State of New York- Department of Agriculture
The Apples of New York
Volumes I & II
[Apples starting with "E" or "F" -ASC]

Apple Home

Early Harvest
References.  1.[XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 50.]
Synonyms.  Early French Reinette (), Early July Pippin (24), Early June (23), Harvest (23, ...), Large Early (15, 21, 30), Large Early Harvest (3, 15, 21), Large White Jueneating (13, 15, 19...), Maralandica (29), Oats (incorrectly, 29), Pomme d'Ete of Canada (30), Prince's Early Harvest (), Prince's Harvest (2,4,5,6...), Prince's Yellow Harvest (30), Tart Bough (), Yellow Harvest (), Yellow Juneating (23).
Fruit medium, pale yellow, sometimes with a faint blush, tender, sprightly subacid, and very good in quality. It is a desirable variety for the home orchard because it is one of the earliest of the summer apples, and is excellent for either dessert or culinary uses. It is not a desirable commercial variety because there is a comparatively large percentage of undersized or otherwise unmarketable fruit, the color is such that it shows bruises very readily and it keeps but a short time. The tree is a fairly good grower, moderately long-lived, comes into bearing rather early, is a biennial or almost annual cropper and moderately productive.
Historical. Early Harvest has been known in cultivation for more than a hundred years. Its origin is unknown but it is supposed to have originated in America. At one time it was quite extensively cultivated for local market in some localities but it is now seldom or never planted except for home use.

TREE.

Tree medium size, moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading or roundish, open.
Twigs moderately long, curved, rather stout; internodes short.
Bark dark brown with some olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, round, not raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.
[Diseases:  Moderately susceptible to the major diseases (Burford).]
FRUITVote, while it still means something!Moscow Mitch must go!
Fruit usually medium or below but sometimes rather large, uniform in size and shape. [Beach must have been tired when he wrote this inconsistent description of the fruit size. -ASC]
Form oblate to nearly round, regular or slightly angular; sides slightly unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium in length, moderately thick.
Cavity nearly acuminate, shallow, rather narrow to moderately broad, russeted and with outspreading, broken russet rays.
Calyx small to medium, closed; lobes long, narrow.
Basin shallow, moderately wide, obtuse, slightly wrinkled.
Skin thin, tender, very smooth, clear pale waxen yellow, occasionally with deeper yellow on exposed cheek, sometimes slightly blushed.
Dots numerous, large and small, submerged or russet.
Calyx tube short, funnel-shape.
Stamens medium.
Core medium size, somewhat abaxile; cells closed or slightly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels slightly obovate.
Seeds small to rather large, narrow, long, plump, acute.
Flesh white, not firm, rather fine, crisp, tender, juicy at first briskly subacid but eventually becoming milder, and more agreeable for dessert. Good to very good.  [Useful for "baking, applesauce, frying and sometimes for dessert" (Burford).
Season late July and August. [A fair keeper considering its harvest season (Burford).]

Early Joe
References.  1.[XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 51.]
Synonyms.  Joe Précoce
Fruit medium to small, red striped, excellent in flavor and quality for dessert use season, August and early September. The tree is small to medium in size, slow growing, moderately long-lived, comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable biennial cropper. The fruit hangs pretty well to the tree until it is quite ripe. The crop contains a large percentage of undersized or otherwise unmarketable fruit. Recommended for the home orchard, but not for commercial planting.
Historical. Originated with Northern Spy and Melon in the orchard of Heman Chapin, East Bloomfield, Ontario Co., NY. This orchard was planted with seedling trees grown from seeds brought from Salisbury, Conn. about the year 1800. In October, 1843, Early Joe was exhibited at the fair of the New York State Agricultural Society, Rochester, NY by Jonathan Buel of East Bloomfield (1). It has been widely disseminated and is still listed by nurserymen (25) but it is not cultivated extensively in any locality.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous, dwarfish with short, moderately stout, crooked branches.
Form rather flat, spreading.
Twigs short, straight, stout, with large terminal buds; internodes short.
Bark dark brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium size, oblong, slightly raised.
Buds medium size, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent.
[Diseases:  Susceptible to scab and somewhat susceptible to cedar apple rust (Burford).]
FRUITMoscow Mitch supports global oligarchy, not people.
Fruit small to medium, uniform in size and shape.
Form oblate conic to conic, somewhat ribbed, rather symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long, rather slender to moderately thick.
Cavity acute, shallow to medium in depth, rather broad, symmetrical, sometimes thinly russeted.
Calyx medium size, closed or slightly open.
Basin small to medium, usually shallow, medium in width or rather narrow, somewhat abrupt, smooth or slightly wrinkled.
Skin thin, tender, smooth, pale greenish-yellow, irregularly and obscurely striped and splashed with dull, dark red, in highly colored specimens becoming deeply blushed on the exposed cheek.
Dots russet and greenish or nearly white.
Calyx tube medium in length, rather wide, broadly conical.
Stamens median or basal.
Core medium to rather small, axile; cells slightly open or closed; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly obcordate to elliptical, decidedly concave.
Seeds small to medium, rather wide, short, obtuse to acute.
Flesh tinged with yellow, fine, crisp, very tender, very juicy, mild subacid, very good to best. ["All-purpose, but mostly for dessert" (Buford).]
Season August and September.  [Midsummer in Virginia (Burford).]

Early Pennock
References.  1.
Synonyms.  August Apple (7), Heicke's Summer Queen (13), Harmony (7, ? of the South, 9), Indian Queen (7), NJ Red Streak (7), Shaker's Yellow (7, 9), Sleeper's Yellow (5), Warren Pennock (5,7).
Fruit large, showy, yellow covered with mixed striped red, but often the yellow predominates. Flesh yellow, moderately juicy, subacid, coarse, suitable for culinary use but not esteemed for dessert; season August. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. Origin unknown. It was first brought to notice in Ohio more than fifty years ago (1) where it was widely disseminated from some of the nurseries of that state. At one time it was being planted to a limited extent in New York but it has been almost wholly discarded.

TREE.

Tree hardy, a biennial cropper and moderately productive.

Early Ripe
References.  1. Warder 1867:717...
Synonyms.  None.
Fruit of good medium size, yellowish-green, subacid, good for culinary use. The tree is a good grower, comes into bearing young, and yields full crops in alternate years.
Historical. The locality of its origin is unknown but it is supposed to have originated in Pennsylvania (2).

TREE.

Tree large, vigorous with moderately long, stout branches.
Form upright spreading, rather dense, top roundish.
Twigs long, stout, curved; internodes medium.
Bark brown tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; heavily pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small to medium, oblong, slightly raised.
Buds medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, appressed, pubescent.
FRUITMoscow Mitch supports global oligarchy, not people.
Fruit medium to above, fairly uniform in size but not in shape.
Form roundish oblate
Stem (Pedicel) often bracted, medium in length or short, thick.
Cavity acute or approaching acuminate, usually shallow, rather broad, sometimes russeted.
Calyx rather small, closed.
Basin obtuse, usually very shallow, moderately wide, somewhat wrinkled.
Skin light yellowish-green.
Dots numerous, small, pale gray or russet.
Calyx tube rather narrow, funnel-form.
Stamens median.
Core medium to rather large, abaxile; cells closed or partly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish, emarginate.
Seeds medium size, plump, obtuse.
Flesh white, quite firm, moderately coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, briskly subacid, becoming rather mild subacid when fully ripe, fair to good.
Season August.

Early Strawberry
References.  1.
Synonyms.  American Red Juneating (1,4,5,9,13, err. 2, 5), Fraise (16), Louis XVIII (16), Red Juneating (3,6,9,10,14,15,16, 3rr 4. of some American gardens,2), St. John Strawberry (17), Striped Shropshire (17), Tennessee Early Red (17).
Fruit of a very attractive bright deep red color, very desirable for dessert and good also for culinary uses. The tree is medium in size, a moderate grower, upright when young, but eventually becoming roundish and somewhat spreading. It is hardy, healthy, comes into bearing young and yields moderate to good crops biennially or almost annually. It is not a very satisfactory variety for commercial planting because the demand for it is mostly limited to local markets, a relatively high percentage of the apples are undersized or otherwise unmarketable and the fruit does not keep well. On account of its productiveness and high quality it is a desirable variety for the home orchard.
Historical. Early Strawberry is an American fruit which is said to have originated in the vicinity of New York (2,3). It was formerly known to some under the name Red Juneating or American Red Juneating. The name Red Juneating has been applied also to the Margaret. In 1846 Downing published the following observations concerning these two varieties (3). "The Early Strawberry has a long stalk, and is a high colored fruit, striped with dard red. The Early Red Margaret has a short stalk and is a dull colored fruit, with faint red stripes. We have had both fruits in bearing this year, and have compared them for several years past. The Early Red Margaret is correctly shown in the beautiful colored plates o Ronald's Pyrus Malus Brentifordensis, and in the Pomological Magazine. Our Early Strawberry apple is not described in any European work that we have seen. It is greatly superior to the Early Red Margaret in productiveness, and especially in long keeping and ripening gradually, qualities that are rare in early apples and for which the market dealers in New York rate the Strawberry very highly."
Early Strawberry has been extensively disseminated and is generally catalogued by nurserymen throughout the apple-growing regions of America (21).
FRUITHey, Moscow Mitch: Rusal hiring in Kentucky?
Fruit below medium to medium, pretty uniform in shape and size.
Form roundish conic or roundish, regular or somewhat ribbed; sides often unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) long and rather slender, often clubbed.
Cavity acute or approaching acuminate, deep, broad, symmetrical, sometimes with faint radiating rays of russet.
Calyx rather small, closed or sometimes open; lobes long, narrow.
Basin small, shallow to moderately deep, narrow, obtuse, slightly furrowed.
Skin rather thick, tough, smooth, waxy, entirely red or yellow nearly covered with a rich dark red, mottled and irregularly striped and splashed with deeper red.
Dots minute, grayish.
Calyx tube short, moderately wide, conical or approaching funnel-shape, with fleshy pistil point projecting into the base.
Stamens median.
Core large, axile or somewhat abaxile; cells usually open, sometimes partly closed; core lines nearly meeting.
Carpels broadly roundish to elliptical, much concave, emarginate.
Seeds medium or above, wide, plump, obtuse, dark brown.
Flesh whitish-yellow often with streaks of red, moderately coarse, crisp, moderately tender, juicy, subacid, aromatic, sprightly, very good.
Season August.

