State of New York- Department of Agriculture
The Apples of New York
Volume I
by S.A. Beach (Horticulturist)
assisted by N.O. Booth (Assistant Horticulturist) and O.M. Taylor (Foreman in Horticulture)
Report of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station for the Year 1903

J.B. Lyon Company, Printers
Apple Home

Reference.  1. Taylor, U.S. Pom. Rpt., 1893:285.

Synonyms.  None.
This variety is said to have originated in Clinton county. We have received no reports of its being grown outside of the locality of its origin. Taylor gives the following description of it. (1). "Roundish, conical; regular, of medium size, with smooth surface, becoming glossy when rubbed; color rich yellow, washed and striped with red; dots small, straw color, slightly elevated; cavity large, round, deep, flaring; stem of medium length and thickness, slightly knobbed; basin small, nearly round, very shallow, with convex sides, slightly and regularly ribbed and downy; calyx segments rather small, meeting; eye small, closed. Skin thin, tough; core large, broad, heart-shaped, moderately open, clasping; seeds numerous, oval, plump, grayish brown; flesh yellowish white, granular, rather dry, tender; flavor mild subacid; quality good. Season, October to January in Clinton county, New York. Tree a good grower; resembles Baldwin in its bearing habit; hardy at its place of origin. This variety is said to have originated from seed of Westfield (Seek-No-Further) crossed with Hubbardston. It is a promising early apple for Northern New York and New England."

References.  1.  Downing, 1869:354. 2. Leroy, 1873:813. fig. 3. Hogg, 1884:214. 4. NY Sta. An. Rpt., 8:339, 348. 1889. 5. Beach, Ib., 11:589, 595, 1892. 6. Beach and Clark, NY Sta. Bul., 248:110. 1904.
Synonyms.  ADMIRABLE (6). SMALL'S ADMIRABLE (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Small Admirable (6).
Fruit green or yellow, not particularly attractive. At its best it is very good for dessert use, but as grown at this Station it usually ranks but fair to good in quality and the fruit is very apt to show imperfect spots in the flesh which are evidently due to some physiological defect. In England it is regarded as an excellent kitchen and dessert apple and the tree is said to be an immense bearer and well adapted for dwarf culture (3). So far as tested at this Station the tree has been an annual cropper and very productive, often yielding full crops. A portion of the fruit may sometimes be kept through the winter, but ordinarily the season for this variety is November and December (6). Not recommended for cultivation in New York.
Historical. This variety originated in England (2, 3).
Tree.  Tree dwarfish with short, stout, slow-growing branches.
Form rather flat, spreading and somewhat drooping.
Twigs short, somewhat curved, stout to rather slender; internodes short to above medium.
Bark dark brown tinged with olive-green, streaked with scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels numerous, small to medium, oval, slightly raised.
Buds deeply set in bark, medium to small, broad, plump, obtuse to somewhat acute, appressed or free, pubescent.

Fruit quite uniform in shape and size for any particular crop, but varies under different conditions from below medium to above.
Form oblate conic to roundish conic, pretty regular but sometimes indistinctly ribbed.
Stem medium to long, slender, pubescent.
Cavity acute, moderately deep to deep, broad smooth or thinly russeted.
Calyx closed or open; lobes reflexed.
Basin moderately shallow, rather narrow, sometimes abrupt, somewhat furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin varies from pale green to attractive lemon-yellow, sometimes with brownish blush.
Dots numerous, small, light or russet.
Calyx tube rather narrow, elongated or funnel-form.
Stamens median.
Core rather large, somewhat abaxile; cells open; core lines clasping.
Carpels long, obovate.
Seeds rather large, long, plump, pointed, medium-brown.
Flesh whitish, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, quite juicy, mild subacid, very aromatic, good to very good in quality in well-grown fruit. perfumed, sprightly, subacid, becoming mild and nearly sweet when very ripe, very good to best for dessert.
Season October to January.


REFERENCES. 1. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 2. Riehl, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1897 :137. 3. Taylor, U. S. Dept. Agr. Yr. Bk., 1903:268. col. pl. 4. Ill. State Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890.
Synonyms. Akin Red, Akin Seedling, Akin's Seedling, Aikin's Red, Aiken, Aken—not "Aiken's Winter" of Downing which is a crab of Minnesota origin. (3). Akin's Red. (4).
When the Akin is well developed it is a beautiful, dark red, winter apple of pretty good quality. It appears to be specially adapted for fancy trade and for dessert use. Although it has not been sufficiently tested to determine its value for cultivation in New York, it promises to be hardy, healthy and reliably productive. It seems to be best suited to more southern localities, but it has usually developed well at Geneva, although in occasional seasons its fruit has not attained good color here. With ordinary care the fruit does not average much above medium size. In ordinary storage it keeps well till midwinter and in cold storage till March or later. It is sufficiently promising to be worthy of testing for commercial purposes.
Historical. Taylor gives an excellent account of the origin of the Akin (3) from which it appears that the original tree was grown from seed brought from Tennessee and planted in 1831 near Lawrenceville, Ill., on the farm now owned by W. J. Akin. It was first propagated for sale in 1868. Mr. Akin exhibited it in December, 1890, at the Cairo meeting of the Illinois State Horticultural Society, where it was awarded first premium both as a "Seedling" and a "New Variety good enough to be recommended."  Taylor says (3), "It has now been fruited in several states, and is one of the most promising of the recently introduced sorts for the apple growers who desire a variety well adapted to the needs of the fancy trade in the larger cities. It succeeds well in the Middle West and in the winter apple districts of the Allegheny Mountain region, and is worthy of thorough test on rich, warm soils in the northern apple districts from New York westward."
Tree upright, becoming somewhat spreading, dense, medium in size, moderately vigorous. Branches long, moderately stout. Twigs long, straight, stocky, with thick tips; internodes short to medium in length. Bark olive-green varying to dull purplish-brown, largely covered with a gray pubescence that becomes thicker and heavier towards the tips. Lenticels numerous, conspicuous, oblong or roundish, raised. Buds medium size, obtuse, broad appressed, quite pubescent. Leaves large, broad.
Fruit.Get out and VOTE!  Run for office!
Fruit usually medium or.above, sometimes large. Form oblate to roundish oblate, often irregular, slightly_ribbed, sides sometimes unequal. Fairly uniform in size and shape. Stem™medium to long, slender. Cavity obtuse, broad, rather shallow to deep, often distinctly furrowed, not often russeted.
Calyx small to medium, usually closed. Basin medium in width and depth, usually somewhat abrupt, somewhat furrowed and corrugated.
Skin tough, smooth, rather attractive yellow, blushed and striped with bright deep red; in well colored specimens almost completely red. Dots small, whitish or with russet point, sometimes conspicuous in contrast with the dark red skin. Prevailing effect attractive bright red with contrasting clear yellow or greenish-yellow.
Calyx tube conical, sometimes approaching funnel-form. Stamens median.
Core abaxile, medium, open or partly closed; core lines meeting. Carpels elliptical or approaching roundish obcordate, slightly emarginate. Seeds moderately dark brown, long, rather narrow, acute, numerous.
Flesh whitish, slightly tinged with yellow, rather crisp, moderately coarse, moderately tender, very juicy, sprightly subacid, aromatic, good to very good for dessert.
Season January to June.

