Fruit Home Apple Home
Siberian Crabapples and their Hybrids and other Crabapples _____________

Bailey Crimson

References.  1.Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1871:50. 2. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1879:91. 3. Ib., 1884:38. 4. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234.
Synonyms.  Bailey's Crimson (2,4,of New York 3). Bailey's Crimson Crab (1).
In 1871 the Committee of the American Pomological Society on Native Fruits made the following report concerning this variety: Originated with Wm. H. Bailey, Plattsburgh, NY. Tree vigorous, upright, very productive and very handsome.
"Fruit medium or large for its class; roundish, inclining to conic; skin yellow, shaded over the whole surface with deep rich crimson; flesh similar to other Siberian crabs."
We have not seen this variety nor have we obtained any report concerning it from our correspondents.

Brier

References.  1.
Synonyms.  Briar Sweet (1,2,9). Brier's Sweet (4-8). Brier Sweet (11, erroneously 10). Brier's Sweet Crab (3). Van Wyck (10).
Tree vigorous, hardy, comes into bearing rather young and is productive.
Historical. Originated with B.B. Brier, of Baraboo, Wis., as a result of the fertilization of the Siberian crab with the Bailey apple (3).

FRUIT

Fruit large. [see, this is the problem I have with these old subjective descriptions... a "large" crabapple is tiny on the apple scale. -ASC]
Form roundish to conic, ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) long, slender.
Cavity narrow, deep, russeted.
Calyx small, closed or slightly open.
Basin deep, narrow, abrupt, wrinkled.
Skin pale yellow washed with lively red, striped with carmine, dotted and flecked with yellow and covered with thin, whitish bloom.
Calyx tube conical to funnel-form.
Stamens median.
Core medium in size, axile or nearly so; cells closed.
Flesh yellowish, rich, fine-grained, moderately juicy, pleasant, sweet, aromatic, not astringent, good in flavor and quality.
Season September and October.

Cherry
References.  1. Warder, 1867:715, 2. Downing, 1869:422. 3. Barry, 1883:359. 4. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1884:39. 5. Thomas, 1897:298. fig. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903:217.
Synonyms.  Cherry Crab (1,3,4).
Cherry is an old variety of unknown origin. The tree is a pretty good grower, particularly on light soils, attains considerable size and is quite a regular bearer.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous with long, slender, curved branches.
Form upright spreading to roundish, open.
Twigs moderately long, straight, moderately stout; internodes long.
Bark clear reddish-brown tinged with olive-green, mottled with scarf-skin especially at the tips; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels very scattering, small, roundish, not raised.
Buds prominent, medium to large, plump, acute, free, not pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit small.
Form oblate or roundish, ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) long to very long, slender, bracted.
Cavity rather broad, shallow, obtuse to slightly acute, somewhat russeted.
Calyx medium to large, usually closed or eventually deciduous.
Basin wide, shallow, obtuse, wrinkled.
Skin pale yellow nearly covered with bright red, often striped with carmine and overspread with a thin bluish bloom.
Dots distinct, numerous, large whitish or russet.
Calyx tube funnel-form.
Stamens marginal.
Core large, axile; cells closed.
Carpels broadly roundish or elliptical, emarginate, mucronate.
Flesh yellowish, rather coarse, juicy, crisp, mild subacid, somewhat astringent.
Season last of August to October.

Coral
References.  1. Warder, Tilt. Jour. Hort., 5:208. 1869. 2. Downing, 1869:423. 3. Barry, 1883:359. 4. NY Sta. An. Rpt. 2:35. 1884.
Synonyms.  None.
Fruit of pretty good size, brilliant color, sprightly subacid flavor, in season from October to February. The tree is a pretty good grower, rather spreading, comes into bearing early and is a reliable cropper yielding good crops annually.
Historical. In 1869, Warder described this as No. 4 of the Marengo Winter Siberian crabapples received from Charles Andrews, Marengo, Ill. (1). It originated in the vicinity of Marengo (2). It is but little cultivated in New York.

FRUIT

Fruit medium size or above, about an inch and a half in diameter.
Form roundish to somewhat oblong, regular.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to rather long, slender, bracted.
Cavity somewhat acute, medium in width and depth, regular, usually russeted.
Calyx small, closed; lobes reflexed.
Basin very shallow, broad and obtuse, or none.
Skin smooth, yellow, blushed with scarlet.
Dots numerous, medium to small, gray or russet.
Calyx tube long, narrow, funnel-form.
Stamens median.
Core medium to rather small, axile with narrow cylinder in the axis; cells closed or nearly ; core lines clasp the funnel cylinder.
Carpels roundish ovate.
Seeds compactly fill the cells; small to above medium, obtuse to somewhat acute, plump, dark.
Flesh yellow, breaking, juicy, crisp, sprightly, mild subacid to nearly sweet.
Season October to February.