EDWARDS

REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1872:159. 2. Beach and Close, N. Y. Sta. Rpt., 15:271. 1896. 3. Massey, N.C. Sta. Bul., 149:317. 1898. 4. Powell and Fulton, U.S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:40. 1903. 5. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:118, 1904.
Synonym. Edwards Favorite (2).
Fruit good in quality and one of the latest keepers, but as grown here it barely reaches medium size at its best and often is small, and the color is usually rather dull. It is not well adapted for growing as far north as New York state.
Historical. Edwards is said to have originated in Chatham county, N. C,, as a seedling of the Hall.
TREE.
Tree not vigorous, small, stunted. Form flat, open, spreading and inclined to droop. Twigs short to medium, straight, slender; internodes medium.
Bark olive-green tinged with brownish-red, mottled with scarf-skin; only pubescent near the tips. Lenticels conspicuous, numerous, medium to large, roundish, raised. Buds medium in size, broad, plump, acute, free, not pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit medium or below, uniform in size and shape. Form oblate to roundish oblate inclined to conic, often slightly ribbed. Stem long, slender. Cavity obtuse to acute, medium, sometimes russeted. Calyx small, closed. Basin variable, rather shallow to moderately deep, moderately narrow to rather wide, often abrupt, nearly smooth.
Skin smooth, thick, tough, yellowish-green, blushed with dull brownish-red, faintly striped with carmine, in highly colored specimens becoming deep, bright red. Dots large and small, pale and russet. Prevailing effect rather dull green, blushed with dull dark red.
Calyx tube cone-shape or somewhat funnel-form. Stamens median to marginal.
Core below medium, abaxile; cells sometimes unsymmetrical, partly open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels rather flat, roundish obovate to roundish obcordate. Seeds few, dark, medium to large, plump, acute; often some are abortive.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, rather coarse, tender, breaking, moderately juicy, somewhat astringent, sprightly subacid, aromatic, good.
Season February to May or later; sometimes keeps through the summer.

Egg Top
References.  1. Mag. Hort., 10:210. 1844. 2. Elliott, 1854:169. 3. Hooper, 1857:34. 4. Warder, 1867:717. 5. Downing, 1869:159. 6. Thomas, 1875:498.
Synonyms.  Early June (3). Eve Apple (3), Eve (2,5), Round Top (2,5), Sheepnose (2,5). Wine of some (2,5).
Fruit similar in shape to Black Gilliflower but not so large, somewhat streaked and shaded with red, pleasant flavored but not high in quality; good for dessert but not for cooking.
Historical. An old variety of uncertain origin. A few trees of it are occasionally found in the oldest orchards but it is now nearly obsolete.

TREE.

Tree large, moderately vigorous and a regular and abundant bearer.

FRUIT

Season late fall to midwinter

EISER
REFERENCES. 1. Diel, Kernobstsorten, 5:175. 1802. (cited by 3). 2. Oberdieck, Ill. Handb. der Obst., 4:353. 1865. (cited by 3). 3. Leroy, 1873:285. fig. 4. Lauche, 1: col. pl. No. 10. 1882. 5. Eneroth-Smirnoff, 1901:170. 6. Kan. Sta. Bul., 106:54. 1902.
Synonyms. ArsÄPPLE (5). Eiser Rouge (3). Durable Trois ans (3). Rep Eisen (6). Rother Eiser (2), Rother Eiser (3). Rotruer EisenAPFEL (4). Rouge Rayée (1, 3).
Fruit very attractive, of good size, very beautiful color and good quality; suitable for general uses. It has a tough skin which does not readily show bruises. It stands shipping well and is an excellent keeper, being much superior to Baldwin in this respect. At the Kansas Station it has not been a good cropper (6), but Leroy states that it is satisfactorily productive (3). As tested at this Station the tree is a good grower and almost an annual bearer, but only moderately productive. There is comparatively little loss from drops and culls. It has not been tried here long enough to justify an unqualified recommendation, but it shows merit enough to make it worthy of further testing.
Historical. A German variety which has been in cultivation more than a century (1, 2, 3). Our stock came from Prof. Budd who imported the variety from Austria for the Iowa Agricultural college, in 1884 and 1885.
TREE
Tree moderately vigorous; branches long, moderately stout. Form upright spreading, or roundish, open. Twigs long, moderately stout, nearly straight; internodes long. Bark olive-brown, tinged with red, streaked with grayish scarf-skin; heavily pubescent. Lenticels scattering, small, round, raised. Buds large, broad, obtuse, free, pubescent. Foliage dense, dark green.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to nearly large. Form conical, broad at the base, often elliptical, sides unequal, somewhat ribbed. Stem short and thick to long and rather slender. Cavity very large to large, acute, deep, broad, sometimes symmetrical, often compressed or furrowed, with outspreading green russet.
Calyx medium to large, closed or partly open; lobes acute to acuminate.
Basin often oblique, irregular, rather shallow to moderately deep, narrow, abrupt, roughly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thick, tough, smooth, slightly waxy, yellow mottled with orange-red and almost covered with bright pinkish-red, sometimes deepening to purplish, inconspicuously striped with deep carmine, covered with a thin whitish bloom.
Dots conspicuous, numerous toward the eye, larger, more irregular and more scattering towards the cavity, grayish-white or yellow, sometimes russet areolar. Prevailing effect attractive bright red.
Calyx tube long, funnel-shape or approaching conical. Stamens median to basal.
Core medium or above with hollow cylinder, nearly axile; cells symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels roundish or elongated, not emarginate or but slightly so, tufted. Seeds medium to above, rather wide, long, somewhat acute, tufted, often somewhat abortive.
Flesh whitish, slightly tinged with yellow, very firm, moderately fine, crisp, breaking, moderately juicy, mild subacid, good.
Season January to June or later.

Elgin Pippin
References.  1. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:238. 2. Clayton, Ala. Sta. Bul., 47:6 1893. 3. Thomas, 1897:634. 4. Beach and Clark, NY Sta. Bul., 248:118. 1904.
Synonyms.  None.
Fruit of good size and attractive appearance for a yellow apple. It evidently belongs to the Fall Pippin class but it does not closely resemble that variety and is not superior to it. Although it has much merit it does not excel other varieties of its season and is not recommended for planting in New York. The tree is a strong grower and productive.
Historical. Origin Alabama (2,3). Downing questions whether it is identical with the White Spanish Reinette but it appears to be distinct from that variety.1 Warder describes another variety under the name Elgin Pippin which we have not seen.2

TREE.

Tree vigorous, upright; branches long, moderately stout.
Form very much spreading and somewhat drooping, rather dense.
Twigs medium in size, curved, stout; internodes long.
Bark brown, tinged with olive-green, mottled with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, large, oblong, raised.
Buds large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit above medium to large, averages nearly large.
Form oblate to roundish conic, distinctly ribbed, irregular; sides often unequal, sometimes elliptical, not uniform.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to very long, slender.
Cavity acute to acuminate medium in depth to deep, rather broad to narrow, usually with outspreading russet rays, sometimes decidedly compressed, sometimes lipped.
Calyx medium to large, closed; lobes often leafy, long, acuminate.
Basin sometimes oblique, shallow to moderately deep, moderately wide to rather narrow, obtuse to rather abrupt, often prominently and irregularly ribbed.
Skin thin, moderately tender, greenish yellow becoming deep yellow, sometimes with a faint bronze blush in the sun.
Dots scattering, russet, or submerged and whitish.
Calyx tube rather large, moderately wide, conical or approaching funnel-form.
Stamens median to basal.
Core abaxile, medium to large; cells unsymmetrical, usually wide open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels irregular, often somewhat ovate, much concave, tufted.
Seeds often abortive, dark, rather large, long, flat, acute to acuminate.
Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, firm, moderately fine, crisp, tender, juicy, subacid, good.
Season September to December. Commercial limit, October.
1 Downing, 1869:464.
2 Warder, 1867:717.

ELLSWORTH.

REFERENCE. 1. Downing, 1872:160.
Described by Downing as medium in size, yellow netted with russet. Flesh tender, juicy, rich, sprightly subacid, very good to best in quality. In season from January to March. Origin, Columbia county [New York?].
We have not seen this variety.

English Pippin
References.  1. Gibb, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 1887:50. 2.
Synonyms.  Englischer Pepping (1). No. 587 (1). Pepping Englischer (1).
A Russian apple inferior in quality to standard varieties of its season. Not recommended for planting in New York.

FRUIT

Fruit large.
Form variable, roundish oblate to oblate conic or inclined to oblong tunicate, ribbed; sides sometimes unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short, usually not exserted.
Cavity acuminate, rather wide, moderately deep, russeted and with outspreading russet.
Calyx medium size, closed; lobes usually erect or connivent.
Basin medium in width to rather narrow, deep, abrupt, irregularly furrowed.
Skin yellow or greenish, sometimes with shade of brownish-red overspread with thin white bloom.
Dots minute, pale or russet.
Calyx tube cone-shape or approaching funnel-form.
Stamens median.
Core large, somewhat abaxile; cells partly open; core lines meeting.
Seeds medium size, obtuse.
Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately juicy, fine-grained, sprightly subacid, fair to good in quality.
Season late September to November.

ENGLISH RUSSET

sparingly with gray scarf-skin; somewhat pubescent. Lenticels moderately abundant, not particularly conspicuous but rather dull colored, often roundish, sometimes large. Buds often short, plump, obtuse to acute, moderately pubescent, rather deeply set in the bark, free.
Fruit.Moscow MitchMoscow Mitch
Fruit medium to rather small; pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish, more or less inclined to conic, pretty regular and symmetrical, sometimes faintly ribbed, occasionally sides unequal. Stem moderately thick to rather slender, medium in length to short, often streaked on one side with brownish-red, usually not exserted. Cavity acute to somewhat acuminate, rather narrow to medium in width, moderately deep to deep, symmetrical or slightly compressed, occasionally lipped, furrowed obscurely if at all. Calyx small to medium, usually open, sometimes closed; segments often long, acute and reflexed. Basin rather abrupt, moderately deep, moderately wide to rather narrow, symmetrical.
Skin tough, takes a good polish, varies from pale green to yellow more or less covered with russet, the base often being entirely russeted. Highly colored specimens become clear golden russet but have no perceptible shade of red. Dots inconspicuous, round or irregular, dark russet.
Calyx tube rather narrow, cone-shape, sometimes funnel-form. Stamens basal to median.
Core rather small, abaxile; cells pretty symmetrical, open, sometimes closed; core lines usually meeting, but with a funnel-form calyx tube they are clasping. Carpels rather flat, roundish to broadly ovate, slightly tufted, but slightly emarginate if at all. Seeds numerous, medium in size, plump, rather narrow, acute to acuminate, rather light brown, sometimes slightly tufted.
Flesh yellowish-white, firm, rather crisp, moderately tender, fine-grained, not very juicy, somewhat aromatic, pleasant, rather mild subacid, good.
Season January to May or later.

