Apple Home

GANO

REFERENCES. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:156. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1889:6. 3. Stayman, Am. Gard., 11:272. 1890. 4. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:239. 5. Van Deman, 4m. Gard., 20:81. 1899. 6. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 43:187, 270, 271. 1900. 7. Caston, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 8:40. 1901. 8 Va. Sta. Bul., 130:132. 1901. fig. of tree. 9. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Bul., 37:43, 44. 1901. to. Stinson, Mo. Fr. Sta. Bul., 3:24. 1902. 11. Kan. Sta. Bul., 106:53. 1902. 12. Budd-Hansen, 1903:86. fig. 13. Thomas, 1903:326. 14. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:42. 1903. 15. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:121. 1904. 16. Wickson, Western Fruit Grower, 1904:124. 17. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:116. 1905.  18.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 61.
Synonyms. Black Ben Davis (17). Jacks Red (5). Ozark (13). Payton (17). Reagan (13). Red Ben Davis (17).
This is a variety of the Ben Davis type. In the nursery the tree resembles Ben Davis very closely. As grown in Western New York the fruit is more highly colored but on the average is somewhat smaller than that of Ben Davis. It is less striped in appearance and more of a solid, deep red color, often with a contrasting spot of clear yellow where it has been closely covered by a leaf or twig. In this respect and in its deep, abrupt basin it suggests Jonathan, as at times it also does by its brilliant, deep red or purplish color. It is very attractive in appearance, stands handling well and is a good keeper. In quality it is perhaps a little superior to Ben Davis. The tree comes into bearing young and is an excellent cropper, bearing regularly and abundantly. It has not been tested very many years in New York, but it appears to be adapted to about the same region as Ben Davis.
Historical. Origin obscure. Brought to notice in Missouri about twenty-five years ago and disseminated under the name Gano (1, 5, 6). It is supposed by some that the original stock came from Kentucky (5). Some believe that Gano is the same as Black Ben Davis. It certainly resembles Black Ben Davis very closely but the preponderance of evidence at present seems to favor the opinion that it is of distinct origin (16).
TREE
Tree moderately vigorous; branches long, moderately stout and inclined to droop; laterals willowy, short, slender. Form like that of Ben Davis, upright spreading becoming somewhat drooping, rather dense. Twigs short to rather long, slightly curved, markedly geniculate, moderately stout; internodes short to rather long. Bark bright brownish-red mingled with olive-green, lightly overcast with mottled and streaked gray scarf-skin; pubescent. Lenticels not conspicuous, scattering, medium, round to ovate or often elongated, slightly raised. Buds small to medium with prominent shoulder, plump, obtuse, appressed, decidedly pubescent, deeply set in bark.
[Diseases:  Somewhat susceptible to the major diseases (18).] Fruit.Moscow Mitch, Putin's little *itch
Fruit medium to sometimes large. Form roundish conic, usually regular, symmetrical; uniform in size and shape. Stem medium to long and slender.
Cavity acute, deep, rather broad, symmetrical, sometimes slightly furrowed or compressed, usually with radiating green russet or red russet. Calyx medium or above, closed or partly open; pubescent; lobes rather broad, acute to acuminate. Basin abrupt, moderately narrow to rather wide, often deep.
Skin smooth, waxy, clear light yellow, mottled and blushed with bright light pinkish-red often deepening to a purplish-red, more or less obscurely striped. Dots numerous, small, inconspicuous. Prevailing color fine red.
Calyx tube short, cone-shape with fleshy pistil point projecting into its base, or sometimes elongated funnel-form. Stamens median to marginal.
Core below medium to large, somewhat abaxile with a comparatively rather wide hollow cylinder at the axis; cells closed, or partly open, usually symmetrical but often not uniformly developed; core lines meeting when the calyx tube is cone-shape but clasping the funnel cylinder when it is funnel-form.
Carpels broadly roundish or elongated, slightly tufted, emarginate. Seeds numerous, broad, obtuse, large, dark, sometimes tufted.
Flesh whitish slightly tinged with yellow, firm, moderately tender, rather coarse, moderately crisp, juicy, mild subacid, good or nearly good in quality.  [Useful for pies, baking and frying as well as fresh-eating (18).]
Season about the same as that of Ben Davis, extending from December to May in Western New York. Commercial limit in common storage March, in cold storage April.

Garden Royal
References.  1.  XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 62.
Synonyms.  None.
Garden Royal is not a good variety for commercial planting because the fruit is too small and its season early and short, but by many it is considered one of the very best dessert apples of late summer and early autumn. The fruit is of regular form, very handsome deep yellow striped with orange-red and dark crimson. The flesh is very tender, aromatic and with a delicate, pleasant acid flavor; season, August and September. The tree when full grown is of medium size, moderately vigorous, with roundish head. It appears to be hardy, healthy and long-lived, comes into bearing young and is a reliable biennial cropper.
Historical. Origin Sudbury, Mass. (2). It is occasionally found in this state in home orchards. It is now little propagated by nurserymen and seldom planted.
[Diseases:  Susceptible to the major diseases (Burford).]

FRUIT

Fruit medium or below.
Form round slightly oblate, often a little inclined to conic, regular or obscurely ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, straight, rather slender.
Cavity acute sometimes approaching acuminate, rather deep and broad, slightly furrowed, often faintly russeted.
Calyx small to above medium, open or partly closed; lobes often separated at base, rather short, acute.
Basin moderately shallow; rather wide, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, slightly wrinkled.
Skin thin, greenish-yellow, sometimes entirely overspread with red, irregularly striped and splashed with carmine.
Dots numerous, rather conspicuous, medium or above, often irregular, russet or yellowish.
Calyx tube medium size, funnel-shape.
Stamens median to nearly marginal.
Core small, axile; cells closed or slightly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels small, elliptical, emarginate.
Flesh tinged with yellow, fine, tender, juicy, agreeable mild subacid, aromatic, very good.  [Not very useful for uses other than dessert (Burford).]
Season late August and September.  [Poor keeper (Burford).]

Gardner Sweet Pearmain
Reference.  1. Downing, 1869:188.
Synonyms.  None.
A Long Island variety, the fruit of which, according to Downing (1), is medium in size, nearly covered with red; flesh whitish, sweet, good; season September. This variety is unknown to us; so far as we have been able to learn it is no longer propagated.

Genesee Flower
References.  1. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290.
Synonyms.  Demary Flower (of Genesee) (1). Flower of Genesee Hawkins Pippin. Pride of Genesee.
Fruit large, remarkably uniform in size and shape, with very few cells. In color and general appearance it resembles Pumpkin Sweet, commonly called Pound Sweet. it is not an apple of high dessert quality, but is very good for culinary uses, having a pleasant mild subacid flavor. It does not always sell well because the color is green and the variety is not generally well known. With some growers the tree is not a satisfactory cropper, but others find it a regular and abundant bearer, yielding good to heavy crops almost annually, and regard the variety as desirable for commercial planting.
Historical. This variety appears to be known by the name Genesee Flower more than by any other, but Mr. Nelson Bogue of Batavia informs us that it is also known locally under the various names Flower of Genesee, Pride of Genesee, Hawkins Pippin, and Demary. He states that the original tree, now about sixty years old, is still standing on the old Demary farm, in the town of Alexander, Genesee county, NY. The cultivation of this variety appears to be confined principally to the counties of Genesee, Wyoming and Orleans, and it does not appear to be increasing.

FRUIT

Fruit large.
Form roundish, somewhat oblate.
Stem (Pedicel) short, rather slender.
Cavity broad, moderately deep, russeted.
Calyx medium size, partly open.
Basin shallow, irregular, often distinctly ridged.
Skin light green mingled with light yellow.
Dots numerous, pale, with a few that are large and russet.
Flesh nearly white, mild subacid, good for culinary use but not much esteemed for dessert.
Season late September to November.

GENEVA PIPPIN

REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1857:111. 2. Ib. 1872:180. fig. 3. Thomas, 1885 :250.
Synonym. WINTER Pippin of GENEVA (1, 3). Winter Pippin of Geneva (2).
Resembles Fall Pippin in tree and fruit but a much better keeper, being in season from January to May. Found growing in the garden of Mrs. Crittenden, Geneva, many years ago (1). Evidently it is no longer listed by nurserymen and so far as we can discover has become obsolete.

Gideon
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Gideon White (14).
Fruit decidedly attractive in general appearance being of good size, clear waxen yellow often with a bright pinkish blush but it is deficient in quality and apt to be defective in that the flesh becomes withered and discolored about the core as soon as the fruit reaches maturity. It is not a good variety for holding in cold storage as it stands heat poorly before going into storage and when in storage goes down quickly. In ordinary storage it is inferior to Hubbardston in keeping qualities, being in season from October to December or possibly later (14). The tree is of an exceptionally fine habit in the nursery, and in the orchard it is an upright vigorous grower, very hardy and health, comes into bearing young and yields full crops biennially or nearly annually. It is not recommended for planting in New York except it be as a stock upon which to topwork less hardy varieties.
Historical. Originated by Peter M. Gideon, Excelsior, Minn., from crab seed. The following is his statement of its purpose. "The Gideon is a seedling of the small crab; the seed came from Boston, where the tree was surrounded in the orchard by Blue Pearmain. I consider the tree a cross between those two. The tree resembles Blue Pearmain; seed was taken from the crab" (1).

TREE.

Tree medium to large, vigorous or moderately vigorous.
Form at first upright but becoming spreading and open.
Twigs short, curved, stout with large terminal buds; internodes medium.
Bark brown mingled with some olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; heavily pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium to small, oblong, slightly raised.
Buds prominent, large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit usually above medium to large, uniform in size.
Form roundish conical or somewhat ovate, sometimes inclined to oblong, angular.
Stem (Pedicel) long to below medium, slender.
Cavity acute or somewhat acuminate, deep, broad to medium in width, sometimes lightly russeted.
Calyx small, closed; lobes medium in length, rather narrow, acute, reflexed.
Basin small to medium, sometimes oblique, shallow or very shallow, narrow to medium in width, rather obtuse, somewhat wrinkled, usually with narrow but not prominent ridges.
Skin rather thin, glossy, clear pale waxen yellow, sometimes with beautiful pink blush on exposed cheek.
Dots light, submerged, inconspicuous, except where the skin is blushed.
Calyx tube short, narrow, often funnel-shape with very short, truncate cylinder.
Stamens marginal to median.
Core medium size, axile or abaxile; cells closed or open; core lines meeting the limb or clasping the cylinder.
Carpels round to broadly ovate or elliptical, emarginate, tufted.
Seeds rather large, irregular, medium in width, rather long, not very plump, acute to acuminate, tufted, light brown.
Flesh whitish or tinged with yellow, of rather soft loose texture, a little coarse, crisp, juicy, brisk subacid to mild subacid, fair to good.
Season October.

GIDEON SWEET.

REFERENCES. 1. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bul., 205:42. 1903. 2. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:121. 1904.
Received for testing at this Station in 1888 from Peter M. Gideon, Excelsior, Minn. It is clearly of the Blue Pearmain class. This is shown by the form and colors of the fruit, the characteristic large dots, the blue bloom, the color, texture and quality of the flesh, and the tendency of the fruit to shrivel when held too long in storage.
It has been fruited at the Geneva Station for several years, and appears to be worthy of planting for trial where a sweet apple of the Blue Pearmain type is desired. It colors well, is quite attractive in appearance, desirable in size, good in quality, and a good keeper. The flesh is yellowish, juicy, aromatic, mild subacid mingled with sweet, eventually becoming sweet; good to very good. It is in season from November to April. The tree is vigorous, wide-spreading or roundish, almost an annual bearer, alternating lighter with heavier crops. On the average it is satisfactorily productive.
The fruit resembles that of Bethel very closely, but we have not yet been able to determine definitely whether or not the two are identical, not having had the privilege of comparing them when grown under similar conditions. Bethel from Northern New York and Northern New England, as compared with fruit of Gideon Sweet from the orchard at this Station, shows no constant differences from Gideon Sweet in the form of the fruit or in the characteristics of either the cavity or the basin, but the skin is redder and the flesh is sometimes tinged with red while the Gideon Sweet has a yellower skin, its flesh is not tinged with red, is sweeter and better in quality and the core is more widely abaxile. In both the Gideon Sweet and the Bethel the stem is characteristically curved to one side.
TREE.
Tree vigorous; branches short, moderately stout, crooked. Form roundish to wide-spreading, rather dense. Twigs short to below medium length, straight, rather slender to moderately stout; quite pubescent towards the tips; internodes short to medium. Bark clear reddish-brown over olive-green, very lightly coated with gray scarf-skin; slightly pubescent. Lenticels moderately numerous, scattering, small, roundish or elongated; the elongated ones are raised. Buds small to medium, broad, obtuse, appressed, quite pubescent, deeply set in bark.
Fruit.Say Nyet to Moscow Mitch
Fruit above medium to large. Form roundish sometimes inclined to conic, often slightly oblate, elliptical or broadly and obscurely ribbed; sides sometimes unequal, uniform in size and shape. Stem medium to rather long, curved towards one side. Cavity moderately broad to broad, acuminate or acute, deep, indistinctly furrowed, often with greenish or red russet spreading out upon the base of the fruit. Calyx small or medium, closed or slightly open; lobes long, acuminate or acute. Basin shallow to moderately deep, broad, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, slightly furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin tough, nearly smooth at base except where the russet spreads out from the cavity but somewhat rough towards the apex, attractive deep yellow or greenish mottled and blushed with orange-red sometimes deepening to a purplish hue, irregularly splashed and striped with deep carmine and overspread with a thin bloom which produces a rather dull effect. When polished the colors become clear yellow and bright dark red and carmine. Dots conspicuous, yellow or russet, small and very numerous toward the calyx, more scattering, larger, irregular and more often grayish areolar toward the base.
Calyx tube rather large, broad, conical or sometimes inclined to funnel-form. Stamens median to basal.
Core irregular, abaxile, medium to large; cells often unsymmetrical, open or partly closed; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels roundish or inclined to cordate, slightly tufted. Seeds below medium to large, light brown, rather narrow, acute, tufted.
Flesh yellowish, moderately firm, crisp, somewhat coarse, juicy, aromatic, mild subacid mingled with sweet eventually becoming sweet, good to very good.
Season November to April.

GILLIFLOWER.

The old variety which is correctly known among pomologists as the Black Gilliflower is commonly known to fruit growers by the simple name Gilliflower. For an account of this variety the reader is referred to Black Gilliflower.
The Cornish Gilliflower is a very old English variety quite distinct from the Black Gilliflower. It was formerly somewhat grown but it is now practically obsolete in New York.

GILPIN.

REFERENCES. 1. Coxe, 1817:155. fig. 2. Thacher, 1822:122. 3. Wilson, 1828:136. 4. Kenrick, 1832:42. 5. Downing, 1845:144. 6. Thomas, 1849:164, 189. fig. 7. Cole, 1849:135. 8. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:66. 1851. 9. Hooper, 1857:39. 10. Elliott, 1858:135. 11. dim. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 12. Warder, 1867:559. fig. 13. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292. 14. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:239. 15. Budd-Hansen, 1903:89. 16. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:42. 1903. 17. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248: 121. 1904.  18.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 63.
Synonyms. CARTHOUSE (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8). Carthouse (5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 23, 15, 16). Gilpin (6). Little Red Romanite (12, 15, 17). Red Romanite of Ohio (6). Romanite (7). Romanite of the West (9, 10).
As grown in New York Gilpin is not a good commercial variety because it is rather small and does not rank high in quality. Its color is rather dark red over a clear yellow background. In ordinary cellar storage it usually keeps till June or later and is then accept- able for dessert and very good for certain culinary uses, particularly for boiling. It makes excellent cider. The tree is hardy, healthy, moderately productive and a biennial bearer. The fruit hangs firmly to the tree till loosened by the frost.
Historical. “This apple is said to have been brought from Virginia. It obtained its name from a family in the Delaware state” (1). “It was cultivated and distributed by Coxe and has found its way into the orchards and into favor all over the country on account of its productiveness and early bearing” (12).
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous or slow growing. Form round, open, spreading with rather short and somewhat drooping laterals. Twigs short, slender, straight; internodes medium. Bark rather dull reddish-brown overlaid with thin to rather thick scarf-skin; somewhat pubescent. Lenticels moderately numerous, small, elongated, raised, of clear color, conspicuous. Buds rather small, prominent, heavily pubescent, adhering. Foliage not very dense, somewhat curled.
[Diseases:  "Moderately resistant to the major diseases" (18).]
Fruit.Vote out Moscow Mitch, while you still can!
Fruit above medium to rather small; uniform in size and shape. Form roundish to ovate truncate, sometimes nearly cylindrical, often obscurely ribbed, symmetrical or sides slightly unequal, sometimes oblique. Stem short.
Cavity acute to acuminate, sometimes shallow but usually deep, rather broad, obscurely furrowed or compressed, sometimes lipped, often partly russeted.
Calyx large, open, rarely closed; lobes leafy, reflexed, long, acute or acuminate, sometimes separated at base. Basin often oblique, usually deep, wide, abrupt and prominently furrowed but sometimes rather shallow and moderately narrow or compressed, often distinctly wrinkled.
Skin tough, smooth, rather glossy, greenish-yellow becoming clear deep yellow, with brownish-red cheek often deepening to an attractive clear dark red. Prevailing effect dark red mingled with good yellow.
Calyx tube wide varying from short truncate funnel-shape to urn-shape.
Stamens basal.
Core axile, below medium to above; cells pretty symmetrical, usually closed or sometimes partly open; core lines meeting or sometimes slightly clasping.
Carpels round to ovate, narrowing towards apex, mucronate, slightly emarginate. Seeds numerous, dark brown, large to medium or below, plump, acute, slightly tufted.
Flesh yellowish, very firm, rather coarse, at first hard but becoming somewhat crisp and tender as the season advances, moderately juicy, nearly sweet or mild subacid, pleasant, good.  [Also useful for cider (18).]
Season February to June.

Ginnie
References.  1.NY Sta. An. Rpt. 2:35. 1883. 2. Beach and Paddock, NY Sta. An. Rpt. 14:252, 257. 1895. 3. Beach and Clark, NY Sta. Bul. 248:121. 194.
Synonyms.  Aunt Ginnie (1,2,3).
An autumn apple of good color and good quality. It comes into bearing early and yields some fruit nearly every year. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. Received from Ellwanger and Barry, Rochester, NY in 1883 for testing at this Station. We do not know its origin. So far as we have learned it is practically unknown among New York fruit growers.

TREE.

Tree
Form rather upright, moderately vigorous, moderately productive.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large.
Form oblate conic, broad and flattened at the base, obscurely ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium, not exserted.
Cavity large, acuminate, broad, deep, with conspicuous, broad, irregular, outspreading russet rays.
Calyx small, nearly closed.
Basin shallow to medium in depth, rather narrow to moderately wide, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin yellow nearly covered with bright red and marked with broad stripes and splashes of bright carmine.
Dots minute, russet.
Prevailing effect red striped.
Calyx tube funnel-form.
Stamens basal or nearly so.
Core very large, abaxile; cells pretty symmetrical, open; core lines clasp the funnel cylinder.
Carpels broadly roundish, emarginate, tufted.
Seeds medium in size, rather wide, obtuse to somewhat acute.
Flesh whitish, rather coarse, moderately juicy, aromatic, subacid, good to very good.
Season late September to early winter; commercial limit November in common storage (3).

