Apple Home

Garden Royal
References.  1.
Synonyms.  None.
Garden Royal is not a good variety for commercial planting because the fruit is too small and its season early and short, but by many it is considered one of the very best dessert apples of late summer and early autumn. The fruit is of regular form, very handsome deep yellow striped with orange-red and dark crimson. The flesh is very tender, aromatic and with a delicate, pleasant acid flavor; season, August and September. The tree when full grown is of medium size, moderately vigorous, with roundish head. It appears to be hardy, healthy and long-lived, comes into bearing young and is a reliable biennial cropper.
Historical. Origin Sudbury, Mass. (2). It is occasionally found in this state in home orchards. It is now little propagated by nurserymen and seldom planted.

FRUIT

Fruit medium or below.
Form round slightly oblate, often a little inclined to conic, regular or obscurely ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, straight, rather slender.
Cavity acute sometimes approaching acuminate, rather deep and broad, slightly furrowed, often faintly russeted.
Calyx small to above medium, open or partly closed; lobes often separated at base, rather short, acute.
Basin moderately shallow; rather wide, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, slightly wrinkled.
Skin thin, greenish-yellow, sometimes entirely overspread with red, irregularly striped and splashed with carmine.
Dots numerous, rather conspicuous, medium or above, often irregular, russet or yellowish.
Calyx tube medium size, funnel-shape.
Stamens median to nearly marginal.
Core small, axile; cells closed or slightly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels small, elliptical, emarginate.
Flesh tinged with yellow, fine, tender, juicy, agreeable mild subacid, aromatic, very good.
Season late August and September.

Gardner Sweet Pearmain
Reference.  1. Downing, 1869:188.
Synonyms.  None.
A Long Island variety, the fruit of which, according to Downing (1), is medium in size, nearly covered with red; flesh whitish, sweet, good; season September. This variety is unknown to us; so far as we have been able to learn it is no longer propagated.

Genesee Flower
References.  1. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290.
Synonyms.  Demary Flower (of Genesee) (1). Flower of Genesee Hawkins Pippin. Pride of Genesee.
Fruit large, remarkably uniform in size and shape, with very few cells. In color and general appearance it resembles Pumpkin Sweet, commonly called Pound Sweet. it is not an apple of high dessert quality, but is very good for culinary uses, having a pleasant mild subacid flavor. It does not always sell well because the color is green and the variety is not generally well known. With some growers the tree is not a satisfactory cropper, but others find it a regular and abundant bearer, yielding good to heavy crops almost annually, and regard the variety as desirable for commercial planting.
Historical. This variety appears to be known by the name Genesee Flower more than by any other, but Mr. Nelson Bogue of Batavia informs us that it is also known locally under the various names Flower of Genesee, Pride of Genesee, Hawkins Pippin, and Demary. He states that the original tree, now about sixty years old, is still standing on the old Demary farm, in the town of Alexander, Genesee county, NY. The cultivation of this variety appears to be confined principally to the counties of Genesee, Wyoming and Orleans, and it does not appear to be increasing.

FRUIT

Fruit large.
Form roundish, somewhat oblate.
Stem (Pedicel) short, rather slender.
Cavity broad, moderately deep, russeted.
Calyx medium size, partly open.
Basin shallow, irregular, often distinctly ridged.
Skin light green mingled with light yellow.
Dots numerous, pale, with a few that are large and russet.
Flesh nearly white, mild subacid, good for culinary use but not much esteemed for dessert.
Season late September to November.

Gideon
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Gideon White (14).
Fruit decidedly attractive in general appearance being of good size, clear waxen yellow often with a bright pinkish blush but it is deficient in quality and apt to be defective in that the flesh becomes withered and discolored about the core as soon as the fruit reaches maturity. It is not a good variety for holding in cold storage as it stands heat poorly before going into storage and when in storage goes down quickly. In ordinary storage it is inferior to Hubbardston in keeping qualities, being in season from October to December or possibly later (14). The tree is of an exceptionally fine habit in the nursery, and in the orchard it is an upright vigorous grower, very hardy and health, comes into bearing young and yields full crops biennially or nearly annually. It is not recommended for planting in New York except it be as a stock upon which to topwork less hardy varieties.
Historical. Originated by Peter M. Gideon, Excelsior, Minn., from crab seed. The following is his statement of its purpose. "The Gideon is a seedling of the small crab; the seed came from Boston, where the tree was surrounded in the orchard by Blue Pearmain. I consider the tree a cross between those two. The tree resembles Blue Pearmain; seed was taken from the crab" (1).

TREE.

Tree medium to large, vigorous or moderately vigorous.
Form at first upright but becoming spreading and open.
Twigs short, curved, stout with large terminal buds; internodes medium.
Bark brown mingled with some olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; heavily pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium to small, oblong, slightly raised.
Buds prominent, large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit usually above medium to large, uniform in size.
Form roundish conical or somewhat ovate, sometimes inclined to oblong, angular.
Stem (Pedicel) long to below medium, slender.
Cavity acute or somewhat acuminate, deep, broad to medium in width, sometimes lightly russeted.
Calyx small, closed; lobes medium in length, rather narrow, acute, reflexed.
Basin small to medium, sometimes oblique, shallow or very shallow, narrow to medium in width, rather obtuse, somewhat wrinkled, usually with narrow but not prominent ridges.
Skin rather thin, glossy, clear pale waxen yellow, sometimes with beautiful pink blush on exposed cheek.
Dots light, submerged, inconspicuous, except where the skin is blushed.
Calyx tube short, narrow, often funnel-shape with very short, truncate cylinder.
Stamens marginal to median.
Core medium size, axile or abaxile; cells closed or open; core lines meeting the limb or clasping the cylinder.
Carpels round to broadly ovate or elliptical, emarginate, tufted.
Seeds rather large, irregular, medium in width, rather long, not very plump, acute to acuminate, tufted, light brown.
Flesh whitish or tinged with yellow, of rather soft loose texture, a little coarse, crisp, juicy, brisk subacid to mild subacid, fair to good.
Season October.

Ginnie
References.  1.NY Sta. An. Rpt. 2:35. 1883. 2. Beach and Paddock, NY Sta. An. Rpt. 14:252, 257. 1895. 3. Beach and Clark, NY Sta. Bul. 248:121. 194.
Synonyms.  Aunt Ginnie (1,2,3).
An autumn apple of good color and good quality. It comes into bearing early and yields some fruit nearly every year. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. Received from Ellwanger and Barry, Rochester, NY in 1883 for testing at this Station. We do not know its origin. So far as we have learned it is practically unknown among New York fruit growers.

TREE.

Tree
Form rather upright, moderately vigorous, moderately productive.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large.
Form oblate conic, broad and flattened at the base, obscurely ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium, not exserted.
Cavity large, acuminate, broad, deep, with conspicuous, broad, irregular, outspreading russet rays.
Calyx small, nearly closed.
Basin shallow to medium in depth, rather narrow to moderately wide, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin yellow nearly covered with bright red and marked with broad stripes and splashes of bright carmine.
Dots minute, russet.
Prevailing effect red striped.
Calyx tube funnel-form.
Stamens basal or nearly so.
Core very large, abaxile; cells pretty symmetrical, open; core lines clasp the funnel cylinder.
Carpels broadly roundish, emarginate, tufted.
Seeds medium in size, rather wide, obtuse to somewhat acute.
Flesh whitish, rather coarse, moderately juicy, aromatic, subacid, good to very good.
Season late September to early winter; commercial limit November in common storage (3).

Gladstone
References.  1. Hogg, 1884:150. 2. NY Sta. An. Rpt., 11:224. 1892. 3. Hansen, S.D. Sta. Bul. 76:52. 1902.
Synonyms.  Mr. Gladstone (1).
Fruit of good size, and when highly colored rather attractive. In general appearance it is intermediate between Oldenburg and Gravenstein, perhaps resembling Gravenstein in color more than Oldenburg. It is not equal to either of these varieties in quality. The tree comes into bearing young, is an annual cropper and productive. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. This is a comparatively recent introduction from England. It has not been extensively disseminated and so far as we can learn its cultivation is not increasing in this country.

TREE.

Tree rather small, moderately vigorous with short, stout branches.
Form spreading and inclined to droop.
Twigs moderately long, curved, stout, with large terminal buds; internodes medium in size.
Bark brown, tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, conspicuous, medium size, round, slightly raised.
Buds medium size, broad, flat, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large, uniform.
Form roundish oblate, slightly conic, obscurely ribbed; sides usually unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium in length, moderately slender.
Cavity acuminate to acute, rather wide, moderately deep to deep, sometimes with outspreading russet.
Calyx below medium to rather large, closed or somewhat open.
Basin rather small, shallow to medium in depth, medium in width to rather wide, a little abrupt, slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, smooth, greenish-yellow or pale yellow, more or less thinly overspread with red, irregularly mottled, splashed and distinctly striped with pinkish carmine.
Dots rather numerous, inconspicuous, light colored, submerged.
Calyx tube rather short, cone-shape to funnel-form.
Stamens median.
Core medium to rather large, usually axile; cells symmetrical, closed or slightly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish, very slightly emarginate
Seeds rather dark brown, very wide, flat, obtuse to acute.
Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, moderately firm, a little coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, mild subacid, fair in quality.
Season September and October.

Gloria Mundi
References.  1. 17.
Synonyms.  American Gloria Mundi ((4,7,21). American Mammoth (7,10,15,17,19,21). Baltimore (10,12,14,21,23,26, of some 19). Baltimore Pippin (15,17,19). Belle Dubois (23). Belle Josephine (19,21). Copp's Mammoth (22). Glazenwood (10). Glazenwood Gloria Mundi (19,21,23). Joséphine (21). Kinderhook Pippin (14). Mommoth (21,23). Mammoth Pippin (2-21,26). Melon (21). Mississippi? (19). Monstreuse Pippin (21). Monstrous Pippin (23). Mountain Flora (22). NY Gloria Mundi (3,7-10,15,19,21). Ox Apple (10,12,14,15,19,23,26). Pound (17). Vandyne Apple (9).
Fruit of the largest; seldom cultivated except for exhibition; suitable only for culinary purposes. The tree is large, vigorous, spreading, hardy and long-lived. It has been commonly held to be unproductive, but a few fruit growers in Southeastern New York report that it is a god bearer and a profitable commercial variety.
Historical. The exact place of origin of this apple seems doubtful. In 1804 Mease stated, "It originated on the farm of Mr. Crooks, near Red Hook in New York" (1). Thirteen years later Coxe credited it with a Lohng Island origin (3). All that can be stated with certainty is that it is an old variety known in parts of Eastern New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania in the beginning of the last century.