English Sweet
References.  1.
Synonyms. 
Ramsdell or Ramsdell Sweet has been described by some leading pomologists under the name English Sweet. Ramsdell Sweet is the name accepted for this variety in the catalogue of the American Pomological Society, and it is generally known among nurserymen and fruit growers as Ramsdell or Ramsdell Sweet. For a description of this variety, the reader is referred to Ramsdell Sweet, page 175.

Esopus Spitzenburg
References.  1.  Coxe, 1817:127. 2. Thacher, 1822:137. 3. N. Y. Bd. of Agr. Mem., 1826:477. 4. Wilson, 1828:136. 5. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831: 368. 6. Kenrick, 1832:40. 7. Floy-Lindley, 1833:45. 8. Downing, 1845:138. g. Thomas, 1849:171, 172. fig. 10. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 16:62. 1850. fig. 11. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3: col. pl. No. 23. 1851. 12. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 13. Elliott, 1858:76. fig. 14. Bivort, An. Pom. de Belge, 1859:75. 15. Flotow, Jil. Handb. der Obstk., 1:525. 1859. 16. Warder, 1867:530, fig. 17. Mas, Le Verger, 4:141. col. pl. 18. Leroy, 3:54. 1873. 19. Barry, 1883:345. 20. Hogg, 1884:73. 21. Wickson, 1889:247. 22. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290. 23. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:238. 24. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 3:14. 1896. fig. 25. Eneroth-Smirnoff, 1901:452. 26. Budd-Hansen, 1903:76. fig. 27. Massey, N. C. Sta. Bul., 182:20. 1903. 28. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:40. 1903. 29. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:118. 1904.  [30.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 50.]
Synonyms. Æsopus Spitzemberg (7). Æsopus Spitzemberg (8, 10, 18). Æsopus SpitzENBERG (6). Æsopus Spitzenberg (20). Æsopus Spitzenburg (8). Æsopus Spitzenburgh (18). Esopus Spitzenburgh (10). Esopus (28). Esopus Spitzemperc (1). Esopus Spitzenserg (3, 10, 16, 21). Esopus SPITZENBURG (13, 22, 23). Esopus Spitzenburg (28), Esorus SpitzENBURGH C1, 19, 20). Esopus Spitzenburgh (24). SpitszeNpurcH (2). SPITZENBERG (4). Spitzenburg (29). SpirzeNpurGH (24). SPITZENBURGH, Esopus (8, 9). True Spitzenburgh (8, 18, 20).

   The Esopus Spitzenburg, commonly known as the Spitzenburg, is the standard of excellence for apples of the Baldwin class, to which it naturally belongs. When well grown, it is handsomely colored and unexcelled in flavor and quality. It is a choice dessert fruit and also one of the best apples known either for canning or for general culinary uses. It is well adapted for handling in cold storage, ships well, has long had a well-established reputation in market, always sells well, is well suited for marketing in boxes or fancy packages and often brings fancy prices. It is in season between Rhode Island Greening and Baldwin. It is quite variable in keeping quality in different seasons and in different localities (29). The fruit is quite susceptible to the attacks of the scab fungus, as also are the blossoms and the foliage. It is often injured by the apple-canker, and therefore it is advisable to graft or bud it upon a healthier variety. Special attention needs to be given to protecting both the tree and the fruit from the disease just mentioned.1 As one means for accomplishing this result and also for the purpose of increasing the yield of high-grade fruit, it is wise to pune regularly but moderately, and to give the trees enough room in the orchard so that they do not crowd each other, thus permitting free movement of air and access of ample light around and among all of the branches. Especial care should be taken to favor a free and vigorous growth of the tree by keeping the soil highly fertile, well supplied with humus, well drained and yet well supplied with moisture throughout the growing season.
   Under favorable conditions Esopus Spitzenburg bears pretty regularly, but it is commonly rated as being, on average, a rather moderate cropper. For this reason and because of its susceptibility to the diseases above mentioned, it is not largely planted in commercial orchards, being found less profitable than Baldwin, Rhode Island Greening and certain other standard commercial sorts. The fruit develops good color and quality in most of the apple-growing regions of the State but it does particularly well in favorable localities in Schoharie and Greene counties and along Lake Champlain.
Historical.  Originated at Esopus, Ulster county. We find no authentic account of the date of its origin, but it is scattered throughout the State in the oldest orchards and was well known in cultivation in this and adjoining states more than a century ago. It is known in cultivation in Europe, and is one of the recognized commercial varieties in certain apple-growing districts of the Rocky Mountain region, Washington and Oregon.
TREE.
Tree_in the nursery makes a rather slow root development, and in the orchard is a moderately slow grower; the lateral branches are rather slender and eventually somewhat drooping. Form rather open and spreading, moderately upright. Twigs rather long and slender. Bark dark, rather clear, reddish-brown, and dark green, finely mottled with thin gray scarf-skin; but slightly pubescent if at all. Lenticels medium size or below, numerous, irregular, elongated, conspicuous. Buds medium size, appressed, obtuse, pubescent.
Leaves inclined to be narrow; foliage not dense.
[Diseases:  Highly susceptible to fireblight and somewhat susceptible to scab, collar rot, canker, and Jonathan spot in warm, humid climates (30).]
Fruit below medium to large, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form rather broad and flat at the base, varying from oblong rounding towards the cavity to roundish ovate or to roundish inclined to conic; somewhat irregular and obscurely ribbed. Stem medium. Cavity acute or somewhat acuminate, deep, wide, red or yellow or with outspreading rays of thin yellowish-russet.
Calyx medium to small, closed or somewhat open.
Basin not large, often oblique at brim, abrupt, moderately narrow, shallow to medium in depth, sometimes compressed, usually furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin tough, sometimes waxy, slightly roughened by the russet dots, deep rich yellow often almost completely covered with bright red inconspicuously striped with darker red, in the sun deepening to a very dark, almost purplish blush, marked with pale yellow and russet dots which are small and numerous toward the basin, but are apt to be larger and much elongated toward the cavity.
Calyx tube not very large, often elongated, cone-shape. Stamens below medium to above.
Dots Pale yellow and russet; small [ASC copied from above].
Core medium to rather large, abaxile; cells often unsymmetrical and open but sometimes closed; core lines slightly clasping. Carpels large, roundish ovate, mucronate, tufted. Seeds large, long, wide, acute, dark shaded with light brown.
Stamens below medium to above.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, moderately fine, crisp, rather tender, juicy, aromatic, sprightly subacid, very good to best.  [Good for dessert and cider (30).]
Season November to February or later. In cold storage may be held till June.  [Even as far South as Virginia, it is a good keeper (30).]
1Descriptions of these diseases and approved methods of dealing with them are set forth in bulletins of this Station 163:1899, 170:1900, 243:1903, and in the Station’s corresponding annual reports.
[Information from the Southeastern U.S. here.]

ETOWAH
REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1876:51. app. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1881. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:238. 4. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:118. 1904.
Synonym. Cooper’s RED (3). Cooper's Red (1).
This is a variety of Georgia origin which is regarded with favor in some parts of the South (1, 2, 3). So far as we know it is not being grown in New York. The variety described under the name Etowah in Bulletin 248 of this Station is not true to name.

ETRIS.

REFERENCES. 1. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bul., 49:11. 1808. 2. Ib., 60:128. 1899. 3. Budd-Hansen, 1903:77.
The variety which has been propagated under this name in Arkansas may be a new variety but it appears to be identical with Gano (1, 2).

EVENING PARTY.

RererENcES. 1. Brinckle, Horticulturist, 10:539. 1855. col. pl. 2. Downing, 1857:77. fig. 3. Elliott, 1859:137. 4. Warder, 1867:433. fig. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 6. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1881:310. 7. Thomas, 1885:233. 8. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:238. 9. Buckman, Rural N. Y., 54:806. 1895. 10. Budd-Hansen, 1903:78. fig.
A pleasant flavored dessert fruit which is in season at Christmas. Some find the tree unproductive but others report that it is a biennial bearer producing so abundantly that the fruit is small if it is not thinned and the tree well pruned. When highly colored it is decidedly attractive but often it does not color well and usually is below medium in size. It is not recommended for commercial planting.
Historical. Origin, Berks county, Pa. (4). It has been known in cultivation for fifty years but it is but little grown in New York and its cultivation is not being extended.
TREE.
Tree medium in size, moderately vigorous. Form roundish with long spreading branches. Twigs dark reddish-brown, slender to rather stout, curved at base; internodes long to very long. Bark generally dull brownish-red with a rather strong undertone of olive-green in places; scarf-skin uniform, moderately light. Lenticels inconspicuous, raised, numerous, above medium to rather small, roundish. Buds medium size, moderately obtuse, quite pubescent.
Fruit
Fruit above medium to rather small. Form oblate to roundish, pretty symmetrical, uniform. Stem short, medium in thickness, seldom exserted Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, moderately broad, usually smooth, occasionally with outspreading russet rays, symmetrical. Calyx medium to large, open or partly closed; lobes long, acuminate, somewhat separated at the base. Basin abrupt, moderately deep to deep, moderately wide, slightly wrinkled. Skin moderately thin, rather tough, smooth, glossy, greenish or pale yellow mottled and blushed with red and indistinctly and sparingly striped with carmine becoming a dark, almost purplish, red in the sun; the deep red color is apt to overspread the basin while the yellow ground color is conspicuous around the cavity. Dots large, pale, mingled with many that are small, whitish and submerged or with minute russet point. Calyx tube short, broad, conical. Stamens median to marginal. Core medium to small, somewhat abaxile to axile; cells usually pretty sym- metrical, partly open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels roundish to elliptical, slightly tufted. Seeds medium in size, moderately wide, plump, obtuse to acute. Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately firm, fine, rather crisp, tender, very juicy, mild subacid mingled with sweet, somewhat aromatic, very good to best. Season December and January.

EWALT.

REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1857:141. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 1862. 3. Warder, 1867:640. 4. Downing, 1872:166. 5. Thomas, 1885:509. 6. Pa. Hort. Assoc. Rpt., 1885:25. 7. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:238. 8. Powell and Fulton, U.S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:40. 1903. 9. Budd-Hansen, 1903:78. 10. Beach and Clark, N.Y. Sta. Bul., 248:118. 1904.
Synonym. Bullocks Pippin of some (4).
Fruit of good marketable size and attractive, having a clear yellow skin usually somewhat blushed with bright red. It is not a first-class dessert apple, being rather too acid and not high in quality, but it is good for culinary use. The tree occasionally bears good crops but commonly it is a moderate or rather shy bearer.
Historical. Origin, Bedford county, Pa. (3, 4). Although it has been known in cultivation for many years it has not gained recognition as a commercial variety.
TREE.
Tree vigorous; branches long, moderately stout, curved. Form upright spreading, round, rather dense. Twigs medium or above, straight, stout; internodes medium to long. Bark clear dark brownish-red or tinged with olive-green, heavily pubescent; scarf-skin rather thin or none. Lenticels conspicuous, rather numerous, small to medium, oblong, or roundish, not raised.
Buds small to medium, flat, obtuse, free, imbedded in the bark, pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit large. Form varies from roundish conic to roundish oblate, sometimes irregularly elliptical with sides unequal or compressed, usually pretty symmetrical. Stem short to medium, rather slender. Cavity not large, acute to acuminate, deep, rather narrow to broad, sometimes partly russeted with narrow broken outspreading russet rays, often furrowed or compressed.
Calyx usually large and leafy, sometimes rather small, closed or partly open; lobes long, acute. Basin not large, sometimes oblique, rather shallow to moderately deep, rather narrow, abrupt, often somewhat furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin tough, waxy, but not glossy, clear yellow usually with a thin brownish blush which sometimes deepens to bright red with a slight tendency to become striped, often marked with suture lines extending from cavity toward the basin. Dots numerous, small, inconspicuous, whitish or with minute russet point, usually submerged.
Calyx tube cone-shape to funnel-form. Stamens median.
Core abaxile, medium or below; cells often unsymmetrical, closed or open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels variable, roundish to roundish ovate or obovate. Seeds numerous, medium to large, rather long, moderately wide, obtuse to acute.
Flesh tinged with yellow, rather firm, moderately fine, crisp, rather tender, juicy, brisk subacid, slightly aromatic, good.
Season November to April. Commercial limit February or March (10).

FALIX

REFERENCE. 1. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:119. 1904.
Fruit of medium size with tender flesh, sprightly mild subacid, good but not excellent in quality. In form and also in the ground color and striping it reminds one of the St. Lawrence, being oblate conic and dull green or light yellow mottled and striped with light and dark red. It is less attractive than St. Lawrence. Season November to April. Received for testing here from Benjamin Buckman, Farmingdale, Ills. It does not excel as a dessert fruit and is not attractive enough to be a good market apple. It is not recommended even for trial.

FALLAWATER.

REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1845:109. 2. Horticulturist, 2:482, 570. 1848. 3. Thomas, 1849:180. 4. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:44. 1851. col. pl. 5. James, Horticulturist, 8:247. 1853. 6. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 22:556. 1856. fig. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1856. 8. Elliott, 1858:79. fig. 9. Norris, Horticulturist, 1§:183. 1860. 10. Warder, 1867:495. fig. 11. Downing, 1872:167. 12. Barry, 1883:345. 13. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 1890:290. 14. Wickson, 1891:248. 15. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:238, 251. 16. Dempsey, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 1:24. 1894. 17. N.C. Bd. of Agr. Bul., 1900:10. col. pl. 18. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:293. 1901. 19. Budd-Hansen, 1903:78. fig. 20. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:119. 1904.  [21.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p.54]
Synonyms. Faldwalder (6). Fallawater (2, 5, 8). Fall de Waldes (9). FALLENWALDER (5, 8). Fallenwalder (6). Fornwalder (5). Green Mountain Pippin (6,8, 11). Mountain Pippin (8, 11). Pim’s Beauty of the West (8). Pine’s Beauty of the West (6). Pound (2, 11). Tulpahocken (6, 8). TuLPEHOCKEN (2). Tulpehocken (10, U, 12, 14, 18, 19, 20). Winter Blush(11).
Fruit large or very large, globular, attractive in size and form, but as grown in Western New York it is often rather dull in color. The accompanying colored plate was made from a highly colored specimen grown in the Hudson valley. In favorable localities on Long Island it colors well and develops better quality than it commonly does north of Orange county. The flesh is coarse and at best but second rate in quality. It is well known in market, and is often handled at satisfactory prices in domestic and also in export trade.
The tree is usually a good, regular bearer, producing biennially or in some localities almost annually. Sometimes the larger branches break under their load of fruit. The fruit being large, there is apt to be a considerable loss from dropping, but considering its size it generally hangs to the tree pretty well. It is variable in season, ranking as a keeper sometimes with Hubbardston and sometimes with Rhode Island Greening. Although it has long been disseminated throughout New York, it has not generally been regarded with favor by New York orchardists, except possibly in some parts of Long Island.
Historical. Origin Bucks county, Pennsylvania. Hovey referred to it in 1856. as having been known and cultivated for many years under the name Fallawater (6). Warder in 1867 remarked that it was then a great favorite in Pennsylvania and “extensively cultivated through the West.”
TREE.
Tree makes a moderately light root growth in the nursery. In the orchard it becomes large and vigorous. Form upright to roundish. Twigs medium in length to short, moderately stout, thick at the tips, erect; internodes medium. Bark smooth, bright brownish-red mingled with olive-green, finely mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent. Lenticels moderately conspicuous, rather abundant, medium in size, usually. roundish. Buds medium or above, roundish, obtuse, sparingly pubescent, free.
[Diseases:  Susceptible to cedar apple rust and somewhat susceptible to the other major apple diseases (21).] Fruit.
Fruit large to very large. Form globular, sometimes a little oblate, usually symmetrical, sometimes slightly irregular, and faintly ribbed, but it is pretty uniform in size and shape. Stem very short. Cavity distinctly acuminate, deep, rather narrow to broad, usually somewhat furrowed. Calyx medium to large, closed or partly open; lobes variable. Basin shallow to moderately deep, moderately abrupt to abrupt, often nearly symmetrical, sometimes distinctly furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin tough, smooth, a little waxy, often dull grass-green with dull blush, but highly colored specimens eventually become distinctly yellow and largely blushed with bright deep pinkish-red, often considerably streaked with thin grayish scarf-skin. Dots conspicuous, whitish, often large areolar with russet point.
Calyx tube wide, rather short, cone-shape or approaching funnel-form. Stamens basal to median.
Core decidedly abaxile to nearly axile, medium to large, cells unsymmetrical, open or closed; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels distinctly tufted, long, narrowly ovate, mucronate, but slightly emarginate if at all.
Seeds often are very few, long, narrow, acute to acuminate, tufted.
Flesh tinged with yellow or green, firm, coarse, crisp, moderately tender, juicy, subacid to mildly sweet, without distinct or high flavor, quality good or nearly so.
Season November to March or April, being quite variable in different localities and in different seasons. On Long Island it is commonly in season in October and out of season in January.  [As grown in the South, it is a poor keeper (21).]
Use. Desirable only for cooking and market.  [According to Burford, it is good for dessert (fresh-eating) as well as baking and applesauce (21).]

Fall Greening
References.  1. Warder, 1867:718. 2. Downing, 1869:167.
Synonyms.  None.
This variety originated at Claverack, Columbia County, NY (1). According to Downing the tree is moderately vigorous and very productive. The fruit medium size, greenish-yellow, subacid, good to very good. In season from December to February.
Downing also mentions another Fall Greening of similar color, sprightly subacid, in season from September to November; tree a poor grower.
We have not seen either of these varieties.

Fall Harvey
References.  1. 2. 3. Cole, 1849:117. 4. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 15:537. 1849. fig. 5. 6. 7. 8. Elliott, 1854:132. 9. 10. 11. 12. Hoskins, Amer. Gard., 15:272. 1894. 13. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:296. 1901.
Synonyms.  Fall Pippin erroneously (13). Harvey (13).
Fruit large, yellow, showy, similar in general appearance to Fall Pippin but less desirable where that variety can be grown. According to Hoskins (12) it is hardy in Norther Vermont and has there proved an excellent annual bearer. He considers it valuable for all Northern New England and Canada. Cole (3) observes that the fruit is "fine and fair but not first-rate, and rather apt to fall, or rot on the tree". Elliott (8) says that it is not productive but Hovey (4) and Cole (3) call it a vigorous grower and a good bearer. In the nursery it may be easily known from Fall Pippin by its yellow and more slender shoots (4).

FRUIT

Fruit large.
Form roundish, slightly oblate, regular or somewhat ribbed at the base; crown large, slightly oblique.
Stem (Pedicel) short, stout or rather slender.
Cavity rather shallow to deep, wide, uneven.
Calyx small to large, closed.
Basin narrow to rather wide, shallow, wrinkled.
Skin smooth, pale yellow to deep yellow, sometimes blushed.
Dots small, gray or russet.
Core large, abaxile.
Seeds medium size, acute, short, plump.
Flesh whitish or tinged with yellow, a little coarse, crisp, juicy, rich subacid, with high flavor, very good quality.
Season October to December

Fall Jenneting
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Fall Geneting (6). Fall Gennetting (3). Fall Jenetting (8). Fall Jennetting (3,9).
Fruit often large but variable in size, a considerable portion of the crop being undersized or otherwise unmarketable. It is of a green or yellowish color, shows bruises quite readily, does not stand shipping very well and is not a good keeper. It is very good for culinary uses and acceptable for dessert; being of light weight, it is less desirable than some other varieties for evaporating. The tree is an exceedingly strong grower and long-lived, eventually becoming very large, tall and spreading. It is hardy, healthy, comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper, yielding moderately good to heavy crops biennially or nearly annually. There is apt to be considerable loss from premature dropping of the fruit. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. It appears that this variety was brought into Western New York from than it has in other sections of the state but it has not been cultivated extensively in any locality. It is still listed by nurserymen (9) but in New York it is now seldom planted and is gradually going out of cultivation.

TREE.

Tree large, vigorous or very vigorous.
Form spreading or somewhat roundish.
Twigs moderately long, curved, moderately stout; internodes medium.
Bark dark brown lightly streaked with gray scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium size, oblong, slightly raised.
Buds medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit above medium to large.
Form roundish oblate inclined to conic, slightly ribbed at the base; sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to short, moderately thick.
Cavity acuminate, deep, wide, rather symmetrical, with outspreading rays of russet.
Calyx below medium to rather large, closed or somewhat open; lobes long, narrow, acute, reflexed.
Basin rather small, shallow, narrow, somewhat furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, pale greenish-yellow with faint brownish-red or bronze blush.
Dots moderately numerous, rather inconspicuous, sometimes russet but more often whitish and submerged.
Prevailing effect: yellow
Calyx tube rather long, narrow funnel-shape.
Stamens median to basal.
Core small, axile to somewhat abaxile; cells symmetrical, closed; core lines clasping
Carpels somewhat roundish to broadly ovate.
Seeds light brown, rather small, moderately narrow, plump, acute.
Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately firm, fine, crisp, tender, juicy, sprightly, subacid, good.
Season late September to December.