Currant
References.  1. Downing, 1857:229. 2. Barry, 1883:359. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:237. 4. Gibb, Montreal Hort. Soc.. Rpt., 1884:39.
Synonyms.  Currant Crab (1,3). Current Crab (4). Pomme Groseille (1).
Fruit small, borne in cluster; said to be hardier than Transcendent. Of no commercial value. The tree is a good grower, comes into bearing young and is productive.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous with moderately long, slender, curved branches.
Form upright spreading or roundish, open.
Twigs long, curved, slender; internodes short.
Bark dark brown, lightly mottled with with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, roundish, slightly raised.
Buds medium size, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit small or below medium.
Form somewhat oblate, regular, uniform.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long, rather slender.
Cavity obtuse, rather deep, broad, symmetrical frequently russeted.
Calyx sometimes deciduous, medium size, closed; lobes rather narrow, acute.
Basin rather deep, wide, abrupt, obscurely furrowed.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, glossy, yellow, striped with brilliant red, overspread with bluish bloom.
Dots numerous, small, pale or whitish.
Calyx tube broadly cone-shaped, short.
Stamens marginal.
Core medium to rather large, axile; cells closed; core lines clasping.
Carpels roundish to elliptical, emarginate.
Seeds light brown, medium to large, wide, somewhat obtuse.
Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately fine, tender, dry, subacid, medium to poor.
Season October and November.

Dartmouth
References.  1. Barry, 1883:359. 2. Beach, NY Sta. An. Rpt., 15:277. 1896. 3. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bul., 143:200. 1897. 4. Farrand, Ib., 205:47. 1903. 5. Ragan, US.B.P.I. Bul., 56:363. 1905.
Synonyms.  None.
Fruit large, brilliantly colored, good in flavor and quality. The tree is not a vigorous grower, comes into bearing rather early and yields full crops in alternate years.
Historical. Origin New Hampshire (1).

TREE.

Tree a moderately vigorous or rather slow grower with moderately long, stout, crooked branches.
Form upright spreading to roundish, open.
Twigs short, curved, moderately stout; internodes short.
Bark clear brown, mingled with olive-green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; pubescent near tips.
Lenticels scattering, small, round, slightly raised.
Buds rather prominent, medium to large, long, narrow, acute, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large.
Form oblate or roundish oblate, ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) long and slender, often bracted.
Cavity acute, broad, deep, russeted.
Calyx small; lobes long, reflexed.
Basin rather broad, shallow.
Skin pale yellow, almost entirely overlaid with bright red deepening to a dark red or purple on the exposed side, dotted with yellow and covered with a heavy bluish bloom.
Calyx tube elongated cone-shape approaching funnel-form.
Stamens marginal.
Core large, abaxile; cells open; core lines clasping.
Flesh yellowish, tinged with red next the skin, fine-grained, juicy, mild subacid, good in quality and flavor.
Season August.

Excelsior
References.  1.
Synonyms.  None.
Fruit very large for a crabapple being nearly as large as a medium sized apple. It is very attractive in appearance and excellent in quality for either dessert or culinary uses. As grown at this Station it appears to be one of the most desirable varieties of its class during early September. the tree is a good strong grower, hardy, healthy, comes into bearing rather young and yields full crops in alternate years.
Historical. Originated by Peter M. Gideon, Excelsior, Minn. "It came from seed of Wealthy which had a chance to be crossed with the Cherry Crab and also the Oldenburg" (2).

TREE.

Tree large with long, moderately stout branches.
Form somewhat flat and spreading, rather dense.
Twigs short, curved, stout; internodes medium.
Bark dark brown tinged with red; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, oval, slightly raised.
Buds medium to large, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit very large.
Form roundish ovate to roundish oblate, symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) rather long and slender, sometimes bracted.
Cavity small, acute or approaching acuminate, narrow, rather shallow, often slightly russeted.
Calyx rather large, closed; lobes reflexed.
Basin shallow, moderately broad, obtuse, furrowed.
Skin smooth, yellow, shaded and splashed with red over much of its surface.
Dots numerous, russet.
Calyx tube wide, cone-shape.
Stamens median or above.
Core large, decidedly abaxile; cells unsymmetrical, wide open; core lines clasping.
Carpels elongated ovate, sometimes tufted.
Seeds above medium size, long, moderately narrow, acute, tufted.
Flesh whitish, firm, a little coarse, crisp, juicy, subacid, with some Siberian crab flavor yet agreeable for dessert use, good to very good in quality.
Season early September.

