State of New York- Department of Agriculture

The Apples of New York
[Apples starting with "B"-"D" -ASC]

Apple Home

Bailey Spice
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  Bailey's Spice (1,6,9,10).
A dessert apple of medium size, light yellow color and subacid, spicy flavor, in season in September and October.
Historical. In 1850, J.W. Bailey, of Plattsburgh, published the following account of the origin of this variety (2,3). "The original tree is now growing in my grounds, and was planted there fifty years ago by my grandfather, Captain Nathaniel Platt. It is a great bearer, and I think I never knew an apple so invariably fair and perfect as this."
So far as we have learned this variety is no longer planted and is nearly obsolete in New York.

FRUIT

Fruit medium size.
Skin light yellow color
Flesh subacid, spicy flavor
Season September and October

Baker Sweet
References.  1. Downing, 1857:117. 2. Warder, 1867:712. 3. Thomas, 1875:492.
Synonyms.  Baker's Sweet (1). Late Golden Sweet (1). Long Stem Sweet (1). Winter Golden Sweet (1,3).
A golden yellow apple of good size and attractive appearance. Because it is sweet, not a late keeper and drops readily from the tree it is of little commercial value except where it can be disposed of in local market, notwithstanding that the tree is very productive. It is a good variety for the home orchard where a sweet apple, ripening in late autumn, is desired.
Historical. This is an old variety, formerly much grown in parts of New England (1). It is but little grown in New York state.

TREE.

Tree medium size, only moderately vigorous or a slow grower; branches dark, rather slender, somewhat resembling Jonathan (1).
Form spreading.
Twigs rather stout.

FRUIT

Fruit large to medium, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish to oblate, usually regular.
Stem (Pedicel) short to rather long, rather slender.
Cavity large, acute to acuminate, deep, rather broad, sometimes partly russeted and with outspreading rays, symmetrical.
Calyx pubescent, medium, closed; lobes broad at base, acute.
Basin shallow to moderately deep, narrow to above medium in width, somewhat abrupt, a little furrowed.
Skin moderately thin, tough, nearly smooth except for some patches of russet and conspicuous russet dots, good yellow with shade of brownish-red blush on exposed cheek.
Prevailing effect good yellow.
Dots conspicuous russet
Calyx tube medium, somewhat funnel-shape.
Stamens median.
Core above medium to large abaxile; cells open, sometimes unsymmetrical; core lines meeting.
Carpels very broadly ovate to roundish, tufted.
Seeds dark, medium to rather small, plump, acute, tufted.
Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately fine, rather tender, rather juicy, very sweet, pleasant, good to very good.
Season October to December.

Baldwin
References.  1.
Synonyms. 
XXX
Historical.

TREE.

Tree
Form
Twigs
Bark
Lenticels
Buds

FRUIT

Fruit
Form
Stem (Pedicel)
Cavity
Calyx
Basin
Skin
Dots
Calyx tube
Stamens
Core
Carpels
Seeds
Flesh
Season
[Description in 1862 Report of the US Commissioner of Agriculture]

Banks
References.  1. Craig and Allen, Can. Hort., 16:420. 1893. fig. 2. Nova Scotia Fr. Gr. Assn. Rpt., 1894:81, 129. 3. Sears, Can. Hort., 22:476. 1899. 4. Caston, Ont. Fr. Stas. An. Rpt., 9:55. 1902. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1903:166.
Synonyms.  BANKS GRAVENSTEIN (2). BANKS RED GRAVENSTEIN (1,4). Red Gravenstein (3).
In 1903 R.W. Starr, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, presented to the American Pomological Society the following report concerning this variety (5). "A bud sport from Gravenstein, much the same in season and flavor, but bright red, less ribbed, more regular in shape, a generally a little smaller in size. First noticed and propagated by C.E. Banks, of Berwick, Kings Co., N.S. It is well liked and is being quite largely planted." It appears that this sport first came into bearing about 1880 (1). In 1899 Sears (3) remarked, "The Banks or Red Gravenstein is gaining in popularity because it combines with the superior quality of the ordinary Gravenstein the bright red color which people demand who judge the apple by its appearance alone."
Except in points of difference above noted, Banks appears to be identical to Gravenstein and the reader is referred to the description of that variety for a technical account of the tree and fruit. So far as we can learn this variety is not yet planted to any considerable extent in New York.

Beautiful Arcad
References.  1. tbal
Synonyms.  Arcad Krasivui (3). Arkad Krasivui (5,12). Arkad Krasivui (5,12). Arkad Krasiwui (1,2,5,12). Beautiful Arcade (1,5,10, 11, 12). No. 453 (5, 6, 10-12).
This is a Russian apple of good medium size, yellow, partly shaded and splashed with red, sweet, in season in August and September. It is considered a desirable variety in portions of the Upper Mississippi valley and in other districts where superior hardiness is a prime requisite.

FRUIT

Fruit good medium size
Form
Skin yellow, partly shaded and splashed with red
Flesh sweet
Season August and September

Beauty of Kent
References.  1. tbal
Synonyms.  Beaute de Kent (19). Kent Beauty (25,26). Kentish Pippin (19, of some 3). Pippin de Kent (19). Pippin Kent (19).
Fruit large, beautiful, showy, suitable for culinary use, in season from late September to November. The tree is large, vigorous, upright, comes into bearing rather young, is a reliable cropper and moderately productive. In England where it originated it is said to do best under garden culture in warm soil and on Paradise stock; grown in clay and other uncongenial soils it loses quality (27). It is but little known in New York.

Belborodooskoe
References.  1. Gibb, Am. Pom Soc. Rpt., 1887:55. No. 37. 2. NY Sta. An. Rpt., 8:349. 1889. 3. Beach, Ib., 12:509. 1893. 4. Thomas, 1897:265, fig. 5. Hansen, SD Sta. Bul., 76:29. 1902.
Synonyms.  Bellerdovskoe (4,5). Bielborodovskæ (1). White Borodovka (1).
A Russian apple, medium to large, pale greenish-yellow, sometimes blushed, coarse, rather juicy, mild subacid to nearly sweet, good; season August. It it does not appear to be worthy the attention of New York fruit growers.

Ben Davis
References.  1.  [***will be added later***]
Synonyms.  Will be added later.

The Ben Davis reigns over a much greater extent of country than does the Baldwin. It is unquestionably the leading commercial sort and the most popular apple grown south of the Baldwin region. Generally speaking, it is the most important variety known in the apple districts of the vast territory which stretches from the Atlantic to the Pacific between parallels 32 and 42. It is preeminently successful in the Virginias, Kentucky, Tennessee, Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas and portions of adjoining states.

In the more elevated and more northern portions of New York it is not usually regarded with favor, but in Southeastern New York the planting of it for commercial purposes has extended until, in many sections, it now ranks in importance next to Baldwin and Rhode Island Greening. It is grown to a considerable extent in various other parts of the state, but in many cases less successfully because too often the seasons are less favorable to the best development of the fruit. Some find it acceptable for home use after the Baldwin season has closed, but here it is generally regarded as not good enough in quality for home use. It is often criticised disparagingly on the point of quality. When grown in the South or Southwest, at its best it is but of second rate quality, and unquestionably in most portions of New York state the seasons are usually too short to mature the variety properly. When grown in the South, the period when it is at its best is comparatively short. As fruited in New York, it ripens later and keeps later than when grown farther south. It often keeps here in ordinary storage till May, and in cold storage till June, or often till July. In the Ben Davis belt the fruit becomes large and handsomely colored, but in many portions of New York state it does not range much above medium in size and color. The fruit is thick-skinned, does not show bruises easily, and presents a good appearance in the package after being handled and shipped in the ordinary way.

Nurserymen like it because of its free-growing habit and the ease and rapidity with which trees of marketable size can be grown. In the orchard the tree is very hardy, healthy and vigorous. Although it does not appear to be as long-lived as Baldwin, it comes into bearing at an early age, and usually bears annually and abundantly. Often it makes a good growth, even while bearing good crops. The top is rather dense, and in pruning, particularly in the case of young trees, especial care should be taken to keep it open and spreading so as to give the best possible opportunity for the fruit to color well. Its habit of blossoming late in the spring is an advantage in some regions because the weather is then more apt to be favorable during the pollinating period, and the result is that Ben Davis in such cases often bears good crops, when with other varieties there is more or less of a crop failure.
Historical.  The origin of this apple will probably never be definitely known. It has been variously credited to Tennessee (16,19) Kentucky (1), and Virginia (7,16,19). It is supposed to have originated about the beginning of the last century. This view is supported by the fact that before the Civil War it had spread throughout the states just mentioned, and following the routes of migration had been carried into Southern Indiana, Illinois and pretty generally disseminated throughout Missouri and Arkansas. Downing does not mention it in his first edition, but it is described in the first revision (1) of his book on the The Fruits and Fruit Trees of America. Warder (6) refers to it as a comparatively new sort in Ohio and the Northwest but common in the South and Southwest. During the last quarter century it has been disseminated extensively through all the apple-growing portions of the United States.


Different Types of Ben Davis

Some assert that it is possible to recognize as many as four distinct types or strains of Ben Davis. So far as we know none of these types, if such exist, is being kept separate under propagation. It is certain that Ben Davis shows great variations in fruit in different parts of the country, in some cases so much so that those unfamiliar with it would not recognize fruit of it from different regions as being of the same variety.