GIVENS

REFERENCES. 1. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bul., 49:12. 1808. fig. 2. Ib., 60:129.1899.
Synonym. Arkansas Baptist (2).
A late keeping red winter apple fully equal to Ben Davis in quality. At the Geneva Station it has come into bearing very young and so far as tested has been quite productive. The tree is a moderate grower. In the nursery it is a poor grower being “crooked and willowy something after the style of the Willow Twig.”67 It may be worthy of testing for commercial purposes in regions where Ben Davis succeeds.
Historical. Originated on the farm of Mr. Givens, Benton county, Ark. Noticed by Professor Stinson in 1898 as one of the promising new Arkansas seedlings (1).
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous; branches rather long, moderately stout. Form upright spreading, rather open. Twigs long, straight, stout; internodes medium. Bark dark reddish-brown, streaked lightly with grayish scarf-skin; pubescent. Lenticels scattering, large, oval, raised. Buds medium, broad, obtuse, appressed, pubescent, deeply set in bark.
Fruit.
Fruit above medium to rather small. Form oblate or truncate to roundish conic, ribbed broadly and faintly if at all, sides often slightly unequal. Stem long to very long. Cavity somewhat furrowed, wide, deep, acute, with green or thin russet outspreading rays. Calyx large to very large, closed or partly open; lobes leafy, long, wide, acute. Basin moderately deep to deep, medium in width to wide, somewhat obtuse to very abrupt, wrinkled, symmetrical.
Skim tough, smooth, yellow or greenish nearly covered with dark red inconspicuously mottled and striped with deeper red. Sometimes a suture extends from cavity to basin. Dots small, whitish or with russet points, inconspicuous. Prevailing effect red.
Calyx tube funnel-form, often meeting the cylinder of the core. Stamens median or below.
Core medium to large, slightly abaxile with a rather wide hollow cylinder in the axis; cells somewhat unsymmetrical, closed or slightly open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels broadly roundish. Seeds numerous, medium to large, wide, dark, obtuse.
Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, firm, rather fine-grained, not very crisp nor very tender, moderately juicy, mild subacid, good.
Season January to May or June.

Gladstone
References.  1. Hogg, 1884:150. 2. NY Sta. An. Rpt., 11:224. 1892. 3. Hansen, S.D. Sta. Bul. 76:52. 1902.
Synonyms.  Mr. Gladstone (1).
Fruit of good size, and when highly colored rather attractive. In general appearance it is intermediate between Oldenburg and Gravenstein, perhaps resembling Gravenstein in color more than Oldenburg. It is not equal to either of these varieties in quality. The tree comes into bearing young, is an annual cropper and productive. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. This is a comparatively recent introduction from England. It has not been extensively disseminated and so far as we can learn its cultivation is not increasing in this country.

TREE.

Tree rather small, moderately vigorous with short, stout branches.
Form spreading and inclined to droop.
Twigs moderately long, curved, stout, with large terminal buds; internodes medium in size.
Bark brown, tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, conspicuous, medium size, round, slightly raised.
Buds medium size, broad, flat, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent.
FRUIT
Fruit medium to large, uniform.
Form roundish oblate, slightly conic, obscurely ribbed; sides usually unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium in length, moderately slender.
Cavity acuminate to acute, rather wide, moderately deep to deep, sometimes with outspreading russet.
Calyx below medium to rather large, closed or somewhat open.
Basin rather small, shallow to medium in depth, medium in width to rather wide, a little abrupt, slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, smooth, greenish-yellow or pale yellow, more or less thinly overspread with red, irregularly mottled, splashed and distinctly striped with pinkish carmine.
Dots rather numerous, inconspicuous, light colored, submerged.
Calyx tube rather short, cone-shape to funnel-form.
Stamens median.
Core medium to rather large, usually axile; cells symmetrical, closed or slightly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish, very slightly emarginate
Seeds rather dark brown, very wide, flat, obtuse to acute.
Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, moderately firm, a little coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, mild subacid, fair in quality.
Season September and October.

GLENLOCH.

REFERENCE. 1. Watts, Tenn. Sta. Bul., 1:12. 1896. fig.
Fruit large, closely resembling York Imperial. Tree very productive. A variety of Tennessee origin which probably is not well adapted for growing in New York except possibly in the southeastern part of the state (1).

Gloria Mundi
References.  1. 17.  XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 62.
Synonyms.  American Gloria Mundi ((4,7,21). American Mammoth (7,10,15,17,19,21). Baltimore (10,12,14,21,23,26, of some 19). Baltimore Pippin (15,17,19). Belle Dubois (23). Belle Josephine (19,21). Copp's Mammoth (22). Glazenwood (10). Glazenwood Gloria Mundi (19,21,23). Joséphine (21). Kinderhook Pippin (14). Mommoth (21,23). Mammoth Pippin (2-21,26). Melon (21). Mississippi? (19). Monstreuse Pippin (21). Monstrous Pippin (23). Mountain Flora (22). NY Gloria Mundi (3,7-10,15,19,21). Ox Apple (10,12,14,15,19,23,26). Pound (17). Vandyne Apple (9).
Fruit of the largest; seldom cultivated except for exhibition; suitable only for culinary purposes. The tree is large, vigorous, spreading, hardy and long-lived. It has been commonly held to be unproductive, but a few fruit growers in Southeastern New York report that it is a god bearer and a profitable commercial variety.
Historical. The exact place of origin of this apple seems doubtful. In 1804 Mease stated, "It originated on the farm of Mr. Crooks, near Red Hook in New York" (1). Thirteen years later Coxe credited it with a Lohng Island origin (3). All that can be stated with certainty is that it is an old variety known in parts of Eastern New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania in the beginning of the last century.
[Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major apple diseases (Burford).] FRUIT
Fruit very large or large, uniform.
Form roundish with truncate ends, slightly conical, ribbed; sides usually unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to short, moderately thick.
Cavity large, acuminate, moderately deep to deep, broad, furrowed and compressed, sometimes slightly russeted.
Calyx medium to large, open or partly cosed; lobes separated at base, short, narrow.
Basin large, moderately deep to deep, rather wide, somewhat abrupt, sometimes compressed, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin greenish-yellow sometimes with faint bronze blush.
Dots small to medium, often areolar with russet center, or light colored and submerged.
Prevailing effect yellow or greenish.
Calyx tube very large, long, wide, broadly conical extending to core or approaching cylindrical below.
Stamens median.
Core medium to rather large, usually decidedly abaxile; cells symmetrical, open; core lines usually clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish to somewhat elliptical, slightly tufted.
Seeds moderately dark brown, medium to rather small, rather narrow, short, plump, obtuse to acute, sometimes tufted.
Flesh slightly tinged with greenish-yellow, coarse, moderately crisp, rather tender, juicy, rather mild subacid, fair or nearly good in quality.  [Used for baking as well as dessert (Burford).]
Season October to January.  [A poor keeper when grown in the South (Burford).]

GOLDEN MEDAL.

REFERENCES. 1. Goff, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt. 7:90. 1888. 2. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 1§:280. 1896. 3. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:42. 1903. 4. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:121. 1904. 5. Ragan, U. S. B.P.I. Bul. 56:124. 1905.
Synonym. Gold MEDAL (3, 5).
Fruit attractive for a green or yellow apple and a remarkably good keeper. The tree comes into bearing moderately early, is an annual bearer, bears regularly and is satisfactorily productive. It is worthy of planting for trial where a late keeping sweet apple is desired (4).
Historical. Received here for testing from J. R. and A. Murdock, Pittsburg, Pa., 1888.
TREE
Tree vigorous. Form upright. Twigs short to medium, of average thickness, bowed and irregular; rather pubescent. Bark brownish-red overlaid with rather thin scarf-skin; internodes medium. Lenticels inconspicuous, rather scattering, small, round. Buds medium, roundish, pubescent, adhering to bark.
Fruit.Vote out Moscow Mitch, while you still can!
Fruit above medium to large. Form roundish to roundish oblate, somewhat ribbed. Stem rather short. Cavity acute, deep, rather broad, usually distinctly furrowed, sometimes compressed, sometimes slightly russeted.
Calyx small, sometimes medium, usually closed. Basin often somewhat oblique, round, shallow and narrow varying to rather wide and moderately deep, usually rather abrupt, obscurely furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, attractive pale yellow marbled with green, or greenish, sometimes faintly blushed. Dots numerous, conspicuous, whitish or sometimes with russet point.
Calyx tube funnel-shape.
Core rather large; cells open or partly closed; core lines clasping. Carpels roundish obcordate, somewhat tufted. Seeds numerous, large to very large, wide, obtuse, somewhat tufted, dark.
Flesh tinged with yellow, slightly astringent, firm, moderately fine, somewhat crisp, tender, moderately juicy, sweet, fair to good.
Season December to May or June.

GOLDEN PIPPIN.
REFERENCES. 1. Forsyth, 1803:52. 2. Coxe, 1817:138. fig. 3. Thacher, 1822:125. 4. N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:477. 5. Floy-Lindley, 1833:12. 6. Mag. Hort., 1:265. 1835. 7. Downing, 1845:112. fig. 8. Thomas, 1849:181, 189. fig. g. Cole, 1849:128. 10. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:82. 1851. 11. Hooper, 1857:41. 12. Elliott, 1858:171. 13. Warder, 1867:720. 14. Leroy, 1873:510. 15. Hogg, 1884:91. 16. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:240.
Synonyms. D’Or p’ANGLETERRE (14). ENcLisH GoLpen Prrprn (8). English Golden Pippin (7, 12, 14). Old Golden Pippin (7, 12, 14). Pepin d’Or (5, 7).
A rather small, smooth, white or yellowish apple with a shade of red towards the base. In season from November to March. In England it has long been esteemed as a very valuable dessert and culinary apple (7, 14, 15).
It does not succeed well here (7). There are many varieties of the English Golden Pippin, the fruit of which differs but little from that of the old variety but the trees are more vigorous (7). None of these appear to have gained favorable recognition in this country. Floy says, “The English Golden Pippin grows with delicate small shoots and is not calculated for an orchard; but if properly managed it makes a beautiful espalier tree and is an abundant bearer. * * * The apple is not much known in this country; the kind called here Golden Pippin is a very different fruit” (5).
The Golden Pippins of New York and New England are fall apples. For an account of them the reader is referred to the succeeding volume.

The Golden Pippins
The name Golden Pippin has been applied to several distinct varieties, the most important of which are mentioned below.
The Golden Pippin of England is a small, yellowish apple with shade of red, which is in season from November to March. This has already been described in Volume I, page 141.
The Golden Pippin of Westchester County, also known under the name of American Golden Pippin and by various other synonyms, is described as Golding, page 82, which is the name now accepted for this variety by pomologists. In addition to the varieties described below under the name Golden Pippin there are several other sorts which have been known under this name.

(I) Golden Pippin
References.  1. Downing, 1869:195. 2. Thomas, 1875:500. 3. Bailey, An. Hort. 1892:240. 4. Ragan, U.S.B.P.I. Bull. 56:123. 1905. 5. Ib., 56:347. 1905.
Synonyms.  Butter Pippin (1). Large Golden Pippin (1). Mammoth (1,2). Pound Royal (2, of some 1). York Pippin (1,5).
This variety belongs in the Fall Pippin group of apples. In Central and Western New York it is often called York Pippin. The fruit is large, coarse-grained, with a very pleasant flavor, and is suitable for either dessert or culinary uses. As compared with Fall Pippin the fruit is harder, keeps longer and stands shipping better in hot weather. In Western New York its season in ordinary storage extends from about September 20 to January 1. It holds its flavor and quality well for a late fall and early winter sort. It frequently brings better prices than Fall Pippin, and is perhaps somewhat hardier. it is generally healthy, vigorous, quite long-lived, and when full grown becomes a pretty large tree. It is a reliable cropper, bearing good to heavy crops biennially or sometimes annually. There is apt to be considerable loss by premature dropping of the fruit, and unless proper preventative measures are taken the crop may be seriously injured by apple scab and codling moth, but with proper treatment these pests may be kept under good control. Golden Pippin is grown to a considerable extent in various parts of New York state and in New England. In some sections it is regarded as one of the most desirable of the fall varieties for commercial planting.
Historical. The origin of this variety is unknown. It has long been in cultivation. In New York it is now found mostly in old orchards and, generally speaking, its cultivation is not increasing.

TREE.

FRUIT

Fruit very large or large, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish to roundish oblate, sometimes slightly conic, often with a broad flat base and broadly ribbed toward the apex.
Stem (Pedicel) long to medium, thick, sometimes swollen.
Cavity acute to acuminate, medium in depth, broad, usually rather symmetrical, sometimes lipped, russeted and often with heavy, outspreading russet rays.
Calyx rather large, closed.
Basin deep, moderately wide to wide, abrupt, slightly furrowed, sometimes irregularly compressed.
Skin rather tender, green or yellowish changing to a deeper and rather attractive yellow when fully mature, sometimes with bronze blush and russet flecks.
Dots small to rather large and conspicuous, greenish and submerged or with russet point.
Calyx tube wide, conical.
Stamens median to somewhat basal.
Core rather small, somewhat abaxile; cells open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels roundish or approaching elliptical, sometimes obovate, heavily tufted.
Seeds few, often not perfectly developed, medium size, irregular, rather dark brown, rather plump, acute.
Flesh yellowish, coarse, rather tender, juicy, agreeable mild subacid, somewhat aromatic, good to very good.
Season late September to December or January.

(II) Golden Pippin
References.  1. Downing, 1869:194. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:240.
Synonyms.  Pittstown Pippin (1).
Downing states that this is an old apple grown many years ago in Adams, Mass. Tree upright and vigorous; fruit rather large, roundish oblate, sometimes conic, greenish-yellow with blush; flesh yellowish, sprightly subacid, good for cooking; season September and October (1).
It appears that this variety is no longer propagated in New York.

GOLDEN RED

REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1872:195. 2. Conn. Bd. Agr., 1889:356.
A variety formerly grown on Long Island but now apparently obsolete. Downing describes it as medium or below, yellow nearly overspread with red, subacid. Season December and January. Fruit liable to rot on the tree (1).

GOLDEN REINETTE.

REFERENCES. 1. Forsyth, 1803:51. 2. Coxe, 1817:152. fig. 3. Thacher, 1822:125. 4. Floy-Lindley, 1833:37. 5. Pom. Mag., 2:69. 1841. col. pl. 6. Downing, 1845:129: 7. Thomas, 1849:167. 8. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:63. 1851. 9. Warder, 1867:720. 10. Leroy, 1873:591. fig. 11. Hogg, 1884 :92.
Synonyms. English Pippin (4, 5, 6, 10, 11). GOLDEN REINETTE, of all English writers on Gardening. Hort. Soc. Fruit Cat. No. 905 (5). GOLDEN Rennet (1, 2, 3). Kirke’s Golden Reinette (6, 11). Princesse Nose (10). Yellow German Reinette (4, 5, 6, 10, 11).
An excellent dessert apple but rather small. In season from October to midwinter. It has long been highly esteemed in England (4, 5, 11) but is little known in New York.
The Russian varieties which have been imported under the name Golden Reinette ripen in autumn. They will be considered in Volume II. [see below- ASC]
TREE.
Tree rather slow growing, below medium in size, spreading, bears annually and is productive. The fruit hangs well to the tree.
Fruit.
Fruit small. Form roundish, somewhat oblate; pretty uniform in size and shape. Stem medium in length, moderately thick. Cavity regular, deep.
Calyx large, open. Basin broad, shallow.
Skin usually smooth with a few minute, triangular, russet spots; greenish-yellow on the shaded side but golden-yellow in the sun, with a dull blush lightly streaked with brighter red.
Calyx tube funnel-shape. Stamens marginal.
Core axile. Carpels obovate.
Flesh yellow, juicy, crisp, brisk, rich, subacid, excellent (5, 6, 11).

Golden Reinette
References.  1.
Synonyms.  No. 51 Vor. (1,2). No. 10 (7). Solotoc renet (1). Zolotoi renet (7).
In addition to the old English variety known as Golden Reinette which has been described in Volume I, page 142, there are at least two Russian apples that have been disseminated in this country under this name. One is a variety described by Munson as a promising autumn apple for Northern Maine, in season from September to December; fruit small, golden yellow washed and splashed with carmine (4,6). What appears to be the same variety was received by this Station from Professor Budd, Ames, IA, in 1890. It is decidedly inferior to the standard varieties of its season, which are in general cultivation throughout New York. Possibly on account of superior hardiness it may have some value in the more northern or elevated regions of the state.
The other Russian apple, above referred to, was disseminated some years ago by Professor Budd. In 1885 he remarked that he was sending out, under the name Golden Reinette (51 Vor.), a variety having fruit medium to large, golden in color, fine-grained, juicy, subacid, almost best in quality (1). In 1890 he stated: "This has proven a fine tree on a great variety of soils where the air had free circulation. Its northern limit is not yet known, but I have not known its wood colored at Ames when the Wealthy by its side in nursery was nearly killed. Fruit medium to large, golden yellow, fine-grained, subacid, and nearly best in quality. Season here, December to February, depending on time of picking and mode of storage" (2). In 1892 Budd further reported: "This has not proven true to name as received from the Bogdanoff estates in Russia. It is a member of the Anis family, of fine size and excellent quality. Season late fall, and early winter north" (3).
Historical.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous with short, moderately stout, curved branches.
Form upright spreading or roundish, rather dense.
Twigs long, curved, stout; internodes medium.
Bark brown, mingled with reddish-brown, mottled with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, conspicuous, large, oblong, raised.
Buds prominent, large, broad, long, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium or below.
Form oblate conic to strongly roundish conic, flattened at the base, ribbed rather irregular; sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short, thick.
Cavity acuminate, medium in depth to rather deep, moderately broad, often compressed, usually not russeted.
Calyx large, open or partly closed, leafy; lobes usually separated at base, long, acute to acuminate.
Basin shallow to moderately deep, medium in width to narrow, usually abrupt, slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin pale greenish-yellow with faint splashes and stripes of red.
Dots
Calyx tube large, wide, broadly conical.
Stamens basal to median.
Core medium size, often abaxile; cells usually unsymmetrical, closed or open; core lines clasping or nearly meeting.
Carpels broadly roundish to elliptical.
Seeds medium brown, medium to below, plump, rather obtuse.
Flesh yellowish, crisp, juicy, mild subacid.
Season September to December.

Golden RussetGolden Russet pic1 of 2Golden Russet pic2 of 2
References.  1.  Downing, 1845:132. 2. Thomas, 1849:179. 3. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:96. 1851. 4. Elliott, 1858:131. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 6. Warder, 1867:624. 7. Thompson, Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1871 :30-34. 8. Waring, [b., 1871:41. 9. Downing, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875:36. 10. Downing, 1876:196, 54 app. 11. Barry, 1883:346. 12. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292. 13. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:238, 240. 14. Budd-Hansen, 1903:90. 15. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:42. 1903. 16. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:122. 1904.  17.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 68.
Synonyms.  English Golden (6). English Golden (10). ENGLISH Golden Russet (1, 2, 4, 13). English Golden Russet (10, 14). GOLDEN Russet of N. Y. (3, 5, 10). Golden Russet of N. Y. (2, 4). GOLDEN Russet of Western N. Y. (10, 11). Russet Golden (6, 10).
Among the russets which are grown in Central and Western New York, the Golden Russet ranks second only to Roxbury in commercial importance. In other portions of the state it has been less extensively planted. In recent years the season of good red winter apples has been extended by means of cold storage with the result that long keeping russet apples are less profitable than they were formerly. There is is undoubtedly one reason why Golden Russet is now grown less extensively than it formerly was. It is an excellent storage variety, sells well in the general market and is particularly in demand for shipment to Northwestern and Southern markets and for export. The fruit is not large but is pretty smooth and uniform. When grown in favorable locations and properly treated for the control of injurious insects and diseases there is comparatively little loss from culls. The fruit hangs well to the tree till loosened by frost. It is borne on the ends of the branches making it hard to pick. This habit and the smallness of the fruit make the picking and packing comparatively expensive.
The fruit is particularly desirable for home use during the spring months before small fruits ripen, being then excellent for dessert and culinary uses. It makes good evaporated stock and is excellent for cider and stock food. The tree is hardy. In favorable locations, it is a reliable cropper, bearing regularly after it reaches maturity. It is usually classed as a biennial bearer, but in some cases it is nearly an annual bearer.

