Reference. 1. Taylor, U.S. Pom. Rpt., 1893:285.
This variety is said to have originated in Clinton county. We have received no reports of its being grown outside of the locality of its origin. Taylor gives the following description of it. (1). "Roundish, conical; regular, of medium size, with smooth surface, becoming glossy when rubbed; color rich yellow, washed and striped with red; dots small, straw color, slightly elevated; cavity large, round, deep, flaring; stem of medium length and thickness, slightly knobbed; basin small, nearly round, very shallow, with convex sides, slightly and regularly ribbed and downy; calyx segments rather small, meeting; eye small, closed. Skin thin, tough; core large, broad, heart-shaped, moderately open, clasping; seeds numerous, oval, plump, grayish brown; flesh yellowish white, granular, rather dry, tender; flavor mild subacid; quality good. Season, October to January in Clinton county, New York. Tree a good grower; resembles Baldwin in its bearing habit; hardy at its place of origin. This variety is said to have originated from seed of Westfield (Seek-No-Further) crossed with Hubbardston. It is a promising early apple for Northern New York and New England."
References. 1. Downing, 1869:354. 2. Leroy, 1873:813. fig. 3. Hogg, 1884:214. 4. NY Sta. An. Rpt., 8:339, 348. 1889. 5. Beach, Ib., 11:589, 595, 1892. 6. Beach and Clark, NY Sta. Bul., 248:110. 1904.
Synonyms. ADMIRABLE (6). SMALL'S ADMIRABLE (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Small Admirable (6).
Fruit green or yellow, not particularly attractive. At its best it is very good for dessert use, but as grown at this Station it usually ranks but fair to good in quality and the fruit is very apt to show imperfect spots in the flesh which are evidently due to some physiological defect. In England it is regarded as an excellent kitchen and dessert apple and the tree is said to be an immense bearer and well adapted for dwarf culture (3). So far as tested at this Station the tree has been an annual cropper and very productive, often yielding full crops. A portion of the fruit may sometimes be kept through the winter, but ordinarily the season for this variety is November and December (6). Not recommended for cultivation in New York.
Historical. This variety originated in England (2, 3).
Tree. Tree dwarfish with short, stout, slow-growing branches.
Form rather flat, spreading and somewhat drooping.
Twigs short, somewhat curved, stout to rather slender; internodes short to above medium.
Bark dark brown tinged with olive-green, streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, small to medium, oval, slightly raised.
Buds deeply set in bark, medium to small, broad, plump, obtuse to somewhat acute, appressed or free, pubescent.
Fruit quite uniform in shape and size for any particular crop, but varies under different conditions from below medium to above.
Form oblate conic to roundish conic, pretty regular but sometimes indistinctly ribbed.
Stem medium to long, slender, pubescent.
Cavity acute, moderately deep to deep, broad smooth or thinly russeted.
Calyx closed or open; lobes reflexed.
Basin moderately shallow, rather narrow, sometimes abrupt, somewhat furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin varies from pale green to attractive lemon-yellow, sometimes with brownish blush.
Dots numerous, small, light or russet.
Calyx tube rather narrow, elongated or funnel-form.
Core rather large, somewhat abaxile; cells open; core lines clasping.
Carpels long, obovate.
Seeds rather large, long, plump, pointed, medium-brown.
Flesh whitish, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, quite juicy, mild subacid, very aromatic, good to very good in quality in well-grown fruit. perfumed, sprightly, subacid, becoming mild and nearly sweet when very ripe, very good to best for dessert.
Season October to January.
Fruit intermediate in type between Fall Pippin and Lowell. In color it resembles Fall Pippin but in form it is more like Lowell. Season October to late fall or early winter. We have been unable to learn the origin of this variety. It is but little cultivated in this State. sometimes be kept through the winter, but ordinarily the season for this variety is November and December (6). Not recommended for cultivation in New York.
Fruit Large to very large.
Form roundish oblong, irregular.
Stem short to medium, slender.
Cavity acuminate, deep, medium to wide, russeted.
Calyx small to medium, tightly closed; lobes short, narrow, acute.
Basin shallow, medium to narrow in width, obtuse, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin smooth, waxy, pale yellow mingled with green.
Dots green or russet or submerged and whitish.
Calyx tube narrow, cone-shape to funnel-form.
Core large, abaxile; cells open or partly closed; core lines clasping.
Carpels elongated, ovate, pointed, mucronate.
Seeds few, medium to large, rather narrow, long, acute.
Flesh moderately coarse, very tender, juicy, mild subacid, good.
Season November and December.