Various seedlings of Ben Davis which have been introduced into cultivation show more or less resemblance to the parent and to each other. In the case of Gano and Black Ben Davis a notable controversy has arisen among nurserymen and fruit growers as to whether these are distinct varieties or identical. The Gano is known to some extent in New York. It resembles its parent Ben Davis very closely in the nursery, but it is unmistakably distinct from it in fruit. So far as we have tested it, it seems to be better adapted to New York conditions than is the Ben Davis.

[corrected as per Errata -ASC] Arkansas Belle, Etris and Eicke also belong in the Ben Davis group.

Tree
Form .
Twigs .
Bark .
Lenticels .
Buds .
Leaves .

Fruit usually above medium to large.
Form .
Stem medium to long, rather slender.
Cavity .
Calyx medium, closed or sometimes partly open.
Basin .
Skin tough, waxy, bright, smooth, usually glossy, clear yellow or greenish, mottled and washed with bright red, striped and splashed with bright dark carmine.
Dots inconspicuous, small, scattering, light, whitish or brown. Prevailing effect bright deep red or red striped.
Calyx tube .
Stamens .
Core
Carpels .
Seeds .
Flesh whitish, slightly tinged with yellow, firm, moderately coarse, not very crisp, somewhat aromatic, juicy, mildly subacid, good.
Season January to June.
[Information from the Southeastern U.S. here.]

Benninger
References.  1. tbal
Synonyms.  Benniger (2).
A pleasant-flavored dessert apple of good medium size and attractive appearance; in season during late August and September. It is too mild in flavor to be very desirable for culinary purposes. The tree is a pretty good grower, comes into bearing young and is productive.
Historical. Originated about 1830 on the farm of Uhlie Benninger near Slatington, Lehigh county, PA. In that region it is said to be a good grower and reliable and abundant cropper (4).

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous with short stout branches.
Form spreading, open.
Twigs short, carved, stout with large terminal buds; internodes medium.
Bark clear brownish tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent.
Lenticels conspicuous, quite numerous, medium in size, oblong, not raised.
Buds deeply set in bark, medium in size, broad, obtuse, appressed, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium or above.
Form roundish oblate to roundish ovate, somewhat irregular; sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, rather slender.
Cavity acute or approaching acuminate, medium in width, moderately deep to deep, often somewhat russeted.
Calyx medium in size, usually closed; lobes narrow, acuminate.
Basin wide, moderately deep to shallow, smooth or slightly furrowed.
Skin rather thin, nearly smooth, yellow, blushed and streaked with red.
Dots rather small, greenish.
Calyx tube usually short, wide, conical.
Stamens marginal.
Core medium, abaxile; cells open; core lines slightly clasping or sometimes meeting.
Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, firm, moderately fine, crisp, rather juicy, mild subacid, good.
Season late August and September.

Benoni
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  None.
Benoni is a fine dessert apple, very attractive in appearance and excellent in quality but not large enough to be a good market variety. The tree comes into bearing moderately young and yields fair to good crops biennially. It begins to ripen early in August and its season extends into September.
Historical. Originated in Dedham, Massachusetts, where the original tree was still standing in 1848. It was introduced to notice by Mr. E.M. Richards shortly before 1832 (2). It is highly esteemed throughout the country and is generally listed by nurserymen throughout the middle and northern portions of the apple-growing regions of this continent (24).

TREE.

Tree rather large, vigorous.
Form erect to somewhat roundish, dense.
Twigs moderately long, straight, slender; internodes medium.
Bark olive-green, shaded with light reddish-brown, lightly coated with scarf-skin, pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium, oblong, slightly raised.
Buds deeply set in bark, medium size, plump, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to rather small.
Form roundish inclined to conic, faintly ribbed toward the apex; sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short to very short, slender.
Cavity acute, rather narrow, moderately deep, wavy, greenish-russet.
Calyx in width and depth, abrupt, somewhat wrinkled.
Basin medium in width and depth, abrupt, somewhat wrinkled.
Skin smooth, orange-yellow partly covered with lively red striped with deep carmine.
Dots scattering, minute, whitish.
Calyx tube
Stamens basal.
Core small to medium, axile; cells closed; core lines meeting.
Carpels roundish, slightly elongated, emarginate.
Seeds few, dark brown, medium in size, plump, obtuse.
Flesh yellow, firm, crisp, fine-grained, tender, juicy, pleasant subacid, good to very good.
Season August and early September.
[Description in Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture, 1862.]

Bietigheimer
References.  1.tbal.
Synonyms.  Beitigheimer (6). Red Beitigheimer (6,9). Red Bietigheimer (1-5, 8, 11).
Fruit remarkable only for its great size and beauty. It is a good cooking apple but coarse, subacid and not desirable for dessert use. The fruit being extremely large, drops badly before the crop is ready to pick. In the nursery it is a rough grower forming many badly shaped trees and for this reason it is best to topwork it on some good straight stock. The tree comes into bearing rather early and under favorable conditions is an annual cropper but only moderately productive. It is a fine fruit for exhibition but is not worthy of cultivation for either home use of market.
Historical. Origin, Germany.

TREE.

Tree large, moderately vigorous to vigorous.
Form upright spreading or roundish, dense, with laterals inclined to droop.
Twigs short, curved, stout, with large terminal buds; internodes long.
Bark dull brown tinged with green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, conspicuous, medium in size, oval, raised.
Buds prominent, large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit very large, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish oblate or inclined to conic, with broad flat base, somewhat irregular.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to short, thick.
Cavity large, acute or approaching acuminate, wide, moderately shallow to rather deep, sometimes furrowed, occasionally lipped, often much russeted and with outspreading russet rays.
Calyx medium to small, closed; lobes rather narrow, acute.
Basin varies from shallow and obtuse to deep and abrupt, medium in width, somewhat wrinkled, often marked with mammiform protuberances.
Skin thick, tough, smooth, bright pale yellow to greenish or whitish washed with pinkish-red and sparingly and obscurely splashed with deeper red.
Dots numerous,small inconspicuous, yellowish or russet.
Calyx tube broadly conical.
Stamens usually basal or nearly so.
Core medium to large, axile to somewhat abaxile; cells partly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels cordate or broadly roundish, a little tufted.
Seeds numerous, large to medium, rather wide, broadly acute, rather light brown.
Flesh almost white, firm, very coarse, crisp, somewhat tough, juicy, subacid, fair to nearly good.
Season September and October.

Birth
References.  1. tbal
Synonyms.  Christ Birth (6). Christ Birth Apple (2,3,4). Christmas (7). No. 161 (7). No. 477 (2,6,9), 161 M (2). Reschestwenskoe (5). Roschdestwenskoe (3,4). Roshdestrenskoe (1).
A Russian apple recieved in 1888 from Dr. T.H. Hoskins, Newport, VT., for testing at this Station. Fruit above medium, roundish conic, slightly ribbed; skin greenish-yellow with a shade of brownish-red; flesh mild subacid, fair quality; ripens here in September. Not valuable.

Bismarck
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  Bismark (10). Prince Bismark (1, 10).
Bismarck is evidently related to the Aport group of apples. In size and general appearance it somewhat resembles Alexander. Fruit large, attractive in color, suitable for kitchen and market purposes but inferior in dessert qualities. It ranks about with Alexander and Wolf River in quality. It begins to ripen in October and its season extends from October to early winter. It has not been tested enough in this country to demonstrate its market value. The tree is dwarfish, healthy, hardy, comes into bearing very young, is a reliable cropper and very productive. Even when grown as standards the trees may be planted much more closely together than ordinary commercial varieties.
Historical. Originated in the Province of Canterbury, New Zealand. Introduced into this country from England about ten years ago.

TREE.

Tree dwarfish with very short, stout, drooping branches.
Form spreading, open.
Twigs short, curved, moderately stout; internodes medium.
Bark dull brownish, tinged with green, lightly coated with scarf-skin, pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium to large, oval, slightly raised.
Buds medium in size, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit very large or large, rather uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish oblate to roundish conic, flattened at the base, pretty regular; sides often unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium thick.
Cavity usually rather large, acuminate, moderately wide to wide, deep, often compressed, greenish or russet with outspreading russet rays.
Calyx large, open; lobes short, rather broad, nearly obtuse.
Basin large to very large, usually symmetrical, deep, moderately wide to wide, very abrupt, sometimes broadly and irregularly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin rather thick, tough, smooth, greenish or yellow washed, mottled and striped with two shades of red becoming solid dark red on the exposed cheek, overspread with thin bloom and often marked with thin scarf-skin about the base.
Dots minute and russet or large and pale gray.
Prevailing effect attractive red with less of a striped appearance than Alexander. Calyx tube wide, broadly conical to somewhat funnel-form.
Stamens basal.
Core medium to rather small, axile to somewhat abaxile; cells closed or sometimes open; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels flat, broadly ovate or nearly cordate, tufted.
Seeds few, often abortive, medium size, rather wide, short, plump, obtuse to acute, medium brown.
Flesh nearly white, moderately firm, coarse, rather tender, juicy, subacid, sprightly, fair to good or nearly good.
Season October to early winter.

Black Annette
References.  1. Elliot, 1854:167. 2. ? Warder, 1867:713. 3. Downing, 1869:99.
Synonyms.  None.
A rather small dark red apple formerly grown to a limited extent in some sections of New York and other Eastern states. Season November and December. It is now practically obsolete here. The Black Annette mentioned by Hansen when grown in Central Iowa keeps through the winter which indicates that it is distinct from the variety here described. See Vol. I.
Historical.