FRUIT

Fruit very large or large, uniform.
Form roundish with truncate ends, slightly conical, ribbed; sides usually unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to short, moderately thick.
Cavity large, acuminate, moderately deep to deep, broad, furrowed and compressed, sometimes slightly russeted.
Calyx medium to large, open or partly cosed; lobes separated at base, short, narrow.
Basin large, moderately deep to deep, rather wide, somewhat abrupt, sometimes compressed, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin greenish-yellow sometimes with faint bronze blush.
Dots small to medium, often areolar with russet center, or light colored and submerged.
Prevailing effect yellow or greenish.
Calyx tube very large, long, wide, broadly conical extending to core or approaching cylindrical below.
Stamens median.
Core medium to rather large, usually decidedly abaxile; cells symmetrical, open; core lines usually clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish to somewhat elliptical, slightly tufted.
Seeds moderately dark brown, medium to rather small, rather narrow, short, plump, obtuse to acute, sometimes tufted.
Flesh slightly tinged with greenish-yellow, coarse, moderately crisp, rather tender, juicy, rather mild subacid, fair or nearly good in quality.
Season October to January.

The Golden Pippins
The name Golden Pippin has been applied to several distinct varieties, the most important of which are mentioned below.
The Golden Pippin of England is a small, yellowish apple with shade of red, which is in season from November to March. This has already been described in Volume I, page 141.
The Golden Pippin of Westchester County, also known under the name of American Golden Pippin and by various other synonyms, is described as Golding, page 82, which is the name now accepted for this variety by pomologists. In addition to the varieties described below under the name Golden Pippin there are several other sorts which have been known under this name.

(I) Golden Pippin
References.  1. Downing, 1869:195. 2. Thomas, 1875:500. 3. Bailey, An. Hort. 1892:240. 4. Ragan, U.S.B.P.I. Bull. 56:123. 1905. 5. Ib., 56:347. 1905.
Synonyms.  Butter Pippin (1). Large Golden Pippin (1). Mammoth (1,2). Pound Royal (2, of some 1). York Pippin (1,5).
This variety belongs in the Fall Pippin group of apples. In Central and Western New York it is often called York Pippin. The fruit is large, coarse-grained, with a very pleasant flavor, and is suitable for either dessert or culinary uses. As compared with Fall Pippin the fruit is harder, keeps longer and stands shipping better in hot weather. In Western New York its season in ordinary storage extends from about September 20 to January 1. It holds its flavor and quality well for a late fall and early winter sort. It frequently brings better prices than Fall Pippin, and is perhaps somewhat hardier. it is generally healthy, vigorous, quite long-lived, and when full grown becomes a pretty large tree. It is a reliable cropper, bearing good to heavy crops biennially or sometimes annually. There is apt to be considerable loss by premature dropping of the fruit, and unless proper preventative measures are taken the crop may be seriously injured by apple scab and codling moth, but with proper treatment these pests may be kept under good control. Golden Pippin is grown to a considerable extent in various parts of New York state and in New England. In some sections it is regarded as one of the most desirable of the fall varieties for commercial planting.
Historical. The origin of this variety is unknown. It has long been in cultivation. In New York it is now found mostly in old orchards and, generally speaking, its cultivation is not increasing.

TREE.

FRUIT

Fruit very large or large, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish to roundish oblate, sometimes slightly conic, often with a broad flat base and broadly ribbed toward the apex.
Stem (Pedicel) long to medium, thick, sometimes swollen.
Cavity acute to acuminate, medium in depth, broad, usually rather symmetrical, sometimes lipped, russeted and often with heavy, outspreading russet rays.
Calyx rather large, closed.
Basin deep, moderately wide to wide, abrupt, slightly furrowed, sometimes irregularly compressed.
Skin rather tender, green or yellowish changing to a deeper and rather attractive yellow when fully mature, sometimes with bronze blush and russet flecks.
Dots small to rather large and conspicuous, greenish and submerged or with russet point.
Calyx tube wide, conical.
Stamens median to somewhat basal.
Core rather small, somewhat abaxile; cells open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels roundish or approaching elliptical, sometimes obovate, heavily tufted.
Seeds few, often not perfectly developed, medium size, irregular, rather dark brown, rather plump, acute.
Flesh yellowish, coarse, rather tender, juicy, agreeable mild subacid, somewhat aromatic, good to very good.
Season late September to December or January.

(II) Golden Pippin
References.  1. Downing, 1869:194. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:240.
Synonyms.  Pittstown Pippin (1).
Downing states that this is an old apple grown many years ago in Adams, Mass. Tree upright and vigorous; fruit rather large, roundish oblate, sometimes conic, greenish-yellow with blush; flesh yellowish, sprightly subacid, good for cooking; season September and October (1).
It appears that this variety is no longer propagated in New York.

Golden Reinette
References.  1.
Synonyms.  No. 51 Vor. (1,2). No. 10 (7). Solotoc renet (1). Zolotoi renet (7).
In addition to the old English variety known as Golden Reinette which has been described in Volume I, page 142, there are at least two Russian apples that have been disseminated in this country under this name. One is a variety described by Munson as a promising autumn apple for Northern Maine, in season from September to December; fruit small, golden yellow washed and splashed with carmine (4,6). What appears to be the same variety was received by this Station from Professor Budd, Ames, IA, in 1890. It is decidedly inferior to the standard varieties of its season, which are in general cultivation throughout New York. Possibly on account of superior hardiness it may have some value in the more northern or elevated regions of the state.
The other Russian apple, above referred to, was disseminated some years ago by Professor Budd. In 1885 he remarked that he was sending out, under the name Golden Reinette (51 Vor.), a variety having fruit medium to large, golden in color, fine-grained, juicy, subacid, almost best in quality (1). In 1890 he stated: "This has proven a fine tree on a great variety of soils where the air had free circulation. Its northern limit is not yet known, but I have not known its wood colored at Ames when the Wealthy by its side in nursery was nearly killed. Fruit medium to large, golden yellow, fine-grained, subacid, and nearly best in quality. Season here, December to February, depending on time of picking and mode of storage" (2). In 1892 Budd further reported: "This has not proven true to name as received from the Bogdanoff estates in Russia. It is a member of the Anis family, of fine size and excellent quality. Season late fall, and early winter north" (3).
Historical.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous with short, moderately stout, curved branches.
Form upright spreading or roundish, rather dense.
Twigs long, curved, stout; internodes medium.
Bark brown, mingled with reddish-brown, mottled with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, conspicuous, large, oblong, raised.
Buds prominent, large, broad, long, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium or below.
Form oblate conic to strongly roundish conic, flattened at the base, ribbed rather irregular; sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short, thick.
Cavity acuminate, medium in depth to rather deep, moderately broad, often compressed, usually not russeted.
Calyx large, open or partly closed, leafy; lobes usually separated at base, long, acute to acuminate.
Basin shallow to moderately deep, medium in width to narrow, usually abrupt, slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin pale greenish-yellow with faint splashes and stripes of red.
Dots
Calyx tube large, wide, broadly conical.
Stamens basal to median.
Core medium size, often abaxile; cells usually unsymmetrical, closed or open; core lines clasping or nearly meeting.
Carpels broadly roundish to elliptical.
Seeds medium brown, medium to below, plump, rather obtuse.
Flesh yellowish, crisp, juicy, mild subacid.
Season September to December.

Golden RussetGolden Russet pic1 of 2Golden Russet pic2 of 2
References.  1.  [***will be added later***]
Synonyms.  Will be added later.

Among the russets which are grown in Central and Western New York, the Golden Russet ranks second only to Roxbury in commercial importance. In other portions of the state it has been less extensively planted. In recent years the season of good red winter apples has been extended by means of cold storage with the result that long keeping russet apples are less profitable than they were formerly. There is is undoubtedly one reason why Golden Russet is now grown less extensively than it formerly was. It is an excellent storage variety, sells well in the general market and is particularly in demand for shipment to Northwestern and Souther markets and for export. The fruit is not large but is pretty smooth and uniform. When grown in favorable locations and properly treated for the control of injurious insects and diseases there is comparatively little loss from culls. The fruit hangs well to the tree till loosened by frost. It is borne on the ends of the branches making it hard to pick. This habit and the smallness of the fruit make the picking and packing comparatively expensive.
The fruit is particularly desirable for home use during the spring months before small fruits ripen, being then excellent for dessert and culinary uses. It makes good evaporated stock and is excellent for cider and stock food. The tree is hardy. In favorable locations, it is a reliable cropper, bearing regularly after it reaches maturity. It is usually classed as a biennial bearer, but in some cases it is nearly an annual bearer.

The notable points of distinction between this variety and the English Russet are set forth in the description of English Russet.

Vol 1-7

Thompson compares these two varieties with each other and with the Roxbury Russet in an excellent article presented to the Michigan Horticultural Society in 1870 (7).Golden vs Roxbury Russets pic


Historical.  Downing calls this identical with the old English variety described by Ronalds and Lindley as Golden Russet (9). It has sometimes been catalogued under the name English Golden Russet and has been confused with the English Russet, a distinct variety. It has also been called Golden Russet of New York or of Western New York in distinction from the Golden Russet of Massachusetts, or Hunt Russet, and from the various other apples which have been disseminated under the name Golden Russet.

Tree
Form .
Twigs .
Bark .
Lenticels .
Buds .
Leaves .