References. 1.to be added later
Synonyms. to be finished later, but list: Albertin. Alexander the Frist, Alexandre, Aporta. Aporta Nalivia (26). Aubertin. Beauty of Queen. Belle d'Orleans. Comte Woronzoff. Corail. English King. Emperieur Alexandre I. Empereur Alexandre de Russie. Empereur de Russie. Emperor Alexander. Fin d'Automne. Grand Alexander. Grand-Alexandre. Grand Alexandre (26). Gros-Alexandre. Jolly Gentleman (26). Kaiser Alexander (26). Korallen Apfel (26). Phœnix (26). Phönix (17,26). Pomona Britannica. Président Napoléon (17,26). Russian Emperor. Stoke Tulip (26). Wolf River incorrectly (39). Wunderapfel (26).
Alexander is a typical representative of the class of Russian apples commonly known as the Aport group. Fruit very large, attractive red or striped, coarse in texture, medium to good in quality, suitable for culinary rather than for dessert use. The fruit is apt to crack and decay about the stem and calyx and often becomes discolored where it is chafed by constantly rubbing against some twig or branch; there is also considerable loss from premature dropping of the fruit. Notwithstanding these faults many growers now consider Alexander favorably as a commercial variety as in some markets there is a strong demand for the fruit at good prices. It is being used to some extent for export trade (40). Its season begins in September and extends through October or into November. It may be held in cold storage till November. It goes down quickly and does not stand heat well before going into storage. It should be shipped the day it is picked and under ice (39). As it ripens continuously during a period from four to six weeks, it should have more than one picking. The tree is hardy, vigorous and moderately productive. It some localities it is subject to blight. It can be recommended for planting in commercial orchards to a limited extent. In the West it is now largely supplanted by its Wisconsin seedling, Wolf River (34,36).
Historical. Introduced into England from Russia in 1817 (20). The exact date of the introduction of this variety into America is not known. The Massachusetts Horticultural Society made several importations of European varieties which were distributed among the members of the society. Mr. Manning exhibited what was supposed to be Alexander before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society at its meeting on September 18, 1830. Whether it was Alexander or not, the shipment of varieties of which Alexander was one had evidently been made prior to that date.1
It has been widely disseminated and is now pretty well known in the apple-growing districts from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Thus far, it has not been grown to any considerable extent in New York state, but at the present time its cultivation is on the increase. Tree. Tree large to medium, vigorous to moderately vigorous with long stout branches.
Form upright spreading to roundish, open and somewhat inclined to droop after bearing heavy crops.
Twigs short, curved, stout with large terminal buds; internodes medium.
Bark brown mingled with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels scattering, mediumin size, oval, raised.
Buds medium in size, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.
Fruit large, uniform in shape and size.
Form roundish conic to slightly oblate conic, regular or approaching broadly angular, symmetrical.
Stem medium to rather short, moderately thick.
Cavity acute, to acuminate, deep, broad, symmetrical, occasionally lipped, russeted, often with broad conspicuous, outspreading russet rays.
Calyx medium to large, usually open; lobes medium to short, rather narrow, acute.
Basin rather small, deep, narrow to nearly medium in width, abrupt, nearly smooth, symmetrical.
Skin moderately thick, tough, smooth, glossy, somewhat waxy, greenish or pale yellow deepening to orange-yellow in the sun, often entirely overspread with lively red or handsomely striped and splashed with bright carmine.
Dots inconspicuous, small, scattering. Prevailing effect red or striped.
Calyx tube variable, long to short, wide to medium, conical to funnel-shape.
Stamens median to basal.
Core small, usually axile; cells often not uniformly developed, closed or very slightly open; core lines slightly clasping.
Carpels elliptical to slightly ovate, emarginate.
Seeds medium in size, wide, short, rather plump, obtuse to acute.
Flesh nearly white with faint yellow tinge, firm coarse, moderately crisp, tender, juicy, mild subacid, fair to good. perfumed, sprightly, subacid, becoming mild and nearly sweet when very ripe, very good to best for dessert.
Season September to October or early November.
1. N.E. Farmer, Sept. 24, 1830:78.
References. 1. Downing. 1876:43 app. 2. Ragan, USBPI Bul., 56:26. 1905.
Synonyms. Amsterdam Sweet (1,2). Hightop Sweet incorrectly (1).
Downing describes this fruit as medium in size, pale greenish-yellow, striped and splashed with light and dark bright red; flesh white, half fine, tender, juicy, rather rich, sweet, slightly aromatic; season October and November. Origin Amsterdam, NY on the farm of Joseph Britten (1). We find no account of Amsterdam except the one above mentioned, and have not seen the variety.