Blenheim
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  tbal.
Fruit large to very large, yellow, more or less washed and striped with red, attractive in appearance and of excellent quality. The commercial season in the southeastern portions of the State is October. In Western New York it comes into season with the Twenty Ounce and keeps into early winter (31). Often specimens of it may be kept much later. Macoun gives its season in Ontario as November and December (28). The fruit is desirable both for home and market uses but the variety is usually unsatisfactory for commercial planting because it is not a good keeper, is variable in season and commonly suffers considerable loss in drops and culls. In some locations, however, it is considered a good profitable variety.
Historical. Origin Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England. It found its way into the London nurseries about the year 1818 (24). Although it has long been known in portions of New York and adjacent states and in Canada in no part of this region has it assumed very great commercial importance.

TREE.

Tree large, vigorous, productive, bearing its fruit singly and evenly distributed.
Form upright spreading.
Twigs very stout.
Bark clear, light reddish-brown becoming dark.

FRUIT

Fruit usually large or above medium.
Form roundish oblate to roundish inclined to conic, usually pretty regular and symmetrical, sometimes a little furrowed at the apex.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium.
Cavity below medium to rather large, rather narrow to wide, moderately deep to deep, acute to acuminate, usually symmetrical, sometimes compressed or lipped, covered with russet which often extends beyond the cavity.
Calyx large or very large; segments flat, separated at base plainly exposing the yellowish tube beneath; lobes obtuse.
Basin large, broad, shallow and obtuse to deep and abrupt, somewhat furrowed and slightly wrinkled.
Skin moderately thin tough, deep yellow overspread with a rather dull pinkish-red, in highly colored specimens developing a deep and rather bright red somewhat roughened in places with netted capillary russet lines.
Dots numerous, small or conspicuously large and russet.
Prevailing effect rather attractive red and yellow.
Calyx tube short, very wide, cone-shape.
Stamens median to somewhat basal.
Core medium or below, axile or somewhat abaxile; cells often unequally developed, closed or partly open; core lines meeting.
Carpels flat, tufted, emarginate.
Seeds few and frequently abortive, irregular, often not plump, long, acute to acuminate, tufted.
Flesh tinged with yellow, rather firm, moderately juicy, crisp, moderately fine grained or a little coarse, somewhat aromatic, agreeable sprightly subacid, becoming rather mild subacid, good to very good; excellent either for dessert or culinary use.
Season It is at its best from October to December but often may be kept until midwinter or later.

Blushed Calville
References.  1. tbal
Synonyms.  Calville Krasmui (1). 22 (2). 22 M (1,4,5,7,8,11,12).
Blushed Calville is said to be hardy and desirable in northern apple-growing regions (11). As fruited at this Station the tree does not come into bearing very young and is not very productive. It is not very productive. It is not recommended for planting in this state.
Historical. Origin, Russia.

TREE.

Tree rather small, moderately vigorous with short, stout branches.
Form upright spreading open.
Twigs medium in length, curved and stout with large terminal buds; internodes long.
Bark brownish mingled with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium in size, round, slightly raised.
Buds prominent, large, broad, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large, fairly uniform in shape and size.
Form roundish conical, ribbed; sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) usually long and slender.
Cavity acute to acuminate, rather narrow to moderately wide, moderately deep, sometimes russeted.
Calyx large, closed or open.
Basin medium in width and depth to wide and deep, a little abrupt, wrinkled.
Skin light green or yellowish, sometimes blushed.
Calyx tube broad, cone-shaped.
Stamens median.
Core very large, abaxile; cells wide open; core lines clasping.
Seeds medium in size, acute.
Flesh whitish, firm, rather coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, subacid, fair to good.
Season early summer

Bonum
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  Magnum Bonum (2,4,5,7). [This name is more commonly used in the South today. I've never heard anyone call this apple just 'Bonum'. -ASC]
This is a southern variety of very good quality when grown under favorable conditions. It is in season during late fall and early winter. Probably it is not well adapted to regions as far north as New York, for although it has long been cultivated it is practically unknown among New York fruit growers.
Historical. Origin Davidson county, NC. It was entered on the catalogue of the American Pomological Society in 1860, dropped from the list in 1862 and reentered in 1869. According to Bailey's Inventory of North American Apples (8) it is now propagated but little by nurserymen.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading or roundish, open.
Twigs moderately long, curved, moderately stout; internodes medium.
Bark dull brown, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, small, round, not raised.
Buds medium in size, flat, acute, free, not pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large.
Form oblate, regular.
Stem (Pedicel) long, slender to moderately thick, green.
Cavity medium to large, deep, regular, often with a little green russet.
Calyx large, closed.
Basin medium in width, shallow, wrinkled.
Skin smooth, yellow, mostly covered with crimson and dark red, striped.
Dots distinct, large, light with some having a dark center.
Calyx tube funnel-form.
Stamens marginal.

Core small; cells closed; core lines scarcely meeting.
Carpels ovate.
Seeds numerous, large, plump.
Flesh white, often stained next to the skin, firm, fine, tender, juicy, aromatic, mild subacid, very good for dessert.
Season September to November.

Borovinka
References.  1.tbal
Synonyms.  Borovitsky (18). Borovinka Angluskaia (2,3). English Borovinka, 7 ? Mushroom (4,5). 9 M (2,3). No. 245 (6,9,10,12,17).
Borovinka resembles Oldenburg so closely that Hansen says the question of their identity has not been settled (20). As fruited at this Station it is distinct from Oldenburg; it is fully as attractive as Oldenburg in color but it lacks uniformity in size and is not equal to that variety in flavor and quality. The stock grown at this Station came from Professor J.L. Budd, Ames, IA in 1890, and is doubtless the true Borovinka.
Historical. Origin, Russia.

TREE.

Tree below medium size but moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading to rather flat, open.
Twigs short, curved, stout; internodes short.
Bark dark brown, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium to large, oblong, slightly raised.
Buds prominent, medium in size, broad, plump, obtuse to acute, free, not pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit below medium to large, averaging medium; pretty uniform in shape but not in size.
Form roundish, slightly flattened at the ends, regular or faintly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium in length, thick.
Cavity acute, rather shallow to moderately deep, moderately broad, slightly furrowed, sometimes with faint radiating rays of russet.
Calyx medium to rather large, closed; lobes broad.
Basin medium to rather deep, wide, somewhat abrupt, slightly furrowed, occasionally showing mammiform protuberances.
Skin thin, very tender, smooth, pale yellow, often entirely covered with broken stripes and irregular splashes of attractive bright red, overspread with thin bluish bloom.
Dots numerous, conspicuous, very small, light colored.
Calyx tube large, rather wide, urn-shape to funnel-form widening in the lower part of the funnel cylinder.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core small to medium, axile; cells closed or nearly so; core lines clasping.
Carpels roundish, somewhat concave, mucronate, not emarginate.
Seeds medium to rather large, moderately wide, plump, somewhat obtuse, dark brown.
Flesh tinged with yellow, medium in grain, crisp, tender, moderately juicy to juicy, agreeable subacid, slightly aromatic, good.
Season mid-August to mid-September.

Boskoop
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  Belle de Boscoop (11). Belle of Boskoop (9). Belle De Boskoop (6-8, 12-17) [this name survives to this day. -ASC]. Reinette Belle de Boskoop (16). Reinette Monstrueuse (16). Reinette von Montfort (16). Schöner von Boskoop (2,3,4,10,16). Schoone von Boskoop (1, 16).
In some locations this fruit becomes highly colored with attractive bright red predominating, but more often the color is not good, being predominantly dull green or yellow and more of less russeted. It is more suitable for general market and culinary purposes than for dessert. It is of good size but does not rank high in quality; the texture is somewhat coarse, and the flavor rather too acid for an agreeable dessert apple, but late in the season its acidity becomes modified. It appears to be pretty hardy and a good bearer. When grown on warm soils in Southern New York it may be marketed in September, but in the more northern regions of the state it keeps into the winter. It is perhaps of sufficient merit to be worthy of testing but we are not yet ready to recommend it for general planting.
Historical. This variety is said to have originated from seed in 1856 in the nursery of the Ottolander family at Boskoop (1,4). Palandt finds that it is identical with the variety described by Lauche and Oberdieck as "Reinette von Montfort" (4). it was imported into this country more than twenty-five years ago (5) and has gradually been disseminated to a limited extent in various portions of New York state.

TREE.

Tree rather large, moderately vigorous; branches long, moderately stout, crooked; lateral branches numerous and small.
Form open, wide-spreading and drooping.
Twigs rather short to long, straight, rather stout; internodes below medium to very long.
Bark dark brownish-red mingled with olive-green; somewhat pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, conspicuous, small, oblong or roundish.
Buds rather large, broad, plump, acute, free, slightly pubescent.
Leaves large, broad. [probably a triploid -ASC]

FRUIT

Fruit large.
Form usually oblate, sometimes roundish oblate, obscurely ribbed, sometimes with oblique axis; pretty uniform in size and shape.
Stem (Pedicel) usually short and thick, sometimes rather long.
Cavity rather large, acute to acuminate, somewhat furrowed, often irregular, deep,russeted.
Calyx large; segments long or very long, acuminate, closed or somewhat open, sometimes separated at the base.
Basin abrupt, rather narrow, moderately shallow to rather deep, sometimes slightly furrowed.
Skin dull green or yellowish, sometimes blushed and mottled with rather bright red, and striped with deeper red, roughened with russet flecks, often irregularly overspread with russet.
Dots small and gray, mingled with others which are large, irregular and russet.
Calyx tube large, cone-shape.
Stamens median to basal.
Core medium to small, somewhat abaxile; cells often unsymmetrical, closed or open; core lines slightly clasping.
Carpels roundish or obcordate, a little tufted.
Seeds apt to be abortive [more evidence of triploidy -ASC]; when well developed they are long, irregular, obtuse to acute, somewhat tufted.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, somewhat coarse, tender, juicy, crisp, brisk subacid, good to very good.
Season Commercial season September to November (17). As grown in Western New York generally some of the fruit may be kept till April.