Fruit below medium to above.
Form.
Stem short to very short, rather stout, not often exserted.
Cavity .
Calyx .
Basin .
Skin thick, moderately tender, sometimes only partly covered with patches and flecks of russet but more often almost entirely covered with green or yellowish russet, in highly colored specimens becoming golden russet with bronze cheek. Dots grayish or russet, rather inconspicuous on the smooth skin but on the russet skin often clear pale gray and conspicuously scattered over the base. Often decidedly attractive for a russet apple.
Calyx tube .
Stamens basal or nearly so.
Core
Carpels .
Seeds .
Flesh yellowish, rather fine-grained, moderately crisp, tender, juicy, rich, agreeably subacid, aromatic, very good.
Season December to April or later.
[Information from the Southeastern U.S. here.]


Golden Sweet
References.  1.  [***will be added later***]
Synonyms.  Early Golden Sweet (14). Golden Sweeting (7,10). Orange Sweet (6,9). Orange Sweeting (1,2,13,14). Trenton Early (9). Yellow Sweeting ? (1).
Fruit of good medium size, attractive clear yellow when fully mature, rich, sweet, very good in flavor and quality. Cultivated principally for home use. Of no commercial value except that it is sold in limited quantities in local markets. In season from the middle of August to the last of September. The tree is a good grower, healthy, hardy, moderately long-lived, comes into bearing rather young and yields moderate to heavy crops biennially.
Historical.  An old Connecticut variety (2). Its exact origin is unknown. It has been pretty generally disseminated throughout the state but is nowhere grown extensively. It is listed by nearly all nurserymen (17).
Tree.  large, vigorous.
Form roundish spreading, inclined to droop, dense.
Twigs long, curved, slender; internodes long.
Bark brown, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, oval, slightly raised.
Buds medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

Fruit below medium to nearly large, uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish to roundish oblate or somewhat ovate, regular or faintly ribbed.
Stem very long, moderately thick.
Cavity acute, of medium depth, medium in width to rather narrow, symmetrical, usually partly russeted, often with outspreading russet rays.
Calyx medium to small, closed; lobes medium in length, narrow, acute.
Basin shallow to moderately deep, narrow to medium in width, somewhat obtuse, smooth, symmetrical, furrowed.
Skin thin, tender, smooth, waxy, yellowish-green becoming clear pale yellow when fully mature.
Calyx tube medium in width, cone-shape to truncate funnel-form.
Stamens median.
Core medium to rather small, abaxile; cells often unsymmetrical, open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder
Carpels ovate.
Seeds medium to rather small, rather narrow, angular, acute, medium brown.
Flesh yellowish-white, firm, fine-grained, moderately tender, juicy, very sweet, aromatic, good to very good.
Season mid-August to late September.
[Information from the Southeastern U.S. here.]
[Description in 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

Golden White
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Beel Solotofskaja (1). No. 978 (3,5,8). No. 979 (8). No. 981 (8).
Fruit of medium size, greenish-yellow, streaked with bright red in the sun, subacid, fair quality; season September. The tree comes into bearing rather young, and yields full crops biennially. Evidently not desirable for planting in New York.
Historical. A Russian apple received for testing at this Station from T.H. Hoskins, Newport, VT, in 1888.

TREE.

Tree rather small, a slow grower with short, stout branches.
Form spreading, open.
Twigs short, curved, stout, with large terminal buds; internodes short.
Bark dull brown mingled with olive-green, coated with gray scarf-skin; heavily pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, large, oval or elongated, raised.
Buds large, prominent, broad, plump, obtuse, free, much pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium size.
Form oblate to conic, flattened at the base, ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) small to medium.
Cavity small, acuminate, narrow, moderately shallow, russeted.
Calyx open or partly open.
Basin large, irregular, moderately deep, wrinkled.
Skin greenish-yellow nearly overlaid with red and striped with carmine.
Dots numerous, large, light.
Prevailing effect red or striped red.
Calyx tube large, cone-shape to funnel-form.
Core medium size, somewhat abaxile; cells usually symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels roundish, emarginate, tufted.
Seeds above medium, plump, wide, obtuse.
Flesh white with faint salmon tinge, fine-grained, moderately juicy, subacid, fair or sometimes good in quality.
Season September and October.

Golding
References.  1.
Synonyms.  American Golden (12). American Golden Pippin (2-8,10,11,12). Golden Apple (12). Golden Pippin (3,5, of Westchester Co., 6,8 and 12). Newtown Greening (3,12). NY Greening (3,5,6,12). Ribbed Pippin (3,12).
Fruit medium or above, yellow, sometimes with shade of brownish-red; flesh rather coarse, aromatic, subacid and excellent in quality for either dessert or culinary uses. It is much subject to scab and a comparatively large percentage of the crop is apt to be unmarketable unless thorough treatment is given to prevent injury from insects and fungus diseases. The tree is rather large, vigorous, hardy, long-lived and moderately productive yielding moderate to heavy crops biennially. In some sections it is regarded as a pretty good commercial variety particularly in portions of Eastern New York.
Historical. In 1857 Downing wrote (3) regarding this variety, that although it was one of the finest American fruits and an old variety, it was not generally known. It was said to have been cultivated in Westchester and adjoining counties for more than fifty years where it was considered profitable for market and superior for family use. So far as we can learn Golding is now seldom or never planted in New York.

Grandmother
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Baboushkino (1). Babuscheno (16,17). Babuschkino (3,4,7). Bogdanoff (14). Bogdanoff Steklianka (14). No. 6 M (1,2,6,9,11). No. 6 (8). No. 469 (1,2,3,6,7,11,12,16,17). No. 84 Vor. (9,11). Red Reinette (14).
Fruit of good medium size, greenish-yellow, sometimes with slight blush. It shows the marks of handling readily, is not very uniform in size nor does it excel in quality. Season late fall and early winter. The tree is a good thrifty grower, comes into bearing young, is reliably productive and is almost an annual bearer, yielding moderate to good crops. It does not appear to be valuable for planting in New York.
Historical. A Russian variety which has been disseminated for trial in various sections of the country. It has been thus far but little planted in this State.

TREE.

Tree large, rather vigorous with long, stout branches.
Form spreading, rather flat, open.
Twigs medium length, curved, moderately stout; internodes short.
Bark dark brown or reddish-brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, roundish, raised.
Buds medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to rather large.
Form ovate to roundish conic, quite flat at base, a little angular; sides unequal; fairly uniform.
Stem (Pedicel) short or very short, rather thick.
Cavity acute to acuminate, narrow, moderately deep to shallow or scarcely depressed, much russeted and often with outspreading russet.
Calyx large to medium, closed or somewhat open; lobes medium in length, broad, acute.
Basin deep to medium in depth, medium in width to rather wide, abrupt, usually furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin smooth, light greenish-yellow, sometimes with faint blush.
Dots numerous, inconspicuous, light and submerged, or sometimes areolar with dark center.
Calyx tube medium in length, wide, broadly conical.
Stamens basal.
Core medium to small or abortive, axile or abaxile; cells symmetrical, usually closed; core lines meeting.
Carpels variable, irregular, broadly ovate or obovate, emarginate, slightly tufted.
Seeds below medium to rather large, rather dark brown, plump, obtuse to acute.
Flesh with slight green or yellow tinge, moderately firm, coarse, neither crisp, nor tender, very juicy, subacid to briskly subacid, slightly aromatic, fair to good in flavor and quality.
Season November to January.

Gravenstein
References.  1. 41. Budd-
Synonyms.  Blumen-Calvill (31). Calville de Gravenstein (31). Calville Grafensteiner (23,31). Diel's Sommerkönig (31). Early Congress (25). Grafen-Apfel (31). Grafensteiner (15,23,31). Grave Slige (23). Grave Slije (8,15,17,31). Gravensteiner (23,31). Gravenstine (31). Ohio Nonpareil (17,23,31). Paradies Apfel (31). Pomme Graefenstein (31). Prinzessin-Apfel (31). Ripp Apfel (31). Sabine (31). Sabine of the Flemings (15,23). Strohmer (31). Stromling (31). Tom Harryman (31).
Gravenstein is an apple of good size, attractive appearance and excellent quality. For culinary purposes it is perhaps unexcelled by any variety of its season. It often sells at comparatively high prices. In many sections of the state the tree is regarded as not quite hardy, being somewhat subject to sunscald and canker. It comes into bearing moderately early, is quite productive and a pretty reliable cropper. The crop ripens continuously during a period of several weeks and should have two or three pickings. Beginning in the latter half of September it continues in season till early November. When properly handled a considerable portion of the fruit may remain apparently sound much later than this but the color fades and the quality and flavor deteriorate. As compared with other varieties of its class it stands up well in good dry cold storage (44). There is apt to be considerable loss from the dropping of the fruit before it is properly colored and there is also a rather high percentage of low grade or unmarketable fruit. In spite of these serious faults its cultivation in commercial orchards is gradually increasing in some sections of the state, particularly in portions of the Hudson valley where fruit growers find it a desirable apple for both domestic and foreign markets.

Red Types of the Gravenstein

Several instances are known where bud sports of the Gravenstein have originated which bear highly colored red fruit, but in other respects are quite like the typical Gravenstein. Some of these sports have neither been described nor propagated but others of them have been introduced into cultivation under distinct names. Gaucher (Gaucher, 1894:No. 11) and Leroy (Leroy, 1873:339) each describe a Red Gravenstein. A Red Gravenstein which originated in Nova Scotia is now cultivated under the name Banks. For an account of this variety the reader is referred to Banks, page 14.
Historical. The following excellent account of the history of this variety was given by Hovey in 1851 (15). "The origin of the Gravenstein remains in some doubt. It is said to have been originally found in the Duke of Augustinberg's garden at Gravenstein, in Holstein, and that the original tree was growing there in the middle of the last century; another statement is, that it derived its name from being found in the garden of the castle of Gräfenstein, in Sleswick; and Diel says, that it was supposed by some to have been introduced from Italy. Be this as it may, it is a common apple throughout Germany and Sweden, and was received from thence into the English collections. It is undoubtedly of similar origin with the Red Astrachan and Duchess of Oldenburg, possessing the peculiar habit of growth, form of foliage, and texture of the fruit, which distinguish the German apples.
"At what time it was first introduced into our gardens we are not aware. But as neither Coxe or Thacher describe or name it, we suppose it was some time subsequent to the account given of it in the Transactions of the London Horticultural Society in 1822. It is at the present time considerably cultivated, though not to the extent its merits deserve."
In 1857 Captain DeWolfe stated that the Gravenstein was imported by him from Denmark in May, 1826 (20). In a letter dated October 11, 1829, published in the New England Farmer, Judge Buel, of Albany, called attention to the importation of Gravenstein and other German apples trees of which he had presented to the members of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. Hovey states that in view of this it appears that Gravenstein was imported to the vicinity of Albany probably prior to 1986 (20). After these early importations Gravenstein gradually found its way into cultivation in various portions of the country. For many years it has been pretty generally disseminated through New York state, but in most localities it is grown to a limited extent only.

