1. Silva N. A., IV: 70-78.
2. Native Crabapples and Their Cultivated Varieties. Ia. Acad. Sci., VII: 123-141. 1899.
3. Flora Nor. States and Can., II: 236.
4. See plate of Martha, in Vol. II of this report.
5. See also Prof. Budd’s discussion of this subject in Am. Hort. Man., I: 160. 1902.
6. Or. Cult. Plants 233-236. 1885.
7. Yearbook, U. S. Dept. Agr. 1902: 161 et seq.
8. Marlatt 1. c. Cf. Leroy Dict. de Pom., 3:5. 9. Cyc. Am. Hort. I1I:1472. 10. U. S. Dept. Ag. Yearbook, 1897:308. 11.l.c. 311. 12. 3Cyc. Am. Hort., Bailey, III: 1435.
13. Letter, E. J. Wickson, 1899.
14. Lodeman, Spraying of Plants: 61-64. AND Hooker, C. M. Spraying Apple Orchards. Proc. 49 An. Meet. W. N. Y. Hort. Socy., Rochester, 1904: 131.

15. Powell in the Yearbook of U. S. Dept. of Agric. 1903: 228 gives statistics furnished by the International Apple Shippers’ Association showing the number of barrels held in cold storage in the United States about December 1 of each year since 1808:
Apples in storage about December 1 of each year from 1898 to 1903.

Barrels. Barrels. 1898 . 800,000 1,771,200 1899 .. 1,518,750 2,978,050 1900 ses 1,226,900 2,348,540
16. The annual export of apples and dried apples from the United States for the years 1891 to 1903 inclusive is shown in the following table:
Apples, Dried Apples. Year. Barrels. Value. Pounds. Value. 1891. 135,207 $476,807 6,973,168 $409,605 1892 .. 938,743 2,407,056 26,042,063 1,288,102 1893 .. 408,014 1,097,967 7,966,819 482,085 1894 .. 78,580 242,617 2,846,645 168,054 1895 . 818,711 1,954,318 7,085,046 461,214 1896 . 360,002 930,289 26,691,963 1,340,507 1897 . 1,503,981 2,371,143 30,775,401 1,340,159 1898 . 605,390 1,684,717 31,031,254 1,897,725 1899 . 380,022 1,210,459 19,305,739 1,245,733 1900 . 526,636 1,444,655 34,964,010 2,247,851 1901 . 883,673 2,058,064 28,309,023 1,510,581 1902 . 459,719 1,628,886 15,664,468 1,190,593 1903 - 1,656,129 4,381,801 39,646,207 2,378,635
In that section of the Lake Ontario apple belt which is included in Wayne county probably a larger proportion of the apple crop has been made into dried apples than in any other section of the state. Wayne county contains 9 townships. Its total area is 624 square miles. On some farms the entire product of the orchard is put through the evaporator, none of the fruit being sold green. In one township, Sodus, there were in 1896 about 400 evaporators. In 1896 Wayne county marketed about 5,000,000 bushels of green apples. In that year about 1500 carloads of evaporated apples were shipped out of the county, representing about 5,250,000 bushels of green apples. Mr. E. S. Johnson of Wolcott who supplied the above information also stated that Wolcott for the decade ending in 1896 received an average of $250,000 per annum for its output of evaporated apples, This fruit came from within a radius of 6 to 10 miles of the railroad station. The average price to growers for the same period was estimated at 6½ cents to 7 cents Per pound. The prices were sometimes as low as from 3 to 3½ cents and sometimes reached as high as 12 cents to 13 cents.
17. Thacher Amer. Orch., Boston, 1822: 121. [AND] Kenrick New Amer. Orch., Boston, 1832: 41. [AND] Manning, Book of Fruits, Salem, 1838: 59.
18. An. Hort., 1892: 230.
19. Am. Pom. Soc., 1895: 192.
20. Barry’s Fruit Garden: 331-361.
21. Preface to Nineteenth Edition.
22. Rep, Univ. Ill, 1870: 44.
23. Cyc, Am. Hort., I: 78.
24. An. Hort., 1892: 253.
25. Am. Pom. Apples: 25.
26. Annals of Hort. 1892: 209.
27. Coxe on Fruit Trees: 100. 1817.
28. Ann, Rep. Geneva Exp. Sta. 1896: 408-418.
29.Daniel, L., Compt. Rend., Acad. Sci., Paris, 118: 992-955. 1894. Congres. Lyons Soc. Reg. Vit., 11: 262-363. 1902.
30.Violet Culture: 109-116.
31.Warder Am. Pom.: 492.
32.Cf. Hansen, Am. Hort. Man., II: 26.
33.See Waugh, Bull. 83 Vt. Sta., 1900.
34.New Amer. Orch.: 61.
35.New Amer. Orch.: 87.
36.Craig, J., in Cyc. Am. Hort., III: 1404.
37.On the pomological use of the term “Russian apple,” see also W. A. Taylor's views as published by Waugh, Vt. Expt. Sta. Bul. 61, 1897: 24
38.Amer. Fruit Cult., 1897: 248.
39. Elliott, 1854:91.
40. Cole, 1849:108. Phoenix, Horticulturist, 4:471. 1850. Schroeder, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1886-87:76.
41. Warder gives it erroneously as Macon county, Ga.
42. Downing, 1869: 147.
43. Letter, 1905.
44. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 8:20. 1877.
45. Jones, L. R. Vt. Sta. An. Rpt., 12: 139-164. 1899.
46. French, B. V. Downing Hort., I:315. 1846.
47. Mass. Ploughman, cited in Mich. Hort., 1: 335.
48. Amer. Gard. Mag. 1835:360. New Eng. Homestead, 1885:228