Fall Orange
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Hogpen (8). Holden (5, 8). Holden Pippin (8). (Hoypen (5). Jones' Pippin (5,8). Long Island (8). Long Island Graft (9). N.Y. Bellflower (9). Orange (3, 8). Red Cheek (8). Speckled (9). Westbrook (9). White Graft of Wis. (8). White Newell (9).
When well grown Fall Orange is of good size, yellow or greenish, with occasionally a shade of red, agreeable subacid, and very good in quality for culinary use. When it becomes fully ripe so that its acidity is subdued it is an excellent dessert apple. The tree is thrifty, hardy, long-lived and a regular biennial cropper, often yielding pretty heavy crops. It is not generally regarded as a good commercial variety because its color is yellow, the fruit is rather tender and a poor shipper, and with heavy crops there is apt to be a comparatively large percentage of fruit that is undersized or otherwise unmarketable. It is in season from late September to early winter; sometimes a portion of the fruit is kept till spring.
It resembles Autumn Swaar considerably in general appearance; for a comparison of the two varieties the reader is referred to the description of Autumn Swaar, pages 11, 12. Historical. Fall Orange was described by Thomas in 1848 as a new or newly-introduced variety of unknown origin (1). In 1857 Downing gave its origin as Holden, Mass. (5). Since its introduction it has been sparingly disseminated in various parts of the state. Although it is still listed by some nurserymen (10) it is now seldom planted in New York.
FRUITMoscow Mitch supports global oligarchy, not people.
Fruit above medium to large; fairly uniform in size but not in shape.
Form roundish-conic, irregular.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to rather short, slender.
Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, medium in width, regular or slightly compressed, often russeted and with outspreading russet rays.
Calyx medium to large, open or sometimes nearly closed.
Basin uneven, one side projecting higher than the other, moderately deep to deep, narrow to moderately wide, abrupt, furrowed.
Skin pale yellow or greenish, sometimes with brownish blush.
Dots numerous, large and small, russet or sometimes reddish, areolar.
Calyx tube rather large, usually long, conical to funnel-form with fleshy pistil point projecting into the base; the lower part of the funnel cylinder is sometimes enlarged.
Stamens median or below.
Core medium to rather small, axile; cells symmetrical; core lines meeting when the tube is short, clasping when it is long.
Carpels elliptical to nearly cordate.
Seeds not numerous, rather dark brown, medium to below, plump, obtuse.
Flesh white, moderately fine, crisp, rather tender, juicy, subacid, aromatic, very good.
Season late September to early winter.

Fall Pippin
References.  1.  [XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p.55]
Synonyms.  American Fall (7). Autumn Pippin (4). Cathead (incorrectly, 24, 25). Cobbett's Fall (7). Cobbett's Fall Pippin (27). Concombre Ancien (7). De Rateau (7). D' Espange (7). Episcopal (24,25). Golden Pippin (22, 25, erroneously 2, 24). Holland Pippin (2,5, err. 15). Philadelphia Pippin (20,24,25). Pound Pippin (24,25). Pound Royal (25, of some 24). Prince's large Pippin of N.Y. (2). Reinnete Blanche d'Espangne (7). Summer Pippin (2). Van Duym's Pippin (2). Van Dyn's Pippin (5). York Pippin (24,25).
Fruit large, and, when fully ripe, of an attractive yellow color. The flesh is tender, rich and very good in quality, being excellent for dessert but especially desirable for culinary uses. The tree is a strong grower, hardy and very long-lived, eventually becoming large or very large. Since the foliage and fruit are both quite subject to the attacks of the apple-scab fungus thorough preventative treatment for this disease is necessary in order to grow Fall Pippin successfully for commercial purposes.1 The crop does not ripen uniformly, some of the fruit being ripe, well colored and ready for immediate use in September, while at the same time a considerable portion of the crop is still hard and green. When grown under favorable conditions and properly handled some portion of the may keep till midwinter or later, but even carefully selected fruit cannot be relied upon to hold in common storage till December 1st without considerable loss. In cold storage it may be held till January or February (33). Fall Pippin is generally in pretty good demand in local markets, and in portions of Eastern New York it is being used to a limited extent for the early export trade. It is one of the most desirable varieties of its season for the home orchard.

HOLLAND PIPPIN AND FALL PIPPIN COMPARED.

From the time of Coxe (2), Fall Pippin has by some been called Holland Pippin. The Holland Pippin indeed much resemble Fall Pippin, but it differs from it in being in season from mid-August to midautumn and in being more roundish and less flattened, and in having a short, thick stem which is not exserted.
Historical. Origin unknown. Downing (10) held the opinion that Fall Pippin is an American variety and probably a seedling raised in this country from either the White Spanish Reinette or the Holland Pippin, both of which it resembles. It has been widely disseminated from the Atlantic to the Pacific in most of the important apple-growing regions of the continent and is still listed by many nurserymen (30). We are unable to determine how long this variety has been in cultivation. In some New York orchards trees of it are found which are more than one hundred years old. It is quite generally grown for home use throughout New York, and also to a limited extent for market, but it is now seldom planted.

TREE.

Tree large, moderately vigorous to very vigorous, with large, long branches which eventually become somewhat drooping.
Form spreading or roundish and rather dense.
Twigs moderately long, curved, stout and with large terminal buds; internodes medium.
Bark dark reddish-brown, somewhat tinged with green, heavily coated with gray scarf-skin; much pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium size, oval, raised.
Buds medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.
[Diseases:  Scab susceptible, somewhat resistant to the other major diseases (Burford).]

FRUIT

Fruit large or very large, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish to roundish oblate, sometimes a little inclined to conic, or sometimes slightly oblong and truncate, often obscurely ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to rather long, thick.
Cavity acute or approaching acuminate, moderately deep, moderately narrow to rather wide, symmetrical or sometimes compressed, russeted.
Calyx medium to large, open; lobes separated at the base, moderately long, rather narrow, acuminate.
Basin medium in depth to deep, moderately narrow to rather wide, abrupt, wavy, slightly wrinkled.
Skin thin, smooth, at first greenish-yellow but becoming clear yellow, sometimes faintly blushed.
Dots numerous, small, pale and submerged or russet.
Calyx tube large, wide, long, conical to nearly funnel-form.
Stamens median to basal.
Core medium size, somewhat abaxile; cells symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines meeting or clasping.
Carpels roundish, emarginate, tufted.
Seeds rather dark brown, medium size, somewhat acute, plump.
Flesh whitish or tinged with yellow, moderately firm, rather fine, tender, very juicy, agreeable subacid, somewhat aromatic, very good.  [Useful for baking and dessert (Burford).]
Season late September to January.  [Fair keeper for an early fall apple, which is when it starts ripening in West Virginia (Burford).]
1Directions for treating apple scab are given in the reports of this Station for 1899:399-418, and for 1903:321-386.
[Description in 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

Fall Wine
References.  1.  [XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p.57]
Synonyms.  House (10). Musk Spice (10). Ohio Wine (7,10,13). Sharpe's Spice (7,10). Sweet Wine (7,10). Uncle Sam's Best (7,10). Wine (2), Wine of Cole (4).
Fruit medium or above, bright red, attractive; in season from September to early winter [Fall in Virginia (Burford)]. The tree is of medium size with rather drooping branches, moderately vigorous, healthy, moderately long-lived and yields good to heavy crops biennially. [Moderately resistant to the major diseases (Burford).]  The fruit is apt to drop to a considerable extent before it is fully mature. It is very tender, not a good shipper and not a desirable commercial variety. It is not much valued for culinary use but it is generally esteemed wherever it is known on account of its excellent dessert qualities. [Burford adds that in addition to fresh-eating, it is useful as a cider apple.] It is not recommended for commercial planting in New York.
Fall Wine should not be confused with Twenty Ounce which in some sections of New York is known under the name of Wine apple. It is also quite distinct from the true Wine which is a large, showy apple that ripens in midautumn and often keeps well through the winter.
Historical. The origin of this variety is unknown. Elliott (4) says that it was introduced into the West from the garden of Judge Jonathan Buel, Albany, N.Y. about 1832. It has been a favorite variety in many parts of the Middle West but has not been extensively cultivated in New York and it is now seldom or never planted in this state.

FRUIT

Fruit medium or above.
Form roundish oblate, somewhat ribbed; sides often unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to rather long.
Cavity obtuse to somewhat acute, wide, shallow to moderately deep, sometimes lipped.
Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open; lobes long, narrow, reflexed.
Basin deep, wide or medium in width, rather abrupt, furrowed.
Skin clear yellow washed with red which on the exposed cheek deepens to a beautiful bright blush, indistinctly striped with carmine.
Dots yellowish-brown or russet.
Calyx tube long, narrow, funnel-form.
Stamens median.
Core medium, axile; cells symmetrical, closed or slightly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish, tufted.
Seeds medium size, rather wide, acute.
Flesh tinged with yellow, tender, juicy, aromatic, very mild subacid or almost sweet; very good for dessert but only fair for culinary use.
Season September to January.
[Description in 1862 U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture Report.]