The notable points of distinction between this variety and the English Russet are set forth in the description of English Russet. Thompson compares these two varieties with each other and with the Roxbury Russet in an excellent article presented to the Michigan Horticultural Society in 1870 (7).Golden vs Roxbury Russets pic


Historical.  Downing calls this identical with the old English variety described by Ronalds and Lindley as Golden Russet (9). It has sometimes been catalogued under the name English Golden Russet and has been confused with the English Russet, a distinct variety. It has also been called Golden Russet of New York or of Western New York in distinction from the Golden Russet of Massachusetts, or Hunt Russet, and from the various other apples which have been disseminated under the name Golden Russet.

Tree .  varies from medium to large and from moderately vigorous to vigorous; branches long, moderately stout, with rather long, slender laterals which after bearing heavily become rather drooping, but the young growth is more upright. Form upright roundish becoming rather spreading, rather dense.
Twigs erect, rather slender to moderately stout, often with large, blunt terminal bud; internodes short. Bark on the younger branches smooth, yellowish or olive; on the new growth olive-green or rather dull reddish-brown lightly mottled with grayish scarf-skin; pubescent toward the tips. Lenticels conspicuous, becoming more so on the two-year-old wood, of a clear pale color, quite numerous, seldom large, usually below medium, roundish, sometimes raised, “It is distinguished among other russets by its peculiar, light colored, speckled shoots” (10). Buds medium in size or below, deeply set, free, obtuse, pubescent.
It develops but a moderately strong root system in the nursery.
[Diseases:  Resistant to scab and cedar apple rust and moderately resistant to the other diseases (17).] Fruit below medium to above.
Form roundish, varying from a little oblate to somewhat conic, sometimes rather elliptical, sometimes obscurely angular, usually smooth; uniform in shape and size.
Stem short to very short, rather stout, not often exserted.
Cavity Cavity wide to medium, medium in depth to rather deep, somewhat acuminate to acute, usually not furrowed, often deep green with numerous paler green or grayish dots. Calyx usually rather large to medium, closed or sometimes partly open; lobes long, rather acute, often reflexed, sometimes separated at the base. Basin sometimes oblique or irregular, often saucer-shaped, round, rather abrupt, rather shallow to moderately deep, sometimes plaited or slightly ribbed.
Skin thick, moderately tender, sometimes only partly covered with patches and flecks of russet but more often almost entirely covered with green or yellowish russet, in highly colored specimens becoming golden russet with bronze cheek. Dots grayish or russet, rather inconspicuous on the smooth skin but on the russet skin often clear pale gray and conspicuously scattered over the base. Often decidedly attractive for a russet apple.
Calyx tube rather short, wide, conical or sometimes funnel-form.
Core medium to below, distinctly abaxile, or, at least, having a rather wide hollow cylinder for the axis; cells often unsymmetrical, usually open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels broadly ovate, elongated, sometimes tufted, but slightly emarginate if at all. Seeds rather light brown with decided red tone, medium to small, plump, obtuse to acute, sometimes tufted.
Flesh yellowish, rather fine-grained, moderately crisp, tender, juicy, rich, agreeably subacid, aromatic, very good.  [Useful for cooking, drying and especially for cider, as well as fresh-eating (17).]
Season December to April or later.
Stamens basal or nearly so.
[Information from the Southeastern U.S. here.]


Golden Sweet
References.  1.  [***will be added later***]
Synonyms.  Early Golden Sweet (14). Golden Sweeting (7,10). Orange Sweet (6,9). Orange Sweeting (1,2,13,14). Trenton Early (9). Yellow Sweeting ? (1).
Fruit of good medium size, attractive clear yellow when fully mature, rich, sweet, very good in flavor and quality. Cultivated principally for home use. Of no commercial value except that it is sold in limited quantities in local markets. In season from the middle of August to the last of September. The tree is a good grower, healthy, hardy, moderately long-lived, comes into bearing rather young and yields moderate to heavy crops biennially.
Historical.  An old Connecticut variety (2). Its exact origin is unknown. It has been pretty generally disseminated throughout the state but is nowhere grown extensively. It is listed by nearly all nurserymen (17).
Tree.  large, vigorous.
Form roundish spreading, inclined to droop, dense.
Twigs long, curved, slender; internodes long.
Bark brown, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, oval, slightly raised.
Buds medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.
Fruit below medium to nearly large, uniform in size and shape.Vote out Moscow Mitch, while you still can!
Form roundish to roundish oblate or somewhat ovate, regular or faintly ribbed.
Stem very long, moderately thick.
Cavity acute, of medium depth, medium in width to rather narrow, symmetrical, usually partly russeted, often with outspreading russet rays.
Calyx medium to small, closed; lobes medium in length, narrow, acute.
Basin shallow to moderately deep, narrow to medium in width, somewhat obtuse, smooth, symmetrical, furrowed.
Skin thin, tender, smooth, waxy, yellowish-green becoming clear pale yellow when fully mature.
Calyx tube medium in width, cone-shape to truncate funnel-form.
Stamens median.
Core medium to rather small, abaxile; cells often unsymmetrical, open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder
Carpels ovate.
Seeds medium to rather small, rather narrow, angular, acute, medium brown.
Flesh yellowish-white, firm, fine-grained, moderately tender, juicy, very sweet, aromatic, good to very good.
Season mid-August to late September.
[Information from the Southeastern U.S. here.]
[Description in 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

Golden White
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Beel Solotofskaja (1). No. 978 (3,5,8). No. 979 (8). No. 981 (8).
Fruit of medium size, greenish-yellow, streaked with bright red in the sun, subacid, fair quality; season September. The tree comes into bearing rather young, and yields full crops biennially. Evidently not desirable for planting in New York.
Historical. A Russian apple received for testing at this Station from T.H. Hoskins, Newport, VT, in 1888.

TREE.

Tree rather small, a slow grower with short, stout branches.
Form spreading, open.
Twigs short, curved, stout, with large terminal buds; internodes short.
Bark dull brown mingled with olive-green, coated with gray scarf-skin; heavily pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, large, oval or elongated, raised.
Buds large, prominent, broad, plump, obtuse, free, much pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium size.
Form oblate to conic, flattened at the base, ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) small to medium.
Cavity small, acuminate, narrow, moderately shallow, russeted.
Calyx open or partly open.
Basin large, irregular, moderately deep, wrinkled.
Skin greenish-yellow nearly overlaid with red and striped with carmine.
Dots numerous, large, light.
Prevailing effect red or striped red.
Calyx tube large, cone-shape to funnel-form.
Core medium size, somewhat abaxile; cells usually symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels roundish, emarginate, tufted.
Seeds above medium, plump, wide, obtuse.
Flesh white with faint salmon tinge, fine-grained, moderately juicy, subacid, fair or sometimes good in quality.
Season September and October.

Golding
References.  1.
Synonyms.  American Golden (12). American Golden Pippin (2-8,10,11,12). Golden Apple (12). Golden Pippin (3,5, of Westchester Co., 6,8 and 12). Newtown Greening (3,12). NY Greening (3,5,6,12). Ribbed Pippin (3,12).
Fruit medium or above, yellow, sometimes with shade of brownish-red; flesh rather coarse, aromatic, subacid and excellent in quality for either dessert or culinary uses. It is much subject to scab and a comparatively large percentage of the crop is apt to be unmarketable unless thorough treatment is given to prevent injury from insects and fungus diseases. The tree is rather large, vigorous, hardy, long-lived and moderately productive yielding moderate to heavy crops biennially. In some sections it is regarded as a pretty good commercial variety particularly in portions of Eastern New York.
Historical. In 1857 Downing wrote (3) regarding this variety, that although it was one of the finest American fruits and an old variety, it was not generally known. It was said to have been cultivated in Westchester and adjoining counties for more than fifty years where it was considered profitable for market and superior for family use. So far as we can learn Golding is now seldom or never planted in New York.

Grandmother
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Baboushkino (1). Babuscheno (16,17). Babuschkino (3,4,7). Bogdanoff (14). Bogdanoff Steklianka (14). No. 6 M (1,2,6,9,11). No. 6 (8). No. 469 (1,2,3,6,7,11,12,16,17). No. 84 Vor. (9,11). Red Reinette (14).
Fruit of good medium size, greenish-yellow, sometimes with slight blush. It shows the marks of handling readily, is not very uniform in size nor does it excel in quality. Season late fall and early winter. The tree is a good thrifty grower, comes into bearing young, is reliably productive and is almost an annual bearer, yielding moderate to good crops. It does not appear to be valuable for planting in New York.
Historical. A Russian variety which has been disseminated for trial in various sections of the country. It has been thus far but little planted in this State.

TREE.

Tree large, rather vigorous with long, stout branches.
Form spreading, rather flat, open.
Twigs medium length, curved, moderately stout; internodes short.
Bark dark brown or reddish-brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, roundish, raised.
Buds medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to rather large.
Form ovate to roundish conic, quite flat at base, a little angular; sides unequal; fairly uniform.
Stem (Pedicel) short or very short, rather thick.
Cavity acute to acuminate, narrow, moderately deep to shallow or scarcely depressed, much russeted and often with outspreading russet.
Calyx large to medium, closed or somewhat open; lobes medium in length, broad, acute.
Basin deep to medium in depth, medium in width to rather wide, abrupt, usually furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin smooth, light greenish-yellow, sometimes with faint blush.
Dots numerous, inconspicuous, light and submerged, or sometimes areolar with dark center.
Calyx tube medium in length, wide, broadly conical.
Stamens basal.
Core medium to small or abortive, axile or abaxile; cells symmetrical, usually closed; core lines meeting.
Carpels variable, irregular, broadly ovate or obovate, emarginate, slightly tufted.
Seeds below medium to rather large, rather dark brown, plump, obtuse to acute.
Flesh with slight green or yellow tinge, moderately firm, coarse, neither crisp, nor tender, very juicy, subacid to briskly subacid, slightly aromatic, fair to good in flavor and quality.
Season November to January.

GRANITE BEAUTY

REFERENCES. 1. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 26:65, 149. 1860. fig. 2. Mead, Horticulturist, 18:83. 1863. fig. 3. Lothrop, Mag. Hort., 32:362. 1866. 4. Warder, 1867:720. 5. Downing, 1872:199. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 7- Barry, 1883:346. 8. Thomas, 1885:233. 9. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt, 1893:132. 10. Hoskins, Amer. Gard., 15:299. 1894.  11.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 62.
Synonyms. Aunt Dorcas (5). Clothes-yard Apple (5). Grandmother's Apple (5).
Fruit about the size of Baldwin, yellow mostly overspread with red, mild subacid, good to very good in quality. In season from November to February. Tree hardy and a good bearer.
Historical. A local variety brought to notice in 1860 by Z[ephaniah] Breed, Weare, N. H. (1). In some portions of New England it is still much esteemed, both for home use and for market (9), but it is little known in New York.
[Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major apple diseases (11).
Tree:  Hardy, precocious and annual-bearing (11).
Uses: Dessert and baking (11).
Keeping ability in common storage:  Good. Its spicy taste intensifies in storage (11).]

Gravenstein
References.  1. 41. Budd-
Synonyms.  Blumen-Calvill (31). Calville de Gravenstein (31). Calville Grafensteiner (23,31). Diel's Sommerkönig (31). Early Congress (25). Grafen-Apfel (31). Grafensteiner (15,23,31). Grave Slige (23). Grave Slije (8,15,17,31). Gravensteiner (23,31). Gravenstine (31). Ohio Nonpareil (17,23,31). Paradies Apfel (31). Pomme Graefenstein (31). Prinzessin-Apfel (31). Ripp Apfel (31). Sabine (31). Sabine of the Flemings (15,23). Strohmer (31). Stromling (31). Tom Harryman (31).
Gravenstein is an apple of good size, attractive appearance and excellent quality. For culinary purposes it is perhaps unexcelled by any variety of its season. It often sells at comparatively high prices. In many sections of the state the tree is regarded as not quite hardy, being somewhat subject to sunscald and canker. It comes into bearing moderately early, is quite productive and a pretty reliable cropper. The crop ripens continuously during a period of several weeks and should have two or three pickings. Beginning in the latter half of September it continues in season till early November. When properly handled a considerable portion of the fruit may remain apparently sound much later than this but the color fades and the quality and flavor deteriorate. As compared with other varieties of its class it stands up well in good dry cold storage (44). There is apt to be considerable loss from the dropping of the fruit before it is properly colored and there is also a rather high percentage of low grade or unmarketable fruit. In spite of these serious faults its cultivation in commercial orchards is gradually increasing in some sections of the state, particularly in portions of the Hudson valley where fruit growers find it a desirable apple for both domestic and foreign markets.


Red Types of the Gravenstein

Several instances are known where bud sports of the Gravenstein have originated which bear highly colored red fruit, but in other respects are quite like the typical Gravenstein. Some of these sports have neither been described nor propagated but others of them have been introduced into cultivation under distinct names. Gaucher (Gaucher, 1894:No. 11) and Leroy (Leroy, 1873:339) each describe a Red Gravenstein. A Red Gravenstein which originated in Nova Scotia is now cultivated under the name Banks. For an account of this variety the reader is referred to Banks, page 14.
Historical. The following excellent account of the history of this variety was given by Hovey in 1851 (15). "The origin of the Gravenstein remains in some doubt. It is said to have been originally found in the Duke of Augustinberg's garden at Gravenstein, in Holstein, and that the original tree was growing there in the middle of the last century; another statement is, that it derived its name from being found in the garden of the castle of Gräfenstein, in Sleswick; and Diel says, that it was supposed by some to have been introduced from Italy. Be this as it may, it is a common apple throughout Germany and Sweden, and was received from thence into the English collections. It is undoubtedly of similar origin with the Red Astrachan and Duchess of Oldenburg, possessing the peculiar habit of growth, form of foliage, and texture of the fruit, which distinguish the German apples.
"At what time it was first introduced into our gardens we are not aware. But as neither Coxe or Thacher describe or name it, we suppose it was some time subsequent to the account given of it in the Transactions of the London Horticultural Society in 1822. It is at the present time considerably cultivated, though not to the extent its merits deserve."
In 1857 Captain DeWolfe stated that the Gravenstein was imported by him from Denmark in May, 1826 (20). In a letter dated October 11, 1829, published in the New England Farmer, Judge Buel, of Albany, called attention to the importation of Gravenstein and other German apples trees of which he had presented to the members of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. Hovey states that in view of this it appears that Gravenstein was imported to the vicinity of Albany probably prior to 1986 (20). After these early importations Gravenstein gradually found its way into cultivation in various portions of the country. For many years it has been pretty generally disseminated through New York state, but in most localities it is grown to a limited extent only.

TREE.

Tree large, vigorous.
Form upright spreading to roundish, open.
Twigs medium to long, curved, moderately stout; internodes long.
Bark brownish-red, mingled with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels very scattering, medium to small, oblong, not raised.
Buds medium in size, plump, acute, free, pubescent.
FRUITVote out Moscow Mitch, while you still can!
   Fruit large to above medium, fairly uniform in size but not in shape.
Form oblate to roundish, somewhat irregular, broad at the base, slightly angular about the basin.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, thick.
Cavity rather large, acute to acuminate, moderately deep to deep, rather narrow to broad, irregularly russeted.
Calyx large, open or sometimes closed; lobes large, long, very broad, acute.
Basin irregular, medium in depth to deep, medium to wide, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, wrinkled.
Skin thin, tender, slightly rough, greenish-yellow to orange-yellow overlaid with broken stripes of light and dark red.
Dots few, small, light.
Prevailing effect yellow striped.
Calyx tube large, conical to funnel-shape.
Stamens median.
Core medium in size, strongly abaxile; cells open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder.
Carpels broadly ovate, emarginate.
Seeds medium to large, medium in width, rather long, plump; acute to acuminate, medium brown.
Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately fine, crisp, moderately tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, aromatic, very good to best.
Season late September till early November.
[Description in 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

GREAT BARBE

Fruit uniform, symmetrical, red and yellow, of good size, attractive, but ranking only fair to good in quality. Season midwinter. The tree comes into bearing early, is vigorous and apparently productive. So far as tested at this Station it does not appear to be worthy of introduction into New York.
Historical. A Russian variety received here for testing in 1898 from J. Niemetz, Podolia, Russia.

"

Great Mogul
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Grosser Mogul (2,9). Vilikui Mogul (2,9).
Fruit large, greenish, blushed and striped with red, somewhat resembling Alexander in type but tending to be more oblong, less broadly striped with carmine, and on the whole less attractive in color and form. Tree a fine grower, comes into bearing rather young, is an annual bearer and productive. It is not recommended for growing in New York.
Historical. An apple of Russian origin which was introduced into the United States about twenty-five years ago (1-3).

TREE.

Tree a good grower when young but when full grown is rather below medium size.
Form open, spreading, rather drooping with rather short stout branches and drooping laterals.
Twigs below medium to short, stout, irregularly geniculate.
Bark clear brownish-red to very dark brown, almost black, mottled lightly with gray scarf-skin, slightly pubescent.
Lenticels very conspicuous, medium to large, oblong, generally elongated and russeted.
Buds very prominent, large, broad, plump, acute, free, lightly attached to the bark, scales not well united, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit large to very large.
Form roundish ovate, sometimes varying to oblong conic or to oblate conic, slightly angular. Usually the fruit is pretty regular in form, shape and size.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to nearly long, rather thick, often clubbed or swollen.
Cavity usually very acuminate, sometimes acute, moderately deep, moderately wide, sometimes with outspreading russet rays, smooth, symmetrical, often lipped.
Calyx medium to rather large, closed or slightly open, lobes long, broad, acute.
Basin rather small, often oblique, narrow to medium in width, shallow to moderately deep, somewhat abrupt, smooth or slightly wrinkled, symmetrical.
Skin rather thick, tough, smooth, somewhat waxy, pale greenish-yellow more or less overspread with rather bright pinkish-red, often indistinctly striped with carmine.
Dots inconspicuous, numerous, small, scattering, gray.
Calyx tube medium, edlongated, conical or somewhat funnel-form with wide limb and fleshy pistil point projecting into the base.
Stamens marginal to median.
Core somewhat abaxile; cells often unsymmetrical, varying from wide open to nearly closed; core lines slightly clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate, elongated, slightly emarginate.
Seeds numerous, compactly filling the cells, medium to large, variable in shape, rather short, very wide, plump, obtuse or sometimes acute, light brown.
Flesh nearly white, slightly tinged with yellow, not very firm, moderately fine, not crisp, tender, juicy, subacid mingled with sweet, fair to good in quality.
Season October to December.

GREENING

The apple commonly known by the name Greening among New York fruit growers and fruit dealers is the Rhode Island Greening to which the reader is referred for an account of this variety. The name Greening has also been used to some extent as a class name for certain types of green or yellowish-green winter apples and it enters into the names of several well recognized pomological varieties prominent among which are Bottle Greening, Northwestern Greening and Patten, or Patten Greening.