Bough Sweet
Synonyms.  This variety is also known as Bough Apple, Large Yellow Bough, Sweet Bough and Summer Sweet Bough.
It is listed in the late catalogues of the American Pomological Society (Am Pom. Soc. Cat. 1897:12) as Bough, Sweet but most nurserymen list it as Sweet Bough (Bailey, Am. Hort. 1892:235. 250.). We prefer to recognize the name commonly accepted by nurserymen and accordingly have described the variety under the name Sweet Bough. See page 216.

Breskovka
References.  1. tbal
Synonyms.  152 M (2-5,8,9).
A hardy Russian variety of Yellow Transparent type, in season during late August and early September. The flesh quickly discolors as the ripening season advances. It is rather attractive in color for a yellow apple but does not average above medium size and it is not equal to Yellow Transparent in either flavor or quality. Not recommended for growing in New York.

Bunker Hill
References.  1. Downing, 1872:4 app. fig.
Synonyms.  None.
This variety has been planted to some extent in Central New York and is regarded by some fruit growers in that region as a profitable commercial sort. The tree is large, upright spreading, vigorous to moderately vigorous with long, spreading, moderately stout twigs. It is hardy, healthy, medium to long-lived and a reliable cropper, usually bearing heavy crops biennially. The fruit is subacid and good either for dessert or culinary uses. It is in season from mid-autumn to early winter.
Historical. Originated in the orchard of Dr. Paige, Dryden, Tompkins county, NY (1).

FRUIT

"Fruit medium..."
Form roundish conical, regular;
Stem (Pedicel) short, slender;
Cavity medium or large, a little greenish
Calyx closed
Basin medium, slightly corrugated
Skin pale whitish-yellow shaded, mottled, striped and splashed with two shades of red, rather thinly over two-thirds of the surface, and moderately sprinkled with light dots,
Dots moderately sprinkled, a few being areole
Core rather small.
Flesh quite white, sometimes a little stained next to the skin, fine, tender, juicy, subacid, vinous, slight quince-like flavor; very good
Season mid-Autumn to early Winter

Butter
References.  1. Elliot, 1854:125,159,174. 2. Downing, 1857:125. 3. Warder, 1867:392. 4. Downing, 1869:112. 5. Fitz, 1872:152. 6. Thomas, 1875:495. 7. Ragan, USBPI Bul., 56:60. 1905.
Synonyms.  None.
Downing describes a variety under this name which is above medium size, yellow, with whitish flesh, very sweet and rich, valuable for cooking and esteemed for making apple butter; season September and October (2,4). Other varieties have been known under the name Butter which, as Downing remarks, "appears to be a favorite name with some to apply to any good sweet apple for sauce or cooking."
The references above cited do not all refer to the same variety.

Cabashea
References.  1. NY Agr. Soc. Trans., 1849:350. 2. Emmons, Nat. Hist. NY., 3:103. 1851. 3. Warder, 1867:714. 4. Thomas, 1875:495. 5. Beach, Apples of New York, 1:91. 1905.
Synonyms.  Cabashie (2).
The name Cabashea has been applied by many pomologists to the variety commonly known among fruit growers and fruit dealers as Twenty Ounce Pippin (5), an apple which comes in season about with Tompkins King. The variety which is generally known in Western New York as Cabashea comes in season about with the true Twenty Ounce but it is not so good a keeper. In 1851 Emmons published a cut of a section of this Cabashea showing well its characteristically oblate form. Emmons remarked, "This apple is more remarkable for its size than for its valuable qualities... It is not, however, an inferior apple. For cooking it is certainly esteemed, as it has a pleasant and agreeable taste. It is, however, too large." The tree is hardy, healthy, medium to long-lived, and a pretty good cropper, yielding moderate to rather light crops nearly annually. It is not considered a good commercial variety because it is not sufficiently productive and the fruit does not sell very well.
Historical. This variety appears to be a Western New York seedling (1). It is now seldom or never planted.

TREE.

Tree medium size, moderately vigorous.
Form erect or somewhat spreading.
Twigs medium to long, curved, spreading, stout to rather slender; internodes medium.
Bark reddish-brown tinged with olive-green, streaked with scarf-skin, heavily pubescent near tips.
Lenticels conspicuous, scattering, large, oval, raised.
Buds large, broad, obtuse, free, pubescent; tips stout.

FRUIT

Fruit large to very large, fairly uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish oblate to decidedly flat, obscurely ribbed; sides somewhat unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) usually short, moderately slender.
Cavity acute, deep, very broad, often somewhat furrowed, much russeted with greenish russet often extending beyond the cavity.
Calyx large or sometimes medium, usually closed; lobes long, medium in width, acute.
Basin large, deep, wide, somewhat furrowed, unsymmetrical.
Skin moderately tender, smooth, slightly unctuous, yellowish-green mottled and blushed with yellowish-red, with broad stripes and splashes of brighter and deeper red.
Dots small, inconspicuous, often submerged.
Prevailing color in many specimens yellowish-green with broad stripes of faint red; in more highly-colored specimens the red striping becomes quite distinct. Calyx tube large, wide, conical.
Stamens basal.
Core large, decidedly abaxile; cells wide open; core lines meeting.
Carpels elongated ovate, distinctly concave, slightly tufted.
Seeds few, medium size, irregular, plump, obtuse, dark.
Flesh greenish or tinged somewhat with yellow, rather firm, coarse, crisp, juicy, subacid or quite acid, fair for dessert, good for cooking.
Season September and October.

Cathead
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  Cathead Greening (5,6,8). Catshead (1,4-7,9,10,11). Catshead Greening (10). Costard (4). Costard Ray (7). Coustard (4). De Seigneur d'Automne (10). Grosse-Schafnasé (10). Round Catshead (5,8,10). Schafnasé (10). Tete d'Ange (10). Tete d'Chat (10).
Formerly grown in some of the home orchards of the state but now practicaly obsolete. Fruit very large, pale green, subacid. Used for cooking and evaporating. An old English variety. Ray described it as long ago as 1688 (4).

Celestia
References.  1. tbal
Synonyms.  None.
Fruit not particularly attractive in color and as tested at this Station not superior to ordinary varietyies in quality. Warder says (1) that it is essentially an amateur's fruit of very best quality but its texture and color disqualify it for market. The tree is a moderate grower and not very productive. Not recommended for cultivation in New York.
Historical. Originated from seed of Stillwater Sweet by L.S. Mote, Miami county, Ohio.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous with short, stout, curved branches.
Form upright spreading, roundish, rather dense.
Twigs short to moderately long, slightly curved, moderately slender; internodes medium to long.
Bark clear brownish-red with some olive-green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, small to medium, elongated or roundish, slightly raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse to somewhat acute, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large, usually above medium, uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish inclined to conic, somewhat flattened at the base, markedly ribbed, irregular, somewhat angular.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long, thick.
Cavity obtuse to somewhat acute, moderately deep to deep, rather broad, somewhat furrowed, usually russeted.
Calyx medium in size, usually closed; lobes medium in length, rather narrow, acute.
Basin shallow, narrow, rather abrupt, much furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thick, smooth, rather tender, yellow marbled with pale green, and occasionally having a thin brownish blush.
Dots numerous, small inconspicuous, submerged, light or russet.
Calyx tube very long to medium, deep, funnel-shape.
Stamens median to somewhat marginal.
Core large, very abaxile to sometimes axile; cells open or closed; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder.
Carpels elliptic to broadly obcordate, much concave, emarginate, much tufted.
Seeds large, wide, long, obtuse, dark dull brown.
Flesh very strongly tinged with yellow, rather firm, moderately coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, pleasant, rather mild, subacid, good.
Season October to January.

Champlain
References.  1. tbal. 4. Downing, 1869:368.
Synonyms.  Calkin's Pippin (4,14). Geneva Pearmain (4,6,14). Haverstraw Pippin (4,14). Large Golden Pippin (4,6,14). Nyack (9,13). Nyack Pippin (4,9,14). Paper (3,4,6,14). Paper-Skin (3,14). Sour Bough or Sourbough (4,6,7,13,14). Summer Pippin (4,6,7,8,10,13,14). Tart Bough (4,6,14). Underdunk (4,6,14). Vermont (14). Walworth (4,6,14).
Nurserymen sometimes list this variety as Nyack, and sometimes as Summer Pippin, but seldom or never as Champlain (9,10). Fruit of good size, smooth and attractive for a greenish-yellow apple. It is good for dessert and excellent for culinary use. Since it ripens in succession from late August till October, more than two pickings are required to secure the crop in good condition, neither too green nor too ripe. The tree is a good grower, hardy, healthy and moderately long-lived. It comes into bearing rather young and is a reliable cropper, yielding good crops biennially or almost annually. Some find Champlain a profitable commercial variety, but usually it is grown for home use rather than for market.
Historical. Origin unknown. In 1871 (5) it was included in the list of the American Pomological Society's Catalogue under the name Summer Pippin, but since 1897 it has been listed as Champlain (11). Old trees of it are frequently found in the home orchards throughout the state. It is now seldom planted.