Florence
References.  1. Stark, Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886:233. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1887:134. 3. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bul., 118:59,60. 1895. 4. Thomas, 1897:298. 5. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bul., 152:219, 224. 1898. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903:219.
Synonyms.  None.
This variety seems to be very desirable for commercial planting because the trees commence bearing very young, are reliable croppers and very prolific and the fruit is of good size, very attractive in appearance and of good quality. Although not superior to Martha in quality, Florence is more beautiful and more prolific.
Historical. Originated by Peter M. Gideon, Excelsior, Minn.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous.
Form at first upright spreading but eventually inclined to droop.
Twigs long, cured, moderately stout; internodes long.
Bark bright reddish-brown, slightly tinged with olive-green, mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Buds large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, not pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium in size, uniform in size and shape.
Form oblate, faintly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) very long, slender.
Cavity acute, deep, medium in width, symmetrical, sometimes slightly russeted.
Calyx variable, usually small, closed.
Basin very shallow, rather wide, obtuse, slightly furrowed.
Skin moderately thin, moderately tough, smooth, yellowish-white mostly overspread with brilliant pinkish-red, sometimes with whitish bands radiating from the cavity, overspread with faint bloom.
Dots minute, whitish.
Calyx tube moderately long, moderately wide, varying from somewhat urn-shape to funnel-form.
Stamens marginal.
Core large; cells closed; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly obovate, emarginate.
Seeds medium to rather small, moderately wide, flat, obtuse.
Flesh tinged with yellow, coarse, crisp, rather tender, juicy, very brisk subacid, somewhat astringent, good.
Season late August and early September.

Gibb
References.  1.
Synonyms.  None.
Fruit large, yellow blushed with dull red. It is thinner skinned and much less astringent than Hyslop with remarkably yellow flesh. It is highly esteemed for canning; season last half of September. It is recommended for the home orchard and is worthy of trial for commercial planting where a crabapple of its season is desired. The tree is a slow, spreading grower, fairly hardy as far north as Montreal, very productive (5).
Historical. Originated with George P. Peffer, Pewaukee, Wis., being a seedling of an oblate Yellow Siberian crab crossed with Fall Greening (5,10).

FRUIT (5,7,10).

Fruit large.
Form roundish oblate.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium length, thick.
Cavity wide, deep, regular.
Calyx medium size, open.
Basin very wide, shallow, wrinkled.
Skin thin, yellow, blushed with dull red, attractive.
Dots white, minute.
Flesh remarkably yellow, firm, crisp, juicy, pleasantly acid, a little astringent, sprightly.
Season early.

Hyslop
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Hislop (1). Hyslop's Crab (8).
Fruit large, very brilliantly colored, dark red or puplish overspread with thick blue bloom; borne in clusters. The tree is a good grower, very hardy, and a reliable cropper yielding good crops biennially or in some cases annually. It is desirable both for home use and for market.
Historical. Origin unknown. In 1869 Downing remarked: "This variety has been long and pretty extensively cultivated" (2). It is commonly listed by nurserymen throughout the country (10). It is one of the best known and most widely cultivated of the crabapples.

TREE.

Tree vigorous or moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading, rather open.
Twigs long, curved, slender; internodes long.
Bark olive-green, tinged with reddish-brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels numerous, very conspicuous, greenish-yellow, medium to large, oblong.
Buds exceptionally large and prominent, very long, narrow, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit above medium to large, very uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish ovate or obovate, sometimes a little inclined to oblong, regular or obscurely ribbed, symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) rather short to very long, slender.
Cavity acuminate, rather small, shallow, narrow to medium in width, sometimes furrowed, often slightly russeted.
Calyx medium to large, closed; lobes medium to long, narrow, acuminate, reflexed.
Basin shallow, medium to wide, distinctly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin clear pale yellow almost completely overspread with lively dark red shading to deep carmine or purplish carmine and covered with thick, blue bloom.
Dots small, numerous, pale or gray.
Calyx tube short, narrow, cone-shape to urn-shape.
Stamens median.
Core medium size, axile; cells symmetrical, closed; core lines meeting.
Carpels elongated ovate, emarginate.
Seeds small, narrow, short, plump, obtuse to acute, medium brown.
Flesh yellow, sometimes with tinge of red next the skin, very firm, moderately fine, at first juicy but eventually becoming dry and mealy, subacid, astringent, good for culinary purposes.
Season late September and October.

