State of New York- Department of Agriculture

The Apples of New York
[Apples starting with "B"-"D" -ASC]

Apple Home

BABBITT
REFERENCES. 1. Gano, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1889:130. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 3. U. S. Agr. Rpt., 1893:286. 4. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:180. 1899. 5. Fulton, Ib. 194:62. 1901. 6 Thomas, 1903:322, 7. Budd-Hansen, 1903:41.
Synonym. Western Baldwin (3, 6, 7).
Babbitt is a very handsome large apple, red and striped, of about the same season as the Tompkins King. It is excellent for cooking but too sour for dessert. It is hardy, healthy and very vigorous, In Western New York, so far as tested, it appears to be productive, comes into bearing rather young, and bears heavy biennial crops. In fact some report that the fruit sets so abundantly that it is apt to be rather small unless attention be given to pruning and thinning. Further testing is required to determine its merits for this region. It has been found very productive in Michigan (5), and is reported as generally productive in the central states (3). In Eastern New York, although it blooms abundantly, it has been found to be a shy bearer. On this account and because the fruit is very acid, it is not there considered worthy of cultivation.
Historical. Babbitt originated from seed of Baldwin about 1845 with C. W. Babbitt of Woodford county, Illinois (3).
TREE.
Tree vigorous to very vigorous. Form roundish spreading, rather open; branches stout, often crooked, tough, with strong joints which hold heavy loads without splitting. Twigs moderately long, rather stocky, varying from curved to nearly straight; internodes very short. Bark bright olive-green with dull reddish-brown markings, thickly mottled with scarf-skin; quite pubescent. Lenticels irregularly scattering, medium to small, usually roundish or somewhat elongated. Buds medium to large, broad, obtuse, pubescent. Leaves medium to large, rather broad, dark green, with thick texture.
Fruit.
Fruit somewhat resembles Wagener in form, being large, roundish oblate, slightly angular and somewhat irregular. Stem short. Cavity obtuse to acute, moderately shallow, medium to broad, slightly russeted. Calyx nearly closed.
Basin somewhat abrupt, moderately deep, somewhat furrowed, slightly corrugated.
Skin bright pale yellow with mottled red cheek, striped with bright carmine. When well grown the fruit has good size, bright attractive color and fine general appearance.
Calyx tube conical approaching funnel-form. Stamens median.
Core rather small, axile, closed; core lines clasping. Carpels broad, roundish, nearly truncate. Seeds dark brown, medium or below.
Flesh whitish, tinged with yellow, moderately fine-grained, moderately crisp, juicy, sprightly subacid or sour; too sour for dessert, excellent for cooking.
Season. It is in season about with Tompkins King but sometimes keeps well till late spring, and is then especially desirable for cooking because it retains well its sprightly subacid flavor.

Bailey Spice
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  Bailey's Spice (1,6,9,10).
A dessert apple of medium size, light yellow color and subacid, spicy flavor, in season in September and October.
Historical. In 1850, J.W. Bailey, of Plattsburgh, published the following account of the origin of this variety (2,3). "The original tree is now growing in my grounds, and was planted there fifty years ago by my grandfather, Captain Nathaniel Platt. It is a great bearer, and I think I never knew an apple so invariably fair and perfect as this."
So far as we have learned this variety is no longer planted and is nearly obsolete in New York.

FRUIT
Fruit medium size.
Skin light yellow color
Flesh subacid, spicy flavor
Season September and October.

BAILEY SWEET
REFERENCES. 1. Thomas, 1849:150. 2. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:59. 1851. 3. Downing, 1857:116. 4. Elliott, 1858:121. 5. Warder, 1867:633. fig. 6. Downing, 1872:84. 7. Barry, 1883:342. 8. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:288. 9. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 10. It. Sta. An. Rpt., 1901:287. 11. Fulton, Mich. Sta. Bul., 187:85. 1901. 12. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bul., 76:27. 1902. 13. Thomas, 1903:319. 14. Budd-Hansen, 1903:42. fig. 15. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul. 248:111. 1904. 16. Cole, 123. 17. Hooper, 12.  [18.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.]
Synonyms. Bailey's Golden Sweet (16). Bailey Sweet (1, 4, 5, 12, 13, 17). Bailey Sweet (8, 10). Bailey's Sweet (2, 3, 7, 16). Bailey's Sweet (9). Edgerly Sweet (1, 4, 13). Edgerly's Sweet (3, 6). Howard's Sweet (3, 6). Paterson's Sweet (3, 6). Patterson Sweet (13). Patterson's Sweet (1, 2).
This is a very beautiful red apple, distinctly sweet and of very good quality. It is in season from October to January or sometimes later. It is not a very good keeper. In some localities the fruit is apt to be rather scabby and knotty, and unless it is well sprayed the percentage of unmarketable and low-grade fruit runs rather high. The tree is reliably productive but it does not excel either in vigor, health or hardiness, It is not recommended for cultivation.
Historical. Bailey Sweet was introduced under this name from Perry, Wyoming county, New York, more than 60 years ago (1). Whether it originated there or was an old variety brought in from the East is uncertain (3). Although it has long been known and widely disseminated, there is no section of the state where it is grown in large quantities.
TREE.
Tree upright, somewhat spreading, rather open, not dense; branches moderately stout or slender. Twigs rather slender, nearly straight; internodes medium to short. Bark rather dark brownish-red marked with thin gray scarf-skin; sparingly pubescent. Lenticels numerous, medium to below, usually oblong, conspicuous, somewhat raised. Buds medium to large, broad, acute to somewhat obtuse, appressed; somewhat pubescent. Leaves often rather broad and large; foliage not dense.
In the nursery the development of the root system is rather light or weak. In the orchard the tree makes a rather slow or moderately vigorous growth and does not become large. It is a reliable cropper with a tendency to annual bearing. The fruit hangs well to the tree.
[Diseases: Susceptible to scab, fireblight and cedar apple rust. (18)] Fruit.Moscow Mitch
Fruit sometimes as large as Baldwin or larger and averages above medium. Form roundish to roundish conic, or somewhat oblate, ribbed obscurely if at all, rather symmetrical, sides somewhat elliptical; pretty uniform in size and shape. Stem short to medium, rather slender to thick. Cavity acute, usually rather deep, somewhat furrowed, sometimes with sides compressed or lipped, often partly covered with a thin golden-brown russet. Calyx closed or sometimes partly open, small to medium with short obtuse to acute lobes. Basin somewhat shallow to very shallow, medium to narrow, obtuse to rather abrupt, often slightly furrowed or slightly corrugated, with a tendency to develop mammiform protuberances.
Skin rather tender, nearly smooth, clear bright yellow largely covered with deep red, mottled or obscurely striped with darker red. Often irregularly netted markings and dots of whitish or russet-gray contrast conspicuously with the red surface. Whitish scarf-skin sometimes radiates from the cavity.
Prevailing effect attractive bright red.
Calyx tube funnel-shape, medium length with a rather wide limb. Stamens median.
Core axile, medium in size, closed; core lines clasping. Carpels elliptic to roundish cordate, emarginate. Seeds medium to rather large, long, acute.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, moderately coarse, moderately crisp, rather tender, moderately juicy to juicy, decidedly sweet, agreeable in flavor, very good in quality.
Season October to January or later. [Early fall in Virginia (18). Uses: Dessert & applesauce. (18)
Keeping ability: Poor. Southern-grown apples only last a few weeks in the fridge. (18)]

BAKER

REFERENCES. 1. Horticulturist, 15:92. 1860. 2. Downing, 1872:84. 3. Thomas, 1885:502. 4. Not listed by Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 5. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:193. 6. Budd-Hansen, 1903:43. 7. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:37. 1903.
Synonym. Scott (2).
This is a red apple of good size, pretty uniform in size and shape and of fairly good quality. It is not so good a keeper as Baldwin and is inferior to it in quality and hardly equal to it in color. The tree is hardy, healthy, vigorous and reliably productive with a tendency to biennial bearing. There is a considerable loss from the dropping of the fruit. Although it has been known in cultivation for more than a century (1), it appears to have practically passed out of the lists offered by the nurserymen in North America (4) and evidently is nearly obsolete.
Historical. It is stated that the original tree was in full bearing in its native place, Richfield, Ct., during the Revolutionary War. Forty years ago it was but little known outside the vicinity of its origin (1).
TREE
Tree large, vigorous, productive; branches stout, crooked. Form upright spreading, open. Twigs below medium to long, erect, slightly curved, stout, blunt at the tips; internodes medium. Bark rather clear olive-green partly covered with dark brownish-red, with light streaked scarf-skin; quite pubescent.Lenticels scattering, roundish, medium sized, raised. Buds prominent, large, broad, plump, obtuse, pubescent, free or nearly so. Leaves large, broad.
Fruit.
Fruit above medium to sometimes large; pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish to roundish conic, sometimes slightly oblate, generally symmetrical. Stem medium to short, rather thick. Cavity acuminate, rather shallow to moderately deep, broad, often with radiating russet, sometimes lipped. Calyx large, usually open, sometimes closed; lobes often reflexed, acute to obtuse. Basin abrupt, moderately deep, moderately wide to wide, somewhat furrowed.
Skin yellow or greenish-yellow, largely overlaid or mottled with red and striped and splashed with ‘carmine, but not conspicuously so. Dots numerous, russet, mingled with some broken lines or flecks of russet, yet the skin is rather smooth. Prevailing effect. when highly colored is bright red, otherwise yellowish.
Calyx tube wide, conical sometimes with short funnel tube extension.
Stamens median to basal.
Core comparatively small, axile, closed or sometimes open; core lines slightly clasping. Carpels flat, elongated ovate approaching cordate, tufted. Seeds medium, moderately wide, moderately long, acute, tufted, medium brown.
Flesh whitish or tinged with yellow, moderately firm, moderately coarse, breaking, moderately tender, rather juicy, mild subacid becoming somewhat sweet, agreeable in flavor, good or nearly good in quality.
Season October to February.
'Baker's Eastern Pippin' Apple is a distinct variety of Canadian origin.44

Baker Sweet
References.  1. Downing, 1857:117. 2. Warder, 1867:712. 3. Thomas, 1875:492.
Synonyms.  Baker's Sweet (1). Late Golden Sweet (1). Long Stem Sweet (1). Winter Golden Sweet (1,3).
A golden yellow apple of good size and attractive appearance. Because it is sweet, not a late keeper and drops readily from the tree it is of little commercial value except where it can be disposed of in local market, notwithstanding that the tree is very productive. It is a good variety for the home orchard where a sweet apple, ripening in late autumn, is desired.
Historical. This is an old variety, formerly much grown in parts of New England (1). It is but little grown in New York state.

TREE.

Tree medium size, only moderately vigorous or a slow grower; branches dark, rather slender, somewhat resembling Jonathan (1).
Form spreading.
Twigs rather stout.

FRUIT

Fruit large to medium, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish to oblate, usually regular.
Stem (Pedicel) short to rather long, rather slender.
Cavity large, acute to acuminate, deep, rather broad, sometimes partly russeted and with outspreading rays, symmetrical.
Calyx pubescent, medium, closed; lobes broad at base, acute.
Basin shallow to moderately deep, narrow to above medium in width, somewhat abrupt, a little furrowed.
Skin moderately thin, tough, nearly smooth except for some patches of russet and conspicuous russet dots, good yellow with shade of brownish-red blush on exposed cheek.
Prevailing effect good yellow.
Dots conspicuous russet
Calyx tube medium, somewhat funnel-shape.
Stamens median.
Core above medium to large abaxile; cells open, sometimes unsymmetrical; core lines meeting.
Carpels very broadly ovate to roundish, tufted.
Seeds dark, medium to rather small, plump, acute, tufted.
Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately fine, rather tender, rather juicy, very sweet, pleasant, good to very good.
Season October to December.

BALDWIN.

REFERENCES. 1. Thacher, 1822:121. 2. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831. 3. Kenrick, 1833:41. 4. Mag. Hort., 1:360. 1835. 5. Manning, 1838:59. 6. Dittrich, 3:53. 7. Downing, 1845:98. fig. 1847. col. pl. 8. French, Horticulturist, 1:315. 1846. 9. Thomas, 1849:163. 10. Cole, 1849:128. 11. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:75. 1851. fig. 12. Hovey, 1:11. 1852. fig. and col. pl. 13. Bivort, dn. de Pom. Belge, 1855:147. 14. Hooper, 1857:14. 15. Elliott, 1858:66. fig. 16. Flotow, Ill. Handb. Obstk., 1:427. 1859. 17. Mas, Le Verger, 5:163. col. pl. 18. Warder, 1867:42. fig. 19. Downing, 1872:85. fig. 20. Leroy, 1873:89. fig. 21. Barry, 1883:342, 22. Hogg, 1884:13. 23. Wickson, 1891:245. 24. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 25. Woolverton, Ont. Fruit Stas. Rpt. 1895:7. fig. 26. Taylor, U. S. Div. Pom. Bul., 7:350. 1897. 27. Amer. Gard., 1899:546. 28. Eneroth-Smirnoff, 1901:261. 29. Budd-Hansen, 1903:43. fig. 30. Thomas, 1903:323. fig. 31. Fr. Lucas, 187.  [32.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.]
Synonyms. Baldwin Rosenapret (31). Baldwin's ROTHER Pippin (6). Calville Butter (18). Felch (7, 18, 19). Late Baldwin (12, 18). Pecker (1,7, 18, 19). Red Baldwin Pippin (18). Steele's Red Winter (7, 12, 18, 19). Woodpecker (7, 18, 19, 21).
The Baldwin is a bright red winter apple, above medium in size or large, and very good in quality when grown under favorable conditions. It stands handling well because of its firm texture and thick skin. It is a favorite market variety because of its desirable season, good size, attractive red color and good quality.
The Baldwin is preeminently the leading variety in the commercial orchards in New York, New England, certain regions in Southern Canada, in the southern peninsula of Michigan and on the clay soils of Northern Ohio. In many localities in Northern New York it is apt to winter-kill, especially in the higher altitudes. For the same reason it also fails in portions of Michigan and west of the Great Lakes. In the South and Southwest it is not desirable because it there becomes a fall apple and also because it does not attain as good quality as it does in the Baldwin belt. From Colorado to Washington it is more or less grown in many localities.
Not only is the Baldwin a standard fruit in American markets but it is one of the leading apples used for export trade. It is one of the principal varieties handled in cold storage. The apples of this variety which are unsuitable for barrelling supply a large part of the evaporator stock in New York state, and are also used to some extent by canneries.
The tree is a strong grower, long-lived and vigorous. The accompanying view illustrates the vigorous development of mature Baldwin trees, as also does the frontispiece. It is somewhat slow in reaching bearing maturity, but when mature it bears very abundantly. In fact, one of the faults of this variety is its habit of producing an overload of fruit biennially and bearing little or none on alternate years. On rather light, sandy or gravelly soils the fruit is apt to have a better color, or at least to color earlier in the season, than it does when grown on heavy clay lands. Some hold that fruit from the lighter or more gravelly soils ripens earlier and consequently scalds earlier in storage than do the duller colored Baldwins grown on heavier soils. The Baldwin is grown successfully on various soils and under various climatic conditions. Besides the other good points of the Baldwin which have been noticed above, it has the advantage of yielding a pretty uniform grade of fruit with a low percentage of culls, when kept free from injurious insects and fungous diseases.
The Baldwin foliage and fruit are often much injured by the apple scab fungus. It has often been remarked that the prevention of fungus diseases and of the attacks of insects, by proper spraying, not only increases the yield of marketable fruit but improves the quality as well. The Baldwin Spot is the name given to brown flecks in the flesh of Baldwin apples. This is not caused by either insects or fungi. It is a physiological defect which is more apt to appear in overgrown than in medium-sized fruit. No remedy is known.45 Historical. Soon after 1740 the Baldwin came up as a chance seedling on the farm of Mr. John Ball, Wilmington, near Lowell, Mass., and for about 40 years thereafter its cultivation was confined to that immediate neighborhood. The farm eventually came into the possession of a Mr. Butters, who gave the name Woodpecker to the apple because the tree was frequented by woodpeckers. The apple was long known locally as the Woodpecker or Pecker. It was also called the Butters.46 Deacon Samuel Thompson, a surveyor of Woburn, brought it to the attention of Col. Baldwin of the same town, by whom it was propagated and more widely introduced in Eastern Massachusetts. as early as 1784. From Col. Baldwin's interest in the variety it came to be called the Baldwin.47 In 1817 the original tree was still alive but it perished between 1817 and 1832.48 A monument to the Baldwin apple now marks the location.
Coxe in his work on fruits in 1817 makes no mention of the Baldwin. Thacher's American Orchardist, published in Boston in 1832, gives it very brief but favorable mention. Floy in his American edition of Lindley, Guide to the Orchard, New York, 1833, does not mention it, but in the appendix to the 1846 edition he describes the Baldwin and states that "in the Eastern States (New England) it is well known, highly esteemed, and extensively cultivated." Kenrick's New American Orchardist, Boston, 1833, says, "No apple in the vicinity of Boston is so popular as this, at the present day. It is raised in large quantities for the market * * * and is recommended for extensive cultivation."
Hovey in 1852 published an extended description of Baldwin with colored plate (12). He remarks, "The Baldwin is the most popular apple of New England, and is cultivated to a much greater extent than any other variety. Several large and fine orchards are to be found in the vicinity of Boston, some of which produce about one thousand barrels of fruit every bearing year. For exportation it is much sought after; and the large number of fifteen hundred barrels have been sent to the East Indies in one season."
Prior to 1850 the Baldwin was but little known in New York state. After that date, with the extension of the planting of commercial orchards, it came rapidly into popularity and gained the supremacy among the commercial apples of New York which it still holds.
TREE.
Tree large, very vigorous; branches large, strong. Form upright spreading, eventually becoming rather round and somewhat dense. Twigs long, straight, or somewhat crooked, moderately stout; internodes medium to long. Bark dark brownish-red mingled with. olive-green and faintly marked with thin scarf-skin; somewhat pubescent. Lenticels numerous, conspicuous, raised, usually oblong, sometimes large. Buds medium to large, broad or roundish, acute, pubescent, free or nearly so. Leaves often broad and large to very large; foliage rather dense.
[Disease Resistance:  Susceptible to scab and Baldwin spot. (Burford)] Fruit.Vote! While it still might count!
Fruit sometimes large to very large; usually above medium; pretty uniform in size. Form roundish inclined to conic, varying to roundish oblong; often faintly ribbed or somewhat irregular; symmetrical; fairly uniform in shape. Stem usually medium, to long. Cavity acute, medium to rather deep, rather broad, often somewhat furrowed, sometimes compressed, sometimes lipped, often russeted, with outspreading rays of russet or deep green. Calyx small to rather large; closed or somewhat open; lobes long, acute to acuminate. Basin abrupt, narrow to moderately wide; often distinctly furrowed; slightly corrugated.
Skin tough, smooth, light yellow or greenish, blushed and mottled with bright red, indistinctly striped with deep carmine. Flecks of russet, or even broken russet lines, may occasionally be seen on the base of the fruit. Dots gray or whitish, depressed, small and numerous toward the basin, more scattering, conspicuous, large, irregular, or elongated towards the cavity. Prevailing effect is bright red.
Calyx tube conical, rather short and wide with projection of fleshy pistil point into its base. Stamens basal.
Core medium or below, nearly axile, closed or partly open; core lines meeting. Carpels roundish ovate, emarginate, somewhat tufted. Seeds variable, often abortive; when normally developed they are large, long, acute, and dark brown.
Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, rather tender, juicy to very juicy, agreeably subacid, sprightly, somewhat aromatic, good to very good.
Season November to March or April in common storage; to May or later in cold storage.49
Uses. Well adapted for general market, dessert and culinary uses.  [All-purpose, but especially good for pies, cider & dessert (Burford).
[Keeping ability: Good, if not affected by Baldwin spot. (Burford).] Other Baldwin Types.
Besides the general type of the Baldwin apple above described, mention should be made of the following:
Russet Baldwins. Cases have been reported where the Baldwin has sported and developed fruit with russet skin. Since these apples appear to show no advantage over the smooth-skinned Baldwins, they are seldom propagated.
Gray Baldwin, Blue Baldwin, Black Baldwin and Dark Baldwin are indefinite terms sometimes applied to what appears to be a distinct type of the Baldwin. Scattering trees of it are occasionally found mingled in orchards with Baldwins of the ordinary type. The Dark Baldwin as compared with the common type has fruit that is slower in maturing on the tree, and keeps longer. The flesh has more of a greenish tinge and is firmer. The skin also shows dull green where the common type is yellow, and the red is dull and darker than the red of the common Baldwin. So far as we know the Dark Baldwin is not being intentionally propagated.
In speaking of the Dark Baldwin as a distinct type the fact is here recognized that the ordinary Baldwin when grown on sandy or gravelly soil generally gives brighter colored fruit than when grown on heavy clay soil. But the above-mentioned occurrence of a type called Dark Baldwin, mingled as it sometimes is in orchards with Baldwins of the common type, does not seem to be satisfactorily accounted for by attributing its appearance to a difference in soil. It is more probable that a distinct strain has arisen and been disseminated unwittingly in place of the common type.
Olympia is a sport of the Baldwin which differs from the type in having larger and better colored fruit. It is described under "Olympia."
[Description in 1862 Report of the US Commissioner of Agriculture]

BANANA SWEET.

REFERENCES. 1. Rural N. Y., 1885:278. fig. 2. Hexamer, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:69.
This is a sweet winter apple, attractive in appearance. Color greenish-yellow, highly colored specimens are blushed. Season January to March in New Jersey. So far as we know it has not been fruited in New York. This should not be confused with the Winter Banana introduced by Greening Brothers of Monroe, Michigan, in 1890, which is not a sweet apple.
Historical. Banana originated as a chance seedling with C. E. Blackwell, Titusville, N. J., about 1867.
TREE.
Tree spreading, upright, vigorous, rather dense. Twigs rather slender; internodes short. Bark reddish-brown. Buds not prominent.
Fruit.
Fruit large. Form roundish conical, sometimes one-sided. Stem mediumto large, long, slender. Cavity rather small, moderately deep, often with outspreading, irregularly broken, russet patches. Calyx rather small, closed.
Basin small to medium, somewhat irregularly corrugated, rather deep.
Skin greenish-yellow with a pale blush on the exposed side. Dots minute, scattering. Prevailing effect yellow.
Calyx tube conical, approaching funnel-form.
Core medium size, axile. Carpels roundish. Seeds medium size, obtuse.
Flesh white, fine-grained, tender, juicy, sweet, good.
Season. January to March or April.

Banks
References.  1. Craig and Allen, Can. Hort., 16:420. 1893. fig. 2. Nova Scotia Fr. Gr. Assn. Rpt., 1894:81, 129. 3. Sears, Can. Hort., 22:476. 1899. 4. Caston, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 9:55. 1902. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1903:166.
Synonyms.  BANKS GRAVENSTEIN (2). BANKS RED GRAVENSTEIN (1,4). Red Gravenstein (3).
In 1903 R.W. Starr, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, presented to the American Pomological Society the following report concerning this variety (5). "A bud sport from Gravenstein, much the same in season and flavor, but bright red, less ribbed, more regular in shape, a generally a little smaller in size. First noticed and propagated by C.E. Banks, of Berwick, Kings Co., N.S. It is well liked and is being quite largely planted." It appears that this sport first came into bearing about 1880 (1). In 1899 Sears (3) remarked, "The Banks or Red Gravenstein is gaining in popularity because it combines with the superior quality of the ordinary Gravenstein the bright red color which people demand who judge the apple by its appearance alone."
Except in points of difference above noted, Banks appears to be identical to Gravenstein and the reader is referred to the description of that variety for a technical account of the tree and fruit. So far as we can learn this variety is not yet planted to any considerable extent in New York.

BAPTIST.

REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1876: app. 44. 2+ Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 3. U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1895:20. 4 Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1897 :36.
As fruited at the Geneva Experiment Station, Baptist lacks distinctive character both in appearance and quality. In early winter its prevailing effect is dull dark red overspreading a dull greenish background, but it holds its color well until very late in the season and eventually the yellow tones become brighter making the fruit rather attractive. It is not recommended for cultivation in New York.
Historical. Baptist originated at Clinton, Kentucky (1), and was received for testing at the Geneva Experiment Station from W. M. Samuels of that place.
TREE.
Tree vigorous; branches rather stout. Form roundish, spreading, dense.
Twigs rather long to below medium, somewhat curved, moderately thick; internodes medium to short. Bark rather dull, dark reddish-brown; somewhat pubescent. Lenticels numerous, very irregular in size, shape and distribution, generally small, slightly elongated, and very thickly set, but some are large and narrow. Buds medium or below, often rather prominent, generally acute, very pubescent and free. Leaves moderately broad.
Fruit.
Fruit medium or below; pretty uniform in size and shape. Form oblate to roundish, truncate at base, sides sometimes unequal, often obscurely ribbed.
Stem short to medium, thick. Cavity obtuse, moderately shallow to rather deep, broad, sometimes russeted, greenish, occasionally lipped. Calyx closed or sometimes slightly open, medium, or below, pubescent. Basin rather shallow to moderately deep, wide, rather abrupt, somewhat furrowed and corrugated.
Skin thick, tough, smooth, green or yellowish blushed with red, deepening to very dark red in the sun, indistinctly marked with narrow deep crimson stripes. Dots conspicuous, small, pale yellow or russet. Prevailing effect very dark red.
Calyx tube long, conic to funnel-shaped. Stamens median to basal.
Core medium to small, closed or partly open, axile or nearly so, very broadly turbinate; core lines clasp the cylinder. Carpels elliptic or inclined to obcordate, emarginate. Seeds few, about medium size, rather wide, obtuse, somewhat tufted.
Flesh yellowish, very firm, somewhat coarse, not crisp, moderately tender, not very juicy, mild subacid, eventually becoming nearly sweet, hardly good.
Season at Geneva, January to June, in Kentucky, December to February.

BARBEL.

REFERENCES. 1. Gibb, Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1883. 2. Budd, Ia. Agr. College Bul., 1885:18. 3. Beach and Close, N.Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 1896:275-276. fig. 4. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:112. 1904.
Synonyms. Dept. No. 467 (2). Sugar Barbel (4). SUGAR BARBEL (3).
This is an attractive, dark red, winter apple of no special value in this region (3). It ranks good for dessert but only fair to good for culinary uses. BEACH
Core axile, medium to rather large, closed; core lines clasping. Carpels broadly ovate, emarginate. Seeds large, rather narrow, long, acute.
Flesh somewhat tinged with yellow, very firm, moderately coarse, not very juicy, subacid, fair to nearly good in quality.
Season very late; it is one of the latest keeping varieties.

Beautiful Arcad
References.  1. tbal
Synonyms.  Arcad Krasivui (3). Arkad Krasivui (5,12). Arkad Krasivui (5,12). Arkad Krasiwui (1,2,5,12). Beautiful Arcade (1,5,10, 11, 12). No. 453 (5, 6, 10-12).
This is a Russian apple of good medium size, yellow, partly shaded and splashed with red, sweet, in season in August and September. It is considered a desirable variety in portions of the Upper Mississippi valley and in other districts where superior hardiness is a prime requisite.

