DESCRIPTIONS OF LEADING POPULAR VARIETIES OF THE APPLE AND PEAR.
__________________________________

   The descriptions here given are only of those varieties that have received the largest number of votes in the American and other pomological conventions as being worthy of general cultivation, and to which are added a few of the most promising varieties of recent introduction and less extended dissemination. These descriptions are but an appendix to an article the writer had prepared, giving minute detailed instructions for the growth, culture, and pruning of the pear, apple, and grape, from the seed to the orchard, vineyard, or garden, but which was thought to occupy, at this time, undue space, as compared with the interests of other subjects.
   Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, of Boston, and Messrs. Ellwanger & Barry, of Rochester, New York, two of the most extensive and best fruit-growers in this country, are entitled to thanks for samples of fruits, from which the accompanying drawings [due to the relatively poor quality of the drawings, figures from The Apples of New York or other sources are linked instead unless no alternative is available -ASC] have been made.
   Some varieties of fruits, although of acknowledged excellence, have not been fully tested in all the States or sections of States, and hence, while individuals hold them in high esteem, they have not received as many votes in convention as other sorts that have been longer and more widely distributed. With pears it may be safely conceded that wherever a variety will ripen perfectly, its quality will be fully up to the standard here given. The change of climate from south to north, and vice versa, affects the quality of the apple more than it does the pear. The pear does not appear to lose its character by increase of its size and southern locality of growth as much as the apple; nor does it become any more sugary than when grown north and well ripened. The period of maturity or ripeness is hastened by heat, and hence varieties that in Massachusetts ripen in October, will, when grown in Georgia, be in eating condition the last of August.
   The following figures of forms illustrating the terms used in describing apples are such as are generally acknowledged by all pomologists:

drawings of apple shapes

   The period of ripening, attached to each description of fruit, is for the middle section of the States.

American Summer Pearmain
Synonyms.  Watkins Early- Early Summer Pearmain.

FRUIT

Size, medium or above
Form roundish oblong, sometimes angular; the form and size are varied according as they are grown on top or bottom limbs, or in good or poor soil
Color reddish streaked, and blended with a grayish yellow, sometimes slightly russeted around the stalk;
Stem (Pedicel) medium, projecting about even with the surface
Cavity narrow
Calyx open, erect segments slightly recurved
Basin deep, round, smooth
Flesh tender, subacid, "best"
Core small
Seeds ovate, pyriform
Season August and September
Young Wood dull brown, covered with a few white spots
Leaves ovate, acuminate
Flowers middle size. This variety should be in every collection, except such as are made up exclusively for market purposes.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

Benoni

FRUIT

Size medium
Form roundish, narrowing towards the calyx
Color yellow, nearly covered with red, striped with darker shades, and with scattered whitish specks
Stem (Pedicel) short, slender
Cavity narrow and deep
Calyx large, partially open
Basin deep, open, furrowed
Flesh yellow, crisp, tender, juicy, vinous
Core medium size, compact
Seeds pale brown
Season August and September
Young Wood dull reddish, with round russet specks, short jointed
Leaves medium size, oblong oval, point at apex, wavy, deep green, serrated
Flowers medium size
The trees of the Benoni apple are very erect, handsome growers, come early to maturity, and are very productive. It succeeds well in rich, strong soils, and is a profitable orchard variety.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

Baldwin
Synonyms.  Pecker. Steele's Red Winter.

FRUIT

Size medium to large
Form roundish, narrowing a little toward the calyx
Color yellowish, nearly covered and striped with red and dotted with a few russet spots, and with radiating streaks of russet about the stem
Stem (Pedicel) about three-fourths of and inch long, slender, slightly curved
Cavity regular, deep
Calyx closed
Basin deep, narrow, plaited or furrowed
Flesh yellowish white, crisp, tender, subacid
Core below medium, compact.
Capsules partially hollow
Seeds ovate, pyriform
Season early winter, but keeps well
Young Wood reddish, stout, slightly downy, long jointed and sprinkled with round white specks
Leaves large, thick roundish ovate, wavy
Flower large
The trees of the Baldwin apple are very vigorous, with regular, erect, round heads; very productive, and in strong soils with more or less of lime, &c., in them, produce very even, perfect, and uniform-sized fruit. The trees come early to maturity. As a profitable market variety it stands among the very first. It originated in Massachusetts.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

Early Harvest
Synonyms.  Prince's Harvest. Early French Reinette. Large White Juneating. July Pippin. Yellow Juneating.

FRUIT

Size medium
Form roundish, occasionally a little flattened at base
Color pale yellow, or straw color, faint tinge of blush in the sun, a trace of russet around the stem, and occasional spots of smooth russet, and some white specks
Stem (Pedicel) about three-quarters inch long, rather slender, sometimes short and stout
Cavity open, deep, regular
Calyx medium, closed; segments narrow.
Basin shallow, lightly furrowed.
Flesh white, tender, juicy, crisp, sprightly subacid
Core medium
Seeds abundant, light brown, ovate
Season early July
Young Wood reddish brown, small white specks, short jointed.
Leaves medium, roundish, obovate, tapering to a point, somewhat wavy, light green
Flowers medium size.
The trees of Early Harvest are rather slow growers, upright, healthy, early and abundant bearers. In strong, limestone clay soils its fruit is large and fine, and it is a very popular dessert apple wherever grown; but its skin is so delicate, and it shows a bruise so quickly, that it is not profitable for the market orchard.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

Fall Pippin
Synonyms.  Philadelphia Pippin

FRUIT

Size large
Form roundish conical, flattened at ends
Color greenish yellow until fully ripe, then rich yellow, with a faint blush when grown in good soil and well exposed to the sun
Stem (Pedicel) long, moderately stout
Cavity deep, round
Calyx above medium, with segments in divisions. Basin deep, wide, and open.
Flesh yellowish white, tender, juicy, subacid, aromatic.
Core medium.
Seeds ovate.
Season October to December.
Young Wood dark.
Leaves roundish ovate, broad.
In strong clay loams the Fall Pippin is one of the best of apples, proving hardy and a good moderate bearer; but in black alluvial soils it is often tender and unprofitable.

[Description in The Apples of New York]

Fall Wine
Synonyms.  Sweet Wine. Ohio Wine. Sharpe's Spice. Uncle Sam's Best.