Fameuse
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Chimney Apple (14,16,22,25). De Neige (3,14,15,25,29). du Marechal (25). La Belle Fameuse (43). La Fameuse (29). Neige (2). Neige-Framboise de Gielen (25). Pomme de Neige (5,8,4,9,10,11,13-16,18,20,22,23,41). Pomme de Niège (1,7,12). Pomme Fameuse (3), Pommed de Fameuse (14, 15). Sanguineus (8,14,15,18,23,25). Snow (2,10,12,14,16,18,20-23,25,31,33,36,41,43,46,47,48).
Fameuse is one of the most desirable dessert apples of its season. It is very beautiful in appearance and the flesh is white, tender and excellent in flavor and quality for dessert. It is decidedly inferior to other varieties of its season for culinary purposes. It is well known in market, and during its season, which extends from October to the holidays, it usually sells above average market prices, particularly if well colored and free from scab or other imperfections. The fruit is often badly injured by the apple-scab fungus, but this may readily be controlled by proper preventative treatment.1 It keeps well in cold storage. Some report that if free from scab, it may be held as long as Rhode Island Greening (48). In the Champlain district and in portions of the St. Lawrence valley it is one of the most important varieties found in commercial orchards. Generally speaking, it grows to a higher degree of perfection in those districts than it does in other apple-growing regions of New York. In the more southern sections of the state it appears to succeed best in the high elevations and on light well drained soil with clay subsoil. The tree is of medium size, a moderate grower, hardy, healthy, rather long-lived, and a reliable cropper yielding good to heavy crops biennially or sometimes nearly annually. The fruit hangs pretty well to the tree. Fruit of marketable grades is fairly uniform in size, but there is a considerable amount of it that is too small for market. In those portions of New York south of Lake Champlain and the St. Lawrence valley the fruit does not usually develop its best color, and in some season, and particularly in unfavorable localities, it is so poorly colored as to be quite unsatisfactory. In such locations it is better for the fruit grower to plant McIntosh instead of Fameuse if he desires to grow a variety of the Fameuse group.
Historical. Waugh (44) gives the following historical account of the Fameuse. "The history of Fameuse is obscure, probably beyond clearing up satisfactorily, but extremely interesting as far as we know or can guess at it. The turning point of speculation for years has been as to whether the variety is of American or European origin. One of the most interesting contributions to this discussion was made by Mr. Chauncey Goodrich, (16) or Burlington, VT, in 1851. We quote the following extracts from this article:
"It is here one of the most common as well as oldest varieties; hundreds of barrels are sold in a single season in this town alone. ... All American writers call it a Canadian apple; of this I think there is no proof. One hundred and twenty years since, the French planted this variety on the eastern shore of Lake Champlain opposite Fort Frederick on Crown Point, at a place called 'Chimney Point'- more than fifty years before any other permanent settlement. From these old trees cions have been scattered through Vermont, and called the Chimney apple. A very intelligent and highly educated French seigneur residing on an old seignory eighty miles below Quebec informed me that this was one of the first varieties of apples planted on the place; that the trees were very old and were brought from France. The early French settlers planted the same variety at Ogdensburg, Detroit, and other places on Lakes Erie and Ontario, where it is still known as the 'Snow Apple'; also at Kaskaskia, Illinois, more than one hundred and fifty years since, where the old trees are still productive, and apples from them are sent to St. Louis, &c. The same apple may be found in France, and in London of the growth of France."
"It is hardly to be supposed that a seedling apple was produced in Canada at so early a day as to be distributed more than a thousand miles in every settlement made by the French, one hundred and fifty years since.
"Another fact tending to suggest a European origin for Fameuse is that it is usually found in the old gardens, in company with well known European varieties of pears, apples and other fruits.
On the other hand the testimony of European pomologists is mostly against the theory of European origin. The variety is known in the larger collections of all the countries of Europe, just as Ben Davis is, and has been known there for many years. But most European authors unhesitatingly assign a Canadian origin to the variety; and the variety seems too little known, too little appreciated, and too little at home with European surroundings for us to believe it originated there. Those who call it a European apple usually assign its nativity to France; but Leroy (25) the greatest of all French, and perhaps of all European authorities, did not know the variety. He says that Le Lectier cultivated the Pomme de Neige (synonym of Fameuse) at Orleans (France) before 1628; but Leroy did not know whether or not this was the same Pomme de Neige grown in Canada. In fact he says, 'I have never, up to the present time, met this apple Pomme de Neige on our soil. In place of it they have always sent me Calvill de Neige, ripening from January to March.' Most of the so-called Snow apples of Europe, in fact, are white skinned and totally different from the Snow, of Fameuse, or America.
It is agreed that, whether the Fameuse came from Europe or not, it was distributed by the earliest of the French missionaries and planted by the first settlers. Quebec was founded shortly before 1600 and Montreal in 1641. The seigniory du Cote de Beaupre, said to be the oldest seignory in Quebec, was granted in 1636 and promptly colonized. Thus we have almost a hundred years of French settlement and missionary activity prior to 1700, the approximate date at which, according to Mr. Goodrich, the Fameuse was brought to Vermont. This seems to allow ample time for a Canadian origin for the variety and for its wide distribution in Quebec, Ontario and the Northern states.
The early distribution of apples, either from Europe to Canada, or from place to place on this continent, was accomplished chiefly, almost exclusively, by seeds. Some of the missionaries knew the art of grafting, but there was small encouragement to practice it. From these considerations, and others which cannot be fully argued here, the writer is firmly convinced that the Fameuse originated in Canada from seed brought from France."

TREE.

Tree vigorous, with long, moderately stout branches.
Form upright spreading or roundish, rather dense.
Twigs medium size, curved, stout; internodes short.
Bark dark brown tinged with red, lightly coated with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small, round or somewhat oval, slightly raised.
Buds medium size, flat, obtuse, free, pubescent.
FRUITMoscow Mitch supports global oligarchy, not people.
Fruit hardly average medium but sometimes is above medium size.
Form roundish inclined to conic, sometimes a little oblate, regular, uniform, symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to short but sometimes long, rather slender.
Cavity acute to somewhat acuminate, moderately deep to deep, rather wide, often gently furrowed, sometimes partly russeted but generally smooth and red or greenish.
Calyx rather small, usually closed.
Basin medium in width and depth, rather small, somewhat abrupt, obscurely furrowed or wrinkled, often having mammiform protuberances.
Skin thin, tender, smooth, light bright red deepening to almost purplish black in highly colored specimens with a somewhat striped appearance toward the apex. In less highly colored specimens the striped effect is more noticeable.
Dots few, scattering, light.
Calyx tube narrow, funnel-form.
Stamens median or somewhat basal.
Core medium to rather small, axile; cells closed; core lines clasping.
Carpels symmetrical, roundish or inclined to elliptical, somewhat emarginate, mucronate.
Seeds dark, long, rather narrow, acute to acuminate.
Flesh white, sometimes streaked or stained with red, very tender, juicy, subacid becoming very mild subacid or sweetish, aromatic, very good for dessert.
Season October to midwinter.

STRIPED FAMEUSE. A variety has sometimes been propagated and disseminated under the name Fameuse which is recognized as Striped Fameuse. The tree is a thriftier grower in the nursery than the true Fameuse, but the fruit is less desirable, being inferior in color but similar in all other respects to Fameuse. It is mottled or thinly washed with bright red over a pale yellow background, striped and splashed with carmine.

OTHER VARIETIES OF THE FAMEUSE GROUP.

Waugh (44) remarks that one of the striking things about the Fameuse type is that is has the strong tendency to reproduce itself from seed. This has been taken advantage of in the last fifty years, and apples of the Fameuse type have been grown from seed by the hundred and planted in the orchard. This practice has prevailed largely in Quebec in neighborhoods where nurseries were scarce and grafted nursery trees expensive or unknown. He concludes, therefore, that the modern Fameuse apples are most certainly not all from the same original seed, the conspicuous variations among them being thus accounted for at least in part. He further observes that seedlings of the Fameuse often show so much departure from the common characters of Fameuse as to be readily recognized as something different. Such seedlings are generally accepted as new varieties, and in cases where they show conspicuous merit they are separately propagated by grafting, and eventually receive special names of their own. He then lists several named varieties of the Fameuse group, including Bloom, Brilliant, Canada Baldwin, Fameuse Green, Fameuse Noire, Fameuse Sucre, La Victoire, Louise, McIntosh, Hilaire and Shiawassee. The more important of these are described under their respective name in this volume.
1 NY Sta. An. Rpt., 18:399-418. 1899. Ib., 22:311-386. 1903.

FAMILY

REFERENCES. 1. Warder, 1867:515. 2. Downing, 1872:172. fig. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 4. Barry, 1883:333. 5. Thomas, 1885:509. 6. Bailey, An. Hort. 1892:239. 7. Clayton, Ala. Sta. Bul., 47:8. 1893. 8. Budd-Hansen, 1903 :83.
Synonyms. McCrouns Famity (1). McLouds Family (2, 4).
As grown at this Station the Family does not agree closely with the descriptions of this variety given by various pomologists (2, 4, 5, 8), particularly in regard to its season of ripening. Nevertheless we believe that we have the variety true to name. We have traced our stock back to W. M. Samuels, Clinton, Kentucky, a careful nurseryman. In Georgia, where it originated, Family is a summer apple and according to some nursery catalogue descriptions “keeps ripening for six weeks.” In Central Illinois it is in season in September. Here at Geneva some of the fruit may keep through the winter although its season would best he described as extending from October to January. It is not a desirable variety for planting in New York.
TREE.
Tree vigorous, with short, moderately stout branches; does not come into bearing young but is an annual bearer and a moderately good cropper. There is a considerable loss from the dropping of the fruit. Form upright spreading, rather dense. wigs short, straight, moderately stout; internodes below medium to short. Bark olive-green, tinged with red, covered with a light coat of grayish scarf-skin, quite pubescent near tips. Lenticels not clear in color, inconspicuous, scattering, medium in size, roundish. Buds medium, flat, obtuse, very pubescent, deeply set in bark.
Fruit.
Fruit small to medium. Form roundish ovate to roundish conic, faintly ribbed, rather symmetrical, sides often unequal; pretty uniform in shape and size. Stem long to medium, usually rather slender. Cavity acute to acuminate, medium in depth to deep, narrow, usually symmetrical, sometimes lipped, often smooth but sometimes overspread with russet. Calyx medium. usually slightly open; lobes rather long and reflexed. Basin shallow to very shallow, narrow, abrupt, narrowly furrowed.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, mottled and washed with red over a rather pale yellow ground, shading to deep dark red in the sun, marked with many narrow and broken stripes of dull purplish-carmine, sprinkled with rather conspicuous pale yellowish or russet dots and overspread with whitish bloom.
Calyx tube long, rather wide, funnel-form or conical, often extending to the core. Stamens median to nearly basal.
Core abaxile, large; cells usually symmetrical and wide open; core lines somewhat clasping. Carpels rather concave, round to broadly elliptical. Seeds numerous, medium to rather large, acute to obtuse, plump.
Flesh yellowish sometimes tinged with red near the skin, firm, rather crisp, fine-grained, tender, juicy, sprightly subacid becoming mild, pleasant in flavor, good.

Fanny
References.  1.  [XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p.58]
Synonyms.  None.
This is an attractive bright red fruit of good dessert quality. It begins to ripen about the first of September, and continues in season till late fall. The tree is quite vigorous, comes into bearing moderately early and is a reliable annual cropper. Some regard it as a desirable for commercial planting (7,8), but it has not proved so at this Station because it is somewhat deficient in size. On account of its beauty and excellent dessert quality it is worthy of being classed among the varieties desirable for the home orchard.
Historical. Originated with Dr. John K. Eshelman, Lancaster Co., PA. (7). It has been as yet but little disseminated in New York.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous with moderately long, stout branches.
Form flat, spreading, open.
Twigs long, curved, moderately stout; internodes long.
Bark brown tingled [probably he meant "tinged"-ASC] with olive-green, heavily streaked with scarf-skin; much pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, round, not raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, heavily pubescent.
[Diseases:  "Moderately resistant to the major apple diseases." (Burford).]
FRUITMoscow Mitch supports global oligarchy, not America.
Fruit above medium to below medium size, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish, slightly oblate varying to somewhat oblong or ovate, regular or slightly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, slender.
Cavity acute to nearly obtuse, medium in width and depth, sometimes russeted.
Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open; lobes rather short, narrow, acute.
Basin shallow to medium in depth, moderately wide, rather abrupt, usually furrowed.
Skin thin, tender, smooth, clear yellow mostly overlaid with bright red indistinctly striped with carmine.
Dots small, yellowish.
Calyx tube rather wide, slightly funnel-form to conical with pistil point projecting into the base.
Stamens median to marginal.br> Core below medium, somewhat abaxile; cells open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate to elliptical, slightly emarginate.
Seeds medium to large, moderately wide, flat, plump, acute.
Flesh whitish slightly tinged with yellow, moderately firm, fine, very tender, juicy, mild subacid, good to very good.  [Mostly a dessert apple, but sometimes used for baking and frying (Burford).]
Season September to November or later.  [Ripens in midsummer in Virginia and is only a fair keeper (Burford).]