FRUIT

Fruit good medium size
Form
Skin yellow, partly shaded and splashed with red
Flesh sweet
Season August and September

Beauty of Kent
References.  1. tbal
Synonyms.  Beaute de Kent (19). Kent Beauty (25,26). Kentish Pippin (19, of some 3). Pippin de Kent (19). Pippin Kent (19).
Fruit large, beautiful, showy, suitable for culinary use, in season from late September to November. The tree is large, vigorous, upright, comes into bearing rather young, is a reliable cropper and moderately productive. In England where it originated it is said to do best under garden culture in warm soil and on Paradise stock; grown in clay and other uncongenial soils it loses quality (27). It is but little known in New York.

Belborodooskoe
References.  1. Gibb, Am. Pom Soc. Rpt., 1887:55. No. 37. 2. NY Sta. An. Rpt., 8:349. 1889. 3. Beach, Ib., 12:509. 1893. 4. Thomas, 1897:265, fig. 5. Hansen, SD Sta. Bul., 76:29. 1902.
Synonyms.  Bellerdovskoe (4,5). Bielborodovskæ (1). White Borodovka (1).
A Russian apple, medium to large, pale greenish-yellow, sometimes blushed, coarse, rather juicy, mild subacid to nearly sweet, good; season August. It it does not appear to be worthy the attention of New York fruit growers.

BELLE ET BONNE

REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1857:118. 2. Downing, 1872:91. 3. Hogg, (?) 1884:18. 4. Thomas, 1885:242. 5. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rept., 1890:288. 6. Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:314. 1896. 7. Thomas, 1903:337.
Synonyms. Bellyband (?) (3). Rolland (?) (3). Tenon Hills (1, 2). Winter Belle Bonne (?) (3).
This old Connecticut variety (1, 2) is found occasionally in Southeastern New York. The fruit is large, handsome, smooth, uniform in size and of about the same season as Hubbardston. It is rather too mild in flavor to be desirable for general purposes, Although an old variety it has never become a standard kind in the markets of this state. In hardiness, health and longevity it ranks about with Baldwin. The trees are moderately productive, usually bearing biennially. They are a little slow about coming into bearing. It is not recommended for planting in New York.
Downing regards it as probably identical with the Belle Bonne of Hogg (1, 2, 3) which was first described by Parkinson in 1629. It is quite distinct from Billy Bond.
TREE.
Tree large, vigorous. Form roundish, spreading. Twigs rather long, stout, somewhat pubescent. Bark dull reddish-brown.
Fruit.
Fruit large to very large. Form roundish oblate. Stem short. Cavity wide, deep, thinly russeted. Calyx closed. Basin medium in width and depth.
Skin deep yellow or greenish. Dots small. Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, rather coarse, juicy, mild subacid, good. Season, early winter.

BELMONT.

REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1845:142. 2. Thomas, 1849:177. 3. Cole, 1849:120. 4. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:80. 1851. 2 figs. and col. pl. No. 76. §- Hooper, 1857:16. 6. Downing, 1857:74. 7. Elliott, 1858:60. fig. 8 Warder, 1867:520. fig. 9. Chamberlain, Country Gentleman, 1885:1054. 10. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:288. 11. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:235. 12. Barry, 1896:342. 13. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:288. 1901. 14. Thomas, 1903: 337. fig. 15. Budd-Hansen, 1903:45.
Synonyms. Belmont Late (4). Belmont (1). Gate (1, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12). Gait (13). Golden Pippin of some (6, 7). Kelley White (6, 7). Mamma Beam (6,7). Mamma Bean (8). Waxen Appts (1, 4). Wasxen of some (6, 7). White (6). White Apple (7).
Fruit waxen, yellow with beautiful bright blush; excellent either for dessert or cooking. It makes a fine appearance on the tree but appears somewhat dull in the barrel or package. It is handled satisfactorily in local markets but it is not a good shipper. Because of its tender skin and delicate color it shows bruises readily, so that with ordinary methods of handling it is apt to be damaged in appearance. It has not always kept well. When the trees are overloaded, a gcod deal of the fruit is either too small for market or grades second class in size. For these reasons and because there are other commercial sorts larger in tree and in fruit, more reliable croppers and less subject to scab, Belmont, although it is known in various parts of the state, is grown to a limited extent only in New York commercial orchards. The tree is generally hardy except in the more elevated or more northern portions of the state. In trying locations it is sometimes injured by sunscald or canker. It usually bears biennially and yields good to heavy crops. The fruit hangs well to the tree.
Historical. Downing at first regarded Belmont as identical with Waxen of Coxe (1), but in the first revised edition this error is corrected with the statement that the variety originated in the garden of a Mrs. Beam, near Strasburgh, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, from whence it was taken to Belmont county, Ohio, where it became very popular and received the name of Belmont.
TREE.
Tree medium size, usually moderately vigorous, in some places rather dwarfish but on rich soils and in favorable locations it becomes large. Form upright spreading. Twigs medium in length or rather short, rather slender.
Bark light reddish-brown or olive-green becoming rather dark; partly covered with gray pubescence.
Fruit.
Fruit medium or above, sometimes large; fairly uniform in size and shape.
Form varies from rounded oblong to oblate conic but is usually roundish, somewhat broadly and indistinctly ribbed, somewhat irregular. Stem medium to short, often slender. Cavity rather large, acute to acuminate, rather deep, moderately broad, wavy, irregular, usually with thin brown russet, sometimes lipped. Calyx rather small, usually closed. Basin rather shallow to deep, moderately abrupt to abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thick, tough, smooth, waxen, clear bright yellow with bright orange-red blush. Dots whitish with minute russet point, often submerged, on the blushed portion becoming red areolar. Prevailing color yellow, not striped.
Calyx tube long, elongated cone-shape or funnel-form. Stamens marginal.
Core medium to rather large, axile, sometimes closed; core lines clasping.
Carpels roundish, pointed cordate, tufted. Seeds rather long, acute, tufted.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, moderately fine, crisp, tender, moderately juicy, mild subacid, very good.
Season October to February.
Uses. Cooking, dessert and local market.

Ben Davis
References.  1.  Downing, 1857:119. fig. 2. Elliott, 1859:124. 3. Adair, Horticulturist, 15:226. 1860. 2 figs. 4. Downing, Horticulturist, 16:40. 1861. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 6. Warder, 1867:585. fig. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1869:40. 8. Downing, 1872:93. fig. 9. Leroy, 1873:126. fig. 10. Barry, 1883:343. 11. Thomas, 1885:230. 12. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:288. 13. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:235. 14. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Gr. Assn., 26:170. 1894. 15. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 3:4. 1896. fig. 16. Watts, Tenn. Sta. Bul., 1896:7. 17. Amer. Gard., 18:746. 1897. 18. Waugh, Vt. Sta. Bul., 61:30. 1897. 19. Taylor, U. S. Div. Pom. Bul., 7:351. 1898. 20. Woolverton, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 6:36. 1899. 21. Waugh, Gardening, 7:278. 1899. 22. Alwood, Va. Sta. Bul., 130:130. 1901. fig. of tree. 23. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt. 14:288. 1901. 24. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bul., 76:29. 1902. fig. 25. Stinson, Mo. State Fruit Sta. Bul., 3:24. 1902. 26. Ont. Fr. Gr. Assn. An. Rpt., 34:108. 1902. 27. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:38. 1903. 28. Budd-Hansen, 1903:45. fig. 29. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:112. 1904.  [30.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.]
Synonyms.  Baltimore Pippin (8, 9). Baltimore Red (8, 9). Baltimore Red Streak (8,9). Carolina Red Streak (8,9, 11). Funkhouser (8). Kentucky Pippin (8). Kentucky Streak (11). New York Pippin (3, 4, 5). New York Pippin (6, 8, 8, 9, 10, 11). Pepin de New-York (9). Red Pippin (8). Victoria Pippin (8, 9). Victoria Red (8, 11).
    The Ben Davis reigns over a much greater extent of country than does the Baldwin. It is unquestionably the leading commercial sort and the most popular apple grown south of the Baldwin region. Generally speaking, it is the most important variety known in the apple districts of the vast territory which stretches from the Atlantic to the Pacific between parallels 32 and 42. It is preeminently successful in the Virginias, Kentucky, Tennessee, Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas and portions of adjoining states.

In the more elevated and more northern portions of New York it is not usually regarded with favor, but in Southeastern New York the planting of it for commercial purposes has extended until, in many sections, it now ranks in importance next to Baldwin and Rhode Island Greening. It is grown to a considerable extent in various other parts of the state, but in many cases less successfully because too often the seasons are less favorable to the best development of the fruit. Some find it acceptable for home use after the Baldwin season has closed, but here it is generally regarded as not good enough in quality for home use. It is often criticised disparagingly on the point of quality. When grown in the South or Southwest, at its best it is but of second rate quality, and unquestionably in most portions of New York state the seasons are usually too short to mature the variety properly. When grown in the South, the period when it is at its best is comparatively short. As fruited in New York, it ripens later and keeps later than when grown farther south. It often keeps here in ordinary storage till May, and in cold storage till June, or often till July. In the Ben Davis belt the fruit becomes large and handsomely colored, but in many portions of New York state it does not range much above medium in size and color. The fruit is thick-skinned, does not show bruises easily, and presents a good appearance in the package after being handled and shipped in the ordinary way.

Nurserymen like it because of its free-growing habit and the ease and rapidity with which trees of marketable size can be grown. In the orchard the tree is very hardy, healthy and vigorous. Although it does not appear to be as long-lived as Baldwin, it comes into bearing at an early age, and usually bears annually and abundantly. Often it makes a good growth, even while bearing good crops. The top is rather dense, and in pruning, particularly in the case of young trees, especial care should be taken to keep it open and spreading so as to give the best possible opportunity for the fruit to color well. Its habit of blossoming late in the spring is an advantage in some regions because the weather is then more apt to be favorable during the pollinating period, and the result is that Ben Davis in such cases often bears good crops, when with other varieties there is more or less of a crop failure.
Historical.  The origin of this apple will probably never be definitely known. It has been variously credited to Tennessee (16,19) Kentucky (1), and Virginia (7,16,19). It is supposed to have originated about the beginning of the last century. This view is supported by the fact that before the Civil War it had spread throughout the states just mentioned, and following the routes of migration had been carried into Southern Indiana, Illinois and pretty generally disseminated throughout Missouri and Arkansas. Downing does not mention it in his first edition, but it is described in the first revision (1) of his book on the The Fruits and Fruit Trees of America. Warder (6) refers to it as a comparatively new sort in Ohio and the Northwest but common in the South and Southwest. During the last quarter century it has been disseminated extensively through all the apple-growing portions of the United States.
Different Types of Ben Davis

Some assert that it is possible to recognize as many as four distinct types or strains of Ben Davis. So far as we know none of these types, if such exist, is being kept separate under propagation. It is certain that Ben Davis shows great variations in fruit in different parts of the country, in some cases so much so that those unfamiliar with it would not recognize fruit of it from different regions as being of the same variety.

Various seedlings of Ben Davis which have been introduced into cultivation show more or less resemblance to the parent and to each other. In the case of Gano and Black Ben Davis a notable controversy has arisen among nurserymen and fruit growers as to whether these are distinct varieties or identical. The Gano is known to some extent in New York. It resembles its parent Ben Davis very closely in the nursery, but it is unmistakably distinct from it in fruit. So far as we have tested it, it seems to be better adapted to New York conditions than is the Ben Davis.

[corrected as per Errata -ASC] Arkansas Belle, Etris and Eicke also belong in the Ben Davis group.

TREE
   Tree medium in size, rather rank-growing, especially when young, forming coarse strong wood which seldom breaks under heavy crops; branches strong, with numerous rather short laterals and spurs, often inclined to bend or droop.
Form upright becoming roundish, and in old trees rather spreading. Twigs long or very long, straight or slightly curved, moderately stout; internodes long. Bark bright, rather dark brownish-red, continuously mottled with fine, thin scarf-skin, pubescent. Lenticels scattering, round, sometimes oblong, raised, of a clear straw color, moderately conspicuous. Buds medium to large or broad, obtuse, appressed, sunken in the bark, very sparingly pubescent.
Leaves large, long, rather broad.
Fruit.
Fruit usually above medium to large. Form roundish, varying from somewhat conic to somewhat oblong, broad, rounded at the base, often somewhat elliptical or slightly irregular, sides sometimes unequal; pretty uniform in shape and in size. Stem medium to long, rather slender. Cavity acute, moderately deep to deep, of medium width, nearly symmetrical, often partly russeted or with outspreading rays of thin greenish russet. Calyx medium, closed or sometimes partly open; lobes rather short, of medium width, acute.
Basin abrupt, medium in width and depth, varying to shallow and narrow and rather obtuse, sometimes furrowed, usually oblique.
Skin tough, waxy, bright, smooth, usually glossy, clear yellow or greenish, mottled and washed with bright red, striped and splashed with bright dark carmine. Dots inconspicuous, small, scattering, light, whitish or brown. Prevailing effect bright deep red or red striped.
Calyx tube varies from short and cone-shaped to rather wide and funnel-form with rather long cylinder and frequently with fleshy projection of pistil point into its base. Stamens median to marginal.
Core medium, axile, closed or partly open; core lines clasping when the tube is funnel-form, meeting or slightly clasping when it is cone-shaped. Carpels rather flat, roundish or inclined to obovate, very emarginate, mucronate. Seeds large, long, irregular, rather wide, plump, acute, dark brown.
Flesh whitish, slightly tinged with yellow, firm, moderately coarse, not very crisp, somewhat aromatic, juicy, mildly subacid, good.
Season January to June.
Stem medium to long, rather slender.
Calyx medium, closed or sometimes partly open.
Skin tough, waxy, bright, smooth, usually glossy, clear yellow or greenish, mottled and washed with bright red, striped and splashed with bright dark carmine.
Dots inconspicuous, small, scattering, light, whitish or brown. Prevailing effect bright deep red or red striped.
Flesh whitish, slightly tinged with yellow, firm, moderately coarse, not very crisp, somewhat aromatic, juicy, mildly subacid, good.
Season January to June.
[Information from the Southeastern U.S. here.]

Benninger
References.  1. tbal
Synonyms.  Benniger (2).
A pleasant-flavored dessert apple of good medium size and attractive appearance; in season during late August and September. It is too mild in flavor to be very desirable for culinary purposes. The tree is a pretty good grower, comes into bearing young and is productive.
Historical. Originated about 1830 on the farm of Uhlie Benninger near Slatington, Lehigh county, PA. In that region it is said to be a good grower and reliable and abundant cropper (4).

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous with short stout branches.
Form spreading, open.
Twigs short, carved, stout with large terminal buds; internodes medium.
Bark clear brownish tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent.
Lenticels conspicuous, quite numerous, medium in size, oblong, not raised.
Buds deeply set in bark, medium in size, broad, obtuse, appressed, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium or above.
Form roundish oblate to roundish ovate, somewhat irregular; sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, rather slender.
Cavity acute or approaching acuminate, medium in width, moderately deep to deep, often somewhat russeted.
Calyx medium in size, usually closed; lobes narrow, acuminate.
Basin wide, moderately deep to shallow, smooth or slightly furrowed.
Skin rather thin, nearly smooth, yellow, blushed and streaked with red.
Dots rather small, greenish.
Calyx tube usually short, wide, conical.
Stamens marginal.
Core medium, abaxile; cells open; core lines slightly clasping or sometimes meeting.
Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, firm, moderately fine, crisp, rather juicy, mild subacid, good.
Season late August and September.

Benoni
References.  1. tbal.  [XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.]
Synonyms.  None. [Fail-Me-Never (Burford)]
Benoni is a fine dessert apple, very attractive in appearance and excellent in quality but not large enough to be a good market variety. The tree comes into bearing moderately young and yields fair to good crops biennially. It begins to ripen early in August and its season extends into September.
Historical. Originated in Dedham, Massachusetts, where the original tree was still standing in 1848. It was introduced to notice by Mr. E.M. Richards shortly before 1832 (2). It is highly esteemed throughout the country and is generally listed by nurserymen throughout the middle and northern portions of the apple-growing regions of this continent (24).

TREE.

Tree rather large, vigorous.
Form erect to somewhat roundish, dense.
Twigs moderately long, straight, slender; internodes medium.
Bark olive-green, shaded with light reddish-brown, lightly coated with scarf-skin, pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium, oblong, slightly raised.
Buds deeply set in bark, medium size, plump, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent.
[Diseases:  "Susceptible to cedar apple rust; moderately resistant to the other major diseases." (Burford)]

FRUIT

Fruit medium to rather small.
Form roundish inclined to conic, faintly ribbed toward the apex; sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short to very short, slender.
Cavity acute, rather narrow, moderately deep, wavy, greenish-russet.
Calyx in width and depth, abrupt, somewhat wrinkled.
Basin medium in width and depth, abrupt, somewhat wrinkled.
Skin smooth, orange-yellow partly covered with lively red striped with deep carmine.
Dots scattering, minute, whitish.
Calyx tube
Stamens basal.
Core small to medium, axile; cells closed; core lines meeting.
Carpels roundish, slightly elongated, emarginate.
Seeds few, dark brown, medium in size, plump, obtuse.
Flesh yellow, firm, crisp, fine-grained, tender, juicy, pleasant subacid, good to very good.
Season August and early September.
[Uses: Dessert (Burford)
Keeping ability: Poor (Burford)
Description in Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture, 1862.]

BENTLEY
REFERENCES. 1. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:100. 1851. fig. 2. Downing, 1857:121. 3. Elliott, 1858:122. 4. Warder, 1867:558. 5. Thomas, 1885:227. 6. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:288. 7. Budd-Hansen, 1903:47.  [8.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.]
Synonyms. Bentley Sweet (4). BENTLEY's SWEET (1,2,3,5).
Tree hardy, varies from moderately productive to very productive and comes into bearing rather young. The fruit is very sweet and keeps very late but is not attractive in color and ranks second rate in size and quality. It is not recommended for planting.
Historical. It is supposed to have originated in Virginia. It is but little known in New York.
TREE.
Tree medium size, spreading, a rather slow grower.
[Diseases:  "Susceptible to bitter rot; moderately resistant to the other major diseases." (Burford)] Fruit.
Fruit variable, sometimes above medium to large, averages below medium. Form roundish to oblong, often inclined to conic, sometimes irregular and obscurely ribbed, sides often unequal; fairly uniform in shape. Stem short to medium. Cavity deep, wide, often slightly furrowed or compressed, sometimes with greenish russet rays. Calyx large, closed or partly open. Basin abrupt, often oblique, moderately wide, moderately deep, often furrowed and somewhat wrinkled.
Skin smooth, rather clear pale yellow, mottled with red and striped with bright carmine. Dots numerous, conspicuous, dark brown. Prevailing color thin striped red.
Calyx tube rather large, sometimes long and funnel-shaped with core lines clasping, but sometimes short with core lines meeting. Stamens medium to marginal.
Core medium to small, axile, closed or partly open. Carpels roundish to obovate, emarginate. Seeds large, rather wide, plump, obtuse, black.
Flesh whitish slightly tinged with yellow, firm, rather fine, moderately juicy, sweet, crisp, good.
Season. December to May or June.
[Uses:  Dessert & cider (Burford)
Keeping ability:  Excellent. (Burford)]

BERGEN
REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1876:44 of app.
But little known in New York. Originated on the farm of Jessie Griswold, Bergen, N. Y. Fruit medium sized, partly red, mild subacid, good either for dessert or culinary use (1).

BESS POOL.
REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1872:95. 2. Hogg, 1884:21.
Synonym. Best Pool (1).
An old English apple but little known in this country. Above medium size; clear yellow, washed and striped with red; attractive in appearance. Flesh white, juicy, subacid. Season November to March. Not a reliable cropper. Esteemed in England both for culinary and dessert uses (2).

BETHEL.

References. 1. Hoskins, U. S. Agr. Rpt., 1886:274. 2. Hoskins, Rural N. Y., 47:249. 1888. figs. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:235. 4. An. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1899:15. 5. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rept. 14:288. 1901. 6. Munson, Me. Sta. Bul., 82:83. 1902. 7. Budd-Hansen, 1903:48.  [8.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.]
This shows its kinship to the Blue Pearmain in the quality, texture, form, conspicuous dots and color of its fruit. Sometimes it has a rather dull appearance, but it may attain a bright and attractive, though dark red, color. The quality is fairly good. It will not bear rough handling, and is suitable rather for local markets than for shipping long distances. The tree shows a rather weak development of roots in the nursery, but in the orchard becomes moderately vigorous and generally quite productive. It has proved very hardy in Northern New York, and is recommended for planting for home use and local markets in that section and in the more elevated regions of the state, where varieties of the grade of hardiness of Baldwin are apt to show winter injury. In such localities some prefer to grow it on warm soil or sod, to favor the development of better color. It is locally profitable. It is healthy, long-lived and a reliable cropper, usually comes into bearing rather young and bears annually. There is apt to be considerable loss from dropping of the fruit.
Some have thought that it is identical with an apple grown in Northern New York under the name Stone. The two varieties, as we have received them, are certainly distinct, but both belong to the Blue Pearmain group.
Historical. It originated in Bethel, Vermont (1). During the last twenty-five years it has become scattered throughout Northern New York, Northern New England and portions of Canada.
TREE.
Tree medium to rather large, moderately vigorous or vigorous. Form round, spreading. Twigs spreading, below medium in length, usually curved, somewhat slender; internodes medium. Bark brownish-red, exceptionally mingled with olive-green, blotched with gray; sparingly pubescent. Lenticels not very conspicuous, moderately abundant, rather small, roundish. Buds rather small, obtuse, appressed, pubescent.
[Diseases:  Moderately susceptible to the major diseases. (8).]
Fruit.gegen Nazis
Fruit large. Form roundish, slightly conic, somewhat angular or irregularly elliptical. Stem short, rather slender. Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, rather broad, rather symmetrical, with red russet often outspreading. Calyx pubescent, medium to rather large, partly open or closed; lobes rather narrow, acute. Basin rather shallow to moderately deep, moderately wide, slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thick, tough, smooth; good deep yellow, washed and mottled with red and striped with purplish carmine, becoming very dark red in highly colored specimens. Dots numerous, conspicuous, russet or light, many small, many large and areolar. Prevailing effect somewhat striped.
Calyx tube very large, wide, somewhat funnel-shaped with a short cylinder.
Stamens median to basal.
Core large, somewhat abaxile, open or sometimes closed; core lines somewhat clasping. Carpels broad, roundish ovate, emarginate, tufted. Seeds large, rather wide, long, acute to acuminate, tufted, medium brown.
Flesh yellowish, firm, coarse, crisp, moderately tender, moderately juicy, mild subacid, fair to good.
Season November to midwinter or possibly March.  [Excellent keeper. (8)]
Uses. Baking, dessert and local market.

BETHLEHEMITE

REFERENCES. 1. Elliott, 1858:60. fig. 2. Warder, 1867:423. fig. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871:6. 4. Downing, 1872:96. fig. 5. Thomas, 1885:231. Synonym. BETHLEMITE (2, 4).
This is an apple of the Newtown Spitzenburg type but it is inferior to that variety in size and color and is not better in quality. When well grown it ranks good to very good for either dessert or culinary uses, but it does not always develop good quality. It is not recommended for planting in New York.
Origin. It was first brought to notice in Bethlehem, Ohio (1) from which town it takes its name. Its origin is obscure. It is but little known in New York state.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous. Form upright spreading, somewhat open. Twigs short, stout; internodes short. Bark olive-green, mingled with dark red, covered with light scarf-skin, very pubescent. Lenticels numerous, large, oblong, raised, conspicuous. Buds large, broad, obtuse, appressed, pubescent.
Leaves large, broad.
Fruit.
Fruit medium or below, rarely above medium size. Form oblate to roundish conic, often obscurely ribbed, sides sometimes unequal; fairly uniform in shape and size. Stem medium to rather long, rather thick. Cavity acute to acuminate, wide, deep, often symmetrical, sometimes appressed or lipped and covered with thin greenish, outspreading russet. Calyx rather large, closed or partly open; lobes often separated at the base, often erect, wide, long, acute, conspicuous. Basin rather shallow to moderately deep, moderately wide, somewhat abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin rather smooth, pale yellow or greenish, washed, mottled and striped with: red. Color rather dull and unattractive. Dots distinct, large to very small, gray or russet and near the basin very numerous and often submerged.
Calyx tube wide, large, cone-shaped, or approaching funnel-form. Stamens median to basal.
Core small, somewhat abaxile; cells usually symmetrical and partly open; core lines meeting. Carpels short, concave, sometimes slightly tufted, wide.
Seeds short, plump, obtuse, dark reddish-brown, sometimes tufted, numerous.
Flesh whitish with slight green or yellow tinge, firm, fine-grained, tender, crisp, juicy, mild subacid, aromatic, good to very good.
Season November to March.

Bietigheimer
References.  1.tbal.
Synonyms.  Beitigheimer (6). Red Beitigheimer (6,9). Red Bietigheimer (1-5, 8, 11).
Fruit remarkable only for its great size and beauty. It is a good cooking apple but coarse, subacid and not desirable for dessert use. The fruit being extremely large, drops badly before the crop is ready to pick. In the nursery it is a rough grower forming many badly shaped trees and for this reason it is best to topwork it on some good straight stock. The tree comes into bearing rather early and under favorable conditions is an annual cropper but only moderately productive. It is a fine fruit for exhibition but is not worthy of cultivation for either home use of market.
Historical. Origin, Germany.

TREE.

Tree large, moderately vigorous to vigorous.
Form upright spreading or roundish, dense, with laterals inclined to droop.
Twigs short, curved, stout, with large terminal buds; internodes long.
Bark dull brown tinged with green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, conspicuous, medium in size, oval, raised.
Buds prominent, large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit very large, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish oblate or inclined to conic, with broad flat base, somewhat irregular.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to short, thick.
Cavity large, acute or approaching acuminate, wide, moderately shallow to rather deep, sometimes furrowed, occasionally lipped, often much russeted and with outspreading russet rays.
Calyx medium to small, closed; lobes rather narrow, acute.
Basin varies from shallow and obtuse to deep and abrupt, medium in width, somewhat wrinkled, often marked with mammiform protuberances.
Skin thick, tough, smooth, bright pale yellow to greenish or whitish washed with pinkish-red and sparingly and obscurely splashed with deeper red.
Dots numerous,small inconspicuous, yellowish or russet.
Calyx tube broadly conical.
Stamens usually basal or nearly so.
Core medium to large, axile to somewhat abaxile; cells partly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels cordate or broadly roundish, a little tufted.
Seeds numerous, large to medium, rather wide, broadly acute, rather light brown.
Flesh almost white, firm, very coarse, crisp, somewhat tough, juicy, subacid, fair to nearly good.
Season September and October.

BILLY BOND.

REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1872:90. 2. Thomas, 1885:503. 3- Not listed by Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234.
Synonyms. Belle Bonde (1). Belle Bonne (2). Billy Bond (1, 2).
Fruit rather attractive, being mottled, shaded and splashed with red over a yellow background. It is quite uniform in size and shape. It is desirable for cooking and evaporating, but is not much esteemed for dessert because it ranks but second rate in quality. In Wayne county it is regarded by many as a profitable commercial variety. It comes into bearing young and is a reliable cropper with a marked tendency to bear annually. The tree is a good grower, both in orchard and nursery.
Historical. Downing mentions a report that this apple had its origin in France in 1790, but in Wayne county where it was first brought to notice, it is claimed by some that it originated in the town of Lyons with a man whose name, Billy Bond, became attached to the variety. After it was disseminated this name evidently became confused with that of Belle et Bonne or Belle Bonne a very different apple, and so it came to be called variously Belle Bonde, the name which Downing accepted as correct (1), Belle Bonne, which Thomas sanctioned (2), Belle Bend, Billy Bend, etc. It has been grown to a limited extent in Wayne county, and scattering trees of it are occasionally found in other parts of Western New York. Bailey does not list it in his inventory of North American Apples in 1892 (3). It has never received much attention from nurserymen nor has it gained a prominent place in commercial orchards.
TREE.
Tree large, rather vigorous. Form upright or somewhat spreading. Twigs medium in length, rather erect, thick. Bark reddish-brown mingled with olive-green; internodes short, pubescent. Lenticels numerous to medium size, usually roundish, conspicuous. Buds medium to large, broad, plump, obtuse, slightly pubescent. Foliage moderately dense; /eaves medium to large, often broad.
FRUIT.
Fruit usually above medium to rather large. Form roundish inclined to oblong, or sometimes to conic, somewhat elliptical or irregular; sides sometimes unequal, often broadly or obscurely ribbed, axis often oblique. Stem medium to rather long, rather slender. Cavity acute, deep, moderately wide, compressed or furrowed, often partly russeted or with outspreading rays of thin russet, sometimes lipped. Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open.
Basin often oblique, moderately wide, rather abrupt, indistinctly furrowed, varying from rather shallow to moderately deep.
Skin smooth, somewhat waxy, bright yellow, mottled and shaded with red, splashed with lively deep purplish-red. Dots whitish, or russet, rather numerous. Prevailing effect striped red, attractive.
Calyx tube long, rather narrow, funnel-form. Stamens median to marginal.
Core medium to rather small, axile, closed or partly open; core lines clasping the cylinder of the calyx tube. Carpels roundish to roundish ovate, slightly emarginate. Seeds rather broad, acute to obtuse, light brown, medium size, plump.
Flesh nearly white, with slight yellow tinge, sometimes stained with red, firm, moderately coarse-grained, rather tender, rather crisp, juicy, with a peculiar rather pleasant but not high flavor, subacid, becoming mild subacid when fully ripe, good.
Season October to January. The fruit is sometimes kept till March but after midwinter it deteriorates in quality and color.

Birth
References.  1. tbal
Synonyms.  Christ Birth (6). Christ Birth Apple (2,3,4). Christmas (7). No. 161 (7). No. 477 (2,6,9), 161 M (2). Reschestwenskoe (5). Roschdestwenskoe (3,4). Roshdestrenskoe (1).
A Russian apple recieved in 1888 from Dr. T.H. Hoskins, Newport, VT., for testing at this Station. Fruit above medium, roundish conic, slightly ribbed; skin greenish-yellow with a shade of brownish-red; flesh mild subacid, fair quality; ripens here in September. Not valuable.

Bismarck
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  Bismark (10). Prince Bismark (1, 10).
Bismarck is evidently related to the Aport group of apples. In size and general appearance it somewhat resembles Alexander. Fruit large, attractive in color, suitable for kitchen and market purposes but inferior in dessert qualities. It ranks about with Alexander and Wolf River in quality. It begins to ripen in October and its season extends from October to early winter. It has not been tested enough in this country to demonstrate its market value. The tree is dwarfish, healthy, hardy, comes into bearing very young, is a reliable cropper and very productive. Even when grown as standards the trees may be planted much more closely together than ordinary commercial varieties.
Historical. Originated in the Province of Canterbury, New Zealand. Introduced into this country from England about ten years ago.

TREE.

Tree dwarfish with very short, stout, drooping branches.
Form spreading, open.
Twigs short, curved, moderately stout; internodes medium.
Bark dull brownish, tinged with green, lightly coated with scarf-skin, pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium to large, oval, slightly raised.
Buds medium in size, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

MoscowMitch

Fruit very large or large, rather uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish oblate to roundish conic, flattened at the base, pretty regular; sides often unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium thick.
Cavity usually rather large, acuminate, moderately wide to wide, deep, often compressed, greenish or russet with outspreading russet rays.
Calyx large, open; lobes short, rather broad, nearly obtuse.
Basin large to very large, usually symmetrical, deep, moderately wide to wide, very abrupt, sometimes broadly and irregularly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin rather thick, tough, smooth, greenish or yellow washed, mottled and striped with two shades of red becoming solid dark red on the exposed cheek, overspread with thin bloom and often marked with thin scarf-skin about the base.
Dots minute and russet or large and pale gray.
Prevailing effect attractive red with less of a striped appearance than Alexander. Calyx tube wide, broadly conical to somewhat funnel-form.
Stamens basal.
Core medium to rather small, axile to somewhat abaxile; cells closed or sometimes open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels flat, broadly ovate or nearly cordate, tufted.
Seeds few, often abortive, medium size, rather wide, short, plump, obtuse to acute, medium brown.
Flesh nearly white, moderately firm, coarse, rather tender, juicy, subacid, sprightly, fair to good or nearly good.
Season October to early winter.

BLACK ANNETTE.

REFERENCES. I. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bul., 76:30. 1902.
A variety which in 1886 was introduced under this name from Marietta, O., into Northern Iowa has proved very hardy there. Because of its hardiness it is considered worthy of attention in the Northwest (1). Its season extends into the spring. Possibly it is distinct from the Black Annette formerly grown in some parts of New York, which is a late fall apple. [see below from Vol. II- ASC]

Black Annette
References.  1. Elliot, 1854:167. 2. ? Warder, 1867:713. 3. Downing, 1869:99.
Synonyms.  None.
A rather small dark red apple formerly grown to a limited extent in some sections of New York and other Eastern states. Season November and December. It is now practically obsolete here. The Black Annette mentioned by Hansen when grown in Central Iowa keeps through the winter which indicates that it is distinct from the variety here described. See Vol. I.

BLACK BEN DAVIS
REFERENCES. 1. Amer. Gard., 23:403. 1902. 2. Van Deman, Rural N. Y., 61:717. 1902. 3. Van Deman, Rural N. Y., 62:500. 1903. 4. Budd-Hansen, 1903:50. 5. Ark. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1904. 6. Nat. Nurseryman, 12:18, 19. 1904. 7. Wickson, Western Fruit Grower, 1904:124.
This is a variety of the Ben Davis type, very brilliant in color and decidedly attractive in appearance. In size and color it is intermediate between Jonathan and Ben Davis. It is sometimes obscurely striped, but more often it shows a solid, deep red color somewhat like that of the Jonathan. As grown in this state it is but little better than Ben Davis in quality. It appears to be as good a keeper as Ben Davis. It has not yet been sufficiently tested in New York state to demonstrate whether or not it will be valuable in this region, but it appears sufficiently promising for commercial purposes to merit attention in those parts of the state where Ben Davis succeeds best.
Historical. It is said to have originated about 1880 on the farm of M, Black in Washington county, Arkansas (5, 7). It has been claimed by some that it is identical with Gano. It certainly resembles Gano very closely, but the preponderance of evidence seems to favor the opinion that these two varieties are of distinct origin (7).
TREE.
Young trees are upright and vigorous, becoming somewhat spreading, rather dense; branches moderately stout, curved. Does not resemble Ben Davis so closely in tree as Gano does, being more upright and having less willow-like lateral twigs. Twigs medium in length, straight, stout; internodes medium. Bark dark brown, tinged with olive-green, mottled with scarf-skin; pubescent. As grown here is darker than Gano. Lenticels scattering, large, round, raised, conspicuous. Buds large, broad, obtuse, appressed, set deep in bark, pubescent. Leaves medium, broad.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to above, sometimes large, averaging marketable size. Form roundish ovate to roundish conic, pretty regular. Stem medium to rather long and slender. Cavity acute, moderately deep to deep, of medium width, nearly symmetrical, usually with some greenish or orange-red russet which often spreads beyond the cavity in broken rays. Calyx rather large, usually open or partly so; lobes rather broad, obtuse. Basin often somewhat oblique, rather shallow and obtuse to moderately deep and abrupt, often slightly fur- rowed and somewhat wrinkled.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, somewhat glossy, brilliant red almost completely overspreading a clear pale yellow ground color, becoming dark purplish-red on the exposed cheek. Dots numerous, very small, red or gray, sometimes with russet point. Prevailing effect brilliant red, often with some contrasting clear pale yellow.
Calyx tube varies from short cone-shape to somewhat funnel-form, with fleshy pistil point projecting into the base. Stamens median to marginal.
Core medium to rather small, axile or nearly so, closed; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder, or when the calyx tube is cone-shaped, nearly meeting. Carpels roundish, elongated, emarginate. Seeds rather long, obtuse to acute, dark brown.
Flesh whitish, firm, somewhat coarse, moderately crisp, not tender, moderately juicy, mild subacid, a little aromatic, good in quality.
Season January to April or May.

BLACK GILLIFLOWER.

REFERENCES. 1. Manning, Mag. Hort., 7:49. 1841. 2. Mag. Hort., 13:106. 1847. 3. Thomas, 1849:164. 4. Cole, 1849:126. 5. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 16:64, 198. 1850. fig. 6. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:61. 1851. col. pl. & fig. 7. Downing, 1857:208. 8. Hooper, 1857:18, 76. 9. Elliott, 1858:167. 10. Warder, 1867:662. fig. 11. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:288. 12. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:235. 13. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:289. 1901. 14. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:38. 1903. 15. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:113. 1904.  [16.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.]
Synonyms. Black Gilliflower (5). Black Spitz (13). Gillifower (14, 15). Red GILLIFLOWER (1, 5).
A dessert apple which is very distinct in color, form and flavor. The color is yellowish or greenish, sometimes almost completely covered with red, which in highly colored specimens becomes dull purplish and very dark, as recognized in the name “Black” Gilliflower. The color of the fruit is often much darker than it appears in the accompanying plate. The flesh at its best is but moderately juicy and soon becomes dry, but it has a peculiar aroma which is pleasing to many. It is not sour enough to be very valuable for cooking, but it is sometimes used for baking. It is fast becoming obsolete in most parts of the state, but in some sections the planting of it in commercial orchards is being extended because it is found profitable to grow it in limited quantities for southern markets. On good soil the tree is a good, vigorous grower and a reliable cropper. The apples grow fair and smooth and there is little loss from unmarketable fruit.
Historical. Black Gilliflower is supposed to be an American variety. It was brought into the central and western portions of the state more than a hundred years ago by the early settlers. It is evident that it was known in Connecticut as early as the latter part of the eighteenth century (2).61   Manning (1) mentions it in 1841 under the name Red Gilliflower and Hovey (5) described it in 1850 under the same name, giving Black Gilliflower as a synonym. It has generally been known under the simple name Gilliflower, which name usually appears in the market quotations of this variety.
TREE.
Tree large, moderately vigorous. Form rather upright spreading with moderately open top. Twigs long, slender, pubescent; internodes short to medium. Bark dark olive-green and reddish-brown with thin gray scarf-skin.
Lenticels rather numerous, small to medium, roundish or elongated, raised.
Buds medium, obtuse or acute, quite pubescent, appressed. Leaves rather long, medium to above medium in size.
[Diseases:  Moderately resistant to the major diseases. (16)] Fruit.
Fruit medium to large, seldom very large; very uniform in size and shape.
Form long ovate to oblong conic, somewhat ribbed; axis sometimes a little oblique. Stem medium to long, moderately thick. Cavity usually acuminate, rather wide, moderately deep to deep, sometimes lipped but usually symmetrical with red russet or greenish outspreading rays. Calyx medium or below, closed. Basin often oblique, usually very shallow and obtuse, varying sometimes to moderately deep and abrupt, furrowed and much wrinkled.
Skin thick, tough, nearly smooth; yellow or greenish-yellow, striped or mostly covered with red, deepening to dark purplish-red or almost black,obscurely striped with darker crimson, and with streaks of bluish-gray scarf- skin, especially toward the cavity, giving almost the effect of a dull bloom.
Dots numerous, gray, rather small, not conspicuous, somewhat rough. Prevailing effect in highly colored specimens dull dark purplish.
Calyx tube large, wide, cone-shape or funnel-form. Stamens median or above.
Core large, decidedly axile. closed; core lines somewhat clasping. Carpels very long ovate, tapering both ways, emarginate, much tufted. Seeds often abortive; when well developed they are above medium, acute to acuminate, somewhat tufted.
Flesh whitish or slightly tinged with yellow, firm, rather tender, rather coarse, moderately juicy eventually becoming dry, mild subacid, rich, peculiarly aromatic, good for dessert and special markets. [Mostly used for drying and baking (16).]
Season October to January or February. [Only a fair keeper when grown in Virginia (16).]

BLACK JERSEY.

REFERENCES. I. Coxe, 1817:139. fig. 2. Thacher, 1822:121. 3. Downing, 1845:99. 4. Horticulturist, 4:470. 1849. 5. Thomas, 1851:63. 6. Hooper, 1857:18. 7. Elliott, 1858:123. 8. Warder, 1867:653. fig. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 10. Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:327. 1896. 11. Budd-Hansen, 1903:49.
Synonyms. Black APPLE (1, 2, 3,5, 6,7). Black American (7). Dodge's Black (7). Jersey Black (4, 10). Warder (8) describes a JERSEY Black which he believes is not the Black Apple of Coxe and Downing. Jersey Black (7).
Fruit medium, dark red, almost black. A pleasant flavored, dessert apple.
Origin. There are several varieties which have been disseminated under the name Black Apple and more or less confusion exists with regard to their correct names. Black Jersey is generally believed to be identical with the Black Apple described and disseminated by Coxe (1), although Warder differs from this view (8). It is an old variety now practically obsolete.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous, productive, with slender branches eventually becoming drooping. Twigs rather slender to rather stout, rather pubescent, clear olive-green mingled with red, irregularly overlaid with grayish scarf-skin; internodes long. Lenticels conspicuous, numerous, raised, mostly below medium, elongated. Buds medium, not very prominent, broadly acute to obtuse, adhering and slightly pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit medium. Form roundish, somewhat irregular; sides somewhat unequal; pretty uniform in size and shape. Stem variable, sometimes knobbed, often inserted under a lip. Cavity irregular, moderately deep to deep, acute.
Calyx rather small, closed or partly open. Basin rather wide, somewhat abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled, shallow.
Skin very dark red, almost black, shading to a wine red over yellow, and somewhat streaked in the lighter portions; sometimes it shows a whitish bloom; attractive. Dots many, whitish or light, rather large, showing through the red skin.
Calyx tube conical.
Core medium or above, usually axile, closed or somewhat open; core lines clasping. Carpels elongated ovate to obcordate, concave, slightly tufted. Seeds acute, plump, dark.
Flesh yellowish-white often tinged with red, juicy, crisp, a little coarse, sub-acid becoming mildly sweet, aromatic, agreeable in flavor but not high in quality.
Season November to January or February.

Blenheim
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  tbal.
Fruit large to very large, yellow, more or less washed and striped with red, attractive in appearance and of excellent quality. The commercial season in the southeastern portions of the State is October. In Western New York it comes into season with the Twenty Ounce and keeps into early winter (31). Often specimens of it may be kept much later. Macoun gives its season in Ontario as November and December (28). The fruit is desirable both for home and market uses but the variety is usually unsatisfactory for commercial planting because it is not a good keeper, is variable in season and commonly suffers considerable loss in drops and culls. In some locations, however, it is considered a good profitable variety.
Historical. Origin Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England. It found its way into the London nurseries about the year 1818 (24). Although it has long been known in portions of New York and adjacent states and in Canada in no part of this region has it assumed very great commercial importance.

TREE.

Tree large, vigorous, productive, bearing its fruit singly and evenly distributed.
Form upright spreading.
Twigs very stout.
Bark clear, light reddish-brown becoming dark.
FRUITMoscow Mitch must go! Fruit usually large or above medium.
Form roundish oblate to roundish inclined to conic, usually pretty regular and symmetrical, sometimes a little furrowed at the apex.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium.
Cavity below medium to rather large, rather narrow to wide, moderately deep to deep, acute to acuminate, usually symmetrical, sometimes compressed or lipped, covered with russet which often extends beyond the cavity.
Calyx large or very large; segments flat, separated at base plainly exposing the yellowish tube beneath; lobes obtuse.
Basin large, broad, shallow and obtuse to deep and abrupt, somewhat furrowed and slightly wrinkled.
Skin moderately thin tough, deep yellow overspread with a rather dull pinkish-red, in highly colored specimens developing a deep and rather bright red somewhat roughened in places with netted capillary russet lines.
Dots numerous, small or conspicuously large and russet.
Prevailing effect rather attractive red and yellow.
Calyx tube short, very wide, cone-shape.
Stamens median to somewhat basal.
Core medium or below, axile or somewhat abaxile; cells often unequally developed, closed or partly open; core lines meeting.
Carpels flat, tufted, emarginate.
Seeds few and frequently abortive, irregular, often not plump, long, acute to acuminate, tufted.
Flesh tinged with yellow, rather firm, moderately juicy, crisp, moderately fine grained or a little coarse, somewhat aromatic, agreeable sprightly subacid, becoming rather mild subacid, good to very good; excellent either for dessert or culinary use.
Season It is at its best from October to December but often may be kept until midwinter or later.

BLUE PEARMAIN

REFERENCES. 1. Kenrick, 1833:42. 2. Manning, 1838:55. 3. Manning, Mag. Hort., 6:172. 1840. 4. Downing, 1845:122. 5. Phoenix, Horticulturist, 1:361. 1846. 6. Cole, 1849:120. 7. Thomas, 1849:164. 8. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:69. 1851. col. pl. No. 54. 9. Hooper, 1857:19. 10. Elliott, 1858:122. 11. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862, 12. Barry, 1883:343. 13. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:288. 14. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:235. 15. Waugh, Vt., Sta. An. Rpt., 14:289. 1901. 16. Can. Hort., 25:49. 1902. 17. Budd- Hansen, 1903:52. fig. 18. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:113. 1904.  [19.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.]
Synonym. Prolific Beauty (18) incorrectly.
Occasional trees are found in the oldest home orchards of the state. It is rarely planted now. In some localities it bears well, but more often it is not a reliable cropper. It is apt to have a pretty high percentage of unmarketable fruit. The fruit is of mild flavor and does not rank high in quality. The skin is thick. When well colored it is beautiful, though not brilliant, being overcast with a dull bluish bloom. In common storage it does not keep late, and by January it often becomes shriveled (18). It is not a good market fruit and is not recommended for commercial planting.
Historical. This is an old variety of uncertain origin but it is supposed to be an American variety (13). On account of its hardiness it has often been planted in the home orchards of the more elevated regions of New York and New England during the last 75 years. Probably it has been in cultivation for a century or more. Kenrick (1) mentions it as common in the vicinity of Boston in the early part of the 19th century.
TREE.
Tree becomes moderately large to large, moderately vigorous or on rich soil sometimes vigorous. Form spreading. In the nursery it is a slow, stiff grower (5). Twigs below medium, rather stout, nearly straight, rather blunt at tips, with large terminal buds; internodes medium to long. Bark very dark, being of a dull brownish-red; scarf-skin varies from thin to rather heavy; quite pubescent. Lenticels inconspicuous, scattering, below medium, roundish, raised. Buds above medium, moderately projecting, roundish, slightly pubescent, free. Leaves broad, coarsely serrated.
[Diseases:  Moderate resistance to the major diseases (19).] Fruit.
Fruit above medium to very large; pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish or inclined to oblate, sometimes a little inclined to conic, irregular, often obscurely ribbed, sometimes distinctly furrowed from the cavity nearly to the basin. Stem medium length to rather short, rather thick. Cavity moderately deep, obscurely furrowed, usually covered with orange-russet or greenish-russet. Calyx partly open; lobes acute. Basin medium in depth and width, with concentric gray or russet lines, obscurely furrowed.
Skin a little rough; yellow, washed and mottled with red, often deepening on one side to nearly solid red, splashed and striped with deep purplish-carmine and overspread with an abundant blue bloom from which the variety takes its name. Dots numerous, small, pale, mingled with others which are conspicuous, very large, gray with russet center and often also mingled with irregular lines or flecks of dull green or russet. The large dots are characteristic of this variety as also of other varieties of the Blue Pearmain group.
Calyx tube elongated conical approaching funnel-form. Stamens basal to median.
Core rather large, nearly axile, closed or somewhat open; core lines clasping or, with modified calyx tube, nearly meeting. Carpels broad, elongated or roundish, slightly tufted. Seeds medium or rather long, acuminate, rather light brown.
Flesh yellowish, moderately firm, rather coarse, moderately juicy, mild sub- acid, decidedly and agreeably aromatic, good.
Season. Comes into season in October. It may keep till March but often begins to shrivel after January.
Use. Home and local market. ["Primarily dessert, but also frying & baking" (19).]

Blushed Calville
References.  1. tbal
Synonyms.  Calville Krasmui (1). 22 (2). 22 M (1,4,5,7,8,11,12).
Blushed Calville is said to be hardy and desirable in northern apple-growing regions (11). As fruited at this Station the tree does not come into bearing very young and is not very productive. It is not very productive. It is not recommended for planting in this state.
Historical. Origin, Russia.

TREE.

Tree rather small, moderately vigorous with short, stout branches.
Form upright spreading open.
Twigs medium in length, curved and stout with large terminal buds; internodes long.
Bark brownish mingled with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium in size, round, slightly raised.
Buds prominent, large, broad, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large, fairly uniform in shape and size.
Form roundish conical, ribbed; sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) usually long and slender.
Cavity acute to acuminate, rather narrow to moderately wide, moderately deep, sometimes russeted.
Calyx large, closed or open.
Basin medium in width and depth to wide and deep, a little abrupt, wrinkled.
Skin light green or yellowish, sometimes blushed.
Calyx tube broad, cone-shaped.
Stamens median.
Core very large, abaxile; cells wide open; core lines clasping.
Seeds medium in size, acute.
Flesh whitish, firm, rather coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, subacid, fair to good.
Season early summer

BOGDANOFF GLASS

REFERENCES. 1. Budd, Ja. Agr. Coll. Bul., 1885:39. 2. Lyon, U. S. Div. Pom. Bul., 2:40. 1888. 3. Hoskins, Rural N. Y., 49:742. 1890. figs. 4. Budd, Ia. Agr. Coll. Bul., 1892:5. 5. Budd, Ia. Sta. Bul., 19:539. 1892. 6. Ibid, 31:332. 1895. 7. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bul., 76:33. 1902. 8. Budd-Hansen, 1903:53. fig. 9. Can. Hort., 26:12. 1903.
Synonyms. Bogdanoff (3, 7, 8,9). Bogdanoff's Glass (2). SKLANKA (6). Slanka Bogdanoff (4, 5). STEKLIANKA BOGDANOFF (1, 2).
A green or yellow apple sometimes with a faint blush, desirable in size and attractive in appearance, but not ranking high in quality. On account of its hardiness it may have some value in the northern portions of the apple belt.
Professor Budd attached the name Bogdanoff to several varieties which he obtained from the Bogdanoff estates in Russia. The name Sklanka is used in Russia as a class name. The adoption of either name alone is open to objection. We prefer, therefore, to follow Lyon (2) in assigning to this variety the name Bogdanoff Glass.
Historical. Imported from Russia for the Iowa Agricultural College by Prof. J. L. Budd about 25 years ago and disseminated by him from that institution.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous; branches long, curved and moderately stout.
Form upright spreading and rather open. Twigs medium to long, moderately thick; internodes pretty long. Bark clear dark reddish-brown or nearly black, scarcely pubescent but with noticeable scarf-skin. Lenticels numerous, medium in size to small, elongated, raised. Buds large to medium, broad, plump, obtuse, slightly pubescent, free. Scales often parted. Leaves large, broad.
Fruit.
Fruit large; uniform in size and shape. Form roundish conic sometimes approaching roundish oblate, obscurely ribbed, usually symmetrical, sometimes elliptical or irregular. Stem short, thick, often swollen at the base, sometimes knobbed. Cavity acuminate, moderately shallow to deep, rather broad, somewhat furrowed or compressed, often somewhat russeted, with narrow broken outspreading russet rays. Calyx medium, usually closed; lobes acute to acuminate. Basin variable; often abrupt, medium in width and depth, somewhat furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, waxy, somewhat glossy, green becoming bright pale yellow, occasionally with faint bronze blush. Dots numerous, inconspicuous, mostly submerged, white or green.
Calyx tube rather large, long, cone-shape or funnel-form. Stamens median.
Core medium or below, axile, closed or partly open; cells often unsymmetrical; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels smooth, very broadly obovate, somewhat emarginate. Seeds moderately light reddish-brown, smooth, above medium, wide, plump, obtuse to acute.
Flesh nearly white, rather firm, moderately fine, crisp, moderately tender, juicy, brisk subacid, fair to possibly good.
Season November to February.

BOIKEN.

REFERENCES. 1. Oberdieck, //l. Handb. der Obstk., 1:212. 1859. 2. Berghuis, 1868: col. pl. No. 80. 3. Leroy, 1873:144. 4. Lauche, 1: col. pl. No. 5. 1882. 5. Budd, Ia. Sta. Bul. 19:542. 1892. 6. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:235. 7. Bredsted, 1893:205. 8. Bronson, IV. N. Y. Hort. Soc., 1893:113. 9. Troop, Ind. Sta. Bul., 53:124. 1894. 10. Buckman, Rural N. Y., 54:806. 1895. 11. Willard, Rural N. Y., 55:751. 1806. 12. Thomas, 1897:288. fig. 13. Rural N. Y., 57:285. 1808. 14. Ia. Sta. Bul. 41:70, 85. 1899. 15. Rural N. Y., 60:342. 1901. 16. Eneroth-Smirnoff, 1g01:274. 17. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bul., 76:33. 1902. 18. Munson, Me. Sta. Bul., 82:89. 1902. 19. Budd-Hansen, 1903:53. 20. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:113. 1904.
Synonyms. Boiken Apple (2, 4). BOIKENAPPLE (16).
This is a very attractive, bright yellow apple, usually with a beautiful blush. It is justly regarded as one of the most valuable of the recent introductions for growing in commercial orchards, on account of the vigor and health of the foliage, hardiness and productiveness of the tree, and the desirable ‘size, attractive appearance and fairly good quality of the fruit. Its flavor is a rather brisk subacid. It is hardly rich enough in quality or mild enough in flavor to excel as a dessert fruit, but it is desirable for culinary use and for market. It appears to be better adapted than Rhode Island Greening for storage (20). It makes very light colored evaporated stock. The tree comes into bearing rather young and is a good, reliable cropper.  The foliage is remarkably healthy and the fruit is pretty resistant to the scab.
Historical. This is a German variety which has long been known under cultivation in Prussia (1, 2). It is said to have been named after a former dike warden (4). It has been quite extensively disseminated in this country within the last decade, having been introduced some years earlier (8). In New York commercial orchards the plantings of it are now being gradually extended.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous; branches short, stout and crooked. Form somewhat spreading, rather dense. Twigs medium in length or rather long, curved, pretty stout, especially at the tips; internodes short to medium. Bark brownish-red, streaked and conspicuously blotched with grayish scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, rather conspicuous, moderately abundant, irregular in shape and size, often large, oblong, sometimes roundish. Buds large or above medium size, broad, rather plump, obtuse to nearly acute, projecting, free, pubescent. Leaves large, broad.
Fruit.
Fruit above medium to very large; fairly uniform in shape but rather uneven in size. Form somewhat oblate, being broad at the base, conical, often somewhat ribbed, pretty symmetrical. Stem long to medium. Cavity obtuse to acute, very broad, furrowed, sometimes compressed, partly colored with thin brownish-russet. Calyx large, closed or somewhat open; lobes acute. Basin sometimes oblique, moderately wide to rather narrow, abrupt, moderately deep, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin tough, smooth, waxy, clear bright pale yellow, often with sharply contrasting brilliant pinkish-red blush. Dots numerous, rather small, often red areolar, with whitish or russet center, not very conspicuous, often submerged.
Prevailing effect yellow relieved more or less by pinkish-red, not striped. The fruit is decidedly attractive in appearance for a yellow apple.
Calyx tube large, funnel-form, or approaching cone-shape, often extending to the core. Stamens median.
Core rather large, open or partly so, abaxile; cells usually symmetrical; core lines clasping. Carpels decidedly concave, very broad, elliptical, slightly emarginate, tufted. Seeds medium, plump, obtuse to acute, dark.
Flesh white, firm, crisp, tender, fine-grained, very juicy, sprightly, brisk subacid, not high in quality, good.
Season November to February or March. In cold storage its season extends to May or later (20).