TREE.

Tree medium to large, vigorous with long and moderately stout branches.
Form upright spreading to roundish, open.
Twigs long to medium, straight, moderately stout; internodes long.
Bark dull brown tinged with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, heavily pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium size, oblong, slightly raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, appressed, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large, not very uniform in size or shape.
Form roundish, rather conical to ovate or somewhat oblong, irregularly ribbed; sides somewhat unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long, medium to rather thick.
Cavity acuminate to acute, moderately shallow to deep, rather narrow to medium in width, sometimes furrowed and usually lightly russeted.
Calyx small to medium, closed or slightly open.
Basin shallow to medium in depth, narrow, a little abrupt, nearly smooth.
Skin tender, greenish-yellow or pale yellow, often with a light crimson blush.
Dots numerous, small, russet or submerged.
Calyx tube conical to funnel form, usually rather short but sometimes elongated.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core large, axile to somewhat abaxile; cells open; core lines clasp the funnel cylinder.
Carpels smooth, elongated ovate, not emarginate.
Seeds rather dark brown, medium size, rather narrow and short, plump, sharp pointed, almost acuminate.
Flesh white or with slight tinge of yellow, rather fine, very tender, juicy, sprightly, subacid, good to very good.
Season late August till October.

Chandler
References.  1. tbal
Synonyms.  Chandler's Red (11). General Chandler (1). Late Chandler (10). Winter Chandler (6).
In 1854 Elliott included Chandler in a list of varieties unworthy of cultivation (6). It is a late fall apple, yellowish striped with red. Tree moderately vigorous but a great bearer (7,10). An old variety supposedly of Connecticut origin though Kendrick (1) ascribes it to Chelmsford, Mass. There may be a confusion of two varieties. It is now but little cultivated.
Waugh describes another Chandler of sweet flavor which seems to be unknown in New York. He states that it is an old variety of Connecticut origin.

FRUIT (5,6,7,10).

Fruit large.
Form roundish, slightly oblate, irregular, unsymmetrical; sides unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short.
Skin greenish-yellow, shaded and frequently striped with yellowish-red and with a few streaks of bright red.
Dots light gray.
Core small.
Seeds small.
Flesh greenish-yellow, tender, juicy, moderately rich, subacid.
Season mid-autumn to early winter.

Charlamoff
References.  1. tbal
Synonyms.  Arabka (14). (Charlomoski,(1) ?). Charlamovskoe (4). Charlamowskoe (3,5-7). No. 105 (8). No. 262 (3,5). Peterson's Charlamoff (16). Pointed Pipka (11, 14,16).
A Russian variety of the Oldenburg type imported for the Iowa Agricultural College by J.L. Budd. Macoun states that it has been grown under several different names in this country, the most common being Pointed Pipka and Arabka (14). Hansen declares that it is entirely distinct from the Charlamoff as grown by J.G. Mitchell and A.G. Tuttle which is a flat apple of upright habit of tree and not as valuable as many more of the same season.
It does very well at Ottawa, Canada, and further north. At its best it is a good dessert apple but it has the fault of remaining in prime condition for only a very short time (14). It ripens a little earlier than Oldenburg but as fruited at this Station is inferior to that variety in quality. It comes into bearing young and is a reliable cropper, yielding fair to heavy crops biennially. It is but little known among New York fruit growers. It may be found of some value in those sections of the state where superior hardiness is a prime requisite.

Cheeseboro
References.  1.tbal
Synonyms.  Canada Reinette (9). Cathead (9) [not to be confused with another 'Cathead' -ASC]. Cheeseborough (2,7,9). Cheeseborough Russet (1,3-5,8-10). Forever Pippin (10, of some West 3,5). Howard Russet (3-5,10). Kingsbury Russet (3,4,5,10). Oxheart (9). Pumpkin Sweet of some (10) [not to be confused with 'Pumpkin Sweet' -ASC]. Sweet Russet (10). York Russet (10, of some 3,5). York Russeting (10).
This is an old variety of unknown origin which is fast becoming obsolete. Tree large to very large, very vigorous, long-lived, a reliable cropper yielding good to heavy crops biennially or almost annually; form upright spreading or roundish. Fruit large to very large, conical, dull green overspread with thin russet, coarse, rather dry, subacid or becoming almost sweet, inferior in flavor and quality, suitable for kitchen use only; season October to early winter.

Chenango
References.  1. tbal
Synonyms.  Buckley (3,4). Chenango Strawberry (1,3-8,10-15,17-19,22) [It is most-commonly known by this name today. -ASC]. Frank (3,4). Jackson (3,4). Sherwood's Favorite (3,4,6,7,11,12,14,17-19,22). Smyrna (3). Strawberry (1,3,4).
Fruit beautiful in appearance, yellowish-white striped with red, of excellent dessert quality and good also for culinary uses. The tree is an early and regular bearer, hardy, healthy, and pretty long-lived. Under favorable conditions it is an annual bearer, alternating rather light with heavy crops. The fruit begins to mature in September and ripens continuously during a period of several weeks. For this reason it should have more than one picking in order to secure the crop in the best condition. The latest ripening fruit may be kept in ordinary storage till November, but after that the color fades and it deteriorates much in quality, even though it may remain apparently sound (22). The fruit does not ship well because its flesh is too tender. Some find it a a profitable variety to grow for local or special markets, but other varieties of its season are more desirable than Chenango for general commercial planting. It is recommended as an excellent variety for the home orchard.
Historical. Chenango, according to some accounts, originated in Lebanon, Madison county, NY; others say it was early brought into Chenango county by settlers from Connecticut. It has certainly been known in cultivation for more than fifty years (3). It is still propagated by nurserymen but the demand for the stock is quite limited.

TREE.

Tree medium size, vigorous with short, stout, curved branches.
Form upright spreading to roundish, rather dense.
Twigs long to medium, curved, moderately slender, internodes medium.
Bark olive-green tinged with dull brown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, small, round, not raised.
Buds deeply set in bark, small, flat, obtuse, appressed, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit above medium to large, but under unfavorable conditions it may be small and poorly colored.
Form elongated ovate or oblong conic, slightly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, moderately thick.
Cavity acute to acuminate, deep, narrow, often somewhat furrowed and compressed, usually not russeted.
Calyx medium to large, partly open or closed; lobes often separated at the base, long, broad, obtuse.
Basin usually small, medium to rather shallow, narrow to moderately wide, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, furrowed, sometimes wrinkled.
Skin rather tough, glossy, yellowish-white, often almost entirely overspread and mottled with attractive pinkish-red, conspicuously striped and splashed with bright carmine.
Dots few, small, inconspicuous, light colored, often submerged.
Calyx tube long, funnel-shape or nearly so.
Stamens median.
Core rather large, abaxile; cells often unsymmetrical, wide open or closed; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate to oval, smooth.
Seeds small, moderately wide, plump, obtuse, not tufted.
Flesh white, moderately firm, tender, juicy, mild subacid, very aromatic, good to very good.
Season latter part of August and through September.

Clapper Flat
Reference.  1. Downing, 1869:127.
Synonyms.  Flat (1).
Downing describes a variety under this name which originated in the town of Bethlehem, Albany county, NY. He states (1) that the tree is productive, the fruit above medium size, pale yellow mostly overspread with deep red, pleasant subacid and good in quality for culinary uses; season September and October. We do not know this variety and have found no account of it except that given by Downing.

Clarke
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  Clarke Beauty.
This variety has been grown to a limited extent locally in some portions of Central New York. It is not a good commercial variety, being too tender and too easily bruised. It is very good for dessert. It is sometimes called Clarke Beauty. The tree is hardy, healthy and long-lived. It does not come into bearing very young but when mature is a reliable biennial cropper.
Historical. Originated with J.N. Clarke, Naples, Ontario county, NY (1,2). It is now rarely propagated.

TREE.

Tree large to medium, vigorous.
Form upright spreading to roundish, rather dense.
Twigs short, curved, stout; internodes medium.
Bark brownish and olive-green, lightly mottled with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium size, oblong, slightly raised.
Buds medium to large, broad, acute, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large, averaging above medium.
Form roundish oblate to oblate conic or to oblong conic, usually faintly ribbed, unsymmetrical; not very uniform in shape.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium in length, slender.
Cavity acuminate, deep, rather narrow to moderately wide, usually partly russeted and often with narrow, broken, outspreading russet rays.
Calyx small to rather large, closed or slightly open.
Basin rather shallow to moderately deep, rather narrow, obtuse to moderately abrupt, slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin thin, smooth, waxy, pale whitish-yellow or greenish, often faintly shaded with orange-red or sometimes blushed with crimson; under some conditions the fruit develops but a slight blush or none.
Dots numerous, small, pale or russet, often submerged.
Calyx tube cone-shape.
Stamens
Core medium to rather large, abaxile; cells open; core lines slightly clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish, mucronate, slightly tufted.
Seeds medium to rather large, moderately wide, plump, obtuse to acute, slightly tufted, rather light brown.
Flesh whitish, firm, moderately fine, crisp, tender, juicy, rather sprightly subacid, good to very good.
Season October to January; some portion of the fruit may keep till spring but by January it begins to deteriorate in flavor and quality.