TREE.

Tree large, vigorous.
Form upright spreading to roundish, open.
Twigs medium to long, curved, moderately stout; internodes long.
Bark brownish-red, mingled with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels very scattering, medium to small, oblong, not raised.
Buds medium in size, plump, acute, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit large to above medium, fairly uniform in size but not in shape.
Form oblate to roundish, somewhat irregular, broad at the base, slightly angular about the basin.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, thick.
Cavity rather large, acute to acuminate, moderately deep to deep, rather narrow to broad, irregularly russeted.
Calyx large, open or sometimes closed; lobes large, long, very broad, acute.
Basin irregular, medium in depth to deep, medium to wide, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, wrinkled.
Skin thin, tender, slightly rough, greenish-yellow to orange-yellow overlaid with broken stripes of light and dark red.
Dots few, small, light.
Prevailing effect yellow striped.
Calyx tube large, conical to funnel-shape.
Stamens median.
Core medium in size, strongly abaxile; cells open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder.
Carpels broadly ovate, emarginate.
Seeds medium to large, medium in width, rather long, plump; acute to acuminate, medium brown.
Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately fine, crisp, moderately tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, aromatic, very good to best.
Season late September till early November.
[Description in 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

"

Great Mogul
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Grosser Mogul (2,9). Vilikui Mogul (2,9).
Fruit large, greenish, blushed and striped with red, somewhat resembling Alexander in type but tending to be more oblong, less broadly striped with carmine, and on the whole less attractive in color and form. Tree a fine grower, comes into bearing rather young, is an annual bearer and productive. It is not recommended for growing in New York.
Historical. An apple of Russian origin which was introduced into the United States about twenty-five years ago (1-3).

TREE.

Tree a good grower when young but when full grown is rather below medium size.
Form open, spreading, rather drooping with rather short stout branches and drooping laterals.
Twigs below medium to short, stout, irregularly geniculate.
Bark clear brownish-red to very dark brown, almost black, mottled lightly with gray scarf-skin, slightly pubescent.
Lenticels very conspicuous, medium to large, oblong, generally elongated and russeted.
Buds very prominent, large, broad, plump, acute, free, lightly attached to the bark, scales not well united, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit large to very large.
Form roundish ovate, sometimes varying to oblong conic or to oblate conic, slightly angular. Usually the fruit is pretty regular in form, shape and size.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to nearly long, rather thick, often clubbed or swollen.
Cavity usually very acuminate, sometimes acute, moderately deep, moderately wide, sometimes with outspreading russet rays, smooth, symmetrical, often lipped.
Calyx medium to rather large, closed or slightly open, lobes long, broad, acute.
Basin rather small, often oblique, narrow to medium in width, shallow to moderately deep, somewhat abrupt, smooth or slightly wrinkled, symmetrical.
Skin rather thick, tough, smooth, somewhat waxy, pale greenish-yellow more or less overspread with rather bright pinkish-red, often indistinctly striped with carmine.
Dots inconspicuous, numerous, small, scattering, gray.
Calyx tube medium, edlongated, conical or somewhat funnel-form with wide limb and fleshy pistil point projecting into the base.
Stamens marginal to median.
Core somewhat abaxile; cells often unsymmetrical, varying from wide open to nearly closed; core lines slightly clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate, elongated, slightly emarginate.
Seeds numerous, compactly filling the cells, medium to large, variable in shape, rather short, very wide, plump, obtuse or sometimes acute, light brown.
Flesh nearly white, slightly tinged with yellow, not very firm, moderately fine, not crisp, tender, juicy, subacid mingled with sweet, fair to good in quality.
Season October to December.

Green Newtown and Yellow Newtown PippinGreen Newtown PippinYellow Newtown Pippin pic
References.  1.  [***will be added later***]
Synonyms.  Will be finished later. Albemarle (21, 36, 38). Albemarle Pippin

The Green Newtown and the Yellow Newtown are here discussed together because they are so much alike that it is highly probable that one is but a sport of the other. At this time, it is impossible to determine which of the two was the original Newtown Pippin. It is now believed that Albemarle is Yellow Newtown and Brooke Pippin is possibly identical with Green Newtown. In pomological literature, the name Newtown Pippin has often been used in such a way that it is uncertain whether the writer had in mind the Yellow Newtown or the Green Newtown, and the correct synonymy cannot be accurately determined in all cases. On this account, the names as given by the different writers are stated in the above nomenclatural list without indicating whether or not they are used correctly except in the case of Leroy (24). Both the Green Newtown and the Yellow Newtown differ markedly in size, color and quality in different locations and their successful cultivation is probably more limited by local conditions than is the case with any other standard commercial variety grown in this state. They are successfully grown in certain localities in the Hudson valley and along the north shore of Long Island, but usually neither of them is regarded as desirable for commercial planting west of the Hudson valley.

Under favorable conditions the trees come into bearing young and are reliable croppers yielding good crops biennially or sometimes oftener. The fruit hangs well to the tree. It is quite susceptible to the scab and required thorough treatment to hold this disease in check particularly when grown on heavy clay soils. Unless grown on fertile soils and under good cultivation with insect pests and fungous diseases kept well under control there is often a comparatively high percentage of ill-shaped, uneven and low-grade fruit. Under favorable conditions the fruit grows large or sometimes very large and is fairly uniform in size although somewhat variable in form and coloring. It has a long established reputation in Europe and commands the best prices paid there for American apples. It is firm, keeps very late and ships well. The crop is largely exported. In ordinary storage its commercial season is February to March; in cold storage March to May. The fruit is of the highest quality for dessert and excellent for culinary uses. Cider made from it is very clear and high quality, and in the early days large quantities of the fruit were used for this purpose.


Historical.  The excellent historical account of the Yellow Newtown and the Green Newtown given by Taylor (32) is reproduced here:

The “Newtown Pippin” was the first American apple which attracted attention in Europe. After the receipt of specimens by Franklin while in London in 1759, and the subsequent sending of grafts to Collinson by John Bartram, numerous attempts were made to grow the variety in England. As early as 1768 it was cultivated in the Brompton Park nursery under the name “Newtown Pippin of New York.”a

It is probable that the large apple exports of 1773 included considerable quantities of the Newtown, for it was at that time quite generally distributed through the apple-growing districts of the Atlantic slope. Thomas Jefferson recorded in his “Garden Book” that in March, 1773, grafts of “Newtown Pippin”, received from Mordecai Debnam, at Sandy Point, were “ingrafted by P. Morton,” and in March, 1778, he noted that the grafted trees were planted out at Monticello.

Prior to 1803 Forsyth said of te variety in England,b “The New-Town Pippin is a fine apple in good season, but seldom ripens with us. It is held in great esteem in America.” McMahon,c in 1806 included Newtown Pippin in his select list of “Long-keeping apples” and also in a list of “Cyder apples.”

Previous to 1817 we have no record that more than one type of the Newtown was recognized, but Coxed, whose work appeared in that year, described as distinct varieties the “Large Yellow Newtown Pippin” and the “Green Newtown Pippin,” characterizing the latter as “a variety of the preceding kind.” Since the time of Coxe the two types have been recognized as distinct by our leading American pomologists, though fruit growers are by no means unanimous on this point.

The original seedling tree of Newtown Pippin is alleged to have stood near a swamp on the estate of Gershom Moore, in Newtown, Long Island, until about 1805, when it died from excessive cutting of cions and exhaustion. Its origin is credited to the early part of the eighteenth century. It is not clear at this time whether the original tree was of the “green” or the “yellow” type, nor has any record of a distinct origin of the two been discovered.

The Yellow Newtown has for many years been considered the better apple for exportation, however, and in commercial orchards has almost superseded the Green Newtown on account of its larger size, brighter color, and better keeping quality.

Both sorts are exceedingly variable and susceptible to the influence of soil, climate, elevation above sea level, etc. They are successfully grown in but few portions of the apple-producing area of the United States at the present time, the principal localities being the lower portion oft the Hudson River valley in New York, the Piedmont and mountain regions of Virginia and North Carolina, and portions of California, Oregon and Washington.

Though first grown in commercial orchards in New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, the excellent quality of the fruit from “some of the Patowmack counties of Virginia” was noted as early as the time of Coxe.e

In Albemarle County, VA, where it reached a high degree of perfection, it became known as the “Albemarle Pippin” at an early day, and was for many years considered a distinct variety, of local origin, and was so propagated.