Bonum
References.  1. tbal.  [XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.  p. 110.]
Synonyms.  Magnum Bonum (2,4,5,7). [This name is more commonly used in the South today. I've never heard anyone call this apple just 'Bonum'. -ASC]
This is a southern variety of very good quality when grown under favorable conditions. It is in season during late fall and early winter. Probably it is not well adapted to regions as far north as New York, for although it has long been cultivated it is practically unknown among New York fruit growers.
Historical. Origin Davidson county, NC. It was entered on the catalogue of the American Pomological Society in 1860, dropped from the list in 1862 and reentered in 1869. According to Bailey's Inventory of North American Apples (8) it is now propagated but little by nurserymen.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading or roundish, open.
Twigs moderately long, curved, moderately stout; internodes medium.
Bark dull brown, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, small, round, not raised.
Buds medium in size, flat, acute, free, not pubescent.
[Diseases:  Highly susceptible to cedar apple rust, but so resistant to the other major diseases that it is a good candidate for organic production (Burford).]

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large.
Form oblate, regular.
Stem (Pedicel) long, slender to moderately thick, green.
Cavity medium to large, deep, regular, often with a little green russet.
Calyx large, closed.
Basin medium in width, shallow, wrinkled.
Skin smooth, yellow, mostly covered with crimson and dark red, striped.
Dots distinct, large, light with some having a dark center.
Calyx tube funnel-form.
Stamens marginal.

Core small; cells closed; core lines scarcely meeting.
Carpels ovate.
Seeds numerous, large, plump.
Flesh white, often stained next to the skin, firm, fine, tender, juicy, aromatic, mild subacid, very good for dessert.  [Also excellent for pies (Burford).]
Season September to November.  [Grown in the South they ripen in late summer to early fall and are poor keepers (Burford).

Borovinka
References.  1.tbal
Synonyms.  Borovitsky (18). Borovinka Angluskaia (2,3). English Borovinka, 7 ? Mushroom (4,5). 9 M (2,3). No. 245 (6,9,10,12,17).
Borovinka resembles Oldenburg so closely that Hansen says the question of their identity has not been settled (20). As fruited at this Station it is distinct from Oldenburg; it is fully as attractive as Oldenburg in color but it lacks uniformity in size and is not equal to that variety in flavor and quality. The stock grown at this Station came from Professor J.L. Budd, Ames, IA in 1890, and is doubtless the true Borovinka.
Historical. Origin, Russia.

TREE.

Tree below medium size but moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading to rather flat, open.
Twigs short, curved, stout; internodes short.
Bark dark brown, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium to large, oblong, slightly raised.
Buds prominent, medium in size, broad, plump, obtuse to acute, free, not pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit below medium to large, averaging medium; pretty uniform in shape but not in size.
Form roundish, slightly flattened at the ends, regular or faintly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium in length, thick.
Cavity acute, rather shallow to moderately deep, moderately broad, slightly furrowed, sometimes with faint radiating rays of russet.
Calyx medium to rather large, closed; lobes broad.
Basin medium to rather deep, wide, somewhat abrupt, slightly furrowed, occasionally showing mammiform protuberances.
Skin thin, very tender, smooth, pale yellow, often entirely covered with broken stripes and irregular splashes of attractive bright red, overspread with thin bluish bloom.
Dots numerous, conspicuous, very small, light colored.
Calyx tube large, rather wide, urn-shape to funnel-form widening in the lower part of the funnel cylinder.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core small to medium, axile; cells closed or nearly so; core lines clasping.
Carpels roundish, somewhat concave, mucronate, not emarginate.
Seeds medium to rather large, moderately wide, plump, somewhat obtuse, dark brown.
Flesh tinged with yellow, medium in grain, crisp, tender, moderately juicy to juicy, agreeable subacid, slightly aromatic, good.
Season mid-August to mid-September.

BORSDORF

REFERENCES, 1. Ronalds, 1831:26. 2. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831. 3. Kenrick, 1833:72. 4. Downing, 1845:09. 5. Thomas, 1849:178. 6. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:72. 1851. 7. Elliott, 1858:167. 8. Berghuis, 1868: col. pl. No. 73. 9. Downing, 1872:103. 10. Leroy, 1873:150. 11. Montreal Hort. Soc., 7:156. 1881. 12. Hogg, 1884:26. 13. Hoskins, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1886: 279. 14. Hoskins, Garden and Forest, 3:516. 1890. 15. Budd, Ia. Sta. Bul.,19:541. 1892. 16. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:235. 17. Bredsted, 1893:301. 18. Ill. Sta, Bul., 45:315. 1896. 19. Munson, Me, Sta. An, Rept., 12:73. 1896. 20. Can. Hort., 20:412. 1897. 21. Eneroth-Smirnoff, 1901:173. 22. Munson, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:83, 86. 1902 (also Bul. 82). 23. Powell and Fulton, U.S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:38. 1903. 24. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248: 113. 1904.
Synonyms. Borsdorf (6). Borsdorfer (3, 8, 14,21). BORSDORFER (12). Borsdorff (7). Borsdorff (5). Borsdörffer (2). BORSDORFFER (1, 6 7,18). Borsdorffer (5). Edelborsdorfer (8). King George the Third (7). King George THE TurrD [yeah, I know it's an OCR error, but I gotta leave it up for a while. Americans have a long tradition of mocking royalty, regardless of age or orangeness- ASC](1). Queen's (7).
A German variety, which is valued in many parts of Europe as a dessert fruit of first quality. The tree is very hardy and very productive. Although it was introduced into this country many years ago, it has not won recognition either in the home orchards or in commercial orchards. It is not recommended for planting in New York state because it is less desirable here than other well- known varieties.
Historical. Hogg states (12) that, “It is believed to have originated either at a village of Misnia, called Borsdörf or at a place of the same name near Leipsic. According to Forsyth it was such a favorite with Queen Charlotte that she had a considerable quantity of them annually imported from Germany for her own private use. It is one of the earliest recorded varieties of the continental authors, but does not seem to have been known in this country before the close of the last century. It was first grown in the Brompton Park Nursery in 1785. It is mentioned by Cordus, in 1561, as being cultivated in Misnia, which circumstance has no doubt given rise to the synonym 'Reinette de Misnie.’”
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous; branches long, rather slender, with numerous small laterals. Form roundish, dense. Twigs short, straight, slender; internodes short. Bark dull reddish-brown, quite pubescent. Lenticels inconspicuous, scattering, very small, oblong. Buds small, narrow, acute, free, quite pubescent. Leaves medium in size, rather broad.
Fruit.
Fruit below medium to small. Form oblate, somewhat ribbed, sides slightly unequal, pretty uniform in size and shape. Stem long to very long, slender, often inclined obliquely. Cavity moderately shallow to rather deep, wide, obtuse, often a little furrowed and somewhat russeted. Calyx rather large, usually partly open. Basin usually rather shallow, wide, and obtuse, somewhat ridged and slightly wrinkled.
Skin yellow, partly washed with rather dull light scarlet and often marked with streaks of russet and inconspicuous capillary netted russet lines. Dots scattering, often large and irregular, gray or russet.
Calyx tube short, wide, cone-shape or urn-shape, with a fleshy projection of the pistil into its base. Stamens marginal to median.
Core medium to rather small, axile, closed or nearly so; core lines meeting.
Carpels broad, narrowing sharply towards the apex, nearly truncate at base, slightly emarginate. Seeds numerous, medium to small, plump, acute, compactly filling the cells.
Flesh whitish, tinged slightly with yellow, rather coarse, moderately crisp, rather tender, moderately juicy, mild subacid, becoming nearly sweet, aromatic.
Season November to February.

Boskoop
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  Belle de Boscoop (11). Belle of Boskoop (9). Belle De Boskoop (6-8, 12-17) [this name survives to this day. -ASC]. Reinette Belle de Boskoop (16). Reinette Monstrueuse (16). Reinette von Montfort (16). Schöner von Boskoop (2,3,4,10,16). Schoone von Boskoop (1, 16).
In some locations this fruit becomes highly colored with attractive bright red predominating, but more often the color is not good, being predominantly dull green or yellow and more of less russeted. It is more suitable for general market and culinary purposes than for dessert. It is of good size but does not rank high in quality; the texture is somewhat coarse, and the flavor rather too acid for an agreeable dessert apple, but late in the season its acidity becomes modified. It appears to be pretty hardy and a good bearer. When grown on warm soils in Southern New York it may be marketed in September, but in the more northern regions of the state it keeps into the winter. It is perhaps of sufficient merit to be worthy of testing but we are not yet ready to recommend it for general planting.
Historical. This variety is said to have originated from seed in 1856 in the nursery of the Ottolander family at Boskoop (1,4). Palandt finds that it is identical with the variety described by Lauche and Oberdieck as "Reinette von Montfort" (4). it was imported into this country more than twenty-five years ago (5) and has gradually been disseminated to a limited extent in various portions of New York state.

TREE.

Tree rather large, moderately vigorous; branches long, moderately stout, crooked; lateral branches numerous and small.
Form open, wide-spreading and drooping.
Twigs rather short to long, straight, rather stout; internodes below medium to very long.
Bark dark brownish-red mingled with olive-green; somewhat pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, conspicuous, small, oblong or roundish.
Buds rather large, broad, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent.
Leaves large, broad. [probably a triploid -ASC]

FRUIT

Fruit large.
Form usually oblate, sometimes roundish oblate, obscurely ribbed, sometimes with oblique axis; pretty uniform in size and shape.
Stem (Pedicel) usually short and thick, sometimes rather long.
Cavity rather large, acute to acuminate, somewhat furrowed, often irregular, deep, russeted.
Calyx large; segments long or very long, acuminate, closed or somewhat open, sometimes separated at the base.
Basin abrupt, rather narrow, moderately shallow to rather deep, sometimes slightly furrowed.
Skin dull green or yellowish, sometimes blushed and mottled with rather bright red, and striped with deeper red, roughened with russet flecks, often irregularly overspread with russet.
Dots small and gray, mingled with others which are large, irregular and russet.
Calyx tube large, cone-shape.
Stamens median to basal.
Core medium to small, somewhat abaxile; cells often unsymmetrical, closed or open; core lines slightly clasping.
Carpels roundish or obcordate, a little tufted.
Seeds apt to be abortive [more evidence of triploidy -ASC]; when well developed they are long, irregular, obtuse to acute, somewhat tufted.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, somewhat coarse, tender, juicy, crisp, brisk subacid, good to very good.
Season Commercial season September to November (17). As grown in Western New York generally some of the fruit may be kept till April.

BOSTON RUSSET.

This name is one of the old synonyms for Roxbury Russet but in the vicinity of Albion it has been applied to another variety which, so far as we can discover, has not been described in any publication. The fruit is roundish conic, regular, with medium cavity and basin. Skin pale yellowish-green, irregularly overspread with thin russet. Dots numerous, small. Flesh tinged slightly with yellow, moderately tender, mild subacid, not more than good in quality. Not considered desirable for commercial purposes.

BOTTLE GREENING.

REFERENCES. 1. Amer. Jour. Hort. and Florists’ Companion, 1:357. 1866-67. 2, Downing, 1872:103. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:235. 4. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bul., 152:220. 1808. 5. Ibid., 169:179. 1899. 6. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 1890:290. 7. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:290. 1901.  [8.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.]
Much esteemed by a few growers because the tree is healthy, hardy and productive, and the fruit is excellent for culinary use and good for dessert. It is rather attractive in color for an apple of the Greening class. Because of its tender skin and light color it shows the least bruise plainly. For this reason it requires very careful handling. It is even more apt to scald in storage than Rhode Island Greening. Most growers and buyers find it unsatisfactory as a commercial apple. It is said to succeed particularly well on sandy or gravelly loam, usually bearing annually. The fruit usually hangs well to the tree.
Historical. It originated as a chance seedling on a farm on the dividing line of New York and Vermont where the original tree was still standing about a half century ago. Its name is derived from the fact that workmen found the hollow in this old tree a convenient place for the “ bottle” (1). It is still handled by nurserymen (3) but is not being much planted in this state.
TREE
Tree medium in size, moderately vigorous; branches moderately long, stout, crooked, with yellowish bark. Form rather round and open. Twigs medium in length, straight, rather stout; internodes short to medium. Bark olive-green mingled with reddish-brown, pubescent and covered with thin scarf-skin.
Lenticels scattering, very small to medium, round, inconspicuous. Buds large to medium, broad, acute, appressed, heavily pubescent. Leaves medium, broad.
[Diseases:  Moderate resistance to the major diseases (8).] Fruit.
Fruit medium to large. Form roundish oblate to ovate, inclined to conic, pretty regular, sometimes obscurely ribbed, fairly symmetrical, sides sometimes unequal. Stem rather short. Cavity acuminate, moderately deep, rather broad, sometimes lipped, sometimes indistinctly furrowed or compressed.
Calyx rather large, closed:or somewhat open. Basin abrupt, medium in depth, rather narrow to moderately wide, often slightly furrowed, sometimes wrinkled.
Skin thin, tough, smooth, grass-green, or yellowish, thinly washed or often deeply blushed with dull pinkish-crimson, not striped. Dots few, usually submerged, pale and inconspicuous; a few scattering ones are russet. Prevailing color green but more blushed than Rhode Island Greening.
Calyx tube rather large, conical. Stamens median.
Core rather small, somewhat abaxile; cells often closed towards apex and open at base; core lines slightly clasping. Carpels broad, roundish to obcordate. Seeds medium, acute.
Flesh nearly white, moderately firm, very tender, very juicy, peculiarly aromatic, pleasant subacid, good to very good.
Season October to March or later. Commercial season October to January.  [A fair keeper when Southern-grown, but tends to shrivel in storage (8).
Uses:  Mostly dessert, but also used for frying and making pies (Burford).]

BOUCKEN.

Known locally for many years in the vicinity of Buffalo. We have not seen this variety. The following statement concerning it is furnished by C. D. Zimmerman, Buffaio, N. Y.: "Resembles Maiden Blush very much in size and color; keeps till June; flavor good; an enormous bearer. Often a large apple is borne at the extreme end of the branch.”

Bough Sweet
Synonyms.  This variety is also known as Bough Apple, Large Yellow Bough, Sweet Bough and Summer Sweet Bough.
It is listed in the late catalogues of the American Pomological Society (Am Pom. Soc. Cat. 1897:12) as Bough, Sweet but most nurserymen list it as Sweet Bough (Bailey, Am. Hort. 1892:235. 250.). We prefer to recognize the name commonly accepted by nurserymen and accordingly have described the variety under the name Sweet Bough. See page 216.

BOYS DELIGHT

An excellent dessert apple in season from October to midwinter. It is not equal to either Fameuse or McIntosh in appearance and is apparently desirable only for the home orchard. Fruit medium or below, pale greenish-yellow, partly overlaid with a light shade of “Fameuse” red. Flesh white, of Fameuse character but more nearly sweet. It originated from Fameuse seed with S. P. Morse, Lowville, Ontario.

Breskovka
References.  1. tbal
Synonyms.  152 M (2-5,8,9).
A hardy Russian variety of Yellow Transparent type, in season during late August and early September. The flesh quickly discolors as the ripening season advances. It is rather attractive in color for a yellow apple but does not average above medium size and it is not equal to Yellow Transparent in either flavor or quality. Not recommended for growing in New York.

BRISTOL

The variety known in Western Connecticut and in Eastern New York by this name appears to be identical with Red Canada.

BROWNLEES.

REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1872:108. 2. Mas, Le Verger, 4:93. col. pl. 3. Hogg, 1884:33. 4. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:235. 5. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:113. 1904.
Synonyms. Brownlees’ Russet (1,4). Brownlees's Russet (3). Brownlees’ Russet (5). Brownlees’ Seedling Russet (1). REINETTE Grise BROWNLEES’ (2). Reinette Grise Brownlees’ (1).
Fruit excellent in quality, desirable in size, and of good appearance for a russet apple, but not sufficiently productive here to make it profitable for commercial planting.
Historical. An English variety introduced by Mr. William Brownlees, a nurseryman at Hemel, Hempsted, Herts, about the year 1848 (3). It appears on the lists of some nurserymen but is but little known in New York and is not being planted here to any considerable extent.
TREE.
Tree vigorous, moderately productive. Form upright. Twigs numerous, rather short or sometimes long, generally slender, straight or slightly curved at base; internodes long. Bark smooth, clear reddish-brown somewhat shaded with olive-green and dull brownish-red, often overlaid with heavy scarf-skin; quite pubescent. Lenticels inconspicuous, not raised, moderately numerous, of medium size or small, roundish or elongated. Buds medium, more or less projecting, obtuse, somewhat pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to large; fairly uniform in size, rather variable in shape.
Form oblate, often oblique, sometimes ribbed, irregular often bulging or with sides compressed, flattened at the base, rounded toward the basin. Stem usually short and thick, often swollen. Cavity large, variable in form, usually acute, deep, broad, furrowed, sometimes compressed or lipped. Calyx small, closed. Basin usually rather small, shallow, abrupt to obtuse, often somewhat furrowed and finely wrinkled.
Skin rather tender, entirely covered with russet or sometimes with patches of smooth yellow. Dots often conspicuous, scattering, pale gray or whitish.
Calyx tube small, varying from funnel-shape to conical. Stamens median to marginal.
Core nearly axile; cells symmetrical, closed or slightly open; core lines clasping. Carpels rather flat, rather pointed ovate, broad and almost truncate at the base, mucronate, somewhat tufted.
Seeds often abortive, rather dark reddish-brown, rather small to above medium, narrow to rather wide, plump, acute to acuminate, somewhat tufted.
Flesh more or less tinged with yellow, moderately firm, fine, moderately crisp, juicy, sprightly, with a rich subacid aromatic flavor which is found only in some russet apples, very good quality.
Season October to January or later (3, 5).

BROWN SWEET.
Known locally in Oswego county. The following statement concerning it is furnished by D. D. Stone of Oswego: “Tree healthy, and a good but not a rampant grower. In alternate years it bears heavily, yielding smooth fruit of large size which is excellent for baking or boiling. It withers or shrivels quickly in a dry cellar.”
Fruit.
Fruit large. Form ovate to oblong conic, often narrowing sharply towards the apex, more or less ribbed and irregular. Stem medium. Cavity medium to large, acute to acuminate, usually deep and somewhat russeted. Calyx closed or open, medium to small; lobes acuminate. Basin often oblique, shallow to moderately deep, rather narrow, abrupt, somewhat furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin moderately thick, tough, green or yellow, sometimes with a red cheek,and often much russeted.
Calyx tube small to medium, conical. Stamens median to basal.
Core large, axile to usually decidedly abaxile; cells often unsymmetrical, open; core lines meeting to slightly clasping. Carpels roundish obovate, somewhat tufted. Seeds medium or below, medium brown, plump, obtuse to acute.
Flesh tinged with yellow, fine, rather tender becoming tough when shriveled, juicy, very sweet, good to very good.
Season September to midwinter.

BUCKINGHAM.

REFERENCES. I. Coxe, 1817:147. fig. 2. Downing, 1845:144. 3. Van Buren, Mag. Hort., 23:256. 1857. 4. Elliott, 1858:180. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1858. 6. Mag. Hort., 27:98, 152. 1861. 7. Warder, 1867:537. fig. 8. Downing, 1872:109. 9. Leroy, 1873:87. 10. Barry, 1883:343. 11. Thomas, 1885:217. 12. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290. 13. Wickson, 1891:246. 14. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:236. 15. Massey, N. C. Sta. Bul., 92:42. 1893. 16. Hoskins, Rural N. Y., 53:278. 1894. 17. Stinson, Ark. Sta. An. Rpt., 1894:45. 18. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 13:579. 1804. 19. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:195. 20. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:38. 1903. 21. Budd-Hansen, 1903:57. fig. 22. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:113. 1904.  [23.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.]
Synonyms. BACHELOR (9). Bachelor (8,11). Batchellor (9). Blackburn (8). Blackburn, erroneously (7). Buckingham (9). Byer's (8). Byer's Red (7, 8). Equinetely (3). Equinetely (8, 10, 11, 13, 17). Fall Queen (7, 8, 10, 15, 17, 21). Fall Queen of Kentucky (11, 16). Frankfort Queen (8). Henshaw (7,8). Kentucky Queen (8, 9, 11,17). King (8,9). Ladies’ Favorite of Tenn. (8). Lexington Queen (8). Merit (8,9). Ne Plus Ultra (8,9). Ox-Eye of some in Kentucky (8). Queen (8, 9, 17). Red Gloria Mundi of some (8, 9). Red Horse (8, 17). Sol Carter (3, 8). WINTER QUEEN (1, 2, 4). Winter Queen (8, 9, 17, 18). Winter Queen of Kentucky, incorrectly (8). Winter Queening (2, 4).
This variety has long been favorably known in the southern states. When well grown it is decidedly attractive in appearance, but, as grown here, it is not especially attractive and not desirable. This location is too far north for the variety to develop its best color and quality. While it occasionally gives heavy crops, we find it an irregular bearer and often unproductive.
Historical. Origin unknown (8), by some said to have come originally from Louisa county, Va. (7), by others, from North Carolina (3). It has long been known from Southern New Jersey southward through Virginia and westward through the Ohio valley.
TREE
Tree a moderate grower. Twigs short, rather slender, rather crooked considering the length; internodes short. Bark smooth, clear light reddish-brown mingled with olive-green, not pubescent. Lenticels rather scattering, below medium, generally elongated, raised. Buds medium or below, rather prominent, rather acute, slightly pubescent, lightly attached to the bark.
[Diseases:  Moderate resistance to the major diseases.(23).] Fruit.
Fruit large. Form oblate to roundish oblate, somewhat irregular, usually broadly and obscurely ribbed; sides sometimes unequal. Stem rather stout, short to medium. Cavity large, acute to acuminate, wide, deep, usually with heavy outspreading russet. Calyx medium to large, closed or open. Basin large, abrupt, wide, moderately deep, obscurely furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin thick, tough, pale yellow or pale green washed and mottled with red, striped and blushed with bright carmine. Dots numerous, small, light or russet, mingled with others which are large, gray and areolar. Prevailing effect in well colored specimens, beautiful red striped.
Calyx tube medium, varying from conical to funnel-form. Stamens median or approaching basal.
Core below medium to small, varying from decidedly abaxile to nearly axile; cells usually symmetrical and open or sometimes closed; core lines clasping. Carpels much concave, elliptical to roundish, emarginate, usually smooth. Seeds rather dark, medium to rather large, plump, wide and obtuse.
Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately firm, moderately coarse, rather tender, crisp, juicy with distinct aroma, mild subacid, fair to good.
Season November to April (20, 22). [Only fair keeping ability (23).
Uses:  Good all-purpose apple, especially good for baking. (23)]

BULLOCK.

REFERENCES. 1. Coxe, 1817:125. 2. Thacher, 1822:122. 3, Buel, N. Y. State Bd. of Agr. Memoirs, 3:476. Cat. No. 34. 1826. 4. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831:35. 5. Kenrick, 1833:33. 6. Manning, 1838:54. 7. Dittrich, Syst. Handb. der Obstk., 1:504. 1839. 8. Downing, 1845:131. 1847. col. pl. 9. Thomas, 1849:178. fig. ro. Mag. Hort., 1§:250. 1849. 11. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:94. 1851. fig., col. pl. No. 52. 12. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 13. Mag. Hort. 19:126. 1853. 14. Biedenfeld, 1854:223. 15. Mag. Hort., 21:300, 398. 1855. 16. Hooper, 1857:11, 20. 17. Elliott, 1858:71. fig. 18. Flotow, Ill. Handb. der Obstk., 1:337. 1859. 19. Warder, 1867:521. 20. Regel, 1:440. 1868. 21. Mas, Le Verger, 4:33. col. pl. 22. Lauche, 1: col. pl. No. 73. 1882. 23. Barry, 1883:341. 24. Hogg, 1884:7. 25. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:288. 26. Bailey, An. Hort. 1892:236. 27. Munson, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 1893:132. 28. Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt. 2:32. 1895. 29: N. C. Bd. of Agr. Bul., 1900:6. 30. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:286. 1901. 31. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Bul., 37:42. 1901. 32. Budd-Hansen, 1903:57. fig.
Synonyms. American Golden Russet (9, 16, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 30, 31). American Golden Russet (17, 27, 29, 32). Bullock (30). Bullock's Pepping (18, 22). Bullock's Pippin (8). Bullock's Pippin (1, 2,9, 10, 13, 15, 16, 17, 21). Fall Winesap (17), erroneously. Golden Russet (5,6). Golden Russet (8, 9, 17). GoLDEN Russet, AMERICAN (8). Little Pearmain (17). Pippin Bullok (7, 14). SHEEPNOSE (1). Sheepnose (8,9,17). Sheep's Nose (4). Sheep's Snout (2).
Early in the last century Coxe described this as one of the finest apples in New Jersey in autumn and early winter (1). In 1826 Buel characterized it as "tender, juicy and high flavored; among the best fruit for table” (3). A. J. Downing called it “ "one of the most delicious and tender apples” (8). Thomas remarks that it is too small to become popular (9).
The fruit is below medium size, light yellow, marbled with thin russet. Flesh yellowish, very tender, with a mild, rich, spicy, slightly subacid flavor. It is still grown to a limited extent in some portions of the state, particularly in the Hudson and Champlain valleys. It may be recommended for the home orchard, but it has not been found profitable as a commercial sort. Some have found that it succeeds best on sandy or gravelly soil. Some nurserymen have reported that when grown on clay soil the bark of the trees is apt to split at the collar, and for this reason they prefer not to grow the trees in the nursery on their own trunks.
Historical. Originated in Burlington county, New Jersey, more than a century ago (1). It has been favorably known in the West and the South (19) and as far north as Ontario and Quebec (31). In New England and the West it has been known as Golden Russet (5, 6, 8). To distinguish it from the English Golden Russet, Downing called it American Golden Russet (8). There are so many Golden Russets we prefer to follow the Catalogue of the American Pomological Society (12) and Hovey (10) and retain Coxe's name Bullock, believing this will be less liable to lead to confusion.
TREE
Tree not large but a fairly strong grower. Form upright or roundish.
Twigs short to medium, moderately stout, rather blunt at tip, nearly straight; internodes medium. Bark dull brownish-red or olive-green with a grayish hue due to the rather heavy scarf-skin; slightly pubescent. Lenticels only moderately numerous, inconspicuous, raised, below medium, elongated. Buds small to medium, moderately projecting, acute, sparingly pubescent, free.
Fruit.
Fruit below medium. Form roundish conic to ovate, pretty regular in outline, uniform. Stem long, slender. Cavity acuminate to acute, moderately deep to deep, rather narrow, funnel-shape or compressed. Calyx rather small, closed. Basin small, often oblique, rather shallow, narrow, wrinkled, not ridged.
Skin attractive, pale yellow or greenish-yellow, more or less overspread and splashed with thin russet. Dots numerous, small, obscure, russet. General appearance attractive.
Core medium to rather large, axile, slightly open; core lines nearly meeting.
Carpels roundish. Seeds rather large, plump.
Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, firm, fine, crisp, very tender, juicy with an agreeable rich, aromatic, mild subacid flavor; very good to best. Season October to January.