Green Newtown and Yellow Newtown PippinGreen Newtown PippinYellow Newtown Pippin pic
References.  1. Forsyth, 1803:53. 2. Coxe, 1817:142, 143. figs. 3. Thacher, 1822:125. 4. N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem., 1826:477. 5. Wilson, 1828:130. 6. Ronalds, 1831:33. 7. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831:22. 8. Kenrick, 1832:45, 55. 9. Floy-Lindley, 1833:37, 40. 10. Downing, 1845:118, 119. fig. 11. Barrett, Horticulturist, 3:240. 1848. 12. Cole, 1849:133. fig. 13. Thomas, 1849: 172, 177, 182, 187. fig. 14. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:83. 1851. col. pls. Nos. 23 and 53. 15. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 16. Mag. Hort., 19:171. 1853. 17. Hooper, 1857:64, 102. 18, Elliott, 1858:93, 118, 120. figs. 19. Oberdieck, Ill. Handb. der Obstk., 4:99. 20. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 21. Warder, 1867:637, 649, 711, 720. fig. 22. Regel, 1868:463, 464. 23. Downing, 1872:201. fig. 24. Leroy, 1873:486, 871. figs. 25. Barry, 1883:350, 358. 26. Hogg, 1884:155, 252. 27. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292, 300. 28. Wickson, 1891:249. 29. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:240, 253. 30. Massey, Rural N. Y.,51:462. 1892. 31. Hicks, Ib., 53:205. 1804. 32. Taylor, U. S. Pom. Bul., 7:358. 1898. 33. Alwood, Va. Sta. Bul., 130:126, 140. 1901. figs. of trees. 34. Eneroth-Smirnoff, 1901:392. 35. Budd-Hansen, 1903:04, 211. figs. 36. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:43, 62. 1903. 37. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:123, 152. 1904. 38. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:23, 55, 129, 210, 346. 1905.  39.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 122.
Synonyms.  ALBEMARLE (21, 38). Albemarle (36, 38). ALBEMARLE Pippin (13, 18, 33). Albemarle Pippin (30, 32, 35, 37, 38). American Newtown Pippin (9, 10, 18, 23, 24, 26, 38). Back Creek (38). Brooke Pippin (38). Brooke Pippin (20). Brookes Pippin (16, 21). Brooke’s Pippin (? 23, 38). GREEN Newron Pippin (2, 3, 4). GREEN Newtown (27, 35, 36, 37). GreEN Newrown Pippin (8, 14, 17, 21, 23, 28, 29, probably incorrectly 9). Green Newtown Pippin (10, 13, 18, 24, 25, 26, 37, 38). Green Winter Pippin (10, 18, 23, 24, 26, 38). Hunt's Fine Green Pippin (23, 38). Hunt's Green Newtown Pippin (? 23, 38). Large Newtown Pippin (24, 38). Large YeLLow Newton Pippin (2). Large Yellow Newton Pippin (26). Large Yellow Newtown Pippin (8, 26, 38). Mountain Pippin (38). NeuSTADT’S GELBER PEPPING (19). Newton’s Pippin (22). NEwTon YELLOW Pippin (34). Newtown Pippin (1, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 18, 23, 24,25, 26, 30, 31). Newtown Pippin (36, 37, 38). New York Greening (38). New York Pippin (38). Petersburgh Pippin (10, 18, 23, 24, 26, 38). Pippin (13). Reinette de New-York (24). Virginia Pippin (38). YELLow Newton’s Pippin (22). YELLOW Newtown (21, 27, 32, 35, 36, 37). YELLOW Newtown Pippin (4, 7, 8, 10, 13, 14, 17, 18, 20, 25, 26, 28, 29). Yellow Newtown Pippin (24, 36, 38). Yorr’s Favorite (24), but incorrectly. Albemarle (21, 36, 38). Albemarle Pippin

The Green Newtown and the Yellow Newtown are here discussed together because they are so much alike that it is highly probable that one is but a sport of the other. At this time, it is impossible to determine which of the two was the original Newtown Pippin. It is now believed that Albemarle is Yellow Newtown and Brooke Pippin is possibly identical with Green Newtown. In pomological literature, the name Newtown Pippin has often been used in such a way that it is uncertain whether the writer had in mind the Yellow Newtown or the Green Newtown, and the correct synonymy cannot be accurately determined in all cases. On this account, the names as given by the different writers are stated in the above nomenclatural list without indicating whether or not they are used correctly except in the case of Leroy (24). Both the Green Newtown and the Yellow Newtown differ markedly in size, color and quality in different locations and their successful cultivation is probably more limited by local conditions than is the case with any other standard commercial variety grown in this state. They are successfully grown in certain localities in the Hudson valley and along the north shore of Long Island, but usually neither of them is regarded as desirable for commercial planting west of the Hudson valley.
   Under favorable conditions the trees come into bearing young and are reliable croppers yielding good crops biennially or sometimes oftener. The fruit hangs well to the tree. It is quite susceptible to the scab and required thorough treatment to hold this disease in check particularly when grown on heavy clay soils. Unless grown on fertile soils and under good cultivation with insect pests and fungous diseases kept well under control there is often a comparatively high percentage of ill-shaped, uneven and low-grade fruit. Under favorable conditions the fruit grows large or sometimes very large and is fairly uniform in size although somewhat variable in form and coloring. It has a long established reputation in Europe and commands the best prices paid there for American apples. It is firm, keeps very late and ships well. The crop is largely exported. In ordinary storage its commercial season is February to March; in cold storage March to May. The fruit is of the highest quality for dessert and excellent for culinary uses. Cider made from it is very clear and high quality, and in the early days large quantities of the fruit were used for this purpose.
Historical.  The excellent historical account of the Yellow Newtown and the Green Newtown given by Taylor (32) is reproduced here:
   The “Newtown Pippin” was the first American apple which attracted attention in Europe. After the receipt of specimens by Franklin while in London in 1759, and the subsequent sending of grafts to Collinson by John Bartram, numerous attempts were made to grow the variety in England. As early as 1768 it was cultivated in the Brompton Park nursery under the name “Newtown Pippin of New York.”a

It is probable that the large apple exports of 1773 included considerable quantities of the Newtown, for it was at that time quite generally distributed through the apple-growing districts of the Atlantic slope. Thomas Jefferson recorded in his “Garden Book” that in March, 1773, grafts of “Newtown Pippin”, received from Mordecai Debnam, at Sandy Point, were “ingrafted by P. Morton,” and in March, 1778, he noted that the grafted trees were planted out at Monticello.
   Prior to 1803 Forsyth said of the variety in England,b “The New-Town Pippin is a fine apple in good season, but seldom ripens with us. It is held in great esteem in America.” McMahon,c in 1806 included Newtown Pippin in his select list of “Long-keeping apples” and also in a list of “Cyder apples.”
   Previous to 1817 we have no record that more than one type of the Newtown was recognized, but Coxed, whose work appeared in that year, described as distinct varieties the “Large Yellow Newtown Pippin” and the “Green Newtown Pippin,” characterizing the latter as “a variety of the preceding kind.” Since the time of Coxe the two types have been recognized as distinct by our leading American pomologists, though fruit growers are by no means unanimous on this point.
   The original seedling tree of Newtown Pippin is alleged to have stood near a swamp on the estate of Gershom Moore, in Newtown, Long Island, until about 1805, when it died from excessive cutting of cions and exhaustion. Its origin is credited to the early part of the eighteenth century. It is not clear at this time whether the original tree was of the “green” or the “yellow” type, nor has any record of a distinct origin of the two been discovered.

The Yellow Newtown has for many years been considered the better apple for exportation, however, and in commercial orchards has almost superseded the Green Newtown on account of its larger size, brighter color, and better keeping quality.
   Both sorts are exceedingly variable and susceptible to the influence of soil, climate, elevation above sea level, etc. They are successfully grown in but few portions of the apple-producing area of the United States at the present time, the principal localities being the lower portion of the Hudson River valley in New York, the Piedmont and mountain regions of Virginia and North Carolina, and portions of California, Oregon and Washington.
   Though first grown in commercial orchards in New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, the excellent quality of the fruit from “some of the Patowmack counties of Virginia” was noted as early as the time of Coxe.e
   In Albemarle County, VA, where it reached a high degree of perfection, it became known as the “Albemarle Pippin” at an early day, and was for many years considered a distinct variety, of local origin, and was so propagated.

An export trade in the fruit from Albemarle County was inaugurated under favorable auspices by a happy circumstance which occurred in the first year of the reign of Queen Victoria. The account below is kindly furnished by Mr. Samuel B. Woods, president of the Virginia Horticultural Society.
Letter April 30, 1898. The true history of the matter is that in the first year of Queen Victoria’s reign, Andrew Stevenson, whose home was on a mountainside in Albemarle, was minister to the Court of St. James. He had Albemarle Pippins sent over for his own use and presented the Queen with several barrels. She was delighted with the perfect flavor and excellence of the fruit, and, as a graceful acknowledgement of the courtesy of Mr. Stevenson, removed from Albemarle Pippins a small tax which then existed for the benefit of the Crown on all imported apples. From this time the Albemarle Pippin has grown steadily in favor in the English markets. It is not unusual to see them sellin in the wholesale markets at Liverpool for two or three times the price other American apples are bringing. A neighbor last fall sold his entire crop for $10 per barrel, and Mr. Whately, an English gentleman who recently returned from abroad, told me that he saw Albemarle Pippins retailing at 36 cents a pound. [this would be approximately $9.41 /lb at 2016 prices according to http://www.westegg.com/inflation/infl.cgi ! -ASC]
   The identity of Albemarle and Yellow Newtown seems to have been recorded first by the late Franklin Davis in a letter from Staunton, VA, which was published in the Horticulturist in 1857 [7:288]. Since that time most pomologists have accepted their identity, ascribing the slight variations which are observable to local soil or climatic conditions. But in the absence of an authentic record of the introduction of Yellow Newtown to Albemarle County, many orchardists in the Piedmont and mountain regions have continued to believe the Albemarle a distinct variety of local origin. Recent investigation by Messrs. H.L. Lyman and Samuel B. Woods, prominent citizens and fruit growers of Charlottesville, VA, have resulted in an apparent clearing up of the historical uncertainty and establishing a clear connection between the supposed original Albemarle tree and the older variety.
   Letter of April 30, 1898. As far back as 1765 there was a tree noted for its fine fruit standing in a mountain hollow on what is now Mr. William Sutherland’s land, in the North Garden neighborhood. How this tree came here no one knows, but tradition has it that it was a seedling, and from its stock came all Albemarle Pippins.

The other account, and the most authentic one, is that which fixes the earliest introduction at the time of Braddock’s defeat. Dr. Thomas Walker, of Castle Hill, Albemarle County, was the commissary officer of the Virginia troops with Braddock, and after the disastrous defeat, when the remnant of the troops went into winter quarters in Philadelphia, he returned home, carrying in his saddle-bags cuttings of apple trees. These were grafted at Castle Hill and became the famous Albemarle Pippin.
   These two accounts I find connected in this rather curious way. The land on which the tree in the North Garden neighborhood stood was entered in the land office in 1741 in the name of Mildred Meriwether, in whose lifetime parts of the tract were improved. Mildred Meriwether was the stepdaughter of Dr. Thomas Walker, and what is more natural than that the old tree on her land, supposed to be a seedling, was one of the Walker grafts? There is little doubt that the first appearance of the Albemarle Pippin was at Castle Hill from the grafts brought home from Pennsylvania by Dr. Walker after Braddock’s defeat in 1755.

GREEN NEWTOWN

Tree .  a rather slow grower or moderately vigorous, of medium size or sometimes becoming large. Laterals shorter, twisted, spreading and drooping more than those of the Yellow Newtown.
Form spreading or roundish, rather dense.
Twigs medium in length and thickness, pubescent near tips; internodes medium to rather long.
Bark clear dark brownish-red, lightly streaked with scarf-skin.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium or below, somewhat elongated, raised, rather conspicuous.
Buds medium, broad, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

Fruit medium to very large, pretty uniform in size but rather variable in form and coloring.Moscow Mitch, Putin's little b1tch
Form usually roundish oblate and more or less angular. As grown in Southeastern New York it often has an oblique axis and is sometimes decidedly elliptical, but in Western New York the tendency of the fruit to grow with an oblique axis is less marked and the fruit is less often elliptical and more nearly symmetrical. Stem medium or short. Cavity deep, acuminate to acute, broad or compressed, often sending out rays of russet.
Calyx rather small to medium, closed or nearly so; lobes rather small, acute.
Basin medium in width and depth, furrowed and often somewhat wrinkled.
Skin rather tough, smooth or slightly roughened with brownish-russet dots, grass-green at fruit harvest but sometimes pretty yellow later, and often showing some brownish or brownish-pink color, especially near the base. White submerged dots are especially numerous toward the eye and whitish scarf-skin stripes extend over the base.
Calyx tube long, funnel-shape to nearly conical. Stamens median to basal.
Core small to medium, somewhat abaxile; cells fairly symmetrical, closed or nearly so; core lines clasping. Carpels broadly roundish or roundish obcordate, emarginate, tufted. Seeds tufted, medium or above, dark, narrow, acuminate.
Flesh yellowish or tinged with green according to the color of the fruit, firm, crisp, tender, moderately fine-grained, juicy, sprightly, with a fine aromatic subacid flavor, best.
Season February to May.
Stamens basal or nearly so.

YELLOW NEWTOWN.

TREE.
Tree more vigorous and more erect than that of Green Newtown the branches growing more freely, the laterals showing less tendency to droop and the twigs averaging somewhat longer than is the case with the Green Newtown, otherwise we find that the two varieties, as Downing says (10) “grow alike.”
[Diseases:  Susceptible to scab (39) and fireblight (ASC), moderately resistant to collar rot, moderately susceptible to the other major diseases (39).] Fruit.
The technical description of the fruit of the Green Newtown applies well to the Yellow Newtown in all points excepting the color of the fruit and the color and flavor of the flesh. At fruit harvest the Yellow Newtown is distinguishable from the Green Newtown because both the yellow and the pink tones are more highly developed. When they are fully mature the more highly colored apples are bright yellow often with distinct pinkish blush, especially about the base. Less highly colored fruit is greenish-yellow shaded more or less with duller brownish-pink through which narrow streaks of the ground color often appear, combining with the streaks of whitish scarf-skin to give a somewhat striped effect. In general appearance it is decidedly more attractive than the Green Newtown, and its flesh is apt to be more distinctly tinged with yellow, milder, less sprightly and more highly aromatic.
[Uses:  Dessert, pies, baking, vinegar and cider (39).
Keeping ability:  Excellent. Optimum flavor develops after a few months of storage (39).
Information from the Southeastern U.S. here.]
aHogg, The Apple and Its Varieties, 1859:143.
bCobbett, A Treatise on the Culture and Management of Fruit Trees, Edition with American Notes, 1803:58.
cMcMahon, B., The American Gardener’s Calendar, 1806:585.
dCoxe, 1817:142, 143.
eCoxe, 1817:143.

Green Seek-No-Further
References.  1. Coxe, 1817:131. fig. 2. Kenrick, 1832:63. 3. Thomas, 1849:181. fig. 4. Emmons, Nat. Hist. NY., 3:38 1851. fig. 5. Elliott, 1854:137. 6.Warder, 1867:720. 7. Downing, 1869:202.
Synonyms.  Autumn Seeknofurther (4). Bracy's Seek-no-further (5). Flushing Seek-no-further (7). Seeknofurther (4,5,7, of Coxe 3). Seek-No-Further (1). White Seek-no-further (7). Winter Seek-No-Further (2).
A large yellowish-green apple with faint blush of orange-red, very good in quality; season early winter. The tree is a rather slow grower, but eventually forms a regular, compact head and is quite productive. Desirable for the home orchard (1,7).
Historical. The earliest description of this variety which we find is that given by Coxe (1) who remarks that it is a native of one of the eastern states. Downing states that it originated in the garden of William Prince, Flushing, NY (7). It is now seldom found in cultivation in New York.

FRUIT

Fruit large.
Form roundish conic or a little inclined to oblate conic, ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, thick.
Cavity large, acute to somewhat acuminate, deep, broad, more of less marked with faint greenish-russet.
Calyx moderately large, closed or slightly open.
Basin deep, rather wide, abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin moderately thick, tough, greenish-yellow or yellow with faint orange-red blush.
Dots variable, large and small, often irregular, areolar with russet center or whitish and submerged.
Calyx tube large, moderately long, wide, conical.
Stamens median.
Core small, axile; cells symmetrical, closed; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels roundish to broadly ovate, tufted.
Seeds rather numerous, above medium, narrow, long, acute to acuminate, tufted.
Flesh yellowish-white, moderately coarse, crisp, tender, very juicy, sprightly, rich subacid, very good.
Season October to January.

GREEN SWEET

REFERENCES. 1. Manning, 1838:63. 2. Manning, Mag. Hort. 7:45. 1841. 3. Thomas, 1849:162. 4. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:90. 1851. 5. Horticulturist, 9:192. 1854. 6. Hooper, 1857:45. 7. Downing, 1857:81. 8. Elliott, 1858:83. fig. 9. Mag. Hort., 27:152. 1861. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 11. Warder, 1867:385. 12. Barry, 1883:347. 13. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:240. 14. Budd-Hansen, 1903:05. 15. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48: 42. 1903.
Synonyms. Green Sweet (6). GREEN SWEETING (5). Green Sweeting (4). Honey GREENING (6). Honey Greening (7, 8, 11, 12).
A desirable late keeping apple excellent for either dessert or culinary use. It holds its flavor and remains crisp, brittle and juicy till spring. Often it is kept in common cellar storage till April or May. It is undoubtedly one of the best late keeping sweet apples in cultivation in this state. It is grown with profit for selling in local markets wherever it is well known, but it does not sell so readily in the general market because it is not large and not well known and because the trade demands chiefly red, subacid apples. The tree is a good reliable cropper, bears biennially and yields so abundantly that the fruit commonly averages below medium or rather small, but it is perfect, smooth, bright, regular and uniform in size and shape with little loss from drops and culls. The apples are easily picked because the habit of the tree is upright and rather compact and it usually bears its fruit close to the branches or on short laterals or spurs. Green Sweet may be set more closely in the orchard than either Baldwin or Rhode Island Greening because it does not grow so large as either of these varieties and is decidedly more upright in habit.
The Sweet Greening of Thacher68 or Green Sweeting of Kenrick69 is said to be distinct from this variety.
A fall apple has been introduced from Russia under the name Green Sweet. This will be noticed in the succeeding volume.
Historical, An old variety of uncertain origin. It was already well known and much cultivated in Northeastern Massachusetts in the first half of the last century (1). It has long been highly esteemed in Central and Western New York (3, 4, 5, 9).
TREE.
Tree medium or sometimes large, vigorous or moderately vigorous ; branches moderately stout; young branches dark green. Form erect or roundish, rather compact. Twigs short, straight, stout; internodes short. Bark very dark brown, mingled with reddish-brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent near tips. Lenticels numerous, medium, oblong, slightly raised, rather conspicuous. Buds large, plump, broad, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.
Fruit.Moscow Mitch, Putin's little b1tch
Fruit medium or often below medium, sometimes large. Form ovate to roundish inclined to conic, sometimes obscurely ribbed; pretty regular and uniform in size. Stem medium to rather long, slender to moderately thick.
Cavity somewhat furrowed, deep, acuminate, moderately broad, smooth or with some radiating russet rays. Calyx medium to rather large, closed or somewhat open; lobes rather leafy, long, acute. Basin variable, usually medium in width and depth, abrupt, slightly wrinkled and more or less obscurely furrowed.
Skin grass-green eventually becoming pretty yellow with a thin brownish-red blush in highly colored specimens. Dots green or with fine russet point, often submerged and whitish. Prevailing color green.
Calyx tube wide, cone-shape. Stamens median.
Core rather large, abaxile, open; core lines somewhat clasping or nearly meeting. Carpels roundish ovate. Seeds numerous, medium or below, rather narrow, acute.
Flesh greenish-white, tender, fine-grained, juicy, very sweet, good.
Season December to April or May.