Large Red Siberian
References.  1. Downing, 1845:147. 2. Cole, 1849:137. 3. Fitz, 1872:147. 4. Barry, 1883:359. 5. Wickson, 1889:249. 6. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:243.
Synonyms.  None.
This fruit is of medium size for a Siberian crab, being larger than Red Siberian, but smaller than either Transcendent or Hyslop. It is similar to Red Siberian in appearance and quality. The foliage is coarser than that of Red Siberian, and the tree is larger, being medium to rather large, a vigorous grower, erect or roundish, with long, slender twigs. It is very hardy, healthy, moderately long-lived, and a reliable cropper, yielding heavy crops biennially or sometimes annually. It has long been known in cultivation, and is still listed by nurserymen (6), but larger and handsomer varieties of more recent introduction are generally preferred in market.

FRUIT

Fruit of medium size, uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish to roundish ovate, regular.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long, slender.
Cavity acuminate, shallow, moderately broad, often furrowed, usually russeted.
Calyx medium size, closed; lobes long, narrow, acuminate.
Basin shallow or none, obtuse, wrinkled, having mammiform protuberances.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, pale yellow, almost wholly overlaid with bright red and marked with obscure narrow stripes of dark red.
Dots very small, light, inconspicuous.
Calyx tube short, wide, urn-shape.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core medium size, axile; cells closed; core lines meeting.
Carpels ovate to obovate, emarginate.
Seeds glossy, dark brown, rather small, short, wide, obtuse.
Flesh yellowish, very firm, subacid, astringent, good for culinary uses.
Season September and October.

Large Yellow Siberian
References.  1. Warder, 1867:732. 2. Downing, 1869:425. 3. Barry, 1883:360. 4. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:243.
Synonyms.  None.
Fruit large, similar in size to Large Red Siberian, clear pale yellow with a shade of red in the sun, roundish approaching oblong truncate; season September and October. Tree upright, somewhat irregular in form, of medium size, vigorous or moderately vigorous, very hardy, healthy, comes into bearing young and is very productive. It is generally superseded in market by larger varieties.

Marengo
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Marengo Crab (3,7,9-12). Marengo No. 1 (2,8). Marengo Winter Crab (1,2,4).
Originated at Marengo, Ill. (3,6). This is a good variety for home use where a late-keeping crabapple is desired, and some have found it a profitable market variety but other varieties of its season which are more attractive in color are generally preferred for commercial purposes. The tree is of medium size, vigorous, spreading, very hardy, long-lived and a reliable cropper usually yielding heavy crops annually. The limbs are very tough and support heavy loads well. The fruit hangs well to the tree till very late in the season. It agrees well with the following description given by Warder (2): "Fruit globular, truncate, regular, or slightly flattened on the sides, one of the largest of its class; surface smooth, yellow, blushed or covered with crimson; dots minute; basin shallow, folded; eye small, closed; cavity medium, regular; stem long; core large, closed, meeting the eye; seeds few, small, plump, light brown; flesh yellow, firm, rather juicy; flavor subacid, aromatic. Use, kitchen and dessert; quality, good; season, winter, and till spring in the North."

Martha
References.  1.
Synonyms.  None.
Fruit large, very handsome clear yellow more or less overspread with bright red; excellent in flavor and quality; one of the very best of its class for all culinary purposes. The tree is of medium size, moderately vigorous, roundish or spreading, very hardy, comes into bearing young, and is a reliable cropper, yielding good to heavy crops annually or nearly annually. The fruit hangs well to the tree, is uniform, reliable and satisfactory in appearance and quality. Season, September to late fall. It should be more generally grown in New York.
Historical. Originated with Peter M. Gideon, Excelsior, Minn. It has as yet been grown but little in this state.

TREE.

Tree medium in size, moderately vigorous.
Form spreading, open and somewhat inclined to droop.
Twigs long, curved, slender; internodes long.
Bark reddish-brown tinged with green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, not pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, small, oblong, not raised.
Buds very prominent, large, long, acute, free, not pubescent.
Leaves rather long, somewhat twisted and drooping.