FRUIT

Size medium to large.
Form roundish, flattened.
Color rich red, marbled over clear yellow, with many spots or specks of a brownish red, sometimes it is faintly striped.
Stem (Pedicel) slender.
Cavity deep.
Calyx half closed.
Basin open, shallow.
Flesh yellowish, crisp, tender, juicy, rich, subacid, vinous.
Core small.
Season September to November.
Young Wood
Leaves
Flowers
The trees of the Fall Wine are of a slender, fine-grained, hard, hard wood, healthy and hardy, annually and moderately productive. For very rich soils the trees are well adapted, but the fruit is too delicate to bear long shipments. As a dessert sort it is very superior. Not much grown in New England.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

Golden Sweeting
Synonyms.  Orange Sweet

FRUIT

Size medium to large.
Form roundish, rather deeper than wide.
Color yellow or green, suffused slightly underneath the skin, and with many small greenish dots that become russety in the sun.
Stem (Pedicel) medium to long.
Cavity round, regular
Calyx closed.
Basin round, moderately deep, slightly furrowed or crimped at base of calyx.
Flesh yellowish white, very rich, sweet.
Core medium, round, regular.
Seeds abundant.
Season July and August.
The Golden Sweeting is extremely valuable as a baking apple or for stock feeding. It is a regular bearer of more than average crops; hardy, and, forming a low tree of only moderate size, is well suited to bleak locations or as a shelter for more delicate sorts.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

Gravenstein

FRUIT

Size large.
Form roundish, flattened, a little irregular, somewhat ribbed, surface undulating.
Color at first pale greenish yellow ground, becoming a rich yellow, beautifully striped and splashed with bright red; exposed, or grown mostly in the sun, the red prevails, and becomes of a beautiful dark hue, with a few faint light green dots.
Stem (Pedicel) short.
Cavity open, deep.
Calyx with open, half reflexed segments.
Basin rather deep, irregular, ribbed.
Flesh yellowish, crisp, tender, subacid, with a peculiar aromatic taste.
Core large; capsules open, hollow.
Seeds ovate pyriform, reddish brown.
Season August to October.
Wood brown, purplish red, very strong.
Leaves large, ovate, broad, glossy green.
Flowers large.
The Gravenstein is a variety almost indispensable in any and all collections. The trees are regular, strong, spreading, upright growers, succeeding, so far as yet known, in almost all soils, strong, rich loams producing the best fruits. It bears young, and annually, and is valuable either for kitchen, dessert or market purposes.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

Hubbardston Nonsuch

FRUIT

Size large.
Form roundish conical, largest at the middle. Surface smooth, glossy
Color rich yellow, nearly covered with deep, warm red, and indistinctly striped with a lighter shade, almost crimson; russeted about the base of the stem, and sparsely dotted on the surface with large russet specks.
Stem (Pedicel) medium length, rather slender.
Cavity broad, regular.
Calyx large, partially open; segments broad, short.
Basin open, generally ribbed or furrowed.
Flesh yellowish, crisp, tender, subacid, well flavored.
Core small, compact.
Seeds full, medium size.
Season October to February.
Wood brownish chestnut, with whitish specks; annual shoots slender, downy at ends.
Leaves large, ovate, oblong, thick, deep green above and a whitish down beneath.
Flowers medium size.
The trees of this variety are very regular, uniform, upright, moderately spreading; more hardy than the Baldwin when grown in very rich, strong soils. As a variety for ordinary family uses it is excellent.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

Keswick Codlin

FRUIT

Size medium to large.
Form roundish ovate, conical.
Color greenish yellow, becoming light, clear yellow, and with a brownish blush cheek in the sun, light dots and one or two raised lines from stem to calyx.
Stem (Pedicel) slender.
Cavity shallow.
Calyx closed.
Basin obscurely furrowed.
Flesh greenish or yellowish white, tender, acid.
Core medium.
Seeds ovate.
Season August to October.
Tree spreading, upright, hardy, and very productive. As a cooking apple, and a tolerable eating apple when fully ripe, the Keswick Codlin takes, at this time, a leading position for locations where quantity of fair handsome fruit is more to be desired than a high standard of quality. It bears very young; is well known and much grown in Illinois and the west, but not in New England.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

Lady Apple
Synonyms.  Api. Petit Api. Pomme de Api. Pomme Rose. Petit Api Rouge. Gros Api Rouge. Pomme D'Api Rouge.

FRUIT

Size small.
Form flat.
Color brilliant, clear red on light clear yellow, very glossy.
Stem (Pedicel) short.
Cavity deep.
Calyx small.
Basin furrowed.
Flesh white, crisp, tender, juicy, subacid.
Core small.
Season December to May.
Wood dark reddish; branches very erect.
Leaves small.
The trees of the Lady Apple are slow, regular, upright growers, very hardy, forming beautiful pyramidal shapes. As a dessert fruit this apple commands the highest price. The trees are not early bearers, but when one they commence bearing are very productive.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

Maiden's Blush

FRUIT

Size medium to large.
Form roundish, flattened.
Color clear lemon yellow, with red cheek, varying from a faint blush to a rich crimson.
Stem (Pedicel) short.
Calyx closed.
Basin medium.
Flesh white,fine grained, tender, sprightly, rather sharp subacid, unless fully ripened.
Season September and October.
The tree of Maiden's Blush forms a fine, round, spreading head, very productive; fruit handsome, and esteemed for cooking and drying.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

Newtown Spitzenberg
Synonyms.  Vandevere of New York. Ox Eye. Burlington Spitzenberg. Kountz. Joe Berry.

FRUIT

Size medium.
Form round, flattened.
Color yellow ground, mostly striped and splashed with red, which often has the appearance of being covered with a bloom; russet dots and lines that near the calyx, look like the crests of waves.
Stem (Pedicel) long, slender.
Cavity small, segments erect.
Basin open, regular, not deep.
Flesh yellow, tender, very mild subacid, rich aromatic.
Core small.
Seeds few, ovate, pointed.
Season December to February.
Wood dark brown, with a grayish tinge and with whitish spots.
Leaves large, ovate, serrated.
Flowers medium.
A very hardy tree; good bearer; fruit of superior quality; keeps and bears transportation well.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

Northern Spy

FRUIT

Size large.
Form roundish conical, sometimes ribbed.
Color clear, smooth, pale yellow, mostly covered with glossy red, and with distinct stripes of almost purplish crimson, occasionally russet around the stem; when first gathered, covered with a fine bloom.
Stem (Pedicel) slender, projecting about even with the surface.
Cavity open, wide, and deep.
Calyx small, closed.
Basin open, regular, other than the furrows produced by the ribs of the fruit; not deep, but rather abrupt.
Flesh yellowish white, very tender, crisp, juicy, sprightly, subacid.
Core large; capsules open.
Seeds abundant, many of them triangular, ovate, pointed.
Season December to March.
Wood dark reddish, with prominent round, grayish specks.
Leaves ovate, oblong, wavy margins.
Flowers medium.
The tree forms a very handsome, upright head, requiring pretty severe pruning and thinning out, until it comes into bearing, after which it requires little or no pruning. The flowers of this variety open late in spring, and thus sometimes escape late spring frosts. It does not come early in to bearing, but once in bearing it is very productive, while its keeping and eating qualities rank among the first.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