GREENVILLE

REFERENCES. 1. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:587. 1894. 2. Buechly, E. M, Greenville, Ohio, Cat., 1895. fig. 3. Amer. Gard., 17:162. 1896. fig. 4. Can. Hort., 19:86. 1896. fig. 5 Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 15:280. 1896. 6. Ib. Western N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1900:35. 7. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B.P. I. Bul., 48:43. 1903. 8. Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bul., 205:42. 1903. 9. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:123. 1904.
Synonym. Downing WinTER Maiden Blush (1, 2, 3, 4). Downing Winter Maiden Blush (5, 6, 7, 9).
Fruit attractive on account of its desirable size and clear bright color. The skin is tough and withstands rough handling pretty well for a yellow apple. Suitable for general market and culinary purposes but it does not excel in quality. The tree is satisfactorily productive, being usually an annual bearer alternating light with heavier crops.
Historical. Originated from seed of Maiden Blush in 1874 by Jason Downing, Darke county, Ohio. FE. M. Buechly, Greenville, Ohio, introduced it under the name Downing’s Winter Maiden Blush but afterwards changed the name to Greenville. It has not yet become generally disseminated in New York.
TREE.
Tree vigorous, upright becoming rather spreading. Twigs below medium, rather slender to moderately stout, nearly straight; internodes medium or below. Bark clear reddish-brown or olive-green, somewhat pubescent. Lenticels rather conspicuous, moderately numerous, small to medium, usually elongated, raised. Buds below medium, generally roundish, slightly pubescent, acute, appressed.
FRUIT.Moscow Mitch, Putin's little b1tch
Fruit large to medium, Form roundish oblate to roundish oblong, usually symmetrical but sometimes slightly irregular or obscurely ribbed, uniform in shape. Stem short. Cavity acute to acuminate, rather deep, moderately wide, symmetrical or nearly so, sometimes slightly furrowed, sometimes lipped, often a little russeted. Calyx medium, closed or somewhat open; lobes often long, acuminate. Basin shallow, to moderately deep, usually furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin tough, waxen, clear pale yellow with handsome red or pinkish blush, in appearance somewhat resembling the Maiden Blush.
Calyx tube rather narrow, funnel-form. Stamens median.
Core medium, abaxile; cells closed or partly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish. Seeds medium or above, rather light brown, rather narrow, acute.
Flesh whitish slightly tinged with yellow, firm, crisp, moderately fine, moderately tender, juicy, pleasant, mild subacid, sometimes a little astringent, good.
Season November to February, sometimes extending into April. Commercial limit January or, in cold storage, February.

GREYHOUSE.

REFERENCES. 1. Coxe, 1817:154. fig. 2. Elliott, 1854:174. 3. Downing, 1857:214. 4. Warder, 1867:720, 722. 5. Downing, 1872:204, 270. 6. Downing, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 1875:68. 7. Downing, 1876:57 app. 8. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:204. 9. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:241. 10, Burrill and McCluer, Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:323, 326. 1896. 11. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:131. 1904. 12 Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 56:131. 1905.
Synonyms. Big Romanite (incorrectly 6, 7, 11, of some 12). Black Jack (6, 7, 12). Black Pennock (6, 7, 12). Black Vandervere (7, 12). Black Vandevere (6). Filliken (6). German Spitzenberg (6, 7, 12). Grayhouse (12). Gray Romanite (6, 12). Hard Red (7, 12). Hoop (12). Hoopes (4, 9). Hoopes (5, 6, 7, 12). Hoopes’ Pearmain (6, 7, 12). Hoops (10). Hoops (12). Hopsey (5, 6, 7, 12). Hopson (6, 7, 12). House (1). Keystone (6, 7, 12). Lopside (6, 7, 12). Lop-sided Pearmain (5, 12). Lopside Pearmain (6). May, erroneously (5, 6, 12). May Apple (2). May SEEK-No-Farther (7, 11). May Seek-No-Further (2, 6). May Seek-Further (12). May Seek-No-Further (8). Pilliken (5, 12). Red Everlasting (6, 7, 12). Romanite (8, incorrectly 6 and 12).
Fruit medium in size, dull colored, green and red; skin thick; flesh dry, coarse, subacid; not suitable for dessert and valued only as a long keeper (1,2, 5, 8). Season February to May (5, 11). Tree vigorous, spreading; not a reliable bearer.
Historical. Greyhouse probably originated either in New Jersey (5) or Pennsylvania (4). It has been grown under various names in different parts of the country and there has been much uncertainty with regard to its synonymy. May Seek-No-Farther and Hoops are now considered identical with Grayhouse (12). It is still offered by some nurserymen (9), but it is not now generally cultivated (11).

GRIMES.

REFERENCES. 1. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 22:131. 1856. 2. Downing, 1857:149. 3. Hooper, 1857:42. 4. Hanford, Horticulturist, 18:206. 1863. fig. 5. Warder, 1867:670. fig. 6. Grimes, Horticulturist, 24:51. 1869. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1869. 8. Barry, 1883:347. 9. Thomas, 1885:245. 10. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292. 11. Wickson, 1891:247. 12. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:240. 13. Amer. Gard., 19:131. 1808. fig. 14. Brackett, Ib., 22:191. 1901. 15. Alwood, Va. Sta. Bul., 130:133. 1901. 16. Stinson, Mo. Fr. Sta. Bul., 3:25. 1902. 17. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bul., 76:55. 1902. fig. 18. Budd-Hansen, 1903:95. fig. 19. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:43. 1903. 20. Beach and Clark, N.Y. Sta. Bul., 248:123. 1904.  21.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 73.
Synonyms. Grimes' GOLDEN (5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18). Grimes Golden (19, 20). Grimes GOLDEN Pippin (1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 11,12).
Fruit beautiful rich golden-yellow, attractive in form and excellent either for dessert or culinary use. It can hardly be called a standard market variety but in some markets it sells well. It is not a good keeper and is apt to scald in storage. It is in season about with Hubbardston. The tree is a biennial or sometimes an annual bearer and a good cropper. Favorable reports on it have been received from certain localities in New York but generally as grown in this state it does not develop in size, color or quality as well as it does in more southern latitudes, and there is a high percentage of loss from drops and culls. Some few New York fruit growers consider it a fairly profitable variety but generally it is regarded less favorably and it has failed to become a standard apple either in the home orchards or in the commercial orchards of the State. The indications are that it will never be grown in New York to any considerable extent.

Historical, Originated in West Virginia. Fruit from the original tree was sold to the New Orleans traders as long ago as 1804 (6). It has become generally disseminated throughout the Ben Davis regions of the South, West and Southwest, where it is often planted for home use and is highly esteemed as a dessert apple, but it is not grown extensively in many localities in the commercial orchards. It has long been known in scattering localities in New York and old trees of it are found in some orchards but it has not been generally planted.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous; branches short, stout, curved, crooked. [Knobs at the base of branches strengthen them (21).]
Form upright spreading or roundish, inclined to droop; rather dense.
Twigs short to long, straight, moderately stout; internodes short.
Bark dull brownish, rather lightly mottled with scarf-skin; pubescent in spots and at tips. Lenticels scattering, small to large, roundish or oblong, not raised, rather inconspicuous.
Buds medium, broad, obtuse to acute, free, varying from slightly pubescent to quite pubescent.
[Diseases:  Susceptible to collar rot (but I don't see how that's a problem, if you graft high-ASC), somewhat resistant to fireblight and cedar apple rust (21).  Very few, if any yellow apples are resistant to cedar apple rust- ASC.] Fruit.Moscow Mitch, Putin's little b1tch
Fruit medium to large. Form roundish oblong, often flattened at the ends, sometimes inclined to conic, pretty regular, sometimes obscurely ribbed, sometimes oblique, symmetrical, uniform; sides often unequal. Stem short to medium. Cavity broad, deep, acute to acuminate, often russeted. Calyx rather large, closed; lobes long, reflexed, often separated at base. Basin abrupt, deep or moderately deep, rather wide, somewhat furrowed.
Skin tough, somewhat rough, clear deep yellow with scattering pale yellow or russet dots.
Calyx tube yellow, very broad at the top, conical, deep. Stamens basal.
Core medium to rather small, somewhat abaxile; cells usually pretty symmetrical, closed or somewhat open; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping.
Carpels roundish, emarginate, concave. Seeds numerous, medium or below, somewhat tufted, plump, acute to obtuse.
Flesh yellow, very firm, tender, crisp, moderately coarse, moderately juicy, subacid, rich, aromatic, sprightly, very good to best.  [All-purpose apple, but especially good for frying and apple butter. In some regions, it is particularly prized for cider and brandy. Contains 18.81% sugar, which ferments to a 9% alcohol cider (21).]
Season November to January or February. Commercial limit, December or January.  [Only a fair keeper when grown in the South (21).]

GROSH

References.  1.
Synonyms.  Beauty of the West (7,13,17). Big Rambo (4,8,16,17). Cummings Rambo (17). English Rambo (16). French Rambo of some (17). Grosh's Mammoth (17). Large Rambo (17). Large Summer Rambo (17). Lothringer Rambour (17). Mammoth Rambo (17). Monstrous Rambo (17). Musgrove (16). Musgrove's Cooper (4,7,8,17). Naylor Rambo (17). Ohio Beauty (2,4,7,8,16,17). Pickaway Rambo (17). Rambour Lorraine (17). Summer Rambo (9,17). Sweet Rambo incorrectly (17). Western Beauty (3,4,7,8,9,10,12,13,16,17, ? 14).
Fruit large, uniform and when well colored rather attractive, being mottled and striped with red. The flesh is tender, sprightly, pleasant subacid, in season from September till early winter. The tree is a strong grower, comes into bearing early and is a reliable cropper, yielding moderate to good crops almost annually. There is apt to be considerable loss from premature dropping of the fruit. So far as we can learn this variety has been as yet but little grown in New York. It appears to be worthy of further testing.
Summer Rambo much resembles this variety in general appearance but ripens about a month earlier.
Historical. Origin unknown. It was first brought to notice in Ohio, where it has been much grown under the name of Western Beauty.

TREE.

Tree vigorous with very long, moderately stout, curved branches.
Form upright spreading to roundish, open.
Twigs long to below medium, somewhat curved, moderately stout; internodes medium or below.
Bark clear reddish-brown mingled with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent near tips.
Lenticels clear brownish, conspicuous, quite numerous, medium or above, roundish, raised.
Buds medium to large, prominent, broad, plump, obtuse, free or nearly so, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit large or very large, very uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish oblate to somewhat conical, regular or sometimes elliptical.
Stem (Pedicel) short to above medium, moderately thick.
Cavity acuminate to acute, deep, wide, often somewhat compressed, smooth and green or sometimes russeted, symmetrical or gently furrowed, sometimes lipped.
Calyx above medium to very large, usually somewhat open disclosing the yellow calyx tube; lobes separated at the base, rather long, often leafy, acute to acuminate.
Basin often oblique, large, medium in depth and width to deep and rather wide, abrupt, usually somewhat furrowed.
Skin thick, tough, waxy, greenish-yellow becoming clear bright yellow when fully mature, washed and mottled with bright red and striped and splashed with carmine, except in highly-colored specimens the yellow predominates.
Dots numerous, small to rather large, pale gray or russet, often areolar or whitish and submerged.
Calyx tube rather large, wide at the top, conical or approaching funnel-form.
Stamens nearly basal to above median.
Core small to medium, axile or somewhat abaxile with hollow cylinder in the axis; cells symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish to ovate, emarginate, often tufted.
Seeds moderately numerous, moderately dark brown, often abortive, medium size, moderately wide, obtuse to acute.
Flesh whitish, slightly tinged with yellow, rather firm, medium to rather coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, a little aromatic, good or sometimes very good.
Season September to January.

Grundy
References.  1. Hansen, SD Sta. Bul., 76:56. 1902. 2. Budd-Hansen, 1903:95. 3. Jewell Nursery Co. Cat., 1903:7. 4. Ragan, USBPI Bul. 56:133. 1905.
Synonyms.  Thompson Seedling No. 38 (1-4).
Fruit large, regular, subacid, yellow marbled with red. Season September and October. Tree vigorous, spreading, productive. Originated from seed taken from New York to Grundy county, Iowa, by Mrs. J.S.B. Thompson in 1861. It has received favorable notice as a hardy variety in that region, but has not been sufficiently tested in this state to determine its value here (2).

Haas
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Fall Queen (2-5,7,14,16). Gros Pomier (2,14). Gros Pommier (2). Horse, of some (2). Hoss (1,2).
Fruit of good medium size and very attractive bright red color but only fair in quality. With some growers it has proved profitable because the tree comes into bearing young and is very thrifty, hardy and productive, but on account of the inferior quality of its fruit doubtless it will be eventually wholly supplanted by better kinds.
Historical. Originated on the grounds of Gabriel Cerré, St. Louis, MO (2). It has been widely disseminated throughout the Middle West and Southwest where it is recognized as one of the hardiest of American apples. In New York it has been planted to a limited extent only and its cultivation is not increasing.

TREE.

Tree large, very vigorous with long, slender branches.
Form at first comparatively tall and upright but becoming spreading or roundish.
Twigs long, curved, slender with large terminal buds; internodes long.
Bark brown or reddish-brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, oval, not raised.
Buds medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.
FRUIT
Fruit medium to above.
Form oblate a little inclined to conic, somewhat ribbed; sides usually unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to short, thick, often partly red.
Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, broad, usually symmetrical, more or less covered with thin greenish-russet.
Calyx small to medium, closed or nearly so; lobes separated at base, short, narrow, acuminate.
Basin moderately narrow, rather deep, abrupt, smooth or slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, yellow, mottled, washed and nearly covered with deep bright red or brownish-red, striped and splashed with deep carmine.
Dots small to rather large, inconspicuous, numerous, pale or russet.
Prevailing effect red striped with carmine. Calyx tube very variable, rather long and wide, conical or approaching funnel-form.
Stamens median or below.
Core below medium to above, somewhat abaxile; cells symmetrical, open or sometimes closed; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish to elliptical.
Seeds dark brown, medium to large, of medium width, plump, acute.
Flesh white, often stained with red, firm, moderately fine, a little tough, moderately juicy to juicy, sprightly subacid, aromatic, a little astringent, poor to fair or sometimes nearly good.
Season October to early winter. In common storage the ordinary commercial limit is November (16).

Hagloe
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Hagloe Crab (1-3), but incorrectly. Summer Hagloe (4-7,9,10).
In 1817, Coxe gave the following description of this variety (1). "The fruit, when fully ripe, has a yellow ground streaked with bright red---- the size about middling, the form round, flat at the ends; the stalk large--- the flesh remarkably soft and woolly, but not dry-- the taste acid, but highly flavoured. *** It ripens in August and September; keeps a long time without rotting--- it bears abundantly and early; the growth of the tree is very uncommon; thick strong shoots; buds, particularly at the extremity of the branches, very large; the colour of the wood dark-- the size of the tree small; the Hagloe is an uncommonly fine cooking apple; and from its great beauty and large size, added to its abundant bearing, is a valuable market fruit."
The tree is not a very good grower but comes into bearing rather young and yields moderate to good crops annually or nearly annually. The quality of the fruit is such that it is valued chiefly for culinary use and market. It is of good size and pretty uniform but the color is predominantly pale yellow rather faintly striped with red. It is not sufficiently attractive for a good market sort. Historical. It is now held that Hagloe originated in America (14,15). Coxe and some later writers confused the variety with the English cider fruit known as Hagloe Crab but eventually this error was discovered (4) and the name Summer Hagloe came to be commonly accepted among pomologists for this variety, under which name it was listed by the American Pomological Society in 1862 (10). In 1899 the namewas changed to Hagloe (14) in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society. This variety is but little known in New York.

TREE.

Tree rather small, a slow grower with moderately long; crooked branches.
Form flat, spreading, rather dense.
Twigs short, straight, stout with rather large terminal buds; internodes medium.
Bark brown with some olive-green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; pubescent near tips.
Lenticels scattering, large to medium, oblong, raised.
Buds medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large, pretty uniform.
Form roundish truncate to roundish conic, ribbed; sides often unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, rather thick.
Cavity acute, medium in width and depth, symmetrical, russeted and with rather irregular, outspreading russet.
Calyx below medium to above, closed or open; lobes often separated at the base, narrow, acuminate.
Basin moderately deep, narrow to medium in width, abrupt, nearly smooth.
Skin rather tender, smooth, somewhat glossy, pale greenish-yellow washed and mottled with pinkish-red marked with splashes and narrow stripes of bright carmine.
Dots light, inconspicuous.
Prevailing effect yellow, faintly striped.
Calyx tube moderately long, wide, conical.
Stamens basal.
Core usually small, axile to abaxile; cells usually open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate, emarginate, tufted.
Seeds rather light brown, small to medium, roundish, very plump, obtuse.
Flesh white, moderately fine, tender, rather juicy, sprightly subacid, good for culinary purposes.
Season August and September.

HARGROVE

REFERENCES. 1. Amer. Agric., 1891:701. fig. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892: 240. 3. Berckmans, Cat., 1892. 4. U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1895:24. 5. Thomas, 1897:638. 6. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1897:38.
A yellow apple of mild flavor and good quality. Received for testing at this Station from P. J. Berckmans, Augusta, Ga. It does not appear to be worthy of trial in New York state. The fruit is pale yellow, sometimes blushed, averages below medium size, is mild in flavor and good in quality. Its season here extends from November to March but in the southern states it is classed as an autumn variety.
Fruit.
Fruit small to nearly medium. Form: roundish conic, sometimes roundish oblate; pretty uniform in size and shape. Stem medium to rather short and thick. Cavity obtuse, shallow to moderately deep, sometimes symmetrical but often compressed or furrowed or lipped, often russeted. Calyx medium, open or sometimes partly closed; lobes broad, reflexed. Basin shallow or moderately shallow, furrowed, often wrinkled.
Skin tough, somewhat waxen, glossy, bright yellow, sometimes with bright blush. Dots small to large, often irregular, russet.
Calyx tube urn-shape.
Core medium or below, closed; core lines clasping. Carpels broadly roundish, emarginate, tufted. Seeds long, acuminate, tufted.
Flesh a little yellowish, firm, rather crisp, moderately fine-grained, juicy, mild subacid mingled with sweet, slightly aromatic, good.

Harvest Redstreak
References.  1. Downing 1857:214. 2. Warder, 1867:436. 3. Downing, 1869:211. 4. Thomas, 1875:501. 5. Ragan, USBPI Bul., 56:138. 1905.
Synonyms.  Early Red Pippin (5). Early Redstreak (2, 3). Striped Harvest (3,5).
Fruit of medium size, smooth, greenish-yellow or whitish striped and splashed with red. Flesh whitish, coarse, subacid, good for culinary use; season August and September. It is not sufficiently attractive in color for a good market variety. The tree is medium to large, with round head, moderately vigorous to very vigorous and yields good to heavy crops biennially.
Historical. This is an old variety of unknown origin. It is rarely found in New York and is now seldom or never planted.

Haskell
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Haskell Sweet (1-15). Sassafras Sweet (4,6,7,8,9).
Fruit large, of good appearance for a greenish-yellow apple, sweet, excellent for culinary use, in season from September to late fall or early winter. The crop does not ripen uniformly. The earliest ripening fruit becomes fully mature in September while at the same time others are green and hard. In ordinary storage the commercial limit appears to be early November and in cold storage the middle of January (15). The tree is a thrifty grower, comes into bearing moderately young and yields full crops biennially. Desirable for the home orchard.
Historical. Origin, Ipswich, Mass. (2,5). It is not commonly known in New York. it is occasionally listed by nurserymen (12) but is now seldom planted.

TREE.