FARRIS

REFERENCES. 1. Churchill, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 8:355. 1889. 2. Beach, N.Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:259. 1895. 3- Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248: 120. 1904.
Fruit resembles Rambo somewhat. As grown at this Station its quality is good but not as high as it is rated in Kentucky where it was first introduced into cultivation. The tree does not come into bearing very young. It is usually moderately productive and sometimes very productive, but it is too unattractive in color and too small to be desirable for commercial purposes.
Historical. Farris was introduced by a Mr. Reeves of Allen county, Kentucky, and afterwards brought more prominently into notice by W. M. Samuels, Clinton, Ky. It was granted first premium as the best fall apple at a fruit exhibition in St. Louis in 1876.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous, rather small, with short stout branches. Form spreading, flat, open. Twigs medium in length to rather short, straight, moderately stout; internodes short. Bark clear, reddish-brown, with some olive-green and streaked with gray scarf-skin; slightly pubescent. Lenticels clear in color, scattering, small, or very small, generally round, not raised. Buds deeply set in bark, medium in size, flat, obtuse or acute, appressed, slightly pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit medium or below. Form roundish oblate to roundish conic, faintly ribbed. Stem rather stout. Cavity acute, sometimes nearly obtuse, shallow to moderately deep, narrow, sometimes lipped, sometimes slightly russeted. Calyx often flat, small to above medium, closed or partly open. Basin shallow to moderately deep, narrow to moderately wide, often somewhat furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin smooth, waxy, somewhat glossy, yellow, largely overspread with rather dull, deep red, in highly colored specimens becoming purplish, sometimes obscurely striped with purplish-carmine Dots yellowish, sometimes with russet point, numerous, small to large, often conspicuous.
Calyx tube usually rather narrow and cone-shape, sometimes funnel-shape. Stamens median to basal.
Core axile, medium, closed; core lines meeting or clasping. Carpels roundish or roundish obcordate, tufted. Seeds large to below medium, narrow, long, acuminate to acute, tufted, often some are abortive.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, rather coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, pleasant subacid, good.
Season variable, usually extending from December to March or April, sometimes later.

FERDINAND.

REFERENCES. 1. Summer, Horticulturist, 4:275. 1849. fig. 2. Elliott, 1858:133. 3. Warder, 1867:533. 4. Downing, 1872:175. 5. Leroy, 1873:300. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 7. Thomas, 1885:510. 8. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:193.
Fruit of good form and size and rather attractive in color for a yellow apple. It is a fine dessert fruit and a good keeper. As grown at this Station it is rather slow in coming into bearing and at best is only moderately productive but it bears some fruit nearly every year. It is not recommended for commercial planting. Because it is excellent in quality and a good keeper it may be worthy of a place in the home orchards in the lower Hudson valley and on Long Island.
Historical. Ferdinand originated with Mr. Adam Minnick near Pomaria, S. C. It bore its first fruit in 1848. In that locality it is a late autumn variety. In 1873 it was given a place in the American Pomological Society’s Catalogue of recommended apples but was dropped from that list in 1899.
TREE.
Tree a strong upright grower in the nursery. In the orchard at this Station it is a rather slow grower with short, moderately stout branches. Form spreading and open, flat at the top. Twigs upright, small to medium, straight, stout; internodes vary from long to short. Bark olive-green tinged with brownish-red, in part mottled with scarf-skin, somewhat pubescent near tips.
Lenticels scattering, medium to large, oblong to roundish, raised. Buds medium to large, broad, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit above medium to nearly large. Form flattened at the base, roundish conic to oblate conic, often somewhat ribbed, somewhat irregular. Stem short, often with a fleshy protuberance. Cavity acute, moderately shallow to rather deep, rather narrow, often obscurely furrowed or compressed, often overspread with russet, sometimes lipped. Calyx above medium to small, partly open or closed; lobes acuminate. Basin often oblique, usually narrow and shallow but varies to moderately wide and deep.
Skin rather thin, moderately tender, deep yellow or greenish with an orange blush which sometimes deepens to red, sometimes partly covered with russet.
Dots numerous, sometimes whitish, but usually rough russet, variable in size and irregular in form. Prevailing effect greenish-yellow.
Calyx tube wide, cone-shape or sometimes rather funnel-form. Stamens median.
Core small to above medium, abaxile; cells fairly symmetrical, closed or somewhat open; core lines meeting or clasping. Carpels roundish, emarginate, slightly tufted. Seeds numerous, above medium to below, flat, obtuse, dark.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, rather fine, crisp, tender, moderately juicy, aromatic with a rich agreeable flavor similar to that of some russet apples, sprightly becoming mild subacid, good to very good.
Season December to May.

FERRIS.

REFERENCES. 1. Elliott, 1854:170. 2. Downing, 1857:165. 3. Warder, 1867:517. 4. Downing, 1872:175. 5. Thomas, 1885:220.
Synonyms. Ferris (2, 5). Long IsLand SEEK-No-FurRTHER (2, 3, 5). Rhode Island Seek-No-Further (5). Westchester Seek-No-Further (2, 3, 5).
A large, red striped apple, formerly grown in Westchester county, and there considered profitable for market (4). The tree is described as vigorous and an annual bearer, producing alternately light and heavy crops (3, 4). Its season extends from October to December or later (1, 2, 5). The variety is not now listed by nurserymen, but another variety of the same name which originated in Delaware is still offered in some southern nurseries. Neither of these varieties is recommended for growing in New York.

Fishkill
References.  1. Downing, 1869:176. 2. NY Sta. An. Rpt., 11:222. 1892. 3. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:294. 1901.
Synonyms.  Fishkill Beauty (1,2).
Fruit large, rather attractive in appearance, but not good enough in quality to displace standard sorts of its season either for culinary or dessert uses. Downing remarks that it is apt to decay on the tree (1), but this has not proved true in our experience with the variety. The tree comes into bearing rather early and is almost an annual bearer, yielding fair to good crops of uniformly large fruit. Should it possess superior hardiness it may be worthy of trial in those regions where this character is a prime requisite.
Historical. Origin Fishkill, NY.

TREE.

Tree vigorous with long, slender, curved branches; laterals willowy, long, slender.
Form upright spreading or roundish, rather dense.
Twigs short to medium, straight, moderately slender, rather geniculate; internodes medium to long.
Bark brown tinged with clear reddish brown, mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, small or below medium, generally elongated and narrow, usually not raised.
Buds small to above medium, plump, obtuse to somewhat acute, usually free or nearly so.
FRUITMoscow Mitch supports global oligarchy, not America.
Fruit large to very large, uniform in size and shape.
Form nearly round varying to somewhat oblate or oblate conic, regular, obscurely ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long, thick to slender.
Cavity varying from somewhat obtuse to slightly acuminate, moderately deep to deep, rather broad, usually symmetrical, sometimes lipped, sometimes lightly russeted.
Calyx rather small, closed or slightly open.
Basin shallow, usually moderately wide, obtuse, angularly furrowed and wrinkled, with some tendency to develop mammiform protuberances.
Skin a little rough, thick, tough, dull yellow washed with dull or brownish-red, in highly colored specimens deepening to a bright red blush, mottled, striped and splashed with deep carmine, often overspread with thin whitish bloom.
Dots numerous, conspicuous, medium size, russet.
Prevailing effect attractive although rather dull red.
Calyx tube rather long, wide, varying from elongated conical to funnel-shape.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core below medium to rather large, abaxile; cells usually symmetrical, open; core lines clasping.
Carpels roundish to broadly obcordate, somewhat emarginate, slightly tufted.
Seeds light brown, below medium to rather large, narrow, rather long, plump, varying from obtuse to acuminate.
Flesh whitish or tinged with yellow, firm, coarse, moderately crisp, moderately tender, juicy, mild subacid, fair to good in flavor and quality.
Season November to February.

FLORENCE.

REFERENCE. 1. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bul., 60:129. 1899.
As grown at this Station from stock received from M. Butterfield, Lee Summit, Missouri, the fruit is of the Ben Davis type, strongly resembling Gano, very attractive in size and appearance and a good keeper. As compared with Gano it is more angular, and more conspicuously striped with purplish-carmine; the basin is more often oblique; and the pistils do not persist in the form of a fleshy projection into the base of the calyx tube. As tested at this Station it is a moderately vigorous grower, comes into bearing young, bears annually and is only moderately productive, but it has been grown here under rather unfavorable conditions. Stinson (1) observes that it is in season with Jonathan, but we find it keeps much better than Jonathan. It has not been tested here sufficiently to indicate whether or not it promises to be a valuable variety in New York. Should it prove to be sufficiently productive, it may prove valuable in those portions of the state where Ben Davis does well.
Historical. Originated in Benton county, Ark.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous; branches short, rather slender. Form roundish, upright, rather dense. Twigs rather short, straight, slender; internodes rather short to medium. Bark bright, rather dark brownish-red; scarf-skin hardly noticeable; pubescence scarce or none. Lenticels not numerous, clear and bright in color, small, roundish to elongated. Buds medium, rather flat, acute to obtuse, pubescent, free, appressed, point often deflected.
Fruit.
Fruit medium, sometimes large. Form roundish ovate to roundish conic, flattened at the base, irregular, often broadly ribbed or angular, sides unequal, sometimes compressed; pretty uniform in size but somewhat variable in shape.
Stem medium. Cavity acute or obtuse, deep, wide, often furrowed, sometimes lipped, seldom symmetrical, usually with outspreading rays of yellow russet.
Calyx medium to small, partly open or sometimes closed; lobes rather narrow, acuminate. Basin very abrupt, usually deep, moderately narrow to moderately broad, often somewhat furrowed, sometimes compressed, usually oblique.
Skin tough, smooth, clear, pale or whitish-yellow, washed and blushed with a bright deep pinkish-red, in well colored specimens becoming solid red, mottled and striped with purplish-carmine, overspread with a thin bluish bloom which gives it a slightly dull appearance, but when polished the prevailing effect is glossy bright red. Dots whitish, scattering.
Calyx tube large, cone-shape.
Core rather small, closed or slightly open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels concave, roundish inclined to obcordate. Seeds few, below medium to above, rather dark, irregular, obtuse-or sometimes acute.
Flesh tinged with yellow, rather firm, crisp, not very tender, moderately fine-grained, juicy, subacid, aromatic, pleasant, good to very good.
Season December to May.
[Confused? Thought Florence was a crabapple? Well you aren't wrong! For a description of the crabapple that goes by the same name, click here.