For 1862 Ag Report

Peck's Pleasant
Synonyms.  Waltz Apple

FRUIT

Size medium to large.
Form roundish, slightly (sometimes very much) flattened, with an indistinct furrow on one side.
Color when first gathered green, with a little dark red; when well ripened, a beautiful clear yellow, with bright blush on the sunny side, marked with scattered grey dots, that become small and almost indistinct near the apex.
Stem (Pedicel) varying, mostly short and fleshy.
Cavity open, and almost always with a knob, ridge, or wave; sometimes russety on one side.
Calyx medium, usually with the segments partially or half open.
Basin pretty deep, round, regular, sometimes slightly furrowed.
Flesh yellowish white, fine grained, firm, yet tender, juicy, mild, aromatic, subacid.
Core medium.
Seeds abundant, ovate, dark reddish brown.
Season December to April.
The tree is a moderate grower, of erect, slightly diverging form; when mature giving a good round head; hardy; comes early into bearing, and is very productive.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

For 1862 Ag Report

Porter

FRUIT

Size medium to large.
Form oblong conical, sometimes ribbed near the crown.
Color bright, clear yellow, with a blush cheek in sun, often marked with spots of crimson red.
Stem (Pedicel) medium, rather slender.
Cavity shallow, open.
Calyx medium, partially open, with long segments reflexed at ends.
Flesh yellowish white, fine grained, crisp, tender, juicy, sharp, subacid.
Core medium size, partially open.
Seeds large, acute, pointed.
Season September and October.
Wood bright chestnut red, dotted with white specks, slender.
Leaves large, oblong, partially folded.
Flowers medium.
The Porter apple makes a moderate sized, very regular, round-headed tree, comes early into bearing and produces a handsome fruit, good for table and kitchen use.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

name="p171">

King of Tompkins County
Synonyms.  Winter King

FRUIT

Size large.
Form roundish oblong, somewhat ribbed.
Color pale yellow ground, mostly covered with two shades of red, striped and splashed, brown dots and russet patches on the sunny side.
Stem (Pedicel) rather stout.
Cavity open, regular.
Calyx with long-pointed segments.
Basin abrupt, slight furrows and projecting ribs surrounding.
Flesh yellowish, crisp, juicy, tender, subacid.
Core medium.
Seeds abundant.
Season December to March.
The trees are of a vigorous, upright, spreading habit, annually productive of fruit of the highest excellence either for dessert or market purposes.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

Raule's Janet
Synonyms.  Raules's Gennetting. Winter Gennetting. Jennette. Raule's Janette. Neverfail. Rock Rimmon. Yellow Janette. Indiana Jennetting. Kentucky Janette.

FRUIT

Size medium to large.
Form roundish, conical, flattened at the stem end.
Color a ground of light, pale yellowish green, mostly overspread, striped and stained with dull red and with a blue or grayish shade, lying within, as of a bloom, small russet dots that show most when the fruit is high colored, sometimes patches of mould or fungus
Stem (Pedicel) slender, rather long.
Cavity deep, regular.
Calyx nearly closed, with short segments.
Basin open, regular, not deep, sometimes slightly furrowed near the calyx.
Flesh yellowish, tender, mild subacid.
Core medium.
Seeds angular, ovate.
Season winter.
This variety is only suited for middle southern sections, as Kentucky, Missouri, &c., because of its wanting a long season to mature perfectly. It blooms late in spring, and hence is an almost certain bearer. The trees have a spreading, open habit, are very productive, and the fruit, in good soil, is far above medium quality, keeping and bearing usually well.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

Rambo
Synonyms.  (In New Jersey, Romanite, Seek-No-Further and Bread and Cheese Apple). Terry's Red Streak.

FRUIT

Size medium.
Form flat or roundish flattened, sometimes ribbed or angular.
Color yellowish white, marbled, and streaked with yellow and red, and with large rough spots.
Stem (Pedicel) long, slender, often curved.
Cavity acuminate.
Calyx nearly closed.
Basin broad, slightly furrowed.
Flesh mild, juicy, sprightly, subacid, aromatic.
Core above medium, hollow in centre.
Seeds abundant, ovate, pyriform.
Season early winter.
The Rambo has reddish brown wood, narrow, ovate, light-colored leaves, and makes a healthy, large, spreading tree, bearing annually crops of even, regular-formed fruit, in almost all soils and sections of our country.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

Red Astrachan

FRUIT

Size medium to large.
Form roundish, tapering toward the eye.
Color greenish yellow, mostly overspread with rich purplish crimson, a little russet near the stem, over all of which is a downy white bloom.
Stem (Pedicel) varying, generally short.
Cavity narrow.
Calyx large, partially closed.
Basin shallow, uneven.
Flesh white, crisp, juicy, acid.
Core small.
Seeds ovate, dark brownish black.
Season August.
Wood clear reddish chesnut, with many white specks.
Leaves roundish, oblong, thick.
The tree is a vigorous, stout, short-jointed, upright regular grower, forming a very handsome head, and apparently adapting itself to all soils and locations. It comes early in to bearing, and bears annually a fruit always fair and handsome, somewhat too acid for dessert, unless very well ripened, but always valuable in the kitchen, and so beautiful, and bearing carriage so well, as to make it especially desirable for marketing purposes.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

Red June
Synonyms.  Carolina Red June. Blush June.

FRUIT

Size medium.
Form generally oblong conical, occasionally flattened.
Color green in the shade, changing rapidly at maturity to a fine rich dark red or crimson.
Stem (Pedicel) vary in specimens.
Cavity vary in specimens.
Calyx closed, segments, long reflexed.
Basin shallow.
Flesh white, fine grained, juicy, subacid, not rich.
Core large.
Season among the earliest of summer sorts.
Trees vigorous, healthy, and hardy throughout southern Illinois, Missouri, and other sections, where it is most popular; early and abundant regular bearers; very valuable for market purposes.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

Rhode Island Greening
Synonyms.  Burlington Greening. Jersey Greening.