References. 1.to be added later
Synonyms. Anisim of Peterson, Borsdorfer of Wragg (9). 13 M (3,8, of Budd 0). 14 M of Budd (9). Good Peasant of Patten (9). Jonathan of the North (4). Swedish Borsdorf of Patten (9). Zuzoff of Tuttle (9).
Hansen (9) reports that this Russian apple is proving very valuable in Minnesota and other parts of the Northwest. It may be of some value in those portions of New York state where superior hardiness is a prime requisite. Hansen's description is given below. "Tree a strong grower in the nursery and orchard and a prodigious bearer; yound trees upright, spreading with age; limbs long, slender with a very strong shoulder; leaves narrow, pointed, dark green. The beautiful color of the fruit attracts favorable attention--
Fruit below medium
Form roundish conical slightly angular; surface greenish-yellow, covered almost wholly with beautiful dark crimson with heavy blue bloom.
Cavity regular, acute, usually slightly russeted.
Basin narrow, very shallow, corrugated, sometimes flat.
Dots white, minute.
Calyx tube short, broad.
Core closed, clasping;
Flesh greenish white with green veins, good.
Season early winter."
1. N.E. Farmer, Sept. 24, 1830:78.
References. 1. tbal
Synonyms. Antonowka (15,17). Antony (3,14). Bergamot, 424 (25). Cinnamon (24). German Calville (24), with "324" added spuriously (25). No. 224 (25). No. 236 (1,2,4,5,6,9 & 25). Possarts Nalivia (2,4,5). Russian Gavenstein, 105 (25). 26 M (1,2,4,5,9,25). Vargul, 277 (25).
A Russian fruit of no practical value for this state. Hansen (25) describes it as "large, roundish, irregular, obscurely angular; surface yellow; dots minute, raised, white, suffused; cavity deep, regular, with radiating, often large patch of russet, stem medium; basin abrupt, corrugated or wavy; calyx closed. Core closed; cells ovate, slit; tube funnel-shaped; stamens median; seeds ten to sixteen, small, pointed, plump, a few imperfect; flesh yellow, juicy, sprightly spicy subacid, good. October." [Now used as a rootstock to a limited extent for production of standard trees. -ASC]
Reference. 1. Gibb, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 8:32. 1881-82.
This name is applied to a pretty well defined group of Russian apples. Alexander is the typical variety of this group.
The name Aport has also been applied to a particular Russian variety which resembles Alexander closely (Hansen, S.D. Sta. Bul., 76:26. 1902.).
References. 1. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 8:32. 1881-82................
Synonyms. Aport (1-7,11-13). Aport Oriental, 9? No.12 Orel (7), No.252 (1-4,7,11). 23 M (1-3). Oporto (4).
A Russian apple, large, yellow, mostly covered with mixed red, striped and splashed with dark crimson, very attractive but coarse-grained and inferior in quality. It begins to ripen about the middle of August. The tree comes into bearing rather young and gives full crops in alternate years. Not recommended for New York state.
One of the most valuable characteristics of the Arctic is its ability to endure cold climates. It has probably been planted more extensively in Northern New York, New England and Canada than in any other regions. It is reported as being pretty hardy in Central Iowa where the climate is too severe for Baldwin, Rhode Island Greening and other varieties of a similar grade of hardiness. Munson (7) states that it is worthy of trial where Baldwin will not succeed. The tree is vigorous. In some districts it has the reputation of being productive, in others it is called a shy bearer. The fruit is very attractive, mild subacid, good but not high in quality. It somewhat resembles Baldwin in size and color, but is more oblate, and the skin is of a somewhat lighter and brighter red than that of Baldwin. The cavity is often marked with outspreading rays of reddish or green russet as in the Baldwin. The dots are round, scattering, whitish, often areolar and not elongated in the region of the cavity as they are often are on the Baldwin. It does not keep so well as the Hubbardston. In Western New York its season may extend from October to February, but when grown farther north it is later (6,7). In some parts of Northern New York, it is being grafted over to other sorts. Waugh (6) states that this is being done in the Isle La Motte region of Vermont, nevertheless he believes it will be grown there in moderate quantities for years to come.
Historical. The Arctic was introduced by Mr. O.K. Gerrish, now of Lakeville, Mass. He states that it originated as a chance seedling in a garden near Cape Vincent, NY about 1862.
Tree a moderate grower with long, moderately stout branches.
Form spreading and open somewhat like Tompkins King.
Twigs short stocky; internodes medium length; slightly pubescent nears tips.
Bark dark reddish-brown, streaked and mottled with thin scarf-skin.
Lenticels scattering, conspicuous, medium to large, roundish to somewhat elongated, raised.
Buds medium to large, broad, obtuse, flat, free, pubescent.