FRUIT

Fruit usually rather large, uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish or oblate, regular or faintly ribbed, usually symmetrical; sides sometimes unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) long, slender.
Cavity acute to somewhat obtuse, medium in depth to rather shallow, rather broad, sometimes furrowed, often thinly russeted.
Calyx medium to small, closed or partly open, occasionally deciduous.
Basin shallow, wide, obtuse, smooth.
Skin moderately thin, tough, smooth, clear pale yellow almost entirely covered with an attractive bright light red overspread with bluish bloom; sometimes faint narrow stripes extend from the cavity to calyx.
Dots rather numerous, light-colored, small to medium size.
Calyx tube short, rather narrow, very small, conical or somewhat funnel-form.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core medium size, axile; cells closed or nearly so.
Carpels roundish or somewhat obovate, slightly tufted.
Seeds medium size, rather narrow, acute to acuminate.
Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, juicy, rather brisk subacid, good to very good in flavor and quality.
Season September to November.

Minnesota
References.  1. Gideon, Horticulturist, 27:244. 1872. 2. Gibb, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1883:125. 3. Ib., Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 10:36. 1884. 4. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:244. 5. Beach, NY Sta. An. Rpt., 15:277. 1896. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903:223. 7. Thomas, 1903:349.
Synonyms.  Minnesota Crab (2-7).
This variety originated in Minnesota. The fruit is very large for its class, roundish; skin pale yellow blushed or mottled on the sunny side and overspread with thin whitish bloom; flesh white, firm, crisp, juicy, fine-grained, subacid to mild subacid or nearly sweet, slightly astringent, good. Season September and October. As grown at this Station, the tree is of spreading form, moderately vigorous and not very productive.

Montreal Beauty
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Montreal (10). Montreal Beauty Crab (1-9).
This very beautiful fruit originated in Quebec and was propagated as early as 1833. Gibb (2,5) states the tree is less hardy than that of Transcendent, but is strong, vigorous, rather large, at first very close and upright, does not come into bearing early, but bears heavily. The fruit is large for its class, oblong conic to roundish oblong and truncate, yellowish-green, mostly covered with red; flesh yellowish-white, tender, rather juicy, unless overripe, subacid, very slightly astringent; season, late September and October. It is well known in the vicinity of Montreal and other portions of Quebec. In the United States it is quite frequently listed by nurserymen (7), yet it is not generally known.

Oblong
References.  1. Desportes, Horticulturist, 6:507. 1851. fig. 2. Downing, 1869:425. 3. Barry, 1883:360.
Synonyms.  Baccata fructa oblonga (1). Oblong-fruited Siberian Crab (2). Oblong Siberian Crab (1,3).
Fruit medium size, oblong conic, yellowhish-white, partly shaded with crimson, striped with carmine and covered with thin bloom; stem very long, slender, usually bracted. This variety has been sparingly disseminated in New York but is now seldom or never planted here. It is not superior to other varieties of its season.

Orange
References.  1. Downing, 1869:425. 2. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1884:36. fig. 3. Thomas, 1897:299. fig. 4. Budd-Hansen, 1903:224.
Synonyms.  None.
A variety of American origin but little grown in New York. Some regard it as a desirable variety for both home use and market. The tree is roundish, spreading, dwarfish, a moderate or rather slow grower, hardy, moderately long-lived and a reliable cropper yielding good to heavy crops annually. It comes into bearing rather young. Season September to November.

FRUIT (1,4).

Fruit medium size.
Form roundish, slightly oblate.
Stem (Pedicel) very long, slender.
Cavity open, deep, acute with trace or russet.
Calyx closed.
Basin very shallow or flat, wrinkled.
Skin orange-yellow often netted with russet.
Dots minute, white, obscure.
Core open.
Flesh light salmon-yellow, a little dry, rather mild subacid with sweet after-taste, good.
Season September to November.

Paul Imperial
References.  1. Ellwanger and Barry, Cat., 1888:14. 2. Thomas, 1897:299.
Synonyms.  None.
A September variety in season about with Transcendent; somewhat irregular in shape; of very good general appearance but less attractive in size and color than Hyslop and inferior to Martha in quality. The tree is below medium size, comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable annual cropper.
Historical. Introduced by Paul and Son, Cheshunt, England. A cross between the Red Astrachan and Siberian Crab (1).