FRUIT

Size large.
Form roundish, flattened, sometimes angular.
Color green, becoming yellowish when fully matured, with a dull brownish blush on sun-grown specimens, many rough russet dots and patches.
Stem (Pedicel) medium.
Cavity open.
Calyx closed, rather small and wooly.
Basin medium, sometimes slightly furrowed.
Flesh yellowish, tender, slightly aromatic, with a lively acid juice.
Core small.
Seeds ovate, pointed.
Season winter.
The tree of the Rhode Island Greening is of a broad-spreading habit, medium sized shoots, healthy, broad leaves, and throughout the northern States, or sections, its presence in orchard or garden, for kitchen or table use, cannot be dispensed with. It is a regular, abundant bearer; but in southern Ohio, Indiana, and other southwestern sections, it drops its fruit too early for late keeping.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

Roxbury Russet
Synonyms.  Boston Russet. Marietta Russet. Putnam Russet.

FRUIT

Size medium to large.
Form roundish flattened, often angular.
Color dull green, overspread with brownish yellow russet, occasionally a faint blush on the sunny side.
Stem (Pedicel) slender.
Cavity medium.
Calyx closed.
Basin round, moderate depth.
Flesh greenish white, moderately juicy, mild subacid.
Core compact.
Seeds defective.
Season winter.
A spreading, and, while young, a crooked-growing tree. The Roxbury Russet is pretty extensively cultivated, and proves profitable on account of its productiveness, its thick skin causing it to keep well, and hence enabling it to be taken long distances to market, and at a time when most winter sorts are gone. As a table fruit it is not, however, of more than second quality.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

Smith's Cider
Synonyms.  Smith's Superb

FRUIT

Size medium to large.
Form roundish flattened.
Color bright red and yellow, mostly red.
Stem (Pedicel) varying.
Cavity regular.
Calyx half closed with long segments.
Flesh yellowish white, juicy, subacid.
Core medium.
Season early winter.
The tree of this variety makes a regular, well-formed head, and produces good, regular crops of smooth, fair, handsome fruit, that is much esteemed, although of a negative character.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

Tolman's Sweeting
Synonyms.  Tallman's Sweeting. Brown's Golden Gate.

FRUIT

Size medium.
Form roundish, slightly conical.
Color light yellow, with a greenish line from stem to apex.
Stem (Pedicel) long, slender.
Cavity wide, regular.
Calyx medium.
Basin moderate depth, furrowed.
Flesh white, firm, very sweet.
Core medium.
Seeds light brown.
Season winter.
The Talman's Sweeting has dark colored wood of an upright, spreading, strong, rapid growth, producing regularly great crops of fruit, especially valuable for stock and for baking.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

Wine Sap
Synonyms.  Wine Sop.

FRUIT

Size medium.
Form ovate, conical, flattened at base, sometimes roundish conical, occasionally angular and slightly ribbed.
Color when grown north, a bright, clear red, stained and striped with darker shades, and with spots of light yellow; grown south, the dark red becomes most prominent, while the patches of light yellow at base are more often seen; it is also more irregular or angular in form, and often has russet about the stem.
Stem (Pedicel) varying in length, slender.
Cavity narrow, deep.
Calyx small, nearly closed.
Basin abrupt, furrowed.
Flesh yellowish, juicy, tender, subacid, sprightly.
Core medium; capsules hollow.
Seeds short, ovate.
Season early winter.
Tree a slender, hardy wood, an early and very productive bearer, and apparently adapting itself to all soils and locations. Profitable for orchard or garden.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

Yellow Bough
Synonyms.  Bough. Large Yellow Bough. Early Sweet Bough. Sweet Harvest.

FRUIT

Size large.
Form roundish, conical, ovate.
Color greenish, becoming pale yellow when fully ripe.
Stem (Pedicel) varying in length.
Cavity deep.
Calyx open.
Basin narrow, deep.
Flesh white, tender, crisp, sprightly sweet.
Core medium; capsules open.
Seeds ovate, light brown.
Season August.
The Yellow Bough, or Sweet Bough, as it is often called, is a popular sort everywhere. The trees have yellowish wood, somewhat irregular, upright, spreading in form, hardy, and producing annually moderate crops of fruit, highly valued for dessert.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

Yellow Bellflower
Synonyms.  Bellflower. Yellow Bellefleur. Lady Washington.

FRUIT

Size medium to large.
Form oblong, a little irregular, tapering to the eye.
Color pale yellow, with blush next [to] the sun.
Stem (Pedicel) long, slender, curved.
Cavity deep.
Calyx closed.
Basin plaited, deep.
Flesh tender, crisp, juicy, sprightly subacid.
Core large; capsules long, hollow.
Seeds large, ovate, pyriform.
Season early winter.
This variety proves very hardy everywhere; it is a productive bearer with yellowish shoots, and its habit of producing fruit on the ends of them give it, when bearing, a rather round, drooping appearance. The fruit is somewhat too acid at the north, but on the Ohio river, Missouri, and other southwestern sections, it is subacid and very valuable.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

Yellow Newtown Pippin

FRUIT

Size medium to large.
Form roundish flattened, angular.
Color clear yellow, with considerable russet from the stem, many small russet dots, and where exposed to the sun the yellow becomes very rich and dotted with carmine.
Stem (Pedicel) short.
Cavity deep.
Calyx large, open; segments, short, stiff, and broad.
Basin broad, irregular only from the slight ribbing of the fruit.
Flesh yellowish, very firm, crisp, juicy, subacid.
Core medium.
Seeds purplish black, oblong, pyriform.
Season late winter and spring.
The trees of this variety are of slender, close-grained wood, proving hardy in the richest of soils, and requiring abundance of food to produce perfect fruit. On rich limestone soils it is, perhaps, one of the most profitable, being a hardy tree, a good bearer and great keeper, even when grown comparatively far south.
[Description in The Apples of New York]

DESCRIPTIONS OF PEARS

As a guide to the terms used in describing the forms of pears, we copy the forms adopted by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, and now generally recognized by all pomologists.

I have divided the descriptions of pears into sections. Section No. 1 contains such varieties as have received the largest number of votes in pomological conventions, as of superior excellence or possessing qualities worthy their continued cultivation. Seciton No.2 embraces varieties that are not as widely disseminated, but in the opinions of practical growers should be more generally distributed. Section No. 3 contains such varieties as are yet new, but that exhibit qualities giving promise of their being worthy the attention of amateur fruit-growers.

Section 1.- Varieties having received most votes in pomological conventions as worthy of cultivation.

Bartlett
Synonyms.  Williams Bon Chretien. Poire Guilliaume. Williams.