An export trade in the fruit from Albemarle County was inaugurated under favorable auspices by a happy circumstance which occurred in the first year of the reign of Queen Victoria. The account below is kindly furnished by Mr. Samuel B. Woods, president of the Virginia Horticultural Society:

Letter April 30, 1898. The true history of the matter is that in the first year of Queen Victoria’s reign, Andrew Stevenson, whose home was on a mountainside in Albemarle, was minister to the Court of St. James. He had Albemarle Pippins sent over for his own use and presented the Queen with several barrels. She was delighted with the perfect flavor and excellence of the fruit, and, as a graceful acknowledgement of the courtesy of Mr. Stevenson, removed from Albemarle Pippins a small tax which then existed for the benefit of the Crown on all imported apples. From this time the Albemarle Pippin has grown steadily in favor in the English markets. It is not unusual to see them sellin in the wholesale markets at Liverpool for two or three times the price other American apples are bringing. A neighbor last fall sold his entire crop for $10 per barrel, and Mr. Whately, an English gentleman who recently returned from abroad, told me that he saw Albemarle Pippins retailing at 36 cents a pound. [this would be approximately $9.41 /lb at 2016 prices according to http://www.westegg.com/inflation/infl.cgi ! -ASC]

The identity of Albemarle and Yellow Newtown seems to have been recorded first by the late Franklin Davis in a letter from Staunton, VA, which was published in the Horticulturist in 1857 [7:288]. Since that time most pomologists have accepted their identity, ascribing the slight variations which are observable to local soil or climatic conditions. But in the absence of an authentic record of the introduction of Yellow Newtown to Albemarle County, many orchardists in the Piedmont and mountain regions have continued to believe the Albemarle a distinct variety of local origin. Recent investigation by Messrs. H.L. Lyman and Samuel B. Woods, prominent citizens and fruit growers of Charlottesville, VA, have resulted in an apparent clearing up of the historical uncertainty and establishing a clear connection between the supposed original Albemarle tree and the older variety:

Letter of April 30, 1898. As far back as 1765 there was a tree noted for its fine fruit standing in a mountain hollow on what is now Mr. William Sutherland’s land, in the North Garden neighborhood. How this tree came here no one knows, but tradition has it that it was a seedling, and from its stock came all Albemarle Pippins.

The other account, and the most authentic one, is that which fixes the earliest introduction at the time of Braddock’s defeat. Dr. Thomas Walker, of Castle Hill, Albemarle County, was the commissary officer of the Virginia troops with Braddock, and after the disastrous defeat, when the remnant of the troops went into winter quarters in Philadelphia, he returned home, carrying in his saddle-bags cuttings of apple trees. These were grafted at Castle Hill and became the famous Albemarle Pippin.

These two accounts I find connected in this rather curious way. The land on which the tree in the North Garden neighborhood stood was entered in the land office in 1741 in the name of Mildred Meriwether, in whose lifetime parts of the tract were improved. Mildred Meriwether was the stepdaughter of Dr. Thomas Walker, and what is more natural than that the old tree on her land, supposed to be a seedling, was one of the Walker grafts? There is little doubt that the first appearance of the Albemarle Pippin was at Castle Hill from the grafts brought home from Pennsylvania by Dr. Walker after Braddock’s defeat in 1755.

Tree
Form .
Twigs .
Bark .
Lenticels .
Buds .
Leaves .

Fruit medium to very large, pretty uniform in size but rather variable in form and coloring.
Form .
Stem short to very short, rather stout, not often exerted.
Cavity .
Calyx .
Basin .
Skin rather tough, smooth or slightly roughened with brownish-russet dots, grass-green at fruit harvest but sometimes pretty yellow later, and often showing some brownish or brownish-pink color, especially near the base. White submerged dots are especially numerous toward the eye and whitish scarf-skin stripes extend over the base.
Calyx tube .
Stamens basal or nearly so.
Core
Carpels .
Seeds .
Flesh yellowish or tinged with green according to the color of fruit, firm, crisp, tender, moderately fine-grained, juicy, sprightly, with a fine aromatic subacid flavor, best.
Season February to May.
[Information from the Southeastern U.S. here.]

aHogg, The Apple and Its Varieties, 1859:143.

bCobbett, A Treatise on the Culture and Management of Fruit Trees, Edition with American Notes, 1803:58.

cMcMahon, B., The American Gardener’s Calendar, 1806:585.

dCoxe, 1817:142, 143.

eCoxe, 1817:143.

Green Seek-No-Further
References.  1. Coxe, 1817:131. fig. 2. Kenrick, 1832:63. 3. Thomas, 1849:181. fig. 4. Emmons, Nat. Hist. NY., 3:38 1851. fig. 5. Elliott, 1854:137. 6.Warder, 1867:720. 7. Downing, 1869:202.
Synonyms.  Autumn Seeknofurther (4). Bracy's Seek-no-further (5). Flushing Seek-no-further (7). Seeknofurther (4,5,7, of Coxe 3). Seek-No-Further (1). White Seek-no-further (7). Winter Seek-No-Further (2).
A large yellowish-green apple with faint blush of orange-red, very good in quality; season early winter. The tree is a rather slow grower, but eventually forms a regular, compact head and is quite productive. Desirable for the home orchard (1,7).
Historical. The earliest description of this variety which we find is that given by Coxe (1) who remarks that it is a native of one of the eastern states. Downing states that it originated in the garden of William Prince, Flushing, NY (7). It is now seldom found in cultivation in New York.

FRUIT

Fruit large.
Form roundish conic or a little inclined to oblate conic, ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, thick.
Cavity large, acute to somewhat acuminate, deep, broad, more of less marked with faint greenish-russet.
Calyx moderately large, closed or slightly open.
Basin deep, rather wide, abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin moderately thick, tough, greenish-yellow or yellow with faint orange-red blush.
Dots variable, large and small, often irregular, areolar with russet center or whitish and submerged.
Calyx tube large, moderately long, wide, conical.
Stamens median.
Core small, axile; cells symmetrical, closed; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels roundish to broadly ovate, tufted.
Seeds rather numerous, above medium, narrow, long, acute to acuminate, tufted.
Flesh yellowish-white, moderately coarse, crisp, tender, very juicy, sprightly, rich subacid, very good.
Season October to January.

Grosh
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Beauty of the West (7,13,17). Big Rambo (4,8,16,17). Cummings Rambo (17). English Rambo (16). French Rambo of some (17). Grosh's Mammoth (17). Large Rambo (17). Large Summer Rambo (17). Lothringer Rambour (17). Mammoth Rambo (17). Monstrous Rambo (17). Musgrove (16). Musgrove's Cooper (4,7,8,17). Naylor Rambo (17). Ohio Beauty (2,4,7,8,16,17). Pickaway Rambo (17). Rambour Lorraine (17). Summer Rambo (9,17). Sweet Rambo incorrectly (17). Western Beauty (3,4,7,8,9,10,12,13,16,17, ? 14).
Fruit large, uniform and when well colored rather attractive, being mottled and striped with red. The flesh is tender, sprightly, pleasant subacid, in season from September till early winter. The tree is a strong grower, comes into bearing early and is a reliable cropper, yielding moderate to good crops almost annually. There is apt to be considerable loss from premature dropping of the fruit. So far as we can learn this variety has been as yet but little grown in New York. It appears to be worthy of further testing.
Summer Rambo much resembles this variety in general appearance but ripens about a month earlier.
Historical. Origin unknown. It was first brought to notice in Ohio, where it has been much grown under the name of Western Beauty.

TREE.

Tree vigorous with very long, moderately stout, curved branches.
Form upright spreading to roundish, open.
Twigs long to below medium, somewhat curved, moderately stout; internodes medium or below.
Bark clear reddish-brown mingled with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent near tips.
Lenticels clear brownish, conspicuous, quite numerous, medium or above, roundish, raised.
Buds medium to large, prominent, broad, plump, obtuse, free or nearly so, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit large or very large, very uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish oblate to somewhat conical, regular or sometimes elliptical.
Stem (Pedicel) short to above medium, moderately thick.
Cavity acuminate to acute, deep, wide, often somewhat compressed, smooth and green or sometimes russeted, symmetrical or gently furrowed, sometimes lipped.
Calyx above medium to very large, usually somewhat open disclosing the yellow calyx tube; lobes separated at the base, rather long, often leafy, acute to acuminate.
Basin often oblique, large, medium in depth and width to deep and rather wide, abrupt, usually somewhat furrowed.
Skin thick, tough, waxy, greenish-yellow becoming clear bright yellow when fully mature, washed and mottled with bright red and striped and splashed with carmine, except in highly-colored specimens the yellow predominates.
Dots numerous, small to rather large, pale gray or russet, often areolar or whitish and submerged.
Calyx tube rather large, wide at the top, conical or approaching funnel-form.
Stamens nearly basal to above median.
Core small to medium, axile or somewhat abaxile with hollow cylinder in the axis; cells symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish to ovate, emarginate, often tufted.
Seeds moderately numerous, moderately dark brown, often abortive, medium size, moderately wide, obtuse to acute.
Flesh whitish, slightly tinged with yellow, rather firm, medium to rather coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, a little aromatic, good or sometimes very good.
Season September to January.

Grundy
References.  1. Hansen, SD Sta. Bul., 76:56. 1902. 2. Budd-Hansen, 1903:95. 3. Jewell Nursery Co. Cat., 1903:7. 4. Ragan, USBPI Bul. 56:133. 1905.
Synonyms.  Thompson Seedling No. 38 (1-4).
Fruit large, regular, subacid, yellow marbled with red. Season September and October. Tree vigorous, spreading, productive. Originated from seed taken from New York to Grundy county, Iowa, by Mrs. J.S.B. Thompson in 1861. It has received favorable notice as a hardy variety in that region, but has not been sufficiently tested in this state to determine its value here (2).

Haas
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Fall Queen (2-5,7,14,16). Gros Pomier (2,14). Gros Pommier (2). Horse, of some (2). Hoss (1,2).
Fruit of good medium size and very attractive bright red color but only fair in quality. With some growers it has proved profitable because the tree comes into bearing young and is very thrifty, hardy and productive, but on account of the inferior quality of its fruit doubtless it will be eventually wholly supplanted by better kinds.
Historical. Originated on the grounds of Gabriel Cerré, St. Louis, MO (2). It has been widely disseminated throughout the Middle West and Southwest where it is recognized as one of the hardiest of American apples. In New York it has been planted to a limited extent only and its cultivation is not increasing.

TREE.