Fruit intermediate in type between Fall Pippin and Lowell. In color it resembles Fall Pippin but in form it is more like Lowell. Season October to late fall or early winter. We have been unable to learn the origin of this variety. It is but little cultivated in this State. sometimes be kept through the winter, but ordinarily the season for this variety is November and December (6). Not recommended for cultivation in New York.
Fruit Large to very large.
Form roundish oblong, irregular.
Stem short to medium, slender.
Cavity acuminate, deep, medium to wide, russeted.
Calyx small to medium, tightly closed; lobes short, narrow, acute.
Basin shallow, medium to narrow in width, obtuse, furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin smooth, waxy, pale yellow mingled with green.
Dots green or russet or submerged and whitish.
Calyx tube narrow, cone-shape to funnel-form.
Stamens marginal.
Core large, abaxile; cells open or partly closed; core lines clasping.
Carpels elongated, ovate, pointed, mucronate.
Seeds few, medium to large, rather narrow, long, acute.
Flesh moderately coarse, very tender, juicy, mild subacid, good.
Season November and December.

References. be added later
Synonyms.  to be finished later, but list: Albertin. Alexander the Frist, Alexandre, Aporta. Aporta Nalivia (26). Aubertin. Beauty of Queen. Belle d'Orleans. Comte Woronzoff. Corail. English King. Emperieur Alexandre I. Empereur Alexandre de Russie. Empereur de Russie. Emperor Alexander. Fin d'Automne. Grand Alexander. Grand-Alexandre. Grand Alexandre (26). Gros-Alexandre. Jolly Gentleman (26). Kaiser Alexander (26). Korallen Apfel (26). Phœnix (26). Phönix (17,26). Pomona Britannica. Président Napoléon (17,26). Russian Emperor. Stoke Tulip (26). Wolf River incorrectly (39). Wunderapfel (26).
Alexander is a typical representative of the class of Russian apples commonly known as the Aport group. Fruit very large, attractive red or striped, coarse in texture, medium to good in quality, suitable for culinary rather than for dessert use. The fruit is apt to crack and decay about the stem and calyx and often becomes discolored where it is chafed by constantly rubbing against some twig or branch; there is also considerable loss from premature dropping of the fruit. Notwithstanding these faults many growers now consider Alexander favorably as a commercial variety as in some markets there is a strong demand for the fruit at good prices. It is being used to some extent for export trade (40). Its season begins in September and extends through October or into November. It may be held in cold storage till November. It goes down quickly and does not stand heat well before going into storage. It should be shipped the day it is picked and under ice (39). As it ripens continuously during a period from four to six weeks, it should have more than one picking. The tree is hardy, vigorous and moderately productive. It some localities it is subject to blight. It can be recommended for planting in commercial orchards to a limited extent. In the West it is now largely supplanted by its Wisconsin seedling, Wolf River (34,36).
Historical. Introduced into England from Russia in 1817 (20). The exact date of the introduction of this variety into America is not known. The Massachusetts Horticultural Society made several importations of European varieties which were distributed among the members of the society. Mr. Manning exhibited what was supposed to be Alexander before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society at its meeting on September 18, 1830. Whether it was Alexander or not, the shipment of varieties of which Alexander was one had evidently been made prior to that date.1
It has been widely disseminated and is now pretty well known in the apple-growing districts from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Thus far, it has not been grown to any considerable extent in New York state, but at the present time its cultivation is on the increase. Tree.  Tree large to medium, vigorous to moderately vigorous with long stout branches.
Form upright spreading to roundish, open and somewhat inclined to droop after bearing heavy crops.
Twigs short, curved, stout with large terminal buds; internodes medium.
Bark brown mingled with olive-green, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent near tips.
Lenticels scattering, mediumin size, oval, raised.
Buds medium in size, plump, obtuse, free, slightly pubescent.

Fruit large, uniform in shape and size.
Form roundish conic to slightly oblate conic, regular or approaching broadly angular, symmetrical.
Stem medium to rather short, moderately thick.
Cavity acute, to acuminate, deep, broad, symmetrical, occasionally lipped, russeted, often with broad conspicuous, outspreading russet rays.
Calyx medium to large, usually open; lobes medium to short, rather narrow, acute.
Basin rather small, deep, narrow to nearly medium in width, abrupt, nearly smooth, symmetrical.
Skin moderately thick, tough, smooth, glossy, somewhat waxy, greenish or pale yellow deepening to orange-yellow in the sun, often entirely overspread with lively red or handsomely striped and splashed with bright carmine.
Dots inconspicuous, small, scattering. Prevailing effect red or striped.
Calyx tube variable, long to short, wide to medium, conical to funnel-shape.
Stamens median to basal.
Core small, usually axile; cells often not uniformly developed, closed or very slightly open; core lines slightly clasping.
Carpels elliptical to slightly ovate, emarginate.
Seeds medium in size, wide, short, rather plump, obtuse to acute.
Flesh nearly white with faint yellow tinge, firm coarse, moderately crisp, tender, juicy, mild subacid, fair to good. perfumed, sprightly, subacid, becoming mild and nearly sweet when very ripe, very good to best for dessert.
Season September to October or early November.
1. N.E. Farmer, Sept. 24, 1830:78.


This is a late winter apple of medium size, yellow with a bronze blush, subacid. It was originated by S. A. Alling of Homer, Minnesota. As a seedling it was awarded first premium by the Minnesota Horticultural Society in 1901. We have received no reports of its being grown in New York State.