FRUIT

Size large.
Form ovate, obtuse, pyriform; surface somewhat uneven.
Color clear light yellow, tinged with blush in sun, when ripe; russet around the stem, and minute russet dots over the whole.
Stem (Pedicel) short and thick.
Calyx medium, partly open.
Basin shallow, furrowed.
Flesh yellowish white, melting, juicy, musky, vinuous.
Core medium.
Seeds broad, ovate.
Season late summer.
Wood clear, dark yellow, with gray specks.
Leaves medium size, ovate, acuminate, deep green.
An English pear, introduced to this country in 1799, and now, perhaps, more generally known than any other sort.
Trees upright, vigorous while young, with strong, stout annual shoots; comes early into bearing, and therefore while it succeeds well on the quince, there is no necessity of so growing it, if fruit only is wanted. Valuable as a dessert sort, and profitable to plant as an orchard sort for marketing.
[Description in The Pears of New York
Description of experience growing 'Bartlett' in Georgia.]

Belle Lucrative
Synonyms.  Fondante D'Automne. Bergamotte Fiéveé. Seigneur D'Esperin.

FRUIT

Size medium.
Form obovate pyriform to obovate obtuse pyriform.
Color pale yellowish green, a little bronze in the sun, and with traces and specks of russet.
Stem (Pedicel) stout, about one inch long, often fleshy, wrinkled and knobby at base.
Cavity shallow.
Calyx short, open.
Basin broad, shallow.
Flesh white, fine, aromatic, sweet.
Core medium.
Seeds ovate, dark brown.
Season early autumn.
This pear is of foreign origin- supposed Belgian- is a free, vigorous grower, succeeding well on pear or quince root;upright habit, and early in coming into bearing. The wood is yellowish with specks of white; a medium sized oblong oval leaf, forming a hardy tree, valuable in orchard or garden.
[Description in The Pears of New York and Description of growing 'Belle Lucrative' in Georgia
]

Beurré d'Anjou
Synonyms.  Ne Plus Meuris. Niell. Fondante Du Bois.

FRUIT

Size large.
Form long, oblong, obovate pyriform, obtuse at stem.
Color pale yellow, dull blush and numerous small specks of russet.
Stem (Pedicel) short, curved, and obliquely inserted in a shallow cavity.
Calyx open; segments thick, reflexed.
Basin round, not deep, russeted.
Flesh yellowish white, melting, juicy, vinous, delicious to the core.
Core small.
Seeds long, pointed.
Season autumn.
The origin of this pear is not fully clear. It is, however, foreign, and was first introduced and fruited in this country by Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, of Boston, Mass. Had Mr. Wilder done nothing more for the benefit of man than merely to introduce and disseminate this one fruit, his name should ever be held in the highest esteem, for the fruit is indispensable to all collections, whether for orchard market purposes of for family use. The tree succeeds upon quince or pear roots; is a rapid but healthy grower, with strong shoots, forming a fine pyramidal shape, until, loaded with fruit from the ends of its branches, it becomes somewhat diverging. So much is it valued by those who have grown it that one man has one-fifth of his entire orchard of this sort. The wood of young shoots is short jointed, yellowish olive color, with gray specks, large, oblong leaves, rounded at the base.
[Description in The Pears of New York]

Beurré Easter
Synonyms.  Doyenné d'Hiver. Doyenné Du Printemps. Bergamote de la Pentecote. Beurré de la Pentecote. Beurré d'Hiver de Bruxelles. Beurré Roupé. Pater Noster. Du Pâtre. Beurré de Pâques. Phillippe de Pâques. Canning. Bezi Chaumontelle Trés Gros. Siegneur d'Hiver.

FRUIT

Size large.
Form globular, obtuse pyriform.
Color yellowish green, with russet spots, with a brownish russet cheek on specimens grown in the sun.
Stem (Pedicel) generally short.
Cavity rather deep.
Calyx generally small.
Basin narrow, rather deep.
Core medium.
Seeds long, ovate, acute pyriform.
Flesh white, buttery, juicy, sweet.
Season late winter.
This is an old foreign sort that succeeds finely on the quince root, producing large crops of fruit that keep longer in winter than any other well-known sort. The trees are perfectly
[Description in The Pears of New York]

Beurré Diel
Synonyms.  Diel. Diels Butterbirne. Dorothée Royale. Grosse Dorothée. Beurré Royal. Des Trois Jours. De Melon. Melon De Kops. Beurré Magnifique. Beurré Incomparable.

FRUIT

Size large.
Form obovate, obtuse pyriform.
Color dull green, bright yellow when mature; suffused shades and patches of light pea green, russet specks, and scattered russet and greenish brown patches.
Stem (Pedicel) stout and slightly curved.
Cavity narrow.
Calyx medium, open, long segments.
Basin abrupt, ribbed.
Core large.
Seeds dark brown.
Flesh yellowish white, rather coarse, especially near the core; juicy, melting, perfumed.
Season late autumn.
Wood olive green, with a few oval ash-colored spots, becoming olive brown with grayish specks.
Leaves large, roundish. Shoots vigorous, strong.
It succeeds well on pear or quince root, but the fruit is larger and finer on the quince than on the pear, until the latter acquires considerable age. It is very productive, and a valuable market sort.
[Description in The Pears of New York]

Bloodgood
Synonyms.  Early Beurré.

FRUIT

Size medium or below.
Form ovate, obovate.
Color yellow, with russet marblings and dots.
Stem (Pedicel) fleshy at base.
Core small.
Flesh yellowish white, melting, juicy.
Season midsummer.
The Bloodgood is probably a native, and was first disseminated from Flushing, Long Island. It is a moderate grower, with reddish brown, short-jointed wood, very hardy and a regular bearer; the fruit is high flavored, and is valued for the dessert.
[Description in The Pears of New York]

Buffum

FRUIT

Size medium.
Form oblong obovate, obtuse at stem.
Color brownish green, becoming yellow, with bright suffused red in sun; brown dots and traces of russet.
Stem (Pedicel) half an inch to an inch long, slight depression.
Calyx with short, recurved segments.
Basin round, shallow.
Core rather small.
Seeds dark brown.
Flesh white, buttery, melting, juicy, sweet, pleasantly perfumed.
Season early autumn.
The Buffum is a native of Rhode Island, a remarkably erect and vigorous grower, with reddish brown, short-jointed wood, and large, roundish ovate, deep green leaves, proving perfectly hardy in all localities. The fruit is not of the highest excellence, but its great bearing qualities, its hardihood, beautiful form, requiring little of no pruning to keep it in shape, all render it one of the most desirable varieties for the market orchard, or as a sort to be planted in ornamental grounds. It is said by some not to succeed on the quince; the writer, has, however, grown and fruited it now fourteen years on the quince, and the trees are yet healthy and vigorous.
[Description in The Pears of New York]

Dearborn's Seedling

FRUIT

Size below medium.
Form roundish, inclining to obovate, narrowing a little to the stem.
Color pale yellow with fawn russet at base of stem, and surface dotted with small russet spots.
Stem (Pedicel) long, slender, curved.
Calyx with short, thick segments.
Core medium.
Seeds dark brown, long pointed.
Flesh yellowish white, fine-grained, melting, juicy, sweet, delicately perfumed.
Season late summer.
This variety originated at Roxbury, Massachusetts; the trees are upright, spreading in form, with long shoots of a reddish brown and a medium sized, ovate, smooth leaf. Upon the pear root it is not an early bearer, but succeeds well on the quince, and produces fair crops of fruit, very desirable for the table.
[Description in The Pears of New York]

Doyenné Boussock
Synonyms.  Beurré de Messode. Doyenné Boussock Nouvelle. Plymouth. Double Phillippe.