Leaves large, dark green, broad and rather thick. [Probably a triploid or tetraploid- ASC]
Fruit above medium to large.
Form oblate, sometimes roundish-conic, often faintly ribbed; pretty uniform in shape and size.
Stem short and rather thick to medium.
Cavity moderately shallow to rather deep, broad, usually symmetrical or slightly furrowed, and having outspreading rays of red or green russet.
Calyx medium to rather large; segments broad, obtuse, closed or partly open.
Basin abrupt, medium to wide and deep, often compressed or slightly furrowed and corrugated.
Skin nearly smooth, slightly roughened by the light russet or whitish dots; deep yellow or greenish-yellow, often almost wholly covered with a bright red obscuring the stripes of deeper red.
Calyx tube short, varying to funnel-form.
Core medium, axile or nearly so; cells closed or partly open; core lines clasping the cylinder of the tube.
Carpels broadly roundish to nearly obcordate, emarginate, slightly tufted.
Seeds often abortive [another indication of triploidy- ASC]; when normally developed they are medium to rather large, flat, obtuse, sometimes slightly tufted, dark.
Flesh somewhat tinged with yellow, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, juicy, mild, subacid, good in quality.
Uses. Adapted rather for market and culinary uses than for dessert. Season October to February or later.
[NOTE: This heritage apple has ZERO relation to the GMO Arctic® apples which have had a fruit polyphenol oxidase enzyme downregulated by RNA silencing. -ASC]
References. 1. tbal
This hybrid is classed by some as an apple and by others as a crabapple. The tree is hardy, comes into bearing early and is reliably productive. The fruit is medium to small for an apple but very large for a crabapple. It has a slight crabapple flavor and is of fairly good quality for culinary use. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. Originated from seed of Wealthy by Peter M. Gideon, Excelsior, Minn., from whom it was received in 1888 for testing at this Station. It has been tested at experiment stations in different States but it appears to be practically unknown to fruit growers.
Tree moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading and somewhat drooping, open.
Twigs short, curved, slender; internodes short.
Bark clear crown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium in size, oblong, slightly raised.
Buds medium in size, plump, acute, free, not pubescent.
Fruit medium to small, occasionally above medium, uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish oblate to roundish conic, nearly symmetrical, regular or somewhat ribbed.
Stem rather short to medium in length, moderately slender.
Cavity acute approaching acuminate, medium to deep, moderately broad, symmetrical, usually not russeted.
Calyx rather large, closed; lobes long, acute, reflexed.
Basin moderately shallow to rather deep, moderately wide, somewhat abrupt, slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin pale yellow or greenish, sometimes almost entirely overspread and mottled with rather bright red, striped and splashed with carmine, covered with bloom.
Dots whitish, small, scattering, inconspicuous.
Prevailing color red in well-colored specimens.
Calyx tube rather small, short, conical.
Stamens median to nearly basal.
Core medium in size to above, usually axile; cells often unsymmetrical, usually closed, sometimes wide open; core lines clasping.
Seeds light brown, medium to above, moderately wide, plump, acute.
Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, half-fine, moderately juicy, breaking, mild subacid, with a slight crabapple flavor; quality fairly good for culinary use.
Season August and early September.
References. 1. Horticulturist, 1848 (cited by 5). 2. Downing, 1857:207, 3. Warder, 1867:711. 4. Thomas 1885:502. 5. Ragan, USBPI Bul., 56:31. 1905.
A pleasant flavored dessert apple formerly grown to a very limited extent in some portions of the state, but now practically unknown. Fruit medium to rather large, roundish conic or slightly inclined to oblong, yellow splashed and striped with red; flesh moderately juicy to rather dry, not crisp, tender, sweet, season August.
Fruit medium to rather large
Form roundish conic or slightly inclined to oblong
Skin yellow splashed and striped with red
Flesh moderately juicy to rather dry, not crisp, tender, sweet
References. 1. tbal
Synonyms. Autumnal Bough (8), Autumn Sweet Bough (5,6,9,10). Fall Bough (6,9). Late Bough (6,9). Montgomery Sweet (10). Philadelphia Sweet (6,9). Summer Bellflower (6).
This is regarded by many as one of the best sweet apples of its season for dessert use and is esteemed also for culinary purposes. The tree is medium in size, upright or roundish, moderately vigorous to vigorous, healthy, long-lived, comes into bearing fairly young and is reliably productive. The fruit hangs well to the tree. It is suitable for local market but it does not ship well. So far as we can learn it is not grown commercially but it is occasionally cultivated for home use and is still listed by some nurserymen.