REFERENCES. 1. Bunyard, Jour. Royal Hort. Soc., 21:356. 1898. 2. Jour. Royal Hort. Soc., 27:217. 1903. fig. Synonym. ALLINGTON Pippin (1, 2).
This is a new English variety which was awarded a first class certificate by the Royal Horticultural Society in 1894. (1) Although it is of good size and of good quality it is not attractive enough in color to make it a promising commercial variety for New York. It has not been tested here sufficiently to show how well it is adapted to New York conditions.
Tree vigorous. Form spreading, rather open. Twigs long to below medium, irregular, crooked, rather slender; internodes above medium to below medium in length. Bark rather dull brownish-red and dull green; on older wood rather light green. Lenticels scattering, large, roundish, sometimes raised.
Buds large, roundish, rather obtuse, appressed, pubescent. Leaves somewhat narrow.
As grown at the Geneva Station it comes into bearing young and gives promise of being quite productive.
Fruit medium to large, pretty uniform in size. Form roundish, often somewhat inclined to oblong conic varying to slightly oblate, sides unequal, sometimes slightly ribbed, rather uniform in shape. Stem medium to long. Cavity rather obtuse to acute or slightly acuminate, rather shallow to moderately deep, moderately narrow, usually russeted, sometimes prominently lipped.
Calyx medium to large, closed or partly open; lobes very long, acuminate, reflexed. Basin rather obtuse, moderately wide, medium to shallow, often slightly corrugated, nearly symmetrical.
Skin thick, smooth, greenish-yellow almost entirely overspread with somewhat dull red, indistinctly striped and mottled with carmine, sprinkled with gray dots; occasionally rather large russet dots and flecks are seen. Not particularly attractive in color.
Calyx tube rather large, rather short and wide to sometimes long, funnel-form with short truncate cylinder and fleshy projection of pistil point into its base.
Core medium or below, open or partly closed, nearly axile; core lines meeting or when the tube is funnel-form, clasping the cylinder of the tube.
Carpels roundish ovate to pointed ovate, deeply emarginate. Seeds below medium, very numerous, dark, short, obtuse to acute, plump.
Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately coarse, rather crisp, tender, rather firm, very juicy, briskly subacid to nearly acid, pleasantly aromatic, rich in flavor, good in quality.
Season November to midwinter.
Uses. Acceptable for dessert. Particularly suitable for culinary use.


References. 1. U. S. Pom. Rpt., 1895:19. 2. Watts, Tenn. Sta. Bul., 9:6.1896. fig. 3. Taylor, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1897:35.
Synonym. Jones Seedling (1, 2, 3).
This is a variety of Tennessee origin. Watts (2) calls it a valuable winter apple for Tennessee. Although it has not been tested here sufficiently to show its adaptability to New York conditions, so far as it has been tested it does not promise to be as valuable as it is in more southern latitudes.
Tree rather vigorous, productive; branches long and slender. Form upright spreading, rather dense. Twigs long, slightly curved, medium stout; internodes below medium to short. Bark bright reddish-brown varying to reddish-green with light scarf-skin; pubescent. Lenticels numerous, small, roundish. Buds medium size, broad, obtuse, pubescent. Leaves medium in size, broad.
Fruit medium to above. Form oblate, rather strongly ribbed, sides unequal, rather uniform. Stem short to medium. Cavity wide, rather shallow, irregular, sometimes russeted. Calyx below medium to large, closed or somewhat open. Basin moderately deep or rather shallow, moderately wide, slightly wrinkled. Skin rather thick, greenish, sometimes faintly blushed and splashed with rather dull unattractive red, heavily splashed with large and small russet patches. Dots usually russet, rather large, scattering. General appearance not attractive.
Core rather small to above medium; closed or very slightly open. Seeds medium, rather broad.
Flesh greenish-white, firm, rather fine-grained, slightly crisp, not tender, moderately juicy, mild subacid, or nearly sweet. As grown at this Station it is not more than fair in flavor and quality.
Season late winter.


REFERENCES. 1. Hogg, 1884:6. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 3. Beach and Close, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 15:269. 1806.
Hogg (1) speaks of Amassia as a very beautiful and ornamental apple and states that it is the apple most generally grown in Asia Minor on the shores of the Mediterranean. When fruited here under favorable conditions Amassia is attractive in form and color, having a bright red blush. It has a pleasant, sweet or nearly sweet flavor and is very good in quality for dessert use. Under less favorable conditions it is not uniformly well colored and is apt to fall below medium size. These characteristics together with the fact that the variety would be classed among the sweet apples, make it doubtful whether it will ever be grown in this state to any considerable extent in commercial orchards.
Tree is a moderately vigorous or slow grower. Form upright spreading. Twigs vary from short to rather long, straight or nearly so; moderately stout; internodes medium to long. Bark dull dark reddish-brown with light streaks of scarf-skin; slightly pubescent. Lenticels scattering, rather inconspicuous, oblong or roundish in shape, medium size. Buds medium in size, broad, obtuse, rather prominent, pubescent, almost free. Leaves moderately long and narrow.
Fruit usually medium or below, sometimes nearly large. Form ovate or roundish conic, slightly ribbed; sides sometimes compressed; fairly uniform in shape and size. Stem medium to long, rather slender. Cavity acute to acuminate, narrow, medium to rather deep, often compressed, smooth or partly russeted. Calyx small to very small, usually closed. Basin small, varying from obtuse and very shallow to moderately deep and abrupt; often furrowed and corrugated.
Skin smooth, somewhat waxy; clear pale yellow or greenish, in well colored specimens largely covered with a bright deep blush, and somewhat striped with carmine. Dots whitish, small but rather conspicuous. Although the apple is somewhat striped, the general effect when it is well colored is that of a solid deep blush, which in contrast with the pale green or yellow gives a decidedly attractive appearance.
Calyx tube funnel-form, moderately wide and deep, with pistil point projecting into its base. Stamens median or nearly marginal.
Core medium to small, abaxile, closed or sometimes slightly open; core lines clasping. Carpels roundish ovate to oblong ovate, emarginate. Seeds few, medium to small, plump, obtuse, light brown.
Flesh nearly white, firm, moderately fine-grained, rather crisp, tender, juicy, with pleasing aroma, mild subacid, becoming sweet or nearly so; good to very good.
Season December to March or April.

References. 1. Downing. 1876:43 app. 2. Ragan, USBPI Bul., 56:26. 1905.
Synonyms. Amsterdam Sweet (1,2). Hightop Sweet incorrectly (1).
Downing describes this fruit as medium in size, pale greenish-yellow, striped and splashed with light and dark bright red; flesh white, half fine, tender, juicy, rather rich, sweet, slightly aromatic; season October and November. Origin Amsterdam, NY on the farm of Joseph Britten (1). We find no account of Amsterdam except the one above mentioned, and have not seen the variety.


REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1857:115. 2. Warder, 1867:711. 3. Downing, 1872:75. 4. Barry, 1883:341. 5. Thomas, 1903:689.  [6.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.]
Synonyms. Beauty of America (4). Sterling Beauty (1, 3, 4, 5). Sterling (6).
So far as we can learn the American Beauty is not now grown in New York. It is not listed in Bailey's inventory of apples offered by nurserymen in North America in 1892.1 It is an old variety which originated in Sterling, Mass. Downing describes it as a large red apple, mildly subacid, aromatic, very good in quality. In season from December-to April [Early Fall harvest in Virginia (6)].
[Productive, annual bearer that is "moderately resistant to the major apple diseases". It is used for dessert (fresh-eating), and baking and stores pretty well according to Burford (6).]