Tree large, vigorous, branches long, moderately stout with numerous small spurs.
Form upright spreading or roundish, rather open.
Twigs moderately long, curved, moderately stout; internodes long.
Bark brown, heavily mottled with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, small, round, not raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit large or above medium, uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish or oblate, regular.
Stem (Pedicel) short, usually not exserted.
Cavity acute to acuminate, deep or moderately deep, rather abrupt, smooth or somewhat furrowed, russeted and with some outspreading russet rays.
Calyx large, closed.
Basin wide, moderately deep, rather abrupt, smooth or somewhat wrinkled.
Skin greenish-yellow, more or less dotted and flecked with russet, occasionally with a bronze blush.
Dots numerous, large, dark.
Calyx tube large, cone-shape to funnel-form.
Stamens median.
Core rather small, axile; cells symmetrical, closed; core lines clasping.
Carpels broad at the middle, narrowing toward base and apex, emarginate.
Seeds medium size, short, plump, obtuse.
Flesh yellowish, a little coarse, moderately crisp, tender, very sweet, aromatic, very good in flavor and quality.
Season September to late fall or early winter.

Hawley
References.  1. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 13:112,535. 1847. fig. 2. Cultivator, 4:114. 1847. fig. 3. Leavenworth, Horticulturist, 2:27. 1847. fig. 4. Cultivator, 5:246. 1848. 5. Cole, 1849:112. fig. 6. Thomas, 1849:156 fig. 7. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:48. 1851. col. pl. No. 24, fig. 8. Hovey, 2:39. 1851. col. pl. and fig. g. Barry, 1851:284. 10. Horticulturist, 7:484. 1852. 11. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 12. Mag. Hort., 19:68. 1853. 13. Elliott, 1854:137. 14. Mag. Hort., 20:241. 1854. 15. Downing, 1857 :82. 16. Gregg, 1857:44. fig. 17. Hooper, 1857:43. 18. Horticulturist, 13 :481. 1858. 19. Warder, 1867:410. fig. 20. Leroy, 1873:375. fig. 21. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:240. 22. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:296. 1901.  23.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 79.
Synonyms.  Douse (3,5,8,10.13,20). Dows (1,3,8,13,20). Dowse (2,4,6,9,10,16,20,22). Howley (20).
Hawley is a very large apple of the Fall Pippin type in color, size and form. When the color is fully developed it is a handsome yellow. Season September and October. It is of delicious for the home orchard but not well adapted for market because the tree is not very productive and the fruit often is scabby and sometimes it water-cores and rots at the core. The tree is a moderate grower in the nursery but in the orchard it is rather vigorous, medium in size to large, hardy and rather long-lived. It does not come into bearing very young. When mature it bears quite regularly but is usually a light or moderate cropper.
Historical. Originated on the farm of Mr. Mathew Hawley, New Canaan, NY about 1750, from seeds which Mr. Hawley obtained from Milford, Conn. (1,3). The original tree lived nearly a century. The variety gradually became disseminated throughout New York state. It has long been known in cultivation in different parts of the state, particularly in Columbia, Onondaga, Cayuga, Tompkins, Seneca and Monroe counties. It is now rarely listed by nurserymen and is seldom planted.
[Diseases:  Scab susceptible; moderately resistant to the other major apple diseases (23).] FRUITMoscow Mitch, Putin's little b1tch
Fruit large or very large, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form nearly globular to somewhat oblate or slightly conic, sometimes inclined to elliptical, more or less distinctly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium in length, rather slender.
Cavity acute to nearly obtuse, deep, wide and with outspreading rays.
Calyx below medium to rather large, partly closed; lobes often separated at base, reflexed, wide, acute.
Basin moderately deept to deep, medium to wide, very abrupt, often decidedly furrowed.
Skin fair, smooth, waxy, rather thin, pale green deepening to yellow as it matures, sometimes showing a faint brownish blush, with scattering russet dots and flecks especially toward the cavity.
Calyx tube large, wide, cone-shape, yellow or brownish.
Core below medium to above; cells closed; core lines meeting.
Carpels rather flat, tufted, roundish, emarginate.
Seeds few, obtuse. When well developed they are medium in size, but often some are abortive.
Flesh tinged with yellow, soft, very tender, rather fine-grained, juicy, rich, mild subacid, very good especially for dessert.  [Also good for apple butter (23).]
Season September to November or later.  [Only a fair keeper when grown in the South (23).]

Hawthornden
References.  1. Hooker, Pom. Lond., 1813:T. 44 (cited by 2). 2. Forsyth, 1824:106. 3. Pom. Mag., 1828:No. 34. col. pl. 4. London Hort. Soc. Cat., 1831:No. 530. 5. Mag. Hort., 1:326. 1835. 6. Manning, 1838 :48. 7. Bis Mag. Hort, 7:45. 1841. 8. Downing, 1845 :86. 9. Cole, 1849 :113. 10. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 17:18. 1851. fig. 11. Barry, 1851:284. 12, Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:40. 1851. 13. Mag. Hort., 19:174. 1853. 14. Elliott, 1854:171. 15. Gregg, 1857:43. 16. Hooper, 1857 :43. 17. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 18, Warder, 1867 :410. fig. 19. Leroy, 1873 :376. fig. 20. Thomas, 1875:501, 21. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt, 1:10. 1876. 22. Ib., 5:24. 1879. 23. Hogg, 1884 :105. 24. Rural N. Y., 45233. 1886. figs. 25. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292. 26. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892 :241. 27. Gaucher, 1894:No. 13. col. pl. 28. Dempsey, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 1:24. 1894. fig. 29. Bunyard, Jour, Roy. Hort. Soc., 1898 :354.
Synonyms.  Hawley, but erroneously (27). Hawthorndean (2,6,7,23). Lincolnshire Pippin (27). Lord Kingston (27). Maiden's Blush erroneously (10). Old Hawthorndean (23,27). Pomme de Hawthornden (27). Red Hawthornden (10). Shoreditch White (27). Weisser Hawthornden (27). Wheeler's Kernel (27). White Apple (27). White Hawthorndean (23,27). White Hawthornden (3,4,8,10,12,14).
A Scotch variety which has done fairly well in various parts of this country from New England to California. Warder (18) says of it: "This famous Scotch fruit appears to do very well in this country, but it must yield the palm to its American cousin and representative, the Maiden's Blush, which possesses all its good qualities as a market and kitchen fruit, with attractive appearance."
The tree is said to be a vigorous grower and a biennial cropper, and the fruit is above medium to large, regular, fair, white sometimes nearly overspread with faint blush that deepens to bright red in the sun. Flesh mild, subacid, not of high flavor, pleasant, good. Season September and October.
We are not acquainted with this variety. It appears to be but little known among New York fruit growers. It is still occasionally listed by nurserymen (26).

HAYWOOD

REFERENCES. 1. Berckmans, Cat., 1892. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:241.
Synonym. Queen of Haywood (1).
A southern apple received from P. J. Berckmans, Augusta, Ga., 1892, for testing here. The fruit is dull red, striped over yellow background, hardly medium in size, not very attractive, mild subacid, and only fair in quality. Not desirable for planting in New York.

HAZEN

A yellow or greenish apple of good size, mild flavor, nearly sweet, good or nearly good in quality. The tree comes ifito bearing young, is a rather strong grower and so far as tested here is productive. It is not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. Hazen was originated by J. Erwin Lord, Pompanoosuc, Vt., who says that it was produced by crossing some fine cultivated variety, record of name now lost, upon an unnamed seedling red winter apple.
TREE.
Twigs very short, slender, straight or nearly so; internodes medium. Bark slightly dull reddish, somewhat pubescent. Lenticels not very conspicuous, small to nearly medium, generally quite elongated. Buds rather small, prominent, fleshy, acute, moderately pubescent, slightly adhering to the bark.
Fruit.
Fruit medium or above, uniform in size and shape. Form roundish inclined to conic, varying to somewhat oblate, symmetrical. Stem medium to long, rather slender. Cavity obtuse to acute, medium in depth and width, usually symmetrical, sometimes russeted. Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open. Basin often oblique, shallow, moderately wide, obtuse, slightly furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin yellow, marbled with green. Dots small, numerous, greenish and russet.
Calyx tube rather small, short, usually cone-shape, sometimes varying to funnel-form.
Core medium, varying to rather large, open; core lines usually meeting.
Carpels broadly roundish, mucronate. Seeds numerous, small to medium, rather narrow, acute, moderately light brown.
Flesh yellowish, rather coarse, somewhat crisp, not tender, moderately juicy, sweet or nearly so, slightly aromatic, fair to good.
Season December to April.

HENNIKER.

REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1876:54 app. 2. Hogg, 1884:126. 3. Gartenflora, 39:265. 1890. col. pl. 4. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:243. 5. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:593. 1892. 6. Jour. Royal Hort. Soc., 1898:356. 7. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:44. 1903. 8. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:124. 1904.
Synonym. Lady HENNIKER (1, 2, 4, 5, 6).
Fruit of good size and excellent quality but not attractive enough in form and color to rank as a first-class commercial variety. The tree is a strong grower. It does not come into bearing very young but is quite productive in alternate years. There is apt to be considerable loss from the dropping of the fruit. It is not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. Originated between 1840 and 1850 in Suffolk, England (2). Awarded first-class certificate by the Royal Horticultural Society in 1873 (6). It has not been disseminated much in this country and is but little known in New York.
TREE.
Tree vigorous; branches short, moderately stout, curved, crooked. Form roundish or spreading, rather dense. Twigs long to short, stout; internodes medium or below. Bark dark brown tinged with red or partly olive-green, distinctly mottled with gray scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticels rather numerous, scattering, medium to small, roundish, raised, moderately conspicuous. Buds medium, rather prominent, broad, plump, obtuse to acute, free, slightly pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit above medium to very large, fairly uniform in size. Form oblate to roundish, rather obscurely ribbed, often elliptical, not very uniform in shape. Stem short to medium, moderately thick. Cavity acuminate or somewhat acute, deep, wide, gently furrowed, often covered with outspreading russet. Calyx medium to rather large; lobes partly open, broad, acute. Basin moderately deep to rather shallow, medium to rather wide, somewhat furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin rather tough, decidedly roughened with capillary netted russet lines and rather large russet dots, and sometimes with broken patches of russet; color rather deep yellow, blushed and mottled with red and sparingly striped with carmine. Prevailing effect rather dull red somewhat mingled with yellow.
Calyx tube rather long, funnel-shape. Stamens median or below.
Core medium to small, axile; cells unsymmetrical, often seedless, irregularly developed; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels broadly roundish or approaching obcordate, emarginate, tufted. Seeds few, medium or above, obtuse to acute, tufted.
Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately coarse, somewhat crisp, rather tender, juicy, rich, brisk subacid with something of the flavor characteristic of certain russets, becoming rather mild late in the season; good to very good in quality. Excellent for cooking but at first rather too briskly acid to be desirable for a dessert apple.
Season November to March or April.

HEREFORDSHIRE

REFERENCES. 1. Hogg, 1884:106. 2. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890: 292. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:241.
Synonym. HEREFORDSHIRE BEEFING (1, 3).
A dark red subacid apple adapted for kitchen use. As fruited at the Geneva Station it is rather attractive but falls below standard commercial varieties in size, quality and appearance. The tree comes into bearing early and is productive. It does not appear to be worthy of trial in New York state.
Historical. Known in Herefordshire for more than one hundred years (1). It is but little known in New York.
TREE.
Tree not a very good grower; branches short, slender ; laterals willowy and slender. Form roundish or spreading, very dense. Twigs below medium to very short, straight, slender, somewhat pubescent; internodes short. Bark clear brownish-red with some olive-green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin. Lenticels moderately numerous, scattering, small to medium, elongated, slightly raised. Buds below medium to small, broad, very obtuse, appressed, deeply set in the bark, pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit medium in size but with a full crop it varies from below medium to small. Form usually roundish oblate, sometimes oblate conic, symmetrical; uniform in size and shape. Stem short and thick. Cavity obtuse, broad, deep, often russeted, usually symmetrical, sometimes furrowed. Calyx medium to rather large, usually open; tips of lobes divergent. Basin varies from shallow to moderately deep, rather wide, slightly wrinkled, ridged.
Skin thin, tough, clear greenish-yellow largely blushed with rather bright dark red, sometimes almost covered with red. Dots medium in size, numerous, usually russet, sometimes submerged. Prevailing effect. red with more or less contrasting yellow.
Calyx tube very short, rather wide, broadly conical, sometimes approaching funnel-form. Stamens median or slightly marginal.
Core large, abaxile; cells symmetrical, open; core lines clasping. Carpels usually elliptical sometimes broadly obovate, emarginate, sometimes a little tufted. Seeds small, rather short, plump, broadly acute, rather light colored.
Flesh yellowish, moderately firm and tender, moderately fine, juicy, aromatic, brisk subacid, fair to good in flavor and quality.
Season October to January or February.

Hibernal
References.  1. Budd, Ja. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1880:525. 2. Gibb, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1881:156. 3. Tuttle, 7b., 8:136. 1881-82, 4. Ib., 1883 :08. 5. Gibb, Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883 :440. 6. Budd, Ia. Agr. Coll. Bul., 1885 :15. 7. Gibb, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-87 :15. 8. Schroeder, Ib., 1886-87 : 9. Craig, Ib., 1886-87 :103. 10. Budd, Ia. Agr. Coll. Bul., 1890:20. 11. Can. Hort., 13:216. 1890. 12. Budd, Ia. Sta. Bul., 19:537. 1892. 13. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892 :241. 14. Taylor, Me. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1892:57, 58. 15. Freeborn, Nat. Nurseryman, 1894:132. 16. Freeborn, Nat. Nurseryman, 1894:132. 16. Can. Hort., 17:7. 1804. 17 Gard. and For., 8:340. 1895. 18. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1896:74. 19. Waugh, Vt. Sta. Bul., 61:30. 1897. 20. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1897 :13. 21. Troop, Ind. Sta. An. Rpt., 12:80. 1899. 22. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:296. 1901. 23. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Bul., 37:39. 1901. 24. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bul., 76:57. 1902. fig. 25. Munson, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 1902:83, 87. 26. Budd- Hansen, 1903:08. fig.
Synonyms.  Hibernal (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18,19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26). Hibernal (8). No. 378(1,2,4-7,9-26). Orsimui (4-6). Osimoe (8). Romna (23).
A Russian variety which is proving valuable in portions of the Upper Mississippi valley and the Northwest because of its ability to withstand the rigorous climatic conditions of those regions. Hansen says of it: "This variety represents what is probably the hardiest type of the Russian race of apples; there are several sorts closely resembling, or identical with Hibernal. Tree vigorous, very spreading, productive. The strong spreading growth makes it especially desirable as a stock for top-grafting, probably the best we have at the present time. Fruit large, irregular, oblate to roundish oblate conical; skin thick; surface greenish-yellow, with a dull bronze mixed red on sunny side, with a few dull crimson splashes; dots white, minute, obscure, often some large russet dots; cavity regular, medium deep, with a large patch of russet radiating out irregularly over nearly the entire base, this is a marked characteristic; stem medium, often short; basin narrow, rather shallow, wrinkled; calyx half open or open. Core closed, meeting; tube funnel-shaped; stamens median; seeds few; flesh acid, with some astringency, juicy, good for cooking. Early winter" (24,26).
Macoun reports "Flesh yellowish, crisp, tender, juicy, acid; core small; quality above medium; season September to November. Tree very hardy, a strong, spreading grower, and very productive. Although not a good dessert fruit this is a fine cooking apple and on account of its great hardiness and productiveness is one of the best of the Russian apples" (23).

Hicks
References.  1. Hicks, Horticulturist, 21:333. 1866. fig. 2. Downing, 1869:215. 3. Burrill and McCluer, Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:308, 316, 324. 1896. 4. Thomas, 1897:639.
Synonyms.  Buckram (2,3). Hicks (1, 2, 3, 4).
A sweet apple of medium size, yellowish striped and splashed with crimson; season middle of August. It is but little known except in certain localities on Long Island. Not recommended for general planting in this state.
Historical. Hicks originated as a chance seedling and was brought to notice by Isaac Hicks, North Hempstead L.I. (1,2).

HIESTER

REFERENCES. 3. Downing, 1872:215. 2. Boyer, Pa. Fr. Gr. Soc. Rpt., 1881: 34. 3. Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:324. 1896.
Synonyms. Baer (1). Heaster (1). Heister (1). Michel Miller (2). Miller (1). Stehly (1).
A pleasant subacid apple in season here during winter, but where it originated it is classed as a late fall and early winter variety. Tree vigorous and productive (1). It is considered a desirable apple in some parts of Pennsylvania (2). Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. Origin, Reading, Berks county, Pa. (1). But little known in New York.
Fruit.
Fruit medium. Form roundish oblate, sometimes faintly ribbed. Stem very short and slender. Cavity acute, rather broad and deep. Calyx small, partly open. Basin rather abrupt to somewhat obtuse, broad, deep, slightly wrinkled.
Skin pale yellow mottled with thin bright red on shady side and washed with deeper red and narrowly streaked with deep carmine in the sun. Dots gray or russet, conspicuous about the cavity.
Calyx tube rather small, cone-shape, approaching funnel-form. Stamens median.
Core small, somewhat abaxile; cells open or partly open; core lines meeting or clasping. Carpels broadly roundish. Seeds medium or below, rather narrow, short, plump.
Flesh yellowish-white, crisp, moderately juicy, rather tender, mild subacid to somewhat sweet, fair to good in flavor and quality.

HIGHLAND BEAUTY

REFERENCES. 1. Manning, Mass. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1881:232. 2. Downing, 1881:88 app. fig. 3. Dempsey, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 2:32. 1895.
A seedling of the Lady exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1881 as a new variety. “In size it surpasses its parent but not in quality” (1). The fruit is of the Lady type. Skin clear, smooth yellow or almost waxen white, blushed with brilliant carmine. Flesh white, crisp, tender, juicy, mild subacid, very good.
Season January to March (1, 2, 3). It does not appear to be known in cultivation to any considerable extent.

Hightop Sweet
References.  1. Thacher, 1822:128. 2. Hovey, Mag. Hart., 14:390. 1848. 3. Cole, 1849:97. 4. Phoenix, Horticulturist, 4:472. 1850. 5. Emmons, Nat. Hist. NY., 3:16. 1851. fig. 6. Elliott, 1854:139. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. 8. Mag. Hort. 22:181. 1856. 9. Downing, 1857:151. 10. Gregg, 1857:40. 1. Warder, 1867:553. 12. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1869:33. 13. Fitz, 1872:145. 14. Thomas, 1875:189. 15. Downing, 1881:11 index, app. 16. Barry, 1883:250. 17. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292. 18. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:250. 19. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:132. 20. Hoskins, Rural NY 1894:248. 21. Budd-Hansen, 1903:99. fig.
Synonyms.  Early Sweet (15). High Top Sweet (13,19). High Top Sweeting (1,5,6,8,,12,15) ? (2,3). Summer Sweet (3,5,6,9,14). Summer Sweeting (2). Sweet June (4,6,9-14,16,18-21).
Fruit of medium size; flesh yellowish, very sweet, rich and very good quality; season July and August. Tree upright, vigorous, very productive.
Historical. In 1822 Thacher (1) remarked: "This tree, it is believed, is peculiar to the old Plymouth colony. The first settlers, either from choice, or for want of other varieties, cultivated it more generally than any other apple. It is now much on the decline. The fruit is under the middle size; of a yellowish colour, pleasant taste; but chiefly used for baking, and for drying. It is ripe in August, and is not long preserved. The tree is remarkable for its long upright stem."
It appears that this variety was introduced into Ohio from Connecticut and Massachusetts and afterward disseminated westward under the name of Sweet June. In 1892 Bailey (18) found that although various nurserymen were offering Sweet June for sale none of them mentioned Hightop Sweet. Some have held that the Sweet June of the West is not identical with the Hightop Sweet of Massachusetts (12). We have not had the opportunity of determining whether this is true, but if they are identical it appears strange that the name Hightop Sweet should be entirely dropped by those who are propagating it in the West. This variety is but little known in New York.