Bunker Hill
References.  1. Downing, 1872:4 app. fig.
Synonyms.  None.
This variety has been planted to some extent in Central New York and is regarded by some fruit growers in that region as a profitable commercial sort. The tree is large, upright spreading, vigorous to moderately vigorous with long, spreading, moderately stout twigs. It is hardy, healthy, medium to long-lived and a reliable cropper, usually bearing heavy crops biennially. The fruit is subacid and good either for dessert or culinary uses. It is in season from mid-autumn to early winter.
Historical. Originated in the orchard of Dr. Paige, Dryden, Tompkins county, NY (1).

FRUIT

"Fruit medium..."
Form roundish conical, regular;
Stem (Pedicel) short, slender;
Cavity medium or large, a little greenish
Calyx closed
Basin medium, slightly corrugated
Skin pale whitish-yellow shaded, mottled, striped and splashed with two shades of red, rather thinly over two-thirds of the surface, and moderately sprinkled with light dots,
Dots moderately sprinkled, a few being areole
Core rather small.
Flesh quite white, sometimes a little stained next to the skin, fine, tender, juicy, subacid, vinous, slight quince-like flavor; very good
Season mid-Autumn to early Winter

Butter
References.  1. Elliot, 1854:125,159,174. 2. Downing, 1857:125. 3. Warder, 1867:392. 4. Downing, 1869:112. 5. Fitz, 1872:152. 6. Thomas, 1875:495. 7. Ragan, USBPI Bul., 56:60. 1905.
Synonyms.  None.
Downing describes a variety under this name which is above medium size, yellow, with whitish flesh, very sweet and rich, valuable for cooking and esteemed for making apple butter; season September and October (2,4). Other varieties have been known under the name Butter which, as Downing remarks, "appears to be a favorite name with some to apply to any good sweet apple for sauce or cooking."
The references above cited do not all refer to the same variety.

Cabashea
References.  1. NY Agr. Soc. Trans., 1849:350. 2. Emmons, Nat. Hist. NY., 3:103. 1851. 3. Warder, 1867:714. 4. Thomas, 1875:495. 5. Beach, Apples of New York, 1:91. 1905.
Synonyms.  Cabashie (2).
The name Cabashea has been applied by many pomologists to the variety commonly known among fruit growers and fruit dealers as Twenty Ounce Pippin (5), an apple which comes in season about with Tompkins King. The variety which is generally known in Western New York as Cabashea comes in season about with the true Twenty Ounce but it is not so good a keeper. In 1851 Emmons published a cut of a section of this Cabashea showing well its characteristically oblate form. Emmons remarked, "This apple is more remarkable for its size than for its valuable qualities... It is not, however, an inferior apple. For cooking it is certainly esteemed, as it has a pleasant and agreeable taste. It is, however, too large." The tree is hardy, healthy, medium to long-lived, and a pretty good cropper, yielding moderate to rather light crops nearly annually. It is not considered a good commercial variety because it is not sufficiently productive and the fruit does not sell very well.
Historical. This variety appears to be a Western New York seedling (1). It is now seldom or never planted.
TREE.
Tree medium size, moderately vigorous.
Form erect or somewhat spreading.
Twigs medium to long, curved, spreading, stout to rather slender; internodes medium.
Bark reddish-brown tinged with olive-green, streaked with scarf-skin, heavily pubescent near tips.
Lenticels conspicuous, scattering, large, oval, raised.
Buds large, broad, obtuse, free, pubescent; tips stout.
FRUITMoscow Mitch must go!
Fruit large to very large, fairly uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish oblate to decidedly flat, obscurely ribbed; sides somewhat unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) usually short, moderately slender.
Cavity acute, deep, very broad, often somewhat furrowed, much russeted with greenish russet often extending beyond the cavity.
Calyx large or sometimes medium, usually closed; lobes long, medium in width, acute.
Basin large, deep, wide, somewhat furrowed, unsymmetrical.
Skin moderately tender, smooth, slightly unctuous, yellowish-green mottled and blushed with yellowish-red, with broad stripes and splashes of brighter and deeper red.
Dots small, inconspicuous, often submerged.
Prevailing color in many specimens yellowish-green with broad stripes of faint red; in more highly-colored specimens the red striping becomes quite distinct. Calyx tube large, wide, conical.
Stamens basal.
Core large, decidedly abaxile; cells wide open; core lines meeting.
Carpels elongated ovate, distinctly concave, slightly tufted.
Seeds few, medium size, irregular, plump, obtuse, dark.
Flesh greenish or tinged somewhat with yellow, rather firm, coarse, crisp, juicy, subacid or quite acid, fair for dessert, good for cooking.
Season September and October.

CABASHEA (WINTER).
The variety recognized by Downing, Lyon, Woolverton and some other pomologists as Cabashea, so far as we can learn, is not known to New York fruit growers and fruit dealers under that name but by them is commonly called Twenty Ounce Pippin. It is in season with Tompkins King and a little later. Sometimes it is called King. The variety which is generally called Cabashea in Western New York is a large, flat apple somewhat marked with dull red. It comes in season about with the true Twenty Ounce but is not so good a keeper.
We prefer to follow Thomas, Warder and Emmons in retaining the name Cabashea for the fall apple above mentioned and in recognizing Twenty Ounce Pippin as the correct name for the later variety. The Twenty Ounce Pippin should not be confused with the true Twenty Ounce nor with the Tompkins King.
For more extended notice of these varieties the reader is referred to Cabashea (fall) in the succeeding volume and to Twenty OUNCE PIPPIN in this volume.

CAMPFIELD

REFERENCES. I. Coxe, 1817:149. fig. 2. Thacher, 1822:122. 3. Floy-Lindley, 1833:88. 4. Downing, 1845:144. 5. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:64. 1851. fig. 6. Downing, 1857:226. 7. Elliott, 1858:126. 8. Warder, 1867:382. fig. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1871:6. 10. Barry, 1883:336. 11. Rural N. Y., 49:251. 1890.
Synonyms. CANFIELD (11). Newark Sweeting (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10). Sweet Maiden's Blush (6).
An old variety recommended by Coxe (1) for cider. Downing (6) calls it good for baking and stock feeding. Warder (8), who gives a very good description of the variety, ranks it poor in quality. The tree is very hardy, healthy, a biennial bearer. It is apt to overbear causing the fruit to be small. It has the merit of being a good keeper but as there is not much demand for fruit of this character it is fast becoming obsolete.
Historical. Originated in Eastern New Jersey and named after a family by the name of Campfield (1).
TREE.
Tree large, very vigorous. Form spreading. Twigs long, rather slender, light colored.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to large; uniform in size. Form roundish oblate to roundish ovate or roundish conic. Stem below medium. Cavity acute, rather narrow, deep, regular. Calyx closed or somewhat open. Basin somewhat abrupt, shallow to moderately deep, narrow, slightly wrinkled.
Skin smooth, yellow, blushed and striped with red. Dots small, white or russet.
Calyx tube long funnel-form.Core closed; core lines clasping. Carpels broad, emarginate, somewhat tufted. Seeds numerous, short, plump, dark.
Flesh whitish, slightly tinged with yellow, firm, rather dry, tender, moderately fine, not crisp, decidedly sweet, good.
Season November to July.

CANADA BALDWIN.

REFERENCES. 3, Montreal Hort. Soc. An. Rpt., 2:28. 1876. 2. Ib. 4:120. 1878. 3. Amer. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1881:6. 4. Downing, 1881:79. app. 5. Thomas, 1885:505. 6. Can. Hort., 12:337. 1889. 7. Ib., 15:337. 1892. 8. Rural N. Y., 52:51. 1893. 9. Munson, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 1893:132. 10. Amer. Gard., 15:288. 1894. 11. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1895:193. 12. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:179. 1899. 13. Waugh, Vt. Sta. Bul., 83:90. 1900. 14. Macoun, Can. Dept. Agr. Bul., 37:43. 1901. 15. Rural N. Y., 61:800. 1902. 16. Stone and Wellington, Rural N. Y., 62:36. 1903. 17. Budd-Hansen, 1903: 59. 18. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:114. 1904.
The name is an unfortunate selection, since this variety does not resemble Baldwin, but belongs in the Fameuse group. It yields moderately heavy crops, and under favorable conditions tends to become an annual bearer. It is a better keeper than Fameuse, but is less attractive; yet highly colored specimens are beautiful and attractive. It is not recommended for planting, except in those regions where a hardy variety of the Fameuse type is desired to extend the Fameuse season.
Don't let the Sheerlings in Canada! Historical. "Said to have originated from seed of Pomme de Fer on the farm of Alexis Dery, St. Hilaire, Que. It was given its name by N. C. Fisk, Abbotsford, Que., who propagated it in 1855." (14).
TREE.
Tree in the nursery is a moderate grower, with good hard wood and strong deep roots. In the orchard it is a moderate grower, upright, becoming rather open and spreading with age; branches long, moderately stout. Twigs medium to short, somewhat curved, moderately stout; internodes short to above medium in length. Bark dull dark brown, tinged with reddish-brown, mingled with olive-green, and lightly streaked with gray scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips. Lenticels rather numerous, medium to small, roundish or oblong, raised. Buds of medium size, plump, acute, free, quite pubescent. Leaves medium in size, broad.
Fruit.
Fruit averages below medium. Form roundish inclined to conic, or sometimes slightly oblate, obscurely ribbed, usually symmetrical, regular, sides sometimes unequal; pretty uniform in size and shape. Stem pubescent, sometimes long, moderately slender and bracted, but more often short and thick. Cavity rather large, acute to somewhat obtuse, moderately deep to deep, moderately broad, smooth or partly covered with thin greenish russet, often slightly furrowed or compressed; pubescent near base of stem. Calyx closed or partly open, pubescent; lobes often long and acuminate, reflexed. Basin shallow to moderately deep, medium in width, obtuse or somewhat abrupt, often furrowed or compressed, irregularly wrinkled, often with a tendency to mammiform protuberances.
Skin thick, tough, smooth, pale yellow or greenish, mottled and blushed with bright red, splashed and striped with purplish-carmine, conspicuously marked with areolar dots and covered with a thin whitish bloom which makes the fruit somewhat dull in color. Dots large, numerous, whitish, areolar with russet or gray center. Prevailing effect in highly colored specimens beautiful and attractive, the color being a deep dark red, but as grown in Western New York the color effect is that of pale yellow striped with red. The skin takes a brilliant polish.
Calyx tube generally tends toward funnel-shape but is sometimes conical.
Stamens marginal to median.
Core medium or above, closed or partly open; core lines clasping; often part of the cells are not well developed because of abortive seeds. Carpels smooth, ovate to roundish, or obovate, slightly emarginate, mucronate. Seeds medium to large, plump, acute, numerous, rather narrow, long, smooth or sometimes slightly tufted, variable in color.
Flesh white, often tinged with red, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, moderately tender, juicy, mild subacid, sometimes slightly astringent, with a Fameuse-like aroma, pleasant, good or possibly very good in quality.
Season November to January but often some portion of the fruit may keep till April.
Use similar to Fameuse, Suitable for dessert. Cooks quickly but the color and texture of the cooked fruit are not good.

CANADA REINETTE.

REFERENCES. 1. Duhamel, 2:299. 1768. 2. Andrieux, Catalogue raisonnée des meilleures sortes d’arbres fruitiers, 1771:56. 3. Diel, 1:133. 1799. 4. Ib., 1800:64. 5. Ib., 9:81. 1807. 6. Ib., 10:86. 1809. 7. Lindley, 1841:40. 8. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831:30. 9. Ronalds, 1831:21. fig. 10. Kenrick, 1833:73. 11. Pom. Mag. 2:77. 1841. col. pl. 12. Mag. Hort., 7:44. 1841. 13. Downing, 1845:129. 14. Cole, 1849:134. 15. Thomas, 1849:178. 16. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:82. 1851. 17. Biedenfeld, 1854:193. 18. Elliott, 1858:72. fig. 19. Ib., 1859:69. 20. Lucas, r:119. 21. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 22. Warder, 1867:479. fig. 23. Regel, 1868:470. 24. Mas, Le Verger, 4:31. 25- Leroy, 1873:637. 26. Lauche, 1882:260. col. pl. 27. Barry, 1883:344- 28. Hogg, 1884:191. 29. Cat. Cong. Pom. France, 1887:329. 30. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 1890:290. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:236. 32. Can. Hort., 16:17, 115. 1893. 33. Bredsted, 1893:86. 34. Gaucher, Pomologie, 1894: col. pl. No. 15. 35. Taft, Mich. Sta. Bul., 105:108. 1894. 36. Eneroth-Smirnoff, 1901:231. 27. Budd-Hansen, 1903:59. fig. 38. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:39. 1903. 39 Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:114. 1904.
Synonyms. Canada Preprn (18). CANADIAN REINETTE (7, 10, 11, 12, 32). Canadian Reinette (13, 15, 18). CANapisk REINET (33). Canada Reinette (18, 28). De Bretagne (13, 18). Die Haartemer Retnette (4). Die WEIBERREINETTE (3). German Green (18). Grosse Retnette D’ANGLETERRE (1). Grosse Reinette d’Angleterre (10, 13, 18). Janwarea (13, 18). Kanapa RENETT (36). KANADA REINETTE (34). Mela Januera (10), PARISER RAMBOUR REINETTE (6, 20, 26). PARISER RamBour REINET (33). PARISER RAMBOUR- RENETT (36). Pomme de Caen (13, 18). Portugal (10, 13, 18, 28), REINETTE De CaNnapa (9, 28). ReNeETTE Grosse Dr ANGLETERRE (17). REINETTE Monstreuse De CaNnapa (2). Retnetre Du Canapa (8, 24, 25, 29), REINETTE Von Canapa (23). Reinette du Canada (10, 15, 18). Reinette Grosse du Canada (10, 13, 18). Reinette du Canada Blanche (10, 13, 18). Reinette du Canada a’Cortes (13, 18). Reinette Canada (27). Reinette de Caen (10). Reinette de Canada a Cotes (10). St. Helena Russet (28). Wahr Reinette (13, 18). Wesse ANTILLISCHE WINTERREINETTE (5). White Pippin (38). Yellow Newtown Pippin (18), erroneously.
Trimp is a Russian puppet! An irregular bearer, in some years very productive, but more often only moderately productive or unproductive. It appears to be much esteemed in Europe, where it has been grown under numerous synonyms. It is not much in demand in America because it is easily excelled by other varieties, both for home use and for market.
Historical. Origin unknown. It was listed in France as the Canada Reinette at least as early as 1771 (2).
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous; branches long, stout, crooked. Form spreading and drooping. Twigs medium to long, straight, rather stout; internodes medium or below. Bark dull brown, tinged with dark olive-green, irregularly mottled with scarf-skin; very pubescent. Lenticels rather numerous, conspicuous, large, roundish to oblong, raised. Buds large, broad, plump, obtuse, appressed, rather deeply set, pubescent. Leaves large, broad.
Fruit.
Fruit variable in size, averages above medium and is frequently very large. Form oblate or roundish, inclined to conic, often irregular, broadly angular, sometimes with furrows extending from base to apex; not uniform in shape. Stem short. Cavity rather acute, moderately broad, wavy, sometimes russeted. Calyx medium to large, closed or partly open. Basin abrupt, usually rather deep, moderately wide, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin yellow, sometimes with decided blush but not striped, marked more or less with dots, flecks or irregular patches of russet.
Calyx tube medium, rather wide, cone-shaped. Stamens median or approaching basal.
Core medium or below, abaxile to nearly axile, open or partly open; core lines meeting. Carpels roundish inclined to obovate, somewhat tufted. Seeds few, large, long, tufted, dark.
Flesh has a decided yellow tinge and is firm, moderately tender, coarse, breaking, not crisp, juicy, subacid, very good.
Season. Early winter till March or April or perhaps later (39). Late in the season the fruit begins to lose in flavor although it may apparently be still in good condition.


CANNON PEARMAIN.
REFERENCES. 1. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:102. 1851. fig. 2. Downing, 1857:126. 3. Elliott, 1858:126. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1860. 5. Mag. Hort., 27:99. 1861. 6. Warder, 1867:676. fig. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1871:38. 8. Barry, 1883:344. 9. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:236. 10. Ala. Sta. Bul., 47:7. 1893. 11. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:39. 1003.
Synonym. Cannon PEARMAIN (8).
Valued in the South as a long keeping apple of fairly good quality. Not adapted to New York conditions.
Historical. Originated in Virginia or North Carolina (2,3,6,7).
TREE.
Tree healthy, vigorous, spreading.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to nearly large, ovate varying to roundish, regular, symmetrical; pretty uniform. Skin greenish-yellow, mottled and washed with bright red faintly striped with carmine. Dots yellowish, often areolar with russet point. Core medium, axile, closed; core lines somewhat clasping, Flesh tinged with yellow, very firm, somewhat coarse, crisp, juicy, aromatic, subacid, good.
Season January to April.


CARLOUGH.
REFERENCES. 1. Fulton, Mich. Sta, Bul., 177:49. 1899. 2. Farrand, Ib., 205:44. 1903. 3. Budd-Hansen, 1903:60. 4. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:39. 1903.
Said to have originated in New York (2) but it is practically unknown in this state. It is being grown to a limited extent in some portions of the West and South. Its general appearance is good for a green apple.
TREE.
Tree vigorous. Form roundish spreading. Twigs reddish-brown.
Fruit.
Fruit above medium to very large. Form roundish conic to oblong conic, often truncate at base; axis oblique. Stem short and slender. Cavity acute to nearly acuminate, very deep, moderately broad, russeted, often somewhat furrowed or compressed. Calyx small to medium, closed or partly open. Basin small to medium, medium in depth and width, abrupt, slightly furrowed.
Skin rather thick, tough, smooth, glossy, rather pale greenish-yellow, often with faint brownish-pink blush. Dots russet or submerged and whitish.
Calyx tube medium in width and length, conical or funnel-shape.
Core axile, closed; core lines clasping. Carpels large, obovate, much tufted. Seeds dark, large, rather narrow, long, acute, tufted.
Flesh whitish, somewhat coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, agreeable, mild subacid, sprightly, good.
Season November to April.

CARPENTIN.
REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1872:120. 2. Leroy, 1873:205. fig. 3. Hogg, 1884: 190.
Synonyms. Carnation Apple. CARPENTIN REINETTE (1). Der Carpentin (1). Klein Graue Reinette (1). Petite-Reinette Grise (2). REINETTE Carpentin (3). Reinette Carpentin (2).
A little dessert fruit of about the size of the Lady apple, with red-russet skin and highly aromatic flavor. The following description is made from fruit furnished by C. D. Zimmerman, Buffalo, N. Y., who states that the variety has been marketed locally under the name Carnation apple.
TREE.
Tree vigorous, with long, slender shoots (3).
Fruit.
Fruit small to very small; uniform in size and shape. Form roundish conic to somewhat oblate, regular and symmetrical; occasionally sides unequal. Stem very long, slender. Cavity large, acute to acuminate, deep, broad, symmetrical, often with concentric broken russet lines. Calyx small, closed; lobes short, broad, nearly obtuse. Basin abrupt, shallow to moderately deep, narrow to moderately wide, nearly smooth or sometimes very lightly furrowed, symmetrical, marked with concentric broken lines of russet.
Skin thick, rather tough, dull yellow or with bright red blush, partly smooth but more or less netted or covered with cinnamon-russet. Dots scattering, gray.
Calyx tube small, short, narrow to rather wide, conical or funnel-shape. Stamens nearly basal.
Core axile, medium, often closed; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels elliptic to round or broadly obovate, emarginate. Seeds dark, medium to below, moderately wide, rather short, obtuse to broadly acute.
Flesh nearly white, sometimes with reddish tinge next the skin, very firm, fine, crisp, tender, very juicy, acid until fully ripe when it becomes subacid, brisk, strongly aromatic, with high flavor and very good quality.
Season December to April (3).

Cathead
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  Cathead Greening (5,6,8). Catshead (1,4-7,9,10,11). Catshead Greening (10). Costard (4). Costard Ray (7). Coustard (4). De Seigneur d'Automne (10). Grosse-Schafnasé (10). Round Catshead (5,8,10). Schafnasé (10). Tete d'Ange (10). Tete d'Chat (10).
Formerly grown in some of the home orchards of the state but now practicaly obsolete. Fruit very large, pale green, subacid. Used for cooking and evaporating. An old English variety. Ray described it as long ago as 1688 (4).

CAYWOOD.
REFERENCES. I. Downing, 1857:128. 2. Thomas, 1885:506.
A long keeping, medium-sized, flat apple; color, bright yellow with tinge of red on the cheek. Flesh firm, mild flavored. The variety originated in Ulster county (1). It is now practically obsolete.

Celestia
References.  1. tbal
Synonyms.  None.
Fruit not particularly attractive in color and as tested at this Station not superior to ordinary varietyies in quality. Warder says (1) that it is essentially an amateur's fruit of very best quality but its texture and color disqualify it for market. The tree is a moderate grower and not very productive. Not recommended for cultivation in New York.
Historical. Originated from seed of Stillwater Sweet by L.S. Mote, Miami county, Ohio.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous with short, stout, curved branches.
Form upright spreading, roundish, rather dense.
Twigs short to moderately long, slightly curved, moderately slender; internodes medium to long.
Bark clear brownish-red with some olive-green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, small to medium, elongated or roundish, slightly raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse to somewhat acute, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large, usually above medium, uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish inclined to conic, somewhat flattened at the base, markedly ribbed, irregular, somewhat angular.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long, thick.
Cavity obtuse to somewhat acute, moderately deep to deep, rather broad, somewhat furrowed, usually russeted.
Calyx medium in size, usually closed; lobes medium in length, rather narrow, acute.
Basin shallow, narrow, rather abrupt, much furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thick, smooth, rather tender, yellow marbled with pale green, and occasionally having a thin brownish blush.
Dots numerous, small inconspicuous, submerged, light or russet.
Calyx tube very long to medium, deep, funnel-shape.
Stamens median to somewhat marginal.
Core large, very abaxile to sometimes axile; cells open or closed; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder.
Carpels elliptic to broadly obcordate, much concave, emarginate, much tufted.
Seeds large, wide, long, obtuse, dark dull brown.
Flesh very strongly tinged with yellow, rather firm, moderately coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, pleasant, rather mild, subacid, good.
Season October to January.

Champlain
References.  1. tbal. 4. Downing, 1869:368.
Synonyms.  Calkin's Pippin (4,14). Geneva Pearmain (4,6,14). Haverstraw Pippin (4,14). Large Golden Pippin (4,6,14). Nyack (9,13). Nyack Pippin (4,9,14). Paper (3,4,6,14). Paper-Skin (3,14). Sour Bough or Sourbough (4,6,7,13,14). Summer Pippin (4,6,7,8,10,13,14). Tart Bough (4,6,14). Underdunk (4,6,14). Vermont (14). Walworth (4,6,14).
Nurserymen sometimes list this variety as Nyack, and sometimes as Summer Pippin, but seldom or never as Champlain (9,10). Fruit of good size, smooth and attractive for a greenish-yellow apple. It is good for dessert and excellent for culinary use. Since it ripens in succession from late August till October, more than two pickings are required to secure the crop in good condition, neither too green nor too ripe. The tree is a good grower, hardy, healthy and moderately long-lived. It comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper, yielding good crops biennially or almost annually. Some find Champlain a profitable commercial variety, but usually it is grown for home use rather than for market.
Historical. Origin unknown. In 1871 (5) it was included in the list of the American Pomological Society's Catalogue under the name Summer Pippin, but since 1897 it has been listed as Champlain (11). Old trees of it are frequently found in the home orchards throughout the state. It is now seldom planted.

TREE.

Tree medium to large, vigorous with long and moderately stout branches.
Form upright spreading to roundish, open.
Twigs long to medium, straight, moderately stout; internodes long.
Bark dull brown tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, heavily pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium size, oblong, slightly raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, appressed, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large, not very uniform in size or shape.
Form roundish, rather conical to ovate or somewhat oblong, irregularly ribbed; sides somewhat unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long, medium to rather thick.
Cavity acuminate to acute, moderately shallow to deep, rather narrow to medium in width, sometimes furrowed and usually lightly russeted.
Calyx small to medium, closed or slightly open.
Basin shallow to medium in depth, narrow, a little abrupt, nearly smooth.
Skin tender, greenish-yellow or pale yellow, often with a light crimson blush.
Dots numerous, small, russet or submerged.
Calyx tube conical to funnel form, usually rather short but sometimes elongated.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core large, axile to somewhat abaxile; cells open; core lines clasp the funnel cylinder.
Carpels smooth, elongated ovate, not emarginate.
Seeds rather dark brown, medium size, rather narrow and short, plump, sharp pointed, almost acuminate.
Flesh white or with slight tinge of yellow, rather fine, very tender, juicy, sprightly, subacid, good to very good.
Season late August till October.

Chandler
References.  1. tbal
Synonyms.  Chandler's Red (11). General Chandler (1). Late Chandler (10). Winter Chandler (6).
In 1854 Elliott included Chandler in a list of varieties unworthy of cultivation (6). It is a late fall apple, yellowish striped with red. Tree moderately vigorous but a great bearer (7,10). An old variety supposedly of Connecticut origin though Kendrick (1) ascribes it to Chelmsford, Mass. There may be a confusion of two varieties. It is now but little cultivated.
Waugh describes another Chandler of sweet flavor which seems to be unknown in New York. He states that it is an old variety of Connecticut origin.