Tree large, very vigorous with long, slender branches.
Form at first comparatively tall and upright but becoming spreading or roundish.
Twigs long, curved, slender with large terminal buds; internodes long.
Bark brown or reddish-brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, oval, not raised.
Buds medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to above.
Form oblate a little inclined to conic, somewhat ribbed; sides usually unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to short, thick, often partly red.
Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, broad, usually symmetrical, more or less covered with thin greenish-russet.
Calyx small to medium, closed or nearly so; lobes separated at base, short, narrow, acuminate.
Basin moderately narrow, rather deep, abrupt, smooth or slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, yellow, mottled, washed and nearly covered with deep bright red or brownish-red, striped and splashed with deep carmine.
Dots small to rather large, inconspicuous, numerous, pale or russet.
Prevailing effect red striped with carmine. Calyx tube very variable, rather long and wide, conical or approaching funnel-form.
Stamens median or below.
Core below medium to above, somewhat abaxile; cells symmetrical, open or sometimes closed; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish to elliptical.
Seeds dark brown, medium to large, of medium width, plump, acute.
Flesh white, often stained with red, firm, moderately fine, a little tough, moderately juicy to juicy, sprightly subacid, aromatic, a little astringent, poor to fair or sometimes nearly good.
Season October to early winter. In common storage the ordinary commercial limit is November (16).

Hagloe
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Hagloe Crab (1-3), but incorrectly. Summer Hagloe (4-7,9,10).
In 1817, Coxe gave the following description of this variety (1). "The fruit, when fully ripe, has a yellow ground streaked with bright red---- the size about middling, the form round, flat at the ends; the stalk large--- the flesh remarkably soft and woolly, but not dry-- the taste acid, but highly flavoured. *** It ripens in August and September; keeps a long time without rotting--- it bears abundantly and early; the growth of the tree is very uncommon; thick strong shoots; buds, particularly at the extremity of the branches, very large; the colour of the wood dark-- the size of the tree small; the Hagloe is an uncommonly fine cooking apple; and from its great beauty and large size, added to its abundant bearing, is a valuable market fruit."
The tree is not a very good grower but comes into bearing rather young and yields moderate to good crops annually or nearly annually. The quality of the fruit is such that it is valued chiefly for culinary use and market. It is of good size and pretty uniform but the color is predominantly pale yellow rather faintly striped with red. It is not sufficiently attractive for a good market sort. Historical. It is now held that Hagloe originated in America (14,15). Coxe and some later writers confused the variety with the English cider fruit known as Hagloe Crab but eventually this error was discovered (4) and the name Summer Hagloe came to be commonly accepted among pomologists for this variety, under which name it was listed by the American Pomological Society in 1862 (10). In 1899 the namewas changed to Hagloe (14) in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society. This variety is but little known in New York.

TREE.

Tree rather small, a slow grower with moderately long; crooked branches.
Form flat, spreading, rather dense.
Twigs short, straight, stout with rather large terminal buds; internodes medium.
Bark brown with some olive-green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; pubescent near tips.
Lenticels scattering, large to medium, oblong, raised.
Buds meidum to large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large, pretty uniform.
Form roundish truncate to roundish conic, ribbed; sides often unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, rather thick.
Cavity acute, medium in width and depth, symmetrical, russeted and with rather irregular, outspreading russet.
Calyx below medium to aboe, closed or open; lobes often separated at the base, narrow, acuminate.
Basin moderately deep, narrow to medium in width, abrupt, nearly smooth.
Skin rather tender, smooth, somewhat glossy, pale greenish-yellow washed and mottled with pinkish-red marked with splashes and narrow stripes of bright carmine.
Dots light, inconspicuous.
Prevailing effect yellow, faintly striped.
Calyx tube moderately long, wide, conical.
Stamens basal.
Core usually small, axile to abaxile; cells usually open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate, emarginate, tufted.
Seeds rather light brown, small to medium, roundish, very plump, obtuse.
Flesh white, moderately fine, tender, rather juicy, sprightly subacid, good for culinary purposes.
Season August and September.

Harvest Redstreak
References.  1. Downing 1857:214. 2. Warder, 1867:436. 3. Downing, 1869:211. 4. Thomas, 1875:501. 5. Ragan, USBPI Bul., 56:138. 1905.
Synonyms.  Early Red Pippin (5). Early Redstreak (2, 3). Striped Harvest (3,5).
Fruit of medium size, smooth, greenish-yellow or whitish striped and splashed with red. Flesh whitish, coarse, subacid, good for culinary use; season August and September. It is not sufficiently attractive in color for a good market variety. The tree is medium to large, with round head, moderately vigorous to very vigorous and yields good to heavy crops biennially.
Historical. This is an old variety of unknown origin. It is rarely found in New York and is now seldom or never planted.

Haskell
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Haskell Sweet (1-15). Sassafras Sweet (4,6,7,8,9).
Fruit large, of good appearance for a greenish-yellow apple, sweet, excellent for culinary use, in season from September to late fall or early winter. The crop does not ripen uniformly. The earliest ripening fruit becomes fully mature in September while at the same time others are green and hard. In ordinary storage the commercial limit appears to be early November and in cold storage the middle of January (15). The tree is a thrifty grower, comes into bearing moderately young and yields full crops biennially. Desirable for the home orchard.
Historical. Origin, Ipswich, Mass. (2,5). It is not commonly known in New York. it is occasionally listed by nurserymen (12) but is now seldom planted.

TREE.

Tree large, vigorous, branches long, moderately stout with numerous small spurs.
Form upright spreading or roundish, rather open.
Twigs moderately long, curved, moderately stout; internodes long.
Bark brown, heavily mottled with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, small, round, not raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit large or above medium, uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish or oblate, regular.
Stem (Pedicel) short, usually not exserted.
Cavity acute to acuminate, deep or moderately deep, rather abrupt, smooth or somewhat furrowed, russeted and with some outspreading russet rays.
Calyx large, closed.
Basin wide, moderately deep, rather abrupt, smooth or somewhat wrinkled.
Skin greenish-yellow, more or less dotted and flecked with russet, occasionally with a bronze blush.
Dots numerous, large, dark.
Calyx tube large, cone-shape to funnel-form.
Stamens median.
Core rather small, axile; cells symmetrical, closed; core lines clasping.
Carpels broad at the middle, narrowing toward base and apex, emarginate.
Seeds medium size, short, plump, obtuse.
Flesh yellowish, a little coarse, moderately crisp, tender, very sweet, aromatic, very good in flavor and quality.
Season September to late fall or early winter.

Hawley
References.  1. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 13:112,535. 1847. fig. 2. Cultivator, 4:114. 1847. fig. 3. Leavenworth, Horticulturist, 2:27. 1847. fig. 4. Cultivator, 5:246. 1848. 5. Cole, 1849:112. fig. 6. Thomas, 1849:156 fig. 7. Emmons, [*********many more tbal******]
Synonyms.  Douse (3,5,8,10.13,20). Dows (1,3,8,13,20). Dowse (2,4,6,9,10,16,20,22). Howley (20).
Hawley is a very large apple of the Fall Pippin type in color, size and form. When the color is fully developed it is a handsome yellow. Season September and October. It is of delicious for the home orchard but not well adapted for market because the tree is not very productive and the fruit often is scabby and sometimes it water-cores and rots at the core. The tree is a moderate grower in the nursery but in the orchard it is rather vigorous, medium in size to large, hardy and rather long-lived. It does not come into bearing very young. When mature it bears quite regularly but is usually a light or moderate cropper.
Historical. Originated on the farm of Mr. Mathew Hawley, New Canaan, NY about 1750, from seeds which Mr. Hawley obtained from Milford, Conn. (1,3). The original tree lived nearly a century. The variety gradually became disseminated throughout New York state. It has long been known in cultivation in different parts of the state, particularly in Columbia, Onondaga, Cayuga, Tompkins, Seneca and Monroe counties. It is now rarely listed by nurserymen and is seldom planted.

FRUIT

Fruit large or very large, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form nearly globular to somewhat oblate or slightly conic, sometimes inclined to elliptical, more or less distinctly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium in length, rather slender.
Cavity acute to nearly obtuse, deep, wide and with outspreading rays.
Calyx below medium to rather large, partly closed; lobes often separated at base, reflexed, wide, acute.
Basin moderately deept to deep, medium to wide, very abrupt, often decidedly furrowed.
Skin fair, smooth, waxy, rather thin, pale green deepening to yellow as it matures, sometimes showing a faint brownish blush, with scattering russet dots and flecks especially toward the cavity.
Calyx tube large, wide, cone-shape, yellow or brownish.
Core below medium to above; cells closed; core lines meeting.
Carpels rather flat, tufted, roundish, emarginate.
Seeds few, obtuse. When well developed they are medium in size, but often some are abortive.
Flesh tinged with yellow, soft, very tender, rather fine-grained, juicy, rich, mild subacid, very good especially for dessert.
Season September to November or later.

Hawthornden
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Hawley, but erroneously (27). Hawthorndean (2,6,7,23). Lincolnshire Pippin (27). Lord Kingston (27). Maiden's Blush erroneously (10). Old Hawthorndean (23,27). Pomme de Hawthornden (27). Red Hawthornden (10). Shoreditch White (27). Weisser Hawthornden (27). Wheeler's Kernel (27). White Apple (27). White Hawthorndean (23,27). White Hawthornden (3,4,8,10,12,14).
A Scotch variety which has done fairly well in various parts of this country from New England to California. Warder (18) says of it: "This famous Scotch fruit appears to do very well in this country, but it must yield the palm to its American cousin and representative, the Maiden's Blush, which possesses all its good qualities as a market and kitchen fruit, with attractive appearance."
The tree is said to be a vigorous grower and a biennial cropper, and the fruit is above medium to large, regular, fair, white sometimes nearly overspread with faint blush that deepens to bright red in the sun. Flesh mild, subacid, not of high flavor, pleasant, good. Season September and October.
We are not acquainted with this variety. It appears to be but little known among New York fruit growers. It is still occasionally listed by nurserymen (26).