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous with short, stout, crooked branches having numerous small spurs.
Form spreading, flat, open.
Twigs olive-green tinged with brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium to large, oval, slightly raised.
Buds large, prominent, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit small to medium, uniform in size but not in shape.
Form usually oblate, often irregularly elliptical, strongly ribbed; sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) long to medium, slender.
Cavity obtuse to acute, moderately deep, broad, furrowed, not russeted.
Calyx large, closed, prominent, persistent; lobes long, moderately broad.
Basin very shallow, wide, obtuse, furrowed and wrinkled and sometimes mammillate.
Skin thin, rather tender, smooth, yellow, often entirely covered with dark bright red or with but little of the yellow ground color exposed, overspread with blue bloom.
Dots very small, numerous, indistinct, light.
Calyx tube small, short, moderately wide, urn-shape.
Stamens nearly marginal.
Core rather large, axile or nearly so; cells closed or slightly open; core lines meeting.
Carpels nearly roundish, narrowing toward apex, tufted.
Seeds below medium size, moderately wide, acute, light brown.
Flesh yellowish sometimes stained with pink, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, rather tough, juicy, brisk subacid, less astringent than Red Siberian, good.
Season September and October.

Picta Striata
References.  1. Ellwanger and Barry, Cat., 1888:14. 2. Beach, NY Sta. Am. Rpt., 12:601. 1893. 3. Ragan, USB.P.I. Bul., 56:370. 1905.
Synonyms.  Pieta (3).
Fruit handsome, rather mild in flavor; season late fall and early winter. It is hardly large enough for a good commercial variety. The tree is a good grower, comes into bearing rather late and is an annual cropper yielding moderate to good crops.
Historical. Received from Ellwanger and Barry, Rochester, NY in 1888 for testing at this Station.

TREE.

Tree rather large.
Form upright spreading to roundish with rather drooping laterals.
Twigs long, curved, slender; internodes short.
Bark clear brown, tinged with green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels quite numerous, rather conspicuous, medium size, oval, not raised.
Buds medium size, plump, acute, free, not pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium or above, uniform in size but not in shape.
Form oblate or roundish oblate, irregularly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) long, slender.
Cavity obtuse, medium to rather deep, medium to broad, compressed, smooth or nearly so.
Calyx usually small, closed; lobes separated at base, long, medium in width, acute to acuminate.`
Basin shallow to medium in depth, medium in width, obtuse, nearly smooth.
Skin thin, tender, smooth, rather glossy, pale greenish-yellow nearly covered with crimson, blushed and striped with carmine.
Dots indistinct, small, gray.
Calyx tube moderately short, rather narrow, conical to urn-shape.
Stamens marginal or nearly so.
Core medium to large, axile; cells slightly open or closed; core lines clasping.
Carpels roundish to elliptical, concave, deeply emarginate, sometimes tufted.
Seeds rather dark brown, medium size, wide, short, obtuse.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, a little coarse, tender, juicy, somewhat astringent, sprightly subacid, good.
Season October to early winter.

Quaker
References.  1. Rural NY, 1870 (cited by 7). 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:247. 3. Thomas, 1897:299. 4. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bul., 152:224. 1898. 5. Farrand, Ib., 205:48. 1903. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903:224. 7. Ragan, USB.P.I. Bul., 56:371. 1905.
Synonyms.  None.
This variety has been disseminated more in the western states than it has in New York. It is but little grown here. Farrand (5) describes it as a late ripening variety of only fair quality, size medium to large; color yellow with a red cheek; tree handsome, vigorous but ot very productive; season October.

Queen Choice
References.  1. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:247. 2. Ellwanger and Barry, Cat, 1894:15. 3. Thomas, 1897:299. 4. Budd-Hansen, 1903:224.
Synonyms.  Queen's Choice (1-3).
This crab has a fruit which is medium or above, roundish conical, of a beautiful crimson color, showy and attractive; flesh whitish and of pleasant flavor and quality; season October; tree vigorous; tree vigorous, very prolific (2-4).
It is but little known in New York.

Red Siberian
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Red Siberian Crab (5,8,9,12). Siberian Crab (1-4, 6,7,10,13,14).
Origin France (19). Fruit small, decidedly ornamental, borne in clusters. It is three-quarters of an inch to an inch in diameter, roundish oblate to somewhat oblong, irregularly elliptical; stem long and slender; cavity acute, medium in width and depth; calyx small to medium, often deciduous; basin but slightly depressed. Skin smooth, pale yellow striped and blushed with lively red and overspread with blue bloom; flesh subacid, astringent, good for culinary uses. Season September and October.

September
References.  1.Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1888:319. 2. Beach NY Sta. An. Rpt., 12:602. 1803.
Synonyms.  None.A very handsome fruit of good quality for either dessert or culinary use. It ripens a few days later than Transcendent. The tree is a good grower, comes into bearing young and yields full crops biennially.
This is distinct from the September apple described by Downing (Downing, 1869:350).