The Hubbardston has long been known in some portion of Seneca and Tompkins counties under the name American Blush, and has been disseminated from there under that name. It is not surprising that the Hubbardston has been disseminated under other names because it shows such remarkable variations with changes in environment. Whether the variations which have appeared are all due to differences in environment or whether distinct strains of the Hubbardston have arisen under cultivation has not been definitely determined. Some fruit growers are very positive in the opinion that American Blush is different from the Hubbardston. If this be true and if these differences are maintained under propagation it should be regarded as a distinct strain of the Hubbardston.


REFERENCES. 1. Coxe, 1817:147. 2. Downing, 1845:98. 3. Thomas, 1849: 163. 4. Emmons, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 3:74. 1851. 5. Hooper, 1857:42. 6. Elliott, 1859:184. 7. Warder, 1867:420. 8. Downing, 1872:77. 9. Lyon, Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt., 1890:288. 10. Bailey, An. Hort. 1892:234. 11. Thomas, 1903 :689.
Synonyms. GRINDSTONE (5). Grindstone (3, 7, 8, 9, 10). Stone (8).
The American Pippin is an old variety. Coxe gives it a very high reputation both for cider and for keeping late (1). Lyon says of it (9) "keeps a year, cooks well, but otherwise scarcely eatable."
Coxe describes the tree as very open, remarkably spreading with hanging crooked shoots.
The fruit is medium, regular, oblate, "without any hollow at the ends" (Coxe); calyx small, open; skin dull red, shaded and streaked with dull green, the surface being rough, sometimes with slight russet markings, thickly sprinkled with gray or coarse russet dots; core wide, irregular, closed; seeds numerous, plump, brown; flesh white or yellowish, hard, rather coarse, moderately juicy, mild subacid. Variously rated by pomologists from poor to good in quality.
There is a variety grown under the name of American Pippin in Northern New York and Canada which is valued on account of its hardiness and late keeping qualities. Macoun describes the fruit of this variety as large, roundish; greenish-yellow with pink or orange blush; dots not prominent; basin rather deep; calyx large, open; cavity deep; flesh yellow, subacid, good.
I have not determined whether this is identical with the American Pippin of Coxe but it does not appear to be that variety.


REFERENCES. 1. Ill. Sta. Bul., 45:313, 326. 1806. 2. Powell and Fulton, U.S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:36. 1903. 3. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:111. 1904.
Synonyms. Jackson (1). Amos Jackson (1, 2, 3).
This variety was received for testing at the Geneva Experiment Station from Benjamin Buckman of Farmingdale, Illinois. It is supposed to be of southern origin. The tree is moderately productive. The fruit is of medium size, attractive deep yellow, subacid, fair to good. Season November to March. It is not recommended for cultivation in New York.
Fruit averages below medium. Form roundish oblate, almost truncate, usually symmetrical; uniform in form and size. Stem long to very long, slender, sometimes bracted, often reflexed in a characteristic way to one side.
Cavity acute, shallow to moderately deep, moderately wide, usually russeted, often lipped. Calyx large, open; lobes long and reflexed. Basin obtuse, shallow or moderately deep, broad, sometimes corrugated.
Skin yellow, often with blush, not striped, sprinkled with scattering russet dots. Prevailing effect attractive yellow.
Calyx tube short, cone-shaped, with tendency to funnel-form. Stamens median to basal.
Core sessile, turbinate, axile, small to medium, closed or- slightly open.
Carpels elliptical, inclined to obcordate, emarginate, mucronate.
Flesh nearly white, hard, rather coarse, breaking, moderately juicy, sprightly subacid, fair to good in quality.
Season November to March.


REFERENCES. I. Beach and Close, NV. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 1§:270. 1896. 2. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:111. 1904. 3. Not listed by Bailey in An. Hort., 1892:234.
Synonyms. ANDREWS WINTER (1). Andrews Winter (2).
Fruit small to medium, not very attractive in form or color and therefore not desirable for market. It is not recommended for planting in New York state.
Tree vigorous. Form upright spreading, rather dense; branches rather small and crooked. Twigs medium size, curved, stout; internodes medium to rather long. Bark clear brownish-red mingled with olive-green, partly covered with streaked scarf-skin; quite pubescent. Lenticels numerous, medium to below, oblong. Buds medium size, plump, acute, appressed, pubescent. Leaves medium size, broad.
Fruit small. Form roundish conic to oblong conic, often unsymmetrical ; sides often compressed. Stem short, thick, often obliquely inserted. Cavity acute, moderately shallow to rather deep, furrowed or compressed, sometimes lipped, usually smooth. Calyx small, closed. Basin abrupt, medium in width and depth, distinctly furrowed.
Skin tough, somewhat waxy, dull yellowish-green partly overlaid with a dull, rather dark red having narrow, indistinct, carmine stripes. Dots numerous, pale, rather conspicuous.
Calyx tube narrow, elongated, cone-shape or funnel-form. Stamens median to marginal.
Core abaxile, closed or partly open; core lines clasping. Carpels decidedly concave, broadly ovate, slightly emarginate, distinctly tufted. Seeds medium to large, rather narrow, long, acute, somewhat tufted.
Flesh greenish-white, firm, moderately fine, somewhat crisp, moderately juicy, mild subacid, fair to good.
Season March to June.

References. be added later
Synonyms.  Anisim of Peterson, Borsdorfer of Wragg (9). 13 M (3,8, of Budd 0). 14 M of Budd (9). Good Peasant of Patten (9). Jonathan of the North (4). Swedish Borsdorf of Patten (9). Zuzoff of Tuttle (9).
Hansen (9) reports that this Russian apple is proving very valuable in Minnesota and other parts of the Northwest. It may be of some value in those portions of New York state where superior hardiness is a prime requisite. Hansen's description is given below. "Tree a strong grower in the nursery and orchard and a prodigious bearer; young trees upright, spreading with age; limbs long, slender with a very strong shoulder; leaves narrow, pointed, dark green. The beautiful color of the fruit attracts favorable attention--
Historical. Tree

Fruit below medium
Form roundish conical slightly angular; surface greenish-yellow, covered almost wholly with beautiful dark crimson with heavy blue bloom.
Stem medium.
Cavity regular, acute, usually slightly russeted.
Calyx closed.
Basin narrow, very shallow, corrugated, sometimes flat.
Dots white, minute.
Calyx tube short, broad.
Stamens median.
Core closed, clasping;
Flesh greenish white with green veins, good.
Season early winter."
1. N.E. Farmer, Sept. 24, 1830:78.