Hilaire
References.  1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1879:453. 2. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-87:95. 3. Bailey, Mich. Sta. Bul., 31:54. 1887. 4. Downing, 1881:102 app. fig. 5. Waugh, VT Sta. Bul., 83:87. 1900.
Synonyms.  Cabane du Chien (3,5,6). Fameuse Baldwin, of some (5). St. Hilaire (1-6).
An apple which resembles Fameuse in the color of its skin and in the color and texture of its flesh, but the flesh has more of a sprightly acid flavor and the fruit keeps better than that of Fameuse. Waugh reports (5) that it is not now grown in the vicinity of its origin. Professor U.P. Hedrick of the Michigan Agricultural College, who supplied the fruit for the following description, states that as grown in Michigan the variety is hardy, productive and gives promise of being a valuable acquisition.
Historical. This is said to have originated in the orchard of Alexis Dery, Quebec (4). Probably a seedling of Fameuse (2). So far as we know it is not grown in New York.

TREE.

Tree large, vigorous; a heavy alternate bearer (2).
Twigs short, curved, slender; internodes short.
Bark dark brown with light coat of streaked scarf-skin, slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small, oblong, raised.
Buds small, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to above, uniform in size.
Form oblate to roundish-oblate, rather irregular.
Stem (Pedicel) medium, moderately slender.
Cavity acuminate or acute, moderately deep and broad, not russeted, symmetrical.
Calyx medium, usually closed; lobes broad, obtuse.
Basin medium in depth to shallow, moderately wide to rather narrow, rather abrupt, slightly wrinkled, symmetrical.
Skin thin, tender, smooth, pale yellow or whitish almost completely overspread with attractive red of the Fameuse hue becoming as highly colored as the Fameuse or McIntosh and covered with faint bloom; stripes obscure if any.
Dots very numerous, small, red, sometimes gray or russet.
Prevailing effect brilliant deep pinkish-red deepening to purplish-red.
Calyx tube long, rather narrow, funnel-shape.
Stamens median to basal.
Core nearly axile, small to medium; cells closed or partly open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder.
Carpels round, slightly emarginate.
Seeds dark, numerous, medium to large, wide, obtuse to acute.
Flesh whitish sometimes tinged with red, fine, crisp, tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, good to very good.
Season November to January. A better keeper than Fameuse.

Hilton
References.  1. Downing, 1857:151. 2. Warder, 1867:721. 3. Thomas, 1875:502.
Synonyms.  None.
This variety originated in Columbia county, NY. According to Downing (1), the tree is vigorous and productive; the fruit large, yellowish-green, subacid, excellent for culinary purposes. Season September and October.
So far as we can discover this variety is not now known in cultivation.

Hoadley
References.  1. Goff, Wis. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:347, 1894. 2. Ib., Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1899:236.
Synonyms.  None.
A variety of the Oldenburg type which much resembles Oldenburg except that its season is about a month later. It is decidedly attractive in general appearance and of good quality for culinary purposes. The tree is a moderate grower, comes into bearing early and so far as tested here is very productive. It appears to be worthy of testing where an apple of this type is desired.
Historical. Received from the Wisconsin Experiment Station in 1896 for testing at this Station.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading when young.
Twigs short, straight, stout; internodes medium.
Bark brown and reddish-brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium size, round, not raised.
Buds medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.
FRUITMoscow Mitch, Putin's little b1tch    Fruit above medium to large, sometimes very large.
Form roundish oblate inclined to conic, a little angular; sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short, thick to slender.
Cavity acute to obtuse, deep, broad, pretty symmetrical, thinly and irregularly russeted.
Calyx rather large, closed or partly open; lobes long, broad, acute to obtuse.
Basin deep to medium in depth, rather narrow to moderately wide, abrupt, slightly furrowed.
Skin moderately thick, tough, attractive yellow or greenish-yellow largely overspread with rather light bright red, mottled and irregularly striped and splashed with carmine.
Dots inconspicuous, small, submerged, pale.
Calyx tube variable, short, rather wide, funnel-shape, sometimes broadly conical with core lines meeting.
Stamens median to nearly marginal.
Core medium size, abaxile; cells open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels broadly cordate or elliptical, slightly tufted.
Seeds medium or below, wide, moderately long, usually plump, rather obtuse, dark colored.
Flesh tinged with yellow, pretty firm, a little coarse, crisp, tender, very juicy, brisk subacid, good.
Season late September to November.

Hog Island Sweet
References.  1. Downing, 1857:152. 2. Warder, 1867:721. 3. Downing, 1872:10 index, app. 4. Thomas, 1875:502. 5. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292.  6.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 73.
Synonyms.  Sweet Pippin (1). Van Kleek's Sweet (3).
A beautiful and excellent sweet apple in season from September to early winter. It is an old variety which had its origin on Hog Island, near Long Island, NY (1). It is but little known. The tree is vigorous and productive.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large, pretty uniform.
Form roundish conical to oblate, broad at the base, regular or obscurely ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, moderately thick.
Cavity acute, deep, rather broad, heavily russeted and with outspreading russet rays.
Calyx medium to large, closed or partly open; lobes short broad, acute.
Basin shallow to medium in depth, narrow to moderately wide, abrupt, broadly furrowed.
Skin thick, rather tough, somewhat roughened with flecks and patches of russet, pale yellow or greenish washed and mottled with red overlaid with broad and narrow stripes and splashes of carmine.
Dots numerous, small, russet.
Prevailing effect bright striped red over a yellow background. Calyx tube long, wide, conical to funnel-shape.
Stamens basal to median.
Core small to medium, abaxile to nearly axile; cells somewhat unsymmetrical, open; core lines slightly clasping the funnel cylinder or meeting.
Carpels roundish obovate to elliptical, emarginate.
Seeds medium or below, sometimes tufted, rather wide, rather short, plump, acute to somewhat obtuse.
Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, very sweet, somewhat aromatic, good to very good.  [Good for baking and apple butter as well (6).]
Season September to early winter.  [Good keeper (6).]

Holland Pippin
References.  1.Coxe, 1817:109. fig. 2 Downing, 1845:86. 3. Ib., Horticulturist; 3:345. 1848. 4. Thomas, 1849:156. fig. 5 Cole, 1849 :110. 6. Downing, Chas., Horticulturist, 8:196. 1853. 7. Elliott, 1854 :138. 8. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 22:555- 1856. fig. 9. Hooper, 1857:45. 10. Gregg, 1857:37. 11. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 12. Warder, 1867 2506. 13. Wickson, 1889:244. 14. Lyon, Mich, Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292. 15. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:241. 16. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:124. 1904.
Synonyms.  Fall Pippin (1). French Pippin (7). Pie Apple (2,7,8). Reinette d'Hollande (2,7). Summer Pippin (2,7,8).
There are two varieties in cultivation in New York under the name Holland Pippin. One is a winter apple in season from late autumn to April or May which has already been described under the name Holland Winter, Vol. I, page 159. The other begins to ripen earlier than Fall Pippin and is in season during September and October. This variety was formerly confused by some with the Fall Pippin. The following comparison of the two varieties was given by Downing in 1848 (3).
"The Holland Pippin, though considerably resembling this apple in the growth of the tree, and size and shape of the fruit, is a totally distinct apple from the Fall Pippin. In fact, while the Fall Pippin is one of the best autumn table apples (at least in this district), the Holland Pippin is of very inferior quality for dessert, and is, in fact, only a cooking apple. As a kitchen fruit, however, it is one of the most valuable summer fruits we know- for it bears regularly and well, comes into use at the beginning of August, and continues fit for pies, tarts, and sauce, until October, when the Fall Pippin begins to ripen. The Holland Pippin is fit for use while the skin quite green, but the Fall Pippin, not until it turns quite yellow. Finally the stalk of the Holland Pippin is large, and set in a cavity often narrow, and comparatively shallow. With these points of difference, these two apples ought not to be confounded."
Holland Pippin is grown to a limited extent for market. It appears to be more valued for this purpose in certain portions of the Hudson valley than in other sections of the state. The fruit is large and when kept free from scab its general appearance is good for a green apple. The crop ripens unevenly. It varies greatly in keeping qualities in different seasons, some years keeping well till late fall or early winter (16). The tree is a good grower, hardy or nearly so, healthy, pretty long-lived and generally quite productive yielding moderate to heavy crops biennially or sometimes annually. Historical. Origin unknown. It is an old variety which has long been in cultivation in this and adjoining states. It is still listed by nurserymen but it is not being planted to any considerable extent.

TREE.

Tree large or moderately large, vigorous.
Form spreading or roundish.
Twigs medium to long, curved, stout; internodes medium.
Bark dark brown, heavily coated with gray scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small to medium, oval, not raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit usually large or very large, sometimes medium, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish often decidedly flattened at the end varying to oblate conic, obscurely ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to short, usually rather slender.
Cavity acute or sometimes acuminate, medium in width to broad, moderately shallow to deep, usually covered with thick outspreading russet.
Calyx pubescent, medium to small, closed or partly open; lobes rather long, acute.
Basin usually rather shallow but varying to moderately deep, medium in width to rather narrow, abrupt to somewhat obtuse, ridged and wrinkled.
Skin thin, tough, nearly smooth, rather pale yellow or greenish with more or less of a brownish-red blush which is conspicuously marked with large, irregular, areolar dots.
Dots numerous, large and small, often submerged and greenish.
Calyx tube wide, broadly conical to truncate funnel-form.
Stamens below median to basal.
Core medium to large, abaxile; cells unsymmetrical, open; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping.
Carpels broad, narrowing toward base and apex, slightly emarginate, a little tufted.
Seeds medium size, rather narrow, acute to somewhat acuminate.
Flesh nearly white, medium to slightly coarse-grained, moderately crisp, rather tender, very juicy, brisk subacid, good for culinary uses.
Season September and October.

HOLLAND WINTER

REFERENCES. 1. Langley, Pomona, 1729. (cited by 3). 2 Knoop, Pomol., 1758. (cited by 3). 3. Forsyth, 1824:107. 4. Hogg, 1884:110. 5. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul. 48:44, par. 2. 1903. 6. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:124. 1904.
The variety here described as Holland Winter was received for testing at this Station from Western Pennsylvania under the name of Holland Pippin. United States Pomologist Heiges identified it for us as the Holland Pippin of Hogg, Langley and Miller, and stated that it is the variety which is generally grown in Pennsylvania under the name of Holland Pippin, We have not yet been able to confirm with certainty the identification made by Heiges.
Forsyth’s complete description of the Holland Pippin of Langley (3) is here given.
“This is a middle-sized apple, of a flattish shape. Its colour is yellow, in some places inclining to green, with sometimes a little red towards the sun. This is a pretty good apple, and keeps till the middle of April.”
The following is Hogg’s description (4).
“Fruit large, three inches wide, and two inches and a half high; roundish and flattened with ribs on the sides. Skin, greenish-yellow, with a slight tinge of pale brown where exposed to the sun, and strewed with large green. dots. Eye, small and closed, set in a round, narrow, and plaited basin. Stalk, very short, imbedded in a wide and deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish-white, firm, tender, juicy, sweet, and briskly acid.
“A valuable apple of first-rate quality for culinary purposes; it is in use from November to March. The tree is a strong grower, vigorous, healthy, and a good bearer.”
This variety is surely distinct from the one described by Downing and commonly grown in the Hudson valley and to some extent in other portions of the state under the name of Holland Pippin. The Holland Pippin of Downing begins to ripen somewhat earlier than the Fall Pippin, while the variety here described keeps till spring. Since both of these varieties are known in cultivation in this country under the name of Holland Pippin it is well to distinguish between the two by calling the late keeping one Holland Winter.
It is a green apple of the Reinette Pippin class, not equal to Rhode Island Greening in flavor or quality for dessert or culinary uses but it is a better keeper and less liable to scald. It is attractive for a green apple in both size and color. The tree is a strong grower, healthy and productive, and usually is an annual bearer alternating heavy with rather light crops. It appears to be of sufficient value to be worthy of planting for trial as a commercial variety where a late keeping apple of this type is desired.
Historical. If this is in fact the Holland Pippin of Langley and Miller it is an old variety “native of the Holland district of Lincolnshire, hence its name” (4).
TREE.
Tree vigorous; branches long, moderately stout. Form spreading or roundish, rather open. Twigs moderately long, straight, stout; internodes short to medium. Bark clear reddish-brown with some olive-green, streaked lightly with scarf-skin, heavily pubescent near the tips. Lenticels numerous, small, roundish, sometimes raised, rather conspicuous. Buds large to above medium, broad, obtuse, free near the old wood but quite appressed near the tips; heavily pubescent.
Fruit.Moscow Mitch, Putin's little b1tch
Fruit medium to large. Form roundish conic, symmetrical, regular or sometimes faintly ribbed. Stem medium or short and rather thick. Cavity acute or approaching acuminate, rather large and slightly furrowed, occasionally with thin outspreading russet rays. Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open. Basin shallow, occasionally moderately deep and abrupt, somewhat furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin tough, slightly waxy, smooth, pale green or whitish often with a faint, dull blush. Dots numerous, rather large, conspicuous, submerged, whitish, mingled with a few fine russet points.
Calyx tube long, narrow, funnel-shape. Stamens median or below.
Core medium or below, somewhat abaxile; cells pretty symmetrical, open or partly closed; core lines clasping. Carpels roundish to somewhat elliptical, broad, slightly tufted. Seeds rather short, plump, obtuse.
Flesh nearly white, firm, rather crisp, moderately fine-grained, juicy, sub-acid with mild, pleasing aroma, good.
Season December to May.

HOLMES SWEET.

REFERENCE. I. Downing, 1872:220.
Described by Downing as a medium sized yellow apple with red cheek.
Flesh tender, sweet, mingled with subacid. Season November to February. Origin, Niagara county, N. Y. (1). Now practically obsolete.
Not the Holmes of Thacher.

Hook
References.  1. (?) Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1880:183.
Synonyms.  None.
Fruit of good medium size, rather attractive pale yellow with tender flesh of mild subacid flavor. It is in season during October and November. It is especially esteemed for dessert use.
Historical. This variety was received from Schoharie county, NY where it is well known and has the reputation of being one of the most desirable dessert apples of its season. We have not yet been able to determine its origin, nor the extent of its distribution.
FRUITDitch Moscow Mitch! Fruit medium size, pretty uniform in shape and size.
Form roundish ovate or inclined to oblong conic, sometimes roundish truncate.
Stem (Pedicel) short, rather slender.
Cavity acuminate, moderately shallow to deep, broad, often lipped, smooth or with some outspreading russet rays.
Calyx medium size, usually somewhat open; lobes rather narrow to wide, acute to acuminate.
Basin medium in width and depth, obscurely furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin smooth, clear yellow or greenish-yellow.
Dots inconspicuous, minute, usually submerged.
Calyx tube large, conical or approaching funnel-form.
Stamens median or below.
Core rather small, axile; cells symmetrical, closed or a little closed or a little open; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping.
Carpels smooth, flat, obcordate to elliptical, emarginate.
Seeds medium brown, rather large, wide, flat, obtuse.
Flesh whitish with slight tinge of yellow, very tender, fine-grained, juicy, mild subacid, somewhat aromatic, very good.
Season October and November.

Howard Best
References.  1. Bailey, Mich. Sta. Bul., 31:52. 1887. 2. NY Sta. An. Rpt., 11:223. 1892.
Synonyms.  Howard's Best Russian (1).
This is an attractive apple that bears a decided resemblance to Alexander in form, color and quality. The tree is a moderate grower, comes into bearing rather young and yields moderate to good crops almost annually. We have not yet determined whether or not it is superior to Alexander.
Historical. Received in 1892 for testing at this Station from C.G. Patten, Charles City, IA (2).

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous with short, moderately stout, crooked branches.
Form rather flat and spreading, inclined to droop.
Twigs short, straight, slender with large terminal buds; internodes short to medium.
Bark dull brown, tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small, oblong, not raised.
Buds small, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit above medium, usually large to very large.
Form oblate conic, rather flat at the base, somewhat ribbed, symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long, thick.
Cavity acute, deep, medium in width to wide, symmetrical, sometimes compressed, heavily russeted.
Calyx large, open; lobes separated at base, short, narrow, acute.
Basin moderately shallow to rather deep, rather narrow, abrupt, distinctly furrowed to rather smooth.
Skin rather tough, smooth, waxy, light yellowish-green, mottled, striped and splashed with bright dark red over a large part of the surface.
Dots indistinct, medium size, gray, scattering.
Calyx tube short, wide, conical or approaching funnel-form.
Stamens basal to median.
Core medium size, nearly axile; cells closed or slightly open; core lines clasping or nearly meeting.
Carpels very broadly ovate or inclined to elliptical, slightly emarginate, tufted.
Seeds medium to small, wide, short, rather flat, obtuse.
Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, firm, rather coarse, tender, very juicy, sprightly subacid, fair to good.
Season September and October.

HUBBARDSTON.