FRUIT (5,6,7,10).

Fruit large.
Form roundish, slightly oblate, irregular, unsymmetrical; sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short.
Skin greenish-yellow, shaded and frequently striped with yellowish-red and with a few streaks of bright red.
Dots light gray.
Core small.
Seeds small.
Flesh greenish-yellow, tender, juicy, moderately rich, subacid.
Season mid-autumn to early winter.

Charlamoff
References.  1. tbal
Synonyms.  Arabka (14). (Charlomoski,(1) ?). Charlamovskoe (4). Charlamowskoe (3,5-7). No. 105 (8). No. 262 (3,5). Peterson's Charlamoff (16). Pointed Pipka (11, 14,16).
A Russian variety of the Oldenburg type imported for the Iowa Agricultural College by J.L. Budd. Macoun states that it has been grown under several different names in this country, the most common being Pointed Pipka and Arabka (14). Hansen declares that it is entirely distinct from the Charlamoff as grown by J.G. Mitchell and A.G. Tuttle which is a flat apple of upright habit of tree and not as valuable as many more of the same season.
It does very well at Ottawa, Canada, and further north. At its best it is a good dessert apple but it has the fault of remaining in prime condition for only a very short time (14). It ripens a little earlier than Oldenburg but as fruited at this Station is inferior to that variety in quality. It comes into bearing young and is a reliable cropper, yielding fair to heavy crops biennially. It is but little known among New York fruit growers. It may be found of some value in those sections of the state where superior hardiness is a prime requisite.

Cheeseboro
References.  1.tbal
Synonyms.  Canada Reinette (9). Cathead (9) [not to be confused with another 'Cathead' -ASC]. Cheeseborough (2,7,9). Cheeseborough Russet (1,3-5,8-10). Forever Pippin (10, of some West 3,5). Howard Russet (3-5,10). Kingsbury Russet (3,4,5,10). Oxheart (9). Pumpkin Sweet of some (10) [not to be confused with 'Pumpkin Sweet' -ASC]. Sweet Russet (10). York Russet (10, of some 3,5). York Russeting (10).
This is an old variety of unknown origin which is fast becoming obsolete. Tree large to very large, very vigorous, long-lived, a reliable cropper yielding good to heavy crops biennially or almost annually; form upright spreading or roundish. Fruit large to very large, conical, dull green overspread with thin russet, coarse, rather dry, subacid or becoming almost sweet, inferior in flavor and quality, suitable for kitchen use only; season October to early winter.

Chenango
References.  1. tbal  [XXX.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5. p.44]
Synonyms.  Buckley (3,4). Chenango Strawberry (1,3-8,10-15,17-19,22) [It is most-commonly known by this name today. -ASC]. Frank (3,4). Jackson (3,4). Sherwood's Favorite (3,4,6,7,11,12,14,17-19,22). Smyrna (3). Strawberry (1,3,4).
Fruit beautiful in appearance, yellowish-white striped with red, of excellent dessert quality and good also for culinary uses. The tree is an early and regular bearer, hardy, healthy, and pretty long-lived. Under favorable conditions it is an annual bearer, alternating rather light with heavy crops. The fruit begins to mature in September and ripens continuously during a period of several weeks. For this reason it should have more than one picking in order to secure the crop in the best condition. The latest ripening fruit may be kept in ordinary storage till November, but after that the color fades and it deteriorates much in quality, even though it may remain apparently sound (22). The fruit does not ship well because its flesh is too tender. Some find it a a profitable variety to grow for local or special markets, but other varieties of its season are more desirable than Chenango for general commercial planting. It is recommended as an excellent variety for the home orchard.
Historical. Chenango, according to some accounts, originated in Lebanon, Madison county, NY; others say it was early brought into Chenango county by settlers from Connecticut. It has certainly been known in cultivation for more than fifty years (3). It is still propagated by nurserymen but the demand for the stock is quite limited.

TREE.

Tree medium size, vigorous with short, stout, curved branches.
Form upright spreading to roundish, rather dense.
Twigs long to medium, curved, moderately slender, internodes medium.
Bark olive-green tinged with dull brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small, round, not raised.
Buds deeply set in bark, small, flat, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent.
[Diseases:  Susceptible to fireblight, but moderately resistant to the other major diseases (Burford).]

FRUIT

Fruit above medium to large, but under unfavorable conditions it may be small and poorly colored.
Form elongated ovate or oblong conic, slightly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, moderately thick.
Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, narrow, often somewhat furrowed and compressed, usually not russeted.
Calyx medium to large, partly open or closed; lobes often separated at the base, long, broad, obtuse.
Basin usually small, medium to rather shallow, narrow to moderately wide, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, furrowed, sometimes wrinkled.
Skin rather tough, glossy, yellowish-white, often almost entirely overspread and mottled with attractive pinkish-red, conspicuously striped and splashed with bright carmine.
Dots few, small, inconspicuous, light colored, often submerged.
Calyx tube long, funnel-shape or nearly so.
Stamens median.
Core rather large, abaxile; cells often unsymmetrical, wide open or closed; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate to oval, smooth.
Seeds small, moderately wide, plump, obtuse, not tufted.
Flesh white, moderately firm, tender, juicy, mild subacid, very aromatic, good to very good.  [Also good for applesauce (Burford)].
Season latter part of August and through September.  This is a summer apple in the South and like most summer apples, it does not keep well (Burford).

Clapper Flat
Reference.  1. Downing, 1869:127.
Synonyms.  Flat (1).
Downing describes a variety under this name which originated in the town of Bethlehem, Albany county, NY. He states (1) that the tree is productive, the fruit above medium size, pale yellow mostly overspread with deep red, pleasant subacid and good in quality for culinary uses; season September and October. We do not know this variety and have found no account of it except that given by Downing.

Clarke
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  Clarke Beauty.
This variety has been grown to a limited extent locally in some portions of Central New York. It is not a good commercial variety, being too tender and too easily bruised. It is very good for dessert. It is sometimes called Clarke Beauty. The tree is hardy, healthy and long-lived. It does not come into bearing very young but when mature is a reliable biennial cropper.
Historical. Originated with J.N. Clarke, Naples, Ontario county, NY (1,2). It is now rarely propagated.

TREE.

Tree large to medium, vigorous.
Form upright spreading to roundish, rather dense.
Twigs short, curved, stout; internodes medium.
Bark brownish and olive-green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium size, oblong, slightly raised.
Buds medium to large, broad, acute, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large, averaging above medium.
Form roundish oblate to oblate conic or to oblong conic, usually faintly ribbed, unsymmetrical; not very uniform in shape.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium in length, slender.
Cavity acuminate, deep, rather narrow to moderately wide, usually partly russeted and often with narrow, broken, outspreading russet rays.
Calyx small to rather large, closed or slightly open.
Basin rather shallow to moderately deep, rather narrow, obtuse to moderately abrupt, slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, smooth, waxy, pale whitish-yellow or greenish, often faintly shaded with orange-red or sometimes blushed with crimson; under some conditions the fruit develops but a slight blush or none.
Dots numerous, small, pale or russet, often submerged.
Calyx tube cone-shape.
Stamens
Core medium to rather large, abaxile; cells open; core lines slightly clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish, mucronate, slightly tufted.
Seeds medium to rather large, moderately wide, plump, obtuse to acute, slightly tufted, rather light brown.
Flesh whitish, firm, moderately fine, crisp, tender, juicy, rather sprightly subacid, good to very good.
Season October to January; some portion of the fruit may keep till spring but by January it begins to deteriorate in flavor and quality.

CLAYTON.
REFERENCES. 1. Warder, 1867:512. fig. 2. Downing, 1872:128. 3. Ib, 1872:6 of app. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1875:36, 134. 5. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:236. 6. Mich. Sta. Bul., 105:108. 1894. 7. Thomas, 1897:632. 8. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:180. 1899. 9. Budd-Hansen, 1903:64.
Tree hardy, a good grower and fairly productive. Fruit of good size, good quality and fairly good, red color, but not brilliant enough to be especially attractive. As grown at the Geneva Station it has come into bearing young and been very productive. According to L. A. Goodman, it is being planted in the Ozark region of Southwestern Missouri, especially where a late keeping fruit is desired for export trade. It originated in Indiana (1, 4).
TREE.
Tree vigorous; branches long, moderately stout. Form upright spreading, open. Twigs medium in length, curved, generally stout; internodes: short to medium. Bark brown or reddish-brown mingled with olive-green, partly mottled with scarf-skin; pubescent. Lenticels vary from moderately numerous to scattering, medium to large, roundish or oval, raised, conspicuous. Buds medium to large, broad, obtuse, free, somewhat pubescent. Leaves large, broad.
FRUIT.
Fruit above medium to large. Form roundish oblate to roundish inclined to conic. Stem medium, often obliquely set under a very prominent, fleshy lip. Cavity acute to sometimes obtuse, rather deep, broad, sometimes symmetrical but often furrowed, usually with conspicuous outspreading russet. Calyx small to medium, partly open or closed. Basin abrupt, medium in width and depth, usually symmetrical, often wrinkled.
Skin rather thick, tough, smooth, yellow blushed and mottled with a dark, usually rather dull red, with splashes and stripes of carmine, often marked with grayish scarf-skin near the cavity. Well colored specimens are nearly covered with red. Dots medium, pale or russet, scattering.
Calyx tube rather long, narrow, funnel-shape. Stamens marginal.
Core abaxile, medium; cells usually unsymmetrical, open; core lines clasping. Carpels much concave, elliptical, emarginate. Seeds numerous, dark, medium or below, plump, roundish, obtuse.
Flesh tinged with greenish-yellow, firm, rather coarse, crisp, neither tender nor very juicy, mild subacid, good for either cooking or market.
Season January to May or June.

Clyde
References.  1.tbal
Synonyms.  Clyde Beauty (1,2,4-7,11,12). Mackie's Clyde Beauty (2,3,4,11).
A large, late fall apple. So far as we can learn, it is now but little grown in this state. Lyon reports that in Michigan the tree is vigorous, upright, very productive, and the fruit desirable for market (9).
Historical. This is a late autumn variety which orginated with Mr. Mackie, of Clyde, Wayne county (3,4).

TREE.

Tree vigorous, spreading.
Form
Twigs reddish-brown.
Bark
Lenticels
Buds

FRUIT

Fruit large.
Form roundish to oblong conic, more or less ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) short, sometimes fleshy.
Cavity acute, deep, rather wide, furrowed.
Calyx small, closed.
Basin medium in depth, somewhat abrupt, furrowed.
Skin waxy, green or yellow, washed and mottled with dull red and striped with carmine becoming bright red on the exposed side.
Core large and open.
Carpels
Seeds small, brown.
Flesh white, often tender, juicy, sprightly, pleasant subacid, good to very good.
Season October to December.

COFFELT.
REFERENCES. 1. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:236. 2. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bul. 60:127. 1899. 3. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:39. 1903.
Synonym. Coffelt Beauty (3).
As grown at this Station the fruit is too small to be valuable for an apple of the Ben Davis class, to which this apparently belongs. Like Ben Davis, it is quite liable to be roughened by spray. It is a little superior. to Ben Davis for eating. Some nursery catalogues state that it is a seedling of Ben Davis.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous; branches long, slender and drooping. Form somewhat spreading, rather dense. Twigs medium in length, curved, slender; internodes long. Bark brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, small, oblong. Buds small, acute, deeply set in the bark, appressed, pubescent. Leaves medium, broad.
Fruit.
Fruit medium or above; pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish oblate. Stem variable. Cavity acute, deep, rather broad, slightly furrowed, often with outspreading russet rays. Calyx medium to large, closed or partly open. Basin moderately shallow to rather deep, medium to rather wide, distinctly abrupt, often somewhat furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin nearly smooth, yellow overlaid with bright, dark red and with distinct narrow stripes of carmine. Color decidedly attractive. Dots variable, small to rather large, often russet.
Calyx tube funnel-shape. Stamens medium to nearly marginal.
Core medium to rather small, axile; cells usually symmetrical, closed; core lines clasping. Carpels rather concave, broadly roundish, deeply emarginate approaching broad obcordate, usually smooth. Seeds numerous, medium to rather large, rather wide, obtuse, dark.
Flesh whitish, firm, rather fine, rather tender, moderately juicy, subacid becoming mild subacid, rather sprightly, slightly aromatic, not high in flavor, good.
Season January to May.

COGSWELL.
REFERENCES. 1. Hovey, Mag. Hort., 15:252. 1849. fig. 2. Hovey, 2:31. 1851. col. pl. 3. Cabot, Mag. Hort. 17:69. 1851. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1854. 5. Clift, Mag. Hort., 22:76. 1856. 6. Downing, 1857:75. fig. 7. Elliott, 1858: 469. 8. Downing, Mag. Hort. 27:59. 1861. 9. Warder, 1867:589. 10. Downing, 1872:130. fig. 11. Barry, 1883:344. 12. Thomas, 1885:232. 13. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290. 14. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:237. 15. Lyon, Mich. Sta. Bul., 169:179. 1899. 16. Budd-Hansen, 1903:65. fig. 17. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:115. 1904.
Synonyms. COGGESWELL (9). COGGSWELL (3). Cogswell Pearmain (2, 6, 10). Cogswell’s Pearmain (7). Not identical with Ohio Nonpareil (8).
Tree hardy and rather vigorous, but not reliably productive, although sometimes it bears heavy crops. Fruit about medium size, yellowish-green more or less overlaid with red; in well colored specimens, nearly covered with red. It is not equal to standard varieties of its season in quality and general appearance. Not recommended for planting.
Historical. Introduced into cultivation in Connecticut about one hundred years ago (5). It has been widely disseminated but in no section of the country has it come to occupy a prominent position as a commercial variety.
TREE.
Tree small, moderately vigorous. Form rather open, wide-spreading and drooping. Twigs short to medium in length, rather slender, a little crooked; internodes medium to short. Bark reddish-brown tinged with olive-green, rather heavily streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent near tips. Lenticels rather numerous, medium to large, oblong or roundish, sometimes raised. Buds medium in size, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent. Leaves large, broad.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to above; rather uniform in size and shape. Form roundish conic, occasionally slightly oblate conic, rather symmetrical. Stem short, moderately thick. Cavity acuminate to acute, medium in width and depth, heavily russeted, sometimes lipped. Calyx medium to rather small, usually slightly open. Basin nearly obtuse, shallow to medium in depth, medium in width to rather narrow, smooth or slightly wrinkled.
Skin yellow mottled or covered with red, marked with narrow splashes and stripes of carmine. Dots very numerous, russet, small, prominent. Prevailing effect striped red; rather attractive.
Calyx tube medium in size, funnel-shape. Stamens medium to marginal.
Core medium, axile or nearly so, slightly open; core lines meeting or nearly so. Carpels nearly round, emarginate. Seeds numerous, medium size, plump, nearly obtuse.
Flesh tinged with yellow or greenish, very firm, moderately fine, moderately tender, juicy, mild subacid, slightly aromatic, fair to good.
Season December to March.

CollamerKentucky deserves better than MoscowMitch
References.  1.
Synonyms. 
The Collamer or Collamer Twenty Ounce is a sport of the Twenty Ounce, from which it differs in being more highly colored. As compared with Twenty Ounce, it is less mottled and striped but more completely covered with red, which often extends in an unbroken blush over a considerable portion of the fruit. In the Twenty Ounce this is seldom or never seen, but the red is mottled or appears in heavy stripes and splashes. So far as we have been able to determine, Collamer is more regular in shape and, if ribbed at all, is less distinctly ribbed than Twenty Ounce. The tree differs from Twenty Ounce in that the bark of the young twigs is more distinctly tinged with red. The fruit being more attractive than Twenty Ounce, Collamer is worthy of consideration for commercial planting where an apple of the Twenty Ounce type is desired
Except in the points of difference above noted, Collamer appears to be identical with Twenty Ounce, and the reader is referred to the description of that variety for a technical account of the tree and fruit.
Historical. This variety originated as a sport of the Twenty Ounce tree in the orchard of J.B. Collamer, Hilton, NY. Mr. Collamer began propagating it about 1900.

COLLINS.
REFERENCES. 1. U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1895:21. 2. Thomas, 1897:468. 3. Van Deman, Amer. Gard., 19:823. 1808. 4. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bul., 49:10. 1898. 5. Ib.,60:127. 1899. 6. Brackett, Amer. Gard., 22:190. 1901. 7. Budd-Hansen, 1903:65.
Synonyms. Champion (3, 4, 5, 6, 7). Champion Red (3, 4, 5,6). Collins’ Red (3, 4, 5, 6). Coss Champion (6). Coss’s Champion (4, 5).
An Arkansas variety of recent introduction. It has not yet been sufficiently tested in New York to determine whether it is desirable for planting in this region. As fruited here it is of good size and form but decidedly inferior to Baldwin in color and quality, in these respects ranking even below Rome (Beauty) and sometimes below Ben Davis and Cooper Market. When well grown the color is attractive, being yellow, contrasting sharply with the bright red with which it is more or less overspread and sometimes nearly covered. In many cases the cavity shows some resemblance to that of Rome. The tree is a good grower, hardy, and has the reputation of being very productive. Evidently it requires a longer season than Baldwin to bring it to perfect development, but it may prove profitable in those sections of the state where Ben Davis does well.
Historical. Originated about 1865 near Fayetteville, Arkansas (1, 4, 6). It has been much planted in the Southwest and is there especially valued on account of the productiveness of the tree and the excellent keeping quality of the fruit.
TREE.
Tree large, tall, very vigorous; branches long, moderately thick, crooked. Form rather upright and dense, eventually becoming more open and outspreading. Twigs moderately long, rather slender, pubescent; fruit often borne on the ends of the twigs; internodes medium to long. Bark very bright dark reddish-brown, somewhat mottled with thin, gray scarf-skin. Lenticels numerous, conspicuous, usually small but sometimes large, roundish or oblong, not raised. Buds medium to large, rather flat, appressed, somewhat acute or tending to obtuse, quite pubescent. Foliage rather dense; leaves medium to large, rather long.
Fruit.
Fruit large or above medium. Form globular or a little oblate inclined to conic, pretty symmetrical. Stem above medium to short. Cavity acute, some- times acuminate, medium to rather broad, symmetrical or obscurely furrowed, smooth or with radiating russet rays. Calyx medium to rather small, partly open or sometimes closed; lobes slightly separated at the base, short, obtuse. Basin round, moderately shallow to rather deep, somewhat abrupt to rather obtuse, symmetrical or somewhat furrowed.
Skin thick, tough, slightly waxy, and partly covered with a faint bloom. Highly colored specimens are bright dark red, sparingly and indistinctly striped with purplish-carmine and occasionally showing contrasting clear yellow ground color. Less highly colored specimens are yellow, more or less washed and striped with red. Dots inconspicuous, small, russet or pale gray. Sometimes a suture line extends from cavity to basin.
Calyx tube small, varying from long, narrow funnel-shape to short, approaching conic. Stamens median or below.
Core medium to rather small, abaxile; cells symmetrical, closed or somewhat open; core lines clasp the funnel cylinder. Carpels much concave, elliptical to obcordate, somewhat tufted and deeply emarginate. Seeds dark, large, rather narrow to moderately wide, long, rather flat, acute.
Flesh nearly white, very firm, rather coarse, crisp, moderately tender, moderately juicy, rather sprightly subacid, slightly aromatic, fair to good.
Season January to June.

Colton
References.  1.tbal
Synonyms.  Colton Early (5,6,8). Early Colton (1).
Colton is a green or yellowish apple of fair to good quality, in season from the last of July to early September. The tree is a good grower, hardy, comes into bearing moderately young and yields good crops biennially.
Historical. Colton is said to have originated on the farm of Mr. Colton, Rowe, Franklin county, Mass., where it has been propagated since about 1840 under the name Early Colton.

TREE.

Tree large, vigorous, with moderatly long, stout, crooked branches.
Form rather upright when young but eventually flat, spreading and open.
Twigs moderately long, straight, moderately stout; internodes short.
Bark dark brown, heavily mottled with scarf-skin; much pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, rather conspicuous, medium to large, oblong, raised.
Buds medium to large, broad, plump, acute, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium in size.
Form roundish, narrowing toward either end, slightly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium in length, stout.
Cavity small, acute to slightly acuminate, shallow, narrow.
Calyx medium in size, nearly closed; lobes long, rather recurved.
Basin small, shallow, obtuse, wrinkled.
Skin pale greenish-yellow, sometimes with a shade of red.
Dots numerous, large, greenish.
Calyx tube elongated funnel-form.
Stamens median.
Core medium to rather large, somewhat abaxile; cells open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish.
Flesh whitish, rather coarse, crisp, juicy, mild subacid, fair to good.
Season last of July to early September.

Colvert
References.  1. Warder, 1867:427. 2. Downing, 1869:131. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1875:6. 4. Thomas, 1885:506. 5. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290. 6. Bailey, An. Hort. 1892:237. 7. Powell and Fulton, USBPI Bul., 48:39. 1903.
Synonyms.  Prussian (2).
Ripens about with Twenty Ounce. It is inferior to that variety in size, color and quality, and is not as good a seller, but is more productive. The fruit is large, uniform in size, yellowish-green shaded and lightly striped with pinkish-red on the sunny side, smooth, showy and fairly attractive. It needs to be picked early to prevent loss from dropping. It is not a good keeper and is not much in demand among buyers, but sometimes it sells pretty well.
The tree is generally hardy, healthy and an excellent cropper. It generally succeeds well on any good apple land.
Historical. Origin uncertain (2). It has long been known and pretty widely disseminated but it is not much grown in New York. Even in those localities where it is best known, the trees of this variety constitute less than one percent of the orchards.

TREE.

Tree medium size to large, moderately vigorous to vigorous; branches long, medium stout, curved, crooked.
Form upright spreading or roundish, open.
Twigs above medium to long, nearly straight, moderately stout; internodes medium.
Bark rather dark brownish-red, shaded with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium, oblong, raised.
Buds medium to large, broad, prominent, very plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.
Leaves medium in size, broad.

FRUIT

Fruit averages large, fairly uniform in size, but variable in shape.
Form oblate to oblate conic, obscurely ribbed, irregular, and with sides sometimes unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short, rather thick.
Cavity acute to slightly acuminate, medium to nearly deep, medium in width and sometimes broad, usually very heavily russeted, sometimes compressed and frequently lipped.
Calyx medium, closed or slightly open; lobes short, narrow, acuminate.
Basin abrupt, medium in depth, narrow, slightly furrowed.
Skin very thick, rather tough, rather dull greenish-yellow, sometimes partly washed with red and striped and splashed with carmine.
Dots inconspicuous, small, usually submerged; a few scattering ones are large and russet.
Prevailing color greenish-yellow, not particularly attractive.
Calyx tube broadly conical to funnel-shape.
Stamens median to basal.
Core axile, small, cells closed or partly open.
Carpels broad cordate, emarginate, tufted.
Seeds large to above medium, wide, rather long, plump, acute; frequently they are abortive. [Notice the high correlation between the author remarking on the leaves and the frequency of abortive seeds... smells like a TRIPLOID to me! -ASC]
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, nearly coarse, crisp, moderately tender, juicy, subacid, good.
Season October to January or February.

Constantine
References.  1. tbal... 7. Hoskins, Rural NY., 51:682. 1892. fig.
Synonyms.  Berry Apple (7). Grand Duc Constantin (1). Grand Duke Constantine (2-7). No. 457 (7). Riabinouka (7).
This fruit is of the Aport type and very closely resembles Alexander. The flesh is rather coarse, subacid and fair to good in quality. Some hold that is rather better in flavor than Alexander. As grown at this Station the fruit, as compared to Alexander, begins to ripen about a week later and continues longer in season. The trees are not so large and may be planted more closely together than those of Alexander. It is a reliable cropper, yielding good crops biennially or nearly annually. The percentage of marketable fruit is greater than that of Alexander because there are fewer drops, the apples are less apt to show cracks about the calyx and stem and the skin is less often discolored by chafing against the branches. We are not sure that it is as good a variety for commercial planting as Alexander, but it appears worthy of testing where a variety of the Alexander type is desired.
Historical.

TREE.

Tree small to below medium size, at first moderatly vigorous but with age it becomes a slow grower with short, stout, curved branches.
Form spreading, open.
Twigs moderately long, curved, slender; internodes long.
Bark brown with some olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent near tips.
Lenticels scattering, medium to small, oblong, not raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.
FRUIT
Fruit large or very large.
Form roundish conic-flat at the base, varying to oblate conic, regular or somewhat ribbed, symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) below medium to long, rather slender to moderately thick.
Cavity large, acuminate or acute, very deep, broad, russeted and with outspreading rays of greenish russet.
Calyx medium to rather large, usually somewhat open; lobes medium in width and length, acute.
Basin narrow to medium in width, moderately deep to deep, abrupt, smooth or slightly wrinkled.
Skin thick, tough, smooth, waxy, clear greenish-yellow or whitish, mottled, marbled and blushed with bright red over nearly the whole surface with wide broken stripes of carmine radiating from the cavity, overspread with thin bloom.
Dots whitish or pale russet.
Prevailing effect bright red.
Calyx tube long, wide, funnel-shape or conical.
Stamens median or below.
Core medium size, somewhat abaxile; cells open or partly closed; core lines somewhat clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate or approaching cordate, emarginate.
Seeds medium or below, moderately wide, short, thick, plump, obtuse, dark brown.
Flesh whitish, moderately firm, coarse, tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, fair to good; suitable for culinary use and market.
Season late September to November.

Cooper
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  Beauty Red (8,11). Lady Washington (8,11). Seek-No-Further of some, erroneously (8). For true Seek-No-Further description click here.
Fruit large, uniform, very attractive, rather light yellow indistinctly streaked with mixed red, mild, subacid or nearly sweet, season October to December. The tree is very vigorous, upright spreading. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. This is an old variety of unknown origin. In 1796 it was introduced from Connecticut into Ohio where it has been much esteemed (2). Evidently it has never been cultivated to any considerable extent in this State and is now practically unknown to New York fruit growers.

TREE.