References.  1. tbal
Synonyms.  Antonowka (15,17). Antony (3,14). Bergamot, 424 (25). Cinnamon (24). German Calville (24), with "324" added spuriously (25). No. 224 (25). No. 236 (1,2,4,5,6,9 & 25). Possarts Nalivia (2,4,5). Russian Gavenstein, 105 (25). 26 M (1,2,4,5,9,25). Vargul, 277 (25).
A Russian fruit of no practical value for this state. Hansen (25) describes it as "large, roundish, irregular, obscurely angular; surface yellow; dots minute, raised, white, suffused; cavity deep, regular, with radiating, often large patch of russet, stem medium; basin abrupt, corrugated or wavy; calyx closed. Core closed; cells ovate, slit; tube funnel-shaped; stamens median; seeds ten to sixteen, small, pointed, plump, a few imperfect; flesh yellow, juicy, sprightly spicy subacid, good. October." [Now used as a rootstock to a limited extent for production of standard trees. -ASC]
Season October.

Reference.  1. Gibb, Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 8:32. 1881-82.
Synonyms.  None.
This name is applied to a pretty well defined group of Russian apples. Alexander is the typical variety of this group.
The name Aport has also been applied to a particular Russian variety which resembles Alexander closely (Hansen, S.D. Sta. Bul., 76:26. 1902.).

Aport Orient
References.  1. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt., 8:32. 1881-82................
Synonyms.  Aport (1-7,11-13). Aport Oriental, 9? No.12 Orel (7), No.252 (1-4,7,11). 23 M (1-3). Oporto (4).
A Russian apple, large, yellow, mostly covered with mixed red, striped and splashed with dark crimson, very attractive but coarse-grained and inferior in quality. It begins to ripen about the middle of August. The tree comes into bearing rather young and gives full crops in alternate years. Not recommended for New York state.

References.  1.tbal
Synonyms.  None.
One of the most valuable characteristics of the Arctic is its ability to endure cold climates. It has probably been planted more extensively in Northern New York, New England and Canada than in any other regions. It is reported as being pretty hardy in Central Iowa where the climate is too severe for Baldwin, Rhode Island Greening and other varieties of a similar grade of hardiness. Munson (7) states that it is worthy of trial where Baldwin will not succeed. The tree is vigorous. In some districts it has the reputation of being productive, in others it is called a shy bearer. The fruit is very attractive, mild subacid, good but not high in quality. It somewhat resembles Baldwin in size and color, but is more oblate, and the skin is of a somewhat lighter and brighter red than that of Baldwin. The cavity is often marked with outspreading rays of reddish or green russet as in the Baldwin. The dots are round, scattering, whitish, often areolar and not elongated in the region of the cavity as they are often are on the Baldwin. It does not keep so well as the Hubbardston. In Western New York its season may extend from October to February, but when grown farther north it is later (6,7). In some parts of Northern New York, it is being grafted over to other sorts. Waugh (6) states that this is being done in the Isle La Motte region of Vermont, nevertheless he believes it will be grown there in moderate quantities for years to come.
Historical. The Arctic was introduced by Mr. O.K. Gerrish, now of Lakeville, Mass. He states that it originated as a chance seedling in a garden near Cape Vincent, NY about 1862.



Tree a moderate grower with long, moderately stout branches.
Form spreading and open somewhat like Tompkins King.
Twigs short stocky; internodes medium length; slightly pubescent nears tips.
Bark dark reddish-brown, streaked and mottled with thin scarf-skin.
Lenticels scattering, conspicuous, medium to large, roundish to somewhat elongated, raised.
Buds medium to large, broad, obtuse, flat, free, pubescent.
Leaves large, dark green, broad and rather thick. [Probably a triploid or tetraploid- ASC]



Fruit above medium to large.
Form oblate, sometimes roundish-conic, often faintly ribbed; pretty uniform in shape and size.
Stem short and rather thick to medium.
Cavity moderately shallow to rather deep, broad, usually symmetrical or slightly furrowed, and having outspreading rays of red or green russet.
Calyx medium to rather large; segments broad, obtuse, closed or partly open.
Basin abrupt, medium to wide and deep, often compressed or slightly furrowed and corrugated.
Skin nearly smooth, slightly roughened by the light russet or whitish dots; deep yellow or greenish-yellow, often almost wholly covered with a bright red obscuring the stripes of deeper red.
Dots whitish
Calyx tube short, varying to funnel-form.
Stamens median.
Core medium, axile or nearly so; cells closed or partly open; core lines clasping the cylinder of the tube.
Carpels broadly roundish to nearly obcordate, emarginate, slightly tufted.
Seeds often abortive [another indication of triploidy- ASC]; when normally developed they are medium to rather large, flat, obtuse, sometimes slightly tufted, dark.
Flesh somewhat tinged with yellow, firm, moderately coarse, crisp, juicy, mild, subacid, good in quality.
Uses. Adapted rather for market and culinary uses than for dessert. Season October to February or later.
[NOTE: This heritage apple has ZERO relation to the GMO Arctic® apples which have had a fruit polyphenol oxidase enzyme downregulated by RNA silencing. -ASC]


