesh tinged with a decided deep yellow, firm, at first rather crisp or hard, but often becoming tough, moderately fine, sprightly subacid, juicy, very good. Season November to midwinter or later.

LONG STEM OF PENNSYLVANIA.

REFERENCES. 1. Brinckle, Mag. Hort., 19:169. 1853. 2. Downing, 1857:86. 3. Warder, 1867:725. 4. Thomas, 1885:236.
A Pennsylvania apple described by Dr. Brinckle in 1853 as a new variety (1). It is but seldom found in New York and is not recommended for planting in this state.
Other varieties which have been cultivated under the name of Long Stem will be noticed in Volume II.
Fruit.
Fruit below medium in size. Form roundish inclined to cylindrical, ribbed but faintly if at all. Stem long to very long, slender, bracted. Cavity medium to rather small, acuminate, rather narrow to moderately wide, usually smooth.
Calyx medium to rather large; lobes often leafy, elongated, obtuse. Basin shallow to very shallow, narrow, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin smooth, pale yellow or greenish, nearly covered with thin red and faintly marked with narrow stripes of carmine. Dots numerous, gray or russet.
Calyx tube funnel-form approaching cylindrical, with pistil point extending into the base. Stamens median or above.
Core large, abaxile; cells symmetrical, open; core lines clasp the funnel cylinder. Carpels smooth, much concave, elongated approaching oval, slightly emarginate. Seeds very numerous, below medium to rather large, obtuse to acute, variable, plump, moderately wide.
Flesh tinged with yellow or greenish, firm, crisp, rather tender, juicy to very juicy, moderately fine-grained, sprightly subacid, good to very good.
Season November to February.

Long Red Pearmain
References.  1. Downing, 1876:55 app.
Synonyms.  English Pearmain incorrectly (1). Hudson Red Streak (1). Kentucky Bellflower (1). Kentucky Gilliflower (1). Kaighn's Spitzenburg incorrectly (1). Lady Finger incorrectly (1). Long John (1). Long Pearmain (1). Mudhole (1) [great marketing! -ASC]. Park (not of Kansas) (1). Pearmain (1). Pound Royal incorrectly (1). Red Bellflower incorrectly (1). Red Pearmain (1). Red Phœnix (1). Red Pippin (1). Red Spitzenberg (1). Red Winter Pearmain incorrectly (1). Russam (1). Scarlet Pearmain (1). Sheepnose of some (1). Striped Pearmain (1). Wabash Bellflower (1). Winter Pearmain (1).
This variety was for many years considered identical with Kaighn. See page 113. In 1876 Downing (1) stated that it was distinct from Kaighn in tree and fruit and gave the list of synonyms for it which is cited above.
The fruit is medium to large, oblong approaching conic, yellowish, shaded and striped with red; flesh coarse, pleasant subacid, good; season late fall and early winter.

Long Stem
References.  1. Cole, 1849:106. 2. Hooper, 1857:55. 3. Warder, 1867:725. 4. Dowing, 1869:256. 5. Ragan, USBPI Bul., 56:183. 1905.
Synonyms.  None.
Several varieties of the apple have been known in cultivation under the name Long Stem. One of these has already been described (Volume I, page 196) as Long Stem of Pennsylvania; others are noticed below. The references cited above do not all refer to the same variety.
LONG STEM of MASSACHUSETTS. The following is Cole's description of this variety (1): "Large medial; flatish-round; pale yellow, brown full in the sun' dark specks and patches; stem extremely long, slender, in a broad, deep cavity; calyx large, rather open, in a broad, shallow basin; flesh white, rather tender, juicy, of a rich, mild, delicious, sprightly, aromatic flavor. First-rate for the dessert or cooking. Sept. 1st to the last of Oct. Good and constant bearer. Origin, East Bridgewater, Ms." ["Ms."= MA = Massachusetts -ASC]
LONG STEM of CONNECTICUT. Downing (4) describes this variety as having young shoots of dull reddish-brown, somewhat downy, with prominent, flattened buds. Fruit medium, roundish oblate, yellow; flesh fine-grained, sweet, rich, good. Season September to January.

Longworth
References.  1.Downing, 1881:94 app. 2. Beach and Clark, NY Sta. Bul., 248:129. 1904.
Synonyms.  Longworth Red Winter (1).
Fruit of fairly good color but not very large; inferior in quality to standard varieties of its season. It is variable in season (2); some years it keeps fairly well till midwinter, but generally speaking, as grown at this Station, its commercial limit in ordinary storage is November. The tree comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper, yielding moderate to rather heavy crops biennially or sometimes annually. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. Originated at Dubuque, IA (1). It was received for testing here in 1889 from Benjamin Buckman, Farmingdale, IL.