FRUIT

Size large.
Form varying, usually globular, obtuse, obovate, pyriform.
Color yellow, with tracings of russet and large russet specks.
Stem (Pedicel) short, stout, fleshy at base.
Cavity shallow.
Calyx medium, open.
Core medium.
Seeds small, almost black, abortive.
Flesh yellowish white, rather coarse, melting, juicy, vinous, sweet, perfumed.
Season early to midautumn.
Wood short jointed, clear yellowish brown, few pale brown specks.
Leaves large, roundish, obovate, thick, deep green.
Of foreign origin, of a spreading, upright habit, succeeding finely either on pear or quince stock, and coming early into bearing. The Doyenné Boussock proves valuable in the quality of its fruit for the dessert and profitable for market orcharding.
[Description in The Pears of New York]

Doyenné White
Synonyms.  White Dean. Virgalieu. Butter pear. St. Michael. Yellow Butter. White Beurré. White Autumn Beurré. Regnier. Warwick Bergamotte. Snow Pear. Pine Pear. Doyenné Blanc. Beurré Blanc. Poire de Simon. Poire Neige. Poire de Seigneur. Poire Monsieur. Valencia. Citron de September. Bonneente. Kaiserbirne. Kaiser d'Automne. De Chants Birne. Nouvelle d'Ouef.

FRUIT

Size medium or above.
Form regular, obovate.
Color clear, pale yellow, regularly sprinkled with small dots, and often with a fine red cheek.
Stem (Pedicel) brown, from three-fourths of an inch to one and a half long, a little curved.
Cavity small, round.
Calyx small, closed.
Basin shallow, smooth, delicately plaited.
Core small.
Flesh white, fine-grained, melting, juicy, buttery, slightly aromatic, delicious.
Season autumn.
An old French variety, of moderate, strong, upright, spreading growth, succeeding well on pear or quince roots, coming early into bearing, the White Doyenné is, at the west and southwest, one of the best pears, and most hardy as well as profitable trees that are grown. In some sections of the New England States it cracks and spots its fruit from some unknown cause [pear scab, probably- ASC], and similar results have recently appeared in Northern and Western New York, where heretofore it has been very healthy and perfect.
[Description in The Pears of New York]

Duchesse d'Angouleme

FRUIT

Size large to very large.
Form oblong, obovate obtuse pyriform, with a very uneven surface.
Color yellow, often tinged with blush on the sunny side, scattered, irregular, russety patches, and large russet dots.
Stem (Pedicel) about an inch long, stout, and largest at extreme end.
Cavity round, deep.
Calyx small to medium, generally closed, sometimes partially open, segments short.
Basin deep, uneven, or furrowed.
Core below medium.
Seeds plump, oblong, pyriform.
Flesh white, melting, juicy, sugary.
Season late autumn.
This variety is of French origin, and on account of its immense size, hardihood of tree, and productive habit on the quince root, it has become well known. The tree is upright and stocky in its growth, wood rather long-jointed, stout, and although its quality is not of the highest excellence for the dessert, its size and productiveness on the quince make it a profitable market sort.
[Description in The Pears of New York]

Flemish Beauty
Synonyms.  Belle de Flanders. Bouche Nouvelle. Imperatrice de France. Bosc Sire. Bosch. Poire Davy.

FRUIT

Size large.
Form oblong, obtuse, obovate.
Color pale yellow, mostly covered with patches and marblings of light russet, and in sun rich reddish brown.
Stem (Pedicel) one to one and a half inch long.
Cavity narrow, deep.
Calyx short, open.
Basin round, small.
Core medium, with oblong capsules.
Seeds small, oblong, pyriform, pale brown.
Flesh yellowish white, not very fine-grained, juicy, melting, sugary, aromatic.
Season early autumn.
The Flemish Beauty is of foreign origin- Belgian- a vigorous, healthy, hardy tree, producing freely at four to six years old, when on the pear root and proving very profitable as an orchard sort. It is said not to succeed well on the quince, but trees planted by the writer in 1850 are yet vigorous and healthy, and have annually produced large crops. It sets its fruit very evenly over the tree; hence it is generally uniform in size. The wood is a clear reddish brown, with whitish specks, slender, and short-jointed; leaves, medium size, ovate, deep glossy green.
[Description in The Pears of New York]

Glout Morceau
Synonyms.  Beurré d'Hardenpoint. Colmar d'Hiver. Beurré d'Hiver Nouvelle. Linden d'Automne. Got Luc de Cambron. Roi de Wurtemberg.

FRUIT

Size large.
Form obovate, obtuse pyriform, often angular, and surface rough.
Color pale greenish yellow, russeted around the stem, and traces of russet and greenish gray russet specks over the whole surface.
Stem (Pedicel) one to one and a half inch long, often inserted without cavity, but flesh raised [on] one side.
Calyx medium, segments, half reflexed.
Basin rather deep, often furrowed or uneven.
Core large.
Seeds large, ovate, pointed.
Flesh white, fine-grained, buttery, sugary, perfumed.
Season early winter.
Wood dark olive, with distinct grayish specks, short jointed.
Leaves broad, thick, blue green, wavy at the edge.
This pear is from Belgium, is very hardy and successful when grown on the quince; but on the pear it is too long in arriving at maturity to be profitable. It is a good bearer on the quince, and for those who prefer a sugary to a vinous fruit, it is extremely desirable as an early winter variety.
[Description in The Pears of New York]

Louise Bonne De Jersey
Synonyms.  Louise Bonne de Avranches. Beurré Ou Bonne Louise d'Auradoré. Bergamot d'Avrancehs. Poire de Jersey.