REFERENCES. 1. Van Deman, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt., 1891:123. 2. Babcock, Amer. Gard., 1891:118. 3. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234, 244. 4. Babcock, Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 1895:190. 5. Amer. Gard., 1895:419. 6. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bul.; 43:103. 1896. 7. Amer. Gard., 1896:29, 65, 146, 152, 210, 306. 8. Watts, Tenn. Sta. Bul., 9:24. 1896. fig. 9. U. S. Pom. Bul., 6:9. 1897. 10. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bul., 49:5, 7. 1808. figs. of trees and fruit. 11. Powell, Del. Sta. Bul., 38:19. 1808. fig. 12. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bul., 60:124. 1899. 13. N. Ci. Bd. of Agr. Apple Bul., 1900:9. 14. Alwood, Va. Sta. Bul., 130:127. 1901. 15. Stinson, Mo. State Fruit Sta. Bul., 3:26. 1902. 16. Budd-Hansen, 1903 :39. fig. 17. Thomas, 1903:322, 690, 708.
Synonyms. ARKANSAW (4, 10, 12). Arkansaw (16). Mammoth Black Twig (6). Mammoth Black Twig (9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16). PARAGON (erroneously) (1). ARKANSAS Black and Arkansas Black Twig (17) but erroneously.
The Arkansas is a late keeping winter apple, rather large, of good red color, and good quality. It is not a desirable variety for growing in New York state because it is not sufficiently productive and because in this northern latitude the seasons are not always favorable to the proper development of its fruit. It keeps later than the Baldwin but it is inferior to that variety in productiveness and also in the color and quality of its fruit.
During the last quarter century Arkansas has been quite extensively planted |in the South and Southwest, but even as grown in these regions, the variety has not been satisfactory in commercial orchards because it is a shy bearer.
Arkansas and Paragon resemble each other so closely that at one time many regarded these two varieties as identical, and, in consequence, the stock ‘of the two kinds became badly mixed in nurseries and orchards.
Arkansas Black is decidedly distinct from Arkansas both in tree and fruit. Sometimes these two varieties have been erroneously listed as identical (17). This mistake doubtless arose because of the similarity of the two names, rather than from any marked resemblance between the varieties.
Historical. Arkansas was grown from seed (4, 10) planted about 1833 near Rhea Mills, Arkansas, where the original tree still stands. It bears a marked resemblance to the Winesap of which it is said to be a seedling (4). Nurserymen began to propagate it about 1868. In succeeding years it became pretty generally disseminated in Arkansas and surrounding states.
As previously stated, this variety has been confused with the Paragon, an apple of Tennessee origin which it much resembles. It is now conceded that Paragon and Arkansas are two distinct varieties (4, 7, 8, 9, 10).
Tree rather large, vigorous; branches large, crooked, stout. Form upright spreading, rather open. Twigs medium to long, sometimes drooping, somewhat curved, thick; internodes short. Bark very dark brownish-red with some dull olive-green, thickly mottled with thin gray scarf-skin; somewhat pubescent toward the tips. Eventually it becomes almost black. Lenticels scattering, rather conspicuous, mostly roundish, medium or sometimes small, often slightly raised. Buds somewhat pubescent; towards the tip and base of the twig they are appressed and often obtuse, but on the intermediate portion they stand out prominently and are large, broad, plump, acute, free. Foliage rather dense; leaves medium to large, often broad.
The mature young twigs of Arkansas much resemble those of Paragon but they are somewhat darker and_stockier. The mature Paragon twigs have comparatively more of a reddish-brown tinge.
Fruit large to medium, pretty uniform in size. Form roundish inclined to conic, sometimes slightly oblate, broadly ribbed, pretty uniform in shape.
Stem long to almost short, rather stout. Cavity acute, rather wide, medium in depth, green, often much russeted, sometimes indistinctly furrowed. Calyx small to medium, usually closed. Basin rather abrupt, rather wide, moderately deep, broadly furrowed or wavy.
Skin nearly smooth, dull green, often becoming good deep yellow, largely overspread with a dull deep red, obscurely striped with darker red. Dots generally small, russet, inconspicuous; sometimes medium and whitish.
Calyx tube medium, conical, sometimes funnel-form. Stamens median to nearly basal.
Core usually axile, usually closed; core lines slightly clasping. Carpels broadly ovate, deeply emarginate, tufted; not always well developed. Seeds few and variable, not always well developed; if plump they are long, rather narrow, acute, tufted.
Flesh tinged with yellow, very firm, moderately fine-grained, rather tender, moderately juicy, subacid, crisp, good.
Season December to May.


REFERENCES. I. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bul., 60:124. 1899. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 3. Budd-Hansen, 1903:40. 4. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:36. 1903.
The Arkansas Beauty is a variety of Arkansas origin. Stinson (1) says that it is grown to some extent in a. few sections of that state but has not proven valuable. As grown in this latitude the fruit does not always attain good color or good quality.
Tree vigorous; branches long, stout, crooked. Form wide spreading with a rather open top. Twigs rather long, moderately stout, often crooked; internodes usually short. Bark olive-green with reddish-brown markings, dull, mottled thickly with scarf-skin; somewhat pubescent. Lenticels rather scattering, roundish or somewhat oblong, medium size to rather small. Buds large to medium, plump, rather obtuse, pubescent. Leaves rather long and narrow.
Fruit above medium. Form roundish inclined to conic. Stem long to medium, rather slender. Cavity small, acute, deep, broad, nearly symmetrical, slightly furrowed. Calyx medium, closed or partly open, pubescent. Basin small, medium in depth and width, rather abrupt, somewhat furrowed.
Skin tough, smooth, rather glossy, pale green or yellow, blushed with pinkish-red, and marked with rather faint stripes of carmine.
Calyx tube long, funnel-shaped.
Core open. Carpels much concave, broadly roundish, emarginate inclined to obcordate, tufted. Seeds numerous, dark, medium or below, rather wide, plump, obtuse.
Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, firm, rather fine, moderately crisp, tender, juicy, mild subacid, good.


REFERENCES. 1. Van Deman, U. S. Agr. Rpt., 1886:268. col. pl. & fig. 2. Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 3. Stinson, Ark. Sta. Bul., 43:103. 1896. 4. Ib. Bul., 49:7. 1898. 5. Ib. Bul., 60:126. 1809. 6. Kan. Sta. Bul., 106:51. 1902. 7. Budd-Hansen, 1903:40. 8. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I. Bul., 48:36. 1903. 9. Thomas, 1897:272. fig. Ib., 1903:322, 690, 708.  10.  Burford, Tom. 2013. Apples of North America. ISBN 978-1-60469-249-5.]
Synonyms. Arkansas |Black Twig (9). Mammoth Black Twig (9) but erroneously.
The Arkansas Black is one of the most beautiful of apples. It is a good keeper and commands a good price in market. The color is a lively red deepening on the exposed side to purplish-red or nearly black. The tree is unproductive and not desirable for general planting.
Arkansas Black is distinct from the Arkansas or Mammoth Blacktwig.
Historical. According to Stinson (4) the Arkansas Black originated in Benton county, Arkansas, and bore its first fruit about 1870. The first description of it which I find, is that given by Van Deman (1) in 1886.
Tree moderately vigorous ; branches long, slender. Form upright spreading, rather open. Twigs short, stout; internodes short. Bark dark reddish-brown, mottled with scarf-skin, pubescent. Lenticels scattering, small to below medium, round. Buds large, broad, acute, appressed, pubescent. Leaves medium in size.
Fruit as grown here is medium or below, rarely large, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form nearly round. Stem medium. Cavity acute, rather small, sometimes lipped, not deep, partly russeted. Calyx rather small, closed.
Basin obtuse, very shallow, slightly furrowed, faintly corrugated.
Skin smooth, somewhat waxy; yellow covered with a lively red deepening to purplish-red or almost black on the exposed side. Dots small, inconspicuous. Prevailing effect bright very dark red.
Calyx tube conical, approaching funnel-form. Stamens marginal.
Core medium to small, abaxile, closed or partly open; core lines clasping.
Carpels concave, roundish, emarginate. Seeds plump, rather short, obtuse, moderately dark brown.
Flesh decidedly tinged with yellow, very firm, rather fine-grained, crisp, moderately juicy, sprightly subacid, good to very good.
Season December to April or later. In cold storage (7) it keeps well through the storage season.
[Information from the Southeastern U.S. here.]