Clyde
References.  1.tbal
Synonyms.  Clyde Beauty (1,2,4-7,11,12). Mackie's Clyde Beauty (2,3,4,11).
A large, late fall apple. So far as we can learn, it is now but little grown in this state. Lyon reports that in Michigan the tree is vigorous, upright, very productive, and the fruit desirable for market (9).
Historical. This is a late autumn variety which orginated with Mr. Mackie, of Clyde, Wayne county (3,4).

TREE.

Tree vigorous, spreading.
Form
Twigs reddish-brown.
Bark
Lenticels
Buds

FRUIT

Fruit large.
Form roundish to oblong conic, more or less ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) short, sometimes fleshy.
Cavity acute, deep, rather wide, furrowed.
Calyx small, closed.
Basin medium in depth, somewhat abrupt, furrowed.
Skin waxy, green or yellow, washed and mottled with dull red and striped with carmine becoming bright red on the exposed side.
Core large and open.
Carpels
Seeds small, brown.
Flesh white, often tender, juicy, sprightly, pleasant subacid, good to very good.
Season October to December.

Collamer
References.  1.
Synonyms. 
The Collamer or Collamer Twenty Ounce is a sport of the Twenty Ounce, from which it differs in being more highly colored. As compared with Twenty Ounce, it is less mottled and striped but more completely covered with red, which often extends in an unbroken blush over a considerable portion of the fruit. In the Twenty Ounce this is seldom or never seen, but the red is mottled or appears in heavy stripes and splashes. So far as we have been able to determine, Collamer is more regular in shape and, if ribbed at all, is less distinctly ribbed than Twenty Ounce. The tree differs from Twenty Ounce in that the bark of the young twigs is more distinctly tinged with red. The fruit being more attractive than Twenty Ounce, Collamer is worthy of consideration for commercial planting where an apple of the Twenty Ounce type is desired
Except in the pints of difference above noted, Collamer appears to be identical with Twenty Ounce, and the reader is referred to the description of that variety for a technical account of the tree and fruit.
Historical. This variety originated as a sport of the Twenty Ounce tree in the orchard of J.B. Collamer, Hilton, NY. Mr. Collamer began propagating it about 1900.

Colton
References.  1.tbal
Synonyms.  Colton Early (5,6,8). Early Colton (1).
Colton is a green or yellowish apple of fair to good quality, in season from the last of July to early September. The tree is a good grower, hardy, comes into bearing moderately young and yields good crops biennially.
Historical. Colton is said to have originated on the farm of Mr. Colton, Rowe, Franklin county, Mass., where it has been propagated since about 1840 under the name Early Colton.

TREE.

Tree large, vigorous, with moderatly long, stout, crooked branches.
Form rather upright when young but eventually flat, spreading and open.
Twigs moderately long, straight, moderately stout; internodes short.
Bark dark brown, heavily mottled with scarf-skin; much pubescent.
Lenticels quite numerous, rather conspicuous, medium to large, oblong, raised.
Buds medium to large, broad, plump, acute, free, pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium in size.
Form roundish, narrowing toward either end, slightly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium in length, stout.
Cavity small, acute to slightly acuminate, shallow, narrow.
Calyx medium in size, nearly closed; lobes long, rather recurved.
Basin small, shallow, obtuse, wrinkled.
Skin pale greenish-yellow, sometimes with a shade of red.
Dots numerous, large, greenish.
Calyx tube elongated funnel-form.
Stamens median.
Core medium to rather large, somewhat abaxile; cells open; core lines clasping.
Carpels broadly roundish.
Flesh whitish, rather coarse, crisp, juicy, mild subacid, fair to good.
Season last of July to early September.

Colvert
References.  1. Warder, 1867:427. 2. Downing, 1869:131. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1875:6. 4. Thomas, 1885:506. 5. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:290. 6. Bailey, An. Hort. 1892:237. 7. Powell and Fulton, USBPI Bul., 48:39. 1903.
Synonyms.  Prussian (2).
Ripens about with Twenty Ounce. It is inferior to that variety in size, color and quality, and is not as good a seller, but is more productive. The fruit is large, uniform in size, yellowish-green shaded and lightly striped with pinkish-red on the sunny side, smooth, showy and fairly attractive. It needs to be picked early to prevent loss from dropping. It is not a good keeper and is not much in demand among buyers, but sometimes it sells pretty well.
The tree is generally hardy, healthy and an excellent cropper. It generally succeeds well on any good apple land.
Historical. Origin uncertain (2). It has long been known and pretty widely disseminated but it is not much grown in New York. Even in those localities where it is best known, the trees of this variety constitute less than one percent of the orchards.

TREE.

Tree medium size to large, moderately vigorous to vigorous; branches long, medium stout, curved, crooked.
Form upright spreading or roundish, open.
Twigs above medium to long, nearly straight, moderately stout; internodes medium.
Bark rather dark brownish-red, shaded with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin, pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium, oblong, raised.
Buds medium to large, broad, prominent, very plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.
Leaves medium in size, broad.

FRUIT

Fruit averages large, fairly uniform in size, but variable in shape.
Form oblate to oblate conic, obscurely ribbed, irregular, and with sides sometimes unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short, rather thick.
Cavity acute to slightly acuminate, medium to nearly deep, medium in width and sometimes broad, usually very heavily russeted, sometimes compressed and frequently lipped.
Calyx medium, closed or slightly open; lobes short, narrow, acuminate.
Basin abrupt, medium in depth, narrow, slightly furrowed.
Skin very thick, rather tough, rather dull greenish-yellow, sometimes partly washed with red and striped and splashed with carmine.
Dots inconspicuous, small, usually submerged; a few scattering ones are large and russet.
Prevailing color greenish-yellow, not particularly attractive.
Calyx tube broadly conical to funnel-shape.
Stamens median to basal.
Core axile, small, cells closed or partly open.
Carpels broad cordate, emarginate, tufted.
Seeds large to above medium, wide, rather long, plump, acute; frequently they are abortive. [Notice the high correlation between the author remarking on the leaves and the frequency of abortive seeds... smells like a TRIPLOID to me! -ASC]
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, nearly coarse, crisp, moderately tender, juicy, subacid, good.
Season October to January or February.

Constantine
References.  1. tbal... 7. Hoskins, Rural NY., 51:682. 1892. fig.
Synonyms.  Berry Apple (7). Grand Duc Constantin (1). Grand Duke Constantine (2-7). No. 457 (7). Riabinouka (7).
This fruit is of the Aport type and very closely resembles Alexander. The flesh is rather coarse, subacid and fair to good in quality. Some hold that is rather better in flavor than Alexander. As grown at this Station the fruit, as compared to Alexander, begins to ripen about a week later and continues longer in season. The trees are not so large and may be planted more closely together than those of Alexander. It is a reliable cropper, yielding good crops biennially or nearly annually. The percentage of marketable fruit is greater than that of Alexander because there are fewer drops, the apples are less apt to show cracks about the calyx and stem and the skin is less often discolored by chafing against the branches. We are not sure that it is as good a variety for commercial planting as Alexander, but it appears worthy of testing where a variety of the Alexander type is desired.
Historical.

TREE.

Tree small to below medium size, at first moderatly vigorous but with age it becomes a slow grower with short, stout, curved branches.
Form spreading, open.
Twigs moderately long, curved, slender; internodes long.
Bark brown with some olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent near tips.
Lenticels scattering, medium to small, oblong, not raised.
Buds medium size, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit large or very large.
Form roundish conic-flat at the base, varying to oblate conic, regular or somewhat ribbed, symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) below medium to long, rather slender to moderately thick.
Cavity large, acuminate or acute, very deep, broad, russeted and with outspreading rays of greenish russet.
Calyx medium to rather large, usually somewhat open; lobes medium in width and length, acute.
Basin narrow to medium in width, moderately deep to deep, abrupt, smooth or slightly wrinkled.
Skin thick, tough, smooth, waxy, clear greenish-yellow or whitish, mottled, marbled and blushed with bright red over nearly the whole surface with wide broken stripes of carmine radiating from the cavity, overspread with thin bloom.
Dots whitish or pale russet.
Prevailing effect bright red.
Calyx tube long, wide, funnel-shape or conical.
Stamens median or below.
Core medium size, somewhat abaxile; cells open or partly closed; core lines somewhat clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate or approaching cordate, emarginate.
Seeds medium or below, moderately wide, short, thick, plump, obtuse, dark brown.
Flesh whitish, moderately firm, coarse, tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, fair to good; suitable for culinary use and market.
Season late September to November.

Cooper
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  Beauty Red (8,11). Lady Washington (8,11). Seek-No-Further of some, erroneously (8). For true Seek-No-Further description click here.
Fruit large, uniform, very attractive, rather light yellow indistinctly streaked with mixed red, mild, subacid or nearly sweet, season October to December. The tree is very vigorous, upright spreading. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. This is an old variety of unknown origin. In 1796 it was introduced from Connecticut into Ohio where it has been much esteemed (2). Evidently it has never been cultivated to any considerable extent in this State and is now practically unknown to New York fruit growers.

TREE.

Tree
Form

FRUIT

Fruit
Form
Stem (Pedicel)
Cavity
Calyx
Basin
Skin
Dots
Flesh
Season

Cornell
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  Cornell Fancy (1-5, 7,8,10). Cornell's Favourite (1).
Fruit usually of good medium size, sometimes large, waxen yellow and red, agreeable for dessert, in season from early September to November. The tree sometimes lacks vigor and productiveness (9).
Historical. Origin Pennsylvania (1). It is but little known in New York.