FRUIT

Size large.
Form oblong, pyriform.
Color green, becoming yellow green when mature, bright glossy red in the sun, dotted with grayish russet specks with a margin of red when grown in sun.
Stem (Pedicel) about one inch long, moderately stout, a little curved, fleshy enlargement at base.
Calyx open, with large reflexed segments.
Basin shallow.
Core small.
Seeds long, ovate, pointed, light brown.
Flesh white, melting, very juicy, vinous, aromatic.
Season mid-autumn.
Wood dull brownish or reddish olive, with whitish specks, long-jointed.
Leaves oblong oval, nearly flat.
This is a French pear, so universally and perfectly successful when grown on the quince, that it has come to be indispensable in the smallest collections. The tree has naturally an erect, regular habit, and, even without pruning, forms a very handsome tree. Upon the pear it does not mature the fruit with high flavor until the trees are old; but upon the quince it comes so early into bearing, and continues yearly to produce such large crops of fine fruit, that the garden cannot be complete without it, and some market-growers plant nine of this to one of any other sort.
[Description in The Pears of New York]

Lawrence

FRUIT

Size medium or above.
Form long, obovate, obtuse at stem.
Color pale yellow, marbled with dull green, small dark specks and russet at each end, sometimes a tinge of red on the side exposed to sun.
Stem (Pedicel) medium length, stout, swollen at the junction with the tree.
Cavity round, with a lip.
Calyx small, closed.
Basin open, furrowed.
Core medium.
Seeds small, dark brown.
Flesh yellowish white, juicy, rich, sugary, slightly perfumed, gritty at core.
Season late fall to midwinter.
The Lawrence is a native of Flushing, Long Island. As a winter sort it possesses the property of keeping without shriveling, and ripening off, with ordinary care, as well as an apple. The tree is vigorous, upright, regularly branched, with slender, annual, straight shoots, and small, thick, oblong, ovate leaves of a dark glossy green, proving hardy, and early annual and abundant bearer, and succeeding either on quince or pear root. As a market orchard sort, as well as for small gardens, it is extremely valuable, coming in eating at a time when there are few good pears.
[Description in The Pears of New York]

Onondaga
Synonyms.  Swan's Orange. Onandaga Seedling.

FRUIT

Size large.
Form ovate, oblong, obovate, obtuse, pyriform.
Color pale greenish yellow, becoming golden yellow at maturity, many gray russet dots, and occasionally a dull blush in the sun.
Stem (Pedicel) one to one and a half inch long, inserted without depression, but with lip of fruit folded unevenly around it.
Calyx rather small, closed.
Basin shallow, abrupt, and marked with patches of cinnamon russet.
Core compact.
Seeds small.
Flesh white, juicy, slightly granular, vinous.
Season autumn.
Wood stout, short jointed, clear olive, dotted with large grayish specks.
Leaves large, oblong, thick, deep green.
An American variety, originating in Connecticut, the Onondaga, has proved a hardy tree, prolific of large and fine fruit, either upon the pear or quince stock.
[Description in The Pears of New York]

Rostiezer

FRUIT

Size small.
Form obovate pyriform.
Color dull green, reddish brown cheek in sun, dark green spots and traces of thin russet.
Stem (Pedicel) long, slender, obliquely inserted on one side, without depression.
Calyx medium, open, with short segments.
Basin shallow, with uneven angles.
Core small.
Seeds ovate, pointed, pale brown.
Flesh rather coarse, melting, juicy, sweet, perfumed.
Season late summer.
The origin of this pear is unknown. The tree is of a vigorous, strong, healthy growth, becoming spreading and irregular, and, like the Madeleine, requiring care in pruning, to form it while young, otherwise the strong, bare shoots that it makes are liable to be destroyed by extreme changes of temperature. The young wood is a clear reddish brown, dotted with russet specks; the leaves are medium size, roundish, ovate, thick, and of a dull, dark green color.
[Description in The Pears of New York]

Seckel

FRUIT

Size small to medium.
Form rounded, obtuse, pyriform.
Color brownish green at first, becoming yellowish brown, with a lively red russet cheek and small gray dots.
Stem (Pedicel) about a half inch long, moderately stout, inserted in a small narrow cavity, highest on one side.
Calyx small, open, with short, stiff, incurved segments.
Basin shallow.
Core small.
Seeds broad, ovate.
Flesh yellowish white, juicy, very sugary, melting, spicy, aromatic.
Season early autumn.
The Seckel pear is too well known to require a word in its favor. It originated in Passyunk township, on the Delaware river, and was named after a Mr. Seckel, who then owned the property. The tree is a stocky, short-jointed grower, never making more than a moderate sized, round, compact, headed tree. It is admirably adapted to bleak, exposed locations, and to very rich soils. It does best on the pear root, and should be root-pruned in order to bring it to early maturity.
[Description in The Pears of New York]

Tyson
Synonyms. 

FRUIT

Size below medium.
Form roundish pyriform, irregular.
Color dull yellow, shaded with red in the sun, little russeted, and with numerous black specks.
Stem (Pedicel) rather long, moderately stout, curved and obliquely attached to the fruit by a fleshy junction swollen on one side.
Calyx open, with short segments.
Basin round, shallow.
Core small.
Seeds small.
Flesh white, fine-grained, juicy, melting, sugary, aromatic.
Season midsummer.
Wood dull reddish brown, whitish specks.
Leaves medium size, ovate, deep green.
Flowers small.
An American variety, originating at Jenkintown, near Philadelphia, about 1794. The tree is a very vigorous, erect, upright grower, forming a handsome pyramidal head, and comes tardily into bearing when grown on pear roots. It succeeds upon the quince, but as yet has not been grown long enough on that to warrant its planting thereon extensively.
[Description in The Pears of New York]

Urbaniste
Synonyms.  Louise d'Orleans. St. Marc. Beurré Picquery. Beurré De Roi.

FRUIT

Size medium to large.
Form obovate, obtuse pyriform.
Color pale yellow, with gray dots and a few russet streaks, often slightly tinged with red in the sun.
Stem (Pedicel) three-quarters of an inch long, stout, thick.
Cavity shallow.
Calyx large, generally closed.
Basin narrow, abrupt.
Core medium.
Seeds obovate, pointed.
Flesh white, sugary, melting, vinous.
Season late autumn.
Wood light brownish olive, with whitish dots, short jointed.
Leaves medium size, thick, slightly folded, yellowish green.
The Urbaniste is a Flemish variety. The tree is a healthy, vigorous, through slender grower, with numerous lateral branches; it does not come early into bearing on the pear root, but upon the quince root it forms one of the handsomest of pyramidal trees, producing immense crops of fruit.
[Description in The Pears of New York]

Vicar of Winkfield
Synonyms.  Le Curé. Monsieur Le Curé. Clion. Dumas. belle d'Berry. Pater Notte. Burgermiester.