REFERENCES. 1. Downing, 1876: app. 43. 2- Bailey, An. Hort., 1892:234. 3. Thomas, 1897:626. 4. Mich. Sta. Bul., 177:48. 1899. 5. Ib. Bul. 187:85. 1901. 6. Ib. Bul., 194:62. 1901. 7. Ib. Bul., 205:43. 1903. 8. Budd-Hansen, 1903:40.
Synonyms. ARNOLD’S Beauty (1, 3). Arnold’s Beauty (8).
The Arnold was raised from seed produced by pollinating Northern Spy with pollen from Wagener and Esopus Spitzenberg by Charles Arnold, Paris, Ontario (1). Fulton reports (4, 5, 6) that “it is too light in color and almost too tender for market, promising for home use.” Tree vigorous and productive.
Fruit medium in size. Form oblate, slightly ribbed. Stem medium, slender.
Cavity broad, deep, usually slightly russeted. Calyx small, closed. Basin deep, slightly corrugated. Skin yellowish-white, netted russet, sometimes with a little bright red. Prevailing effect light yellow. Calyx tube funnel-shape.
Core small. Flesh yellowish, firm, mild subacid, juicy, slightly aromatic, very good.
Season November to March.


REFERENCES. 1. Hansen, S. D. Sta. Bul., 76:26. 1902. fig. 2. Budd-Hansen, 1903:41.
The Arthur originated as a chance seedling in Northern Iowa where hardiness of tree is a prime consideration and where it is reported to have endured for many years better than any other variety except the Oldenburg It is not desirable for planting in New York.
Tree is a moderate or rather slow grower with stocky branches and drooping branchlets, forming an upright roundish head. Twigs short, stout; internodes medium. Bark dark reddish-brown covered with light scarf-skin; somewhat pubescent. Lenticels scattering, brownish, small to medium, slightly elongated, raised. Buds small, deeply inserted in the bark, obtuse, pubescent.
Leaves medium size, broad.
Fruit usually below medium. Form oblong narrowing towards the stem, varying to roundish obovate; hardly symmetrical; sometimes slightly ribbed.
Stem medium to long, slender, often bracted. Cavity acuminate, deep, rather narrow, thinly russeted. Calyx small, closed or nearly so; lobes reflexed.
Basin rather abrupt, moderately deep, moderately wide, usually smooth.
Skin rather pale dull yellowish-green, thinly washed with dull red and faintly striped with carmine splashes. Dots numerous, dull russet, inconspicuous. Prevailing effect striped.
Calyx tube narrow, funnel-shaped. Stamens medium to marginal.
Core medium, abaxile, slightly open to wide open, sometimes with four cells instead of five; core lines clasping. Carpels roundish to obcordate, decidedly concave. Seeds thick, rather short to medium.
Flesh tinged with yellow, moderately firm, somewhat coarse, not tender, juicy, subacid, somewhat aromatic, fair to good in flavor and quality.
Season October to January.
Uses. Suitable for culinary purposes. It is not desirable for market because it is not particularly attractive in form, size or color, it is not a good keeper and it is inferior to standard varieties in quality.


REFERENCES. 1. Leroy, 1873:301. fig. 2. Beach, N. Y. Sta. An. Rpt., 142586. 1892. 3. Bailey, An Hort., 1892:234. 4. Thomas, 1903:689. 5. Powell and Fulton, U. S. B. P. I; Bul., 48:36. 1903. 6. Beach and Clark, N. Y. Sta. Bul., 248:111. 1904.
Synonyms. Acuba-LEAVED REINETTE (4). ACUBA-LEAF REINETTE (2). Feuilles D'Aucuba (1). AUCUBÆFOLIA (3). Reinette a feuille d’Acuba (2).
The Aucuba is a moderately attractive apple of medium size and pretty good quality. The tree is hardy, healthy and bears regularly and abundantly. It is in season from October to January. The variety is not recommended for general planting because the fruit is second rate in size, appearance and quality.
Historical. Leroy (1) states that Aucuba was described as early as 1839 in Jardin fruitier p. 216, but that its origin is still unknown. In New York state it has been disseminated but sparingly and is not commonly known.
Tree moderately vigorous; branches moderately long and stout. Form rather open, upright spreading. Twigs long, slightly curved, moderately slender; internodes below medium to short. Bark dark reddish-brown with light scarf-skin, pubescent. Lenticels numerous, small, round. Buds medium, rather long, acute, pubescent, often free. Leaves large and broad.
Aucuba begins bearing rather young and usually bears annual crops. There is some tendency for the fruit to drop before the crop is ready to be gathered.
Fruit medium to above, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish inclined to conic, sometimes a little oblate, sides occasionally unequal. Stem usually long and slender. Cavity acuminate, sometimes acute, deep, moderately narrow to rather broad, nearly symmetrical, seldom russeted. Calyx small, closed or partly open; lobes long, acuminate. Basin usually narrow and shallow, sometimes moderately wide and moderately deep, obtuse to rather abrupt, often somewhat furrowed and corrugated.
Skin smooth, waxen yellow, rather pale but bright, often nearly covered with bright pinkish-red indistinctly marked with narrow carmine stripes. In well colored fruit the red rather predominates over the yellow. Dots very inconspicuous, gray or russet. General appearance is rather attractive.
Calyx tube either rather short, narrow, cone-shaped, with core lines nearly meeting, or narrowly funnel-form, in which case the core lines clasp the cylinder of the calyx tube. Stamens median.
Core medium to small, axile, partly open or sometimes closed.
Carpels smooth, slightly emarginate, roundish cordate, sometimes distinctly narrowing toward the apex. Seeds numerous, small to medium, narrow, acute or acuminate.
Flesh whitish with yellow tinge, firm, breaking, fine, tender, juicy, sprightly subacid, with distinct aroma, good to very good.
Season October to January; some of the fruit may keep till spring but it is apt to deteriorate in flavor and quality after midwinter.

References.  1. tbal
Synonyms.  None.
This hybrid is classed by some as an apple and by others as a crabapple. The tree is hardy, comes into bearing early and is reliably productive. The fruit is medium to small for an apple but very large for a crabapple. It has a slight crabapple flavor and is of fairly good quality for culinary use. Not recommended for planting in New York.
Historical. Originated from seed of Wealthy by Peter M. Gideon, Excelsior, Minn., from whom it was received in 1888 for testing at this Station. It has been tested at experiment stations in different States but it appears to be practically unknown to fruit growers.
Tree moderately vigorous.
Form upright spreading and somewhat drooping, open.
Twigs short, curved, slender; internodes short.
Bark clear crown, lightly streaked with scarf-skin; slightly pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium in size, oblong, slightly raised.
Buds medium in size, plump, acute, free, not pubescent.


Fruit medium to small, occasionally above medium, uniform in size and shape.
Form roundish oblate to roundish conic, nearly symmetrical, regular or somewhat ribbed.
Stem rather short to medium in length, moderately slender.
Cavity acute approaching acuminate, medium to deep, moderately broad, symmetrical, usually not russeted.
Calyx rather large, closed; lobes long, acute, reflexed.
Basin moderately shallow to rather deep, moderately wide, somewhat abrupt, slightly furrowed and wrinkled.
Skin pale yellow or greenish, sometimes almost entirely overspread and mottled with rather bright red, striped and splashed with carmine, covered with bloom.
Dots whitish, small, scattering, inconspicuous.
Prevailing color red in well-colored specimens.
Calyx tube rather small, short, conical.
Stamens median to nearly basal.
Core medium in size to above, usually axile; cells often unsymmetrical, usually closed, sometimes wide open; core lines clasping.
Carpels ovate
Seeds light brown, medium to above, moderately wide, plump, acute.
Flesh slightly tinged with yellow, half-fine, moderately juicy, breaking, mild subacid, with a slight crabapple flavor; quality fairly good for culinary use.
Season August and early September.