FRUIT

Fruit above medium to large, uniform in size, somewhat variable in shape.
Form roundish conic to oblate conic, often quite strongly ribbed, irregular; sides usually unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to rather long and slender.
Cavity moderately deep to deep, moderately wide, often compressed sometimes lipped, sometimes russeted, with the russet extending beyond the cavity.
Calyx below medium to rather large, closed or slightly open; lobes sometimes separated at the base, often upright, moderately acute.
Basin deep, wide, rather abrupt, strongly furrowed, slightly wrinkled.
Skin moderately thick, tough, smooth, clear pale waxen yellow, partly overspread with thin attractive pinkish-red, often quite regularly splashed and striped with bright carmine.
Dots conspicuous, variable, open or closed; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Calyx tube rather large, rather short, conical.
Stamens median.
Core below medium, variable, nearly axile to decidedly abaxile; cells variable open or closed; core lines meeting or slightly clasping.
Carpels broadly ovate, slightly emarginate, sometimes tufted.
Seeds numerous, rather large, dark brown, rather narrow, long, plump, acute to acuminate, sometimes tufted.
Flesh tinged with yellow, often affected with "Baldwin Spot," firm, moderately coarse, crisp, moderately tender, juicy, agreeable, mild subacid, aromatic, rich, sprightly, very good.
Season September to November.

Corner
References.  1. Heiges, US Pom. Rpt., 1894:18.
Synonyms.  None.
We have neither seen Corner nor received any report concerning it. The following account ws given in 1894 by S.B. Heiges, then United States Pomologist (1).
Size above medium; oblate; cavity wide, deep, marked by russet netting; stem one-half inch, medium diameter; basin, medium, regular, marked by russet; calyx segments with mammiform bases, wide, long, converging or slightly reflexed; surface moderately smooth; color yellow, washed with red and striped with crimson; dots numerous, russet, some with dark centers, depressed; flesh yellowish, moderately fine grained, tender, moderately juicy; core large, wide, clasping, closed; flavor mild subacid; quality very good. Season early winter. Well known locally in Orange county, NY."

Cox Orange
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  Cos Orange, Cox's Orange, Cox's Orange Pippin, Orange De Cox, Reinette Orange de Cox (3). Cox's Orange Pippin (1,2,4-7, 9,10).
One of the best in quality of the English dessert apples; in season from late September to early winter. The fruit is of medium size or above medium, red and yellow. When highly colored, it is attractive, with the red predominant. The tree is a moderate grower and productive. It is well adapted for growing on dwarf stock, either Paradise or Doucin. It is not recommended for commercial planting, but it is a desirable variety for the home orchard.
Historical. Cox Orange is said to have originated in 1830 from seed of Ribston, at Colnbrook Lawn near Slough, Bucks, England (5). It is sometimes propagated by American nurserymen but it has never been extensively planted in this country and its cultivation is not increasing.

TREE.

Tree medium size or above, moderately vigorous with rather slender branches.
Form upright, thickly branched, dense.
Twigs long to medium, rather slender irregularly crooked; internodes medium or below.
Bark olive-green somewhat mottled with reddish-brown, slightly pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, conspicuous, medium size, oblong, raised.
Buds medium size to rather small, roundish, obtuse, appressed, pubescent. Leaves small to medium size and inclined to be narrow.

FRUIT

Fruit medium or above, pretty uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish oblate, sometimes slightly inclined to conic, regular or faintly ribbed, symmetrical, axis sometimes oblique.
Stem (Pedicel) usually obliquely inclined, short, thick, sometimes long.
Cavity obtuse to somewhat acuminate, rather shallow to moderately deep, rather narrow, often somewhat russeted.
Calyx rather small, closed or partly open.
Basin rather shallow and obtuse to moderately deep and abrupt, rather narrow to moderately wide, smooth or slightly furrowed.
Skin rather thin, tough, smooth, attactive, washed with orange-red deepening to bright red and mottled and splashed with carmine, over a deep yellow background.
Dots conspicuous, large,areolar with pale gray or russet center.
Calyx tube cone-shape of funnel-form.
Stamens median to basal.
Core medium size, somewhat abaxile; cells usually symmetrical, open or closed; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder.
Carpels thin, obovate to obcordate, emarginate, usually smooth.
Seeds reddish-brown, above medium size, wide, obtuse to acute, often abortive.
Flesh firm, yellow, nearly fine, crisp, tender, very juicy, rich, sprightly subacid or becoming mild subacid, decidedly aromatic, very good to best.
Season September to January.

Cranberry Pippin
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  None.
In some sections, this has proved a desirable apple, but in others it has not been successful. It is well known in some localities in the Hudson valley, in Northern and Western New York and in Ontario, where it is favorably regarded as a fall or early winter apple because of its good size, bright and attractive color and its uniform size and shape. It is a good storage apple, stands shipping well and brings good prices. It is suitable for market, cooking and evaporating, but not for dessert. It appears to be quite resistant to the attacks of scab. The trees are hardy and often very productive, but in some cases it is reported as undesirable because unproductive. It is said to be a shy bearer when young, but becomes productive with age.
Historical. Originated near Hudson, Columbia county (1).

TREE.

Tree large, very vigorous; branches stout, spreading.
Form upright becoming somewhat spreading.
Twigs long, moderately stout, light grayish-brown, quite pubescent; internodes short.
Bark dull reddish-brown with some olive-green and thickly mottled with scarf-skin.
Lenticels scattering medium to small, usually roundish.
Buds medium or sometimes small, rather broad, deeply set, obtuse or sometimes acute, pubescent, appressed.
leaves dark green, broad, medium to large; foliage rather dense.

FRUIT

Fruit large.
Form roundish oblate, symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) short.
Cavity broad, wavy.
Calyx closed or somewhat open.
Basin moderately deep, russeted.
Skin smooth, shining, clear light yellow, handsomely blushed, striped and splashed with scarlet.
Dots many, large, often red areolar with russet center.
Prevailing effect/General appearance beautiful and attractive. Flesh white or with slight yellowish tinge, moderately juicy, mild subacid.
Season October to February. In the vicinity of its origin its season closes from a month to six weeks earlier than either Hubbardston or Tompkins King. In Northern New York and Ontario its season is late fall and early winter and often extends to midwinter.

Cream
References.  1. N.E. Farmer, 1831 (cited by 3). 2. Downing, 1869:137. 3. Ragan, USBPI Bul., 56:82. 1905.
Synonyms.  None.
This variety originated in Queens county, NY. So far as we know it is no longer cultivated. Downing describes the tree as a vigorous grower and an early bearer and the fruit as medium or below, yellowish, fine-grained, pleasant, sweet, in season in September and October. Valued by some for dessert and culinary uses.

Crow Egg
References.  1. Kendrick, 1832:43. 2. Downing, 1857:211. 3. Warder, 1867:716. 4. Burrill and McCluer, Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:318. 1896.
Synonyms.  Crow's Egg (1,3,4). Egg Jop? (2).
A sweet apple which is still occasionally found in very old orchards but is now practically obsolete. Some esteem it highly for dessert. Downing calls it not very good in quality (2). The old trees are productive.
Historical.

TREE.

Tree moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading, top roundish, open; branches long, slender, crooked.
Twigs medium in size, curved, slender; internodes very short.
Bark reddish-brown, streaked with scarf-skin, slightly pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, very small, oblong.
Buds small, plump, obtuse, deeply set in the bark.
Leaves medium in size, narrow.

FRUIT

Fruit about medium in size.
Form roundish to oblong or ovate.
Stem (Pedicel) long, slender.
Cavity obtuse to sometimes acute, shallow, medium in width, symmetrical or obscurely furrwoed, bright green or sometimes with outspreading russet.
Calyx small to medium, closed.
Basin small, shallow, narrow, somewhat abrupt, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin tough, nearly smooth, bright pale yellow or greenish sometimes with faint, bronze blush.
Dots numerous, but conspicuous, russet.
Calyx tube rather small, funnel-shape or cone-shape.
Stamens median.
Core large, abaxile; cells usually symetrical and open; core lines clasping the funnel cylinder or meeting when the tube is conical.
Carpels ovate, nearly smooth.
Seeds numerous, rather light borwn, flat, acute to acuminate.
Flesh whitish, firm, crisp, tender, rather juicy, sweet, agreeably flavored, good to very good.
Season October and November.

Czar Thorn
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  Czarskui Schip (4). No. 140 M (8). No. 206 (4,5,8). Tars Thorn (1). Tsarskui Schip (5). Zarskischip (7). Zarski Schip (2,3). Zarski Zars (1).
A Russian apple of medium size, roundish conic, green and yellow usually shaded and striped with crimson; flesh rather coarse, sweet, hardly fair in quality; season September; not valuable.

Deaderick
References.  1. US Pom. Rpt., 1895:22. 2. Watts, Tenn. Sta. Bul, 1:11. 1896. fig. 3. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1897:37.
Synonyms.  Ben Ford (2). Ozark Pippin (2).
A good-sized green apple, of somewhat better color than Rhode Island Greening, but it does not keep as well, and is inferior to that variety in quality. The tree is a strong grower, healthy, and so far as tested here comes into bearing young and gives promise of being very productive. It has not been on trial long enough to indicate whether or not it has sufficient merit to be considered a promising variety for this state. In Tennessee it is considered a very valuable early winter apple (2).
Historical. Originated with Benjaman Ford, Washington county, Tenn. It was first disseminated as Ozark Pippin (2).