Tree
Form

FRUIT

Fruit
Form
Stem (Pedicel)
Cavity
Calyx
Basin
Skin
Dots
Flesh
Season

COOPER MARKET.
REFERENCES. 1. Mease, Willichs Dom. Encyc., 1804. (cited by 15). 2. M’Mahon, Amer. Gard. Cal., 1806. (cited by 13). 3+ Coxe, 1817:137. fig. 4. Horticulturist, 9:29. 1854. col. pl. 5. Downing, 1857:130. 6. Mag. Hort. 25:53. 1859. 7- Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 8. Warder, 1867:513. 9. Barry, 1883:344. 10. Thomas, 1885:232. 11. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290. 12. Wickson, 1891:247. 13. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:237. 14. Can. Hort., 16: 33. 1893. 15- Ragan, dm. Pom. Soc. Rpt, 1901:49. 16. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:291. 1901. 17. Budd-Hansen, 1903:67. 18. Thomas, 1903:325. 19. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:115. 1904.
Synonyms. Cooper’s MARKET (4, 5, 8, 9, 12, 13). Cooper's Market (10, 18). Cooper’s Red (10). Cooper’s RED incorrectly (18). COOPER'S REDLING (6). Cooper's Redling (5, 8, 10). Etowah, incorrectly (18). REDLING (1, 2, 3). Redling (9).
Attractive in color and form but not of high quality, often somewhat deficient in size. Especially esteemed for its keeping qualities and for holding a bright color late in the season. Grown to a limited extent in commercial orchards. Desirable for supplying the general trade after the Baldwin season has closed. It may be held very late in common storage. It improves in color in the package when held in common storage, but does not show as great improvement of this kind in cold storage (19).
The tree is hardy, one of the most reliable croppers, and not slow in coming into bearing. In fact, it bears such heavy crops that it requires more than ordinary attention in pruning to make the fruit uniformly of marketable size. The fruit hangs to the tree remarkably well.
Evidently the fact that Cooper’s Red is a synonym for Etowah has led some to confuse that variety with Cooper Market (18). The two are quite distinct.
Historical. This is now believed to be of Pennsylvania origin and identical with the Redling of Coxe and others (1, 2, 3, 15).
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous to vigorous; lateral branches long, slender and rather drooping. Form upright. Twigs below medium to above, rather slender, nearly straight; internodes short to medium. Bark dull, dark brownish-red with considerable olive-green in some specimens, uniformly overlaid with a moderately heavy scarf-skin, heavily pubescent. Lenticels moderately conspicuous, slightly raised, numerous, usually large but varying to small, roundish or elliptical. Buds small, almost sunk in the bark, obtuse, rather pubescent. Scales sometimes divided.
Fruit.
Fruit medium or below, sometimes nearly large. Form roundish ovate varying to roundish conic, flattened at the base and often narrowing sharply towards the apex, pretty symmetrical. Stem medium to long, slender. Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, rather narrow, sometimes slightly furrowed, often russeted. Calyx small, closed, pubescent. Basin small, often oblique, shallow, narrow, obtuse to abrupt, somewhat furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin tough, smooth, glossy, greenish-yellow, mottled and blushed with red, conspicuously splashed and striped with bright carmine and partly covered with a light bloom. Dots whitish or with russet point, numerous and small towards the cavity, scattering, large and often irregular towards the basin. In fall the color is rather dull but in ordinary storage it improves noticeably as the season advances, becoming bright red with a yellowish-green background.
Calyx tube small, short, cone-shape. Stamens median to nearly marginal.
Core distant, truncate, abaxile, medium; cells closed or open; often part of them are unsymmetrical; core lines slightly clasping.
Carpels roundish, slightly emarginate, somewhat tufted. Seeds numerous, dark, medium to short, plump, acute.
Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, very firm, a little coarse, moderately tender, juicy, brisk subacid, fair to good. Although not of high quality it is fairly good when compared with other very late keeping varieties.
Season January to June.

Cornell
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  Cornell Fancy (1-5, 7,8,10). Cornell's Favourite (1).
Fruit usually of good medium size, sometimes large, waxen yellow and red, agreeable for dessert, in season from early September to November. The tree sometimes lacks vigor and productiveness (9).
Historical. Origin Pennsylvania (1). It is but little known in New York.

FRUIT

Fruit above medium to large, uniform in size, somewhat variable in shape.
Form roundish conic to oblate conic, often quite strongly ribbed, irregular; sides usually unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to rather long and slender.
Cavity moderately deep to deep, moderately wide, often compressed sometimes lipped, sometimes russeted, with the russet extending beyond the cavity.
Calyx below medium to rather large, closed or slightly open; lobes sometimes separated at the base, often upright, moderately acute.
Basin deep, wide, rather abrupt, strongly furrowed, slightly wrinkled.
Skin moderately thick, tough, smooth, clear pale waxen yellow, partly overspread with thin attractive pinkish-red, often quite regularly splashed and striped with bright carmine.
Dots conspicuous, variable, open or closed; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Calyx tube rather large, rather short, conical.
Stamens median.
Core below medium, variable, nearly axile to decidedly abaxile; cells variable open or closed; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate, slightly emarginate, sometimes tufted.
Seeds numerous, rather large, dark brown, rather narrow, long, plump, acute to acuminate, sometimes tufted.
Flesh tinged with yellow, often affected with "Baldwin Spot," firm, moderately coarse, crisp, moderately tender, juicy, agreeable, mild subacid, aromatic, rich, sprightly, very good.
Season September to November.

Corner
References.  1. Heiges, US Pom. Rpt., 1894:18.
Synonyms.  None.
We have neither seen Corner nor received any report concerning it. The following account ws given in 1894 by S.B. Heiges, then United States Pomologist (1).
Size above medium; oblate; cavity wide, deep, marked by russet netting; stem one-half inch, medium diameter; basin, medium, regular, marked by russet; calyx segments with mammiform bases, wide, long, converging or slightly reflexed; surface moderately smooth; color yellow, washed with red and striped with crimson; dots numerous, russet, some with dark centers, depressed; flesh yellowish, moderately fine grained, tender, moderately juicy; core large, wide, clasping, closed; flavor mild subacid; quality very good. Season early winter. Well known locally in Orange county, NY."

Cox Orange
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  Cos Orange, Cox's Orange, Cox's Orange Pippin, Orange De Cox, Reinette Orange de Cox (3). Cox's Orange Pippin (1,2,4-7, 9,10).
One of the best in quality of the English dessert apples; in season from late September to early winter. The fruit is of medium size or above medium, red and yellow. When highly colored, it is attractive, with the red predominant. The tree is a moderate grower and productive. It is well adapted for growing on dwarf stock, either Paradise or Doucin. It is not recommended for commercial planting, but it is a desirable variety for the home orchard.
Historical. Cox Orange is said to have originated in 1830 from seed of Ribston, at Colnbrook Lawn near Slough, Bucks, England (5). It is sometimes propagated by American nurserymen but it has never been extensively planted in this country and its cultivation is not increasing.

TREE.

Tree medium size or above, moderately vigorous with rather slender branches.
Form upright, thickly branched, dense.
Twigs long to medium, rather slender irregularly crooked; internodes medium or below.
Bark olive-green somewhat mottled with reddish-brown, slightly pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, conspicuous, medium size, oblong, raised.
Buds medium size to rather small, roundish, obtuse, appressed, pubescent. Leaves small to medium size and inclined to be narrow.
FRUITMoscow Mitch must go!
Fruit medium or above, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish oblate, sometimes slightly inclined to conic, regular or faintly ribbed, symmetrical, axis sometimes oblique.
Stem (Pedicel) usually obliquely inclined, short, thick, sometimes long.
Cavity obtuse to somewhat acuminate, rather shallow to moderately deep, rather narrow, often somewhat russeted.
Calyx rather small, closed or partly open.
Basin rather shallow and obtuse to moderately deep and abrupt, rather narrow to moderately wide, smooth or slightly furrowed.
Skin rather thin, tough, smooth, attractive, washed with orange-red deepening to bright red and mottled and splashed with carmine, over a deep yellow background.
Dots conspicuous, large, areolar with pale gray or russet center.
Calyx tube cone-shape of funnel-form.
Stamens median to basal.
Core medium size, somewhat abaxile; cells usually symmetrical, open or closed; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder.
Carpels thin, obovate to obcordate, emarginate, usually smooth.
Seeds reddish-brown, above medium size, wide, obtuse to acute, often abortive.
Flesh firm, yellow, nearly fine, crisp, tender, very juicy, rich, sprightly subacid or becoming mild subacid, decidedly aromatic, very good to best.
Season September to January.

Cranberry Pippin
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  None.
In some sections, this has proved a desirable apple, but in others it has not been successful. It is well known in some localities in the Hudson valley, in Northern and Western New York and in Ontario, where it is favorably regarded as a fall or early winter apple because of its good size, bright and attractive color and its uniform size and shape. It is a good storage apple, stands shipping well and brings good prices. It is suitable for market, cooking and evaporating, but not for dessert. It appears to be quite resistant to the attacks of scab. The trees are hardy and often very productive, but in some cases it is reported as undesirable because unproductive. It is said to be a shy bearer when young, but becomes productive with age.
Historical. Originated near Hudson, Columbia county (1).

TREE.

Tree large, very vigorous; branches stout, spreading.
Form upright becoming somewhat spreading.
Twigs long, moderately stout, light grayish-brown, quite pubescent; internodes short.
Bark dull reddish-brown with some olive-green and thickly mottled with scarf-skin.
Lenticels scattering medium to small, usually roundish.
Buds medium or sometimes small, rather broad, deeply set, obtuse or sometimes acute, pubescent, appressed.
leaves dark green, broad, medium to large; foliage rather dense.
FRUITMoscow Mitch must go!Moscow Mitch must go!
Fruit large.
Form roundish oblate, symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) short.
Cavity broad, wavy.
Calyx closed or somewhat open.
Basin moderately deep, russeted.
Skin smooth, shining, clear light yellow, handsomely blushed, striped and splashed with scarlet.
Dots many, large, often red areolar with russet center.
Prevailing effect/General appearance beautiful and attractive. Flesh white or with slight yellowish tinge, moderately juicy, mild subacid.
Season October to February. In the vicinity of its origin its season closes from a month to six weeks earlier than either Hubbardston or Tompkins King. In Northern New York and Ontario its season is late fall and early winter and often extends to midwinter.

Cream
References.  1. N.E. Farmer, 1831 (cited by 3). 2. Downing, 1869:137. 3. Ragan, USBPI Bul., 56:82. 1905.
Synonyms.  None.
This variety originated in Queens county, NY. So far as we know it is no longer cultivated. Downing describes the tree as a vigorous grower and an early bearer and the fruit as medium or below, yellowish, fine-grained, pleasant, sweet, in season in September and October. Valued by some for dessert and culinary uses.

CROTTS.
REFERENCES. 1. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:39. 1903. 2. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:116. 1904.
As grown here the general appearance of the fruit is not attractive. The prevailing color at first is grass-green with faint and dull shades of red. Later the green changes, becoming pale or whitish by spring or early summer. The tree is a good grower and commonly bears well in alternate years. The fruit does not appear desirable for any use and the variety is not recommended even for testing.
Historical. Said to be a seedling of Rambo. Received here for testing from J. J. Measner, Hutchinson, Kansas.
TREE.
Tree vigorous, upright spreading, rather dense.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to large. Form usually roundish oblong, sometimes roundish oblate or slightly ovate, sometimes irregular, sides often unequal; uniform in size and shape. Stem short. Cavity deep, acuminate, usually russeted; often russet rays extend out from cavity. Calyx often large, closed. Basin shallow to rather deep, abrupt, somewhat furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin grass-green or at length becoming whitish, faintly mottled and striped with red. Dots scattering, gray or russet, but whitish and numerous towards the calyx.
Core small; core lines nearly meeting. Carpels roundish, tufted. Seeds broad, obtuse, tufted, dark brown.
Flesh greenish-white, rather coarse, tender, juicy, with a peculiar aroma, very mild subacid, fair to good.
Season variable; may extend to June in common storage but it often scalds badly as early as March or April (1, 2).

Crow Egg
References.  1. Kendrick, 1832:43. 2. Downing, 1857:211. 3. Warder, 1867:716. 4. Burrill and McCluer, Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:318. 1896.  [5.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.]
Synonyms.  Crow's Egg (1,3,4). Egg Jop? (2).
A sweet apple which is still occasionally found in very old orchards but is now practically obsolete. Some esteem it highly for dessert. Downing calls it not very good in quality (2). The old trees are productive.
Historical.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading, top roundish, open; branches long, slender, crooked.
Twigs medium in size, curved, slender; internodes very short.
Bark reddish-brown, streaked with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, very small, oblong.
Buds small, plump, obtuse, deeply set in the bark.
Leaves medium in size, narrow.
[Diseases:  Moderately resistant to most apple diseases (5).]

FRUIT

Fruit about medium in size.
Form roundish to oblong or ovate.
Stem (Pedicel) long, slender.
Cavity obtuse to sometimes acute, shallow, medium in width, symmetrical or obscurely furrowed, bright green or sometimes with outspreading russet.
Calyx small to medium, closed.
Basin small, shallow, narrow, somewhat abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin tough, nearly smooth, bright pale yellow or greenish sometimes with faint, bronze blush.
Dots numerous, but conspicuous, russet.
Calyx tube rather small, funnel-shape or cone-shape.
Stamens median.
Core large, abaxile; cells usually symmetrical and open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder or meeting when the tube is conical.
Carpels ovate, nearly smooth.
Seeds numerous, rather light brown, flat, acute to acuminate.
Flesh whitish, firm, crisp, tender, rather juicy, sweet, agreeably flavored, good to very good.
Season October and November. Fall ripening in Virginia and a good keeper (5).

CROWNS.
Fruit of the class of the fall Holland Pippin and Fall Pippin. Uniformly large, green or yellowish, often a little blushed with bright red, too acid for dessert but excellent for cooking and evaporating. It makes very white stock when evaporated. It is not a good keeper, is apt to scald in storage, and is not in favor with apple buyers. The tree is very vigorous and reliably productive, bearing regularly and abundantly.
This variety appears to be distinct from the Crown which Hovey describes as a large red apple.
Historical. It was formerly planted to a limited extent in portions of Western New York but it is now becoming obsolete. In some localities it is known under the name Royal Crown.
TREE.
Tree large, vigorous. Form roundish spreading. It is a good grower in the nursery.
Fruit.
Fruit large. Form conical to roundish, sometimes obscurely ribbed, often somewhat irregular, symmetrical; pretty uniform in size and shape. Stem short to medium, slender. Cavity acuminate, rather deep, broad, smooth, green with whitish dots or sometimes russeted, gently furrowed, sometimes lipped. Calyx open or sometimes closed, medium; lobes leafy, long, acute. Basin medium to shallow, rather narrow, moderately abrupt, a little furrowed.
Skin moderately thin, tough, smooth, bright green changing to pale yellow, with faint blush which in highly colored specimens becomes clear, bright pinkish-red. Dots numerous, conspicuous, russet, often red areolar on the exposed cheek. Prevailing effect green or yellow.
Calyx tube rather long, moderately wide, truncate conical or somewhat funnel-shape. Stamens basal to median.
Core axile, medium to rather large, closed or partly open; core lines meeting; cells pretty symmetrical. Carpels thin, roundish to somewhat ovate, emarginate, somewhat tufted. Seeds large, long, acute, somewhat tufted, light brown.
Flesh whitish, lightly tinged with yellow, rather coarse, crisp, moderately tender, juicy, too sprightly subacid for eating, good.
Season November to January or February.
Use. cooking, evaporating.

Czar Thorn
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  Czarskui Schip (4). No. 140 M (8). No. 206 (4,5,8). Tars Thorn (1). Tsarskui Schip (5). Zarskischip (7). Zarski Schip (2,3). Zarski Zars (1).
A Russian apple of medium size, roundish conic, green and yellow usually shaded and striped with crimson; flesh rather coarse, sweet, hardly fair in quality; season September; not valuable.

DANVERS SWEET.
REFERENCES. 1. Kenrick, 1833:43. 2. Mag. Hort. 1:154. 1835. 3. Manning, 1838:60. 4. Downing, 1845:108. 5. Thomas, 1849:161. 6. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:86. 1851. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1852. 8. Elliott, 1858:74. 9g. Mag. Hort., 26:101. 1860. 10. Warder, 1867:550. 11. Barry, 1883:344. 12. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 1890:290. 13. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:237. 14. Munson, Me. Sta. Rpt., 1893:132. 15. Budd-Hansen, 1903:69.
Synonyms. Danvers Sweet (12). Danvers Winter (14). DANVERS WINTER SWEET (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13). Eppes’ Sweet (1,2). Epse’s Sweet (4, 8).
Tree a good grower and very productive. Fruit is of good marketable size and very good in quality, but rather dull green and not particularly attractive in color. It is no longer recommended for planting.
Historical. About 75 years ago this was being recommended by Kenrick (1) and Manning (3) as a profitable market apple, very productive and worthy of extensive cultivation. Danvers Sweet was included in the American Pomological Society’s first list of varieties worthy of being recommended (6). In New York state it is now nearly obsolete. It originated at Danvers, Mass., where the original tree was still standing in 1832 (1). TREE
Tree a rapid grower. Twigs dark brown with grayish scarf-skin, pubescent. Fruit.
Fruit medium to sometimes large; pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish inclined to conic, sometimes a little oblate. Stem short to medium, pubescent, knobby. Cavity rather large, acute to acuminate, rather deep, broad, sometimes partly russeted, often. distinctly furrowed. Calyx small. to medium, usually closed; lobes pubescent, sometimes separated at the base. Basin varies from large and wide to rather small and narrow, moderately abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin moderately thin, tough, smooth, grass-green somewhat shaded with yellow, sometimes with faint bronze blush. Dots conspicuous, many submerged and whitish, others areolar with russet center.
Calyx tube funnel-shape with rather narrow limb. Stamens median or above.
Core axile, medium; cells symmetrical, closed; core lines clasping. Carpels rather flat, roundish to roundish obovate, slightly emarginate, mucronate, smooth. Seeds dark, medium or below, narrow, acute to obtuse.
Flesh greenish with decided yellow tinge, breaking, moderately fine, very tender, rather juicy, very sweet, good to very good.
Season November to April.

DEACON JONES.
REFERENCES. 1. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:40. 1903. 2. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:116. 1904.
Fruit showy and of good marketable size, averaging larger than Baldwin. When well colored it is handsome, the yellow ground color being mostly overlaid with good red, relieved with dots of a contrasting color. The tree is a fine grower in the nursery and "delivers” well. In the orchard it is thrifty, comes into bearing young, is almost an annual bearer and very productive. The fruit hangs well to the tree. There is little waste from drops and culls. The flesh is rather coarse; the flavor is mild and the quality is not high, but probably it would generally be rated superior to Ben Davis for dessert. It has a tough skin and firm texture, and stands handling well. In ordinary storage its season for home use extends from November to March. So far as tested in cold storage, the commercial limit for barrel stock appears to be March first, but the fruit has kept free from scald and rot till May (1). It is not good enough in quality to be recommended for home use, but it may possibly be of value as a commercial variety.
Historical. Originated in Pennsylvania as a chance seedling. Received here in 1892 for testing from J. S. Ford, Pittsford, N. Y., by whom it is being introduced. The form of the fruit and the character of the core indicate that this variety may be a seedling of the Yellow Bellflower.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous; branchlets willowy, long, slender, drooping.
Form dense, upright spreading. Twigs long, nearly straight, moderately stout, with large terminal buds; internodes long to below medium. Bark clear brownish-red, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent. Lenticels numerous, generally medium in size, roundish or oval, raised, conspicuous. Buds small to medium, projecting, obtuse to somewhat acute, appressed, quite pubescent, deeply set in bark.
Fruit.
Fruit large to very large; pretty uniform in size, somewhat variable in shape. Form roundish conic varying to oblong conic, ribbed; axis sometimes oblique. Stem short. Cavity obtuse to acute or sometimes slightly acuminate, shallow to moderately deep, usually smooth, often prominently lipped. Calyx small to above medium, closed or partly open, often leafy; lobes sometimes separated at the base. Basin shallow to moderately deep, usually rather narrow, distinctly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thick, tough, smooth or slightly rough, waxen yellow, mottled and blushed with red and with irregular dashes of carmine, in highly colored specimens being almost completely covered with an attractive deep red. It is covered with a whitish bloom which gives the fruit a somewhat dull appearance. Dots conspicuous, mingled small and large, whitish, many areolar with russet point; numerous toward the eye.
Calyx tube variable in size, urn-shape to conic. Stamens median or below.
Core abaxile; cells symmetrical, wide open, very large; core lines nearly meeting. Seeds numerous, medium to small, rather dark brown, plump, obtuse, somewhat irregular. Carpels much tufted, emarginate, mucronate, elongated and rather broadly ovate.
Flesh whitish, somewhat tinged with yellow, rather firm, coarse, somewhat crisp, tender, moderately juicy, mild subacid, slightly aromatic, not high in quality, fair to possibly good.
Season November to March or later (1, 2).

Deaderick
References.  1. US Pom. Rpt., 1895:22. 2. Watts, Tenn. Sta. Bul, 1:11. 1896. fig. 3. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1897:37.
Synonyms.  Ben Ford (2). Ozark Pippin (2).
A good-sized green apple, of somewhat better color than Rhode Island Greening, but it does not keep as well, and is inferior to that variety in quality. The tree is a strong grower, healthy, and so far as tested here comes into bearing young and gives promise of being very productive. It has not been on trial long enough to indicate whether or not it has sufficient merit to be considered a promising variety for this state. In Tennessee it is considered a very valuable early winter apple (2).
Historical. Originated with Benjaman Ford, Washington county, Tenn. It was first disseminated as Ozark Pippin (2).

TREE.

Tree rather vigorous.
Form spreading and somewhat upright.
Twigs moderately stout, nearly straight; internodes short.
Bark bright brownish-red.
Lenticels roundish, often conspicuous, scattering, small.
Buds medium size appressed, obtuse, short, pubescent.
Leaves medium size, somewhat narrow often the base of the petioles is conspicuously streaked with red.

FRUIT

Fruit large.
Form broadly roundish, often rather conical, sometimes broadly ribbed, pretty regular, uniform.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to rather long, slender.
Cavity large, acute to acuminate, deep, broad, usually smooth and symmetrical, sometimes slightly furrowed, occasionally prominently lipped.
Calyx small, partly open or closed; lobes rather narrow, acute.
Basin small, shallow, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, nearly smooth, a little wrinkled.
Skin moderately thick, tough, smooth, rather bright green becoming yellow, usually partly covered with a thin, pinkish-red blush upon which there are often seen red aerolar dots with russet or whitish center; commonly the dots are whitish and often submerged.
Dots whitish and often submerged
Prevailing effect green or yellowish.
Calyx tube long, funnel-form.
Stamens median to nearly marginal.
Core a little abaxile, medium to small; cells symmetrical, open or nearly so; core lines clasp the base of the cylinder.
Carpels thin, generally smooth, numerous, medium or above, rather wide, obtuse.
Seeds
Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately coarse, tender, rather juicy, pleasant subacid, good.
Season October to January.

DEMOCRAT.
REFERENCES. 1. Warder, 1867:505. 2. Downing, 1872:143, 144. fig. 3. Thomas, 1885:508.
Synonym. Varick (2).
An early winter apple of medium size, yellow, blushed and striped with red, handsome and of very good quality, formerly grown to some extent in Western New York (2, 3), but now practically obsolete. We have not been able to determine whether the variety given by Warder under this name (1) is identical with the Democrat described by Downing and Thomas.

Detroit Red
References.  1.  [***will be added later***]
Synonyms.  Black Apple of some (2,9). Black Detroit (2,5,7,8). Crimson Pippin (6,8, of some 2). Detroit (1,2,4,6,8,9). Detroit Black (10).
Fruit growers in Western New York have commonly used the names Detroit Red and Detroit Black interchangeably for the remarkably variable variety which we are here describing as Detroit Red. We have been unable to determine whether there are in fact two distinct varieties of this type, or whether the differences which have been observed in the habit of growth and productiveness of the tree and in the form, size, general appearance, season and quality of the fruit, are altogether due to differences in the conditions under which the fruit has been produced. Speaking of these two names, Warder, in 1867, wrote, "I have put these two names together because the fruits presented as Black and as Red Detroit are so very much alike in all respects that it is not worth while to consider them distinct.... The Red variety may be distinct, as it keeps later.
Lyon recognized two or more varieties of this type and distinguished them by the names Detroit Black and Detroit Red. Speaking of Detroit Red, he remarks: "There are probably several varieties grown under this name, none of them valuable;" and of The Detroit Black he says: Unproductive, showy, valueless; it is probably the Detroit Red of Downing."
D.D. Stone, of Oswego, writes: It seems to me that the two are not the same. Detroit Black seems to be more of a scrubby grower, the shape, size, firmness and color seem to be more constant and it does not crack so badly as the one we know as Detroit Red, but the season appears to be the same."
Detroit Red, or as it is often called, Detroit Black, as usually grown in Western New York, varies from medium to very large, commonly averaging about medium size. It is flattened at the ends, very dark crimson or purplish, becoming almost black, with snow-white flesh occasionally streaked with rose-pink. It is esteemed by many for dessert use because of its mild, pleasant flavor. There is considerable loss from premature dropping of the fruit and from fruit that is too small or too ill-shapen for market. It is quite variable in keeping qualities, being commonly in season about with 'Maiden Blush'. The tree is a moderate grower, comes into bearing rather young, and is not a very reliable cropper. Some report that it is a shy bearer; others that it yield moderate to full crops biennially.
Historical.  This is supposed to have been brought into the neighborhood of Detroit by the early French settlers and thence disseminated (1,2,4,8). It was introduced into Ohio and Western New York before the middle of the last century. The variety is still sometimes listed by nurserymen (14). Its cultivation in New York state is declining and it is now seldom planted.
Fruit: very large to medium.
Form .
Stem short, usually rather slender.
Cavity .
Calyx variable, usually large, closed or somewhat open.
Basin .
Skin thick, rather tough, dark crimson, largely striped and splashed with purplish-carmine eventually becoming almost black, sometimes having a portion of the greenish-yellow ground color exposed.
Dots numerous, conspicuous, very small, pale or russet.
Calyx tube .
Stamens.
Core
Carpels .
Seeds .
Flesh white, sometimes streaked or stained with red, rather coarse, tender, juicy, agreeable mild subacid, very aromatic, good to very good.
Season last of September to December.
[Information from the Southeastern U.S. here.]

DICKINSON.
REFERENCES. 1. Pa. Dept. Agr., Rpt. Hort. Assn., 1884:49. col. pl. 2. Chase, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt, 1885:25. 3. Bailey, An. Hort. 1892:237. 4. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 12:600. 1893. 5. Richman, Utah Sta. Bul., 45:15. 1896. 6. Beach, Western N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1896:52. 7. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:40. 1903. 8. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul. 248:116. 1904.
Synonym. Dickenson (5, 7), but incorrectly.
Tree not a good grower, but very productive. Fruit resembles Yellow Bellflower in shape, but the color is red. It is of good size and attractive enough in appearance to make a good market apple, but it is not above second rate in quality.
Historical. Grown from seed of the Yellow Bellflower by Sarah Dickinson, Westchester, Pennsylvania (1, 2).
TREE.
Tree not large, not very vigorous; branches short, stout, crooked. Form roundish, spreading, rather dense. Twigs small to medium, crooked, moderately stout; internodes short to above medium. Bark clear, light olive-green tinged with reddish-brown, streaked with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent.
Lenticels rather inconspicuous, rather numerous, small or below medium, usually roundish, not raised. Buds medium in size or below, broad, plump, obtuse, free or nearly so, pubescent. Leaves medium in size, moderately broad.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to large, somewhat variable in size. Form oblong-conic, sometimes compressed or broadly angular; sides sometimes unequal. Stem medium to long. Cavity moderately broad, moderately deep, acute to acuminate, symmetrical or sometimes compressed, usually smooth. Calyx medium, closed or sometimes open. Basin shallow to moderately deep and abrupt, often oblique, somewhat furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin smooth, light yellow or green, blushed and mottled with bright red, striped with darker red, sprinkled with inconspicuous, small, green and whitish dots. Prevailing effect red with well-colored fruit.
Calyx tube funnel-form. Stamens median to basal.
Core large, abaxile; cells not always symmetrical, usually open; core lines usually somewhat clasping.. Carpels roundish oblong. Seeds numerous, medium or above, plump, obtuse.
Flesh yellowish, juicy to very juicy, moderately fine-grained, slightly aromatic, subacid, moderately firm, tender, fair to good.
Season November to April.