References.  1. Horticulturist, 1848 (cited by 5). 2. Downing, 1857:207, 3. Warder, 1867:711. 4. Thomas 1885:502. 5. Ragan, USBPI Bul., 56:31. 1905.
Synonyms.  None.
A pleasant flavored dessert apple formerly grown to a very limited extent in some portions of the state, but now practically unknown. Fruit medium to rather large, roundish conic or slightly inclined to oblong, yellow splashed and striped with red; flesh moderately juicy to rather dry, not crisp, tender, sweet, season August.


Fruit medium to rather large
Form roundish conic or slightly inclined to oblong
Skin yellow splashed and striped with red
Flesh moderately juicy to rather dry, not crisp, tender, sweet
Season August.

Autumn Bough
References.  1. tbal
Synonyms.  Autumnal Bough (8), Autumn Sweet Bough (5,6,9,10). Fall Bough (6,9). Late Bough (6,9). Montgomery Sweet (10). Philadelphia Sweet (6,9). Summer Bellflower (6).
This is regarded by many as one of the best sweet apples of its season for dessert use and is esteemed also for culinary purposes. The tree is medium in size, upright or roundish, moderately vigorous to vigorous, healthy, long-lived, comes into bearing fairly young and is reliably productive. The fruit hangs well to the tree. It is suitable for local market but it does not ship well. So far as we can learn it is not grown commercially but it is occasionally cultivated for home use and is still listed by some nurserymen.
In 1846 Robert B. Parsons, of Flushing, NY, described it as "a very superior fruit, ranking indeed among our best sweet apples, and worthy of extensive cultivation. It is rather large, somewhat of a calville-shape, though with the ribs not quite so prominent as is usual with apples of that class; oblong, diminishing very much to the eye. Skin smooth, pale yellow, with a few scattered dots. Eye of medium size, and very deeply sunken. Stalk rather slender, set in a deep narrow cavity. Flesh white, very tender, and with a rich and sweet, yet sprightly flavor. Ripens from 25th of Eighth month to the 20th of Ninth month. The tree is exceedingly productive, and of very vigorous growth" (2).

Autumn Streaked
References.  1.
Synonyms.  Herbst Strefling (1). Herbst Streifling (2). No. 964 (1).
This fruit approaches the Oldenburg type in some respects. It is of good size and usually attractive in color, sprightly subacid, very good for culinary purposes; season September. The tree is hardy, comes into bearing young and is a good biennial bearer.
Historical. A Russian apple received from T.H. Hoskins, Newport, VT., in 1888 for testing at this Station (3,4).


Tree moderately vigorous with short, stout branches.
Form spreading, flat, rather dense.
Twigs short, curved, stout with large terminal buds; internodes short.
Bark dull brown, mingled with olive-green, heavily coated with gray scarf-skin; pubescent.
Lenticels scattering, medium to large, oval, slightly raised.
Buds prominent, large, broad, plump, obtuse, free, pubescent.


Fruit large.
Form roundish to roundish oblate, somewhat inclined to conic, regular or obscurely ribbed; sides often unequal.
Stem (Pedicel) short to medium, rather slender.
Cavity medium to large, acute to acuminate, moderately deep, rather wide, slightly furrowed, greenish-russet.
Calyx large, closed or partly open.
Basin uneven, wide, abrupt, wrinkled.
Skin yellow or pale yellow, shaded, striped and splashed with red and overspread with pinkish bloom.
Prevailing effect striped red.
Core large, open.
Flesh yellowish, firm, a little coarse, rather crisp, moderately juicy, sprightly subacid, good.
Season September.

Autumn Swaar
References.  1. Genesee Farmer, 1838 (cited by 10). 2. Downing 1857:115. rest tbal
Synonyms.  Autumnal Swaar (1,2,3,6,10). Fall Swaar (10, of the West 5). Fall Swaar of West (6,9,10).
This belongs to the Fall Orange group and the fruit resembles Fall Orange very closely. It is very good in quality for either dessert or culinary uses. The tree is hardy, vigorous and spreading; not satisfactorily productive (7). It is occasionally found in cultivation in this state but is now seldom or never planted. Its origin is unknown.


Fruit above medium to medium, sometimes large.
Form oblate to roundish conic.
Stem (Pedicel) often short, thick and irregularly knobbed.
Cavity acute, deep, broad, often lipped or irregular, with concentric russet marks and with outspreading russet rays.
Calyx medium to small, closed or slightly open.
Basin medium in depth, medium to narrow, abrupt, slightly ridged.
Skin orange-yellow or greenish, in some cases with a decided blush but not striped, roughened by almost invisible, capillary netted russet lines which become more distinct, larger and concentric about the base and apex.
Dots conspicuous, irregular, russet or red areolar with russet center.
Prevailing effect yellow.
Calyx tube funnel-form.
Stamens median.
Core medium to rather small, nearly axile; cells partly open or closed; core lines clasp the funnel-cylinder.
Carpels emarginate, somewhat elliptical, tufted.
Seeds numerous, large to medium, plump, tufted, brown.
Flesh yellow, tender, breaking, juicy, agreeable, mild subacid, decidedly aromatic, sprightly, very good.
Season September

Autumn Sweet Swaar
References.  1. Albany Cultivator, 5:247. 1848. 2. Thomas, 1849:145. 3. Barry, tbal.
Synonyms.  Autumn Swaar (3,9). Autumn Sweet (9). Autumnal Swaar (1,2,4,6). Autumnal Sweet (9). Autumnal Sweet Swaar (5,7,9). Sweet Golden Pippin (5,9). Sweet Swaar (2,3,5,6,7,9).
In 1848 Thomas described this as one of the finest autumnal sweet apples (1). It is now seldom found in cultivation in this state. Its origin is unknown.


Tree moderately vigorous to vigorous, productive.
Form upright spreading.


Fruit large.
Form roundish oblate, sometimes slightly ribbed.
Stem (Pedicel) varying from long and slender to thick and fleshy, yellow and red.
Cavity acute, deep, wavy, green.
Calyx medium in size, closed.
Basin shallow, wide, slightly furrowed.
Skin smooth, waxen yellow, sometimes blushed.
Dots rare, minute.
Core medium in size, somewhat open; core lines clasping.
Seeds numerous, plump, pale.
Flesh whitish tinged with yellow, fine, moderately juicy, very sweet, spicy, agreeable, very good to best.
Season September and October.