FLORY

REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1872:179. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:239. 3.Farrand, Mich. Sta. Bul., 205:42. 1903. 4. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:120. 1904.
Synonyms. Flory BEtrrrower (3). Flory's Bellflower (1). Sheep Shire (1).
An attractive deep yellow apple of good size and good quality. The tree does not come into bearing very early and is but moderately productive. It is not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. Origin, Montgomery county, Ohio.
TREE.
Tree rather vigorous. Form upright spreading. Twigs below medium to above, rather slender, irregularly curved, very slightly pubescent; internodes short to nearly long. Bark dull brownish-red, mostly overlaid with thick scarf-skin. Lenticels very numerous, raised, not very conspicuous, medium, narrow, elongated. Buds medium, slightly acute, lightly attached or partly free from the bark.
Fruit.
Fruit medium or above. Form ovate to roundish conic, often faintly ribbed, pretty symmetrical. Stem medium in length, rather slender. Cavity acuminate, variable in depth, rather narrow, pretty symmetrical, sometimes lipped.
Basin medium in width, moderately deep to shallow, abrupt, somewhat furrowed. Calyx closed or partly open; lobes rather narrow and acute.
Skin tough, beautiful clear yellow, becoming deeper yellow as the ripening season advances, roughened with capillary netted russet lines and russet dots.
Calyx tube not large, conical to elongated funnel-form, sometimes meeting the core. Stamens median or below.
Core medium to very large, abaxile; cells fairly symmetrical, partly open to wide open; core lines meeting when the calyx tube is conical, clasping when it is funnel-form. Carpels long, ovate. Seeds very numerous, often irregular in form, small to rather large, rather wide, obtuse, dark brown.
Flesh yellowish, firm, hard, moderately coarse, juicy, agreeably subacid, good in flavor and quality.
Season October and November in Southern Ohio (1); in Western New York it extends to February, and often some portion of the fruit may be kept till spring (4).

FLUSHING SPITZENBURG.

REFERENCES. 1. Thacher, 1822:137. 2. Kenrick, 1832:44. 3. Downing, 1845:139. 4. Thomas, 1849:173. 5. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:71. 1851. 6. Elliott, 1858:133. fig. 7. Warder, 1867:515. 8 Downing, 1881:11. app. index. 9. Hogg, 1884:78. 10. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:292. 11. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:239. 12. Budd-Hansen, 1903:85.
Synonyms. Black Spitzenberg (8). FLusuine (10). FLusHInG Spitzen- BERG (2, 6, 7). FLUSHING SprITzENpURGH Cg Bj, $i0)2
Fruit of good color but not very good in quality. There is considerable loss from the dropping of the fruit before it is fully mature. The tree generally has the reputation of being a shy bearer.
Historical. This variety probably originated in America. Although it has long been known in cultivation (1, 2) it is not regarded favorably by commercial orchardists and is now seldom planted.
TREE.
Tree large, vigorous. Form round-headed or spreading. Twigs stout, reddish-brown, quite distinct from the small yellowish gray shoots of Esopus Spitzenburg with which, on account of the similarity of the names, this variety has sometimes been confounded.
Fruit
Fruit medium to nearly large. Form roundish conic or sometimes oblate conic, obscurely ribbed, pretty symmetrical. Stem short to medium. Cavity acuminate, moderately deep to deep, narrow to rather broad, smooth and red or greenish, sometimes more or less overspread with greenish or red russet.
Calyx medium to rather small, closed or partly open; lobes broad, obtuse.
Basin varying from narrow and shallow to medium in width and depth, obtuse to abrupt, sometimes somewhat furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin tough, yellow or greenish overspread with orange-red, becoming a bright deep red on the exposed side, coated with a light bloom. Dots conspicuous, whitish, scattered over the base but very numerous around the basin.
Calyx tube long, funnel-form, extending to the core. Stamens median.
Core distant, abaxile with a wide hollow cylinder at the center, varying to nearly axile; cells pretty symmetrical, partly open or closed; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder. Carpels roundish, wide, mucronate, slightly emarginate, somewhat tufted. Seeds dark, medium to large, wide, plump, acute. to obtuse, sometimes tufted.
Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, sometimes streaked with red, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, not very tender, moderately juicy, mild subacid, not high in flavor, good in quality.
Season October to February.

Ford
References.  1. Downing, 1857:144. Warder, 1867:719. 3. Thomas, 1875:499.
Synonyms.  None.
The fruit of Ford is described as large, roundish, yellow; flesh solid, rather acid but of high flavor and good quality. Season October to January (1,3). We do not know this variety and so far as we can discover it is no longer propagated. According to Downing it originated in Canaan, Columbia county, NY (1).

FOREST
REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1872:180. 2. Goff, Wis. Sta. Rpt., 1896:212.
Synonym. Red Codlin (1).
Fruit above medium, yellow mostly overspread with faint crimson; aromatic, mild subacid, toward the last becoming sweet or nearly so. Tree an upright grower, an annual bearer, very hardy and very productive. In season from December to March (1, 2).
Historical. This is supposed to be a chance seedling from Oneida county, N. Y., which originated about a half century ago. We do not find that it has been grown in New York to any considerable extent, but it appears to have gained a favorable record in Southeastern Wisconsin (2).

FRAKER.

REFERENCES. 1. Brackett, dm. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1885:157. 2. Kansas Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886:70.
Synonym. FRakEr’s SEEDLING (2).
As grown at this Station the fruit is medium to large and when well colored has an attractive deep red blush, but too often it does not develop proper color in this climate. The tree has not come into bearing very early and thus far has been but moderately productive. The fruit is of mild, pleasant flavor and keeps well into the spring. It does not equal the standard commercial varieties of this region either in general appearance or in quality and is not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. Originated near Garnet, Anderson county, Kansas. Described in the report of the Kansas Horticultural Society for 1886 as promising for commercial purposes (2).
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous; branches rather short and moderately stout.
Form upright spreading with open top. Twigs medium in length, stout, blunt at the tips; internodes medium or below. Bark bright brownish-red tinged with olive-green, streaked with gray scarf-skin; heavily pubescent. Lenticels numerous, medium, oblong, raised, conspicuous. Buds medium, plump, broad, obtuse, free, pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit above medium to large; pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish conic or sometimes roundish oblate, nearly truncate at the base, often obscurely ribbed, rather symmetrical. Stem medium to rather short.
Cavity acute, deep, rather broad, often distinctly furrowed. Calyx medium to large, somewhat open or closed. Basin often oblique, shallow, narrow to rather wide, obtuse to rather abrupt, furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin thick, tough, smooth, yellow with orange-red blush, in highly colored specimens deepening to a bright deep red mottled and striped with dull carmine. Dots pale or russet, not conspicuous.
Calyx tube long, narrow, funnel-form, often extending to the core. Stamens median.
Core somewhat abaxile, medium or below; cells often unsymmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping. Carpels broadly roundish to obcordate, somewhat emarginate, mucronate. Seeds numerous, medium or above, plump, obtuse, rather light brown.
Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately coarse, rather crisp, rather tender, juicy, mild subacid becoming nearly sweet, slightly aromatic, good.
Season December to April.

Franchot
References.  1. Downing, 1869:182.
Synonyms.  None.
According to Downing this variety originated in Otsego county, NY. The tree is productive, the fruit medium size, yellow, shaded and splashed with red; flesh pleasant, aromatic, good. Season October to January (1). So far as we can learn it is not now being propagated.

FRENCH PIPPIN

The name French Pippin has been applied to several varieties of the Fall Pippin group. These vary in season from autumn till late spring or early summer and are characterized by rather large, roundish or oblong fruit which at first is green but later assumes more or less of a yellowish tone. It is sometimes slightly blushed and has yellowish subacid flesh.
An apple of this class is described on a following page as the Lehigh Greening, the name under which it has been disseminated within recent years from Allentown, Pennsylvania. Some believe that the Lehigh Greening is identical with an old variety grown in portions of Southeastern Pennsylvania under the name French Pippin.
An apple which is grown in some parts of New York under the name French Pippin is described below. It is a very late keeper being in season from January to May or June. The fruit is large, brightly colored and attractive for a yellow apple. It bears a very close resemblance to Lehigh Greening and possibly is identical with it. Comparisons of the fruit from various localities have been made but as yet we have been unable to decide whether or not these two are identical. We have not determined definitely whether the variety described below is the French Pippin of Southeastern Pennsylvania above mentioned, nor whether it is the variety referred to by Warder64 and Downing65 as the French Pippin of Pennsylvania.
TREE.
Tree medium in size to rather large, moderately vigorous, a biennial or in some cases an annual bearer, a reliable cropper and productive. Form upright, somewhat spreading. Twigs medium in length; erect, moderately stout; bark rather dark.
FRUITMoscow Mitch supports global oligarchy, not America.Fruit large to very large, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish to roundish oblate, faintly ribbed, pretty regular, sides sometimes slightly unequal.
Stem short, moderately thick. Cavity acute to acuminate, moderately deep to deep, narrow to rather wide, thinly russeted, sometimes compressed or lipped. Calyx medium in size, somewhat open; lobes acuminate.
Basin abrupt, shallow to moderately deep, medium in width to rather wide, smooth or gently furrowed and slightly wrinkled.
Skin tough, thin, smooth, bright pale yellow or greenish-yellow with numerous, conspicuous russet or green dots, often with thin brownish blush.
Calyx tube long, funnel-form, sometimes approaching cone-shape, with very wide limb. Stamens median.
Core rather small, slightly abaxile; cells fairly symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines clasping. Carpels roundish, slightly emarginate. Seeds broad, obtuse.
Flesh nearly as yellow as that of Fall Pippin, firm, rather fine-grained, tender, crisp, juicy, sprightly with an agreeable subacid flavor, good to very good in quality.
Season January to May or June.

Fullerton Sweet
Reference.  1. Downing, 1869:185.
Synonyms.  None.
A variety of unknown origin which has been fruited in Orange county (1). The fruit much resembles Autumn Bough. It is below medium, pale yellow; flesh tender, sweet, very good; season October and November. We do not know this variety and so far as we can learn it is not being propagated.