49. Beach and Clark. N. Y. Sta. Bul. 248:111-112. 1904.
50. Fruits and Fruit-trees, 1872: 71.
51. Identification of varieties. Rep. Am. Pom. Soc., 1887: 34.
52. The remnants of the stamens appear in the ripe fruit as withered thread-like organs on the side of the calyx tube.
53. Fruit Manual, London, 1884: xi to xxxix.
54. Fruit Manual, London, 1884: xiii.
55. The “Wollstreifen” of Soraner, See Handb. Planzenkrankheiten, zweite Auflage, 1:295. 1886
56. Beach and Clark, Bull. N. Y. Exp. Sta., 248192. 1904.
57. Hansen, S, D., Expt, Sta. Bul. 76:22. 1902.
58. An. Hort., 1892:234.
59. Macoun, Can, Dept. Agr. Bul. 87:42. 1901.
60. Patten, C. G., Charles City, Ia., Cat. 1892
61. Cited from Bateman, Ohio Cultivator, Aug. 1, 1846. Warder gives same citation, 1847:25.
62. Fruit Trees, 1817:115.
63. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:239. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 66:109. 1905. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat., 1875:8.
64. Warder, 1867:719.
65. Downing, 1857:144.
66. Not listed by Bailey in An, Hort., 1892:239.
67. Letter Stark Bros., Louisiana, Mo.
68. Thacher, 1822:138.
69. Kenrick, 1882:46.
70. Downing, 1872:219.
71. U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1895:27. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1897:39. Ragan, U. S. B. P. I, Bul., 56:161, 162. 1905
72. Stone was erroneously identified by a leading pomologist for Mr. Clark as Bethel, and for this reason in the account given by Heiges (1) it is erroneously stated that Oel Austin is a seedling of Bethel. Both Stone and Bethel belong in the Blue Pearmain group, but they are quite distinct varieties. For a comparison of the two the reader is referred to Stone.
73. At the meeting of the Ohio State Horticultural Society December, 1903, Mr. H. H. Aultfather exhibited samples of russeted Red Russet and smooth-skinned Red Russet grown by Mr. W. P. Myers, Minerva, Ohio. Fruits of the two types grew on different parts of the tree and were intermingled on the same twigs.
74. See Elliott, 1854:72, who describes Canada Reinette under name of Canada Pippin; Cole, 1849:154; Thomas, 1849:178.
75.Mag. Hort., 10:210. 1844.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.