Hibernal
References.  1. ***tbal***15. Freeborn, Nat. Nurseryman, 1894:132. 16.
Synonyms.  No. 378(1,2,4-7,9-26). Orsimui (4-6). Osimoe (8). Romna (23).
A Russian variety which is proving valuable in portions of the Upper Mississippi valley and the Northwest because of its ability to withstand the rigorous climatic conditions of those regions. Hansen says of it: "This variety represents what is probably the hardiest type of the Russian race of apples; there are several sorts closely resembling, or identical with Hibernal. Tree vigorous, very spreading, productive. The strong spreading growth makes it especially desirable as a stock for top-grafting, probably the best we have at the present time. Fruit large, irregular, oblate to roundish oblate conical; skin thick; surface greenish-yellow, with a dull bronze mixed red on sunny side, with a few dull crimson splashes; dots white, minute, obscure, often some large russet dots; cavity regular, medium deep, with a large patch of russet radiating out irregularly over nearly the entire base, this is a marked characteristic; stem medium, often short; basin narrow, rather shallow, wrinkled; calyx half open or open. Core closed, meeting; tube funnel-shaped; stamens median; seeds few; flesh acid, with some astringency, juicy, good for cooking. Early winter" (24,26).
Macoun reports "Flesh yellowish, crisp, tender, juicy, acid; core small; quality above medium; season September to November. Tree very hardy, a strong, spreading grower, and very productive. Although not a good dessert fruit this is a fine cooking apple and on account of its great hardiness and productiveness is one of the best of the Russian apples" (23).

Hicks
References.  1. Hicks, Horticulturist, 21:333. 1866. fig. 2. Downing, 1869:215. 3. Burrill and McCluer, Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:308, 316, 324. 1896. 4. Thomas, 1897:639.
Synonyms.  Buckram (2,3).
A sweet apple of medium size, yellowish striped and splashed with crimson; season middle of August. It is but little known except in certain localities on Long Island. Not recommended for general planting in this state.
Historical. Hicks originated as a chance seedling and was brought to notice by Isaac Hicks, North Hempstead L.I. (1,2).

Hightop Sweet
References.  1. Thacher, 1822:128. 2. Hovey, Mag. Hart., 14:390. 1848. 3. Cole, 1849:97. 4. Phoenix, Horticulturist, 4:472. 1850. 5. Emmons, Nat. Hist. NY., 3:16. 1851. fig. 6. Elliott, 1854:139. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. 8. Mag. Hort. 22:181. 1856. 9. Downing, 1857:151. 10. Gregg, 1857:40. 1. Warder, 1867:553. 12. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1869:33. 13. Fitz, 1872:145. 14. Thomas, 1875:189. 15. Downing, 1881:11 index, app. 16. Barry, 1883:250. 17. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292. 18. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:250. 19. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:132. 20. Hoskins, Rural NY 1894:248. 21. Budd-Hansen, 1903:99. fig.
Synonyms.  Early Sweet (15). High Top Sweet (13,19). High Top Sweeting (1,5,6,8,,12,15) ? (2,3). Summer Sweet (3,5,6,9,14). Summer Sweeting (2). Sweet June (4,6,9-14,16,18-21).
Fruit of medium size; flesh yellowish, very sweet, rich and very good quality; season July and August. Tree upright, vigorous, very productive.
Historical. In 1822 Thacher (1) remarked: "This tree, it is believed, is peculiar to the old Plymouth colony. The first settlers, either from choice, or for want of other varieties, cultivated it more generally than any other apple. It is now much on the decline. The fruit is under the middle size; of a yellowish colour, pleasant taste; but chiefly used for baking, and for drying. It is ripe in August, and is not long preserved. The tree is remarkable for its long upright stem."
It appears that this variety was introduced into Ohio from Connecticut and Massachusetts and afterward disseminated westward under the name of Sweet June. In 1892 Bailey (18) found that although various nurserymen were offering Sweet June for sale none of them mentioned Hightop Sweet. Some have held that the Sweet June of the West is not identical with the Hightop Sweet of Massachusetts (12). We have not had the opportunity of determining whether this is true, but if they are identical it appears strange that the name Hightop Sweet should be entirely dropped by those who are propagating it in the West. This variety is but little known in New York.

Hilaire
References.  1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1879:453. 2. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-87:95. 3. Bailey, Mich. Sta. Bul., 31:54. 1887. 4. Downing, 1881:102 app. fig. 5. Waugh, VT Sta. Bul., 83:87. 1900.
Synonyms.  Cabane du Chien (3,5,6). Fameuse Baldwin, of some (5). St. Hilaire (1-6).
An apple which resembles Fameuse in the color of its skin and in the color and texture of its flesh, but the flesh has more of a sprightly acid flavor and the fruit keeps better than that of Fameuse. Waugh reports (5) that it is not now grown in the vicinity of its origin. Professor U.P. Hedrick of the Michigan Agricultural College, who supplied the fruit for the following description, states that as grown in Michigan the variety is hardy, productive and gives promise of being a valuable acquisition.
Historical. This is said to have originated in the orchard of Alexis Dery, Quebec (4). Probably a seedling of Fameuse (2). So far as we know it is not grown in New York.

TREE.

Tree large, vigorous; a heavy alternate bearer (2).
Twigs short, curved, slender; internodes short.
Bark dark brown with light coat of streaked scarf-skin, slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small, oblong, raised.
Buds small, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to above, uniform in size.
Form oblate to roundish-oblate, rather irregular.
Stem (Pedicel) medium, moderately slender.
Cavity acuminate or acute, moderately deep and broad, not russeted, symmetrical.
Calyx medium, usually closed; lobes broad, obtuse.
Basin medium in depth to shallow, moderately wide to rather narrow, rather abrupt, slightly wrinkled, symmetrical.
Skin thin, tender, smooth, pale yellow or whitish almost completely overspread with attractive red of the Fameuse hue becoming as highly colored as the Fameuse or McIntosh and covered with faint bloom; stripes obscure if any.
Dots very numerous, small, red, sometimes gray or russet.
Prevailing effect brilliant deep pinkish-red deepening to purplish-red.
Calyx tube long, rather narrow, funnel-shape.
Stamens median to basal.
Core nearly axile, small to medium; cells closed or partly open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder.
Carpels round, slightly emarginate.
Seeds dark, numerous, medium to large, wide, obtuse to acute.
Flesh whitish sometimes tinged with red, fine, crisp, tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, good to very good.
Season November to January. A better keeper than Fameuse.

Hilton
References.  1. Downing, 1857:151. 2. Warder, 1867:721. 3. Thomas, 1875:502.
Synonyms.  None.
This variety originated in Columbia county, NY. According to Downing (1), the tree is vigorous and productive; the fruit large, yellowish-green, subacid, excellent for culinary purposes. Season September and October.
So far as we can discover this variety is not now known in cultivation.

Hoadley
References.  1. Goff, Wis. Sta. An. Rpt., 11:347, 1894. 2. Ib., Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1899:236.
Synonyms.  None.
A variety of the Oldenburg type which much resembles Oldenburg except that its season is about a month later. It is decidedly attractive in general appearance and of good quality for culinary purposes. The tree is a moderate grower, comes into bearing early and so far as tested here is very productive. It appears to be worthy of testing where an apple of this type is desired.
Historical. Received from the Wisconsin Experiment Station in 1896 for testing at this Station.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading when young.
Twigs short, straight, stout; internodes medium.
Bark brown and reddish-brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium size, round, not raised.
Buds medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit above medium to large, sometimes very large.
Form roundish oblate inclined to conic, a little angular; sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short, thick to slender.
Cavity acute to obtuse, deep, broad, pretty symmetrical, thinly and irregularly russeted.
Calyx rather large, closed or partly open; lobes long, broad, acute to obtuse.
Basin deep to medium in depth, rather narrow to moderately wide, abrupt, slightly furrowed.
Skin moderately thick, tough, attractive yellow or greenish-yellow largely overspread with rather light bright red, mottled and irregularly striped and splashed with carmine.
Dots inconspicuous, small, submerged, pale.
Calyx tube variable, short, rather wide, funnel-shape, sometimes broadly conical with core lines meeting.
Stamens median to nearly marginal.
Core medium size, abaxile; cells open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels broadly cordate or elliptical, slightly tufted.
Seeds medium or below, wide, moderately long, usually plump, rather obtuse, dark colored.
Flesh tinged with yellow, pretty firm, a little coarse, crisp, tender, very juicy, brisk subacid, good.
Season late September to November.

Hog Island Sweet
References.  1. Downing, 1857:152. 2. Warder, 1867:721. 3. Downing, 1872:10 index, app. 4. Thomas, 1875:502. 5. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292.
Synonyms.  Sweet Pippin (1). Van Kleek's Sweet (3).
A beautiful and excellent sweet apple in season from September to early winter. It is an old variety which had its origin on Hog Island, near Long Island, NY (1). It is but little known. The tree is vigorous and productive.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large, pretty uniform.
Form roundish conical to oblate, broad at the base, regular or obscurely ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, moderately thick.
Cavity acute, deep, rather broad, heavily russeted and with outspreading russet rays.
Calyx medium to large, closed or partly open; lobes short broad, acute.
Basin shallow to medium in depth, narrow to moderately wide, abrupt, broadly furrowed.
Skin thick, rather tough, somewhat roughened with flecks and patches of russet, pale yellow or greenish washed and mottled with red overlaid with broad and narrow stripes and splashes of carmine.
Dots numerous, small, russet.
Prevailing effect bright striped red over a yellow background. Calyx tube long, wide, conical to funnel-shape.
Stamens basal to median.
Core small to medium, abaxile to nearly axile; cells somewhat unsymmetrical, open; core lines slightly clasping the funnel cylinder or meeting.
Carpels roundish obovate to elliptical, emarginate.
Seeds medium or below, sometimes tufted, rather wide, rather short, plump, acute to somewhat obtuse.
Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, very sweet, somewhat aromatic, good to very good.
Season September to early winter.