Historical. Originated with Peter M. Gideon, Excelsior, Minn., from seed of Cherry Crab. In 1888 Mr. Gideon sent stock of this variety to this Station for testing.

TREE.

Tree vigorous, with short, stout, crooked and twisted branches.
Form rather flat, spreading, open.
Twigs moderately long, curved, moderately stout with large terminal buds; internodes long.
Bark clear brown, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium size, round, not raised.
Buds prominent, large, long, plump, acute, free, not pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large for a crab, uniform in size but not in shape.
Form roundish oblate to somewhat oblong, inclined to conic, frequently ribbed; sides usually unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) usually long and slender.
Cavity somewhat obtuse, rather shallow to medium in depth, medium to broad, occasionally furrowed, sometimes russeted.
Calyx medium to rather large, closed or partly open.
Basin mammillate, very shallow to moderately deep, medium in width, slightly obtuse.
Skin thin, tender, smooth, pale yellow or greenish, striped with red, in well colored specimens becoming nearly covered with dark red, overspread with bluish bloom.
Dots small, scattering inconspicuous, gray or brownish.
Calyx tube rather short, medium in width, broadly funnel-form; pistil point persistent.
Stamens median to nearly marginal.
Core medium size, axile or slightly abaxile; cells closed or wide open; core lines clasping.
Carpels roundish, elongated.
Seeds variable in shape, medium size, moderately wide, rather short, acute to broadly acute, rather light dull brown.
Flesh tinged with yellow, medium in grain, moderately tender, juicy, subacid, not astringent but with an agreeable crabapple flavor, good to very good in quality.
Season September.

Soulard
References.  1.
Synonyms.  None.
This is regarded by Bailey as a hybrid between the native prairie crab, Pyrus ioensis [changed to Malus ioensis -ASC] (13), in which opinion he is supported by Craig (14). It is distinct from the Soulard apple. According to Soulard's account (13) "it orginated on a farm about twelve miles from St. Louis, MO, where stood an American crab thicket not inclosed, near the farmhouse, about twenty-five years since. The thicket was cut down and the ground cultivated some tow or three years; culture being discontinued, another crab thicket sprang up, and when bearing, one tree (the identical kind now called Soulard crab) was discovered. The fruit astonished me by its remarkably large size, being sent to me by a friend whose widowed mother, Mrs. Freeman Delauriere, occupied the farm. I immediately propagated it by grafting upon crab stock and upon our common seedlings. Upon both stocks producing the same fruit and thriving admirably, I disseminated it among my friends as a very desirable fruit, having nothing of the Siberian type. It is to me conclusive that this crab is the offspring of an accidental hybridization of the wild crab by our common apple. The tree, its foliage, habit, increased size of fruit and tree, and decreased acerbity, convince me it is a hybrid, and as far as I know, the first instance of such a cross.
"I consider it the most desirable of all crabs that I have seen. Adding sweetness, it is delicious baked. It makes most excellent preserves, being large enough to be quartered, and unsurpassed by any crab for jams, jellies etc., imparting its delicate taste and rich crab aroma. The largest have measured over sever inches around. In form, color and smell it is like the common crab, and it hangs on the tree until destroyed by frost. It will keep two years, with common care, in a cellar, and will stand repeated freezing and thawing in a dark place. It is agreeable to many palates in the spring."
"The tree is an immense grower in the nursery, coming into fruit and making but little growth afterward, and is an immense and regular bearer. I have made some cider as clear as wine, with sugar or a quarter part of sweet apples. It will make delicious strong cider. Tree perfectly hardy, having stood the severest winters here and at St. Paul, Minn., for twenty-five years."
After giving the testimony of several observers with regard to the value of this hybrid for the Upper Mississippi valley Bailey concludes: "It is probable that too much was expected of the Soulard crab when it was first introduced, and that it afterward, suffered from the partial collapse. Such an array of apples has now been introduced into the cold Northwest-- from the East, from Russia, offspring of the Siberian crab, and local seedlings of the common apple-- that the Soulard crab and its kin have been obscured" (13).
The variety is still listed by some nurserymen (10). It is practically unknown in New York and has no value for this state.