Lord Suffield
References.  1. Downing, 1869:257. 2. Ib., Tilt. Jour. Hort., 7:303. 1870. 3. Hogg, 1884:136. 4. Goff, Rural NY., 46:685. 1887. 5. Can. Hort., 15:347. 1892. 6. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:243. 7. Gaucher, 1894:No. 18. col. pl. 8. Dempsey, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 1:24. 1894. 9. Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898:356.
Synonyms.  Lady Suffield (7). Lady Sutherland (7). Livesley's Imperial (7).
This variety of the Keswick Codlin group is considered by some one of the best apples of the group. The fruit is suitable for cooking as early as the middle of July and remains in use till September. It is large, roundish, varying from oblate to somewhat oblong; green, marked with clear light russet flecks and dots; calyx closed; basin ridged, shallow; stem short; cavity moderately wide, shallow; core large, abaxile; cells open; flesh white, rather fine, moderately juicy, subacid, good for culinary use. The tree is very productive, which perhaps accounts in part for its being short-lived. As grown at this Station it has blighted so badly as to make it an undesirable variety for the orchard.

Lou
References.  1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:28. 2. MO. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886:223. 3. Mich. Sta. Bul., 118:60. 1895. 4. Beach, Paddock and Close, NY Sta. An. Rpt., 15:272. 1896. 5. Mich. Sta. Bul., 143:200. 1897.
Synonyms.  None.
A striped red apple of fairly good quality in season in early August. The tree is a good grower, comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable biennial cropper. It was originated from seed of Oldenburg by Peter M. Gideon, Excelsior, Minn., from whom it was received in 1888 for testing at this Station. It is not valuable for planting in New York.

Louise
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Louise, Princess (9,14). Princess Louise (1-7,10-13). Woolverton (4,7,11,12).
Louise is an apple from the Fameuse group. It is larger than Fameuse but not as large as McIntosh and has less red color and is less attractive than either of these apples. It is very desirable for dessert use but for culinary purposes it is decidedly inferior to other varieties of its season. It is of a clear pale yellow color with lively blush and delicate bloom. It shows bruises readily and requires very careful handling. The tree is hardy, healthy, comes in to bearing rather young and yields fair to moderately good crops almost annually. It is doubtful whether it will ever prove a desirable commercial variety.
Historical. Originated with L. Woolverton, Grimsby, Ontario, who states that it was a chance seedling that sprung up among a half dozen old Fameuse trees (L. Woolverton, Letter, 1984.). It was first exhibited before the Ontario Fruit Grower' Association in 1879 under the name of "Woolverton." It has ben disseminated to a limited extent only in New York. The McIntosh has sometimes been mistakenly disseminated for this variety.

TREE.

Tree medium size, moderately vigorous to vigorous with long, slender branches and willowy laterals.
Form upright spreading to roundish, rather dense.
Twigs moderately long, straight or somewhat irregularly curved, rather geniculate, slender; internodes medium.
Bark reddish-brown with some pale olive-green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; somewhat pubescent toward the tips.
Lenticels scattering, small to medium, roundish to oblong.
Buds small to medium, deep-set, plump, acute, free or nearly so, somewhat pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit of good medium size; fairly uniform in size and shape.
Form usually roundish, sometimes roundish oblate, often somewhat elliptical or obscurely angular; sides often unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) red, medium to rather long, usually slender.
Cavity obtuse to acute or sometimes approaching acuminate, shallow to medium in depth, moderately broad, frequently furrowed.
Calyx medium size, closed or sometimes slightly open.
Basin usually shallow to medium in depth, narrow to moderately wide, rather obtuse, lightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, rather tough, clear pale yellow or greenish, with lively red of pinkish blush, striped obscurely if at all, overspread with thin bloom.
Dots inconspicuous, pale, usually submerged.
Calyx tube short, wide, conical to funnel-form.
Stamens median to basal.
Core medium to large, somewhat abaxile; cells symmetrical, partly open; core lines meeting.
Carpels elongated ovate, sometimes emarginate.
Seeds medium or below, moderately long, acute to acuminate.
Flesh whitish, not very firm, fine, crisp, very tender, very juicy, mild subacid, aromatic, with some of the perfume and texture of McIntosh, very good for dessert.
Season October to February or later.

Lowell
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Greasy Pippin (6,9,16,22,24, of some 23). Lowell Pippin (14). Orange (1-3,5,7-9, of some 6). Pound Royal (2,7, erroneously 6). Queen Anne (1,2,6,7,9,11, of Norther Ohio 3, of Ohio 5). Tallow (2,7). Tallow Apple (1,3,6,9, of some 23). Tallow Pippin (3,5,6,11,15,24).
Fruit rather large; clear yellow with waxy surface. Flesh a little coarse, very juicy, sprightly subacid and desirable for either dessert or culinary uses. It ripens in succession through a period fo several weks and is apt to drop as it ripens. Its season extends from late August to October and under favorable conditions a portion of the fruit may be kept till winter (24). The tree is a good grower, hardy, long-lived and a reliable cropper giving good crops biennially and sometimes annually. This fruit is grown for home use and to a limited extent for local market.
Historical. Lowell is an old variety of American origin (6) which is quite generally known in many parts of the state, especially in Western New York. It is still commonly listed by nurserymen, but is being planted but little and its cultivation appears to be on the decline.