DISHAROON
REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1857:135. 2. Elliott, 1859:73. 3. Warder, 1867: 717. 4. Leroy, 1873:260. fig. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1873. 6. Barry, 1883: 344. 7. Thomas, 1885:223. 8. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:237.
A yellowish-green apple, rather large, subacid with an aromatic flavor somewhat like that of the Green Newtown. It is a southern apple which is but little known in this region. It is not recommended for planting in New York state.

DOCTOR.

REFERENCES. I. Coxe, 1817:119. fig. 2. Wilson, 1828:136. 3. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831. 4. Downing, 1845:107. 5. Thomas, 1849:147. 6. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:62. 1851. 7 Hooper, 1857:29. 8. Elliott, 1858:130. 9g. Warder, 1867:717. 10. Livingston, Amer. Gard., 21:204. 1900. 11. Munson, Me. Sta. An. Rpt., 18:89. 1902. 12. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:40. 1903. 13. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:115. 1904.
Synonyms. Coon (13). Coon Red (13). Dewit AppLe (1). De Witt (3, 4, 5, 8). Docror Dewirr (9). Newby (12). Red Doctor (4, 8).
Fruit attractive because of its good color, desirable size and uniformity in size and shape. In texture, flavor and general quality it is inferior to Baldwin. It is of value chiefly for market, although acceptable for either dessert or culinary uses. The tree is vigorous, or moderately so, and has the reputation of being generally a regular and abundant bearer. It is not slow in coming into bearing. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. An old variety which originated at Germantown, Pa. Named in honor of a physician who brought it into notice (1, 4). It has been grown to a considerable extent in Pennsylvania, Ohio and other portions of the Central West, but it has gained only slight recognition in New York. It has been reintroduced in Indiana under the name Newby. It has also been disseminated under the name Coon Red, or Coon.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous. Form very open and spreading. Twigs long to medium, straight, moderately stout; internodes medium or above. Bark clear reddish-brown with some olive-green, streaked with scarf-skin, but slightly pubescent. Lenticels scattering, medium or below medium size, roundish or oblong, raised. Buds medium size, broad, plump, obtuse, free or nearly so, somewhat pubescent. Leaves medium size, broad.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to large; pretty uniform in size and shape. Form oblate, symmetrical, angular. Stem short or medium. Cavity acute, deep, wavy, not russeted, sometimes lipped. Calyx large, somewhat open; lobes long, acute.
Basin variable, somewhat obtuse to abrupt, often wide, deep, ridged and wrinkled.
Skin smooth, waxen yellow, overspread with a bright light red blush, in- distinctly marked with narrow carmine splashes. Dots green or grayish. Prevailing effect attractive red and yellow.
Calyx tube rather large, rather short urn-shape to truncate funnel-form. Stamens basal to above median.
Core medium to small, abaxile; cells usually symmetrical, open or sometimes closed; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels smooth, broadly elliptical, quite concave. Seeds medium in size, wide, obtuse.
Flesh a little tinged with yellow, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, rather tender, juicy, mild subacid, slightly aromatic, good to nearly very good.
Season December to April or later.

DOCTOR WALKER.

REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1881:83. app. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:237. 3. Thomas, 1897:633.
Synonym. Litsey (1).
As grown here the fruit is only moderately attractive, being dull in color and scarcely medium in size. The tree does not come into bearing very early, but is quite productive, and the fruit keeps very late. It is not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. A seedling of Ralls which originated on the farm of. John Litsey near Springfield, Ky., in which locality it is said to be superior to its parent, being hardy, productive and blooming late in the season (1).
TREE.
Tree vigorous or moderately vigorous; branches short, moderately stout.
Form upright spreading and rather open. Twigs below medium or short, straight, rather stout with large terminal buds; internodes below medium or short. Bark clear dark olive-green somewhat tinged with reddish-brown, little or no scarf-skin, decidedly pubescent. Lenticels numerous, medium to small, roundish to oblong, not raised. Buds often large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit medium or below. Form roundish inclined to conic, sometimes roundish oblate. Stem short to medium. Cavity acute to acuminate, rather deep, moderately broad, somewhat furrowed, sometimes russeted. Calyx medium to large, closed or partly open; lobes often leafy, long, acuminate. Basin abrupt, medium in width and depth, somewhat furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin tough, smooth, somewhat glossy, pale green or yellowish, deeply blushed or mottled with purplish-red, with distinct narrow dull carmine stripes.
Dots numerous, conspicuous, pale yellow or grayish.
Calyx tube cone-shape.
Core medium to small, closed or partly open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping. Carpels roundish inclined to obcordate, emarginate, slightly tufted.
Seeds medium or above, dark, wide, obtuse, slightly tufted.
Flesh whitish, firm, rather fine, crisp, tender, juicy, mild subacid, becoming nearly sweet, somewhat aromatic, good.
Season January to May.

DOMINE.

REFERENCES. 1. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831. 2. Downing, 1845:107. 3. Kirkland, Horticulturist, 2:545. 1847. 4. Thomas, 1849:165, 173. 5. Humrickhouse, Mag. Hort., 15:27. 1849. fig. 6. Phoenix, Horticulturist, 4:470. 1850. 7. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:68. 1851. fig. 8. Hooper, 1857:06. g. Elliott, 1858:130, 161. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1862. 11. Warder, 1867:430. fig. 12. Downing, 1872:147. fig. 13. Barry, 1883:345. 14. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 1890:290. 15. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:237. 16. Rural N. Y., 54:744. 1895. 17. Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:319. 1896. 18. Richman, Utah Sta. Bul., 45:16. 1896. 19. Waugh, Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 14:292. 1901. 20. Budd-Hansen, 1903: 70. fig. 21. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:117. 1904.
Synonyms. Cheat (12). Cling Tight (12). Domunr (6). Dominie (4,10, 16, 17, 18, 19). English Beauty of Pa. (12). English Rambo of some (12). English Red Streak (12, 13, 21). English Winter Red Streak of some (9). Hogan (9, 12). Holland Pippin, incorrectly (19). Ramboulrette (3). Striped R. I. Greening (9, 12). Well Apple (9). WeEtts (4, 7, 8,9). Wells (12, 21). Witiiamson (7).
A striped apple of the Rambo class which much resembles Rambo in appearance. While it does not rank as high in quality it is a much better keeper, its season extending till March; commercial limit, February. When well grown it is large and of good color, but too often the fruit sets so abundantly that it does not average much above medium size. In western New York, although in some seasons it is very productive, it is not as reliable a bearer as are some of the kinds which outrank it in the commercial orchards, and often the color is not well developed. It has been more extensively planted along the Hudson than in any other part of the state, but it is not now grown so much there as it was formerly. It is chiefly valued for dessert, being generally considered inferior for culinary uses, except possibly for baking.
It is evidently not identical with the Domine described by Coxe.
Historical. Origin uncertain. Supposed to be a native of this country (11,12). Elliott states that it probably came originally from Maryland (9).
TREE.
Tree is vigorous to moderately vigorous, “ with long, stout, spreading branches which are very liable to be broken by the heavy crops of fruit” (14).
Form upright spreading “with a straggling, open head and bearing its fruit crowded along the smaller branches” (11). Twigs above medium to long, moderately stout; internodes long. Bark smooth, clear reddish-brown, sometimes with a slight undertone of yellowish-green uniformly overlaid with a thin scarf-skin, rather pubescent. Lenticels rather inconspicuous, raised, moderately numerous, above medium, generally roundish. Buds above medium, roundish to acute, free or nearly so, quite pubescent. Leaves long, drooping and characteristically twisted.
Fruit.
Fruit usually about medium in size, sometimes large or very large. Form usually oblate, sometimes inclined to oblong and distinctly flattened at the base, sides often somewhat unequal, ribbed. Stem medium to long, slender at the base. Cavity obtuse, wide, deep, often distinctly furrowed, usually with out- spreading brown russet rays. Calyx below medium to large, closed or slightly open; lobes long, acute. Basin pubescent, rather shallow to moderately deep, wide or compressed, abrupt, usually distinctly furrowed.
Skin thick, tough, smooth, bright, whitish-yellow or green mottled and splashed with deep pinkish-red, striped with bright carmine and overlaid with thin whitish bloom. Dots pale or yellow, numerous toward the basin, but toward the cavity they are scattering, large, often irregular and with russet center.
Calyx tube funnel-shape with a wide limb and short truncate cylinder.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core small, somewhat abaxile; cells usually symmetrical, closed or partly open; core lines nearly meeting or clasping. Carpels broadly elliptical, slightly emarginate. Seeds numerous, large, plump, moderately narrow, long, acute, dark.
Flesh whitish or tinged with light yellow, very firm, breaking, somewhat coarse, tender, juicy, mild subacid with a peculiar aromatic flavor, good to very good.
Season November to March.

DOUBLE ROSE.

The tree is exceedingly productive and comes into bearing young. The fruit is beautiful, being almost wholly overspread with a bright deep red but it is too small to be valuable for ordinary market uses and it does not rank high enough in quality to be classed with fruit suitable for fancy trade. It is not recommended for planting in New York.
Received from Jaroslav Niemetz, Winnitza, Podolia, Russia, in 1898, for testing at this Station.
Fruit.
Fruit small, roundish or oblong conic. Stem long to medium, set in a deep, rather wide, russeted cavity. Calyx closed or partly open. Basin abrupt, moderately deep. Skin smooth yellow overspread with light red sometimes deepening to dark red. Core medium, nearly closed. Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately coarse, mild subacid, fair to possibly good.
Season November to February.

DU BOIS
REFERENCE. 1. Heiges, U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1894:19.
A red-striped winter apple described by Heiges (1) in 1894 from specimens received from Columbia county, N. Y., as above medium size, oblate, yellow washed with mixed red and striped with crimson; flesh yellowish-white, stained with red, mild subacid, good. Mr. F. P. Studley, who furnished Heiges with the fruit from which the above description was made reports further concerning this variety that it originated as a chance seedling in the town of Claverack, and that it is a very showy apple of the Blue Pearmain type although the fruit is not so large as that of Blue Pearmain. It apparently would stand shipping well for the skin is tough and the fruit is firm. It is a very late keeper sometimes being kept till July. The tree is very hardy, a good grower, forming a round compact head. It is productive in alternate years.

Duchess of Oldenburg
This variety is often called Duchess or Duchess of Oldenburg, but the name now accepted for it by pomologists is Oldenburg, under which name it is described on page 150.

Dudley
References.  1. tbal
Synonyms.  Dudley Winter (1,4,7). Dudley's Winter (6). North Star (3,5-8).
A very hardy and productive variety which is being planted to a considerable extent in Northern New England. The fruit is pretty large, bright greenish-yellow washed and splashed with red, quite attractive in appearance and good in quality. Munson says that it is perhaps now more widely grown than any other of the newer sorts that have originated in new England. He considers it a valuable acquisition as a winter fruit for norther localities (6). As fruited at Geneva it is in season in September and October, although it may sometimes be kept into the winter. It is recommended for trial particularly where a very hardy apple of its season is desired.
Historical. A seedling of the Oldenburg, which originated with J.W. Dudley, Castle Hill, Aroostook county, ME (1,6). A few years ago it was introduced by a Rochester nursery under the name North Star but it was afterward found that this name had already been given to another variety and therefore the name Dudley Winter was retained for it, which, according to the accepted rules of nomenclature is shortened to Dudley.

TREE.

Tree small, moderately vigorous to vigorous; branches short, moderately stout.
Form very spreading and drooping, rather dense.
Twigs below medium length to short, almost straight, moderately stout to rather slender; internodes short to medium.
Bark brown tinged with clear bright red, with but ittle or no scarf-skin and but slightly pubescent.,
Lenticels rather conspicuous, clear in color, scattering, medium in size, oblong, raised.
Buds medium or above, rather prominent, plump, obtuse to acute, free or nearly so, somewhat pubescent. FRUIT
Fruit medium to large, uniform.
Form roundish conic to roundish oblate, symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) long, rather thick.
Cavity acute to almost acuminate, rather deep, broad, sometimes lightly russeted, obscurely furrowed.
Calyx medium to large, open or partly closed.
Basin decidedly abrupt, moderately deep to deep moderately broad, obscurely furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin thin, tender, smooth, bright pale yellow or whitish mostly covered with a bright pinkish-red blush striped and splashed with bright carmine and covered with light bloom.
Dots scattering, light, small.
General appearance red of red striped over contrasting yellow, attractive. Calyx tube long, moderately wide, funnel-shape or sometimes conical.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core almost axile, medium or below; cells closed or partly open; core lines clasping or nearly so.
Carpels broadly elliptical, not emarginate, slightly tufted.
Seeds large, wide, long, somewhat flat, obtuse to acute, dull dark brown.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, crisp, nearly fine-grained, tender, very juicy, aromatic, brisk subacid eventually becoming mild, very good.
Season September and October or sometimes later.

DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE.

REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1872:150. 2. Hogg, 1884:65. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:237. 4. N. Y. Sta. Rpt. 1892:588, 592. 5. Bunyard, Jour. R. H. S., 21:356. 1898. 6. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:117. 1904.
A yellow apple, partly russeted, medium in size, desirable either for dessert or culinary use. The tree does not come into bearing very young, but when mature is quite productive. The fruit is apt to drop badly. It cannot be recommended as superior to other well- known varieties of its class.
Historical. Originated in England and introduced to commerce there about 1875 (5). It is there esteemed as an excellent dessert apple and a good keeper (2). It is but little known in New York.
TREE
Tree large, vigorous. Form spreading.
Fruit.
Fruit medium to small. Form oblate to roundish conic, sometimes obscurely ribbed; pretty uniform in shape and size. Stem very short to medium, sometimes swollen. Cavity rather narrow to moderately broad, shallow to moderately deep, acute, often nearly acuminate, often lipped, usually covered with green russet. Calyx rather large, flat, partly open. Basin variable, usually shallow and obtuse, somewhat furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, tough, partly smooth, dull yellow, often with a faint orange or bronze blush, more or less covered with russet, roughened with large russet dots. Dots gray or russet, conspicuous. Prevailing effect greenish-yellow mingled with russet.
Calyx tube small, short, rather wide, conical or urn-shape. Stamens marginal.
Core axile or nearly so, medium in size; cells usually symmetrical, closed; core lines meeting or clasping. Carpels roundish to somewhat oblong, slightly emarginate, mucronate, sometimes slightly tufted. Seeds rather light brown, medium to small, wide, plump, obtuse.
Flesh yellowish or tinged with green, moderately juicy, moderately crisp, firm, somewhat coarse, with a pleasant subacid flavor characteristic of certain russet apples, good to very good.
Season December to April or later.

DUMELOW.

REFERENCES. 1. Lindley, 1831:81. 2. Ronalds, 1831:37. fig. 3. Cat. Hort. Soc., London, 1831. 4. Diel, 27:55. 1832. 5. Kenrick, 1833:101. 6. Floy-Lindley, 1833:32. 7. Thomas, 1849:165. 8. Rivers, Horticulturist, 4:40. 1849. 9. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:85. 1851. 10. Downing, 1857:212. 11. Elliott, 1858:1 12. Lucas, E., Ill. Handb. der Obstk., 1:187. 1859. 13. Warder, 1867:717. 14. Leroy, 1873:864. figs. 15. Hogg, 1884:65. 16. Bredsted, 1893: 274. 17. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:237. 18. Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:320. 1896. 19. Eneroth-Smirnoff, 1901:480. 20. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:117. 1904.
Synonyms. Duxe or Wellincton (2, 5). Dumelow’s Crab (6, 10, 11, 14,15). Dumelow’s Pippin (14). DumEtow’s SEEDLING (1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16). Dumelow’s Seedling (5, 14, 17, 18). Normanton Wonder (3, 14, 15). Sutton Beauty (14), but erroneously. WELLINGTON (12, 14, 16, 19, 20). Wellington (6, 10, 11, 15). WELLINGTON’s REINETTE (4).
Fruit of good marketable size, rather attractive for a yellow apple, and a good keeper (15, 20). It is excellent for culinary use, but too acid to be agreeable for dessert. The tree is a very strong grower and quite productive in alternate years. Possibly it is worthy of growing to a limited extent for market, but it is inferior to good red apples like Baldwin and Sutton both in appearance and for dessert uses. In England it is esteemed as one of the most valuable culinary apples (15).
Historical. First exhibited to the Royal Horticultural Society, London, in 1820 under the name Wellington, but prior to that it had been extensively cultivated under the name of Dumelow’s Crab, taking its name from the farmer with whom it originated (15).
TREE
Tree very vigorous. Form upright becoming rather round with spreading and somewhat. drooping branches. Twigs medium or rather long, nearly straight, somewhat stocky, somewhat pubescent; internodes medium or above.
Bark rather clear light brownish-red over olive-green with slight scarf-skin. Lenticels characteristically conspicuous, very numerous, medium to very large, usually elongated, raised. Buds large to below medium, plump, rather acute, somewhat appressed, decidedly pubescent. Leaves medium to large, long and rather broad. Petioles red at base.
Fruit.
Fruit above medium to large; pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish, somewhat oblate, sometimes obscurely ribbed. Stem medium to rather short. Cavity rather narrow, acute to acuminate, moderately shallow to deep, symmetrical, sometimes russeted. Calyx large, open; lobes separated at the base. Basin variable, obtuse to abrupt, shallow to moderately deep, irregularly furrowed and somewhat wrinkled.
Skin tough, rather pale bright yellow, sometimes blushed with light red and striped with thin carmine. Dots often submerged, dark gray or with russet point. Prevailing color yellow.
Calyx tube conical or funnel-form with broad limb and short truncate cylinder. Stamens basal.
Core below medium to rather small, usually more or less abaxile; cells not always symmetrical, partly closed particularly toward the apex, or open; core lines meeting or somewhat clasping. Carpels roundish cordate, emarginate. Seeds small, to medium, wide, plump, acute to obtuse, dark.
Flesh whitish with slight yellow tinge, firm, crisp, moderately fine, tender, very juicy, brisk subacid, slightly aromatic, good for cooking.
Season November to March or April.

DUNCAN

REFERENCES. 1. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831. 2. Downing, 1872:151. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:238. 4. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:117. 1904.
An apple of the Newtown Spitzenburg class which closely resembles that variety in the appearance and quality of its fruit. When well developed it is rather attractive in color and very good in quality for dessert use. It is an excellent keeper, but as grown at this Station it averages too small for a good commercial apple. The tree comes into bearing young and is almost an annual bearer, but yields heavier crops in alternate years. It is not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. Received for testing here from B. Buckman, Farmingdale, Ill. It has been disseminated to some extent in portions of the Ohio valley (3). We have not determined whether or not it is identical with the English variety of this name (1, 2).
TREE.
Tree small, moderately vigorous; branches short, stout, crooked; laterals willowy and small, slender. Form upright spreading to roundish, dense.
Twigs short to above medium, rather slender, straight, moderately stout; internodes short. Bark dull reddish-brown, mingled with olive-green, with thin coat of scarf-skin; slightly pubescent. Lenticels scattering, small, round, not raised. Buds small, plump, obtuse, appressed, deeply set in bark; somewhat pubescent.
Fruit.
Fruit below medium or small, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish, pretty symmetrical, sides sometimes unequal. Stem medium. Cavity acuminate to acute, symmetrical, moderately deep, sometimes furrowed, rarely russeted. Calyx closed or partly open; lobes long, acute. Basin obtuse, shallow, irregularly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin green or pale yellow, striped with carmine over a thin dull blush and conspicuously marked with large, irregular, whitish dots. Often the color is not well developed and not particularly attractive.
Calyx tube short to long, moderately wide, cone-shape or somewhat funnel- form. Stamens median to marginal.
Core medium, axile or somewhat abaxile; core lines meeting or clasping; cells sometimes unsymmetrical, closed or partly open. Carpels broad, roundish, smooth, emarginate. Seeds medium or below, broad, dark, acute to obtuse.
Flesh whitish, with yellow tinge, moderately firm, fine-grained, tender, crisp, very juicy, agreeable mild subacid mingled with sweet, good to very good when well grown.
Season January to May.

DUTCH MIGNONNE.

REFERENCES. 1. Diel, 4:140. 1801. 2. Ronalds, 1831:51. 3. Cat. Hort. Soc. London, 1831:30. 4. Floy-Lindley, 1833:33. 5 Dittrich, 1839:429. 6. Lindley, Pom. Mag., 1839:84. col. pl. 7. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:72. 1851. 8. Bivort, 4n. de Pomol. Belge, 1853:83. 9. Elliott, 1858:74. 10. Lucas, Ed., Ill. Handb. der Obstk., 1:163. 1859. 11. Berghuis, 1868: cul. pl. No. 11. 12. Regel, 1868:466. 13. Downing, 1872:151, 331. Ib., 1876:3. app. 14. Leroy, 1873:644. 2 figs. 15. Lauche, 1:257. 1882. 16. Hogg, 1884:66. 17. Cat. Cong. Pom. France, 1887:322. 18. Bailey, An. Hort. 1892:238, 248. 19. Bredsted, 1893:182. 20. Beach and Close, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 1§:275. 1896. 2 figs, 21. Eneroth-Smirnoff, 1901:195. 22. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:114. 1904.
Synonyms. Caux (22). Christ’s Golden Reinette (16). Copmanthorpe Crab (13, 14, 16). DurrscH Micnonne (8). DutcH MicNoMe (7). Dutch Mignonne (14). Dutca Minton (2). Grosse CASSELER REINETTE (10, 12, 15). Grosser Casselar Reinette (13). Grosse OpER DoppeLTE CASSELER REINETTE (1, 5). Paternoster Apple (4, 13, 14). Pomme de Laak (4, 13, 14). REINETTE DE CAux (3, 14, 17, 20). Reinette de Caux (16, 22). REINETTE D’or (11). Retnette Dorée (2). Reinette Dorée (4, 13). Stettin Pippin (13, 14, 16). STOR CassELER REINET (19). Stor KassELRENETT (21).
Tree vigorous and very productive on alternate years. Fruit medium or above, not very attractive in color but excellent for cooking, good for dessert and a good keeper. It is recommended for the home orchard, but because the color of the fruit lacks decided character it is not a good commercial variety, except for canning or evaporating.
Historical. This apple has been known in Holland for more than a century. It was introduced from that country into England about 1771 (4, 14). Although it was brought into New York state many years ago and has been imported at various times both under the name Dutch Mignonne and that of Reinette de Caux it has not won favorable recognition among commercial orchardists and has nowhere been planted to any considerable extent. Leroy (14) states that Grosse Reinette de Cassel and Reinette Dorée are distinct from this variety although they have been listed by some as identical.
TREE.
Tree moderately vigorous. Form rather wide-spreading, inclined to droop, pretty dense; branches short, stout, curved. Twigs medium in length, nearly straight, moderately stout to rather slender; internodes medium or above.
Bark clear reddish-brown, mostly overlaid or mottled with rather heavy scarf-skin, pubescent near tips. Lenticels moderately numerous, small to medium, round or somewhat oblong, sometimes raised. Buds moderately prominent, medium in size, plump, acute, free, somewhat pubescent. Leaves medium in size, broad.
Fruit.
Fruit above medium, pretty uniform in size. Form roundish oblate to roundish, sometimes inclined to conic, often somewhat elliptical and broadly ribbed. Stem often characteristically long and slender and obliquely inserted.
Cavity acute, moderately deep to deep, rather broad, often with outspreading russet rays and faint lines and flecks of dull grayish scarf-skin, furrowed or sometimes compressed, occasionally lipped. Calyx small to medium, closed or open. Basin usually rather shallow, moderately narrow to rather wide, often somewhat furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin yellow with thin orange blush, in highly colored specimens deepening to orange-red, mottled and sparingly splashed or striped with carmine. Dots numerous, whitish or russet, often areolar. Prevailing effect dull orange-yellow partly covered with thin dull red; not particularly attractive.
Calyx tube rather large, long, conical or sometimes approaching urn-shape.
Stamens marginal.
Core axile, medium to small, closed; core lines clasping. Carpels broadly roundish, rather flat, slightly emarginate. Seeds few, often some are abortive, rather long, irregular, flat, obtuse or somewhat acute.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, nearly fine, crisp, rather tender, juicy, sub- acid, sprightly, good for dessert, excellent for cooking.
Season somewhat variable; often extending till May. Commercial limit usually March (20, 22).

DUZENBURY.

REFERENCE. 1. Downing, 1872:152.
A medium sized, late winter apple, described by Downing (1) as greenish overspread with dull red, very mild subacid, almost sweet, very good in quality. It originated at Phillipstown, Putnam county, N. Y. It appears to be but little known outside of the locality where it originated.

Dyer
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  Bard Apple, Beard Burden, Bullripe (9,11). Coe's Spice (11). Golden Spice (9,11). Mygatt's Bergamot (9,11). Pomme Royal (2,6,8-11,14,16,176). Pomme Royale (4,5,7). Pomme Roye (4). Pomme Water (9,11). Pommewater in Ill. (13). Smithfield Spice (3,5,10,11). Tompkins (9,11). White Spice (9,11). Woodstock (1).
One of the very finest dessert apples but not a good commercial variety (14). The fruit is of medium size, greenish-yellow with a shade of red. The crop does not ripen evenly and it requires more than one picking. It come in season in August or early September and ripens continuously until midautumn. The tree is vigorous in the nursery but does not grow to be a large tree in the orchard. It succeeds better when topworked upon some hardier vigorous stock such as Tolman Sweet or Northern Spy. It is not long-lived but comes into bearing rather young and yields good crops biennially.
Historical. This variety has been supposed by some to be of French origin and was formerly known as Pomme Royale, but Hovey believed it to be an American apple (11). It was known in cultivation in Rhode Island during the Revolutionary War (4). It was named Dyer by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society more than fifty years ago and has retained that name. It is still occasionally listed by nurserymen (15). It is but little cultivated in New York and is now seldom, if ever, planted in this state.

TREE.

Tree
Form
Twigs

FRUIT

Fruit medium or sometimes large.
Form roundish, slightly oblate, regular or obscurely ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long, slender.
Cavity rather small, acute, moderately deep to deep, sometimes lipped.
Calyx small, closed; lobes short to rather long, recurved.
Basin medium to small, shallow to moderately deep, furrowed.
Skin smooth, clear pale yellow or greenish, more or less flecked and marbled with thin russet with a brownish blush on one cheek.
Dots dark or russet.
Core medium size; cells open or closed; core lines clasping.
Seeds numerous, plump, short, medium to small, pale.
Flesh yellowish-white, fine, very crisp, tender, aromatic, sprightly, mild subacid, highly flavored, very good to best.
Season September and October.