FRUIT

Size large.
Form oblong obovate, pyriform.
Color dull, pale green at first, becoming pale yellow, and, when well grown, a brownish red cheek marked with brown dots over the whole surface.
Stem (Pedicel) an inch or more long, generally slender, swollen and fleshy at base.
Calyx with open, reflexed segments.
Basin very shallow.
Core small.
Seeds oblong, ovate.
Flesh white, melting, juicy.
Season winter.
Wood dark olive color; stout, annual shoots, irregular, spreading in growth.
Leaves large, roundish, glossy.
This is an old French sort that, while it fruits early upon the pear root, does not perfect its fruit until the tree acquires age; but upon the quince stock it thrives admirably, and produces, while quite young, immense crops of large and handsome fruit, that while it is not of first quality as a table fruit, is excellent for baking; keeps well and often excellent for dessert. It is a profitable sort, when grown on quince root, for orchard or garden.
[Description in The Pears of New York]

Winter Nelis
Synonyms.  Nelis D'Hiver. Beurré de Malines. La Bonne Malinoise. Milanaise Curvelier. Etourneau.

FRUIT

Size medium.
Form roundish, obovate, narrowing towards the stalk.
Color yellowish green, much covered and dotted with gray russet.
Stem (Pedicel) rather long, a little curved.
Cavity narrow.
Calyx open, with short segments.
Basin shallow.
Core medium.
Seeds oblong, pyriform, curved.
Flesh white, buttery, sugary, melting, aromatic.
Season early winter.
Wood slender, short jointed, dark brownish yellow, gray russet specks.
Leaves medium, long, narrow folded.
The Winter Nelis is a pear of foreign origin, but of such superior quality at its period of ripening as to require its presence in every good collection. The tree is vigorous, healthy, and very hardy, but quite irregular in its habit, requiring considerable care in forming its early growth. It apparently adapts itself to all soils, and comes early into bearing as a standard on its own stock. It is late in leafing out in spring.
[Description in The Pears of New York]

Section No. 2-- Varieties not generally known but that in the opinion of practical growers, are of good quality and profitable.

Merriam

FRUIT

Size large
Form roundish, one side largest.
Color dull yellow, mostly covered with smooth, pale russet, bronzed in the sun.
Stem (Pedicel) short.
Cavity narrow, acute.
Calyx large, with five open, separated segments.
Basin broad, even, of moderate depth.
Core apparently large but eatable, even to the capsules, which are large and open.
Seeds ovate, pointed.
Flesh white, rather coarse-grained, granular around the core, juicy, melting, sweet, slightly vinous.
Season midautumn.
The Merriam originated in Roxbury, Massachusetts. The tree is a vigorous, upright, healthy grower, coming early into bearing and producing crops of regular, even-sized fruit that commands a ready sale and good price. It is a valuable market sort.
[Description in The Pears of New York]

Lycurgus

FRUIT

Size medium or below.
Form oblong pyriform to oblong obovate pyriform.
Color rich dull yellow, and overspread with brownish yellow russet.
Stem (Pedicel) usually three-fourths of an inch long, slender set, without depression, but with a slight lip on one side.
Calyx large, in proportion to the size of the fruit, open; segments connected.
Basin shallow.
Core compact.
Seeds large, filling the capsule.
Flesh yellowish, crisp, melting, juicy, sweet, spicy, sprightly, slightly vinous.
Season winter.
The Lycurgus is a native pear, originating at Cleveland, Ohio. The tree is a healthy, moderate grower, with brownish red wood, fine close-grained, upright, spreading, and very productive. The fruit, like that of the Seckel, is too small to attract attention as a market sort, but its excellence makes it very desirable as a dessert sort.
[Description in The Pears of New York]

Sheldon
Synonyms.  Penfield. Wayne.

FRUIT

Size medium or above.
Form roundish, a little angular, sometimes obovate.
Color pale greenish russet, light bronzed red in sun, and a little specked with dark russet.
Stem (Pedicel) short, rather stout, slightly curved.
Calyx medium, open; broad, short segments.
Core rather large.
Seeds dark brown.
Flesh a little coarse and gritty at the core; otherwise juicy, sugary, sprightly, aromatic.
Season autumn.
The Sheldon comes into notice as a native variety from the town of Penfield, in western New York, but its exact origin is a little in doubt. The trees are vigorous and tolerably upright growers, coming early to maturity and producing abundant crops on the pear root.
[Description in The Pears of New York]

]

Section No. 3-- New varieties that give promise of qualities that will hereafter render them worthy of general cultivation.

Belle Williams

FRUIT

Size large to very large.
Form oblong obovate pyriform.
Color dull, dark greenish, becoming tinged with yellow, when fully ripe, marblings and traces of russet, and russet often around the stem; broad suture on one side, extending from stem to calyx; surface somewhat rough.
Stem (Pedicel) long, slender, set without depression.
Calyx medium, open, with stiff, coarse segments.
Basin open, broad.
Core small.
Seeds few, plump, light brown.
Flesh white, crisp, until fully ripe, when it becomes almost melting; juicy, vinous.
Season winter.
An English variety.
[Description in The Pears of New York]

Clapp's Favorite

FRUIT

Size large.
Form obovate, oblong pyriform.
Color clear light yellow, with a beautiful red on side exposed to the sun; the red is in form of small specks running together where they most prevail, and becoming wider and fainter as they spread out over and around the fruit; surface smooth in some specimens; in others, uneven.
Stem (Pedicel) moderately stout, one and a half inches long, set with rarely any indications of depression, but with a slight knob or lip on one side.
Calyx open, with short, stiff segments nearly erect.
Basin shallow, slightly corrugated or furrowed.
Core with long thready fibres that melt and dissolve in the mouth. Capsules long, ovate.
Seeds few, partly imperfect; the perfect ones medium size, dark brown.
Flesh nearly clear white, buttery, melting, sugary, vinous.
Season late summer.
This beautiful new variety was supposed to be grown from seed from a cross of the Bartlett and Flemish Beauty pear, by Mr. Thaddeus Clapp, of Dorchester, Massachusetts. It has been classed by the American Pomological Society's fruit committee as "best". The tree is vigorous, with a broad, thick, dark green leaf, with dark, reddish wood, of close grain, giving promise of great hardihood. The fruit has all the excellent qualities of the Bartlett without its musky taste, so unpleasant to some persons.
[Description in The Pears of New York]