Transcendent
References.  1. Horticulturist, 22:125. 1867. 2. Warder, Tilt. Jour. Hort., 5:205. 1869. fig. 3. Downing, 1869:426. 4. Todd, 1871:83. fig. 5. Fitz, ***tbal***
Synonyms.  Transcendant (5,9,10,13).
This beautiful fruit has for many years been one of the most popular of the crabapples cultivated in this state. The tree is a good grower, roundish, spreading, hardy and usually very productive yielding good to very heavy crops nearly annually. It is in season from late August to the middle of September or a little later.
Historical. The history of Transcendent seems to be unknown. Although our first reference to this variety in 1867, William Prince had it listed in his nursery catalogue as early as 1844 (Ragan, USP.B.I. Bul., 56:373. 1905). It seems to have been in the hands of nurserymen for years before it came to the attention of pomological writers, hence the obscurity in regard to its origin.

TREE.

Tree large with stout, curved and drooping branches.
Form very spreading, drooping, rather dense.
Twigs moderately long, curved, slender, with large terminal buds; internodes long.
Bark brown, tinged with green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels quite numerous, medium to large, oval, raised, conspicuous.
Buds medium to large, rather prominent, plump, obtuse or slightly acute, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to rather large.
Form roundish or roundish oblong, flattened at the ends, somewhat ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long, rather stout, bracted.
Cavity narrow, shallow, obtuse.
Calyx large, closed; lobes long, leafy, reflexed,.
Basin shallow, wrinkled.
Skin thin, clear bright yellow with bright red cheek, overspread with bloom. Highly colored specimens are nearly covered with bright red.
Calyx tube conical.
Stamens marginal.
Core medium size; cells closed.
Flesh yellow, crisp, juicy, moderately fine, somewhat astringent, subacid, very good for culinary uses.
Season late August to the middle of September.

Van Wyck
References.  1. Downing, 1872:39. app. 2. Barry, 1883:360. 3. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 10:37. 1884. 4. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:251. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1897:11. 6. Thomas, 1897:300. fig. 7. Budd-Hansen, 1903:227.
Synonyms.  Brier Sweet (6). Van Wyck Crab (2,4-7). Van Wyck Siberian (1). Van Wyck Sweet (3, 4).
A sweet crabapple which according to Downing (1) originated as a chance seedling in Fishkill, Dutchess county, NY. Fruit large for a Siberian crabapple, whitish shaded with bright red, covered with bloom; flesh whitish, tender, moderately juicy, sweet, rich; it sometimes watercores; core small, closed; season August and September (1,2). This variety is occasionally listed by nurserymen (4). It is not generally known in New York and it appears that its cultivation in this state is not increasing.

Whitney
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Whitney Crab (4,7,9). Whitney No. 20 (1,2,5,6,8,11-13, 15, 16).
One of the most popular of the large crabapples particularly in the West and North. The fruit is attractive, yellow, striped with lively red, subacid, good for dessert and very good for culinary uses. It is in season in August and early September. The tree is a thrifty, upright grower, comes into bearing young and is very productive.
Historical. This variety originated with A.R. Whitney, Franklin Grove, Ill. (1). It was at first disseminated under the name Whitney No. 20, under which name it was described by Warder as early as 1869 (1). It has not been much planted in New York but in regions farther north and west its cultivation is gradually increasing.

TREE.

Tree below medium with moderately stout, moderately long, curved branches.
Form upright becoming somewhat spreading after fruiting heavily.
Twigs short, straight, stout with large terminal buds; internodes medium size.
Bark bright brown tinged with green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels numerous, small, oval, not raised.
Buds medium to large, broad, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit large, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish inclined to conic or to ovate.
Stem (Pedicel) slender.
Cavity narrow to moderately wide, rather deep, obtuse.
Calyx medium to large, closed or partly open.
Basin broad, shallow, wrinkled.
Skin light yellow largely shaded and striped with red.
Flesh yellowish, crisp, juicy, mild subacid or nearly sweet with slight crabapple flavor, good to very good.
Season late August and early September.

Yellow Siberian
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Amber Crab (3). Golden Beauty. Siberian Crab (6).
This is sometimes called Golden Beauty. It is similar to Red Siberian except in the color and size of the fruit, it being rather large and of a clear golden-yellow color. Season September. Tree medium size or below, a good grower, upright becoming roundish, and somewhat drooping, very hardy and healthy except that under certain circumstances it suffers from blight. It comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper, yielding heavy to very heavy crops annually or nearly annually. It is grown principally for home use but sometimes a portion of the fruit is disposed of in local markets.
Historical.

TREE.

Tree
Form
Twigs
Bark
Lenticels
Buds

FRUIT

Fruit
Form
Stem (Pedicel)
Cavity
Calyx
Basin
Skin
Dots
Calyx tube
Stamens
Core
Carpels
Seeds
Flesh
Season