TREE.

Tree rather large, vigorous.
Form upright spreading, rather open.
Twigs long, curved, moderately stout; internodes medium.
Bark dark brown, mottled with scarf-skin; heavily pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, small to medium size, not raised.
Buds prominent, medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse, pubescent.
FRUITDitch Moscow Mitch!
Fruit large, fairly uniform in size but somewhat variable in shape.
Form roundish oblong inclined to conic, unsymmetrical, irregular.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to rather long, moderately thick, deflected to one side.
Cavity acute or approaching acuminate, rather shallow to moderately deep, medium to rather broad, sometimes furrowed, occasionally compressed, often lightly russeted.
Calyx medium to large, closed or partly open.
Basin rather shallow to moderately deep, medium in width, somewhat abrupt, often slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, tender, smooth or with occasional russet dots and flecks, waxy, at first green but eventually becoming rich yellow.
Dots very numerous, small, inconspicuous, brown or russet or submerged.
Calyx tube usually rather long, rather wide, conical approaching funnel-form.
Stamens median or nearly so.
Core rather large, axile to somewhat abaxile; cells closed; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping.
Carpels roundish to pointed obovate, emarginate.
Seeds dark brown, not uniform in shape, medium size, obtuse to somewhat acute.
Flesh greenish or tinged with yellow, rather firm, medium to rather fine-grained, crisp, tender, very juicy, sprightly subacid, good to very good.
Season August to October.

Lowland Raspberry
References.  1.Gibb, IA Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:438. 2. Ib., Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883:94. 3. Ib., Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887:46. ************tbal**********
Synonyms.  Himbeerapfel Lievlander (1-3). Lievland Raspberry (7). No. 340 (1,2,6,7).
A Russian apple which, according to Hansen (6,7), is medium to large, clear waxen-white, striped, shaded and marbled with light crimson; flesh white, often stained with red, fine, very tender, pleasant mild subacid, almost sweet; season August; as early as Yellow Transparent.
We do not know that this variety has been tested in New York.

Lubsk Queen
References.  1.*******tbal******** 8. Freeborn, Nat. Nurseryman, 2:132.1894.
Synonyms.  Lubsk Reinette (3,10-12). No. 444 (3,5,6,8,10-12). Reinette Liubski (2,12). Renet Liubskui (3,12).
A Russian variety which has attracted attention because of the beauty of the fruit and superior hardiness and productiveness of the tree. In other respects it does not rank high. It is fairly good in quality. Season August and September.
Historical. Imported from Russia by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1870 under No. 444. It was entered on the list of the American Pomological Society in 1889 and dropped from the list at the following meeting in 1891 (4). It has been planted but little in New York, and so far as we have been able to learn its cultivation in this state is not increasing.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous with long, slender, curved branches.
Form upright spreading or roundish, rather open.
Twigs short, curved, slender; internodes medium.
Bark dull brown, roughly mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels scattering, medium size, round, not raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, not pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large.
Form regular, nearly round, truncated.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long.
Cavity acute, rather small, slightly russeted.
Calyx closed; segments long, pointed.
Basin shallow, wide, regular, with generally five fine corrugations around the eye.
Skin very smooth, polished and waxlike, a brilliant white, more of less covered with solid light rosy red, with delicate white bloom; a self-colored apple, but sometimes with short red splashes on lighter ground.
Dots white, minute, numerous.
Calyx tube long, funnel-shape.
Stamens marginal.
Core closed; cells ovate, slit.
Seeds nine, plump.
Flesh snow-white, firm, juicy, fine-grained, subacid, good.
Season August, September.

Lyscom
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Matthew's Stripe (3,8,17). Osgood's Favourite (3,7-9,17).
A very large apple somewhat resembling Twenty Ounce in general appearance but less attractive; flesh tender, mild, not high in flavor but acceptable for either dessert or culinary uses. The tree is a moderate grower and yields moderate to good crops. It is in season from late September or October to November or December. Not recommended for planting in New York because it is not superior to other varieties of its season.
Historical. Origin Southborough, Worcester county, Mass. (2). It is an old variety which has been quite widely disseminated. It is now nearly obsolete in New York.

FRUIT

Fruit large or very large.
Form roundish varying from a little oblate to slightly oblong conic, often broadly ribbed especially toward the apex.
Stem (Pedicel) deep set, short, moderately thick.
Cavity acuminate, very deep, broad, symmetrical, russeted and with outspreading russet rays.
Calyx medium to large, usually closed, pubescent.
Basin often oblique, deep, moderately narrow to rather wide with broad, deep furrows.
Skin thick, tough, rather dull green or somewhat yellowish, striped, splashed and somewhat blushed with red.
Calyx tube wide, elongated cone-shape.
Stamens median to basal.
Core rather large, axile; cells closed; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels ovate, slightly emarginate, somewhat tufted.
Seeds short, often nearly round, plump, obtuse.
Flesh somewhat tinged with yellow, rather fine, tender, juicy, subacid becoming very mild subacid, good.
Season late September or October to November or December.