TREE.

Tree rather vigorous.
Form spreading and somewhat upright.
Twigs moderately stout, nearly straight; internodes short.
Bark bright brownish-red.
Lenticels roundish, often conspicuous, scattering, small.
Buds medium size appressed, obtuse, short, pubescent.
Leaves medium size, somewhat narrow often the base of the petioles is conspicuously streaked with red.

FRUIT

Fruit large.
Form broadly roundish, often rather conical, sometimes broadly ribbed, pretty regular, uniform.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to rather long, slender.
Cavity large, acute to acuminate, deep, broad, usually smooth and symmetrical, sometimes slightly furrowed, occasionally prominently lipped.
Calyx small, partly open or closed; lobes rather narrow, acute.
Basin small, shallow, obtuse to somewhat abrupt, nearly smooth, a little wrinkled.
Skin moderately thick, tough, smooth, rather bright green becoming yellow, usually partly covered with a thin, pinkish-red blush upon which there are often seen red aerolar dots with russet or whitish center; commonly the dots are whitish and often submerged.
Dots whitish and often submerged
Prevailing effect green or yellowish.
Calyx tube long, funnel-form.
Stamens median to nearly marginal.
Core a little abaxile, medium to small; cells symmetrical, open or nearly so; core lines clasp the base of the cylinder.
Carpels thin, generally smooth, numerous, medium or above, rather wide, obtuse.
Seeds
Flesh yellowish, firm, moderately coarse, tender, rather juicy, pleasant subacid, good.
Season October to January.

Detroit Red
References.  1.  [***will be added later***]
Synonyms.  Black Apple of some (2,9). Black Detroit (2,5,7,8). Crimson Pippin (6,8, of some 2). Detroit (1,2,4,6,8,9). Detroit Black (10).
Fruit growers in Western New York have commonly used the names Detroit Red and Detroit Black interchangeably for the remarkably variable variety which we are here describing as Detroit Red. We have been unable to determine whether there are in fact two distinct varieties of this type, or whether the differences which have been observed in the habit of growth and productiveness of the tree and in the form, size, general appearance, season and quality of the fruit, are altogether due to differences in the conditions under which the fruit has been produced. Speaking of these two names, Warder, in 1867, wrote, "I have put these two names together because the fruits presented as Black and as Red Detroit are so very much alike in all respects that it is not worth while to consider them distinct.... The Red variety may be distinct, as it keeps later.
Lyon recognized two or more varieties of this type and distinguished them by the names Detroit Black and Detroit Red. Speaking of Detroit Red, he remarks: "There are probably several varieties grown under this name, none of them valuable;" and of The Detroit Black he says: Unproductive, showy, valueless; it is probably the Detroit Red of Downing."
D.D. Stone, of Oswego, writes: It seems to me that the two are not the same. Detroit Black seems to be more of a scrubby grower, the shape, size, firmness and color seem to be more constant and it does not crack so badly as the one we know as Detroit Red, but the season appears to be the same."
Detroit Red, or as it is often called, Detroit Black, as usually grown in Western New York, varies from medium to very large, commonly averaging about medium size. It is flattened at the ends, very dark crimson or purplish, becoming almost black, with snow-white flesh occasionally streaked with rose-pink. It is esteemed by many for dessert use because of its mild, pleasant flavor. There is considerable loss from premature dropping of the fruit and from fruit that is too small or too ill-shapen for market. It is quite variable in keeping qualities, being commonly in season about with 'Maiden Blush'. The tree is a moderate grower, comes into bearing rather young, and is not a very reliable cropper. Some report that it is a shy bearer; others that it yield moderate to full crops biennially.
Historical.  This is supposed to have been brought into the neighborhood of Detroit by the early French settlers and thence disseminated (1,2,4,8). It was introduced into Ohio and Western New York before the middle of the last century. The variety is still sometimes listed by nurserymen (14). Its cultivation in New York state is declining and it is now seldom planted.
Tree
Form .
Twigs.
Bark .
Lenticels .
Buds .
Leaves .

Fruit very large to medium.
Form .
Stem short, usually rather slender.
Cavity .
Calyx variable, usually large, closed or somewhat open.
Basin .
Skin thick, rather tough, dark crimson, largely striped and splashed with purplish-carmine eventually becoming almost black, sometimes having a portion of the greenish-yellow ground color exposed.
Dots numerous, conspicuous, very small, pale or russet.
Calyx tube .
Stamens.
Core
Carpels .
Seeds .
Flesh white, sometimes streaked or stained with red, rather coarse, tender, juicy, agreeable mild subacid, very aromatic, good to very good.
Season last of September to December.
[Information from the Southeastern U.S. here.]

Duchess of Oldenburg
This variety is often called Duchess or Duchess of Oldenburg, but the name now accepted for it by pomologists is Oldenburg, under which name it is described on page 150.

Dudley
References.  1. tbal
Synonyms.  Dudley Winter (1,4,7). Dudley's Winter (6). North Star (3,5-8).
A very hardy and productive variety which is being planted to a considerable extent in Northern New England. The fruit is pretty large, bright greenish-yellow washed and splashed with red, quite attractive in appearance and good in quality. Munson says that it is perhaps now more widely grown than any other of the newer sorts that have originated in new England. He considers it a valuable acquisition as a winter fruit for norther localities (6). As fruited at Geneva it is in season in September and October, although it may sometimes be kept into the winter. It is recommended for trial particularly where a very hardy apple of its season is desired.
Historical. A seedling of the Oldenburg, which originated with J.W. Dudley, Castle Hill, Aroostook county, ME (1,6). A few years ago it was introduced by a Rochester nursery under the name North Star but it was afterward found that this name had already been given to another variety and therefore the name Dudley Winter was retained for it, which, according to the accepted rules of nomenclature is shortened to Dudley.

TREE.

Tree small, moderately vigorous to vigorous; branches short, moderately stout.
Form very spreading and drooping, rather dense.
Twigs below medium length to short, almost straight, moderately stout to rather slender; internodes short to medium.
Bark brown tinged with clear bright red, with but ittle or no scarf-skin and but slightly pubescent.,
Lenticels rather conspicuous, clear in color, scattering, medium in size, oblong, raised.
Buds medium or above, rather prominent, plump, obtuse to acute, free or nearly so, somewhat pubescent.

FRUIT

Fruit medium to large, uniform.
Form roundish conic to roundish oblate, symmetrical.
Stem (Pedicel) long, rather thick.
Cavity acute to almost acuminate, rather deep, broad, sometimes lightly russeted, obscurely furrowed.
Calyx medium to large, open or partly closed.
Basin decidedly abrupt, moderately deep to deep moderately broad, obscurely furrowed, wrinkled.
Skin thin, tender, smooth, bright pale yellow or whitish mostly covered with a bright pinkish-red blush striped and splashed with bright carmine and covered with light bloom.
Dots scattering, light, small.
General appearance red of red striped over contrasting yellow, attractive. Calyx tube long, moderately wide, funnel-shape or sometimes conical.
Stamens median to marginal.
Core almost axile, medium or below; cells closed or partly open; core lines clasping or nearly so.
Carpels broadly elliptical, not emarginate, slightly tufted.
Seeds large, wide, long, somewhat flat, obtuse to acute, dull dark brown.
Flesh tinged with yellow, firm, crisp, nearly fine-grained, tender, very juicy, aromatic, brisk subacid eventually becoming mild, very good.
Season September and October or sometimes later.

Dyer
References.  1. tbal.
Synonyms.  Bard Apple, Beard Burden, Bullripe (9,11). Coe's Spice (11). Golden Spice (9,11). Mygatt's Bergamot (9,11). Pomme Royal (2,6,8-11,14,16,176). Pomme Royale (4,5,7). Pomme Roye (4). Pomme Water (9,11). Pommewater in Ill. (13). Smithfield Spice (3,5,10,11). Tompkins (9,11). White Spice (9,11). Woodstock (1).
One of the very finest dessert apples but not a good commercial variety (14). The fruit is of medium size, greenish-yellow with a shade of red. The crop does not ripen evenly and it requires more than one picking. It come in season in August or early September and ripens continuously until midautumn. The tree is vigorous in the nursery but does not grow to be a large tree in the orchard. It succeeds better when topworked upon some hardier vigorous stock such as Tolman Sweet or Northern Spy. It is not long-lived but comes into bearing rather young and yields good crops biennially.
Historical. This variety has been supposed by some to be of French origin and was formerly known as Pomme Royale, but Hovey believed it to be an American apple (11). It was known in cultivation in Rhode Island during the Revolutionary War (4). It was named Dyer by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society more than fifty years ago and has retained that name. It is still occasionally listed by nurserymen (15). It is but little cultivated in New York and is now seldom, if ever, planted in this state.

TREE.

Tree
Form
Twigs

FRUIT

Fruit medium or sometimes large.
Form roundish, slightly oblate, regular or obscurely ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long, slender.
Cavity rather small, acute, moderately deep to deep, sometimes lipped.
Calyx small, closed; lobes short to rather long, recurved.
Basin medium to small, shallow to moderately deep, furrowed.
Skin smooth, clear pale yellow or greenish, more or less flecked and marbled with thin russet with a brownish blush on one cheek.
Dots dark or russet.
Core medium size; cells open or closed; core lines clasping.
Seeds numerous, plump, short, medium to small, pale.
Flesh yellowish-white, fine, very crisp, tender, aromatic, sprightly, mild subacid, highly flavored, very good to best.
Season September and October.