REFERENCES. 1. Kenrick, 1832:47. 2. Manning, 1838:62. 3. Mag. Hort., 7:45. 1841. 4. Downing, 1845:113. 5+ Mag. Hort., 14:545. 1848. fig. 6. Ib., 15:63. 1849. 7. Thomas, 1849:166, 167. fig. 8. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:65. 1851. col. pls. 51 and 74. 9 Hovey, 1:67. 1852. col. pl., fig. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 11. Hooper, 1857:46. 12. Oberdieck, Ill. Handb. der Obstk., 8:137. 13. Warder, 1867:600. fig. 14. Mag. Hort., 34:27. 1868. 15. Leroy, 1873:497. fig. 16. Barry, 1883:347. 17. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292. 18. Wickson, 1891:244. 19. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:241. 20. Green, Rural N. Y., 57:802. 1808. 21. Eneroth-Smirnoff, 1901:363. 22. Budd-Hansen, 1903:100. fig. 23. Can. Hort., 26:89. 19¢3. fig. 24. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:44. 1903. 25. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:125. 1904.  [26.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p.87]
Synonyms. AMERICAN BLUSH (20). American Blush (25). American Nonpareille (15). Hubbardston (18). Huspardston Nonsuch (a, 2; 33.5) 6, 7, 8, 9, II, 13, 14, 16, 19, 21, 22). Hubbardston Nonsuch (15, 23, 24, 25)- John May (15). NONPAREILLE DE Hubbardston (15). Nonsuch (18). Nonesuch (24, 25). Orleans (25). SONDERGLEICHEN VON HUBRARDSTON (12). Van Vleet.
Hubbardston is an excellent variety for commercial planting and deserves to be better known among New York fruit growers. It varies remarkably under different conditions of soil and climate not only in vigor of tree but in certain fruit characters also, such as size, color, degree of smoothness or russeting of the skin and in the quality and flavor of the flesh. The fact that it has come to have various local names in different parts of the state is doubtless partly due to this variability. It is now generally conceded that American Blush, Van Vleet and Orleans are identical with Hubbardston, or at the most are but selected strains of that variety. In many parts of the state Hubbardston is one of the most profitable varieties of its season, ripening as it does between the perishable early autumn varieties and the late ripening winter apples. It has generally sustained the reputation of coming into bearing at an early age and yielding heavy crops as often as every other year and in many places it is almost an annual bearer. It is apt to be productive to a fault, and for this reason should receive extra attention to keep the soil fertile and the foliage well protected from insects and diseases. When grown upon its own trunk the body is sometimes injured by severe winters. The tree also is somewhat susceptible to attacks of the apple canker. Tor these reasons it is doubtless best for one who wishes to grow Hubbardston to plant some hardier and more vigorous variety such as the Northern Spy, and the following year top-work the trees to Hubbardston. Under favorable conditions the tree is a vigorous grower and the fruit is fair, smooth, uniform, of good size and pretty good color. The quality is excellent for dessert but less satisfactory for culinary use except very early in the season before the fruit loses acidity.
Its commercial limit in cellar storage does not extend much later than December. It is a very uncertain keeper and in cold storage should go out in late fall or early winter although sometimes it has been held in good condition till spring. Fruit of this variety grown in Central and Western New York usually is somewhat smaller and keeps better than that grown in the lower Hudson valley. It appears that its keeping quality is correlated to some extent with the size of the fruit. If there is only a medium crop on the tree and the fruit is large it goes down quicker than if the crop is heavier and the individual fruits smaller and firmer. Fruit of good color also has good keeping quality, other things being equal, but poorly colored fruit soon deteriorates in flavor and quality (25). When the trees are allowed to become greatly overloaded, as they often do where the apples are not thinned, there is apt to be a considerable portion of undersized and poorly colored fruit. There is also some loss from the early dropping of the fruit particularly where picking is too long delayed. Hubbardston reaches edible maturity in October and holds its flavor well till December or January, but after that time its quality usually deteriorates rapidly. It may often be kept in edible condition through the winter even in cellar storage but seldom with prime flavor.
Historical. Hubbardston is a native fruit which had its origin in Hubbardston, Massachusetts. As early as 1832 Kenrick referred to it as one of the most desirable varieties known in cultivation in Eastern Massachusetts (1). Although it has long been widely disseminated in New York there are many localities where it is yet unknown and many others where it has been introduced within recent years. The planting of it for commercial purposes is gradually increasing.
TREE.
Tree vigorous, sometimes large, but if it is allowed to overbear and is not properly fed it is more often moderately vigorous and of medium size. Form erect to roundish, somewhat spreading, rather dense. Twigs medium or rather long, spreading or erect, moderately stout, somewhat crooked, pubescent; internodes below medium to short. Bark dull olive-green with tinge of reddish-brown and mottled with thin gray scarf-skin. Lenticels scattering, conspicuous, medium to small, round or oblong, raised, becoming laterally compressed on the older bark. Buds medium, broad, obtuse, appressed, pubescent. Leaves medium to rather small, rather narrow and inclined to become incurved.
[Diseases:  Moderate resistance to the major diseases (26).] Fruit.Ditch Moscow Mitch!
Fruit above medium to large, sometimes very large. Form roundish ovate or slightly oblong to roundish inclined to conic, characteristically rounded toward the cavity, usually symmetrical, often obscurely ribbed. The crop is usually pretty uniform in size and shape but there is considerable variability in the fruit with crops of different seasons and different localities. Stem short to very short. Cavity rather deep, acute, symmetrical, sometimes slightly furrowed, usually russeted. Calyx small to large, open to nearly closed; when large the lobes are usually reflexed and separated at the base exposing the yellowish calyx tube. Basin moderately narrow to rather wide, shallow and somewhat obtuse to moderately deep and abrupt, distinctly furrowed, often marked with concentric flecks of russet in and about the basin.
Skin sometimes quite smooth but more often roughened with dots, flecks and fine veins of russet and sometimes covered with faint bloom. Color yellow or greenish blushed and mottled with red which varies from dull brownish to clear bright red, and is more or Jess marked with deep carmine.
Dots pale or russet, often large and irregular, especially conspicuous on the red portions of the fruit. Prevailing effect in highly colored specimens attractive red, mingled with more or less of yellow.
Calyx tube medium in length, broad, cone-shape. Stamens median.
Core medium or rather small, more or less abaxile; cells usually pretty symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish, slightly emarginate, tufted. Seeds numerous, medium to rather small, rather short, plump, acute, light brown.
Flesh whitish slightly tinged with yellow, moderately firm, breaking, rather fine-grained, tender, moderately crisp, juicy, aromatic, rich, at first sprightly but becoming mild subacid mingled with sweet, very good to best.  [Also useful for baking and frying (26).]
Season October to January.  [Good keeper. The smaller fruit store better than the large (26).]
[Description in 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

Hunter Pippin
References.  1. Downing. 1876:54. app.
Synonyms.  None.
A chance seedling which originated in Westport, NY. Downing describes the tree as moderately vigorous and a good annual bearer; fruit medium size, whitish-yellow; flesh brisk subacid; season August (1).
So far as we can learn this variety is not being propagated.

HUNT RUSSET.

REFERENCES. 1. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 19:126. 1853. 2. Ib., 21:300. 1855. 3. Downing, 1857:143, 187. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 5. Warder, 1867:720, 722. 6. Downing, 1872:196. 7. Downing, C., Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875:36. 8. Downing, 1876:53 app. 9. Thomas, 1885:240, 513. 10. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292. 11. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:241. 12. Budd-Hansen, 1903 :101.  13.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 89.
Synonyms. American Golden Russet of New England (8). Bullock (1,2, but incorrectly). Fay’s Russet (3). Fay’s Russet (8). Golden Russet (not of N. Y.) (8). Golden Russet or Mass. (4, 5, 6). Golden Russet of Mass. (8). Golden Russet of New England (8). Mass. Golden Russet (8). New England Russet (8). New England Golden Russet (8). Russet PEARMAIN (3, 9). Russet Pearmain (8).
Fruit medium size, golden russet with broken patches of smooth bright red on the cheek. It is quite attractive for a russet apple, excellent in quality and a good keeper. Tree moderately vigorous and productive. It is no longer considered profitable and is not being planted in commercial orchards.
Historical. The following description of the fruit was made from apples grown upon the old Hunt farm, Concord, Mass. Mr. Wm. H. Hunt, to whom we are indebted for these apples, states that the variety originated at least 150 years ago, and adds that it was once considered a profitable market apple but is so no longer. Downing (8) refers to it as an old favorite which is said to have originated in the latter part of the seventeenth century, and which has been widely disseminated under different names. In New England it has by some been called Golden Russet and American Golden Russet. Hovey identified it as Bullock but incorrectly (1, 2, 7).
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous, upright spreading. Twigs clear light reddish-brown, slightly grayish (6).
[Diseases:  Fireblight susceptible; somewhat susceptible to the other major diseases as well (13).] Fruit.
Fruit medium or below, uniform. Form a little oblate to distinctly conical, often elliptical, pretty uniform in shape. Stem short to medium, slender.
Cavity large, acute or approaching acuminate, deep, broad, sometimes furrowed and compressed. Calyx medium, partly open or sometimes closed; lobesmedium in length, broad, obtuse. Basin moderately deep to shallow, moderately narrow to rather wide, abrupt, slightly furrowed.
Skin thick, rather tender, golden russet or with red russet cheek. Patches of smooth skin breaking through the russet vary from yellow to bright deep red. Dots numerous, gray or russet.
Calyx tube often long, funnel-shape. Stamens basal.
Core small, axile; cells symmetrical, closed; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels roundish to elliptical, slightly emarginate. Seeds dark, medium in size, plump, usually obtuse.
Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, rather fine, tender, juicy, subacid, sprightly becoming mild, not sweet as some have stated, very good to best.
Season January to April or later. [Very good keeper (13).]

HUNTSMAN

REFERENCES. I. Downing, 1872:14 app. fig. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1875:10. 3. Thomas, 1885:513. 4. U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1887:631. fig. 5. Mo. Sta. Bul., 6:7. 1889. 6. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:241. 7. Stinson, Mo. Fr. Sta. Bul., 3:26. 1902. 8. Kan. Sta. Bul., 106:53. 1902. 9. Budd-Hansen, 1903:103. fig. 10. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul. 48:44. 1903. 11. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:126. 1904.  12.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 90.
Synonym. Huntsman’s Favorite (1, 2, 3, 5, 6). Huntsman’s Favorite (7, 8, 10).
The Huntsman apple, or as it is more generally known by the growers, the Huntsman Favorite, is a western variety, it having been grown in Missouri and Eastern Kansas for about fifty years. In that section it is quite highly prized on account of its high quality and the good bearing habits of the tree. It is not looked upon with special favor by the commercial growers of the West because of its susceptibility there to bitter rot, sunburn and apple scab. The tree is not an early bearer but after it does begin to fruit is a regular bearer and quite prolific. The fruit is pretty uniformly large or very large, somewhat irregular in form, deep yellow usually some- what blushed and very attractive. In sections where it is known it is in special demand among apple buyers for the fancy trade.
Historical. This variety originated on the farm of John Huntsman, Fayette, Mo. (1), and up to within very recent years its cultivation seems to have been confined to the Middle West. So far as we can learn it has not been tested to any considerable extent in the East. It is practically unknown in New York.
TREE.
Tree vigorous; branches long, slender. Form upright varying to roundish or spreading, rather open. Twigs above medium, long, straight, slender; internodes very short. Bark dark reddish-brown, heavily mottled with scarf-skin, heavily pubescent. Lenticels numerous, medium to very small, round, not raised. Buds small to nearly medium, broad, obtuse, free near old wood but quite appressed towards the tips, pubescent.
[Diseases:  Susceptible to scab, bitter rot and sunburn and sporadically highly susceptible to fireblight (12).] Fruit.
Fruit above medium to large, usually large. Form roundish oblate, slightly conical, somewhat irregular, obscurely angular. Stem short, rather thick. Cavity acute to slightly obtuse, deep, broad, sometimes russeted, frequently furrowed, sometimes compressed. Calyx small, closed; lobes short, narrow, acute. Basin very abrupt, medium in depth to deep, moderately narrow to narrow, usually deeply furrowed.
Skin rather thick, somewhat tender, deep yellow or greenish, often with an orange-red blush which sometimes deepens to a distinct red. Dots small, inconspicuous, pale, submerged, numerous.
Calyx tube usually extends to the core, cylindrical to slightly funnel-form with broad cylinder. Stamens marginal.
Core medium to small, abaxile; cells often somewhat unsymmetrical, open; core lines clasping. Carpels elliptical to very broadly ovate, deeply emarginate, sometimes slightly tufted. Seeds frequently irregular in shape, moderately dark brown, rather wide and long, usually plump, obtuse.
Flesh tinged with yellow, rather firm, moderately coarse, not very crisp, tender, juicy, mildly subacid with a distinct pleasantly aromatic flavor, good to very good.
Season December to April. [Only a fair keeper when grown in Virginia (12).]

Hurlbut
References.  1. Cole, 1849:118. fig. 2. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:31. 1851. col. pl. and fig. 3. Downing, 1857 :155. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 5. Warder, 1867:722. 6. Thomas, 1875:201. 7. Barry, 1883 :347. 8. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292. 9. Bailey, An. Hlort., 1892:241. 10. Munson.
Synonyms.  Hurlburt (2). Hurlbut Stripe (3). Hurlbutt (5).
The general appearance of Hurlbut is good yet it is not particularly attractive either in size or color nor does it take first rank for either home use or market. The tree is a strong grower, comes into bearing moderately young and yields heavy crops biennially. Because of the tendency of the tree to overproduction in bearing years the size of the fruit is in many cases reduced and a considerable portion of it is too small to be marketable. Hurlbut has proved to be a profitable variety with some fruit growers but although it has long been known in cultivation and has been quite widely disseminated it has nowhere gained prominence as a commercial variety.
Historical. In 1849 Cole (1) wrote: "The original tree is still flourishing on the farm of General Leonard Hurlbut, Winchester, Conn." It is still quite frequently listed by nurserymen (9) but is not being planted to any considerable extent.

TREE.

Tree rather large, vigorous or moderately vigorous.
Form spreading or roundish and somewhat inclined to droop.
Twigs moderately long, slightly curved, moderately stout to rather long, slightly curved, moderately stout to rather slender; internodes below medium to short.
Bark dark brown to clear brownish-red, heavily mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small, round, slightly raised.
Buds medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit below medium to above, fairly uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish, slightly oblate or inclined to oblate conic, somewhat angular, rather symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to short, rather slender.
Cavity acute, shallow to medium in depth, medium in width, symmetrical or compressed, usually covered with heavy outspreading russet.
Calyx medium or below, usually closed; lobes medium to long, narrow, acute.
Basin shallow to medium in depth, narrow to nearly medium in width, somewhat abrupt, smooth or slightly wrinkled.
Skin thick, tough, smooth, greenish-yellow largely overspread with brownish-red or dull red, splashed and striped with carmine.
Dots scattering, inconspicuous, usually submerged, sometimes russet.
Calyx tube very short, wide, truncate conical with fleshy pistil point projecting into the base.
Stamens marginal.
Core medium size, abaxile; cells wide open to nearly closed; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels nearly round.
Seeds numerous, rather large, moderately wide, long, rather plump, acute.
Flesh white or yellowish, moderately firm, rather fine, tender, crisp, very juicy, aromatic, mildly subacid, good to very good.
Season variable; October to December or January (15).

HYDE KING

REFERENCES. 1. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:241. 2. Beach, N. Y. Sta: An. Rpt., 13:592. 1894. 3. Ib., 14:265. 1895. 4. Ib. 15:284. 1896. 5. Beach, W.N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1900:37. 6. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul, 48:60. 1903. 7. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:114. 1904.
Synonyms. Chase (7), but incorrectly. Hyde’s King (or THE West) (1). Western Beauty (2, 3, 4, 5, 6), but incorrectly.
Hyde King appears to be one of the most valuable of the newer varieties of apples which have been tested at this Station. The fruit is large or very large, pretty uniform, smooth, glossy, pale green or yellow, often a little shaded with red. It is quite attractive for a green apple. Although not high-flavored it is good in quality, suitable for culinary use and evidently desirable for general market purposes being a good keeper. So far as tested here the tree is vigorous, and almost an annual bearer. It is not a very heavy cropper but the fruit is very uniformly large with a low percentage of culls.
TREE.
Tree vigorous. Twigs medium to long, stout; internodes short. Bark dull brown tinged with olive-green, somewhat streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium to below, round, raised. Buds medium, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.
Fruit.Ditch Moscow Mitch!
Fruit large to very large, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form nearly globular varying to slightly oblate or somewhat conic, often obscurely ribbed, sometimes with sides unequal but usually pretty symmetrical. Stem short, stout. Cavity acute to obtuse, moderately deep to deep, broad, usually smooth and bright green with contrasting large white dots, sometimes partly russeted.
Calyx medium to large, closed or somewhat open; lobes short, obtuse. Basin moderately deep, rather narrow, sometimes becoming broad, somewhat furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, glossy, light green shading to pale or whitish yellow, often with a thin blush and sometimes faintly striped with darker red and marked towards the cavity with broken stripes of whitish scarf-skin.
Dots numerous, sometimes with a russet point, usually large about the cavity.
Calyx tube usually short, cone-shape, sometimes approaching funnel-form.
Stamens median to basal.
Core medium to rather large, somewhat abaxile; cells open or partly closed; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels smooth, concave, roundish or very broadly elliptical. Seeds above medium, wide, obtuse to acute.
Flesh whitish, slightly tinged with yellow, firm, rather coarse, breaking, rather tender, juicy, mild subacid, somewhat aromatic, good but not of high flavor.
Season December to April or May. Commercial limit in ordinary storage February or March; in cold storage, May (7).

INGRAM.

REFERENCES. 1. Horticulturist, 23:201. 1868 (cited by 5). 2 Downing, 1872:220. 3. Bailey, An. Hort. 1892:241. 4. Rural N. Y., 56:345. 1897. 5. Taylor, U. S. Dept. Agr. Yr. Bk., 1901:382. col. pl. 6. Stinson, Mo. Fr. Sta. Bul., 3:22. 1902. fig. 7. Thomas, 1903:328. 8. Budd-Hansen, 1903:103. 9. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:45. 1903.  10.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 93.
Synonyms. Ingraham (5). INGRAM SEEDLING (1). Ingram Seedling (5, 7).
This variety has attracted attention in the Southwest within recent years on account of its excellent keeping qualities (4, 5, 6,9). It is said to be exceptionally promising for the Ozark region (6) where it is being largely planted for commercial purposes. Like the Ralls it blooms late in the season and the older trees are apt to bear rather small fruit unless the fruit is thinned. The fruit is of the Ralls type but averages larger and is more highly colored, being nearly red. In quality it ranks about with York Imperial. In flavor it is much like Ralls but less juicy. It has not yet been sufficiently tested in New York to determine whether it is a desirable apple for this state but since it is so much like its parent, Ralls, it probably is not so well adapted for this region as it is for more southern localities.
Historical. Originated with Martin Ingram near Springfield, Mo., from seed of the Ralls (Geniton) between 1844 and 1855 (5, 6).
TREE.
Tree vigorous, with long, moderately stout branches. Form upright or roundish, rather dense. Twigs medium to long, straight, rather stout; internodes medium or below. Bark olive-green partly covered with clear brownish-red, lightly mottled with scarf-skin. Lenticels numerous, large, generally round, raised, very conspicuous. Buds medium, broad, flat, obtuse, appressed, pubescent, deeply set in the bark.
[Diseases:  Moderately susceptible to the major diseases (10).]
Fruit.
Fruit usually about medium, sometimes large. Form roundish conic, to roundish oblate, symmetrical. Stem rather short, varying from thick and swollen to moderately slender. Cavity acuminate, varying from medium in depth and width to deep and broad, sometimes partly russeted, obscurely furrowed. Calyx large, open. Basin pretty regular, moderately deep, medium in width to rather narrow, moderately abrupt.
Skin rather thick and tough, smooth, bright greenish-yellow or pale yellow, washed, mottled and striped with two shades of red and clouded with whitish scarf-skin over the base. Highly colored specimens are nearly overspread with rather dark red. Dots numerous, whitish or areolar with russet center, rather conspicuous.
Calyx tube conical or somewhat funnel-form. Stamens basal.
Core medium to rather small, axile; cells symmetrical, closed or nearly so; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels roundish, tufted. Seeds medium in size, rather wide, acute, tufted.
Flesh somewhat tinged with yellow, firm and hard but becoming crisp and tender, juicy, very mild subacid, somewhat aromatic, good to very good.  [Useful for pies as well (10).]
Season February to June or later. [Doesn't shrivel in storage (10).]

Isham
References.  1. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:242. 2. Hoskins, Rural NY 53:310. 1894. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:17. 4. Hansen, SD Sta. Bul., 76:60. 1902. fig. 5. Kan. Sta. Bul., 106:53. 1902. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903:105.
Synonyms.  Isham Sweet (1-6).
A red sweet apple of medium size, in season in late fall and early winter. It has been grown to some extent in some of the Western states but it has not been much tested in New York and it is doubtful whether it is desirable for planting in any portion of this state.
Historical. Isham originated from seed of Bailey Sweet. It was introduced about 1864 by F.K. Phœnix, Delavan, Wis. (2).

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading.
Twigs medium to long, rather stout, in some cases quite blunt at the tips, straight or nearly so; internodes rather long.
Bark reddish-brown overlaid with heavy grayish scarf-skin, not pubescent or very sparingly so.
Lenticels rather inconspicuous, rather scattering, irregular in size and shape, not raised.
Buds large, prominent, fleshy, heavily pubescent, adhering to bark.

FRUIT (4,6)

Fruit medium.
Form roundish, slighly tapering.
Stem (Pedicel) short.
Cavity regular, acute with much radiating russet.
Calyx open; segments flat, convergent.
Basin very shallow, minutely wrinkled.
Skin yellowish-green mostly covered with brownish-red, solid and mixed on sunny side, striped and broadly splashed on the shady side.
Dots distinct, russet, numerous, minute; a few large russet dots.
Calyx tube funnel-shape.
Stamens median.
Core closed; cells round, entire.
Seeds long, large, flat.
Flesh very yellow with yellow veinings, firm, very sweet, very good.