Holland Pippin
References.  1.tbal
Synonyms.  Fall Pippin (1). French Pippin (7). Pie Apple (2,7,8). Reinette d'Hollande (2,7). Summer Pippin (2,7,8).
There are two varieties in cultivation in New York under the name Holland Pippin. One is a winter apple in season from late autumn to April or May which has already been described under the name Holland Winter, Vol. I, page 159. The other begins to ripen earlier than Fall Pippin and is in season during September and October. This variety was formerly confused by some with the Fall Pippin. The following comparison of the two varieties was given by Downing in 1848 (3).
"The Holland Pippin, though considerably resembling this apple in the growth of the tree, and size and shape of the fruit, is a totally distinct apple from the Fall Pippin. In fact, while the Fall Pippin is one of the best autumn table apples (at least in this district), the Holland Pippin is of very inferior quality for dessert, and is, in fact, only a cooking apple. As a kitchen fruit, however, it is one of the most valuable summer fruits we know- for it bears regularly and well, comes into use at the beginning of August, and continues fit for pies, tarts, and sauce, until October, when the Fall Pippin begins to ripen. The Holland Pippin is fit for use while the skin quite green, but the Fall Pippin, not until it turns quite yellow. Finally the stalk of the Holland Pippin is large, and set in a cavity often narrow, and comparatively shallow. With these points of difference, these two apples ought not to be confounded."
Holland Pippin is grown to a limited extent for market. It appears to be more valued for this purpose in certain portions of the Hudson valley than in other sections of the state. The fruit is large and when kept free from scab its general appearance is good for a green apple. The crop ripens unevenly. It varies greatly in keeping qualities in different seasons, some years keeping well till late fall or early winter (16). The tree is a good grower, hardy or nearly so, healthy, pretty long-lived and generally quite productive yielding moderate to heavy crops biennially or sometimes annually. Historical. Origin unknown. It is an old variety which has long been in cultivation in this and adjoining states. It is still listed by nurserymen but it is not being planted to any considerable extent.

TREE.

Tree large or moderately large, vigorous.
Form spreading or roundish.
Twigs medium to long, curved, stout; internodes medium.
Bark dark brown, heavily coated with gray scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small to medium, oval, not raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit usually large or very large, sometimes medium, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish often decidedly flattened at the end varying to oblate conic, obscurely ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to short, usually rather slender.
Cavity acute or sometimes acuminate, medium in width to broad, moderately shallow to deep, usually covered with thick outspreading russet.
Calyx pubescent, medium to small, closed or partly open; lobes rather long, acute.
Basin usually rather shallow but varying to moderately deep, medium in width to rather narrow, abrupt to somewhat obtuse, ridged and wrinkled.
Skin thin, tough, nearly smooth, rather pale yellow or greenish with more or less of a brownish-red blush which is conspicuously marked with large, irregular, areolar dots.
Dots numerous, large and small, often submerged and greenish.
Calyx tube wide, broadly conical to truncate funnel-form.
Stamens below median to basal.
Core medium to large, abaxile; cells unsymmetrical, open; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping.
Carpels broad, narrowing toward base and apex, slightly emarginate, a little tufted.
Seeds medium size, rather narrow, acute to somewhat acuminate.
Flesh nearly white, medium to slightly coarse-grained, moderately crisp, rather tender, very juicy, brisk subacid, good for culinary uses.
Season September and October.

Hook
References.  1. (?) Mich. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1880:183.
Synonyms.  None.
Fruit of good medium size, rather attractive pale yellow with tender flesh of mild subacid flavor. It is in season during October and November. It is especially esteemed for dessert use.
Historical. This variety was received from Schoharie county, NY where it is well known and has the reputation of being one of the most desirable dessert apples of its season. We have not yet been able to determine its origin, nor the extent of its distribution.

FRUIT

Fruit medium size, pretty uniform in shape and size.
Form roundish ovate or inclined to oblong conic, sometimes roundish truncate.
Stem (Pedicel) short, rather slender.
Cavity acuminate, moderately shallow to deep, broad, often lipped, smooth or with some outspreading russet rays.
Calyx medium size, usually somewhat open; lobes rather narrow to wide, acute to acuminate.
Basin medium in width and depth, obscurely furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin smooth, clear yellow or greenish-yellow.
Dots inconspicuous, minute, usually submerged.
Calyx tube large, conical or approaching funnel-form.
Stamens median or below.
Core rather small, axile; cells symmetrical, closed or a little closed or a little open; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping.
Carpels smooth, flat, obcordate to elliptical, emarginate.
Seeds medium brown, rather large, wide, flat, obtuse.
Flesh whitish with slight tinge of yellow, very tender, fine-grained, juicy, mild subacid, somewhat aromatic, very good.
Season October and November.

Howard Best
References.  1. Bailey, Mich. Sta. Bul., 31:52. 1887. 2. NY Sta. An. Rpt., 11:223. 1892.
Synonyms.  Howard's Best Russian (1).
This is an attractive apple that bears a decided resemblance to Alexander in form, color and quality. The tree is a moderate grower, comes into bearing rather young and yields moderate to good crops almost annually. We have not yet determined whether or not it is superior to Alexander.
Historical. Received in 1892 for testing at this Station from C.G. Patten, Charles City, IA (2).

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous with short, moderately stout, crooked branches.
Form rather flat and spreading, inclined to droop.
Twigs short, straight, slender with large terminal buds; internodes short to medium.
Bark dull brown, tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small, oblong, not raised.
Buds small, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit above medium, usually large to very large.
Form oblate conic, rather flat at the base, somewhat ribbed, symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long, thick.
Cavity acute, deep, medium in width to wide, symmetrical, sometimes compressed, heavily russeted.
Calyx large, open; lobes separated at base, short, narrow, acute.
Basin moderately shallow to rather deep, rather narrow, abrupt, distinctly furrowed to rather smooth.
Skin rather tough, smooth, waxy, light yellowish-green, mottled, striped and splashed with bright dark red over a large part of the surface.
Dots indistinct, medium size, gray, scattering.
Calyx tube short, wide, conical or approaching funnel-form.
Stamens basal to median.
Core medium size, nearly axile; cells closed or slightly open; core lines clasping or nearly meeting.
Carpels very broadly ovate or inclined to elliptical, slightly emarginate, tufted.
Seeds medium to small, wide, short, rather flat, obtuse.
Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, firm, rather coarse, tender, very juicy, sprightly subacid, fair to good.
Season September and October.

Hubbardston
References.  1.
Synonyms. 
XXX
Historical.

TREE.

Tree
Form
Twigs
Bark
Lenticels
Buds

FRUIT

Fruit
Form
Stem (Pedicel)
Cavity
Calyx
Basin
Skin
Dots
Calyx tube
Stamens
Core
Carpels
Seeds
Flesh
Season
[Description in 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

Hunter Pippin
References.  1. Downing. 1876:54. app.
Synonyms.  None.
A chance seedling which originated in Westport, NY. Downing describes the tree as moderately vigorous and a good annual bearer; fruit medium size, whitish-yellow; flesh brisk subacid; season August (1).
So far as we can learn this variety is not being propagated.

Hurlbut
References.  1. tbal 10. Munson.
Synonyms.  Hurlburt (2). Hurlbut Stripe (3). Hurlbutt (5).
The general appearance of Hurlbut is good yet it is not particularly attractive either in size or color nor does it take first rank for either home use or market. The tree is a strong grower, comes into bearing moderately young and yields heavy crops biennially. Because of the tendency of the tree to overproduction in bearing years the size of the fruit is in many cases reduced and a considerable portion of it is too small to be marketable. Hurlbut has proved to be a profitable variety with some fruit growers but although it has long been known in cultivation and has been quite widely disseminated it has nowhere gained prominence as a commercial variety.
Historical. In 1849 Cole (1) wrote: "The original tree is still flourishing on the farm of General Leonard Hurlbut, Winchester, Conn." It is still quite frequently listed by nurserymen (9) but is not being planted to any considerable extent.

TREE.

Tree rather large, vigorous or moderately vigorous.
Form spreading or roundish and somewhat inclined to droop.
Twigs moderately long, slightly curved, moderately stout to rather long, slightly curved, moderately stout to rather slender; internodes below medium to short.
Bark dark brown to clear brownish-red, heavily mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small, round, slightly raised.
Buds medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit below medium to above, fairly uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish, slightly oblate or inclined to oblate conic, somewhat angular, rather symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to short, rather slender.
Cavity acute, shallow to medium in depth, medium in width, symmetrical or compressed, usually covered with heavy outspreading russet.
Calyx medium or below, usually closed; lobes medium to long, narrow, acute.
Basin shallow to medium in depth, narrow to nearly medium in width, somewhat abrupt, smooth or slightly wrinkled.
Skin thick, tough, smooth, greenish-yellow largely overspread with brownish-red or dull red, splashed and striped with carmine.
Dots scattering, inconspicuous, usually submerged, sometimes russet.
Calyx tube very short, wide, truncate conical with fleshy pistil point projecting into the base.
Stamens marginal.
Core medium size, abaxile; cells wide open to nearly closed; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels nearly round.
Seeds numerous, rather large, moderately wide, long, rather plump, acute.
Flesh white or yellowish, moderately firm, rather fine, tender, crisp, very juicy, aromatic, mildly subacid, good to very good.
Season variable; October to December or January (15).

Isham
References.  1. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:242. 2. Hoskins, Rural NY 53:310. 1894. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:17. 4. Hansen, SD Sta. Bul., 76:60. 1902. fig. 5. Kan. Sta. Bul., 106:53. 1902. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903:105.
Synonyms.  Isham Sweet (1-6).
A red sweet apple of medium size, in season in late fall and early winter. It has been grown to some extent in some of the Western states but it has not been much tested in New York and it is doubtful whether it is desirable for planting in any portion of this state.
Historical. Isham originated from seed of Bailey Sweet. It was introduced about 1864 by F.K. Phœnix, Delavan, Wis. (2).

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading.
Twigs medium to long, rather stout, in some cases quite blunt at the tips, straight or nearly so; internodes rather long.
Bark reddish-brown overlaid with heavy grayish scarf-skin, not pubescent or very sparingly so.
Lenticels rather inconspicuous, rather scattering, irregular in size and shape, not raised.
Buds large, prominent, fleshy, heavily pubescent, adhering to bark.

FRUIT (4,6)

Fruit medium.
Form roundish, slighly tapering.
Stem (Pedicel) short.
Cavity regular, acute with much radiating russet.
Calyx open; segments flat, convergent.
Basin very shallow, minutely wrinkled.
Skin yellowish-green mostly covered with brownish-red, solid and mixed on sunny side, striped and broadly splashed on the shady side.
Dots distinct, russet, numerous, minute; a few large russet dots.
Calyx tube funnel-shape.
Stamens median.
Core closed; cells round, entire.
Seeds long, large, flat.
Flesh very yellow with yellow veinings, firm, very sweet, very good.