In 1846 Robert B. Parsons, of Flushing, NY, described it as "a very superior fruit, ranking indeed among our best sweet apples, and worthy of extensive cultivation. It is rather large, somewhat of a calville-shape, though with the ribs not quite so prominent as is usual with apples of that class; oblong, diminishing very much to the eye. Skin smooth, pale yellow, with a few scattered dots. Eye of medium size, and very deeply sunken. Stalk rather slender, set in a deep narrow cavity. Flesh white, very tender, and with a rich and sweet, yet sprightly flavor. Ripens from 25th of Eighth month to the 20th of Ninth month. The tree is exceedingly productive, and of very vigorous growth" (2).
Synonyms. Herbst Strefling (1). Herbst Streifling (2). No. 964 (1).
This fruit approaches the Oldenburg type in some respects. It is of good size and usually attractive in color, sprightly subacid, very good for culinary purposes; season September. The tree is hardy, comes into bearing young and is a good biennial bearer.
Historical. A Russian apple received from T.H. Hoskins, Newport, VT., in 1888 for testing at this Station (3,4).
Tree moderately vigorous with short, stout branches.
Form spreading, flat, rather dense.
Twigs short, curved, stout with large terminal buds; internodes short.
Bark dull brown, mingled with olive-green, heavily coated with gray scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium to large, oval, slightly raised.
Buds prominent, large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.
Form roundish to roundish oblate, somewhat inclined to conic, regular or obscurely ribbed; sides often unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, rather slender.
Cavity medium to large, acute to acuminate, moderately deep, rather wide, slightly furrowed, greenish-russet.
Calyx large, closed or partly open.
Basin uneven, wide, abrupt, wrinkled.
Skin yellow or pale yellow, shaded, striped and splashed with red and overspread with pinkish bloom.
Prevailing effect striped red.
Core large, open.
Flesh yellowish, firm, a little coarse, rather crisp, moderately juicy, sprightly subacid, good.
References. 1. Genesee Farmer, 1838 (cited by 10). 2. Downing 1857:115. rest tbal
Synonyms. Autumnal Swaar (1,2,3,6,10). Fall Swaar (10, of the West 5). Fall Swaar of West (6,9,10).
This belongs to the Fall Orange group and the fruit resembles Fall Orange very closely. It is very good in quality for either dessert or culinary uses. The tree is hardy, vigorous and spreading; not satisfactorily productive (7). It is occasionally found in cultivation in this state but is now seldom or never planted. Its origin is unknown.
Fruit above medium to medium, sometimes large.
Form oblate to roundish conic.
Stem (Pedicel) often short, thick and irregularly knobbed.
Cavity acute, deep, broad, often lipped or irregular, with concentric russet marks and with outspreading russet rays.
Calyx medium to small, closed or slightly open.
Basin medium in depth, medium to narrow, abrupt, slightly ridged.
Skin orange-yellow or greenish, in some cases with a decided blush but not striped, roughened by almost invisible, capillary netted russet lines which become more distinct, larger and concentric about the base and apex.
Dots conspicuous, irregular, russet or red areolar with russet center.
Prevailing effect yellow.
Calyx tube funnel-form.
Core medium to rather small, nearly axile; cells partly open or closed; core lines clasp the funnel-cylinder.
Carpels emarginate, somewhat elliptical, tufted.
Seeds numerous, large to medium, plump, tufted, brown.
Flesh yellow, tender, breaking, juicy, agreeable, mild subacid, decidedly aromatic, sprightly, very good.
Autumn Sweet Swaar
References. 1. Albany Cultivator, 5:247. 1848. 2. Thomas, 1849:145. 3. Barry, 1851:282.rest tbal.
Synonyms. Autumn Swaar (3,9). Autumn Sweet (9). Autumnal Swaar (1,2,4,6). Autumnal Sweet (9). Autumnal Sweet Swaar (5,7,9). Sweet Golden Pippin (5,9). Sweet Swaar (2,3,5,6,7,9).
In 1848 Thomas described this as one of the finest autumnal sweet apples (1). It is now seldom found in cultivation in this state. Its origin is unknown.
Tree moderately vigorous to vigorous, productive.
Form upright spreading.
Form roundish oblate, sometimes slightly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) varying from long and slender to thick and fleshy, yellow and red.
Cavity acute, deep, wavy, green.
Calyx medium in size, closed.
Basin shallow, wide, slightly furrowed.
Skin smooth, waxen yellow, sometimes blushed.
Dots rare, minute.
Core medium in size, somewhat open; core lines clasping.
Seeds numerous, plump, pale.
Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, fine, moderately juicy, very sweet, spicy, agreeable, very good to best.
Season September and October.